Company Quick10K Filing
Caesarstone
20-F 2020-12-31 Filed 2021-03-22
20-F 2019-12-31 Filed 2020-03-23
20-F 2018-12-31 Filed 2019-03-14
20-F 2017-12-31 Filed 2018-03-12
20-F 2016-12-31 Filed 2017-03-13
20-F 2015-12-31 Filed 2016-03-07
20-F 2014-12-31 Filed 2015-03-12
20-F 2013-12-31 Filed 2014-05-13
20-F 2012-12-31 Filed 2013-03-25

CSTE 20F Annual Report

Item 17 ☐ Item 18 ☐
Part I
Item 1: Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers
Item 2: Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable
Item 3: Key Information
Item 4: Information on The Company
Item 4A: Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 5: Operating and Financial Review and Prospects
Item 6: Directors, Senior Management and Employees
Item 7: Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions
Item 8: Financial Information
Item 9: The Offer and Listing
Item 10: Additional Information
Item 11: Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 12: Description of Securities Other Than Equity Securities
Part II
Item 13: Defaults, Dividend Arrearages and Delinquencies
Item 14: Material Modifications To The Rights of Security Holders and Use of Proceeds
Item 15: Controls and Procedures
Item 16: Reserved
Item 16A: Audit Committee Financial Expert
Item 16B: Code of Ethics
Item 16C: Principal Accountant Fees and Services
Item 16D: Exemptions From The Listing Standards for Audit Committees
Item 16E: Purchases of Equity Securities By The Company and Affiliated Purchasers
Item 16F: Change in Registrant’S Certifying Accountant
Item 16G: Corporate Governance
Item 16H: Mine Safety Disclosures
Part III
Item 17: Financial Statements
Item 18: Financial Statements
Item 19: Exhibits
Note 1: - General
Note 2: - Significant Accounting Policies
Note 3: - Marketable Securities
Note 4: - Other Accounts Receivable and Prepaid Expenses
Note 5: - Inventories
Note 6: - Property, Plant and Equipment, Net
Note 7: - Goodwill and Intangibles
Note 8: - Short - Term Bank Credit and Current Maturities of Long - Term Loan
Note 9: - Accrued Expenses and Other Liabilities
Note 10: - Leases
Note 11: - Commitments and Contingent Liabilities
Note 12: - Taxes on Income
Note 13: - Shareholders&Apos; Equity
Note 14: - Transactions with Related Parties and Other Loan
Note 15: - Long - Term Bank Loan
Note 16: - Major Customer and Geographic Information
Note 17: - Selected Supplementary Statements of Income Data
EX-4.3 exhibit_4-3.htm
EX-4.18 exhibit_4-18.htm
EX-8.1 exhibit_8-1.htm
EX-12.1 exhibit_12-1.htm
EX-12.2 exhibit_12-2.htm
EX-13.1 exhibit_13-1.htm
EX-15.1 exhibit_15-1.htm
EX-15.2 exhibit_15-2.htm
EX-15.3 exhibit_15-3.htm

Caesarstone Earnings 2020-12-31

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow

Caesarstone Ltd.
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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

_______________________

Form 20-F

(Mark One)

REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR (g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934   

OR

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934   

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934   

For the transition period from ______ to ______

OR

SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 or 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934   

Date of event requiring this shell company report.

Commission File Number 001-35464

 

image provided by client

 

CAESARSTONE LTD.

(Exact Name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

 

ISRAEL

(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

 

Kibbutz Sdot-Yam

MP Menashe, 3780400

Israel

(Address of principal executive offices)

 

Yuval Dagim

Chief Executive Officer

Caesarstone Ltd.

MP Menashe, 3780400

Israel

Telephone: +972 (4) 636-4555

Facsimile: +972 (4) 636-4400

(Name, telephone, email and/or facsimile number and address of company contact person)

 

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Securities Act of 1933:

 

Title of each class

Trading Symbol

Name of each exchange on which registered

 

Ordinary Shares, par value NIS 0.04 per share

CSTE

The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act: None

Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of December 31, 2020: 34,437,296 ordinary shares


Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act:

Yes ☐ No

If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934:

Yes ☐ No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days:

Yes ☒ No ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files):

Yes ☒ No ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer or an emerging growth company. See definition of “accelerated filer,” “large accelerated filer” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act (Check one):

 

Large accelerated filer ☐

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer ☐

 

Emerging growth company ☐

If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

† The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on the attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:

 

U.S. GAAP

International Financial Reporting Standards as issued

by the International Accounting Standards Board ☐

Other ☐

If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow:

Item 17 ☐ Item 18 ☐

If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act):

Yes No ☒


PRELIMINARY NOTES

Introduction

As used herein, and unless the context suggests otherwise, the terms “Caesarstone,” “Company,” “we,” “us” or “ours” refer to Caesarstone Ltd. and its consolidated subsidiaries. In this document, references to “NIS” or “shekels” are to New Israeli Shekels, and references to “dollars,” “USD” or “$” refer to U.S. dollars.

Our reporting currency is the United States (“U.S.”) dollar. The functional currency of each of our non-U.S. subsidiaries is the local currency in which it operates. These subsidiaries’ financial statements are translated into the U.S. dollar, the parent company’s functional currency, using the current rate method.

Other financial data appearing in this annual report that is not included in our consolidated financial statements and that relate to transactions that occurred prior to December 31, 2020 are reflected using the exchange rate on the relevant transaction date. With respect to all future transactions, U.S. dollar translations of NIS amounts presented in this annual report are translated at the rate of $1.00 = NIS 3.2150, the representative exchange rate published by the Bank of Israel as of December 31, 2020.

Market and Industry Data and Forecasts

This annual report includes data, forecasts and information obtained from industry publications and surveys and other information available to us. Some data is also based on our good faith estimates, which are derived from management’s knowledge of the industry and independent sources. Forecasts and other metrics included in this annual report to describe the countertop industry are inherently uncertain and speculative in nature and actual results for any period may materially differ. We have not independently verified any of the data from third-party sources, nor have we ascertained the underlying assumptions relied upon therein. While we are not aware of any misstatements regarding the industry data presented herein, estimates and forecasts involve uncertainties and risks and are subject to change based on various factors, including those discussed under the headings “—Forward-Looking Statements” and “ITEM 3: Key Information—Risk Factors” in this annual report.

Unless otherwise noted in this annual report, Freedonia Custom Research, a division of MarketResearch.com, Inc. (“Freedonia”) is the source for third-party industry data and forecasts. The Freedonia report, dated March 12, 2021 (“Freedonia Report”), represents data, research opinion or viewpoints developed independently by Freedonia and does not constitute a specific guide to action. In preparing the report, Freedonia used various sources, including publicly available third-party financial statements; government statistical reports; press releases; industry magazines; and interviews with manufacturers of related products (including us), manufacturers of competitive products, distributors of related products, and government and trade associations. Growth rates in the Freedonia Report are based on many variables, such as currency exchange rates, raw material costs and pricing of competitive products, and such variables are subject to wide fluctuations over time. The Freedonia Report speaks as of its final publication date (and not as of the date of this filing), and the opinions and forecasts expressed in the Freedonia Report are subject to change by Freedonia without notice. Management believes this third-party report to be reputable, but has not independently verified the underlying data sources, methodologies, or assumptions. The report and other publications referenced are generally available to the public and were not commissioned by the Company.

iii


Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements and Risk Factor Summary

This annual report contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (“Securities Act”), Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (“Exchange Act”), and the safe harbor provisions of the U.S. Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, that are based on our management’s beliefs and assumptions and on information currently available to our management. Forward-looking statements include information concerning our possible or assumed future results of operations, business strategies, financing plans, competitive position, industry environment, potential growth opportunities, potential market opportunities and the effects of competition. Forward-looking statements include all statements that are not historical facts and can be identified by terms such as “anticipates,” “believes,” “could,” “seeks,” “estimates,” “expects,” “intends,” “may,” “plans,” “potential,” “predicts,” “projects,” “should,” “will,” “would” or similar expressions that convey uncertainty of future events or outcomes and the negatives of those terms. These statements may be found in several sections of this annual report, including, but not limited to “ITEM 3: Key Information—Risk Factors,” “ITEM 4: Information on the Company,” “ITEM 5: Operating and Financial Review and Prospects,” “ITEM 10: Additional Information—Taxation—United States Federal Income Taxation—Passive foreign investment company considerations.” Forward-looking statements reflect our current views with respect to future events and are based on assumptions and are subject to risks and uncertainties, including those described in “ITEM 3.D. Key Information—Risk Factors.” Important factors that could affect our actual results and cause them to differ materially from those expressed in forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, the items in the following list, which also summarizes some of our principal risks:

the impact of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic on end-consumers, the global economy and our business and results of operations;

downturns in the home renovation, remodeling and residential construction sectors or the economy generally;

competitive pressures from other manufacturers of quartz and other surface materials;

the outcome of litigation regarding silicosis, other bodily injury claims or other legal proceedings in which we are involved, and our ability to use our insurance policy to cover damages;

regulatory requirements and any changes thereto relating to crystalline silica dust and related hazards;

the effects of enforcements against us, our officers and directors in the United States;

our ability to compete with lower-priced products and any changes to countervailing measures, antidumping duties or similar tariffs;

impacts on revenue from sales disruptions in our geographic concentrations or key markets;

our ability to manufacture our existing products globally as planned;

disturbances to our operations, the operations of our suppliers, distributors, customers, consumers or other third parties;

our ability to effectively manage changes to our production and supply chain and effectively collaborate with Original Equipment Manufacturer (“OEM”) suppliers;

future foreign exchange rates and fluctuations in such rates, particularly the NIS, Australian dollar, Canadian dollar, British pound, Indian Rupee and the Euro;

changes to the prices of our raw materials or to the suppliers of our raw materials;

the extent of our liability for environmental, health and safety, product liability and other matters;

our ability to execute our strategy to expand sales in certain markets;

our ability to cooperate with large retailers;

delays in manufacturing if we are required to change the suppliers for the raw materials used in the production of our products;

our ability to effectively manage our inventory and successfully pursue a wider product offering;

our ability to effectively manage our international operations, including risks associated with changes in trade policy or the imposition of tariffs;

iv


quarterly fluctuations in our results of operations as a result of seasonal factors and building construction cycles;

competition for business combination or acquisition opportunities;

our ability to successfully consummate business combinations or acquisitions and our success in integrating our most recently acquired Lioli and Omicron businesses into our operations;

our reliance on third-party distributors, re-sellers and a limited number of large retailers;

disruptions to our information technology systems globally;

the protection of our brand, technology and intellectual property;

costs and other conditions required to receive certain tax benefits;

our exposure to tax liabilities and related consequences under the U.S. Internal Revenue Code;

our ability to retain our senior management team and other skilled and experienced personnel;

our ability to manage or resolve conflicts of interest arising from employee affiliations with Kibbutz Sdot-Yam (the “Kibbutz”) and with Tene Investment in Projects 2016 Limited Partnership (“Tene”);

the effect of substantially share ownership by the Kibbutz and Tene;

our ability to maintain our lease agreements with the Kibbutz, the Israeli Lands Administration (the “ILA”) and Caesarea Development Corporation;

coverage by equity research analysts, publicly announced financial guidance, investor perceptions and our ability to meet other expectations (such as Environmental Social and Governance);

compliance with and impacts of Israeli law, such as the Rest Law and Israeli Competition Law and with respect to mergers, acquisitions or related transactions;

the impacts of conditions in Israel, such as negative economic conditions or labor unrest;

differences in the governance of shareholders’ rights under Israeli law;

the continued availability of certain tax benefits granted by the Israeli government;

the amount and timing of our dividend payments;

price volatility of, and effects of future sales on, our ordinary shares;

our status as a foreign private issuer and related exemptions with respect thereto; and

our expectations regarding regulatory matters applicable to us. The preceding list is not intended to be an exhaustive list of all our forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements reflect our current views with respect to future events and are based on assumptions and are subject to risks and uncertainties, including those described in “ITEM 3.D. Key Information—Risk Factors.”

You should not put undue reliance on any forward-looking statements. Actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of various factors described in this annual report, including factors beyond our ability to control or predict. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot guarantee that future results, levels of activity, performance and events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements will be achieved or will occur. Any forward-looking statement made in this annual report speaks only as of the date hereof. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update publicly any forward-looking statements for any reason after the date of this annual report, to conform these statements to actual results or to changes in our expectations.

v


TABLE OF CONTENTS

PART I

1

ITEM 1: Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers

1

ITEM 2: Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable

1

ITEM 3: Key Information

1

A. Selected Financial Data

1

B. Capitalization and Indebtedness

4

C. Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds

4

D. Risk Factors

4

ITEM 4: Information on the Company

37

A. History and Development of the Company

37

B. Business Overview

38

C. Organizational Structure

49

D. Property, Plants and Equipment

49

ITEM 4A: Unresolved Staff Comments

51

ITEM 5: Operating and Financial Review and Prospects

51

A. Operating Results

51

B. Liquidity and Capital Resources

68

C. Research and Development, Patents and Licenses

70

D. Trend Information

71

E. Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

72

F. Contractual Obligations

72

ITEM 6: Directors, Senior Management and Employees

73

A. Directors and Senior Management

73

B. Compensation of Officers and Directors

77

C. Board Practices

81

D. Employees

96

E. Share Ownership

97

ITEM 7: Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions

97

A. Major Shareholders

97

B. Related Party Transactions

100

C. Interests of Experts and Counsel

105

ITEM 8: Financial Information

106

A. Consolidated Financial Statements and Other Financial Information

106

B. Significant Changes

109

ITEM 9: The Offer and Listing

109

A. Offer and Listing Details

109

B. Plan of Distribution

109

C. Markets

109

D. Selling Shareholders

109

E. Dilution

109

F. Expenses of the Issue

109

ITEM 10: Additional Information

109

A. Share Capital

109

B. Memorandum of Association and Articles of Association

110

C. Material Contracts

114

D. Exchange Controls

115

E. Taxation

115

F. Dividends and Paying Agents

125

G. Statements by Experts

125

H. Documents on Display

125

I. Subsidiary Information

125

ITEM 11: Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

126

ITEM 12: Description of Securities Other Than Equity Securities

127



PART I

ITEM 1: Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers

Not applicable.

ITEM 2: Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable

Not applicable.

ITEM 3: Key Information

A.    Selected Financial Data

You should read the following selected consolidated financial data in conjunction with “ITEM 5: Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” and our consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this annual report. The consolidated income statement data for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019, and 2018 and the consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2020 and 2019 are derived from our audited consolidated financial statements included in “ITEM 18: Financial Statements,” which have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“U.S. GAAP”). The consolidated income statement data for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016 and the consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016 have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements, which are not included in this annual report. All the financial data set forth below are in thousands (except share and per share amounts). The information presented below under the caption “Other Financial Data” and “Dividends declared per share” contains information that is not derived from our financial statements.

2020

2019

2018

2017

2016

Consolidated Income Statement Data:

 

Revenues

$

486,412

$

545,974

$

575,871

$

588,147

$

538,543

Cost of revenues

352,470

397,335

412,457

390,924

326,057

Gross profit

133,942

148,639

163,414

197,223

212,486

Operating expenses:

Research and development

3,974

4,146

3,635

4,164

3,290

Marketing and selling

62,047

66,770

74,786

81,789

70,343

General and administrative

39,081

40,681

43,323

45,930

40,181

Legal settlements and loss contingencies, net

6,319

12,359

8,903

24,797

5,868

Total operating expenses

111,421

123,956

130,647

156,680

119,682

Operating income

22,521

24,683

32,767

40,543

92,804

Finance expenses, net

10,199

5,578

3,639

5,583

3,318

Income before taxes on income

12,322

19,105

29,128

34,960

89,486

Taxes on income

4,700

6,243

4,560

7,402

13,003

 

Net income

$

7,622

$

12,862

$

24,568

$

27,558

$

76,483

Net income attributable to non-controlling interest

404

163

1,356

1,887

Net income attributable to controlling interest

7,218

12,862

24,405

26,202

74,596

Basic net income per ordinary share*

0.21

0.37

0.72

0.73

2.08

Diluted net income per ordinary share*

0.21

0.37

0.72

0.73

2.08

Weighted average number of ordinary shares used in computing basic income per share

34,419

34,384

34,358

34,334

34,706

Weighted average number of ordinary shares used in computing diluted income per share

34,474

34,460

34,409

34,386

34,764

1


2020

2019

2018

2017

2016

 

Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:

Cash, cash equivalents and short-term bank deposits

$

114,248

$

139,372

$

93,562

$

138,707

$

106,270

Available for sale marketable securities

19,038

Working capital (1)

228,721

248,040

238,823

250,510

216,963

Total assets

820,921

703,866

616,922

652,987

584,700

Total Bank debt

22,665

Total liabilities

325,870

226,142

150,421

166,611

134,108

Redeemable non-controlling interest

7,701

16,481

12,939

Shareholders’ equity

487,350

477,724

466,501

469,895

437,653

2020

2019

2018

2017

2016

Other Financial Data:

Adjusted Gross profit (2)

$

134,887

$

149,084

$

165,518

$

197,223

$

212,486

Adjusted EBITDA (2)

62,079

69,046

75,206

100,429

$

130,260

Adjusted net income attributable to controlling interest (2)

16,463

26,724

36,085

49,819

81,184

Capital expenditures

19,824

23,590

20,962

22,675

22,943

Depreciation and amortization

29,460

28,587

28,591

29,926

28,254

 

______________________

* See also note 17 to our financial statements included elsewhere in this report.

 

(1)

Working capital is defined as total current assets minus total current liabilities.

(2)

The tables below reconcile gross profit to adjusted gross profit, net income to adjusted EBITDA and net income attributable to controlling interest to adjusted net income attributable to controlling interest for the periods presented and are unaudited.

