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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549  
_______________________________
FORM 10-K
_______________________________
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from              to             
Commission File Number: 001-38186
_______________________________  
CUSTOM TRUCK ONE SOURCE, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
_______________________________
Delaware84-2531628
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
7701 Independence Ave
Kansas City, MO 64125
(Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)
(816) 241-4888
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
_______________________________
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $0.0001 par valueCTOSNew York Stock Exchange
Redeemable warrants, exercisable for Common Stock, $0.0001 par valueCTOS.WSNew York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None.
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. YES   ☐     No   ☒
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. YES   ☐     No   ☒
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes       No   o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes      No   o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filero Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filero Smaller reporting company
   Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).     Yes       No  
The aggregate market value of shares of common stock held by non-affiliates, computed by reference to the closing price for such common stock as of the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, as reported on the New York Stock Exchange, was approximately $398.4 million.
The number of shares of common stock outstanding as of March 1, 2024 was 240,265,228.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
DocumentWhere Incorporated
Proxy Statement related to the 2024 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, which is expected to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on or before April 29, 2024.Part III (Items 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14)


Custom Truck One Source, Inc. and Subsidiaries
Form 10-K Report Index
10-K Part and Item No.Page No.
PART I
Item 1
Item 1A
Item 1B
Item 1C
Item 2
Item 3
Item 4
PART II
Item 5
Item 6
Item 7
Item 7A
Item 8
Item 9
Item 9A
Item 9B
Item 9C
PART III
Item 10
Item 11
Item 12
Item 13
Item 14
PART IV
Item 15
Item 16



Forward-Looking Statements
Any statements made in this report that are not statements of historical fact, including statements about our beliefs and expectations, are forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, as amended, and should be evaluated as such. These statements often include words such as “anticipate,” “expect,” “suggest,” “plan,” “believe,” “intend,” “estimate,” “target,” “project,” “should,” “could,” “would,” “may,” “will,” “forecast,” and other similar expressions. We base these forward-looking statements or projections on our current expectations, plans and assumptions that we have made in light of our experience in the industry, as well as our perceptions of historical trends, current conditions, expected future developments and other factors we believe are appropriate under the circumstances and at such time. As you read and consider this Annual Report on Form 10-K, you should understand that these statements are not guarantees of performance or results and are subject to and involve risks, uncertainties and assumptions. You should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements or projections. Below is a summary of risk factors applicable to us that may materially affect such forward-looking statements and projections:
increases in labor costs, our inability to obtain raw materials, component parts and/or finished goods in a timely and cost-effective manner, and our inability to manage our rental equipment in an effective manner;
competition in the equipment dealership and rental industries;
our sales order backlog may not be indicative of the level of our future revenues;
increases in unionization rate in our workforce;
our inability to recruit and retain the experienced personnel, including skilled technicians, we need to compete in our industries;
our inability to attract and retain highly skilled personnel and our inability to retain or plan for succession of our senior management;
material disruptions to our operation and manufacturing locations as a result of public health concerns, equipment failures, natural disasters, work stoppages, power outages or other reasons;
potential impairment charges;
any further increase in the cost of new equipment that we purchase for use in our rental fleet or for sale as inventory;
aging or obsolescence of our existing equipment, and the fluctuations of market value thereof;
disruptions in our supply chain;
our business may be impacted by government spending;
we may experience losses in excess of our recorded reserves for receivables;
uncertainty relating to macroeconomic conditions, unfavorable conditions in the capital and credit markets and our inability to obtain additional capital as required;
increases in price of fuel or freight;
regulatory technological advancement, or other changes in our core end-markets may affect our customers’ spending;
difficulty in integrating acquired businesses and fully realizing the anticipated benefits and cost savings of the acquired businesses, as well as additional transaction and transition costs that we will continue to incur following acquisitions;
the interest of our majority stockholder, which may not be consistent with the other stockholders;
our significant indebtedness, which may adversely affect our financial position, limit our available cash and our access to additional capital, prevent us from growing our business and increase our risk of default;
our inability to generate cash, which could lead to a default;
significant operating and financial restrictions imposed by our debt agreements;
changes in interest rates, which could increase our debt service obligations on the variable rate indebtedness and decrease our net income and cash flows;
disruptions or security compromises affecting our information technology systems or those of our critical services providers could adversely affect our operating results by subjecting us to liability, and limiting our ability to effectively monitor and control our operations, adjust to changing market conditions, or implement strategic initiatives;
we are subject to complex laws and regulations, including environmental and safety regulations that can adversely affect cost, manner or feasibility of doing business;
material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting which, if not remediated, could result in material misstatements in our financial statements;
we are subject to a series of risks related to climate change; and
increased attention to, and evolving expectations for, sustainability and environmental, social and governance initiatives.
These cautionary statements should not be construed by you to be exhaustive and are made only as of the date of this report. We undertake no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, unless required by law. See Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, for additional risks.


PART I
Item 1.     Business
Company Overview
Custom Truck One Source, Inc. (“we,” “our,” “us,” “Custom Truck,” or “the Company”), a Delaware corporation, and its wholly owned subsidiaries are engaged in the business of providing a range of services and products to customers through rentals and sales of specialty equipment, rentals and sales of aftermarket parts and services related to the specialty equipment, and repair, maintenance, and customization services related to that equipment. On April 1, 2021, Nesco Holdings Inc. completed the acquisition of Custom Truck One Source, L.P. and changed its name to “Custom Truck One Source, Inc.”
We are a specialty equipment provider to the electric utility transmission and distribution, telecommunications, rail, forestry, waste management and other infrastructure-related industries in North America. Our core business relates to our new equipment inventory and rental fleet of specialty equipment that is utilized by service providers in infrastructure development and improvement work. We offer our specialized equipment to a diverse customer base, including utilities and contractors, for the maintenance, repair, upgrade, and installation of critical infrastructure assets, including distribution and transmission electric lines, telecommunications networks, and rail systems, as well as for lighting and signage. We rent, produce, sell, and service a broad range of new and used equipment, including bucket trucks, digger derricks, dump trucks, cranes, service trucks, and heavy-haul trailers. We manage our business in our three reporting segments: Equipment Rental Solutions (“ERS”), Truck and Equipment Sales (“TES”), and Aftermarket Parts and Services (“APS”).
We operate with a differentiated “one-stop-shop” business model, offering equipment rental, new and used equipment sales, and aftermarket parts and service out of more than 35 locations across the U.S. and Canada. Customers receive additional support throughout the country from Custom Truck’s twenty-four hour, seven-day a week (“24/7”) call center, approximately 90 mobile technicians, and over 2,600 third-party service partners. Custom Truck and its customers also benefit from its sophisticated sourcing model and large-scale integrated production and customization capabilities, which enhance the quality and diversity of its equipment offerings, reduce both cost and lead times for equipment sales and provide greater flexibility to optimize its rental fleet. These attributes, together with a strong reputation built over many years, position Custom Truck to capitalize on attractive secular growth trends across its end-markets.
Custom Truck owns one of the industry’s largest fleets of specialty rental equipment focused on electric utility transmission and distribution (“T&D”), rail, telecommunications, and infrastructure end-markets through our ERS segment. As of December 31, 2023, our fleet is comprised of more than 10,300 units with an average unit age of approximately 3.5 years, which we believe is young by rental fleet standards and compares favorably to the long useful life of the equipment. Our rental fleet is managed on a national level, which allows us to efficiently reposition equipment in response to shifts in regional demand and thereby sustain strong utilization levels.
As is customary among equipment rental companies, we sell used equipment out of our rental fleet to end user customers. We also offer a broad variety of new equipment for sale across our end-markets, often highly customized to meet its customers’ specific needs. Integrated production capabilities and extensive knowledge gained over a long history of selling equipment have positioned Custom Truck uniquely in the market as a trusted partner for customers seeking tailored solutions with short lead times. New and used equipment sales are accomplished through our TES segment.
Through our APS segment, we provide our customers a total job-site solution, offering a range of products for rent or sale to fully outfit their equipment and crews for activity in the field. Our comprehensive APS offering expands opportunities to serve our equipment rental and sales customers through the convenience of a single vendor for all their specialty equipment, tools and accessories needs.
End-Market Overview
Our core end-markets include electric utility T&D, telecom, rail and general infrastructure, among others.
General End-Market Trends
The North American market has, and continues, to experience a secular shift from equipment ownership to rental. We believe that customers’ growing preference for equipment rental is driven by several factors including the avoidance of significant capital outlay, improved asset utilization, reduced storage and maintenance, access to a wider range of modern productive equipment, dedicated customer care, and operational efficiencies. We believe that the rental penetration rate will continue to trend towards the levels observed in the broader market, and we believe there will be significant growth within our specific markets.
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On November 6, 2021, the United States Congress passed, and the President of the United States signed, the Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act (the “Infrastructure Act”). The Infrastructure Act was amended and renamed to the Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act. This amended version included approximately $1.2 trillion in spending in new and reallocated funds with positive impacts to each of our end-markets.
Electric Utility T&D End-Market
Maintaining safe and effective transmission and distribution lines is critical to national infrastructure, as they carry the electricity that powers the nation. Transmission lines carry high voltage electricity long distances, while distribution lines carry electricity from local transformers to houses and businesses. Additionally, as the economy “electrifies,” in pursuit of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, electric reliability has become increasingly important. There will continue to be an increasing need for grid resiliency projects such as fire mitigation and storm hardening, and substantial renewable energy investments will be required in the electric transmission grid. From 2008 to 2022, compound annual growth rates for capital expenditures relating to transmission, distribution and solar were approximately 7%, 6% and 50%, respectively. Our specialty equipment is used for these projects, including the maintenance and repair of live lines and installation of new lines. Capital expenditure spend in the electric utility T&D end-market were estimated to be approximately $88 billion in 2023. This spend is driven by a number of attractive dynamics, demonstrating that the U.S. is potentially in the very early stages of a multi-year electric utility T&D spending cycle.
Aging and Underinvested Electric Utility T&D Infrastructure – Electricity delivery in the U.S. depends on an aging and complex patchwork system of power generation facilities, transmission grids, local distribution lines, and substations. Most electric utility T&D lines were constructed in the 1950s and 1960s with a 50-year life expectancy and were not originally engineered to meet today’s load demands. The average age of the transmission system in the United States is well over 40 years, with 25% to 35% being greater than 50 or more years old. Due in part to this aging infrastructure, costly electric emergency incidents and disturbances have increased since 2000. Multiple costly fires have also been caused by aging and under-maintained transmission and distribution lines. The prevention of additional incidents associated with the continued operations of aging electric utility T&D infrastructure is expected to continue to drive increasing levels of maintenance and repair and replacement spend by utilities.
Changing Generation Landscape – The ongoing transition from coal to gas and renewables continues to drive changes in the generation landscape and transmission project development. Twenty-four states plus the District of Columbia have adopted specific greenhouse gas reduction targets to address climate change. As a result, significant spend for new transmission lines will be required to interconnect these new sources of power with the electrical grid.
Increased Outsourcing by Utilities – Utilities are increasingly turning to specialized third-party contractors to fulfill construction and maintenance needs. This outsourcing trend is driven by the challenge of an aging workforce and desire to shift the management and responsibilities of non-core activities to external service providers. Outsourcing is a favorable trend for us, given our rental penetration among electric utility T&D contractors who prefer to rent due to lower initial capital outlay, increased flexibility, improved asset utilization and productivity, and significantly reduced storage and maintenance costs.
The Infrastructure Act includes $7.5 billion to build a national network of electric vehicle chargers and $65 billion to upgrade power infrastructure.
Telecom End-Market
Telecommunications infrastructure, including telecom cells, towers, and wirelines, are the backbone of telephonic interaction and the transportation of mobile data. We provide the specialty equipment required to maintain and install telecom cells, towers, and communication lines. Construction spend on telecommunications infrastructure has exceeded approximately $80 billion annually in recent years. This spend is expected to continue to grow due largely to the advent of 5G technology, which requires existing cell sites add equipment to support new frequencies. 5G technology will require the installation of numerous higher bandwidth small cells to “densify” wireless networks and enhance performance. This is because small cells only deliver coverage within approximately a quarter mile of their location, compared to approximately five miles for the existing 4G and predecessor macro cells. As a result, approximately 20 times more small cells will need to be installed in order to provide the same level of coverage as the existing macro cells.
Rapid technological advancements, including advanced digital and video service offerings, continue to increase demand for greater wireline and wireless network capacity and reliability. Data traffic is at an all-time high and is expected to increase in the future. North America data traffic is expected to grow at a 17% compound annual growth rate (“CAGR”) from 2022 to 2029.
From 2010 to 2022, annual spending by the major U.S. wireline, wireless and cable broadband providers has increased from approximately $68 billion to over $102 billion, a CAGR of approximately 15%. The Infrastructure Act provided an additional $65 billion to increase access to reliable high-speed internet.
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Rail End-Market
Freight and commuter rail are responsible for transporting products and people across North America. Our rail mounted equipment is used for a variety of tasks including the installation of new rail and maintenance of the existing rail lines. The equipment is also often used for working on older infrastructure such as repairing bridges and terminals with more antiquated track and systems that are in need of upgrades with more modern systems like Positive Train Control (“PTC”) and others. The five largest public railroads operating in North America spend more than $12 billion annually in capital expenditures. Such capital expenditures are expected to continue to grow as freight demands increase. In addition to freight rail, spend on active commuter rail projects is significant with a growing pipeline.
Freight Rail – Freight rail, one of the most cost-effective, energy-efficient modes of transport, carries a majority of intercity freight as measured by ton-miles, more than any other mode of transportation. Our North American customers are principally Class I railroads and related contractors. Data indicates that these Class I operators operate approximately 70% of total United States railroad route miles.
Commuter Rail – Trends such as population growth, increasing urbanization, a focus on sustainability, environmental awareness, and increasing highway congestion are expected to drive continued investment in commuter rail. Furthermore, as a result of years of insufficient funding, transit systems across the U.S. are struggling to cope with aging infrastructure, creating and increasing backlog. The most recent Federal estimates quantify the backlog of projects required to attain a “state of good repair,” meaning public transit is repaired to an age within its average service life, at $105 billion, which is projected to grow as high as $290 billion by 2029 if not addressed.
The Infrastructure Act provides $39 billion to modernize transportation and an additional $89.9 billion in guaranteed funding for public transportation along with an additional $66 billion of funding specifically earmarked for passenger rail services.
Infrastructure End-Market
We also serve the general infrastructure end-market, which includes surface transportation, national highway performance, highway safety, metropolitan transit, and other key infrastructure systems, including residential and non-residential waste and water. Total infrastructure capex spend in 2023 was estimated to be just under $270 billion, and we believe the infrastructure end-market outlook remains positive.
We consider the waste end-market as part of the general infrastructure industry. Long-term, secular growth in this market is driven by growing waste volumes generated by increasing waste generation per capita. Population and income growth drive municipal solid waste generation. Municipal solid waste revenue is projected to grow at a compounded annual growth rate of 4.2% globally from 2024 to 2030. Waste is generally considered to be a recession-resistant industry given the non-discretionary nature of waste collection and disposal. Ongoing consolidation amongst waste haulers results in increasing market share for large, well-capitalized companies that have the resources to invest in the latest trucks and equipment.
The Infrastructure Act provides $55 billion to expand access to clean drinking water for households, businesses, schools, and child care centers across the United States through many programs starting in 2021, over a 5 year period.
Products and Services
Equipment Rental Solutions and Truck and Equipment Sales
Our equipment rental fleet consists of more than 10,300 units, which management believes is among the largest specialty equipment rental fleets in North America. Our fleet consists of more than 250 product variations to serve the specialized needs of our customers including various terrain options such as truck mounted, rail mounted, track mounted, and all-wheel drive. Our equipment can reach transmission lines and cell sites in excess of 200 feet in the air, dig to a depth of 60 feet to install telephone and power line poles, provide power line and fiber line pulling capacity of up to 40,000 pounds, and reach remote and inaccessible areas for rail maintenance. A large percentage of our fleet is insulated, which allows customers to safely work on live electric lines. Our equipment is regularly tested for safety, which includes regulation-mandated dielectric testing of all insulated units to ensure safe operations near electrical wiring. The majority of our equipment can be used across a variety of end-markets and many of our customers operate in multiple end-markets. Rental rates vary depending on product type, geography, demand, and other factors.