We use certain non-GAAP financial measures to evaluate our performance in conjunction with other performance metrics. The following are examples of how we use such non-GAAP measures:

Our annual budget is based in part on these non-GAAP measures.

Our management and board of directors use these non-GAAP measures to evaluate our operational performance and to compare it against our work plan and budget.

Our non-GAAP financial measures, adjusted gross profit, adjusted EBITDA and adjusted net income attributable to controlling interest, have no standardized meaning and accordingly have limitations in their usefulness to investors. We provide such non-GAAP data because management believes that such data provide useful information to investors. However, investors are cautioned that, unlike financial measures prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP, non-GAAP measures may not be comparable with similar measures used by other companies. These non-GAAP financial measures are presented solely to permit investors to more fully understand how management and our board assesses our performance. The limitations of these non-GAAP financial measures as performance measures are that they provide a view of our results of operations without reflecting all events during a period and may not provide a comparable view of our performance to other companies in our industry.

Investors should consider non-GAAP financial measures in addition to, and not as replacements for, or superior to, measures of financial performance prepared in accordance with GAAP.

In arriving at our presentation of non-GAAP financial measures, we exclude items that either have a non-recurring impact on our income statement or which, in the judgment of our management, are items that, either as a result of their nature or size, could, were they not singled out, potentially cause investors to extrapolate future performance from an improper base. In addition, we also exclude share-based compensation expenses to facilitate a better understanding of our operating performance, since these expenses are non-cash and accordingly, we believe do not affect our business operations. While not all inclusive, examples of these items include:

amortization of purchased intangible assets;

legal settlements (both gain or loss) and loss contingencies, due to the difficulty in predicting future events, their timing and size;

2


material items related to business combination activities important to understanding our ongoing performance;

excess cost of acquired inventory;

expenses related to our share-based compensation;

significant one-time offering costs;

significant one-time non-recurring items (both gain or loss);

material extraordinary tax and other awards or settlements, both amounts paid and received; and

tax effects of the foregoing items.

2020

2019

2018

2017

2016

 

Reconciliation of Gross profit to Adjusted Gross profit:

Gross profit

$

133,942

$

148,639

$

163,414

$

197,223

$

212,486

Share-based compensation expense (a)

416

285

163

285

452

Non-recurring import related expenses (income)

(1,501

)

2,104

Amortization of assets related to acquisitions

529

Other non-recurring items (b)

1,661

Adjusted Gross profit

$

134,887

$

149,084

$

165,681

$

197,508

$

212,938

(a)

Share-based compensation includes expenses related to stock options and restricted stock units granted to employees and directors of the Company.

(b)

In 2019, reflects mainly to one-time amortization of machinery equipment with no future alternative use, and one-time inventory write down due to discontinuation of certain product group manufacturing.

2020

2019

2018

2017

2016

Reconciliation of Net Income to Adjusted EBITDA:

Net income

$

7,622

$

12,862

$

24,568

$

27,558

$

76,483

Finance expenses, net

10,199

5,578

3,639

5,583

3,318

Taxes on income

4,700

6,243

4,560

7,402

13,003

Depreciation and amortization

29,460

28,587

28,591

29,926

28,254

Legal settlements and loss contingencies, net (a)

6,319

12,359

8,903

24,797

5,868

Compensation paid by a shareholder (b)

266

Share-based compensation expense (c)

2,858

3,632

1,684

5,277

3,068

Provision for employee fringe benefits (d)

(114

)

Non-recurring import related expense (income)

(1,501

)

2,104

Acquisition-related expenses

921

Other non-recurring items (e)

1,286

1,157

Adjusted EBITDA

$

62,079

$

69,046

$

75,206

$

100,429

$

130,260

(a)

Consists of legal settlements expenses and loss contingencies, net related to product liability claims and other adjustments to ongoing legal claims, including related legal fees. In 2017, this also includes Kfar Giladi arbitration results.

(b)

One-time bonus paid by a shareholder to our employees in Israel other than officers.

(c)

Share-based compensation includes expenses related to stock options and restricted stock units granted to our employees and directors, as well as phantom awards and related payroll expenses as a result of exercises.

(d)

Relates to an adjustment of provision for taxable employee fringe benefits as a result of a settlement with the Israel Tax Authority and with the Israeli National Insurance Institute (“NII”).

(e)

In 2019, relates to non-recurring expenses related to North American region establishment, one-time charge related to reduction in headcount and certain activities including discontinuation of certain product group manufacturing, and in 2018 also relocation expenses of Caesarstone USA headquarters (Company’s subsidiary).

3


2020

2019

2018

2017

2016

 

Reconciliation of Net Income Attributable to Controlling Interest to Adjusted Net Income Attributable to Controlling Interest:

Net income attributable to controlling interest

$

7,218

$

12,862

$

24,405

$

26,202

$

74,596

Legal settlements and loss contingencies, net (a)

6,319

12,359

8,903

24,797

5,868

Amortization of assets related to acquisitions, net of tax

446

Compensation paid by a shareholder (b)

266

Share-based compensation expense (c)

2,858

3,632

1,684

5,277

3,068

Provision for employee fringe benefits (d)

(114

)

Tax adjustment (e)

(1,158

)

Non-cash revaluation of lease liabilities (f)

3,189

3,615

Non-recurring import related expense (income)

(1,501

)

2,104

Acquisition-related expenses

921

Other non-recurring items (g)

2,486

1,157

Total adjustments before tax

13,733

20,591

13,848

29,960

8,044

Less tax on above adjustments (h)

4,488

6,729

2,168

6,343

1,456

Total adjustments after tax

$

9,245

$

13,862

$

11,680

23,617

6,588

Adjusted net income attributable to controlling interest

$

16,463

$

26,724

$

36,085

$

49,819

$

81,184

 

__________________________

(a)

Consists of legal settlements expenses and loss contingencies, net related to product liability claims and other adjustments to ongoing legal claims, including related legal fees. In 2017, this also includes Kfar Giladi arbitration results.

(b)

One-time bonus paid by a shareholder to our employees in Israel other than officers.

(c)

Share-based compensation includes expenses related to stock options and restricted stock units granted to our employees and directors, as well as phantom awards and related payroll expenses as a result of exercises.

(d)

Relates to an adjustment of provision for taxable employee fringe benefits as a result of a settlement with the Israel Tax Authority and with the NII.

(e)

Relates to an adjustment in taxes as a result of a tax settlement we reached with Israeli tax authorities.

(f)

Exchange rate differences deriving from revaluation of lease contracts in accordance with FASB ASC 842.

(g)

In 2019, relates to non-recurring expenses related to North American region establishment, one time charge related to reduction in headcount and certain activities including discontinuation of certain product group manufacturing, one time amortization of machinery equipment with no future alternative use, and in 2018 also relocation expenses of Caesarstone USA headquarters (Company’s subsidiary).

(h)

Based on the effective tax rates of the relevant periods.

B.Capitalization and Indebtedness

Not applicable.

C.Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds

Not applicable.

D.Risk Factors

Summary of Risk Factors

Our business faces significant risks and uncertainties. You should carefully consider all the information set forth in this annual report and in our other filings with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). Our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected by any of these risks. In that event, the trading price of our ordinary shares would likely decline, and you might lose all or part of your investment. This report also contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Our results could materially differ from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements, as a result of certain factors including the risks described below and elsewhere in this report and our other SEC filings. See also “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements and Risk Factor Summary” on page iv of this annual report.

4


Risks Related to our Business

Economic and External Risks

The COVID-19 pandemic could further impact end-consumers and the global economy in general, lower demand for our products, disrupt our operations and materially and adversely affect our business and financial results.

The COVID-19 pandemic has increased market uncertainty and volatility and led to travel and other restrictions including individual quarantines imposed globally, significantly affecting consumer and businesses behaviors. The volatility in stock markets around the world has already and may continue to materially and adversely impact stock prices and trading volumes for us and other corporations. The culmination of these dramatic large-scale events could result in a global economic recession and significantly decrease home renovation and remodeling activity and new residential construction, and in turn reduce the demand for our products, thus materially and adversely affecting our business and results of operations.

The COVID-19 pandemic may also adversely affect our ability to conduct our business effectively due to disruptions to our production capabilities, supply chain, availability and cost of shipping services, availability and productivity of personnel, while we simultaneously attempt to comply with rapidly changing restrictions, such as travel restrictions, curfews and others. Following recommendations from the Israeli Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Finance, in April 2020, September 2020 and January 2021, the Israeli government imposed full nationwide lockdowns, shuttering schools and nonessential businesses, restricting gatherings and people’s movement. In addition, starting in March 2020, in periods other than the full lockdowns, the government has systematically limited operations of the private sector, including reductions of onsite workforce, imposed travel and gathering restrictions and reduced workforce in the public sector. Currently travel to and from work is still permitted, however the authorities may place additional, more restrictive measures on businesses and individuals. Though we may still operate our facilities under such regulations, any additional actions taken by the Israeli government could further limit that ability which may have a material adverse effect on our operations and financial results. The widespread outbreak of certain diseases, such as the recent COVID-19 pandemic, adversely affected our business, and may further disrupt our ability to manufacture products and impact the operations of our customers and modes of shipping, any of which could lead to reduction in customer orders and sales to certain regions and end-markets. During 2020 our revenue decreased by 11%, which we believe relates mainly to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic increased risks for insolvency due to cash-flow management and credit availability, and as some customers may be impacted more severely, we could face collection difficulties, which would have an adverse effect on our financial results.

In addition, we are facing challenges to recruit plant workers, particularly at our Sdot-Yam facility. Such challenges are partially due to the Israel social security scheme, which provides unemployment payments to workers laid off due to COVID-19 until mid-2021.

A significant reduction in our workforce, inability to recruit required personnel and/or our compliance with instructions imposed by Israeli authorities may harm our ability to continue operating our business and materially and adversely affect our operations and financial condition. Further, we cannot assure you that we will be designated an “essential business”, as defined under the government instructions, and moreover, we cannot foresee whether the Israeli authorities will impose further restrictive instructions, which if implemented may lead to significant changes and potentially a shutdown of our operations.

Authorities around the world have and may continue implementing similar restrictions on business and individuals in their jurisdictions. We cannot assure you that we will be able to continue to manage our international operations and business effectively, which would have material adverse effect on our results of operations. See “—Our operating results may suffer due to our failure to manage our international operations effectively or due to regulatory changes in foreign jurisdictions where we operate”.

Additional restrictions and regulations related to the COVID-19 pandemic containment efforts may further challenge our ability to conduct our operations and, as a result, may materially and adversely affect our financial results. Currently the trajectory of the COVID-19 outbreak remains highly uncertain and we cannot predict the duration, severity or effect of the pandemic or any future containment effort.

5


Downturns in the home renovation and remodeling and new residential construction sectors or the economy generally and a lack of availability of consumer credit could materially and adversely impact end-consumers and lower demand for our products, which could cause our revenues and net income to decrease.

Our products are primarily used as countertops in residential kitchens. As a result, our sales depend significantly on home renovation and remodeling spending, as well as new residential construction spending. In each of our key existing markets, the United States, Australia (unless stated otherwise, reference to Australia in this report includes Australia and New Zealand), Canada and Israel, we estimate that approximately 60% to 70% of our business is generated from home renovation and remodeling and approximately 25% to 35% is driven by new residential construction. For example, since 2019 there have been downturns in the home renovation and remodeling and new residential construction sectors in Australia that already adversely impacted our revenues and profit in Australia. We are uncertain whether such downturn will persist or occur in other key markets, which in turn could materially and adversely impact our financial condition. Spending on home renovation and remodeling and new residential construction depends significantly on the availability of consumer credit, as well as other factors such as interest rates, consumer confidence, government programs and unemployment. Any of these factors could result in a tightening of lending standards by financial institutions and reduce the ability of consumers to finance renovation and remodeling expenditures or home purchases. Consumers’ ability to access financing varies across our operating markets. If the housing market is negatively impacted as a result of an economic downturn or if other significant economic negative trends occur, we may be unable to grow or sustain our business and our revenues and net income may be materially and adversely affected. See also “—The COVID-19 pandemic could further impact end-consumers and the global economy in general, lower demand for our products, disrupt our operations and materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations” and “—Disturbances to our operations or the operations of our suppliers, distributors, customers, consumers or other third parties could materially adversely affect our business.”

Our results of operations may be materially and adversely affected by fluctuations in currency exchange rates, and we may not have adequately hedged against them.

We conduct business in multiple countries, which exposes us to risks associated with fluctuations in currency exchange rates between the U.S. dollar (our functional currency) and other currencies in which we conduct business. In 2020, 44.3%% of our revenues were denominated in U.S. dollars, 8.4% in NIS, 6.8% in Euros, 14.9% in Canadian dollars, 21.3% in Australian dollars and a smaller portion in other currencies. In 2020, the majority of our expenses were denominated in U.S. dollars, NIS and Euros, and a smaller proportion in Canadian and Australian dollars and other currencies. As a result, weakening of the Australian and Canadian dollars and strengthening of the NIS and, to a lesser extent, strengthening of the Euro against the U.S. dollar presents a significant risk to us and may impact our business significantly. For example, during 2020 the NIS appreciated 7.5% against the USD and resulted in finance expenses of approximately $6.8 million See “ITEM 11: Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.” for the impact of currencies fluctuation on our operating income. We translate sales and other results denominated in foreign currency into U.S. dollars for our financial statements; therefore, during periods of a strengthening dollar, our reported international sales and earnings could be reduced because foreign currencies may translate into fewer U.S. dollars.

Although we currently engage in derivatives transactions, such as forward and option contracts, to minimize our currency risk, we do not hedge all the exposure. We have been using a dynamic hedging strategy to hedge our cash flow exposures. This strategy involves consistent hedging of exchange rate risk in variable ratios ranging up to 100% of the exposure over rolling 12 months. As of December 31, 2020, our average hedging ratio was approximately 24% out of our expected currencies exposure for 2021. Therefore, future currency exchange rate fluctuations against which we have not adequately hedged could materially and adversely affect our profitability. Moreover, our currency derivatives, except for our U.S. dollar/NIS forward contracts, are currently not designated as hedging accounting instruments under Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 815, Derivatives and Hedging. Hedging results are charged to finance expenses, net, and therefore, do not offset the impact of currency fluctuations on our operating income. Our U.S. dollar/NIS forward contracts are charged to operating expenses as designated hedge instruments, partially offsetting the impact of the U.S. dollar/NIS currency fluctuations on our operating income. See “ITEM 11: Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.”

6


If we are unable to compete with lower-priced products perceived as comparable to ours, our market share may decrease, and our financial results may be adversely and materially impacted.

We have invested considerable resources to position our quartz surface products as premium branded products. Due to our products’ high quality and positioning, we generally set our prices—especially for our differentiated products—at a higher level than alternate surfaces and quartz surfaces provided by other manufacturers. Manufacturers located in the Asia-Pacific region (predominantly China) and certain parts of Europe can produce quartz surface products at a lower cost, including quartz surface products which imitate our products and designs.

Even if we seek to lower the price of our products, we may be unable to do so due to costs entailed with producing at our facilities, such as compliance with environmental health and safety standards, labor, energy, raw material costs and taxes. If the amounts of these low-priced products increase, our sales could decline. In addition, sales of these low-priced products may negatively impact our pricing.

During 2018 and 2019, antidumping and countervailing duty (“AD/CVD”) petitions were filed with the U.S. Department of Commerce (“DOC”) and the International Trade Commission (“ITC”). The petitions, which were filed by a U.S. quartz manufacturer, alleged that Chinese, and subsequently Indian and Turkish manufacturers injured the U.S. domestic quartz industry and therefore duties were required to offset such unfair trade practices. Ultimately, the DOC and ITC imposed AD/CVD duties ranging approximately between 265% and 340% for Chinese, and between 3.81% and 80.79% for Indian and Turkish manufacturers.

The imposition of AD/CVD orders have driven some of the affected manufacturers to direct their products into other markets in which we operate (including markets in which we hold a higher market share than in the U.S., such as Australia) thereby adversely impacting our operations and financial results. Finally, any duties and tariffs imposed by the U.S. or other regulators may not succeed in remediation of any impact caused by the relevant imports. Chinese, Indian and Turkish exporters may shift their focus to other, competing materials, to circumvent the duties. As a result, our market share may decrease, and our financial results may be adversely and materially impacted.

Operational Risks

We face intense competitive pressures from manufacturers of other surface materials, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

Our surface products compete with several surface materials such as granite, laminate, marble, manufactured solid surface, concrete, stainless steel, wood, and other porcelain and quartz surfaces. We compete with manufacturers of these surface materials with respect to a range of factors. These factors include, among other things, brand awareness and brand position, product quality, product differentiation, design and breadth of product offerings, slab dimensions, new product development and time to market, availability and supply time, technological innovation, popular home interior design trends, pricing, availability of inventory on demand, distribution coverage, customer service and versatility in products portfolio.

Since we seek to position our products as a premium alternative to other surface materials, the perception among end-consumers and other stakeholders of our products is a key competitive differentiator. If we are unable to anticipate or react quickly to changes in consumer preference in these areas, we may lose market share and our results of operations may suffer. If consumer preference shifts away from materials we are offering to other materials, or away from branded surfaces, our market share may be reduced, and our financial results may be materially and adversely impacted.

Competition increases with increased global production capacity by new and existing competitors. Should our competitors be able to produce products more efficiently at lower prices, adapt more quickly to changes in consumer preferences and demands, have a diversified product offering, or acquire complementary businesses, we may lose market share and our financial results may suffer.

7


Fully integrating Lioli’s and Omicron’s businesses may be more difficult, costly and time-consuming than expected, which may adversely affect our results of operations and the value of our common shares.