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Examples of our rental and sales equipment include:
Bucket TrucksTrucks equipped with a bucket mounted on an insulated or non-insulated hydraulic lifting aerial device used to maintain and construct utility, rail, or telecommunication lines.
Digger DerricksTrucks equipped with a boom and auger used to dig holes and set utility, rail, and telephone poles.
Cable placers
Equipment used to string new and re-conduct overhead utility, rail, telecom, or cable lines including pole trailers, reel handling trailers, and other material handling trailers.
Boom TrucksTrucks equipped with a boom mounted on an insulated or non-insulated hydraulic lifting aerial device used to maintain and construct utility, rail, or telecommunication lines.
Rail TrucksTrucks equipped with specialty equipment to drive on rail tracks.
Roll-Off TrucksTrucks equipped to transport waste containers
Knuckleboom TrucksTrucks equipped to lift for utility, construction, and building materials applications
Vacuum TrucksTrucks equipped to safely dig holes and transport materials by vacuuming materials or liquids
CranesEquipment made to lift heavy objects utilized in our core markets
Underground EquipmentVariety of equipment used to place and remove underground utility and telecom lines without disruption to the surface.
Aftermarket Parts and Services
Our APS offerings include a broad range of parts, tools, and accessories inventory, which is a natural extension of our core equipment offering and can be rented or purchased on an individual basis or in packaged specialty kits.
The technical nature of certain parts, tools, and accessories requires periodic testing in a certified lab and expertise in specialized repairs, which we provide at our test and repair facilities. We provide nationwide coverage through eight locations that serve as hubs for the rental and sale of parts, tools, and accessories, and five of which offer technical test and repair.
Examples of our aftermarket parts and services include:
Equipment Parts
Aftermarket replacement parts for various types of trucks and equipment sold and rented by Custom Truck.
Stringing Blocks
Stringing dollies and accessories used to string powerline, telephone line (including fiber), or cable, above ground or underground in the new construction, rebuild, or maintenance of the lines.
Augers
Tool used to dig holes for power, telephone, or cable poles and also used to dig holes for structure bases, pilings, and foundation supports.
Insulated ToolsExtension arms, temp arms, insulated ladders, etc., used to insulate and dielectrically protect workers and temporarily reposition powerlines for safe execution of tasks while working at height in live line circumstances.
Other parts, tools, and accessories (“PTA”)
Crimping tools and dies, pumps/motors, underground fiber laying tools, and various other tools used in either utility, telecom, or rail applications.
Test and Repair Services
Testing and inspections of various tools and safety equipment and personal protective equipment (“PPE”) to comply with regulatory and safety requirements.
Upfit and Repair Services
Customizing existing heavy-duty trucks by adding features, and repair services, including labor and parts, for customer-owned trucks.
Competitive Strengths
We believe our platform is differentiated and benefits from several significant strengths that will continue to support our leading market position and future growth. We believe that the following factors have been instrumental in our success and will position us for continued growth:
Market Leader with a Differentiated “One-Stop Shop” Platform – Our platform offers our customers a true “one-stop shop” solution for their needs across the specialty equipment market, including rentals, new and used sales, production and customization, aftermarket parts and services, and financing and asset disposal, building upon the successful business model that has been a key source of differentiation for Custom Truck historically. Our flexibility to meet customers’ capital allocation preferences allow us to develop deeper relationships with our customers and our wide variety of equipment offered enables us to meet more of our customers’
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needs than our competitors. Additionally, our national platform and scale provides us the ability to serve both regional and national customers wherever they operate.
Integrated Business Model with Large-Scale Production and Customization Capabilities – We are able to provide our customers with highly tailored solutions on an expedited basis, enabled by our extensive internal production and customization operations. These capabilities allow us to deepen our relationships with customers by offering them the ability to customize equipment to meet their specific job demands. Our large-scale production further offers benefits to customers by reducing lead times for equipment and provides the ability to change and adapt mid-production should the customer need to modify its order. Maintaining inventory and shorter lead times helps us to support our own rental operations and more quickly react to changing customer demands and preferences. We are also able to quickly adapt our processes and procedures to enter into new markets and product offerings, such as dump trucks, roll-offs, and vacuum trucks, which are products that have been added over the past several years. As one of the largest consumers of vocational chassis and attachments in the United States, we have a structural cost advantage on purchasing. Our production capabilities further lower costs, while providing flexibility to pursue the highest growth portions of the market.
Attractive Long-term End-Market Dynamics – We are a leader across a diverse set of end-markets, including infrastructure-related electric utility T&D, telecom, rail, forestry, and waste management, among others, many of which have attractive long-term growth dynamics. This position was established by our expansive fleets, national sales and service network, longstanding customer relationships, and operational expertise. The favorable end-market dynamics may lead to increased spend on specialty equipment by our existing customers. These end-markets are in the early years of a secular upcycle that is expected to persist for years to come. We are well positioned to benefit from this projected growth and maintain the flexibility to pivot our production and focus to any end-market that is experiencing greater demand due to our deep knowledge and expertise in the production of different types of equipment.
Young, Well-Maintained Rental Fleet Comprised of In-Demand Equipment – Our rental fleet consists of more than 10,300 units and is one of the youngest in the industry, with an average age of 3.5 years as of December 31, 2023. We maintain the majority of our fleet using our own trained technicians and locations to ensure consistent repairs, best-in-class service and maintenance, and delivery of fully functioning, ready-to-work equipment to our customers. We are highly responsive, adding high-quality equipment to our fleet on an ongoing basis to meet customer demands in a changing market landscape. We focus our production capabilities on the equipment that our customers need most in the end-markets with the most growth potential. Disciplined fleet maintenance and strict focus on meeting customer and end-market requirements have resulted in over 80% utilization on average of our rental fleets in the last two years.
Geographical Diversity – We have a large geographic footprint that enables us to provide local service throughout North America. Our more than 35 locations are strategically located to provide access to key high-growth end-markets and have sufficient geographic reach to provide a holistic solution to nationwide accounts. Our footprint is further expanded by over 2,600 third-party service partners. We maintain a 24/7 call center, as well as a large team of mobile technicians, ensuring that our customers can quickly access experienced technicians regardless of geography. Because our rental fleet is managed nationally, equipment can be deployed strategically across locations in periods of high regional demand. This allows us to maintain high utilization rates for our entire rental fleet while quickly responding to both equipment and service requests from customers. Our broad reach also represents a competitive advantage in serving customers with nationwide operations who may prefer the convenience of interacting with a limited number of equipment providers. Although we have an expansive national footprint already, we have identified additional attractive geographic markets for potential expansion.
Strong, Diverse Client Relationships and Industry Expertise – We serve more than 8,000 customers, with the top 15 customers representing approximately 16% of total revenue and no single customer representing greater than 3% of total revenue in 2023. Of our top 20 customers, 14 of them both rent and purchase equipment. We have very strong brand recognition among our industry-leading customers. Our ability to deliver an unmatched value proposition for our customers’ most complex and technical requirements, on a tight deadline, results in long-tenured relationships with premier customers across our different end-markets. We have significant tenure with our top customers, with key relationships spanning more than 17 years. Our strong knowledge of the equipment and product requirements in our customers’ end-markets allows us to work closely with our customers to determine their specialty equipment needs while our ability to offer the optionality to either rent or purchase equipment helps meet customers’ capital allocation preferences and increases customer penetration.
Attractive Unit Economics Driving High Returns – Our integrated, “one-stop shop” business model results in both lower costs and higher equipment resale values, driving exceptional unit economics. We believe that our ability to purchase equipment components separately with vertically-integrated assembly results in a cost advantage over buying fully completed units. Additionally, our direct-to-customer sales channels drive attractive net resale values that exceed those of our competitors who typically sell used equipment through auctions.
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Growth Strategy
We offer a full suite of specialty equipment services and a broad portfolio of products, which provides us with numerous channels for future growth and opportunities to deepen customer relationships. We intend to maintain our leading position and expand our market share by continuing to pursue the following strategies:
Capitalize on Favorable Trends Across a Large Addressable Market – Because of the highly fragmented industry in which we operate, we have significant runway to increase our share of the market. Based on available industry sources, we estimate the addressable market to be approximately $65 billion: $20.4 billion in new sales, $23.2 billion in aftermarket parts and service, and $21.4 billion in rental and used sales. The new sales addressable market has grown from an estimated $15.6 billion in 2019 to $20.4 billion in 2023. Our differentiated cost position, North American branch network, broad product offering, and flexible distribution model position us to achieve strong growth in the future. Additionally, several end-markets we serve, including electric utility T&D, telecom, infrastructure, rail, forestry, and waste management, are increasing their capital expenditures. Our production and customization capabilities will only serve to bolster our ability to meet the growing demand and changing landscapes in these end-markets as we can nimbly adapt as necessary to capitalize on opportunities as they present themselves.
Invest in Rental Fleet to Meet Growing Demand – We see continued opportunity to invest in our rental fleet to meet customer demand. We will look to drive utilization improvements via enhanced selling efforts and investments in in-demand equipment as well as drive rental penetration via continued customer education. We believe that by investing in new products and adding to our rental fleet, we can continue to satisfy the growing specialty equipment needs of our customers across end-markets. We have the resources and capital structure necessary to capture incremental demand. Lastly, a large percentage of our rental fleet is currently focused on serving the electric utility T&D and telecom industries, but we believe there is significant opportunity to continue to grow our fleet of specialty equipment tailored to serve the growing rail and infrastructure end-markets as well.
Grow Equipment Sales Across Both Current and New Customers, End-Markets, and Product Offerings – We will be able to leverage our national and local sales approach to achieve growth in our existing customer base and across existing and newly entered product categories. We have identified several new product categories that we plan to expand into, where our experience and expertise in production, customization, and purchasing are expected to provide favorable returns. We will look to drive volume growth via continued equipment innovations and strategic selling initiatives. We are currently well positioned to capitalize on favorable trends across end-markets, including grid updates and maintenance, build-out of renewable resources, 5G roll-out, and potential significant infrastructure spend.
Increase Penetration of Aftermarket Parts and Service – Each full-service location provides certified test and repair services and an expanded product offering of both insulated and non-insulated tools. Today, we leverage our service technicians, including those dedicated to field service, to support our existing rental fleet and select customer-owned equipment. We see an opportunity to grow the size of the internal service organization and external service provider network to increase our ability to service customer-owned equipment. Additionally, we launched our e-commerce platform in 2020 to begin selling proprietary Load King™ equipment parts and other targeted specialty equipment parts.
Continue to Pursue Domestic Geographic Expansion – We operate more than 35 locations; however, broad sections of the United States and Canada are still outside of our primary operating area. In the past, we have expanded into new geographical markets through both strategic acquisitions and through internal growth. There is an opportunity for future expansion across the United States to support growth. Custom Truck has successfully opened five locations in geographic areas where there were no attractive acquisition targets, exemplifying the ability to expand our reach without the use of acquisitions. In addition to organic geographic expansion, we may opportunistically pursue acquisitions to expand our product and service offering and accelerate growth.
Sales and Marketing
Sales
We operate with a nationwide direct sales team to address the specialized needs of our customer base and to cultivate strategic partnerships with key customers. Our more than 100-member sales organization is led by members of our senior management team, including Presidents, Vice Presidents and Regional Sales Managers. The average years of experience in the industry of our sales personnel is more than 25 years. Our field sales organization and 24-hour support center have developed “first-call” relationships with several of our largest customers while providing significant expertise in the technical nature of the equipment and projects.
For key national or regional accounts, we employ a top to bottom sales approach with a focus on building partnerships at all levels within these key accounts and securing commitments to use us as a preferred supplier. Strategic Account Managers are responsible for
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establishing and managing these relationships along with direct involvement from senior leadership to create more contact and touch points between the key decision makers and Custom Truck.
We divide the remainder of our sales organization into regional go-to market teams for our ERS, TES and APS segments consisting of Territory Managers supported by Inside Rental Representatives and Assistants. Territory Managers are responsible for developing new relationships and maintaining communication with key decision makers at customer organizations and working with employees at both the corporate office and on individual job sites to ensure customer satisfaction. After a rental opportunity is generated, Inside Rental Representatives and Assistants serve in a support role by working directly with customers to finalize orders, schedule delivery, coordinate payment and handle inbound requests. This direct communication helps expedite future orders on rental equipment availability and rate quotes.
Marketing
We utilize targeted advertising, trade shows, focused email distributions, a comprehensive equipment catalog, and our website for marketing our products and services. Our rental catalog contains detailed technical information and diagrams for all our products, while the website offers easy access to equipment specifications and rental listings. Our digital advertising efficacy is maximized by the following:
We invest in Search Engine Optimization (“SEO”) to maintain top result ranks for search terms we anticipate our customers would use;
We leverage marketing analytics to measure and adapt campaign performance;
We use social media to connect with customers and prospects across an array of core end-user segments, and to source user-generated content of our equipment excelling in use;
We leverage Search Engine Marketing (“SMO”), and regularly adjust our campaign investments to:
i.target peak sales and rental seasonality by segment,
ii.align with Company inventory levels, and
iii.achieve target revenue goals
We advertise available inventory in select industry online marketplaces.
In addition to print and online publications and our digital advertising efforts noted above, we participate in national and select regional trade shows, which represent important customer touch points for the sales team to approach new customers, maintain strong relationships with existing customers and promote new product launches.
Facilities
We are headquartered in Kansas City, Missouri where we house executive management, accounting, finance, information technology, human resources, marketing, and procurement professionals, as well as production, assembly, service and distribution operations. We maintain a diverse geographic footprint in the U.S. and Canada, with more than 35 locations.
Intellectual Property
We do not own or license any patents, patent applications, or registered copyrights. We own a number of trademarks and domain names important to the business. Our material trademarks are registered or pending applications for registrations in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and various non-U.S. jurisdictions. We use “Custom Truck One Source” as unregistered trademarks and “Load King” as a registered trademark. Additionally, pursuant to an agreement with Terex, we have a revocable, royalty-free, limited license to use certain Terex trademarks to promote the sale and servicing of Terex products, subject to certain conditions of use. We believe we own or license, or could obtain on reasonable terms, any intellectual property rights needed to conduct its business.
Governmental Regulation
We are subject to various governmental, including environmental, laws and regulations. Regulations affecting our operations principally relate to the licensing, permitting and inspection requirements for vehicles in our rental fleet. Additionally, we are subject to environmental regulations governing the discharge of pollutants into the air or water, the management, storage and disposal of, or exposure to, hazardous substances and wastes, the responsibility to investigate and clean up contamination, and occupational health and safety. The Company is not aware of any material instances of non-compliance with respect to the foregoing regulations.
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We are subject to federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations with respect to the ownership and operation of tanks for the storage of petroleum products, such as gasoline, diesel fuel and motor and waste oils. If leakage or a spill occurs, it is possible that the resulting costs of cleanup, investigation and remediation, as well as any resulting fines could adversely affect our business. The U.S. Congress and other federal and state legislative and regulatory authorities in the U.S. and internationally have considered, and will likely continue to consider, numerous measures related to climate change and greenhouse gas emissions. Should rules establishing limitations on greenhouse gas emissions or rules imposing fees on entities deemed to be responsible for greenhouse gas emissions become effective, demand for our services could be affected, our vehicle, and/or other, costs could increase, and our business could be adversely affected.
Human Capital
We provide a wide range of quality, customized trucks and equipment to people who are building and rebuilding our nation. We are growing rapidly and we understand that we need to attract and leverage an engaged and talented team of people with specialized expertise to deliver the best products and service to our customers.