In October 2020, we acquired a majority stake in Lioli Ceramica Pvt. Ltd (“Lioli”), an India-based producer of porcelain slabs (the “Lioli Acquisition”) For more information see “Item 5: Operating and Financial Review and Prospects – Recent acquisitions”.

In December 2020, we acquired Omicron Granite and Tile (“Omicron”), a stone supplier operating 17 locations across Florida, Ohio, Michigan and Louisiana for a cash consideration of $19 million, including Omicron’s outstanding debt of approximately $8 million (the “Omicron Acquisition”).

While our management has made progress in integrating Lioli’s and Omicron’s businesses with our existing business, integration efforts are still underway and are expected to continue through 2021 and 2022. The combination of independent businesses is a complex, costly and time-consuming process and we and our management may face significant, ongoing challenges in implementing such integration, many of which may be beyond our control, including but not limited to, difficulties in achieving anticipated cost savings, synergies, business opportunities and growth prospects. For more information, see “—Our limited resources and significant competition for business combination or acquisition opportunities may make it difficult for us to complete a combination or acquisition, and any combination or acquisition that we complete may disrupt our business and fail to achieve our intended objectives.”

We may also be subject to claims and uncertainties arising from the operations of Lioli’s and Omicron’s businesses from periods prior to the dates we acquired them. For example, although we believe that we have a good and marketable title to the Lioli manufacturing facility in Morbi, Gujarat, India, there are certain historic discrepancies between records of different local and regional authorities in Gujarat, India, including records of titles to physically non-existing plots, that might result in our ownership to the facility or its parts being challenged, including by title holders of existing and non-existing adjacent plots. Other pre-acquisition claims or liabilities could also be significant. Our ability to seek indemnification from the former owners for these claims or liabilities is limited by various factors, including the specific limitations contained in the respective acquisition agreements and the financial ability of the former owners to satisfy such claims or liabilities. If we are unable to enforce any indemnification rights we may have against the former owners or if the former owners are unable to satisfy their obligations for any reason, including because of their current financial position, or if we do not have any right to indemnification, we could be held liable for the costs or obligations associated with such claims or liabilities, which could adversely affect our operating performance.

In addition, as a result of the Lioli Acquisition and the Omicron Acquisition we carry a significant amount of intangible assets (including goodwill) on our balance sheet. As of December 31, 2020, our goodwill and other intangible assets amounted to $47.5 million and $12.1 million, respectively. The future occurrence of potential indicators of impairment could include, for example, a significant adverse change in business climate, an adverse action or assessment by a regulator, unanticipated competition, a material negative change in relationships with significant customers, strategic decisions made in response to economic or competitive conditions, loss of key personnel, or a more-likely-than-not expectation that a reporting unit or a significant portion of a reporting unit will be sold or disposed of, and could result in goodwill impairment charges. Although we have not recorded goodwill impairment charges in the past, we cannot guarantee that we will not experience goodwill impairments in the future.

If we fail to effectively manage required changes in our production and supply chain, we may be unable to serve the market or suffer additional inefficiencies.

Our production and supply chain processes are complex and rely on our estimates and forecasts in terms of volume as well as product mix. Our 2020 acquisitions of Lioli and Omicron expanded our production and supply chain, as well as product offering, further increasing complexity of effective management of our business as a whole (for more information, see “ITEM 4: Information on the Company—History and Development of the Company—Our History.”) If we fail to accurately forecast demand, it may hinder the availability of our products in the market, result in loss of sales, increase shipping costs and harm our relationships with our customers, damage our brand and reputation and have a materially adverse effect on our results of operations. If we are unsuccessful in adjusting our manufacturing operations to changes in the demand for our products, we may be unable to grow our business and revenue, maintain our competitive position or improve our profitability.

8


If we are unable to manufacture and/or ship our existing products globally as planned, our results of operations and prospects will suffer.

Difficulties with or interruptions of our manufacturing operations could delay our output of products and harm our relationships with our customers, damage our brand and reputation and have a material adverse effect on our results of operations. We currently manufacture our products at our two facilities in Israel, one in the U.S. and one in India. In addition, we source a portion of our supply chain from OEMs. We cannot assure you that we will be able to successfully manage manufacturing facilities in a timely or profitable manner. Moreover, if we are unable to hire, train and retain skilled employees or successfully transfer or continue to transfer our manufacturing processes in a timely and cost-effective manner, or at all, then we may experience operating disruptions and may be unable to meet demand for our products, which could have a negative impact on our business and financial results.

Specifically, since opening our facilities in the U.S. in 2015, we have experienced certain inefficiencies due to challenges related to the ramp up of the plant, such as establishing an experienced workforce, processes implementation, engineering optimization and successful transfer of know-how and other factors. Although we have improved the performance of our U.S plant, such inefficiencies led to lower than expected throughput, yield and, as a result, higher than expected manufacturing cost per square meter produced and therefore our business and financial results were and may continue to be negatively impacted.

We have purchased the majority of our manufacturing production lines from Breton S.p.A. (“Breton”), a manufacturer of lines to produce engineered stone slabs. We depend on Breton for certain spare parts for our production line equipment and for their support and know-how required to resolve specific technical problems in their manufacturing equipment and anticipate we will continue to do so in the future. Inability or delays in obtaining specialty machine components and spare parts, know-how or technical support from Breton could prevent or delay our output of products.

Damage to our manufacturing facilities or products caused by human error or negligence or other failures or circumstances beyond our control, as well as limited availability, increased costs or irregularities in the shipping market related to the COVID-19 pandemic or otherwise, could interrupt or delay our manufacturing, shipping or other operations. See “—The COVID-19 pandemic could further impact end-consumers and the global economy in general, lower demand for our products, disrupt our operations and materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations” and “—Disturbances to our operations or the operations of our suppliers, distributors, customers, consumers or other third parties could materially adversely affect our business.”

Our insurance policies have limited coverage in case of significant damage to our manufacturing facilities and may not fully compensate us for the cost of replacement and any loss from business interruptions. Any damage to our facilities or interruption in manufacturing, whether due to limitations in manufacturing capacity or arising from factors outside of our control, could result in delays or failure in meeting contractual obligations and could have a materially adverse effect on our relationships with our distributors and customers, and on our financial results.

9


Failure to effectively collaborate with OEM suppliers or problems inherent in the use of OEMs could materially adversely affect our competitive position or profitability.

In order to optimize our production and adjust to changes in markets dynamics, we acquire certain basic models of products from third-party engineered stone OEMs, primarily from China, and are considering increasing this activity in 2021. Although we aim at diversifying our OEMs, in 2020 more than half of our third-party engineered stone OEM purchases came from the same supplier. If we are unable to successfully manage our relationships with OEMs, if we experience delays in delivery of products from OEMs or if the quality of products produced by these OEMs shall not meet our standards, our brand and reputation could be impaired and warranty claims from end-customers could increase. Damage or disruption to the ability of our OEM suppliers to develop, manufacture and transport our products as a result of factors within or outside their control could result in adverse effects on our business, financial condition or results of operations. See “—Disturbances to our operations or the operations of our suppliers, distributors, customers, consumers or other third parties could materially adversely affect our business. ” Failure by such third-party suppliers to comply with applicable laws and regulations or accepted industry standards could further impair our brand and reputation, result in potential liability and materially adversely affect our competitive position and profitability. Additionally, if we are unable to agree on the commercial terms with such vendors, or effectively enforce the terms of any verbal or written agreements, such manufacturers could cease manufacturing in the amounts required to meet the demand for our products, or at all. In such cases, we may need to locate and qualify alternative manufacturers or produce the products using our facilities, which could cause substantial delays in manufacturing, increase our costs, negatively impact the quality of our products in case we rely on new vendors and require us to adjust our products and our manufacturing processes. We may be unable to successfully optimize our operations and reduce costs through OEM. All these factors could materially and adversely impact our reputation, revenues and results of operations. In addition, cooperation with third party manufacturers may require us to expose certain intellectual property relating to our products and designs, the confidentiality of which we may not be able to further control or enforce. If we experience demand for our products that exceeds our manufacturing capacity and we fail to acquire slab models from third parties, we may not have sufficient inventory to meet our customers’ demands, which would negatively impact our revenues, reputation and potentially cause us to lose market share.

Changes in the prices of our raw materials have increased our costs and decreased our margins and net income in the past and may increase our costs and decrease our margins in the future.

In 2020, raw materials accounted for approximately 34% of our cost of goods sold (excluding the cost of OEM products sold, which accounted for less than 10% of our cost of goods sold). The cost of raw materials consists of the purchase prices of such materials and costs related to the logistics of delivering the materials to our manufacturing facilities. Our raw materials costs are also impacted by changes in foreign currency exchange rates, mainly the Euro as it relates to polyester and other raw materials purchased from Europe.

Quartz, which includes quartz, quartzite and other dry minerals and engineered materials containing high amounts of silica (together referred to in this annual report as “quartz” unless otherwise specifically stated), is the main raw material component used in our engineered quartz products. Quartz accounted for approximately 39% of our raw materials cost in 2020. Our cost of sales and overall results of operations may be impacted significantly by fluctuations in quartz prices. For example, if the cost of quartz had risen by 10% in 2020, we would have experienced a decrease of approximately 1% in our gross profit margin in such year. In 2020, our average cost of quartz increased by 3.2%, while in 2019 decreased by 3.4%. Any future increases in quartz prices could also materially and adversely impact our margins and net income.

Polyester, which acts as a binding agent in our products, accounted for approximately 31% of our raw materials costs in 2020. Accordingly, our cost of sales and overall results of operations may be impacted significantly by fluctuations in polyester prices. For example, if the cost of polyester had risen by 10% in 2020, we would have experienced a decrease of approximately 0.8% in our gross profit margin in such year. The cost of polyester we incur is a function of, among other things, manufacturing capacity, demand and the price of crude oil and more specifically benzene. Our cost of polyester fluctuated significantly over the years. In 2020, our average polyester cost decreased by approximately 18% and in 2019 decreased by approximately 12%. We acquire polyester on an annual framework basis, or a purchase order basis based on our projected needs for the subsequent one to three months. Going forward, we may experience pressure from our polyester suppliers to increase prices even during a period covered by purchase orders.

Since 2020, we have been using a dynamic hedging strategy to reduce our exposure to changes in the polyester prices. This strategy involves hedging certain components of our polyester formula in variable ratios of the exposure over rolling 12 months. Therefore, future fluctuations in polyester prices which we have not adequately hedged could materially and adversely affect our profitability. Moreover, our polyester contract derivatives are currently not designated as hedging accounting instruments under Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 815, Derivatives and Hedging. Hedging results are charged to finance expenses, net, and therefore, do not offset the impact of polyester prices on our operating income.

10


Pigments are also used to manufacture our products. Although pigments account for a significantly lower percentage of our raw material costs than polyester, we encountered in the past and may experience in the future fluctuations in pigment prices. For example, the cost of titanium dioxide, our principal white pigmentation agent, decreased by approximately 0.2% and decreased by approximately 10% in 2020 and 2019, respectively. Such prices fluctuations may also have a materially adverse impact on our margins and net income.

We have found that increases in prices may be difficult to pass on to our customers. If we are unable to pass on to our customers increases in raw materials prices, specifically in quartz, polyester and pigments, our margins and net income may be materially and adversely impacted. For cost of our raw materials in 2020 and prior years, see “ITEM 5.A: Operating Results and Financial Review and Prospects—Operating Results— Cost of revenues and gross profit margin.”

A key element of our strategy is to expand our sales in certain markets, such as the United States. Failure to expand such sales would have a materially adverse effect on our future growth and prospects.

A key element of our strategy is to grow our business by expanding sales of our products in certain existing markets that we believe have high growth potential, as well as in selected new markets. In 2020 we made strategic investments in the U.S. sales force by increasing headcount adjusting the U.S. logistic footprint and through the Omicron Acquisition and intend to continue to focus our growth efforts on the United States. In 2020, according to Freedonia, engineered quartz surfaces represented 20% of the total countertops by volume installed in the United States. We estimate that the penetration of engineered quartz and porcelain surfaces in the countertops market in the United States still has significant potential to grow. We face several challenges in generating demand for our products and brand in the United States or other markets, including driving consumers’ desire to use our surfaces for their kitchen countertops and other interior settings. If the market for surfaces in these regions does not develop as we expect, develops slower than expected or develops more at the lower price segment, our future growth, business, prospects, financial condition and operating results will be adversely affected. In addition, changes in the U.S. trade environment, including imposition of import tariffs or withdrawal from or revisions to international trade policies or agreements, may affect our growth potential globally, and further impact other markets in which we operate. See “—Competition from manufacturers of lower priced products may reduce our market share, alter consumer preferences and materially and adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition”. We may also face certain challenges in supplying materials to large retailers in these regions. For more information, see “—A sizable proportion of our sales in North America is attributable to a limited number of large retailers; any deterioration of our relationships with such retailers or deterioration in their business performance (in fields relevant to the sale of our products) could adversely impact our results of operations.” Additionally, our reliance on third-party suppliers to provide installation and fabrication services to large retailers could impair our relationship with our customers, which could also materially harm our business and results of operations.” Our success will depend, in large part, upon consumer acceptance and adoption of our products and brand in these markets, on the level of our execution, our go-to market strategy and its implementation and the timely availability of our products across regions, and if we do not effectively expand into these markets, there could be an adverse impact on our sales and financial condition.

A sizable proportion of our sales in North America is attributable to a limited number of large retailers; any deterioration of our relationships with such retailers or deterioration in their business performance (in fields relevant to the sale of our products) could adversely impact our results of operations.

Since 2013 and 2014, we have supplied our products to IKEA in the U.S. and Canada, respectively, pursuant to exclusive agreements, which have been periodically extended. Pursuant to such agreements, we supply and, through our contractors, fabricate and install countertops, primarily from our quartz surfaces, which are marketed by IKEA as private label. We expect that the IKEA agreements will continue to be extended and renewed beyond their current terms and currently, their amended terms are being discussed by the parties as IKEA amends its standard purchase arrangements; however, there is no assurance that such renewal will be made on similar terms or at all. In case they are terminated or not renewed, the cessation of our sales through IKEA U.S. and IKEA Canada would cause our revenue in the U.S. and Canada to significantly decrease. For more information on our sales through IKEA, see “ITEM 5: Operating and Financial Review and Prospects.”

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In 2019 we began collaborating with Home Depot in the U.S. and during the fourth quarter of 2019 introduced Caesarstone branded products at Home Depot stores in the U.S. There is no assurance that current arrangements will continue to be renewed on similar terms or at all.

Our sales to any retailers, including IKEA and Home Depot, may be affected, among other things, by their sales and promotional events, the timing, scope and terms of which is determined exclusively by the retailers and can impact our sales volume. Accordingly, our sales to IKEA and Home Depot have been, and may continue to be, volatile, and we may not be able to maintain or increase such sales or to maintain its current profitability level. In particular, as a result of COVID-19, governments across the limited or shut down non-essential businesses, including IKEA, Home Depot and other retailers selling our products, which negatively affected our sales volumes in 2020. Such limitations or shutdowns, if they continue to occur as the pandemic remains ongoing, could continue to negatively affect our sales volumes in the future and have a material adverse impact on our business. See also “—The COVID-19 pandemic could further impact end-consumers and the global economy in general, lower demand for our products, disrupt our operations and materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations” and “—Disturbances to our operations or the operations of our suppliers, distributors, customers, consumers or other third parties could materially adversely affect our business”.

We have entered arrangements with third parties for the supply of fabrication and installation services to IKEA and we may enter into such agreements with other third parties, in addition to or in lieu of the existing ones. The success of these third-party relationships may impact our supply of countertops, inventory levels, quality and service level standards and ability to manage the installation and fabrication of countertops to meet customers’ demands and at reasonable prices. If we are unable to successfully manage the installation and fabrication services performed for us by these third-party fabricators and installers, we may experience relatively high waste of our products used by fabricators for such works, and complaints from end-consumers with respect to supply time, quality and service level of the fabrication and installation, including defects and damages. Such risks could expose us to warranty-related damages, which if not covered back-to-back by the fabricators engaged by us, could have a materially adverse effect on our financial results, reputation and brand position and lead to the termination of our agreements with IKEA.

We may encounter significant delays in manufacturing if we are required to change the suppliers for the raw materials used in the production of our products.

Our principal raw materials for engineered quartz products are quartz, polyester and pigments. We acquire quartz from quartz manufacturers from Turkey, India, Israel and several European countries. We typically transact business with our quartz suppliers on an annual framework basis, under which we execute purchase orders from time to time. In 2020, approximately 67% of our quartz was imported from several suppliers in Turkey and we expect a slightly lower level in 2021 as we continue to develop additional quartz sources. We acquire polyester from several suppliers, mainly from Europe, on an annual framework basis, or on a purchase order basis based on our projected needs for the subsequent one to three months. We acquire other raw materials used in our engineered quartz products from a limited number of suppliers on a purchase order basis, and our ability to preset prices in advance is limited. The principal raw materials for our porcelain products are clay minerals, natural minerals (such as feldspar) and chemical additives. We typically transact business with our suppliers of raw materials for porcelain products on an annual framework basis, under which we execute purchase orders from time to time.

We cannot be certain that any of our current suppliers will continue to provide us with the quantities of raw materials that we require or satisfy our anticipated specifications and quality requirements. We may also experience a shortage of such materials if, for example, demand for our products increases. For instance, in recent years, there have been significant tensions between Turkey and the State of Israel that have raised questions as to whether commercial arrangements between companies in these countries would be adversely impacted to a material extent. If tensions between Turkey and Israel worsen, our Turkish suppliers may not provide us with quartz shipments. If our Turkish quartz suppliers fail to perform in accordance with our arrangements, we may not be successful in enforcing them.

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If we are unable to agree upon prices with suppliers of our raw materials, or effectively enforce the terms of any verbal or written agreements or understandings, which we may have with any of them, our suppliers could cease supplying us with the raw materials required for our products. If our supply of raw materials is adversely impacted to a material extent or if, for any other reason, any of our suppliers do not perform in accordance with our agreements with them or cease supplying us with the relevant material, for any reason, we would need to locate and qualify alternate suppliers. This could result in substantial delays in manufacturing, increase our costs, negatively impact the quality of our products or require us to adjust our products and our manufacturing processes. Any such delays in or disruptions to the manufacturing process could materially and adversely impact our reputation, revenues and results of operations as well as other business aspects, such as our ability to serve our customers and meet their order requests.

For more information with regards to suppliers of raw materials used in our products, see “ITEM 4.B: Information on the Company—Business Overview—Raw materials and Service Provider Relationships.”

In addition to our traditional engineered quartz offering, we have commenced manufacturing of porcelain products and sales of porcelain, natural stone and other materials, and may pursue a further expansion of our product offering, including introducing new products and materials, which may be unsuccessful, and may divert management’s attention and negatively affect our margins and results of operations.

Our competitive advantage is due, in part, to our ability to develop and introduce innovative new and improved products and to strengthen our brand. To maintain such advantage, we may develop our own new products or acquire manufacturers of products that are competing with, or complimentary to, ours. Such new products may include new surface materials and complementary products. Introducing new products involves uncertainties, such as predicting changing consumer preferences, developing, manufacturing, marketing and selling new technologies, products and materials, and entering new market segments.

For example, as a result of the Lioli Acquisition, we have commenced manufacturing and sales of porcelain slabs for different applications, including flooring and cladding, and we intend to extend our produced porcelain offering to countertops. In addition, our recently acquired Omicron locations in the U.S. also sell natural stone and ancillary products for kitchen installation and fabrication. Although we believe that the expansion into new products, materials and, in some cases, applications represents an opportunity to leverage our existing business, no guarantee can be given as to customer demand for the new products. Moreover, in the future we may decide to introduce additional new products and enter new markets, whether through cooperation with third-party manufacturers or manufacturing at our own facilities.

Despite our intention to expand our manufacturing and sales of porcelain or other additional products, we may not be successful in capturing the market share dominated by competitors in this area, offer innovative alternatives ahead of the competition or maintain the strength of our brand. Such new initiatives may require increased time and resources from our management, result in higher than expected expenses and have a material adverse effect on our margins and results of operation.

Our revenues are subject to significant geographic concentration and any disruption to sales within one of our key existing markets, or to sales to a major customer therein, could materially and adversely impact our results of operations and prospects.

Our sales are subject to significant geographic concentration, with four largest markets accounting for 87.3% of revenues. In 2020, sales in the United States, Australia (including New Zealand), Canada and Israel accounted for 42.7%, 21.3%, 14.9% and 8.4% of our revenues, respectively. Each country has different characteristics and our results of operations could be materially and adversely impacted by a range of factors, including spending on home renovation and remodeling and new residential construction in the region (as discussed above), local competitive changes, changes in consumers’ quartz surface or countertop preferences and regulatory changes that specifically impact these markets (such as imposition of antidumping and countervailing duties in the U.S. as discussed above), as well as by our performance in each of these markets. Sales in our main markets could be materially and adversely impacted by other general economic conditions, including increases in imports of cheaper quartz surfaces from low cost countries manufacturers into such markets, especially the United States, Australia and Canada. Stronger local currencies could make lower-priced imported goods more competitive than our products. Although we face different challenges and risks in each of the markets in which we operate, due to the existence of a high level of geographic concentration, should an adverse event occur in any of these jurisdictions, our results of operations and prospects could be impacted disproportionately.

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In addition, we derived a mid-single digit percentage of our total revenues in 2020 from one customer, IKEA. Revenues from this significant customer declined during 2020. The loss of or a further decrease in business from such customer could have a material adverse effect on our revenues, results of operations and our financial condition.

Our business is subject to quarterly fluctuations in revenues and net income as a result of seasonal factors, weather-related conditions, and building construction cycles, which are hard to predict with certainty.

Our results of operations are impacted by seasonal factors, weather-related conditions, and construction and renovation cycles. The levels of manufacturing, fabrication, distribution, and installation of our products generally follow activity in the construction and renovation industries. Severe weather conditions, such as unusually prolonged cold conditions, hurricanes, severe storms, earthquakes, floods, fires, droughts, other natural disasters or similar events could reduce, delay or halt the construction and renovation industries in the markets in which we operate, and our businesses may be adversely affected. Markets in which we operate that are impacted by winter weather, such as snow storms and extended periods of rain, may experience a slowdown in construction activity during the beginning and the end of each calendar year, and this winter slowdown contributes to lower sales in our first and fourth quarters. Traditionally, the second and third quarters of the year exhibit higher sales volumes than first and fourth quarters. For more information, see “ITEM 5.A: Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Operating Results—Factors impacting our results of operations” and “ITEM 5.A: Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Operating Results—Quarterly results of operations and seasonality.” Adverse weather in a particular quarter or a prolonged winter period can also impact our quarterly results. Our future results of operations may experience substantial fluctuations from period to period as a consequence of such adverse weather. Increased or unexpected quarterly fluctuations in our results of operations may increase the volatility of our share price and cause declines in our share price even if they do not reflect a change in the overall performance of our business.

Our distributors’ actions may have a materially adverse effect on our business and results of operations. Our results of operations may be further impacted by the actions of our re-sellers.

Sales to third-party distributors accounted for approximately 10% of our revenues in 2020. In our indirect markets, we depend on the success of the selling and marketing efforts of our third-party distributors, and any disruption in our distribution network could materially impair our ability to sell our products or market our brand, which could materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations. As we have limited control over these distributors, their actions could also materially harm our brand and company reputation in the marketplace.

In the majority of our distribution arrangements, we operate based on an initial agreement or general terms of sale or, in certain cases, without any agreement, in writing or at all. The lack of a written agreement with many of our distributors may lead to ambiguities, costs and challenges in enforcing terms of such arrangements, including where we wish to terminate early due to the distributor’s failure to meet annual sales targets. We have experienced difficulties, including litigation, in connection with the termination of certain of our distributors due to disputes regarding their terms of engagement. See “ITEM 8.A: Financial Information—Consolidated Financial Statements and Other Financial Information—Legal proceedings.” Additionally, we may be unable to distribute our products through another distributor within the territory during the period in which we must give prior termination notice, or to identify and retain new distributors upon termination, which may materially and adversely impact our market share, results of operations, relationships with our customers and end-consumers and brand reputation. Because some of our distributors operate on nonexclusive terms, distributors may also distribute competitors’ countertop surfaces or other surface materials, which may cause us to lose market share. If we opt to distribute our products directly upon termination of existing arrangements with our distributors, ramping up our logistics and shipping capabilities could require significant time and financial commitments, which could materially and adversely impact our market share and results of operations. We cannot assure you that we will be able to successfully transition to direct distribution in a timely or profitable manner.

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In the U.S., we supply our products in part to sellers who in turn re-sell them to fabricators, contractors, developers and builders. Certain actions by such third parties may also materially harm our brand and reputation.

The termination of arrangements with distributors and re-sellers may lead to litigation, resulting in significant legal fees for us and detracting our management’s effort, time and resources. In addition, our distributors and re-sellers generally disclose to us sales volumes and other information on a monthly or quarterly basis. Inaccurate sales forecasts, on which we have already relied on in our production planning or our failure to understand correctly the information in a sales report could cause significant, unexpected volatility in our sales and may impact our ability to make plans regarding our supply chain. Any of these events could materially and adversely affect or cause unexpected fluctuations in our results of operations.

Legal, Regulatory, Safety and Security Risks

Silicosis and other bodily injury claims may have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition.

Silicosis is a potentially fatal progressive occupational lung disease and is characterized by scarring of the lungs and damage to the breathing function. Inhalation of dust containing fine silica particles (respirable crystalline silica, or RCS) may occur while performing certain tasks, including among others, processing materials that contain crystalline silica (with quartz having a relatively high crystalline silica content) if safety measures are not implemented, which in turn can cause silicosis and other health issues.

Since 2008, we have been named, either directly or as a third party defendant, in numerous lawsuits alleging damages caused by exposure to RCS related to our products filed by individuals (including fabricators and their employees, and our former employees), their successors, employers and the State of Israel, and in subrogation claims by the National Insurance Institute of Israel (the “NII”), WorkerCover Queensland, Australia, and others. As of December 31, 2020, we were subject to pending lawsuits with respect to 169 injured persons globally (of which 138 were in Israel, 30 in Australia and one in the United States) and had received pre-litigation demand letters with respect to additional 13 persons, in each case relating to silicosis claims. One of the injured persons filed against us a lawsuit in the Central District Court in Israel with a motion for its recognition as a class action; though we reached a settlement agreement with the lead-plaintiff with respect to this claim, it has not yet received court approval, which may on various grounds demand changes to such proposed settlement. Most of the claims asserted against us do not specify a total amount of damages sought and the plaintiffs’ future damages, if any, is intended to be determined at trial or settlement discussions.

Although we intend to vigorously contest the pending claims, we cannot provide any assurance that we will be successful. As of December 31, 2020, we estimated based on the current legal condition in Israel that our total exposure with respect to all then-pending lawsuits in Israel related to 138 injured persons and the un-asserted NII claims was approximately $42.3 million (which we made a provision for on our balance sheet), however, the actual outcome of such lawsuits may vary from our estimate. We believe that we have $8.0 million of coverage under our product liability insurance and, accordingly, our net exposure with respect to such pending claims is estimated to be $34.4 million. The number of injured persons takes into account the claim filed with a motion for its recognition as a class action and does not include pre-litigation demand letters and settled claims for which the settled amount has not been paid yet. It is too early to estimate the probability of the claims filed against us in Australia, which we intend to vigorously defend. However, as there is still no precedent in Australia as to the liability of manufacturers and suppliers in silicosis claims, if we fail to defend ourselves in such claims, a negative precedent may be set, which may adversely affect our position in other claims, and accordingly our financial results.

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Any pending or future litigation is subject to significant uncertainty. Our estimated total net exposure with respect to pending claims is subject to change for a variety of reasons, including an unpredictable adverse development in the pending cases. We cannot estimate the number of potential claimants that may file claims against us, the jurisdictions in which such claims may be filed, who the claimants are or the nature of the claims. Consistent with the experience of other companies involved in silica-related litigation, there may be an increase in the number of asserted claims against us. In addition, punitive damages may be awarded in certain jurisdictions, even though they are rare in Israel. We may be also subject to putative class action lawsuits in the future in Israel and abroad and we cannot be certain whether such claims will succeed in being certified or on their merits. An actual outcome which is higher than our estimate could have a material adverse effect on our financial results and cash flow.

Any uninsured damages to which we are subject in existing or future potential litigation, the cost of defending any uninsured claims, compliance costs, and the loss of business from fabricators who no longer find it practical to fabricate our products, may have a material adverse impact on our revenues and profits. Moreover, even if we are found only partially liable to a plaintiff’s damages, in some jurisdictions the plaintiff may seek to collect all his damages from us, requiring us to collect separately from our co-defendants their allocated portion of the damages and there can be no assurance that we will succeed in such collection.

As of December 31, 2020, 22 of our employees, out of which 12 were employed in our plants in Israel as of such date, were banned by occupational physicians from working in a workplace with dust due to diagnose or suspected diagnose of silicosis or other lung diseases, and any expenses not covered by the National Insurance Institute of Israel which we may incur in this respect are not covered by our employer liability insurance. However, so far, we managed to receive contribution in settlements also from insurers of fabricators, although insurers (such as ours) alleged that there is no insurance coverage for silicosis in employer liability insurance. In addition, as of December 31, 2020 there were two outstanding lawsuits that had been filed against us by former employees.

We currently have limited product liability insurance policies, which apply to us and our subsidiaries and cover claims related to bodily injuries though in most cases these policies exclude damages caused by exposure to hazardous dust. In recent years, we have been able to obtain such insurance only on less favorable terms than previously. If we are unable to renew our product liability insurances at all or in part, if we cannot obtain insurance on as favorable terms as previously, or if our insurance is terminated early, decreased, provides inadequate coverage or if we are subject to silicosis-related claims excluded by our product liability insurance policy or by our employer liability insurance policy, we may incur significant legal expenses and become liable for damages, in each case, that are not covered by insurance. For example, as of April 2020 our Australian product liability insurance ceased coverage of newly diagnosed silicosis related claims. Such events might have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations. As of December 31, 2020, our insurance receivables for silicosis-related claims totaled $8.0 million. Although we believe that it is probable that such receivables will be paid to us when such payments are due, if our insurers become insolvent in the future or for other reason do not pay such amounts in full or on a timely basis, such failure could have a material adverse effect on our financial results and cash flow.

In addition, media coverage regarding the hazards associated with exposure to RCS in the engineered quartz surfaces, which intensified significantly primarily in Australia during 2020, may adversely affect consumer preferences toward our products, damage our brand and reputation and lead to loss of sales and a material adverse effect to our revenues and financial results. Increased awareness of this issue, and media focus may also trigger greater governmental and regulatory scrutiny and action, which may increase our costs of compliance therewith, lead to greater propensity for litigation against us or ultimately even result in a ban of quartz-based products.

Any of the risks described above relating to claims regarding silicosis and other bodily injury claims may have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition. For more information, see “ITEM 8.A: Financial Information—Legal Proceedings—Claims related to alleged silicosis and other injuries.” See also Note 10 to the financial statements included elsewhere in this report.

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Regulatory requirements and any changes thereto relating to hazards associated with exposure to RCS in stone and engineered quartz surfaces may adversely and materially affect our business.

During recent years, after identifying exposure to silica in the engineered quartz and stone countertop industry as a health hazard to workers involved in manufacturing, cutting, fabricating, finishing and installing quartz and stone countertops, several local regulatory bodies have issued safety alerts and promoted new regulations. For example, in 2015, the Israeli Ministry of Economy and Industry (“IMEI”) proposed a new law aimed at improving the health, protection and safety of persons engaged in fabrication of engineered quartz surfaces by imposing, among other things, obligations to obtain permits for operating a fabrication business. While, that law did not pass, there is still a possibility of regulatory involvement or renewed attempts for legislation that could adversely affect our market and so results of our operations. In July 2019, the Australian federal government established a national dust disease taskforce in light of the re-emergence of silicosis. In October 2019, Queensland State in Australia approved a new code of practice on managing RCS exposure in the stone benchtop industry, that included, among others, prohibiting uncontrolled dry cutting and periodic air monitoring requirements. In early 2020, Victoria State in Australia announced its intention to execute a licensing initiative in its territory, after prohibiting uncontrolled dry cutting of engineered stone. Western Australia State recently changed its exposure standard for RCS, in addition to launching a new health surveillance requirement for silica, according to which employers will be required to provide a low-dose high-resolution CT scan instead of the previously required chest X-ray. In February 2020, the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration published a National Emphasis Program addressing the hazards of silica in various industries. Contemplated and current regulatory initiatives in the U.S., Australia and Israel are necessary to improve health and safety, however, these changes may also disrupt the market or impose burdens on fabricators and distributors potentially causing them to shift towards using other materials, which could materially and adversely impact our business. Further regulatory changes regarding the ability to use, process or sell stone countertops, particularly engineered quartz, and the safety measures required in such activities may materially adversely affect our business.

In New-South Wales, Australia, a Legislative Council Committee was formed to review the State’s response to silicosis in the manufactured stone industry. The Legislative Council Committee issued its final report in March 2020 after receiving submission and holding hearings with interested parties, and recommended, among other things: providing all manufactured stone workers a low-dose high-resolution CT scan (instead of X-ray); obliging all manufacturers and suppliers to provide safety data sheets and to affix standardized warning labels on all manufactured stone products; further reducing the workplace exposure standard for RCS; and establishing a silicosis register.

We may be required to incur additional expenses associated with exposure to RCS in the engineered quartz surfaces industry to enhance our compliance with current and future laws, regulations or standards. Failure to comply with existing regulatory requirements or any changes thereto may expose us to regulatory actions (as detailed below in “—The extent of our liability for environmental, health and safety, product liability and other matters may be difficult or impossible to estimate and could negatively impact our financial condition and results of operations”) as well as to lawsuits by our employees. Greater regulatory scrutiny and action may also lead to greater propensity for litigation against us or ultimately result in a government ban of our products.

Environmental, health and safety regulations, product liability regulations, industry standards and other similar matters may be costly, difficult or impossible to comply with under our existing operations and could negatively impact our financial condition and results of operations.

Our manufacturing facilities are subject to numerous Israeli, U.S. federal and state (Georgia) and Indian federal and (Gujarati)laws and regulations, as well as to industry standards and policies imposed by our customers (such as IKEA and Home Depot), relating to environmental, health and safety, use of our products and other matters such as dust, acetone and styrene control, as detailed in “ITEM 4.B: Information on the Company—Business Overview—Environmental and Other Regulatory Matters.” Other aspects of our activities are subject to local laws wherever we operate, including Canada, Australia, Singapore and the United Kingdom. Our recently purchased plant in India is relatively new, thus is still in the stages of adjustments to comply with local regulations and permits, including issues of groundwater abstraction and water consumption, gas use, diesel generator capacity use and emission standards. Violations of environmental, health and safety laws and regulations may lead to civil and criminal sanctions against us, our directors, officers or employees. Liability under these laws and regulations and compliance with various industry standards and policies involves inherent uncertainties and in some cases may compel the installation of additional equipment and subject us to substantial penalties, injunctive orders and facility shutdowns, as well as damages to our reputation and brand and may therefore lead to loss in revenue. If our operations are enjoined because of failure to comply with such regulations, or if we are required to install expensive equipment in order to meet regulatory requirements, it could materially adversely affect our results of operations. Any contemplated expansion of our facilities will also need to meet standards imposed by laws, regulations and other industry standards. Violations of environmental laws could also result in obligations to investigate or remediate potential contamination, third-party property damage or personal injury claims resulting from potential migration of contaminants off-site. Violations of such laws and regulations may also constitute a breach of current or future commercial contracts we have with third parties and impact our cooperation with customers and suppliers. We have identified in the past and may identify in the future compliance risks related to environmental and health and safety regulation standards. Preparation and implementation of mitigation plans for such risks may take time during which we may not be in full compliance with applicable laws and standards.