Our drive, expertise, and responsiveness to the specialized needs of our customers set us apart. Management values a strong relationship with our employees across all our locations. As of December 31, 2023, we had approximately 2,580 employees in more than 35 locations across North America. Approximately 2% of our U.S. employees are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
Our Culture
Our success is enabled by our core values that guide how we interact with each other and our customers, vendors, suppliers, and key stakeholders in our communities.
Care & Respect - We treat each other with respect and show genuine care for one another, our customers, suppliers, and communities where we live and work.
Solve Problems Like A Mechanic - We relish solving problems, our curiosity and true grit enables us to find lasting solutions that meet our customers’ needs.
Driven to Deliver - We own our work, take initiative and use our determination to make our work better and deliver on our commitments and drive results that matter.
Engage Collaboratively - We help each other, we openly share and listen to each other’s ideas and opinions – even when we disagree because we succeed when we work together.
Spark Innovation - We embrace new ways of working; we challenge the status quo and continue to explore and learn to enhance our skills and work.

We are committed to an inclusive work environment where our employees of all backgrounds and experiences can succeed. We are always striving to enhance our employee experience and seek feedback from employees through our engagement surveys, which helps us identify areas where we can continuously enhance our work experience and sense of belonging.

We have an engaged Culture Champion Network, which is comprised of a cross-section of employees from a diverse range of backgrounds who collaborate to strengthen and celebrate our culture.

Our Employee Resource Groups (“ERG”s) create a community for our employees who share similar interests. These employee-led groups encourage meaningful connections, support our employee wellbeing, and enable personal and professional growth. They make CTOS a better, more inclusive place to work while also positively impacting our communities where we live and work.
In 2023, we launched a women’s ERG called “Women Empowered” to propel personal and professional growth. With Women Empowered, we strive to create the best female talent and top contributors of the future. Our Women Empowered ERG fosters meaningful connections with its 345 members and 201 allies.
We engage with our Veterans ERG as a strategic business partner to support and foster an inclusive culture and positive work experience for our military and veteran employees. Our military and veteran employees represent approximately 7% of our U.S. workforce and bring valuable attributes and skills to our organization. This ERG has over 240 members and allies and provides support to current and past service members within our organization and in the communities where we operate.
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Our Talent Attraction
We engage in multiple initiatives focused on identifying, hiring and retaining a varied range of talent. These include a strong employee referral program, engaging with recruiting firms, utilizing job-posting sites, and collaborating with university and vocational technical programs that specialize in connecting companies like ours with an array of candidates. We will continue to review and refine our initiatives as we seek to grow and further broaden the experience of our workforce.
We recruit at universities and provide internships across multiple disciplines to attract the best early-career talent. In 2023, we provided 20 paid internship opportunities to students from various vocational high school and university programs. We recruit extensively for external experienced hires to bring in diverse experience and perspectives.
CTOS believes in giving everyone, including those with prior criminal histories, valuable skills and a rewarding career with a team who respects and genuinely cares about them as individuals. Throughout our rich history, we have given many people second chances. In 2023, we formally adopted a Fair Chance Hiring program so we can provide even more opportunities to assist people with rebuilding their lives and positively contributing to our communities while growing our workforce.
Military veterans connect well with our culture and bring skills that are highly leverageable across our business. We partner with various organizations to support a range of military recruitment efforts, including Hiring Our Heroes, the U.S. Chamber of Commerce and Military Transition Assistant Programs to recruit veteran candidates to join our team and have a rewarding career following their military service. Our Veterans ERG actively helps us advertise and recruit veteran candidates through career fairs and veteran community events.
Our Talent Development – Building Capabilities
We value lifelong learning and support our employees’ development through a combination of experiential on-the-job learning and formal education to advance their career. Our talent initiatives include:
A talent review and succession planning process in which we assess and develop future talent for key leadership roles to ensure we successfully transfer institutional knowledge and expertise from seasoned leaders to emerging talent and provide rewarding career paths.
Technical and operational training with a special emphasis on skill development, safety, quality, and customer service. We have developed a Service Technician Education Program (“STEP”) that provides our service technicians a clear path for professional and career development with over one hundred courses in six key functional areas, enabling them to progress from apprentice to master mechanic.
Tuition assistance to assist our employees with expanding their formal education while working.
Our Ethics & Compliance
One of our most valuable assets is our integrity, an unwavering commitment to operating honestly and ethically in all that we do. We established a Code of Conduct to ensure our employees understand our commitment and how to report concerns.
We train our employees on our Code of Conduct and offer multiple pathways for reporting any concerns promptly, including through their leader, Human Resources, Legal or our anonymous 24/7 compliance hotline, which is managed by an experienced and objective third-party.
Our Health, Safety & Well Being
We are committed to a safe and healthy workplace and culture of total well-being. We strive to have zero workplace injuries and engage our employees in raising awareness and education through our Safety Ambassador Network, which includes a cross section of employees from multiple work facilities. We have a network of approximately 100 Safety Ambassadors who are provided training and instruction from our Environmental, Health and Safety professionals. Our Safety Ambassadors are volunteers who have shown a willingness and capability to devote a portion of their workday to ensure that employees have a safe environment in which to work. We track recordable injuries and have an incident management system to investigate all safety incidents. Every incident is investigated and, based on the findings, our safety team implements processes and procedures to prevent recurrences and remediate known hazards.
We offer competitive pay and a comprehensive benefit program including medical, vision, dental, life and disability insurance to attract and retain top talent. We offer employees options to enhance their financial security through our 401(k) savings program that includes a Company matching component, health savings account, and pre-tax flexible spending accounts for healthcare and dependent care. We provide employees with the opportunity to participate in the Company’s success with equity ownership at a discounted price through our Employee Stock Purchase Plan.
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We provide employees and their family members with 24/7 access to doctors and counselors with telemedicine and virtual counseling with no cost to our employees. In addition, we offer an employee assistance program that provides employees and their family members with confidential support on a wide variety of areas such as mental and emotional health conditions, stress management, dependent/elder care, nutrition, fitness, and legal and financial issues.
Our Community Giving
We strive to maximize our social impact within our communities and support a culture of care across our workforce. We partner with nonprofit organizations that are aligned to where we operate and who have demonstrated organizational effectiveness, transparency, and a proven history for making a positive impact. CTOS community giving includes financial donations, volunteer time, and in-kind support to eligible third-party organizations who support our local communities in one of our key focus areas.
Educationsupporting vocational educational programs, enabling people to develop a valuable skilled trade and launch a meaningful career.
Military / Veteran & Public Safetysupporting future, active and veteran members of the armed services, police, fire, and first responders who put their lives on the line to protect us. We also support prevention education programs to help keep our communities safe.
Community Enrichmentenhancing the quality of life of people in our communities by supporting outreach and educational programs that enhance local living conditions.
Economic Empowermentproviding support to enable employment, empowering people to gain valuable skills to become economically or financially self-sufficient.
Legal Proceedings and Insurance
From time to time, we are subject to various lawsuits, claims and legal proceedings, the vast majority of which arise out of the ordinary course of business. The nature of our business is such that disputes related to vehicles and accidents occasionally arise. We assess these matters on a case-by-case basis as they arise and we establish reserves as and if required, based on our assessment of exposure. We have insurance policies to cover general liability, product, and workers’ compensation related claims. Management believes that none of the existing legal matters will have a material adverse effect on our business or financial condition.
Available information
This Annual Report on Form 10-K, as well as future quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and any amendments to all of the foregoing reports, are made available free of charge on our Internet website (https://www.customtruck.com) under “Investors” / “Financials” / “SEC Filings” as soon as reasonably practicable after such reports are electronically filed with or furnished to the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). The contents of our website are not incorporated by reference in this Annual Report. The SEC also maintains an Internet website that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC. The public can obtain any documents that are filed by us at www.sec.gov.

Item 1A.    Risk Factors
In addition to the other information contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, the risk factors discussed herein should be considered carefully in evaluating the Company. Any of these factors could result in a significant or material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. Additional risk factors not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also impair our business results of operations and financial condition.
Risks Related to the Company’s Business and Industry
Effective management of our rental equipment is vital to our business, and an inability to obtain raw materials, component parts and/or finished goods in a timely and cost-effective manner would adversely affect our ability to manufacture and market our products.
Our rental equipment has a long economic life, and managing this equipment is a critical element of our business. We must successfully maintain and repair our equipment in a cost-effective manner to maximize the economic life of our products and the level
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of proceeds from the sale of such products. As the needs of our customers change, we may need to incur costs to relocate or remanufacture our assets to better meet shifts in demand. If the distribution of our assets is not aligned with regional demand, we may be unable to take advantage of opportunities despite excess inventory in other regions. If we are not able to successfully manage our assets, our business, results of operations and financial condition may be materially adversely affected.
We purchase raw materials, component parts and finished goods to be used in the manufacturing, sale and rental of our products. In addition, we may incorporate vehicle chassis provided directly by our customers in our production process. Although the vast majority of our raw materials and component parts are sourced domestically, certain of our suppliers are based in other countries, and certain of our domestic suppliers may source subcomponents from suppliers based in other countries. Uncertainty remains regarding supply chain disruptions, inflationary pressure, public health crises, and geopolitical risks that have led to issues, broadly, in the supply chain. Changes in our relationships with suppliers, shortages in availability of materials, production delays, regulatory restrictions, public health crises, armed conflicts or political instability or other supply chain disruptions, whether due to our suppliers or customers, could have a material adverse effect on our ability to timely manufacture and market products. Increases in the costs of shipping and transportation, purchased raw materials, component parts or finished goods could result in manufacturing interruptions, delays, inefficiencies or our inability to market products. The unprecedented nature of the supply chain disruptions continues to make it difficult to predict our future business and financial performance. In addition, our profit margins would decrease if prices of purchased raw materials, component parts or finished goods increase and we are unable to pass on those increases to our customers.
The Company is subject to competition, which may have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business by reducing the Company’s ability to increase or maintain revenues or profitability.
The equipment dealership and rental industries are highly competitive and fragmented. Many of the markets in which the Company operates are served by a large number of competitors, ranging from national and multi-regional equipment rental companies to small, independent businesses with a limited number of locations. Some of the Company’s competitors may have significantly greater financial, marketing, and other resources than the Company does, and may be able to reduce rental rates or sales prices in the market and erode customer loyalty, which could negatively impact our business. The Company may encounter increased competition from existing competitors or new market entrants in the future, which could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our sales order backlog may not be indicative of the level of our future revenues.