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In addition, the operation of our manufacturing facilities in Israel, the United States (Georgia) and India (Gujarat) is subject to applicable permits, standards, licenses and approvals. Any expansions or improvements to our facilities will be subject to obtaining appropriate permits, and we cannot be certain that such permits will be obtained in a timely matter, or at all. For detailed information, see “ITEM 4.B: Information on the Company—Business Overview—Environmental and Other Regulatory Matters”. We expect our business licenses to be extended by the relevant authorities for a specified term and we intend to seek subsequent extensions on an ongoing basis. Generally, failure to obtain a permit or license required for the operation of our facilities, or failure to comply with the requirements thereunder, may result in civil and criminal penalties, fines, court injunctions, imprisonment, and operations stoppages. If we are unable to obtain, extend or maintain the business license for any of our plants, we would be required to cease operations at such location, which would materially adversely affect our results of operations. Our ability to obtain necessary permits and approvals for our manufacturing facilities may be subject to additional costs and possible delays beyond our initial projections. In addition, to demonstrate compliance with underlying permits licenses or approvals, we are required to perform a considerable amount of monitoring, record-keeping and reporting. We may not have been, or may not be, at all times, in complete compliance with such requirements and we may incur material costs or liabilities in connection with such violations, or in connection with remediation at our sites or certain third-party manufacturing sites if we are found liable in relation thereto.

From time to time, we face compliance issues related to our manufacturing facilities. See “ITEM 4.B: Information on the Company—Business Overview—Environmental and Other Regulatory Matters” for additional information on compliance with environmental, health and safety and other relevant regulations relating to our facilities, including with respect to our compliance with styrene ambient air standards and dust emission occupational health standards.

New environmental laws and regulations, new interpretations of existing laws and regulations, increased governmental enforcement or other developments in Israel, the United States (Georgia) and India (Gujarat) could require us to make additional unforeseen expenditures. These expenditures and other costs for environmental compliance could have a material adverse effect on our business’s results of operations, financial condition and profitability. The range of reasonably possible losses from our exposure to environmental liabilities in excess of amounts accrued to date cannot be reasonably estimated at this time. For example, recently the Israeli Ministry of Environmental Protection added to the requirements involved in extending a plant's toxin permit additional conditions regarding cyber risk management, which apply immediately.

In addition, our manufacturing, distribution and other facilities are subject to health and safety regulations, including workplace safety and transportation. Although we introduced safety rules and procedures at all our facilities and provide safety trainings to our employees and contractors on a regular basis, breaches of such safety measures have occurred in the past and may occur in the future. If our employees or contractors do not follow and we do not successfully enforce the safety procedures established in our facilities or otherwise do not meet the relevant laws and standards, our employees or contractors may be subject to work-related injuries. As a result, we and our officers and directors could be subject to claims, fines, orders and injunctions due to workplace accidents involving our employees or contractors. For example, in recent years, serious accidents related to our operations occurred in Canada. Although we believe that such accidents resulted from safety breaches by our contractors, for one of these accidents, proceedings were filed against us by the local authorities. Although we maintain workers’ compensation and liability insurance, it may not provide adequate coverage against potential liabilities and can expose us, our directors and officers to administrative and criminal proceedings.

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Other than as described above, we cannot predict whether we may become liable under environmental, product liability and health and safety statutes, rules, regulations and case law of the countries in which we operate. The amount of any such liability in the future or its impact on our business operation otherwise could be significant and may adversely impact our financial condition and results of operations.

From time to time, we are subject to litigation, disputes or other proceedings, which could result in unexpected expenses and time and resources that could have a materially adverse impact on our results of operation, profit margins, financial condition and liquidity.

We are currently involved in several legal disputes, including against certain fabricators (our customers) and their employees in Israel and Australia, as well as against our former workers, as further detailed in “ITEM 8.A: Financial Information—Consolidated Financial Statements and Other Financial Information—Legal Proceedings.” In addition, from time to time, we are involved in other legal proceedings and claims in the ordinary course of business related to a range of matters, including contract law, intellectual property rights, employment, product liability and warranty claims, and claims related to modification and adjustment or replacement of product surfaces sold.

The outcome of litigation and other legal matters is always uncertain, and the actual outcome of any such proceedings may materially differ from estimates. An adverse ruling in these proceedings could have a materially adverse effect on us. If we are unsuccessful in defending such claims or elect to settle any of these claims, we could incur material costs and could be required to pay varying amounts of monetary damages, some of which may be significant, and/or incur other penalties or sanctions, some or all of which may not be covered by insurance. For example, we have recently settled a lawsuit that was filed against us by a customer, according to which we have paid approximately $0.5 million. Although we maintain product liability insurance, we cannot be certain that our coverage, if applicable, will be adequate for liabilities actually incurred or that insurance will continue to be available to us on economically reasonable terms, or at all. These material costs could have a materially adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Our operating results may suffer due to our failure to manage our international operations effectively or due to regulatory changes in foreign jurisdictions where we operate.

Our products are sold in over 50 countries throughout the world, our raw materials, equipment and machinery are acquired in different countries, our products are manufactured in Israel, the United States (“U.S.”) and India, and our global management operates from Israel. We are therefore subject to risks associated with having international operations and expanding globally. Accordingly, our sales, purchases and operations are subject to risks and uncertainties, including:

fluctuations in exchange rates;

fluctuations in land and sea transportation costs, as well as delays in transportation and other time-to-market delays, including as a result of strikes;

unpredictability of foreign currency exchange controls;

compliance with unexpected changes in regulatory requirements;

compliance with a variety of regulations and laws in each relevant jurisdiction;

difficulties in collecting accounts receivable and longer collection periods;

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changes in tax laws and interpretation of those laws;

taxes, tariffs, quotas, custom duties, trade barriers and other similar restrictions on our sales, purchases and exports which could be imposed by certain jurisdictions;

negative or unforeseen consequences resulting from the introduction, termination, modification, or renegotiation of international trade agreements or treaties or the imposition of countervailing measures or antidumping duties or similar tariffs;

difficulties enforcing intellectual property and contractual rights in certain jurisdictions; and

economic changes, geopolitical regional conflicts, terrorist activity, political unrest, civil strife, acts of war, strikes and other economic or political uncertainties.

Significant political developments could also have a materially adverse effect on us. In the United States (“U.S.”), due to our substantial sales, distribution, import and manufacturing operations, potential or actual changes in fiscal, tax and labor policies could have uncertain and unexpected consequences that materially impact our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Tariffs, taxes or other trade barriers could require us to change manufacturing sources, reduce prices, increase spending on marketing or product development, withdraw from or not enter certain markets or otherwise take actions that could be adverse to us. For example, in the United States, the Trump administration has imposed tariffs on imports from China, Mexico, Canada and other countries, and has expressed support for greater restrictions on free trade and increase tariffs on goods imported into the United States. For example, in the United States, the recent change in administration may cause changes to the prior imposition of tariffs on imports from China, Mexico, Canada and other countries under the Trump Administration. Any such changes may impact the level of free trade or tariff prices on goods imported into the United States Changes in U.S. political, regulatory and economic conditions or in its policies governing international trade and foreign manufacturing and investment in the U.S. could adversely affect our sales in the U.S. In Europe, the U.K. formally exited the European Union (“E.U.”) on January 31, 2020 (“Brexit”). The European Commission and the U.K. government announced a withdrawal agreement providing for a transition period, during which E.U. law was applicable to and in the U.K. and which ended on December 31, 2020. Although on December 30, 2020, a Trade and Cooperation Agreement was signed between the E.U. and the U.K., which is provisionally applied as of January 1, 2021, significant uncertainty exists as to the scope, nature and terms of any future relationship, and potentially divergent national laws and regulations may result. Although the E.U. is not a key market of ours, Brexit has and for the foreseeable future will continue to adversely affect economic and market conditions in the U.K., the E.U. and its member states and elsewhere, and contribute to uncertainty and instability in global financial markets, which may adversely affect our business and financial condition to the extent the global economy or home renovation, remodeling and construction sectors are negatively impacted or harm our ability to further expand into the European and U.K. markets.

The regulatory framework for privacy and data security issues worldwide is currently in flux and is likely to remain so for the foreseeable future. A failure by us or a third-party contractor providing services to us to comply with applicable privacy and data security laws and regulations may result in sanctions, statutory or contractual damages or litigation.

All these risks could also result in increased costs or decreased revenues, either of which could have a materially adverse effect on our profitability. As we continue to expand our business globally, we may have difficulty anticipating and effectively managing these and other risks that our global operations may face, which may materially and adversely affect our business outside of Israel and our financial condition and results of operations.

We may have exposure to greater-than-anticipated tax liabilities.

The determination of our worldwide provision for income taxes and other tax liabilities requires significant judgment, and there are many transactions and calculations where the ultimate tax determination is uncertain. We have applied the guidance in ASC 740, “Income Taxes” in determining our accrued liability for unrecognized tax benefits, which totaled approximately $3.7 million as of December 31, 2020. See also note 12 to our financial statements included elsewhere in this report. Although we believe our estimates are reasonable, the ultimate outcome may differ from the amounts recorded in our financial statements and may materially affect our financial results in the period or periods for which such determination is made.

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We have entered transfer pricing arrangements that establish transfer prices for our inter-company operations. However, our transfer pricing procedures are not binding on the applicable taxing authorities. The amount of income tax that we pay could be materially and adversely affected by earnings being lower than anticipated in jurisdictions where we have lower statutory rates and higher than anticipated in jurisdictions where we have higher statutory rates. From 2015 onward, our U.S. manufacturing operations also carry inter-company transactions at transfer prices and arrangements set by us. We cannot be certain that tax authorities will not disfavor our inter-company arrangements and transfer prices in the relevant jurisdictions. Taxing authorities outside of Israel could challenge our allocation of income between us and our subsidiaries and contend that a larger portion of our income is subject to tax in their jurisdictions, which may have higher tax rates than the rates applicable to such income in Israel. Any adjustment in one country while not followed by counter-adjustment in the other country, may lead naturally to double taxation for the group. Any change to the allocation of our income as a result of review by such taxing authorities could have a negative effect on our operating results and financial condition.

Our facilities in Israel receive different tax benefits as “Preferred Enterprises” under the Israeli Law for the Encouragement of Capital Investments, 1959 (“Investment Law”), with our production lines qualifying to receive different grants and/or reduced company tax rates. Therefore, some of our production lines also receive tax benefits based on our revenues and the allocation of those revenues between the two facilities in Israel. As a result, the Israeli taxing authorities could challenge our allocation of income between these two facilities and contend that a larger portion of our income is subject to higher tax rates. In Israel, there are no tax benefits to production outside of the country. As such, our portion of taxable income in Israel that relates to the U.S. manufacturing facility might not have tax benefits, based on certain interpretations. The Israel Tax Authority (“ITA”) could challenge the allocation of income related to production in Israel and income related to production outside of Israel, which may result in significantly higher taxes. There are currently no legal regulations governing this allocation and certain of the ITA’s internal guidelines have ambiguities. Moreover, we may lose all our tax benefits in Israel in the event that our manufacturing operations outside of Israel exceed certain production levels (currently set at 50% of the overall production and subject to future changes by the ITA).

In the United States, H.R. 1, originally known as the 2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “TCJA”) made significant changes to the U.S. Internal Revenue Code, including a reduction in the federal income corporate tax rate from a top marginal rate of 35% to a flat rate of 21% and limitations on certain corporate deductions and credits. In addition, the TCJA requires complex computations to be performed that were not previously required in U.S. tax law, significant judgments to be made in interpretation of the provisions of the TCJA and significant estimates in calculations, and the preparation and analysis of information not previously relevant or regularly produced. The U.S. Treasury Department, the IRS, and other standard-setting bodies could interpret or issue guidance on how provisions of the TCJA will be applied or otherwise administered that is different from our interpretation. Finally, foreign governments may enact tax laws in response to the TCJA that could result in further changes to global taxation and materially affect our financial position and results of operations. While we have provided the effect of the TCJA in our Consolidated Financial Statements as included in Note 12 to our financial statements included elsewhere in this report, the application of accounting guidance for various items and the ultimate impact of the TCJA on our business are currently uncertain.

We are entitled to a property tax abatement (starting in the 2014 tax year) with respect to our U.S manufacturing facility and the capital investment made in such facility for ten years at 100% and an additional five years at 50% subject to our satisfaction of certain qualifying terms with respect to headcount, average salaries paid to our employees and total capital investment amount in our U.S manufacturing facility. The tax abatement is granted pursuant to bond purchase loan agreements we entered with the Development Authority of Bryan County. If we do not meet the qualifying terms of the bond, we will bear the applicable property tax, which will be recognized in our operating costs and which would materially and adversely impact our projected margins and results of operations. See “ITEM 4.D: Information on the Company—Property, Plants and Equipment.”

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Certain U.S. holders of our ordinary shares may suffer adverse tax consequences if we or any of our non-U.S. subsidiaries are characterized as a “controlled foreign corporation”, or a CFC, under Section 957(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended.

A non-U.S. corporation is considered a CFC if more than 50% of (1) the total combined voting power of all classes of stock of such corporation entitled to vote, or (2) the total value of the stock of such corporation, is owned, or is considered as owned by applying certain constructive ownership rules, by United States shareholders who each own stock representing 10% or more of the vote or 10% or more of the value on any day during the taxable year of such non-U.S. corporation (“10% U.S. Shareholder”). Because our group includes one or more U.S. subsidiaries, certain of our non-U.S. subsidiaries could be treated as CFCs (regardless of whether we are treated as a CFC). Generally, 10% U.S. Shareholders of a CFC are required to report annually and include currently in its U.S. taxable income such 10% U.S. Shareholder’s pro rata share of the CFC’s “Subpart F income”, “global intangible low-taxed income”, and investments in U.S. property by CFCs, regardless of whether we make an actual distribution to such shareholders. “Subpart F income” includes, among other things, certain passive income (such as income from dividends, interests, royalties, rents and annuities or gain from the sale of property that produces such types of income) and certain sales and services income arising in connection with transactions between the CFC and a person related to the CFC. An individual that is a 10% U.S. Shareholder with respect to a CFC generally would not be allowed certain tax deductions or foreign tax credits that would be allowed to a 10% U.S. Shareholder that is a U.S. corporation. Failure to comply with these reporting obligations may subject a 10% U.S. Shareholder to significant monetary penalties and may prevent the statute of limitations with respect to such shareholder’s U.S. federal income tax return for the year for which reporting was due from starting. We cannot provide any assurances that we will assist investors in determining whether any of our non-U.S. subsidiaries is treated as a CFC or whether any investor is treated as a 10% U.S. Shareholder with respect to any such CFC or furnish to any 10% U.S. Shareholders information that may be necessary to comply with the aforementioned reporting and tax payment obligations. A United States investor should consult its tax advisors regarding the potential application of these rules to an investment in our ordinary shares.

The steps that we have taken to protect our brand, technology and other intellectual property may not be adequate, and we may not succeed in preventing others from appropriating our intellectual property.

We believe that our trademarks (registered and unregistered) are important to our brand, success and competitive position. We anticipate that, as the countertop market becomes increasingly competitive, maintaining and enhancing our brand, proprietary technology and other intellectual property may become more important, difficult and expensive. In the past, some of our trademark applications for certain classes of applications of our products have been rejected or opposed in certain markets. We have in the past, are currently, and may in the future be, subject to opposition proceedings with respect to applications for registration of our intellectual property, such as our trademarks. As with all intellectual property rights, such application may be rejected entirely or awarded subject to certain limitations such as territories, any current or future markets or applications. These limitations to registering our brand names and trademarks in various countries and applications may restrict our ability to promote and maintain a cohesive brand throughout our key markets, which could materially harm our competitive position and materially and adversely impact our results of operations. Additionally, if we are unsuccessful in challenging a third party’s products based on trademark infringement, continued sales of such products could materially and adversely affect our sales and our brand and result in the shift of consumer preference away from our products.

There can be no assurance that new or pending patent applications for our technologies and products will be approved in a timely manner or at all, or that, if granted, such patents will effectively protect our intellectual property. There can be no assurance that we will develop patentable intellectual property in the future, and we have chosen and may further choose not to pursue patents for innovations that are material to our business.

While we continue to make significant investments in innovating the design of our products and register design patents on selected models, it may not be adequate to prevent our competitors from imitating our designs and copying our innovative ideas.

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Despite our efforts to execute confidentiality agreements with our consultants, suppliers, customers, employees and managers, our know-how and trade secrets could be disclosed to third parties, which could cause us to lose any competitive advantage resulting from such know-how or trade secrets, as well as related intellectual property protections in certain cases.

The actions we take to establish and protect our intellectual property may not be adequate to prevent unlawful copy and use of our technology by third parties or imitation of our products and the offering of them under our trademarks by others. These actions may also not be adequate to prevent others, including our competitors, from obtaining intellectual property rights overcoming ours, and limiting or blocking the production and sales of our existing or future products and applying certain technologies. Our competitors may seek to limit our marketing and offering of products relying on their alleged intellectual property rights.

We may face significant expenses and liability in connection with the protection of our intellectual property rights in and outside the United States. The laws of certain foreign countries may not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States.