Our sales order backlog represents future production for which we have written orders from our customers for customized and stock equipment. Orders that comprise our backlog may be subject to change in quantities, delivery, specifications and terms, or cancellation. Our backlog remains strong despite a year-over-year decrease, and may not remain at such levels in the future. Our reported sales order backlog may not be converted to revenue in any particular period and actual revenue from such orders may not equal our backlog. Therefore, our sales order backlog may not be indicative of the level of our future revenues.
A small portion of our workforce is unionized, and more of our workforce could become unionized in the future, which could negatively impact the stability of our production, materially reduce our profitability and increase the risk of work stoppages.
Our employees have the right at any time under the National Labor Relations Act to form or affiliate with a union, and unions may conduct organizing activities in this regard. If our employees choose to form or affiliate with a union and the terms of a union collective bargaining agreement are significantly different from our current compensation and job assignment arrangements with our employees, these arrangements could negatively impact the stability of our production, materially reduce our profitability and increase the risk of work stoppages. In addition, even if our managed operations remain primarily non-union, our business may still be adversely affected by work stoppages. The stoppage of work for a prolonged period of time at one, or several, of our principal manufacturing facilities resulting from union or non-union matters could materially adversely affect our business.
As a small portion of our workforce is unionized, we are subject to risk of work stoppages and other labor relations matters. As of December 31, 2023, approximately 2% of the U.S. hourly workers of the Company were represented by a labor union and were covered by a collective bargaining agreement. Any strikes, threats of strikes or other organized disruptions in connection with the negotiation of new labor agreements or other negotiations could materially adversely affect our business as well as impair our ability to implement further measures to reduce costs and improve production efficiencies.
We may not be able to attract and retain skilled technicians, which could have a material adverse effect on our ability to meet customer demand.
Competition for skilled technicians in our industry, especially during periods of low unemployment or periods of high demand, could increase our labor costs and hinder our ability to meet customer demand, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
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A number of key personnel are critical to the success of our business.
Our success is dependent on our ability to attract and retain highly skilled personnel. Competition within our industry and the business world for high-performing management talent is substantial. We have senior executives and other management-level employees with extensive industry experience. We rely on this knowledge and experience in our strategic planning and in our day-to-day business operations. Additionally, due to our legacy as a combination of several family-operated businesses, a number of our key employees have deep institutional knowledge and family relationships within our organization. An inability to retain these individuals or ensure smooth transitions with timely and effective transfers of knowledge could have a negative impact on our business. Competition for experienced managers and skilled technicians in our industry can be intense. If we fail to retain and recruit the necessary personnel, our business and our ability to retain customers and provide acceptable levels of customer service could suffer.
A material disruption to our operation and manufacturing locations could adversely affect our ability to generate revenue.
We have several significant production and manufacturing locations. If operations at any of these production and manufacturing locations were disrupted as a result of public health concerns, equipment failures, natural disasters, work stoppages, power outages or other reasons, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected. Interruptions in production could increase costs and delay delivery of units in production. Production capacity limits could cause us to reduce or delay sales efforts until production capacity is available.
We may be required to take write-downs or write-offs, restructuring and impairment or other charges that could have a material negative effect on our financial condition and results of operations and contribute to negative market perceptions about the Company or its securities, which could cause you to lose some or all of your investment.
The cost of new equipment that we purchase for use in our rental fleet or for sale as inventory may increase, and the aging or obsolescence of our existing equipment, and fluctuations in the market value thereof, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The cost of new equipment from manufacturers that we purchase for use in our rental fleet or for sale may increase as a result of factors beyond our control, such as inflation, higher interest rates and increased labor and raw material costs, including increases in the cost of steel, which is a primary material used in most of the equipment we use or sell. Such increases could materially impact our financial condition and results of operations in future periods if we are not able to pass such cost increases through to our customers in the form of higher prices. In addition, our inventory has increased recently as part of our measures to manage supply chain challenges. Due to changing demands of our customers, the types of equipment we rent or sell to our customers may become obsolete, resulting in a negative impact on our results of operations and financial condition due to, with respect to our rental fleet, increased capital expenditures required to replace the obsolete equipment, and our potential inability to sell the obsolete equipment in the used equipment market. In addition, we may incur losses upon dispositions of our rental fleet due to residual value risk or upon any write-off and write-down of our sales inventory.
If the average age of our fleet of rental equipment were to increase, the cost of maintaining our equipment, if not replaced within a certain period of time, will likely increase. If our operating costs increase as our rental equipment fleet ages and we are unable to pass along such costs, our results of operations will be negatively impacted. As of December 31, 2023, the average age of our rental equipment fleet was less than four years. The costs of maintenance may materially increase in the future. Any significant increase in such costs could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In addition, the market value of any given piece of rental equipment could be less than its book value at the time of sale. The market value of used rental equipment depends on several factors, including:
the market price for new equipment of a like kind;
wear and tear on the equipment relative to its age;
worldwide and domestic demand for used equipment;
the supply of used equipment on the market; and
general economic conditions.
We include in operating income the difference between the sales price and the book value of equipment sold. Changes in our assumptions regarding depreciation could change our depreciation expense, as well as the gains or losses realized upon disposal of equipment. We cannot assure you that used equipment selling prices will not decline. Any significant decline in the selling prices for used equipment could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
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Our business is highly dependent on the timely and sufficient delivery of finished goods, such as commercial vehicles, from our suppliers.
We depend on the timely and sufficient delivery of finished goods from our suppliers. Disruptions in the supply chains of these manufacturers and dealers, such as pandemic-related plant and production shutdowns, semiconductor chip shortages, labor and equipment shortages, and transportation delays, have impacted and in the future could significantly impact our ability to meet customer demand and generate revenue, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our business may be impacted by government spending.
A number of our customers are impacted by government funding of infrastructure projects. Policies of governments attempting to address local deficit or structural economic issues, or a decrease in expected levels of infrastructure spending, could have a material impact on our customers and markets. Any decrease or delay in government funding of infrastructure projects could cause our revenues and profits to decrease.
We may experience losses in excess of our recorded reserves for receivables.
We evaluate the collectability of our receivables based on consideration of a customer’s payment history, leverage, availability of third-party financing, political and other factors. Recorded reserves represent our estimate of current expected credit losses on existing receivables and are determined based on historical customer assessments, current financial conditions, and reasonable and supportable forecasts. An unexpected change in customer financial condition or future economic uncertainty could result in additional requirements for specific reserves, which could have a negative impact on our consolidated financial position.
Uncertainty relating to macroeconomic conditions may reduce demand for our products and services, resulting in non-performance of contracts by our lessees, limit our ability to obtain additional capital to finance new investments, or have other unforeseen negative effects.
Uncertainty and negative trends in general economic conditions in the United States and abroad, including widespread health emergencies, rising inflation and interest rates, the continued conflict between Russia and Ukraine, supply chain disruptions, increases in labor costs, significant tightening of credit markets and commodity price volatility, may create difficult operating environments for our lessees and also for our industry. Many factors, including factors that are beyond our control, may impact our operating results or financial condition and/or affect the lessees that form our customer base. A number of governments have implemented, or are considering implementing, a broad variety of governmental actions or new regulations for the financial markets. In addition, limitations on the availability of capital, higher costs of capital or financing expenditures or the desire to preserve liquidity, may cause our current or prospective customers to make reductions in future capital budgets and spending.
If petroleum prices increase, then our results of operations could be adversely affected.
Petroleum prices have fluctuated significantly in recent years. Prices and availability of petroleum products are subject to political, economic and market factors that are outside of our control. Political events in petroleum-producing regions as well as hurricanes and other weather-related events may cause the price of fuel to increase. If the price of fuel increases, the demand for our products may decline and transportation and freight costs may increase, which would adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
Regulatory, technological advancement, or other changes in our core end-markets may affect our customers’ spending on the products and services we provide.
Many of our customers operate in regulated industries (for example, electric utility T&D, telecom, rail, and general infrastructure) and are subject to laws and regulations that can change frequently and without notice. The adoption of new laws or regulations, or changes to the enforcement or interpretation of existing laws or regulations, could cause our customers to reduce or delay spending on the products and services we provide. Further, technological advancement or other changes not directly related to the products and services we provide may affect the ability of one or more of our customers to compete effectively, which could result in a reduction or elimination of their use of our products and services. Any reduction, elimination, or delay of spending by our customers on the products and services we provide could adversely affect our revenues, results of operations, and cash flows.
Integration of acquired businesses may be difficult, costly and time-consuming, and the anticipated benefits and cost savings of acquired businesses may not be realized or may be less than expected.
Our ability to realize the anticipated benefits of acquisitions we make will depend, to a large extent, on our ability to integrate the businesses acquired. Integrating acquired businesses is a complex, costly and time-consuming process, and we cannot assure you that
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we will be able to successfully integrate them or, if the integration is successfully accomplished, that the integration will not be more costly or take longer than presently contemplated. If we cannot successfully integrate and manage acquired businesses within a reasonable time following their acquisition, we may not be able to realize the potential and anticipated benefits of them, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our ability to realize expected synergies and benefits from acquisitions is subject to a number of risks and uncertainties, many of which are outside of our control. These risks and uncertainties could adversely impact our business, financial condition and operating results, and include, among other things:
our ability to complete the timely integration of operations and systems, organizations, standards, controls, procedures, policies and technologies, as well as the harmonization of differences in business cultures;
our ability to minimize the diversion of management attention from ongoing business concerns during the integration process;
our ability to retain the service of key management and other key personnel;
our ability to preserve customer, supplier and other important relationships and resolve potential conflicts that may arise;
the risk that acquired businesses may have liabilities that we failed to discover or fully appreciate in the course of performing due diligence;
difficulties in achieving anticipated cost savings, synergies, business opportunities and growth prospects from the combination; and
difficulties in managing the expanded operations of a larger and more complex combined company.
We may encounter additional integration-related costs, fail to realize all of the benefits anticipated or be subject to other factors that adversely affect preliminary estimates of synergies. In addition, even if the operations of acquired businesses are integrated successfully, the full benefits of them may not be realized, including the synergies, cost savings or sales or growth opportunities that we expect. The occurrence of any of these events, individually or in combination, could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