Third parties have claimed, and may from time to time claim, that our current or future products infringe their patent or other intellectual property rights. Under such circumstances, we may be required to expend significant resources in order to contest such claims and, in the event that we do not prevail, we may be required to seek a license for certain technologies, develop non-infringing technologies or discontinue some of our products. In addition, any future intellectual property litigation, regardless of its outcome, may be expensive, divert the efforts of our personnel and disrupt or damage relationships with our customers.

For more information, see “ITEM 4.B: Information on the Company—Business Overview—Intellectual Property.”

Disruptions to or our failure to upgrade and adjust our information technology systems globally, may materially impair our operations, hinder our growth and materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.

We believe that an appropriate information technology (“IT”) infrastructure is important in order to support our daily operations and the growth of our business. To this end, we are implementing a digital transformation within the Company to better streamline processes and support our business strategy. Our technological and digital investments are geared towards operational enhancements in supply chain management and production, along with improvement of our go-to-market tools.

If we experience difficulties in implementing new or upgraded information systems or experience significant system failures, or if we are unable to successfully modify our management information systems or respond to changes in our business needs, we may not be able to effectively manage and grow our business, and we may fail to meet our reporting obligations. Additionally, if our current back-up storage arrangements and our disaster recovery plan are not operated as planned, we may not be able to effectively recover our information system in the event of a crisis, which may materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.

In the current environment, there are numerous and evolving risks to cybersecurity and privacy, including criminal hackers, hacktivists, state-sponsored intrusions, industrial espionage, employee malfeasance and human or technological error. High-profile security breaches at other companies and in government agencies have increased in recent years. Although we take steps designed to secure our IT infrastructure and sensitive data, we can provide no assurance that our current IT system or any updates or upgrades thereto, the current or future IT systems of our distributors or re-sellers or the IT systems of online paying agents that we use or may use in the future, are fully protected against third-party intrusions, viruses, hacker attacks, information or data theft or other similar risks.

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We have experienced and expect to continue to experience actual and attempted cyber-attacks of our IT networks, such as through phishing scams and ransomware. Although none of these actual or attempted cyber-attacks has had a material adverse impact on our operations or financial condition, we cannot guarantee that any such incidents will not have such an impact in the future. Furthermore, a cyber-attack that bypasses our IT security systems or those of our distributors, re-sellers, online paying agents or other third party contractors, causing an IT security breach, could lead to a material disruption of our information systems, the loss of business information and loss of service to our customers. There is no assurance that we will be insulated from claims relating to cyber-attacks or withstand legal challenges in relation to our agreements with third parties. Additionally, we have access to sensitive information relating to our employees as well as business partners and customers in the ordinary course of business. Any failure or perceived failure by us, or our third-party contractors on our behalf, to comply with local and foreign laws regarding privacy and data security, as well as contractual commitments in this respect, may result in governmental enforcement actions, fines, or litigation, which could have an adverse effect on our reputation and business. If a significant data breach occurred, our reputation could be materially and adversely affected, confidence among our customers may be diminished, or we may be subject to legal claims, any of which may contribute to the loss of customers and have a material adverse effect on us. To the extent that such disruptions or uncertainties result in delays or cancellations of customer orders or the manufacture or shipment of our products, or in theft, destruction, loss, misappropriation or release of our confidential data or our intellectual property, our business and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

These risks will increase as we increase our cooperation with and reliance on third party contractors that provide cloud solutions and store increasingly large amounts of data, as part of our digital focus and enhancement of go to market tools.

Legislative or regulatory action in these areas is also evolving, and we may be unable to adapt our IT systems or to manage the IT systems of third parties to accommodate these changes. Increasing regulatory focus on information security and data privacy issues and expanding laws in these areas may result in increased compliance costs and expose us to increased liability. Globally, new and emerging laws, such as the General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”) in Europe and state laws in the U.S. on privacy, data and related technologies, such as the California Consumer Privacy Act (“CCPA”), create new compliance obligations, create new private rights of action and expand the scope of potential liability, either jointly or severally with our customers and suppliers. The GDPR, which became effective on May 25, 2018, imposed new compliance obligations for the collection, use, retention, security, processing, transfer and deletion of personally identifiable information of individuals and created enhanced rights for individuals. The CCPA, which grants expanded rights to access and delete personal information, and the right to opt out of the sale of personal information, among other things, became effective on January 1, 2020. These and any other new and emerging laws and regulations, may force us to bear the burden of more onerous obligations in our contracts or otherwise increase our potential liability to customers, regulators, or other third parties.

Cybersecurity and complying with personal data rights pose economic, operational and reputational risks. If we are unable to implement the technological and digital projects required to support our future growth and profitability in compliance with applicable rules and regulations, our business and results of operations will be materially adversely affected.

Risks Related to our Relationship with Kibbutz Sdot-Yam

Our directors and executive officers who are members of Kibbutz Sdot-Yam and Tene may have conflicts of interest with respect to matters involving the Company.

As of March 18, 2021, the Kibbutz, together Tene, being parties to a voting agreement, beneficially owned 40.7% of our shares. Both the Kibbutz and Tene are deemed our controlling shareholders under the Israeli Companies Law. The Kibbutz and Tene also agreed to use their best efforts to prevent any dilutive transactions that would reduce the Kibbutz’s holdings in us below 26% on a fully diluted basis and to cause that at least four directors on behalf of the parties are elected to our board of directors. For more information, see “ITEM 7.A. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions—Major Shareholders.” Two members of our board of directors and a number of our key employees are members of the Kibbutz. Certain of these individuals also serve in different positions in the Kibbutz, including business manager of the Kibbutz. Such individuals have fiduciary duties to both us and Kibbutz Sdot-Yam. As a result, our directors and executive officers who are members of the Kibbutz may have real or apparent conflicts of interest on matters affecting both us and the Kibbutz and, in some circumstances, such individuals may have interests adverse to us. For example, in the annual general meeting of our shareholders held in December 2015, the Kibbutz opposed the independent nominees our board of directors proposed to nominate to the board and suggested two alternative nominees identified by the Kibbutz as independent. In addition, two members of our board of directors, including the chairman of the board of directors, also serve as partners in Tene. Since these individuals have fiduciary duties to both us and Tene, there may be real or apparent conflicts of interest in this respect as well. See “ITEM 6.A: Directors, Senior Management and Employees—Directors and Senior Management.”

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Our headquarters and one of our two manufacturing facilities in Israel are located on lands leased by Kibbutz Sdot-Yam from the Israel Lands Administration and the Edmond Benjamin de Rothschild Caesarea Development Corporation Ltd. If we are unable to continue to lease such lands from Kibbutz Sdot-Yam, our business and future business prospects may suffer.

One of our manufacturing facilities, our headquarters and our research and development facilities are located on lands leased by the Kibbutz pursuant to two lease agreements between the Kibbutz and the ILA, and an additional lease agreement between the Kibbutz and the Edmond Benjamin de Rothschild Caesarea Development Corporation Ltd. (“Caesarea Development Corporation”).

The first lease agreement between the Kibbutz and the ILA has been extended through 2060. The second agreement between the Kibbutz and the ILA expired in late 2009, and in February 2017, the District Court approved a settlement pursuant to which the Kibbutz and the ILA will enter into a new lease agreement for a period of 49 years, with an option to renew for additional 49 years. Based on information we received from the Kibbutz, the parties are still in the process of finalizing the terms of the lease agreement. Previous agreements between the Kibbutz and the ILA with respect to this property contained restrictions with respect to the use of the property by the Kibbutz. We cannot assure you that our current use of the property and the rights granted to us by the Kibbutz pursuant to the land use agreement will not provide the ILA with the right to terminate the rights of the Kibbutz to the property.

The lease agreement between the Kibbutz and the Caesarea Development Corporation permits the Kibbutz to use the property for the community needs of the Kibbutz and is in effect until year 2037. Caesarea Development Corporation charges the Kibbutz based on the use of the relevant portion of the property for industrial purposes, and thus, has provided recognition to the Kibbutz’s use of such portion of the property for industrial purposes.

Each of the ILA and the Caesarea Development Corporation may terminate their respective lease in certain circumstances, including if the Kibbutz breaches its agreements therewith, commences proceedings to disband or liquidate, or in the event that the Kibbutz ceases to be organized as a “kibbutz” as defined in the lease (meaning, a registered cooperative society classified as a kibbutz). If any of the leases and the rights of Kibbutz Sdot-Yam to use the properties described above terminate, we may be unable to maintain our operations on these lands, which would have a materially adverse effect on our operations.

For more information on these agreements, see “ITEM 7.B: Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions—Related Party Transactions.”

Pursuant to certain agreements between us and Kibbutz Sdot-Yam, we depend on Kibbutz Sdot-Yam with respect to leasing the buildings and areas of our manufacturing facilities in Israel, acquiring new land as well as building additional facilities should we need them.

Our Bar-Lev facility is leased from the Kibbutz pursuant to a land purchase and leaseback agreement effective as of September 1, 2012. The land purchase and leaseback agreement was simultaneously executed with a land use agreement pursuant to which the Kibbutz permits us to use the site for a period of ten years with an automatic renewal for an additional ten years unless we provide the Kibbutz two years’ advance notice that we do not wish to renew the lease.

Our Sdot-Yam facility, located in the Kibbutz, is also leased from the Kibbutz, pursuant to a land use agreement effective as of March 2012 for a period of 20 years. We may not terminate the operation of either of the two production lines at our Sdot-Yam facility as long as we continue to operate production lines elsewhere in Israel. Additionally, our headquarters must remain at the Kibbutz. As a result of these restrictions, our ability to reorganize our manufacturing operations and headquarters in Israel is limited.

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In addition, pursuant to the agreements we entered into with the Kibbutz with respect to our Bar-Lev and Sdot-Yam facilities, in the event of a material change in the payments made by the Kibbutz to the ILA or the Caesarea Development Corporation or changes in the market conditions, every three years the Kibbutz may appoint an independent appraiser to reassess the fees we agreed to pay to the Kibbutz in light of such changes. If an independent appraiser concludes that the fees payable by us to the Kibbutz for the Bar-Lev and Sdot-Yam facilities are below market, the Kibbutz can, in its sole discretion, adjust such fees to the market value with a binding effect on us.

Pursuant to the land use agreements between us and the Kibbutz, subject to certain exceptions, if we need additional facilities on the land that we are permitted to use under such land use agreements, then, subject to obtaining the permits required by law, the Kibbutz will build such facilities for us by using the proceeds of a loan that we will make to the Kibbutz, which loan shall be repaid to us by off-setting the additional monthly payment that we would pay for such new facilities and, if not fully repaid during the lease term, upon termination thereof. As a result, we depend on the Kibbutz to build such facilities in a timely manner. While the Kibbutz is responsible under the agreement for obtaining various licenses, permits, approvals and authorizations necessary for our use of the property, with respect to our use of property in Sdot-Yam, we have waived any monetary recourse against the Kibbutz for failure to receive such licenses, permits, approvals and authorizations.

If we are unable to renew our existing lease agreements with the Kibbutz in the future, we may be required to move our Israeli facilities and headquarters to an alternate location. In addition, the Kibbutz may not be able, in a timely manner, to purchase additional land or build additional facilities that we may require due to increased demand for our products or obtain the necessary licenses or permits for existing or current property. This could result in increased costs, substantial delays and disruptions to the manufacturing process, which could materially and adversely impact our reputation, revenues and results of operations as well as other business aspects, such as our ability to serve our customers and meet the existing or increased demand for our products. We may also suffer losses to the extent we have waived monetary recourse against the Kibbutz for failure to obtain licenses and permits for some of our currently leased property. For more information with respect to our agreements with the Kibbutz, see “ITEM 7.B: Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions—Related Party Transactions”.

Regulators and other third parties may question whether our agreements with Kibbutz Sdot-Yam are no less favorable to us than if they had been negotiated with unaffiliated third parties.

Our headquarters, research and development facilities and our two manufacturing facilities in Israel are located on lands leased by the Kibbutz. We have entered into certain agreements with the Kibbutz pursuant to which the Kibbutz provides us with, among other things, a portion of our labor force, electricity, maintenance, security and other services. We believe that such services are rendered to us in the normal course of business and they represent terms no less favorable than those that would have been obtained from an unaffiliated third party. Nevertheless, a determination with respect to such matters requires subjective judgments regarding valuations, and regulators and other third parties may question whether our agreements with the Kibbutz are in the ordinary course of our business and are no less favorable to us than if they had been negotiated with unaffiliated third parties. As a result, the tax treatment for these transactions may also be called into question, which could have a materially adverse impact on our operating results and financial condition. See “ITEM 7.B: Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions—Related Party Transactions.”

Under Israeli law, our board, audit committee and shareholders may be required to reapprove certain of our agreements with Kibbutz Sdot-Yam every three years, and their failure to do so may expose us to liability and cause significant disruption to our business.

The Companies Law requires that the authorized corporate organs of a public company approve every three years any extraordinary transaction in which a controlling shareholder has a personal interest and that has a term of more than three years, unless a company’s audit committee determines, solely with respect to agreements that do not involve compensation to a controlling shareholder or his or her relatives, in connection with services rendered by any of them to the company or their employment with the company, that a longer term is reasonable under the circumstances. Our implementation of this requirement with respect to the agreements entered between us and the Kibbutz may be challenged by regulators and other third parties.

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Our audit committee has determined that the terms of all the agreements entered into between us and the Kibbutz are reasonable under the relevant circumstances, except for the manpower agreement entered into between the Kibbutz and us on January 1, 2011, as it relates to office holders, and the services agreement entered into between the Kibbutz and us on July 20, 2011 (as amended). See “ITEM 7.B: Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions—Related Party Transactions.” Our manpower agreement (as it relates to office holders) and our services agreement, each with the Kibbutz, have been reapproved by our shareholders in November 2018 under the Companies Law requirements and are subject to re-approval in 2021.

If our audit committee, board and shareholders do not re-approve the manpower agreement and the services agreement in accordance with the Companies Law, or if it is determined that re-approval of our other agreements with the Kibbutz is required every three years and the re-approval is not obtained, we will be required to terminate such agreements, which may be considered a breach under the terms of such agreements, and could expose us to damage claims and legal fees, and cause significant disruption to our business. In addition, we would be required to find suitable replacements for the services provided to us by the Kibbutz under the manpower agreement and the service agreement, which may take time, and we can provide no assurance that we can obtain the same or better terms with a third party than those we have agreed to with the Kibbutz.

Risks Related to our Ordinary Shares

We cannot provide any assurance regarding the amount or timing of dividend payments.

In February 2018, we declared the distribution of a special cash dividend in the amount of $0.29 per share, paid on March 14, 2018, subject to withholding tax of 20%. We also adopted a dividend policy pursuant to which we pay a quarterly cash dividend in the range of $0.10-$0.15 per share (subject to the applicable tax) up to the lesser of 50% of the reported net income attributable to controlling interest (i) on a quarterly basis or (ii) on a year-to-date basis, subject in each case to the approval of our board of directors. Payments of dividends pursuant to the dividend policy are based on the recommendation of our board of directors, after taking into account applicable legal requirements under Israeli law, the benefit of the Company and its obligations, growth plans and contractual limitations under our credit agreements, and other factors that our board of directors may deem relevant. In the fourth quarter of 2019, we distributed a cash dividend in the amount of $0.15 per share subject to withholding tax of 20%. In February 2020, we revised our dividend policy to provide for a quarterly cash dividend of up to 50% of reported net income attributable to controlling interest on a year-to-date basis, less any amount already paid as dividend for the respective period (the “calculated dividend”), subject in each case to approval by the Company’s board of directors. In the fourth quarter of 2020, we distributed a cash dividend in the amount of $0.14 per share subject to withholding tax of 20%. In the event that the calculated dividend is less than $0.10 per share, no dividend shall be paid. We cannot provide assurances regarding the amount or timing of any dividend payments and may decide not to pay dividends in the future.

The price of our ordinary shares may be volatile.

The market price of our ordinary shares could be highly volatile and may fluctuate substantially as a result of many factors, including but not limited to (i) actual or anticipated fluctuations in our results of operations; (ii) variance in our financial performance from the expectations of market analysts; (iii) announcements by us or our competitors of significant business developments, changes in distributor relationships, acquisitions or expansion plans; (iv) changes in the prices of our raw materials or the products we sell; (v) our involvement in litigation, specifically for example, any adverse precedent set in Australia in connection with silica related claims; (vi) our sale of ordinary shares or other securities in the future; (vii) market conditions in our industry; (viii) changes in key personnel; (ix) the trading volume of our ordinary shares; (x) changes in the estimation of the future size and growth rate of our markets; (xi) changes in our board of directors, including director resignations; (xii) actions of investors and shareholders, including short seller reports and proxy contests; and (xiii) general economic and market conditions unrelated to our business or performance, such as increased shipping and handling markets. See also “—The COVID-19 pandemic could further impact end-consumers and the global economy in general, lower demand for our products, disrupt our operations and materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations”.

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In the past, following periods of volatility in the market price of a company’s securities, securities class action litigation has often been instituted against that company relating to the price of shares. We have been in the past subject to a putative securities class action which was settled and covered by our insurance carriers. We cannot assure you that in the future we may not be subject to further litigation or that it will be fully covered by our insurance carriers.

Our share price is impacted by reports from research analysts, publicly announced financial guidance, investor perceptions and our ability to meet other expectations about our business.

The trading market for our ordinary shares relies in part on the research and reports that equity research analysts publish about us and our business. Recently, two analysts discontinued research coverage of our business. If additional analysts do not establish research coverage, or if the current research analyst ceases coverage of our company or fails to publish reports on our Company regularly, we could lose visibility in the market and demand for our shares may decline, which might cause our share price and trading volume to decline.