Measures of anticipated synergies we report from time to time are based upon assumptions about our ability to implement integration measures in a timely fashion and within certain cost parameters. Our ability to achieve the planned synergies is dependent upon a significant number of factors, many of which are beyond our control, such as our ability to integrate businesses that we acquire (including the integration of Nesco and Custom Truck LP (each term as defined below)), operating difficulties, increased operating costs, delays in implementing initiatives and general economic, competitive or industry conditions. For example, we may be unable to eliminate duplicative costs in a timely fashion or at all. Additionally, achieving these benefits may require certain related one-time costs, charges and expenses, which may be material. We can provide no assurance that we will be successful in generating growth, maintaining or increasing our cash flows or profitability or achieving cost savings and revenue enhancements, and our inability to do so could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Platinum owns the majority of our equity, and its interests may not be aligned with yours.
Platinum owns the majority of our fully diluted shares of common stock and, therefore, has the power to control our affairs and policies. Platinum also controls, to a large degree, the election of directors, the appointment of management, the entry into mergers, sales of substantially all of our assets, and other extraordinary transactions. The directors so elected have authority, subject to the terms of our indebtedness, to issue additional stock, implement stock repurchase programs, declare dividends and make other decisions. The interests of Platinum could conflict with your interests. For example, Platinum is in the business of making investments in companies and, from time to time in the future, may acquire interests in businesses that directly or indirectly compete with certain portions of our business or are suppliers or customers of ours. Platinum may also pursue acquisition opportunities that may be complementary to our business and, as a result, these acquisition opportunities may not be available to us.
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Risks Related to the Company’s Indebtedness
We have, and may incur, significant indebtedness and may be unable to service our debt. This indebtedness could adversely affect our financial position, limit our available cash and our access to additional capital and prevent us from growing our business.
We have a significant amount of indebtedness and may incur additional indebtedness in the future, including in connection with our growth capital expenditure plan. As of December 31, 2023, our total indebtedness was $1,517.8 million, consisting of $920.0 million in aggregate principal amount of the 2029 Secured Notes, $552.4 million of borrowings under our Asset Based Lending (“ABL”) Facility and other debt obligations of $45.4 million (excluding approximately $662.3 million of indebtedness under our floorplan financing agreements). Although the indenture governing our 2029 Secured Notes (the “Indenture”) and the ABL Credit Agreement (as defined below) contain restrictions on the incurrence of additional indebtedness, these restrictions are subject to a number of significant exceptions and qualifications, and the additional indebtedness incurred in compliance with these restrictions could be substantial. Moreover, the Indenture does not impose any limitation on our incurrence of certain liabilities or obligations that are not considered “Indebtedness” under the Indenture (such as operating leases), nor does it impose any limitation on the amount of liabilities incurred by our subsidiaries, if any, that might be designated as “unrestricted subsidiaries” under such Indenture. Similarly, the ABL Credit Agreement does not impose any limitation on our incurrence of certain liabilities or obligations that are not considered “Indebtedness” under the agreement (such as operating leases).
The level of our indebtedness could have important consequences, including:
a portion of our cash flows from operations is dedicated to debt service and may not be available for other purposes;
limiting our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and the industry in which we operate;
limiting our ability to obtain financing in the future for working capital, capital expenditures and general corporate purposes, including acquisitions, and potentially impeding our ability to secure favorable lease terms;
exposing us to the risk of increased interest rates, as borrowings under our ABL Facility are subject to variable rates of interest;
making us more vulnerable to economic downturns and industry conditions and possibly limiting our ability to withstand competitive pressures;
placing us at a competitive disadvantage compared to our competitors with less indebtedness;
making it more difficult for us to satisfy our obligations with respect to our debt; and
increasing our cost of borrowing.
If new debt is added to our current debt levels, the risks that we now face would intensify.
To service our indebtedness, we will require a significant amount of cash. Our ability to generate cash depends on many factors, some of which are beyond our control. An inability to service our indebtedness could lead to a default under the Indenture or ABL Credit Agreement, which may result in an acceleration of our indebtedness.
To service our indebtedness, we will require a significant amount of cash. Our ability to pay interest and principal in the future on our indebtedness and to fund our capital expenditures and acquisitions will depend upon our future operating performance and the availability of refinancing options, which will be affected by prevailing economic conditions and, the availability of capital, as well as financial, business and other factors, some of which are beyond our control.
Our future cash flows may not be sufficient to meet our obligations and commitments. If we are unable to generate sufficient cash flows from operations in the future to service our indebtedness and to meet our other commitments, we will be required to adopt one or more alternatives, such as refinancing or restructuring our indebtedness, selling material assets or operations or seeking to raise additional debt or equity capital. These actions may not be effected on a timely basis or on satisfactory terms or at all, and these actions may not enable us to continue to satisfy our capital requirements. In addition, our existing debt agreements, including the Indenture and the ABL Credit Agreement, contain, or future debt agreements may contain, restrictive covenants prohibiting us from adopting any of these alternatives. Our failure to comply with these covenants could result in an event of default which, if not cured or waived, could result in the acceleration of all of our indebtedness.
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The Indenture and the ABL Credit Agreement impose significant operating and financial restrictions on our company and our subsidiaries, which may prevent us from capitalizing on business opportunities.
The Indenture and the ABL Credit Agreement impose significant operating and financial restrictions on us. These restrictions will limit our ability, among other things, to:
incur additional indebtedness;
pay dividends or certain other distributions on our capital stock or repurchase our capital stock;
make certain investments or other restricted payments;
cause subsidiaries to pay dividends or make other payments to us;
engage in transactions with stockholders or affiliates;
sell certain assets or merge with or into other companies, reorganize our companies, or suspend or dispose of a substantial portion of our business;
prepay or modify the terms of our other indebtedness;
guarantee indebtedness; and
create liens.
There are limitations on our ability to incur the full $750.0 million of commitments under the ABL Facility. Availability will be limited to the lesser of a borrowing base and $750.0 million. The borrowing base is calculated on a monthly (or more frequent under certain circumstances) valuation of our parts inventory, fleet inventory accounts receivable and unrestricted cash (in each case, subject to customary reserves). As a result, our access to credit under the ABL Facility is potentially subject to significant fluctuations, depending on the value of the borrowing base-eligible assets as of any measurement date. With respect to the ABL Facility, on any date when Specified Excess Availability (as defined in the ABL Credit Agreement) is less than the greater of (i) 10% of the lesser of (A) the aggregate revolving commitments under the ABL Facility at such time and (B) the borrowing base at such time (such lesser amount, the “Line Cap”) and (ii) $60 million, we will also be required by a springing covenant to maintain a minimum fixed charge coverage ratio of 1.00 to 1.00, tested for the four fiscal quarter period ending on the last day of the most recently ended fiscal quarter for which financials have been delivered, and at the end of each succeeding fiscal quarter thereafter until the date on which Specified Excess Availability has been equal to or greater than the greater of (x) 10% of the Line Cap and (y) $60 million for 30 consecutive calendar days. Our ability to meet the financial covenant could be affected by events beyond our control. The inability to borrow under the ABL Facility may adversely affect our liquidity, financial condition and results of operations.
These restrictions could limit our ability to obtain future financing, make strategic acquisitions or needed capital expenditures, withstand economic downturns in our business or the economy in general, conduct operations or otherwise take advantage of business opportunities that may arise. A failure to comply with the restrictions in the Indenture and the ABL Credit Agreement could result in an event of default under such instruments or credit agreement. Our future operating results may not be sufficient to enable compliance with the covenants in the Indenture or ABL Credit Agreement or to remedy any such default. In addition, in the event of an acceleration, we may not have or be able to obtain sufficient funds to refinance our indebtedness or make any accelerated payments, including those under the Indenture and under our ABL Facility. If we default on our indebtedness, our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. If we fail to maintain compliance with these covenants in the future, we cannot assure you that we will be able to obtain waivers from the lenders and/or amend the covenants.
Our variable rate indebtedness subjects us to interest rate risk, which could cause our debt service obligations to increase significantly.
Borrowings under our ABL Facility and floor plan financing arrangements are at variable rates of interest, which will expose us to interest rate risk. If interest rates increase, our debt service obligations on the variable rate indebtedness will increase even if the amount borrowed remains the same, and our net income and cash flows, including cash available for servicing our indebtedness, will correspondingly decrease. As of December 31, 2023, we have variable rate debt, consisting of $1,214.7 million outstanding under the ABL Facility and floor plan financing arrangements. Holding other variables constant, each one-eighth percentage point increase or decrease in the applicable interest rates would correspondingly change our interest expense on the ABL Facility and floor plan financing arrangements by approximately $1.5 million per year. In the future, we may enter into interest rate swaps that involve the exchange of floating for fixed rate interest payments in order to reduce interest rate volatility. However, we may not maintain interest rate swaps with respect to any of our variable rate indebtedness, and any swaps we enter into may not fully mitigate our interest rate risk.
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Risks Related to Information Technology, Cybersecurity and Data Privacy
Disruptions or security compromises affecting our information technology systems or those of our critical service providers could adversely affect our operating results by subjecting us to liability, and limiting our ability to effectively monitor and control our operations, adjust to changing market conditions, or implement strategic initiatives.
The security and integrity, or the perception thereof, of our information technology systems and assets (“IT systems”) are critical to our business and ability to monitor and control our operations, deliver our products and services, and adjust to changing market conditions. While we own and manage certain of our IT systems, we also engage third parties across an array of software, systems and technologies (including cloud-based) and functions (e.g., HR, finance, communications, compliance), which enable us to conduct, monitor and/or protect our business, operations, systems and data assets. In addition, in the ordinary course of business, we and/or our service providers generate, collect, process and store sensitive information and data, including intellectual property, our proprietary business data and that of our customers, suppliers and business partners, as well as personal information (collectively, “Confidential Information”).
We face evolving cybersecurity risks that threaten the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of our IT systems and Confidential Information, and we and our service providers have experienced and expect to continue to experience cyberattacks and security incidents. Despite various security controls and measures, we and third parties remain vulnerable to cyberattacks and security incidents resulting from malware (e.g., ransomware), computer viruses, software and hardware vulnerabilities, malfeasance by external or internal actors (including state-sponsored organizations, opportunistic hackers and hacktivists, and insider data misappropriation), and/or incidents attributable to human error (e.g., due to social engineering or phishing), as well as malicious code embedded in open-source software, or misconfigurations, “bugs” or other vulnerabilities in commercial software that is integrated into our (or our third parties’) IT systems, products or services. The White House, SEC and other regulators have accordingly increased their focus on companies’ cybersecurity vulnerabilities and risks. We have also observed a global increase, in both frequency and impact, in cybersecurity threats and more sophisticated cyber-attacks and threat actors. Such attacks and threats are unpredictable as to their timing, nature and scope. As a result, we may be unable to anticipate or prevent future attacks, particularly as the methodologies utilized by attackers change frequently or are not recognized until launched, and we may be unable to identify, investigate or remediate incidents due to the increased use by threat actors of tools and techniques—including artificial intelligence— that are designed to circumvent controls, to avoid detection, and to remove or obfuscate forensic evidence. There can also be no assurance that our cybersecurity risk management program and processes, including our policies, controls or procedures, will be fully implemented, complied with or effective in protecting our IT systems and Confidential Information. Cybersecurity risks due to work-from-home arrangements at the Company and third parties have increased due to the challenges associated with managing remote computing assets and the security vulnerabilities in many non-corporate and home networks.
Any successful or perceived cyberattack, compromise, breach, or disruption involving, or in relation to, our or our service providers’ IT systems or Confidential Information, or the failure of any IT systems to operate as expected could, depending on the magnitude of the problem, adversely affect our operating results by limiting our capacity to effectively monitor and control our operations, adjust to changing market conditions and maintain the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. Further, any compromise or breach of IT systems or Confidential Information could result in adverse publicity, harm our reputation, lead to claims against us and affect our relationships with our customers and employees, and require significant resources for remediation and compliance purposes, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business. Certain of our software applications are also utilized by third parties who provide outsourced administrative functions, which may increase the risk of a cybersecurity incident. In addition, because our systems may contain sensitive data and information about individuals and businesses, our failure to maintain the security, integrity or confidentiality of the data we hold, whether the result of our insider malfeasance or errors or the malfeasance or errors of others, could harm our reputation or give rise to legal liabilities leading to lower revenues, increased costs for compliance and systems remediation, increased costs of liability for litigation (including class actions) and regulatory proceedings as well as fines and penalties, result in the misuse of our systems and networks, manipulation and destruction of data, misappropriation of assets or production stoppages and supply shortages, and other potential material adverse effects on our results of operations. Our failure to appropriately maintain the security of the data we hold could also violate applicable privacy, data security and other laws and subject us to lawsuits, fines, and other means of regulatory enforcement.
Global consumer protection, data privacy and cybersecurity rules, regulations and industry standards are rapidly evolving, including laws like the California Consumer Privacy Act, as amended by the California Privacy Rights Act (collectively, the “CCPA”), which provide for a private right of action for certain types of data breaches and create compliance obligations around user choice, data subject rights and transparency, among others. The requirements of such laws and regulations, as well as their application and interpretation, are constantly evolving and developing. Complying with such new or changing legal and regulatory requirements could force us to incur substantial expenses or require us to change our business practices in a manner that could harm our business. If any actual or perceived security or disruptive attacks, breaches or incidents are not detected or deflected by our current security measures,
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we could also be required to expend additional capital and other resources, including costs to deploy additional personnel and protection technologies, train employees and engage third-party experts and consultants.
Although we maintain insurance coverage for various cybersecurity risks and liabilities, there can be no guarantee that any or all costs or losses incurred will be partially or fully insured.
Risks Related to Legal, Compliance and Regulatory Matters
We are subject to complex laws and regulations, including environmental and safety regulations that can adversely affect the cost, manner or feasibility of doing business.
Our operations are subject to certain federal, state and local laws and regulations relating to, among other things, climate change, the generation, storage, handling, emission, transportation, disposal and discharge of hazardous and non-hazardous substances and materials into the environment, the manufacturing of motor vehicles and other equipment and employee health and safety. We may require permits or other approvals under certain laws, which may delay our ability to execute portions of our business strategy. Additionally, compliance with such laws and regulations can be costly, and our costs of compliance may increase if existing laws and regulations are revised or reinterpreted, or if new laws and regulations become applicable to our operations. We currently make, and in future may be required to make additional capital expenditures to comply with environmental and other regulations, such as:
Applicable motor vehicle safety standards established by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration;
Emissions or other standards related to climate change as established by international, federal, state and local regulatory bodies;
Reclamation and remediation and other environmental protection; and
Standards for workplace safety established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration.
While we monitor our compliance with applicable laws and regulations and attempt to budget for anticipated costs associated with compliance, we cannot predict the future cost of such compliance. Failure to comply with such laws and regulations, including any evolving interpretation and enforcement by governmental authorities, could materially impact our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. We may also be liable, under certain laws and regulations, for product liability, personal injury, other environmental damages (including natural resources), and other claims, as well as the costs of investigation and remediation of environmental contamination and any sanctions, such as fines and penalties. Additionally, certain environmental laws may impose liability without regard to fault or the legality of the original conduct. While compliance with these laws has not historically had a material adverse effect on our operations, our operations could be significantly delayed or curtailed and our costs of operations could significantly increase as a result of regulatory requirements, restrictions or claims. We are unable to predict the ultimate cost of compliance with these requirements or their effect on our operations.
We have identified a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting which, if not remediated, could result in material misstatements in our financial statements.
During the fourth quarter ended December 31, 2021, we identified a material weakness in internal control over financial reporting that related to control deficiencies in information technology general controls (“ITGCs”) for both user access and program change-management for systems supporting all of the Company’s internal control processes and controls, controls over the completeness and accuracy of information used in business process controls and management review controls. Our business process controls (automated and manual) and management review controls were also deemed ineffective because they are adversely impacted by ineffective ITGCs. A material weakness is a deficiency, or combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of our annual consolidated financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis.
We have developed and are implementing a plan to remediate the material weakness and in fiscal year 2023, management concluded that the material weakness related to ITGCs was remediated. The material weakness related to business process level controls will not be remediated until all necessary internal controls have been implemented, tested and determined to be operating effectively. In addition, we may need to take additional measures to address the material weakness or modify the planned remediation steps, and we cannot be certain that the measures we have taken, and expect to take, to improve our internal controls will be sufficient to address the issues identified, to ensure that our internal controls are effective or to ensure that the identified material weakness will not result in a material misstatement of our annual consolidated financial statements. Moreover, we cannot assure you that we will not identify additional material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting in the future. If we are unable to remediate the material weakness, our ability to record, process and report financial information accurately, and to prepare financial statements with the time periods specified by the rules and forms of the Securities and Exchange Commission, could be adversely affected. This failure could
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negatively affect the market price and trading liquidity of our common stock, cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information, subject us to civil and criminal investigations and penalties and generally materially and adversely impact our business and financial condition.
We are subject to a series of risks related to climate change.
There are inherent climate-related risks wherever business is conducted. Various meteorological phenomena and extreme weather events (including, but not limited to, storms, flooding, drought, wildfire, and extreme temperatures) may disrupt our operations or those of our customers and suppliers, require us to incur additional operating or capital expenditures, reduce the demand for certain of our product offerings, or otherwise adversely impact our business, financial condition, or results of operations. Climate change may impact the frequency and/or intensity of such events. While we may take various actions to mitigate our business risks associated with climate change, this may require us to incur substantial costs and may not be successful, due to, among other things, the uncertainty associated with the longer-term projections associated with managing climate risks.
Additionally, regulatory, market, and other changes to respond to climate change may adversely impact our business, financial condition, or results of operations. Developing alternatives that satisfy the market’s evolving expectations of vehicle emissions profiles may require us to incur significant costs. Additionally, there are several competing alternatives to replace petroleum-based fuels for vehicles, including but not limited to: electricity, hydrogen, and compressed and/or renewable gas. To the extent potential customers prefer technologies different from those used in the vehicles we develop and manufacture, then demand for such vehicles may not develop as quickly as we expect, or at all.
Reporting expectations are also increasing, with a variety of customers, capital providers, and regulators seeking increased information on climate related risks. For example, the SEC has proposed a rule that, if finalized, may require us to incur significant costs to assess and disclose on a range of climate-related data and risks. Increased scrutiny from various parties may also result in increased compliance costs and increased legal risks may also impact our suppliers or customers, which may indirectly impact our business, financial condition, or results of operations.
Increased attention to, and evolving expectations for, sustainability and environmental, social, and governance (“ESG”) initiatives could increase our costs, harm our reputation, or otherwise adversely impact our business.
Companies across industries are facing increasing scrutiny from a variety of stakeholders related to their ESG and sustainability practices. Expectations regarding voluntary ESG initiatives and disclosures and consumer demand for alternative forms of energy may result in increased costs (including, but not limited to increased costs related to compliance, stakeholder engagement, contracting and insurance), changes in demand for certain products, enhanced compliance or disclosure obligations, or other impacts to our business, financial condition, or results of operations.
In the past year, we have published our inaugural ESG report, and we may in the future engage in additional voluntary ESG initiatives (such as voluntary disclosures, certifications, or goals, among others) or commitments to improve the ESG profile of our company and/or our products; such initiatives or achievements of such commitments may be costly and may not have the desired effect. For example, expectations around company’s management of ESG matters continues to evolve rapidly, in many instances due to factors that are out of our control. In addition, we have and may continue to commit to certain initiatives or goals and we may not ultimately be able to achieve such commitments or goals due to factors that are within or outside of our control. Moreover, actions or statements that we have taken and may take in the future based on expectations, assumptions, methodologies, or third-party information that we currently believe to be reasonable may subsequently be determined to be erroneous, insufficient, unaligned with stakeholder expectations, or be subject to misinterpretation. Certain such expectations, assumptions and methodologies are necessarily uncertain due to the long timelines involved and the varying approaches to identifying, assessing, addressing, and reporting on ESG matters. Our disclosures on these matters, a failure to satisfy evolving stakeholder expectations for ESG practices and reporting, or a failure to meet our commitments or targets on our established timeline may potentially harm our reputation and negatively impact relationships with certain investors and other stakeholders. Even if this is not the case, our current actions may subsequently be determined to be insufficient by various stakeholders, and we may be subject to investor or regulator engagement on our ESG initiatives and disclosures, even if such initiatives are currently voluntary.
In addition, various policymakers have adopted, or are considering adopting, requirements for extensive disclosures on climate-related and/or other ESG information, which may require us to incur significant additional costs to comply, including the implementation of significant new internal controls on matters historically not subject to such controls, and impose increased oversight obligations on our management and board. Simultaneously, there are efforts by some stakeholders to reduce companies’ efforts on certain ESG-related matters. Both advocates and opponents to certain ESG matters are increasingly resorting to a range of activism forms, including media campaigns and litigation, to advance their perspectives. To the extent we are subject to such activism, it may require us to incur costs or otherwise adversely impact our business. This and other stakeholder expectations will likely lead to increased costs as well as
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scrutiny that could heighten all of the risks identified in this risk factor. Additionally, many of our business partners and suppliers may be subject to similar expectations, which may augment or create additional risks, including risks that may not be known to us.
Certain market participants, including major institutional investors and capital providers, use third-party benchmarks and scores to assess companies’ ESG profiles in making investment or voting decisions. Unfavorable ESG ratings could lead to increased negative investor sentiment towards us and/or our industry, which could negatively impact our share price as well as our access to and cost of capital. To the extent ESG matters negatively impact our reputation, it may also impede our ability to compete as effectively to attract and retain employees or customers, which may adversely impact our operations.

Item 1B.    Unresolved Staff Comments
None.

Item 1C.    Cybersecurity
Cybersecurity Risk Management and Strategy
Our approach to mitigating information technology and cybersecurity risk comprises a range of activities with the primary objective of maintaining the confidentiality, integrity and availability of our critical IT Systems and information related to our business. We seek to design and execute our cybersecurity risk management program based on a globally recognized controls framework. Additionally, we assess our cybersecurity maturity against that framework. However, the foregoing does not imply that we meet any particular technical standards, specifications or requirements, only that we use an established framework as a guide to help us identify, assess and manage cybersecurity risks relevant to our business.
Our cybersecurity risk management processes include a cybersecurity incident response plan, and we have invested in technical and organizational safeguards intended to manage and mitigate material risks from cybersecurity threats to our IT Systems, including network security controls, employee training, internal vetting of critical third-party vendors and service providers who have access to our systems or with whom we may share data, as well as periodic system reviews and security incident response exercises. Our cybersecurity risk management program is a component of the overall enterprise risk management activities that we undertake, and shares common methodologies, reporting channels and governance processes that apply to other risk areas.
While we work with third-party cybersecurity firms, where appropriate, to assess aspects of our security architecture and processes, our information security team, consisting of experienced cybersecurity professionals, is responsible for the day-to-day management of our cybersecurity risks, including directing our cybersecurity risk assessment processes, our security controls, and our response to cybersecurity incidents.
We have not identified risks from known cybersecurity threats, including as a result of any prior cybersecurity incidents, that have materially affected us, including our operations, business strategy, results of operations, or financial condition. However, IT Systems are inherently vulnerable to disruption and compromise due to a broad range of risks from cybersecurity threats, and we face certain ongoing cybersecurity risks that, if realized, are reasonably likely to materially affect us, including our operations, business strategy, results of operations, or financial condition. See “Risk Factors—Disruptions or security compromises affecting our information technology systems or those of our critical service providers could adversely affect our operating results by subjecting us to liability, and limiting our ability to effectively monitor and control our operations, adjust to changing market conditions, or implement strategic initiatives.”
Cybersecurity Governance
Our Board considers cybersecurity risk as critical to the enterprise and delegates the cybersecurity risk oversight function to the Audit Committee. The Audit Committee oversees management’s design, implementation and enforcement of our cybersecurity risk management program.
The Audit Committee receives regular reports from management on our cybersecurity risks and reports regarding IT internal controls in connection with its oversight of internal control over financial reporting. In addition, management updates the Audit Committee, as necessary, regarding any significant or potentially significant cybersecurity incidents. The Audit Committee reports to the full Board regarding its activities, including those related to cybersecurity. The full Board also receives briefings from management on our cyber risk management program, and the impact, if any, of cyber incidents on internal control over financial reporting. Audit Committee members also receive presentations on cybersecurity topics from our Chief Information Officer and Chief Financial Officer, supported by our internal security staff, or external experts as part of the Board’s continuing education on topics that impact public companies.
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Our management team, including our Chief Financial Officer and Chief Information Officer, is responsible for assessing and managing our material risks from cybersecurity threats. The management team has overall responsibility for leading our overall cybersecurity risk management program, including our internal cybersecurity personnel and our external cybersecurity service providers. Our Chief Information Officer has more than 20 years of experience managing and leading IT and cybersecurity teams.
Our management team stays informed about and monitors efforts to prevent, detect, mitigate, and remediate cybersecurity risks and incidents through various means, which may include briefings from internal security personnel, threat intelligence and other information obtained from governmental, public or private sources, including external consultants engaged by us, and alerts and reports produced by security tools deployed in the IT environment.

Item 2.    Properties
Our headquarters are in Kansas City, Missouri where we house executive management, accounting, finance, information technology, human resources, marketing and procurement professionals. Kansas City, Missouri is also home to our mega-center which performs the majority of our production and manufacturing. We maintain a diverse geographic footprint in the U.S. and Canada, with more than 35 equipment rental and service locations. These facilities are typically service centers for the maintenance and support of our equipment and, depending on the location, may include separate areas for displaying and storage of equipment and parts. Our one-stop shop approach focuses on providing the products and services offered by each of our segments at each of our locations.

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LocationType
7701 Independence Avenue, Kansas City, MO United States
Owned
7413 Sr 930 E Fort Wayne/New Haven, IN United States
Leased
11102 261 St,, Acheson, AB Canada
Leased
9230 51 St SE Calgary, AB Canada
Leased
127 Earl Thompson PL, Ayr, ON Canada
Leased
29 Perini RD, Elliot Lake, ON Canada
Leased
4045 Hwy 5 and 2665 South Rockwood Cabot, AR United States
Leased
655 E 20Th St Yuma, AZ United States
Leased
4500 State Rd and 1032 Black Gold Rd Bakersfield, CA United States
Leased
14670 Randall Ave Fontana, CA United States
Leased
5455 E 52nd Ave Commerce City, CO United States
Leased
4729 Capital Cir Nw and 4755DI Capital Cir Nw Tallahassee, FL United States
Leased
9879 Us Hwy 301 N; 7906 Baseline Ct and 8949 Maislin Rd Tampa, FL United States
Leased
3112 E State Rd 124 Bluffton, IN United States
Leased
5323 Kansas Ave Kansas City, KS United States
Leased
10740 Nall Ave Overland Park, KS United States
Leased
9230 Cedar Knoll Dr Grass Lake, MI United States
Leased
2370 English St Maplewood; 2450 Maplewood Ave; 2384 English St Maplewood, MN United States
Leased
2109 Manchester Trafficway and 6501 E. Commerce Ave, Suite 200 Kansas City, MO United States
Leased
2770 5th Ave S Fargo, ND United States
Leased
6 Sutton Cir and Unit 2 Sutton Cir Condominium Hooksett, NH United States
Leased
1400 Union Lndg Rd and 1850 Union Lndg Rd Cinnaminson, NJ United States
Leased
6708 Townline Rd Syracuse, NY United States
Leased
3522 Middlebranch Rd NE Canton, OH United States
Leased
3205 Davinion Rd El Reno, OK United States
Leased
300 Johnson St and 370 Johnson St Wilkes Barre, PA United States
Leased
1400 E Hwy 67 Alvarado, TX United States
Leased
2801 N Earl Rudder FWY, Bryan TX United States
Leased
7200 Jack Newell Blvd S and 7525 Pebble Dr Bldg 24 Fort Worth, TX United States
Leased
18725 Mckay Blvd Humble, TX United States
Leased
12519 W I-20 Odessa, TX United States
Leased
9775 E Lynchburg Salem Tpke Forest, VA United States
Leased
26109 & 26119 United Rd NE and 26129 Calvary Kingston, WA United States
Leased
5734 Minder Rd Ste A-1 Poulsbo, WA United StatesLeased
11139 W Becher St West Allis, WI United StatesLeased
5065 140th Ave NW, Williston, ND United States
Leased
2900 Rissler Rd Sedalia, MO United StatesOwned
4334 Snapfinger Woods Dr Atlanta, GA United StatesOwned
21209 & 21115 Durand Ave; 4601 Haag Dr, Union Grove, WI United States
Leased
1700 Leider Dr Union Grove, WI United StatesOwned
12660 E Lycshburg Salem Turnpike Lynchburgh, VA United StatesOwned
702 East Rose St Elk Point, SD United StatesOwned

We believe that all of our properties are in good operating condition and are suitable to adequately meet our current needs.
Item 3.    Legal Proceedings
We may, at any given time, be named as a defendant in certain lawsuits, investigations and claims arising in the ordinary course of business. While the outcome of these potential lawsuits, investigations and claims cannot be predicted with certainty, we do not expect these matters to have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations, cash flows or financial condition. In the opinion of management, there are no pending litigations, disputes or claims against the Company that, if decided adversely, would have a material adverse effect on its consolidated financial condition, cash flows or results of operations.

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Item 4.     Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.

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PART II
Item 5.    Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Shareholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Market Information
Custom Truck One Source, Inc.’s common stock and warrants trade on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “CTOS” and “CTOS.WS,” respectively. As of March 1, 2024, there were approximately 67 holders of record of our common stock and 14 holders of record of warrants.
Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities; Use of Proceeds From Registered Securities
There were no sales of unregistered securities by the Company during the year ended December 31, 2023.
Equity Compensation Plans
For information regarding equity compensation plans, see Item 11, Executive Compensation, of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and Note 14: Share-Based Compensation, to the consolidated financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Dividend Policy
We have never declared or paid, and do not anticipate declaring or paying, any cash dividends on our shares of common stock in the foreseeable future. It is presently intended that we will retain our earnings for use in business operations and, accordingly, it is not anticipated that our board of directors will declare dividends in the foreseeable future.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
On August 2, 2022, our Board of Directors authorized a stock repurchase program for up to $30.0 million of the Company’s common stock. The Company exhausted this program during 2023 and on September 14, 2023, the Board of Directors approved a stock repurchase program that authorizes additional repurchases of up to $25 million of shares of the Company’s common stock. The authorization does not have an expiration date. Repurchases under the program may be made in the open market, in privately negotiated transactions or otherwise, with the amount and timing of repurchases depending on market conditions and corporate needs.
We purchased and held in treasury 53,053 shares for tax withholding purposes related to our equity compensation plans during the fourth quarter of 2023. The shares purchased under our equity compensation plans were withheld to satisfy tax withholding obligations upon the vesting of restricted stock unit awards or exercise of stock options.
The following table contains information regarding our purchases of our common stock during the three months ended December 31, 2023:
PeriodTotal Number of Shares PurchasedAverage Price Paid per ShareTotal Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or ProgramsApproximate Dollar Value of Shares that May Yet Be Purchased Under the Plans or Programs
(in $000s)
October 1, 2023 to October 31, 2023
963,210 $5.64 963,210 $47,813 
November 1, 2023 to November 30, 2023
1,172,997 $5.22 1,172,997 $41,692 
December 1, 2023 to December 31, 2023
1,124,938 $6.83 1,071,885 $34,339 
Total3,261,145 $5.90 3,208,092 



Item 6.    [Reserved]
Item 7.    Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Custom Truck One Source, Inc., a Delaware corporation, and its wholly owned subsidiaries (“we,” “our,” “us,” or “the Company”) are engaged in the business of providing a range of products and services to customers through rentals and sales of specialty equipment,
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rentals and sales of aftermarket parts and services related to the specialty equipment, and repair, maintenance and customization services related to that equipment.
We are a specialty equipment provider to the electric utility transmission and distribution, telecommunications, rail and other infrastructure-related industries in North America. Our core business relates to our new equipment inventory and rental fleet of specialty equipment that is utilized by service providers in infrastructure development and improvement work. We offer our specialized equipment to a diverse customer base, including utilities and contractors, for the maintenance, repair, upgrade, and installation of critical infrastructure assets, including distribution and transmission electric lines, telecommunications networks and rail systems, as well as for lighting and signage. We rent, produce, sell and service a broad range of new and used equipment, including bucket trucks, digger derricks, dump trucks, cranes, service trucks, and heavy-haul trailers. We manage the business in three reporting segments: Equipment Rental Solutions (“ERS”), Truck and Equipment Sales (“TES”) and Aftermarket Parts and Services (“APS”).
Acquisition of Custom Truck LP
On December 3, 2020, Nesco Holdings Inc. (“Nesco” or “Nesco Holdings”) and Nesco Holdings II, Inc., a subsidiary of Nesco Holdings (the “Buyer” or “Issuer”), entered into a purchase and sale agreement with certain affiliates of The Blackstone Group and other direct and indirect equity holders of Custom Truck One Source, L.P. (“Custom Truck LP”), Blackstone Capital Partners VI-NQ L.P., and PE One Source Holdings, LLC, an affiliate of Platinum Equity, LLC, pursuant to which Buyer agreed to acquire 100% of the partnership interests of Custom Truck LP.
On April 1, 2021 (the “Closing Date”), Nesco Holdings II, Inc. completed the acquisition of Custom Truck LP (the “Acquisition”), for a purchase price of $1.5 billion. Additionally, on April 1, 2021, Nesco Holdings changed its name to “Custom Truck One Source, Inc.” For further details on the activities and transactions involved in the Acquisition, refer to Note 3: Business Combinations to the consolidated financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Financial and Performance Measures
Financial Measures
Revenue — As a full-service equipment provider, we generate revenue through renting, selling, assembling, upfitting, and servicing new and used heavy-duty trucks and cranes, as well as the sale of related parts. We also sell and rent specialized tools on an individual basis and in kits. Rental revenue is primarily comprised of revenues from rental agreements and freight charges billed to customers. The Company records changes in estimated collectability directly against rental revenue. Equipment sales revenue reflects the value of vocational trucks and other equipment sold to customers. Parts and service revenue is derived from maintenance and repair services, light upfit services, and parts, tools and accessories sold directly to customers. Rental revenue excludes active rental contracts which qualify to be accounted for as sales-type leases.
Cost of rental revenue — Cost of rental revenue reflects repairs and maintenance costs of rental equipment, parts costs, labor and other overheads related to maintaining the rental fleet, and freight associated with the shipping of rental equipment.
Depreciation of rental equipment — Depreciation of rental equipment is comprised of depreciation expense on the rental fleet. We allocate the cost of rental equipment generally over the rentable life of the equipment. The depreciation allocation is based upon estimated lives ranging from five to seven years. The cost of equipment is depreciated to an estimated residual value using the straight-line method.
Cost of equipment sales — Cost of equipment sales reflects production and inventory costs associated with new units sold, parts costs, labor and other overheads related to production, and freight associated with the shipping and receiving of equipment and parts. Cost of equipment sales also includes the net book value of rental units sold, including active rental contracts which qualify to be accounted for as sales-type leases.
Selling, general and administrative expenses — Selling, general and administrative expenses include sales compensation, fleet licensing fees and corporate expenses, including salaries, stock-based compensation expense, insurance, advertising costs, professional services, fees earned on customer arranged financing, gains or losses resulting from insurance settlements, and information technology costs.
Amortization and non-rental depreciation — Amortization expense relates to intangible assets such as customer lists, trade names, etc. Non-rental depreciation expense reflects the depreciation of property and equipment that is not part of the rental fleet.
Transaction expenses and other — Transaction expenses and other include expenses directly related to the acquisition of businesses. These expenses generally are comprised of travel and out-of-pocket expenses and legal, accounting and valuation or appraisal fees
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incurred in connection with pre- and post-closure activities. We also include costs and expenses associated with post-acquisition integration activities related to the acquired businesses.
Financing and other (income) expense — Financing and other expense (income) reflects the financing expense (income) associated with lease agreements qualifying to be accounted for as a sales-type lease, foreign currency gains and losses related to our Canadian operations, as well as other miscellaneous gains or losses from non-operating activities. Also included in financing and other expense (income) are the unrealized remeasurement gains and losses related to our interest rate collar and redeemable warrants.
Interest expense — Interest expense consists of contractual interest expense on outstanding debt obligations, floorplan financing facilities, amortization of deferred financing costs and other related financing expenses.
Income Tax Expense — We have net operating loss carryforward and disallowed interest deduction carryforward assets, which are generally available to be used to offset taxable income generated in future years. Due to limitations on the use of these carryforwards under U.S. federal and state income tax regulations, we record valuation allowances to reduce the carryforward assets to amounts that we estimate will be realized. Accordingly, income tax expense or benefit generally is comprised of changes to these valuation allowance estimates and does not reflect taxes on current period income (or tax benefit on current period losses). For these reasons, our effective tax rate differs from the federal statutory tax rate.
Operating Metrics