The price of our ordinary shares could also decline if one or more securities analysts downgrade our ordinary shares or if one or more of those analysts issue other unfavorable commentary. The market price for our ordinary shares has been in the past, and may be in the future, materially and adversely affected by statements made in reports issued by short sellers regarding our business model, our management and our financial accounting. We have also faced difficulty in the past accurately projecting our earnings and have missed certain of our publicly announced guidance. If our financial results for a period do not meet our guidance or if we reduce our guidance for future periods, the market price of our ordinary shares may decline. We have experienced in the past, and may experience in the future, a decline in the value of our shares as a result of the foregoing factors.

Public environmental, social and governance (“ESG”) and sustainability reporting is becoming more broadly expected by investors, shareholders and other third parties. We may face reputational damage in the event our corporate responsibility initiatives or objectives do not meet the standards set by our investors, shareholders, lawmakers, listing exchanges or other constituencies, or if we are unable to achieve an acceptable ESG or sustainability rating. A low ESG or sustainability rating by a third-party rating service could also result in the exclusion of our common stock from consideration by certain investors. Ongoing focus on corporate responsibility matters by investors and other parties as described above may impose additional costs or expose us to new risks.

The substantial share ownership position of Kibbutz Sdot-Yam and Tene will limit your ability to influence corporate matters.

As of March 18, 2021, the Kibbutz and Tene beneficially owned 40.7% of our outstanding ordinary shares. As a result of this concentration of share ownership and their voting agreement described above, the Kibbutz and Tene are considered controlling shareholders under the Israeli Companies Law, and, acting on their own or together, will continue to have significant voting power on all matters submitted to our shareholders for approval. These matters include:

the composition of our board of directors (other than external directors);

approving or rejecting a merger, consolidation or other business combination; and

amending our articles of association, which govern the rights attached to our ordinary shares.

This concentration of ownership of our ordinary shares could delay or prevent proxy contests initiated by other shareholders, mergers, tender offers, open-market purchase programs or other purchases of our ordinary shares that might otherwise give you the opportunity to realize a premium over then-prevailing market price of our ordinary shares. The interests of the Kibbutz or Tene may not always coincide with the interests of our other shareholders. This concentration of ownership may also lead to proxy contests. For example, prior to the voting arrangement between Tene and the Kibbutz, in connection with our annual general meeting of shareholders held in December 2015, the Kibbutz issued a proxy to our shareholders, in which it opposed the independent nominees our board of directors proposed to nominate to the board and suggested two alternative nominees. Such initiatives, which may not coincide with the interests of our other shareholders, result in us incurring unexpected costs and could divert our management’s time and attention. This concentration of ownership may also materially and adversely affect our share price.

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In recent years, Israeli issuers listed on securities exchanges in the United States have also been faced with governance-related demands from activist shareholders, unsolicited tender offers and proxy contests. Responding to these types of actions by activist shareholders could be costly and time-consuming for management and our employees and could disrupt our operations or business model in a way that would interfere with our ability to execute our strategic plan.

As a foreign private issuer whose shares are listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market, we may follow certain home country corporate governance practices instead of certain Nasdaq requirements.

As a foreign private issuer whose shares are listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market, we are permitted to follow certain home country corporate governance practices instead of certain requirements of the rules of Nasdaq. As permitted under the Israeli Companies Law, our articles of association provide that the quorum for any ordinary meeting of shareholders shall be the presence of at least two shareholders present in person, by proxy or by a voting instrument, who hold at least 25% of the voting power of our shares instead of 33 1/3% of the issued share capital required under Nasdaq requirements. At an adjourned meeting, any number of shareholders constitutes a quorum.

In the future, we may also choose to follow Israeli corporate governance practices instead of Nasdaq requirements with regard to, among other things, the composition of our board of directors, compensation of officers and director nomination procedures. In addition, we may choose to follow Israeli corporate governance practice instead of Nasdaq requirements with respect to shareholder approval for certain dilutive events (such as for issuances that will result in a change of control of the company, certain transactions other than a public offering involving issuances of a 20% or more interest in the company and certain acquisitions of the stock or assets of another company) and for the adoption of, and material changes to, equity incentive plans. Accordingly, our shareholders may not be afforded the same protection as provided under Nasdaq corporate governance rules. Following our home country governance practices, as opposed to the requirements that would otherwise apply to a U.S. company listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market, may provide less protection than is accorded to investors of domestic issuers. See “ITEM 16G: Corporate Governance.”

As a foreign private issuer, we are not subject to the provisions of Regulation FD or U.S. proxy rules and are exempt from filing certain Exchange Act reports.

As a foreign private issuer, we are exempt from the rules and regulations under the Exchange Act related to the furnishing and content of proxy statements, and our officers, directors and principal shareholders are exempt from the reporting and short-swing profit recovery provisions contained in Section 16 of the Exchange Act. In addition, we are not required under the Exchange Act to file annual and current reports and financial statements with the SEC as frequently or as promptly as U.S. domestic companies whose securities are registered under the Exchange Act, we are permitted to disclose limited compensation information for our executive officers on an individual basis and we are generally exempt from filing quarterly reports with the SEC under the Exchange Act. Moreover, we are not required to comply with Regulation FD, which restricts the selective disclosure of material nonpublic information to, among others, broker-dealers and holders of a company’s securities under circumstances in which it is reasonably foreseeable that the holder will trade in the company’s securities on the basis of the information. These exemptions and leniencies reduce the frequency and scope of information and protections to which you may otherwise have been eligible in relation to a U.S. domestic issuer.

We would lose our foreign private issuer status if (a) a majority of our outstanding voting securities were either directly or indirectly owned of record by residents of the United States and (b)(i) a majority of our executive officers or directors were United States citizens or residents, (ii) more than 50% of our assets were located in the United States or (iii) our business were administered principally in the United States. Our loss of foreign private issuer status would make U.S. regulatory provisions mandatory. The regulatory and compliance costs to us under U.S. securities laws as a U.S. domestic issuer may be significantly higher. If we are not a foreign private issuer, we will be required to file periodic reports and registration statements on U.S. domestic issuer forms with the SEC, which are more detailed and extensive than the forms available to a foreign private issuer. We would also be required to follow U.S. proxy disclosure requirements, including the requirement to disclose, under U.S. law, more detailed information about the compensation of our senior executive officers on an individual basis. We may also be required to modify certain of our policies to comply with accepted governance practices associated with U.S. domestic issuers. Such conversion and modifications will involve additional costs. In addition, we would lose our ability to rely upon Nasdaq exemptions from certain corporate governance requirements that are available to foreign private issuers.

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The market price of our ordinary shares could be negatively affected by future sales of our ordinary shares.

As of March 18, 2021, we had 34,441,321 shares outstanding. This included approximately 14,029,494 ordinary shares, or 40.7% of our outstanding ordinary shares, beneficially owned by the Kibbutz and Tene, which can be resold into the public markets in accordance with the restrictions of Rule 144, including volume limitations, applicable to resales by affiliates or holders of restricted securities.

Sales by us or by the Kibbutz, Tene or other large shareholders of a substantial number of our ordinary shares in the public market, or the perception that these sales might occur, could cause the market price of our ordinary shares to decline or could materially impair our ability to raise capital through a future sale of, or pay for acquisitions using, our equity securities.

The Kibbutz and Tene may require us to affect a registered offering of up to an additional 11,440,000 shares under the Securities Act for resale into the public markets. All shares sold pursuant to an offering covered by such registration statement or statements will be freely transferable. See “ITEM 7.B: Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions—Related Party Transactions—Registration rights agreement.”

In addition to these registration rights, as of March 18, 2021, 3,033,556 ordinary shares were reserved for issuance under our 2011 option plan and our 2020 Share Incentive Plan of which options to purchase 1,464,500 ordinary shares were outstanding, with a weighted average exercise price of $17.9 per share, and 87,703 restricted stock units (“RSUs”) were outstanding. To the extent they are covered by our registration statements on Form S-8, these shares may be freely sold in the public market upon issuance, except for shares held by affiliates who have certain restrictions on their ability to sell.

Risks Relating to our Incorporation and Location in Israel

If we fail to comply with Israeli law restrictions concerning employment of Jewish employees on Saturdays and Jewish holidays, we and our office holders may be exposed to administrative and criminal liabilities and our operational and financial results may be materially and adversely impacted.

We are subject to the Israeli Hours of Work and Rest Law, 1951 (“Rest Law”), which imposes certain restriction on the employment terms and conditions of our employees. Among others, the Rest Law prohibits the employment of Jewish employees on Saturdays and Jewish holidays, unless a permit is obtained from the Israeli Ministry of Economy and Industry (the “IMEI”). Employment of Jewish employees on such days without a permit constitutes a violation of the Rest Law. We received a permit from the IMEI to employ Jewish employees on Saturdays and Jewish holidays in connection with most of the production machinery in our Sdot-Yam facility, effective until December 31, 2022. There is no assurance that we will be able to maintain such permit while we do not actually employ Jewish employees on Saturdays, or, if cancelled by the IMEI, that we will be able to obtain such permit in the future. If we fail to obtain such permit in the future or if we are deemed to be in any violation of the Rest Law, we may be required to halt operations of our manufacturing facilities on Saturdays and Jewish holidays, we and our officers may be exposed to administrative and criminal liabilities, including fines, and our ability to utilize our Sdot-Yam facility and therefore our operational and financial results could be materially and adversely impacted.

Conditions in Israel could materially and adversely affect our business.

We are incorporated under Israeli law and our principal offices and two of our manufacturing facilities (Sdot-Yam and Bar-Lev) are located in Israel. Accordingly, political, economic and military conditions in Israel directly affect our business. Since the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, a number of armed conflicts have occurred between Israel and its neighboring countries. These conflicts involved missile strikes against civilian targets in various parts of Israel including most recently, central Israel, and negatively affected business conditions in Israel as well as home starts and the building industry in Israel.

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Our facilities are in range of rockets that may be fired from Lebanon, Syria or the Gaza Strip into Israel. In the event that our facilities are damaged as a result of hostile action or hostilities otherwise disrupt the ongoing operation of our facilities, our ability to deliver products to customers could be materially and adversely affected. Our commercial insurance in Israel covers losses that may occur as a result of acts of war or terrorist attacks on our facilities and disruption to the ongoing operations for damages of up to $40 million, if such damages are not covered by the Israeli government, which in certain cases covers direct damages caused by terrorist attacks or acts of war. Even if insurance is maintained and adequate, we cannot assure you that it will reduce or prevent any losses that may occur as a result of such actions or will be exercised in a timely manner to meet our contractual obligations with customers and vendors.

In addition, popular uprisings in various countries in the Middle East and North Africa have affected the political stability of those countries. Such instability may lead to deterioration in the political and trade relationships that exist between the State of Israel and these countries, such as Turkey, from which we import a significant amount of our raw materials. Moreover, some countries around the world restrict doing business with Israel and Israeli companies, and additional countries may impose restrictions on doing business with Israel and Israeli companies if hostilities in Israel or political instability in the region continues or increases. These restrictions may limit materially our ability to obtain raw materials from these countries or sell our products to companies and customers in these countries. In addition, there have been increased efforts by activists to cause companies and consumers to boycott Israeli goods. Such efforts, particularly if they become more widespread, may materially and adversely impact our ability to sell our products out of Israel.

Our employees in Israel, generally males, including executive officers, may be called upon to perform military service on an annual basis until they reach the age of 40 (and in some cases, up to 45 or 49). In emergency circumstances, they could be called to immediate and prolonged active duty. Our operations could be disrupted by the absence of a significant number of our employees related to military service or the absence for extended periods of one or more of our key employees for military service. Such disruption could materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations. Additionally, the absence of a significant number of the employees of our Israeli suppliers and contract manufacturers related to military service may disrupt their operations, in which event our ability to deliver products to customers may be materially and adversely affected.

Any hostilities involving Israel or the interruption or curtailment of trade between Israel and its present trading partners, or a significant downturn in the economic or financial condition of Israel, could materially and adversely affect our operations and product development, cause our revenues to decrease and materially harm the share price of publicly traded companies with operations in Israel, such as us.

In early January 2020, certain events contributed to an increase in hostilities between the United States and Iran, and as a result Iran issued multiple public statements threatening to attack Israel and the United States. These events, coupled with the already mounting tensions between Israel and Iran, may threaten to destabilize the Middle East on a political level, the result of which may impact our ability to conduct our business effectively.

On Israel’s domestic front there is currently a level of unprecedented political instability. The Israeli government has been in a transitionary phase since December of 2018, when the Israeli Parliament, or the Knesset, first resolved to dissolve itself and call for new general elections. In 2019, Israel held general elections twice – in April and September – and a third general election in March 2020. In December 2020, the Knesset was once again dissolved, and the date for the next general elections was set for March 23, 2021. The Knesset, for reasons related to this extended political transition, has failed to pass a budget for the year 2020, and certain government ministries, which may be critical to the operation of our business, are without necessary resources and may not receive sufficient funding moving forward. Given the likelihood that the current political stalemate might not be resolved during the next calendar year, our ability to collaborate effectively with governmental bodies could be adversely materially affected.

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Our operations may be affected by negative economic conditions or labor unrest in Israel.

General strikes or work stoppages, including at Israeli seaports, have occurred periodically or have been threatened in the past by Israeli trade unions due to labor disputes. These general strikes or work stoppages may have a materially adverse effect on the Israeli economy and on our business, including our ability to deliver products to our customers and to receive raw materials from our suppliers in a timely manner. These general strikes or work stoppages, in Israel or in other countries where we, our subsidiaries, suppliers and distributors operate, may prevent us from shipping raw materials and equipment required for our production and shipping our products by sea or otherwise to our customers, which could have a materially adverse effect on our results of operations.

Since none of our employees work under any collective bargaining agreements, extension orders issued by the IMEI apply to us and affect matters such as cost of living adjustments to salaries, length of working hours and work week, recuperation pay, travel expenses, and pension rights. Any labor disputes over such matters could result in a work stoppage or strikes by employees that could delay or interrupt our output of products. Any strike, work stoppages or interruption in manufacturing could result in a failure to meet contractual obligations or in delays, including in our ability to manufacture and deliver products to our customers in a timely manner, and could have a materially adverse effect on our relationships with our distributors and on our financial results.

If a union of our employees is formed in the future, we may enter into a collective bargaining agreement with our employees, which may increase our costs and limit our managerial freedom, and if we are unable to reach a collective bargaining agreement, we may become subject to strikes and work stoppages, all of which may materially and adversely affect our business.

The tax benefits that are available to us require us to continue to meet various conditions and may be terminated or reduced in the future, which could increase our costs and taxes.

Some of our Israeli facilities have been granted “Approved Enterprise” status by the Israeli Authority for Investment and Development of the Industry and Economy (“Investment Center”) or have the status of a “Beneficiary Enterprise” or “Preferred Enterprise” which provides us with investment grants (in respect of certain Approved Enterprise programs) and makes us eligible for tax benefits under the Investment Law.

In order to remain eligible for the tax benefits of an “Approved Enterprise”, a “Beneficiary Enterprise” and/or a “Preferred Enterprise” we must continue to meet certain conditions stipulated in the Investment Law and its regulations, as amended, and in certificates of approval issued by the Investment Center (in respect of Approved Enterprise programs), which may include, among other things, selling more than 25% of our products to markets of over 14 million residents in 2012 (such export criteria will further be increased in the future by 1.4% per annum) in a specific tax year, making specified investments in fixed assets and equipment, financing a percentage of those investments with our capital contributions, filing certain reports with the Investment Center, complying with provisions regarding intellectual property and the criteria set forth in the specific certificate of approval issued by the Investment Center or the ITA. If we do not meet these requirements, the tax benefits could be canceled and we could be required to refund any tax benefits and investment grants that we received in the past adjusted to the Israeli consumer price index and interest, or other monetary penalties. Further, in the future, these tax benefits may be reduced or discontinued. If these tax benefits are cancelled, our Israeli taxable income would be subject to regular Israeli corporate tax rates. The standard corporate tax rate for Israeli companies is 23% in 2018 and thereafter.

Effective as of January 1, 2011, the Investment Law was amended (“Amendment No. 68” or the “2011 Amendment”). Under Amendment No. 68, the criteria for receiving tax benefits were revised. In the future, we may not be eligible to receive additional tax benefits under this law. The termination or reduction of these tax benefits would increase our tax liability, which would reduce our profits. Additionally, if we increase our activities outside of Israel through acquisitions, for example, our expanded activities might not be eligible to be included in future Israeli tax benefit programs. We may lose all our tax benefits in Israel in the event that our manufacturing operations outside of Israel exceed certain production levels (currently set at 50% of the overall production and subject to future changes by the ITA). We do not foresee such circumstances as probable in the coming years. Our current Preferred Enterprise tax rates between 2015 and 2017 were 16% for the portion of our income related to the Sdot-Yam manufacturing facility and 9% for the portion of our income related to the Bar-Lev manufacturing facility. From 2018 onward, the tax rate for the portion of our income related to the Bar-Lev manufacturing facility was reduced to 7.5% and Sdot-Yam tax rate remains unchanged.

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Historically, some portions of income were tax exempt, but that is no longer the case. In the event of a distribution of a dividend from the tax-exempt income described above, we will be subject to tax at the corporate tax rate applicable to our Approved Enterprise’s and Beneficiary Enterprise’s income on the amount distributed (grossed-up to reflect the pre-tax income that it would have had to earn in order to distribute the dividend) in accordance with the effective corporate tax rate that would have been applied had we not relied on the exemption. In addition to the reduced tax rate, a distribution of income attributed to an “Approved Enterprise” and a “Beneficiary Enterprise” will be subject to 15% withholding tax (or a reduced rate under an applicable double tax treaty, subject to the receipt in advance of a valid certificate from the ITA allowing for a reduced tax rate). As for a “Preferred Enterprise,” dividends are generally subject to 20% withholding tax from 2014 (or a reduced rate under an applicable double tax treaty, subject to the receipt in advance of a valid certificate from the ITA allowing for a reduced tax rate). However, because we announced our election to apply the provisions of Amendment No. 68 prior to June 30, 2015, we will be entitled to distribute exempt income generated by any Approved/Beneficiary Enterprise to our Israeli corporate shareholders tax free (See “ITEM 10.E: Additional Information—Taxation—Israeli tax considerations and government programs—Law for the Encouragement of Capital Investments, 1959”).