We consider the following key operational metrics, which are consistent with those defined by the American Rental Association, when evaluating our performance and making day-to-day operating decisions:
Ending OEC — Ending original equipment cost (“OEC”) is the original equipment cost of units at the end of the measurement period. OEC represents the original equipment cost, and excludes the effect of adjustments to rental equipment fleet acquired in business combinations. OEC is the basis for calculating certain of the measures set forth below. Additionally, the pricing of our rental contracts and equipment sales prices for our equipment is based upon OEC, and we measure a rate of return from our rentals and sales using OEC. OEC is a widely used industry metric to compare fleet dollar value independent of depreciation.
Average OEC on rent — Average OEC on rent is calculated as the weighted-average OEC on rent during the stated period.
Fleet utilization — Fleet utilization is defined as the total number of days the rental equipment was rented during a specified period of time divided by the total number of days available during the same period and weighted based on OEC. Utilization is a measure of fleet efficiency expressed as a percentage of time the fleet is on rent and is considered to be an important indicator of the revenue generating capacity of the fleet.
OEC on rent yield — OEC on rent yield (“ORY”) is a measure of return realized by our rental fleet during a period. ORY is calculated as rental revenue (excluding freight recovery and ancillary fees) during the stated period divided by the average OEC on rent for the same period. For periods less than 12 months, ORY is adjusted to an annualized basis.
Sales order backlog — Sales order backlog consists of purchase orders received for customized and stock equipment. Sales order backlog should not be considered an accurate measure of future net sales.
Operating Segments
We operate in three reportable operating segments: Equipment Rental Solutions, Truck and Equipment Sales and Aftermarket Parts and Services.
Equipment Rental Solutions (“ERS”) Segment — We own a broad range of new and used specialty equipment, including truck-mounted aerial lifts, cranes, service trucks, dump trucks, trailers, digger derricks and other machinery and equipment. As of December 31, 2023, this equipment (the “rental fleet”) is comprised of more than 10,300 units. The majority of our rental fleet can be used across a variety of end-markets, which coincides with the needs of many of our customers who operate in multiple end-markets. As is customary for equipment rental companies, we sell used equipment out of our rental fleet to end user customers. These sales are often made in response to specific customer requests. These sales offer customers an opportunity to buy well-maintained equipment with long remaining useful lives and enable us to effectively manage the age and mix of our rental fleet to match current market demand. We also employ rental purchase options (“RPOs”) on a select basis, which provide a buyout option with an established purchase price that decreases over time as rental revenue is collected. Customers are given credit against such purchase price for a portion of the amounts paid over the life of the rental, allowing customers the flexibility of a rental with the option to purchase at any time at a known price. Activities in our ERS segment consist of the rental and sale from the rental fleet of the foregoing products.
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Truck and Equipment Sales (“TES”) Segment — We offer a broad variety of new equipment for sale to be used across our end-markets, which can be modified to meet our customers’ specific needs. We believe that our integrated production capabilities and extensive knowledge gained over a long history of selling equipment have established us as a trusted partner for customers seeking tailored solutions with short lead times. In support of these activities, we primarily employ a direct-to-customer sales model, leveraging our dedicated sales force of industry and product managers, who are focused on driving national and local sales. We also opportunistically engage in the sale of used equipment purchased from third parties or received via trade-ins from new equipment sales customers. In the majority of these cases, we will sell used equipment directly to customers, rather than relying on auctions. Activities in our TES segment consist of the production and sale of new and used specialty equipment and vocational trucks, which includes equipment from leading original equipment manufacturers (“OEMs”) across our end-markets, as well as our Load KingTM brand.
Aftermarket Parts and Services (“APS”) Segment — The APS segment includes the sale of specialized aftermarket parts, including captive parts related to our Load KingTM brand, used in the maintenance and repair of the equipment we sell and rent. Specialized tools, including stringing blocks, insulated hot stick, and rigging equipment, are sold or rented to our customers on an individual basis or in packaged specialty kits. We also provide truck and equipment maintenance and repair services, which are executed throughout our nationwide branch network and fleet of mobile technicians supported by our 24/7 call center based in Kansas City, Missouri.
Overview of Markets
We continue to focus on four primary end-markets: Electric Utility Transmission and Distribution, or T&D, Telecom, Rail, Forestry, Waste Management, and Infrastructure. In the T&D end-market, we continue to observe demand for new generation assets resulting in the development of new transmission lines as well as repair projects to address advanced-age transmission and distribution grids to replace existing lines and poles. These factors resulted in continued demand from our customers of the Company’s products and services. Telecom, specifically the roll-out of 5G, has seen some positive trends over the last few years. Our existing T&D related contactor customers will continue to deliver the roll-out, and our existing equipment portfolio aligns well with the needs of this market. Rail investment, both in the freight and commuter markets, remains robust. The existing rail infrastructure is aged and in need of maintenance. Infrastructure also provides potential growth opportunities as seen by the major road and bridge maintenance work experienced across the United States.
The Company purchases raw materials, component parts and finished goods to be used in the manufacturing, sale and rental of its products. Uncertainty remains regarding supply chain disruptions, inflationary pressures, public health crises, and geopolitical risks that have led to issues, broadly, in the supply chain. Changes in the Company’s relationships with suppliers, shortages in availability of materials, production delays, regulatory restrictions, public health crises, or other supply chain disruptions, whether due to suppliers or customers, could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s ability to timely manufacture and market products. Increases in the costs of shipping and transportation, purchased raw materials, component parts or finished goods could result in manufacturing interruptions, delays, inefficiencies or the Company’s inability to market products. The Company continues to monitor the impact on its supply chain, including, but not limited to, the commercial vehicle manufacturers that provide the chassis used in the Company’s production and manufacturing processes, which could potentially limit the ability of these manufacturers to meet demand in future periods.


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Results of Operations
Year Ended December 31, 2023, Compared to the Year Ended December 31, 2022

Consolidated Results of Operations
Year Ended December 31,
(in $000s)2023% of revenue2022% of revenue$
Change
% change
Rental revenue$478,910 25.7%$464,039 29.5%$14,871 3.2%
Equipment sales1,253,453 67.2%982,341 62.4%271,112 27.6%
Parts sales and services132,737 7.1%126,706 8.1%6,031 4.8%
Total revenue1,865,100 100.0%1,573,086 100.0%292,014 18.6%
Cost of revenue, excluding rental equipment depreciation1,240,176 66.5%1,017,635 64.7%222,541 21.9%
Depreciation of rental equipment170,664 9.2%171,703 10.9%(1,039)(0.6)%
Gross profit454,260 24.4%383,748 24.4%70,512 18.4%
Total operating expenses283,312 280,440 2,872 
Operating income170,948 103,308 67,640 
Total other expense112,872 56,576 56,296 
Income before income taxes58,076 46,732 11,344 
Income tax expense7,364 7,827 (463)
Net income$50,712 $38,905 $11,807 
Total Revenue - The increase in revenue for the year ended December 31, 2023, was primarily due to strong customer demand for new equipment and used rental equipment. Equipment sales increased as the continuing improvement in supply chain challenges allowed for greater order fulfillments and our ability to replenish inventory.
Cost of Revenue, Excluding Rental Equipment Depreciation - Consistent with the increase in revenue versus the prior year, the increase in cost of revenue, excluding rental equipment depreciation, was driven primarily by the increase in new and rental equipment sales volume.
Depreciation of Rental Equipment - Depreciation expense of our rental equipment for the year ended December 31, 2023, was consistent with the prior year, decreasing by 0.6%, largely due to the timing of additions to the rental fleet.
Total Operating Expenses - Operating expenses increased for the year ended December 31, 2023, primarily as a result of an increase in general and administrative expenses due to higher commissions, increased headcount and wages, elevated marketing-related activities, and additional expense associated with various information technology projects.
Total Other Expense - The increase in other expense for the year ended December 31, 2023, was primarily due to an increase in interest expense from variable rate debt and floor plan financing liabilities, as well as a decrease in mark-to-market income from the private warrants liability (accounted for as a derivative financial instrument) to $2.5 million in 2023, from $20.3 million in 2022.
Income Tax Expense - Our overall effective tax rate is affected by a number of factors, such as the relative amounts of income we earn in differing tax jurisdictions, tax law changes, certain non-deductible expenses (non-taxable income), such as compensation disallowance and mark-to-market adjustments on derivative financial instruments, and changes in the valuation allowance we establish against deferred tax assets. The rate is also affected by discrete items that may occur in any given year, such as legislative enactments and changes in our corporate structure that may occur. These discrete items may not be consistent from year to year. For the year ended December 31, 2023, the impact of state income taxes and a tax benefit from the reduction to the valuation allowance, resulted in an overall effective tax rate in the period of 12.7%, $7.4 million of tax expense being recognized. For the year ended December 31, 2022, the impact of discrete items, including derivative mark-to-market adjustments, transaction and integration expenses, our foreign operations and changes in the valuation allowance, resulted in an overall effective tax rate in the period of 16.7%, $7.8 million of tax expense recognized.
Net Income - The change in net income for the year ended December 31, 2023, was primarily the result of gross profit expansion, partially offset by higher interest expense on variable-rate debt and variable-rate floor plan liabilities.

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Operating Metrics
We believe that our operating model, together with our highly variable cost structure, enables us to sustain high margins, strong cash flow generation and stable financial performance throughout various economic cycles. We are able to generate cash flow through our earnings. Our highly variable cost structure adjusts with the utilization of our equipment, thereby reducing our costs to match our revenue. We principally evaluate operational performance based on the following metrics: ending OEC, average OEC on rent, fleet utilization, and OEC on rent yield. We also report sales order backlog related to our customers’ orders as an indicator of the demand environment for our products. The table below presents these key measures.
Year Ended December 31,
(in $000s)20232022Change% Change
Ending OEC (as of period end)$1,455,708 $1,455,820 $(112)— 
Average OEC on rent$1,183,253 $1,187,950 $(4,697)(0.4)%
Fleet utilization80.4 %83.9 %(3.5)%(4.2)%
OEC on rent yield40.4 %39.1 %1.3 %3.3 %
Sales order backlog (as of period end)$688,559 $754,142 $(65,583)(8.7)%
Operating Results by Segment
The following segment information compares results by segment for years ended December 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022.
Equipment Rental Solutions (ERS) Segment
Year Ended December 31,
(in $000s)20232022
Rental revenue$463,139 $449,108 
Equipment sales263,028 212,146 
Total revenue726,167 661,254 
Cost of revenue:
Cost of rental revenue118,236 106,598 
Cost of equipment sales198,510 158,167 
Depreciation of rental equipment167,199 167,962 
Total cost of revenue483,945 432,727 
Gross profit$242,222 $228,527 
Total Revenue - The increase in total revenue for the ERS segment for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to the year ended December 31, 2022, was driven by an increase in rental revenues and equipment sales revenue. Continued demand across our infrastructure end-markets coupled with positive net fleet acquisition during 2023 resulted in greater levels of equipment on rent and equipment purchasing from customers.
Cost of Revenue - The increase in total cost of revenue for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to the year ended December 31, 2022, was primarily driven by the increase in cost of equipment sales, resulting from an increase in demand for rental equipment purchases by our customers. The increase is also due to higher levels of fleet maintenance due to the mix of rental returns.
Gross Profit - The increase in gross profit for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to the year ended December 31, 2022, was due to the increase in rental revenues and equipment sales for the period, partially offset by increased cost of revenue driven by factors discussed above.

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Truck and Equipment Sales (TES) Segment
Year Ended December 31,
(in $000s)20232022
Equipment sales$990,425 $770,195 
Cost of equipment sales817,639 647,685 
Gross profit$172,786 $122,510 
Equipment Sales - Equipment sales increased for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to the year ended December 31, 2022, due to the continued supply chain improvements related to the segment's inventory suppliers, which allowed for greater order fulfillments and sustained strong customer demand.
Cost of Equipment Sales - The increase in cost of equipment sales for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to the year ended December 31, 2022, was due to an increase in equipment sales.
Gross Profit - The increase in gross profit for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to the year ended December 31, 2022, is reflective of the positive demand and pricing environment for our products.

Aftermarket Parts and Services (APS) Segment
Year Ended December 31,
(in $000s)20232022
Rental revenue$15,771 $14,931 
Parts and services revenue132,737 126,706 
Total revenue148,508 141,637 
Cost of revenue:
Cost of revenue105,791 105,185 
Depreciation of rental equipment3,465 3,741 
Total cost of revenue109,256 108,926 
Gross profit$39,252 $32,711 
Total Revenue - Total revenue increased for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to the year ended December 31, 2022, driven by growth in demand for parts, tools and accessories sales, augmented by increased tools and accessories rentals in the Parts, Tools and Accessories (“PTA”) division.
Cost of Revenue - The increase in cost of revenue for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to the year ended December 31, 2022, was commensurate with the increase in volume of parts sales and rental activity, partially offset by the Company’s focus on managing costs to improve gross profit in this segment.
Gross Profit - The increase in gross profit for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to the year ended December 31, 2022, was primarily volume driven, as well as the Company’s success in cutting costs to improve gross profit.