The amendment to the Investment Law stipulated that investments in subsidiaries, including in the form of acquisitions of subsidiaries from an unrelated party, may also be considered as a deemed dividend distribution event, increasing the risk of triggering a deemed dividend distribution event and potential tax exposure. The ITA’s interpretation is that this provision applies retroactively to investments and acquisitions made prior to the amendment.

It may be difficult to enforce a U.S. judgment against us, our officers and directors in Israel or the United States, or to assert U.S. securities laws claims in Israel or serve process on our officers and directors.

We are incorporated in Israel. Other than one director, none of our directors, or our independent registered public accounting firm, is a resident of the United States. None of our executive officers is resident in the United States. The majority of our assets and the assets of these persons are located outside the United States. Therefore, it may be difficult for an investor, or any other person or entity, to enforce a U.S. court judgment based upon the civil liability provisions of the U.S. federal securities laws against us or any of these persons in a U.S. or Israeli court, or to effect service of process upon these persons in the United States. Additionally, it may be difficult for an investor, or any other person or entity, to assert U.S. securities law claims in original actions instituted in Israel. Israeli courts may refuse to hear a claim based on a violation of U.S. securities laws on the grounds that Israel is not the most appropriate forum in which to bring such a claim. Even if an Israeli court agrees to hear a claim, it may determine that Israeli law and not U.S. law is applicable to the claim. If U.S. law is found to be applicable, the content of applicable U.S. law must be proved as a fact, which can be a time-consuming and costly process. Certain matters of procedure will also be governed by Israeli law. There is little binding case law in Israel addressing the matters described above.

Your rights and responsibilities as our shareholder will be governed by Israeli law which may differ in some respects from the rights and responsibilities of shareholders of United States corporations.

Since we are incorporated under Israeli law, the rights and responsibilities of our shareholders are governed by our articles of association and Israeli law. These rights and responsibilities differ in some respects from the rights and responsibilities of shareholders in U.S.-based corporations. In particular, a shareholder of an Israeli company has a duty to act in good faith and in a customary manner in exercising its rights and performing its obligations towards the company and other shareholders and to refrain from abusing its power in the company, including, among other things, in voting at the general meeting of shareholders on certain matters, such as an amendment to the company’s articles of association, an increase of the company’s authorized share capital, a merger of the company and approval of related party transactions that require shareholder approval. A shareholder also has a general duty to refrain from discriminating against other shareholders. In addition, a controlling shareholder or a shareholder who knows that it possesses the power to determine the outcome of a shareholders’ vote or to appoint or prevent the appointment of an office holder in the company or has another power with respect to the company, has a duty to act in fairness towards the company. However, Israeli law does not define the substance of this duty of fairness. See “ITEM 6.C: Directors, Senior Management and Employees—Board Practices— Board Practices—Fiduciary duties and approval of specified related party transactions under Israeli law—Duties of shareholders.” Additionally, the parameters and implications of the provisions that govern shareholder behavior have not been clearly determined by the Israeli courts. These provisions may be interpreted to impose additional obligations and liabilities on our shareholders that are not typically imposed on shareholders of United States corporations.

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Provisions of Israeli law may delay, prevent or make undesirable a merger transaction, or an acquisition of all or a significant portion of our shares.

Israeli corporate law regulates mergers by mandating certain procedures and voting requirements and requires that a tender offer be affected when more than a specified percentage of shares in a company are purchased. Further, Israeli tax considerations may make potential transactions undesirable to us or to some of our shareholders whose country of residence does not have a tax treaty with Israel granting tax relief to such shareholders from Israeli tax. With respect to mergers, Israeli tax law allows for tax deferral in certain circumstances but makes the deferral contingent on the fulfillment of numerous conditions, including a holding period of two years from the date of the transaction during which certain sales and dispositions of shares of the participating companies are restricted. Moreover, with respect to certain share swap transactions, the tax deferral is limited in time, and when such time expires, the tax becomes payable even if no actual disposition of the shares has occurred. See “ITEM 10.B: Additional Information—Memorandum and Articles of Association—Acquisitions under Israeli law.”

Under Israeli law, our two external directors have terms of office of three years. Our current external directors have been elected by our shareholders to serve for a three-year term commencing December 1, 2020.

These provisions of Israeli law could have the effect of delaying or preventing a change in control and may make it more difficult for a third party to acquire us or our shareholders to elect different individuals to our board of directors, even if doing so would be beneficial to our shareholders, and may limit the price that investors may be willing to pay in the future for our ordinary shares.

If we are considered a “monopoly” under Israeli law, we could be subject to certain restrictions that may limit our ability to freely conduct our business to which our competitors may not be subject.

Under the Israeli Economic Competition law (formerly, the Restrictive Trade Practices Law, 1988) (the “Israeli Competition Law”), a company that either supplies more than 50% of any asset or service in Israel or, in some cases, in a specific geographical area in Israel, or holds market power in a relevant market, is deemed to be a monopoly. The determination of monopoly status depends on an analysis of the relevant product or service market, but it does not require a positive declaration, and the status is achieved by virtue of such market share threshold being crossed or the existence of market power.

Depending on the analysis and the definition of the relevant product market in which we operate, we may be deemed to be a “monopoly” under Israeli law. Under the Israeli Competition Law, a monopoly is prohibited from participating in certain business practices, including unreasonably refusing to provide the relevant product or service, or abuse of market power by means of discriminating between similar transactions or charging what are considered to be unfair prices, and from engaging in certain other practices. The Israeli Competition Commissioner may determine that a company that is a monopoly has abused its position in the market and may subsequently order such company to change its conduct in matters that may materially and adversely affect the public, including imposing business restrictions on a company determined to be a monopoly and giving instructions with respect to the prices charged by the monopoly. If we are indeed deemed to be a monopoly and the Commissioner finds that we have abused our position in the market by taking anticompetitive actions and using anti-competitive practices, such as those described above, it would serve as prima facie evidence in private actions and class actions against us alleging that we have engaged in anti-competitive behavior. Furthermore, the Commissioner may order us to take or refrain from taking certain actions, which could limit our ability to freely conduct our business. Violations of the Israeli Competition Law can constitute a criminal offence, may lead to civil claims, administrative penalties and may expose a company to class actions.

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Sales in Israel accounted for approximately 8.4% of our revenues in 2020. We have a significant market position in certain jurisdictions outside of Israel and cannot assure you that we are not, or will not become, subject to the laws relating to the use of dominant product positions in particular countries, which laws could limit our business practices and our ability to consummate acquisitions.

General Risk Factors

Disturbances to our operations or the operations of our suppliers, distributors, customers, consumers or other third parties could materially adversely affect our business.

Our ability, and that of our suppliers, OEM suppliers, distributors, customers and other third parties, to develop, manufacture, transport, distribute, sell, install and use our products is critical to our success. Damage or disruption to our or their operations could occur due to various factors, some of which cannot be foreseen, including, among others, adverse weather conditions (including any potential effects of climate change) or natural disasters, such as a hurricane, tornado, earthquake, wildfire or flooding; government action; economic or political uncertainties or instability; fire; terrorism; outbreak or escalation of armed hostilities; safety warnings or recalls; health epidemics or pandemics or other contagious outbreaks, such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic discussed above; supply and commodity shortages; unplanned delays or unexpected problems associated with repairs or enhancements of facilities in which such products are made, manufactured, distributed or sold; loss or impairment of key manufacturing sites; cyber incidents, including the disruption or shutdown of computer systems or other information technology systems at our offices, plants, warehouses, distribution centers or other facilities or those of our suppliers and other third parties; industrial accidents or other occupational health and safety issues; telecommunications failures; power, fuel or water shortages; strikes, labor disputes or lack of availability of qualified personnel; or other reasons beyond our control or the control of such third parties. Failure to take adequate steps to mitigate the likelihood or potential impact of such events, or to effectively manage such events if they occur, could continue to result in adverse effects on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

If we do not manage our inventory effectively, our results of operations could be materially adversely affected.

We must manage our inventory effectively in order to meet the demand for our products. If our forecasts for any Specific Stock Keeping unit (“SKU”) exceed actual demand, we could experience excess inventory, resulting in increased logistic costs. If we ultimately determine that we have excess inventory, we may have to reduce our prices and write-down inventory which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. If we have insufficient inventory levels, we may not be able to respond to the market demand for our products, resulting in reduced sales and market share.

Changes in trade policy in the United States and other countries, the imposition of tariffs and the resulting consequences, may materially adversely impact our business, results of operations and financial condition.

The U.S. government has indicated and demonstrated its intent to alter its approach to international trade policy through the renegotiation, and potential termination, of certain existing bilateral or multi-lateral trade agreements and treaties with, and the imposition of tariffs on a wide range of products and other goods from, a number of countries. It is currently unclear whether the recent change in administration could result in changes to the prior imposition of tariffs on imports from China under the Trump Administration. Given the unpredictable nature of the U.S.-China relationship and its sizable impact on global economic stability, our business and operating success may be materially adversely affected if recent normalization attempts by these two countries do not endure and additional tariffs or other restrictions on free trade are imposed by either country. In addition, we have been and may continue to be affected by antidumping and countervailing duty orders by the DOC and ITC that prevent Chinese, Indian and Turkish importers from selling quartz surface products at less than fair value in the U.S. For more information, see “If we are unable to compete with lower-priced products perceived as comparable to ours, our market share may decrease, and our financial results may be adversely and materially impacted.”

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Our limited resources and significant competition for business combination or acquisition opportunities may make it difficult for us to complete a combination or acquisition, and any combination or acquisition that we complete may disrupt our business and fail to achieve our intended objectives.

We have in the past and intend to continue growing our business through a combination of organic growth and acquisitions. For more information, see “ITEM 4: Information on the Company—History and Development of the Company—Our History.” While we believe there are a number of target businesses we might consider acquiring, including, in certain instances, our distributors, manufacturers of quartz surfaces and other surfaces like ceramic, we may be unable to persuade those targets of the benefits of a combination or acquisition. Our ability to compete with respect to a combination with or acquisition of certain larger target businesses will be determined by, among other factors, our available financial resources. This inherent competitive limitation may give others an advantage in pursuing such combinations or acquisitions.

Any combination or acquisition that we effect will be accompanied by several risks, including, but not limited to:

the difficulty of integrating the operations and personnel of the acquired business;

the potential disruption of our ongoing business;

the potential distraction of management;

expenses related to the acquisition;

potential unknown liabilities associated with acquired businesses;

challenges integrating completed combinations or acquisitions in an efficient and timely manner; and

failure to realize the expected synergies or benefits in connection with a future combination or acquisition.

If we are not successful in completing combinations or acquisitions that we pursue in the future, we may incur substantial expenses and devote significant management time and resources without a successful result. Acquisitions which may include the expansion of our business into new products, like ceramic, and new applications, could distract the attention of management, impose high expenses and investments and expose our business to additional risks. Such acquisitions carry further risks associated with the entry into new business lines in which we do not have prior experience, and there can be no assurance that any such business expansion would be successful. In addition, future combinations or acquisitions could require the use of substantial portions of our available cash, incur significant debt that could impact the way that we run our business, or result in dilutive issuances of securities. For more information, see “—Fully integrating Lioli’s and Omicron’s businesses may be more difficult, costly and time-consuming than expected, which may adversely affect our results of operations and the value of our common shares” and “—In addition to our traditional engineered quartz offering, we have commenced manufacturing of porcelain products and sales of porcelain, natural stone and other materials, and may pursue a further expansion of our product offering, including introducing new products and materials, which may be unsuccessful, and may divert management’s attention and negatively affect our margins and results of operations.” These factors could each adversely impact our share price and, additionally, our share price may be adversely impacted if the market assesses that we overpaid for a particular acquisition.

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We depend on our senior management team and other skilled and experienced personnel to operate our business effectively, and the loss of any of these individuals could materially and adversely affect our business and our future financial condition or results of operations.

We are dependent on the skills and experience of our senior management team and other skilled and experienced personnel. These individuals possess strategic, managerial, sales, marketing, operational, manufacturing, logistical, financial and administrative skills that are important to the operation of our business. We have experienced and may continue to experience employee and management turnover. Retention of institutional knowledge and the ability to attract and retain personnel, as well as the ability to successfully onboard our senior management as a team comprised of several new members, are crucial for implementing our business strategy, without which our business and our future financial condition or results of operations could suffer materially and adversely. We do not carry key man insurance with respect to any of our executive officers or other employees. We cannot assure you that we will be able to retain all our existing senior management personnel and key personnel or to attract additional qualified personnel when needed.

In addition, factors beyond our control may damage or disrupt the ability of our senior management or key employees to perform their critical roles in the Company. In particular, the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic may affect the health and livelihood of our management and employees. The pandemic has led governments in the jurisdictions in which we operate, including the location of our headquarters and manufacturing facilities, to implement reductions in onsite workforce, travel restrictions and individual quarantines. Such limitations may lead to significant changes in the operations of our business, such as reduction in number of shifts at our plants, reduced sales activity and lack of back office support, and materially adversely affect our business and financial condition. See also “—The COVID-19 pandemic could further impact end-consumers and the global economy in general, lower demand for our products, disrupt our operations and materially and adversely affect our business and financial results” and “—Disturbances to our operations or the operations of our suppliers, distributors, customers, consumers or other third parties could materially adversely affect our business.”

ITEM 4: Information on the Company

A.History and Development of the Company

Our History

Caesarstone Ltd. was founded in 1987 and incorporated in 1989 in the State of Israel. We are a leading manufacturer and reseller of high-end engineered surfaces used primarily as countertops in residential and commercial buildings. We design, develop and produce engineered quartz and porcelain products that offer aesthetic appeal and functionality through a distinct variety of colors, styles, textures, and finishes used in countertops, vanities, and other interior and exterior surfaces.

Our products are currently sold in over 50 countries through a combination of direct sales in certain markets performed by our subsidiaries and indirectly through a network of independent distributors in other markets. We acquired the businesses of our former Australian, Canadian, U.S. and Singaporean distributors, and established such businesses within our own subsidiaries in such countries See Note 1 to our Consolidated Financial Statements for the year ended December 31, 2020 for further information regarding the acquisition of our Canadian subsidiary. In March 2012, we listed our shares on the Nasdaq Global Select Market. In 2017, we started selling our products in the U.K. directly through our U.K. subsidiary, Caesarstone (UK) Ltd. In December 2020, we acquired Omicron, a premier stone supplier operating 17 locations across Florida, Ohio, Michigan and Louisiana. We now generate a substantial portion of our revenues in the United States, Australia and Canada from direct distribution of our products. In addition, in October 2020, we acquired a majority stake in Lioli, an India-based producer of porcelain slabs.

We are a company limited by shares organized under the laws of the State of Israel. We are registered with the Israeli Registrar of Companies in Jerusalem. Our registration number is 51-143950-7. Our principal executive offices are located at Kibbutz Sdot-Yam, MP Menashe, 3780400, Israel, and our telephone number is +972 (4) 610-9368. We have irrevocably appointed Caesarstone USA as our agent for service of process in any action against us in any United States federal or state court. The address of Caesarstone USA is 1401 W. Morehead Street, Suite 100, Charlotte, NC, 28208. The SEC maintains an internet site at http:/www.sec.gov that contains reports and other information regarding issues that file electronically with the SEC. Our securities filings, including this annual report and the exhibits thereto, are available on the SEC’s website. For more information about us, our website is www.caesarstone.com. The information contained in, or connected with, our SEC filings on the SEC internet site and our website shall not be deemed to be incorporated by reference in this annual report.

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Principal Capital Expenditures

Our capital expenditures for fiscal years 2020, 2019 and 2018 amounted to $19.8 million, $23.6 million and $21.0 million, respectively. The majority of our investment activities have historically been related to the purchase of manufacturing equipment and components for our production lines. In 2014 and 2015, our principal capital expenditures were attributed to the construction of the Richmond Hill manufacturing facility with two production lines in the United States. We anticipate that our capital expenditures in 2021 will increase compared to the level of previous years as we are resuming our operational investments, which were to some extent postponed due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

B.Business Overview

The global countertop industry generated approximately $117 billion in sales to end consumers in 2020 based on average installed price, which includes fabrication, installation and other service related costs, as per the following charts:

image provided by client

The majority of our sales are at the wholesale level to fabricators and distributors and exclude fabrication, installation and other service related costs.

We are a leading manufacturer and reseller of high-end engineered surfaces used primarily as countertops in residential and commercial settings. We design, develop produce and source engineered quartz and porcelain products that offer aesthetic appeal and functionality through a distinct variety of colors, styles, textures, and finishes used in countertops, vanities, and other interior and exterior surfaces. Engineered quartz is a growing category in the countertop market and continues to take market share from other materials, such as granite, manufactured solid surfaces and laminate. Between 1999 and 2020, global engineered quartz sales to end-consumers grew at a compound annual growth rate of 16.6% compared to a 5.0% compound annual growth rate in total global countertop sales to end-consumers during the same period. Following the Lioli Acquisition, we intend to commence marketing and sales of porcelain countertops under our Caesarstone brand. Porcelain represents one of the fastest growing categories in the global countertop market. and between 2014 and 2020, the porcelain sales to end-consumers grew at a compound annual growth rate of 14.9%.

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In recent years, quartz penetration rate, by volume, other than in Israel, increased in our key markets, as detailed in the following chart:

Quartz penetration in our key markets

 

For the year ended December 31,