For the Year Ended December 31, 2022, Compared to the Year Ended December 31, 2021
For a comparison of our results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2022, compared to the year ended December 31, 2021, see “Part II, Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” of our annual report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on March 14, 2023, which is incorporated herein by reference.

Liquidity and Capital Resources
For the Year Ended December 31, 2023, Compared to the Year Ended December 31, 2022
Our principal sources of liquidity include cash generated by operating activities and borrowings under revolving credit facilities as described below. We believe that our liquidity sources and operating cash flows are sufficient to address our operating, debt service
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and capital requirements, including investments in our rental fleet, over the next 12 months. As of December 31, 2023, we had $10.3 million in cash and cash equivalents compared to $14.4 million as of December 31, 2022. As of December 31, 2023, we had $552.4 million of outstanding borrowings under our ABL Facility compared to $437.7 million of outstanding borrowings as of December 31, 2022.

Loan Covenants and Compliance
The ABL Facility contains customary negative covenants for transactions of this type, including covenants that, among other things, limit Buyer’s and its restricted subsidiaries’ ability to: incur additional indebtedness; pay dividends, redeem stock, or make other distributions; repurchase, prepay or redeem subordinated indebtedness; make investments; create restrictions on the ability of Buyer’s restricted subsidiaries to pay dividends to Buyer; create liens; transfer or sell assets; consolidate, merge, sell, or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of Buyer’s assets; enter into certain transactions with Buyer’s affiliates; and designate subsidiaries as unrestricted subsidiaries, in each case subject to certain exceptions, as well as a restrictive covenant applicable to each Specified Floor Plan Company (as defined in the ABL Credit Agreement) limiting its ability to own certain assets and engage in certain lines of business. The covenants governing the payment of dividends and making other distributions are based upon a combination of fixed amounts, percentages of Adjusted EBITDA or upon multiple pro forma measures depending on the purpose of any such dividend payments or distributions the Buyer and its restricted subsidiaries are permitted to make. Unlimited dividends under the ABL Facility may be permitted so long as, on a pro forma basis, “distribution conditions” (as defined in the ABL Credit Agreement governing the ABL Facility) are satisfied. As of December 31, 2023, the Company’s distribution conditions were satisfied and, as a result, the Company determined there were no restrictions on distribution by the Buyer and its restricted subsidiaries by the ABL Credit Agreement.
The Indenture contains covenants that limit the Issuer’s (and certain of its subsidiaries’) ability to, among other things: (i) incur additional debt or issue certain preferred stock; (ii) pay dividends, redeem stock, or make other distributions; (iii) make other restricted payments or investments; (iv) create liens on assets; (v) transfer or sell assets; (vi) create restrictions on payment of dividends or other amounts by the Issuer to the Issuer’s restricted subsidiaries; (vii) engage in mergers or consolidations; (viii) engage in certain transactions with affiliates; or (ix) designate the Issuer’s subsidiaries as unrestricted subsidiaries. The covenants governing the payment of dividends and making other distributions are based upon a combination of fixed amounts, percentages of Adjusted EBITDA or upon multiple pro forma measures depending on the purpose of any such dividend payments or distributions the Issuer and its restricted subsidiaries are permitted to make. Unlimited dividends, under 2029 Indenture, may be made so long as after giving effect to making the dividends, the consolidated total debt ratio would be no greater than 5.00 to 1.00 on a pro forma basis. As of December 31, 2023, the Company’s consolidated total debt ratio was not greater than 5.00 to 1.00 and, as a result, the Company determined there were no restrictions on distribution by the Issuer and its restricted subsidiaries by the Indenture. See Note 9: Long-Term Debt in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements under Part II, Item 8 for more information.
The Company presents Adjusted EBITDA calculated in accordance with “Consolidated EBITDA” as that term is used in the ABL Credit Agreement and the Indenture. Adjusted EBITDA is defined as net income, as adjusted for provision for income taxes, interest expense, net, depreciation of rental equipment and non-rental depreciation and amortization, and further adjusted for the impact of the fair value mark-up of acquired rental fleet (the “non-cash purchase accounting impact”), business acquisition and merger-related costs, including integration, the impact of accounting for certain of our rental contracts with customers that are accounted for under GAAP as a sales-type lease and stock compensation expense.
The Company presents Net Leverage Ratio, which is equivalent to Consolidated Total Net Leverage Ratio in our ABL Credit Agreement and Consolidated Total Debt Ratio in the Indenture, is defined as Net Debt over Adjusted EBITDA. Net debt is defined as total debt (calculated as current and long-term debt, excluding deferred financing fees, plus current and long-term finance lease obligations) minus cash and cash equivalents.
Our creditors utilize Adjusted EBITDA and Net Leverage Ratio to assess our compliance with the restrictive covenants in the ABL Credit Agreement and the Indenture. Neither Adjusted EBITDA or Net Leverage Ratio is calculated in accordance with GAAP and may not conform to the calculation of Adjusted EBITDA or Net Leverage Ratio used by other companies. Neither Adjusted EBITDA or Net leverage Ratio should be considered as a substitute for a measure of our financial performance or liquidity prepared in accordance with GAAP.
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The following table provides the calculation of Adjusted EBITDA pursuant to the ABL Credit Agreement and the Indenture for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022:
Year Ended December 31,
(in $000s)20232022$ Change% Change
Net income$50,712 $38,905 $11,807 30.3 %
Interest expense94,694 76,265 18,429 24.2 %
Income tax expense7,364 7,827 (463)(5.9)%
Depreciation and amortization218,993 223,483 (4,490)(2.0)%
EBITDA371,763 346,480 25,283 7.3 %
   Adjustments:
   Non-cash purchase accounting impact (1)19,742 23,069 (3,327)(14.4)%
   Transaction and integration costs (2)14,143 26,218 (12,075)(46.1)%
   Sales-type lease adjustment (3)10,458 5,204 5,254 101.0 %
   Share-based payments (4)13,309 12,297 1,012 8.2 %
Change in fair value of derivative and warrants (5)(2,485)(20,290)17,805 (87.8)%
Adjusted EBITDA$426,930 $392,978 $33,952 8.6 %

(1) Represents the non-cash impact of purchase accounting, net of accumulated depreciation, on the cost of equipment and inventory sold. The equipment and inventory acquired received a purchase accounting step-up in basis, which is a non-cash adjustment to the equipment cost pursuant to our ABL Credit Agreement.
(2) Represents transaction and process improvement costs related to acquisitions of businesses, including post-acquisition integration costs, which are recognized within operating expenses in our Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income (Loss). These expenses are comprised of professional consultancy, legal, tax and accounting fees. Also included are expenses associated with the integration of acquired businesses. These expenses are presented as adjustments to net income pursuant to our ABL Credit Agreement.
(3) Represents the impact of sales-type lease accounting for certain leases containing RPOs, as the application of sales-type lease accounting is not deemed to be representative of the ongoing cash flows of the underlying rental contracts. The adjustments are made pursuant to our ABL Credit Agreement.
Year Ended December 31,
(in $000s)20232022
Equipment sales$(58,064)$(41,525)
Cost of equipment sales55,716 37,582 
Gross profit(2,348)(3,943)
Interest income(16,065)(12,130)
Rental invoiced28,871 21,277 
Sales-type lease adjustment$10,458 $5,204 
(4) Represents non-cash share-based compensation expense associated with the issuance of stock options and restricted stock units.
(5) Represents the charge to earnings for our interest rate collar and the change in fair value of the liability for warrants.







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The following table presents the calculation of Net Debt and Net Leverage Ratio:
(in $000s)December 31, 2023December 31, 2022
Current maturities of long-term debt$8,257 $6,940 
Current portion of finance lease obligations— 1,796 
Long-term debt, net1,487,136 1,354,766 
Finance leases— 3,206 
Deferred financing fees22,406 27,686 
Less: cash and cash equivalents(10,309)(14,360)
Net Debt$1,507,490 $1,380,034 
Divided by: Adjusted EBITDA426,930 392,978 
Net Leverage Ratio3.53 3.51 

Future Contractual Obligations
Our estimated future obligations as of December 31, 2023 include both short-term (over the next 12 months) and long-term obligations. We expect that our principal short-term (over the next 12 months) and long-term needs for cash relating to our operations will be to fund operating activities and working capital, the purchase of rental equipment and inventories for vocational truck production and parts and accessories products, human capital costs (which are not accurately estimable), payments due under leases, debt service, and acquisitions. We plan to fund such cash requirements from our existing sources of cash. In addition, we may seek additional financing through the use of additional operating leases or other financing sources as market conditions permit.
Our expected material contractual cash requirements over the next twelve months primarily consist of minimum operating lease obligations of $8.8 million, debt principal and interest payments of $8.0 million and $101.8 million, respectively, and the repayment of floor plan borrowings. We enter into purchase agreements with manufacturers and suppliers of chassis, parts and components and attachments, for our rental fleet and inventory. The purchase agreements are cancellable within a specified notification period to the supplier. Such amounts are not estimable as of December 31, 2023.
Operating Lease Payments. We have short-term and long-term minimum cash requirements for operating lease payments of $8.8 million and $41.6 million, respectively. The total amounts do not equal the carrying amount due to imputed interest. See Note 10: Leases as Lessee in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements under Part II, Item 8, for a summary of the estimated future repayment terms for the operating lease amounts.
Floor Plan Financing. We have floor plan payables of $662.3 million at December 31, 2023 that represent financing arrangement to facilitate our purchase of chassis, parts, components and attachments inventory. All floor plan payables are collateralized by the inventory financed. These payables become due and payable upon the sale, transfer, or reclassification of each unit to inventory. See Note 7: Floor Plan Financing in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements under Part II, Item 8, for obligations related to trade and non-trade floor plan financings.

Notes Payable and Loan Principal and Interest Payments. We have short-term and long-term cash requirements of $8.0 million and $1,509.8 million, respectively, for the payment of principal related to notes payable and loans as of December 31, 2023. The total amount does not equal the carrying amount due to unamortized deferred charges. See Note 9: Long-Term Debt in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements under Part II, Item 8 for more information.

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Sources and Uses of Cash
The following table summarizes our sources and uses of cash:
Year Ended December 31,
(in $000s)20232022
Net cash flow from operating activities$(30,883)$45,968 
Net cash flow from investing activities(176,598)(218,936)
Net cash flow from financing activities202,876 153,896 
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents554 (2,470)
Net change in cash and cash equivalents$(4,051)$(21,542)
As of December 31, 2023, we had cash and cash equivalents of $10.3 million, a decrease of $4.1 million from December 31, 2022. Generally, we manage our cash flow by using any excess cash, after considering our working capital and capital expenditure needs, including paying down the outstanding balance under our ABL Facility, and availability under our credit facilities.
Cash Flows from Operating Activities
Net cash used in operating activities was $30.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, as compared to $46.0 million provided by operating activities in the same period of 2022. The use of cash in the current period is the result of our increased levels of inventory purchases and production.
Cash Flows from Investing Activities
Net cash used in investing activities was $176.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, as compared to cash used in investing activities of $218.9 million in 2022. The decrease in cash used in investing activities is due to the cash paid for acquisition, net of cash acquired, in 2022 of $49.8 million as well as an increase in proceeds from sales and disposals of rental equipment of $23.7 million, partially offset by an increase in purchases for rental and non-rental equipment and cloud computing arrangements of $31.2 million.
Cash Flows from Financing Activities
Net cash provided by financing activities was $202.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, as compared to $153.9 million in 2022. The increase in cash provided by financing activities is primarily due to an increase in borrowings under revolving credit facilities of $68.0 million, partially offset by an increase in cash paid for the repurchase of common stock of $28.6 million.
Year Ended December 31, 2022, Compared to the Year Ended December 31, 2021
For a comparison of our liquidity and capital resources for the year ended December 31, 2022, compared to the year ended December 31, 2021, see “Part II, Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” of our annual report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022, filed with the Securities and exchange Commission on March 14, 2023, which is incorporated herein by reference.

Critical Accounting Estimates
We prepare our consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (“GAAP”). In applying accounting principles it is often required to use estimates. These estimates consider the facts, circumstances, and information available, and may be based on subjective inputs, assumptions, and information known and unknown to us. Material changes in certain of the estimates that we use, could potentially affect, by a material amount, our consolidated financial position and results of operations. Although results may vary, we believe our estimates are reasonable and appropriate. See Note 2: Summary of Significant Accounting Policies in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements under Part II, Item 8 thereof. The following describes certain of our significant accounting policies that involve more subjective and complex judgments where the effect on our consolidated financial position and operating performance could be material.
Useful Lives and Salvage Values of Rental Equipment
Our rentable equipment consists of aftermarket parts and specialized rental equipment. Purchases of our equipment are recorded at cost and we depreciate the cost to an estimated salvage value. We depreciate our aftermarket parts over their estimated useful rentable life of five years. We depreciate our rental equipment over its estimated useful rentable life of one to seven years with an estimated residual value of 0% to 35% of the cost, using the straight-line method. Useful life is estimated based upon the expected period the
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equipment will be in the fleet as a rentable unit. A salvage value is estimated to approximate the value of the equipment at the end of its useful (i.e., rentable) life, allowing for a reasonable profit margin on the sale of the equipment when we remove the unit from the fleet. In establishing useful lives and salvage values, we consider factors related to customer demand of differing types of equipment in order for us to hold and maintain an optimal mix of equipment types in our fleet. We also continuously evaluate factors related to the condition and serviceability of the equipment in our fleet in order to make estimates of useful life and expected end-of-life value. Depreciation of our equipment is recognized as a component of our cost of revenue. For sold equipment, the carrying value of an item is recognized as cost of equipment sale within cost of revenue. Changes in estimated useful life and/or salvage value would impact our gross profit in our consolidated financial statements. To the extent that the useful lives of our rental equipment were to increase or decrease by one year, we estimate that our annual depreciation expense would increase or decrease by approximately $149.6 million, respectively. Similarly, to the extent the estimated salvage values of our rental equipment were to increase or decrease by one percentage point, we estimate that our annual depreciation expense would change by approximately $3.4 million. Any change in depreciation expense as a result of a hypothetical change in either useful lives or salvage values would generally result in a proportional increase or decrease in the gross profit we would recognize upon the ultimate sale of the asset.
Business Combinations
We have made acquisitions in the past and may continue to make acquisitions in the future. We allocate the cost of the acquired enterprise to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed based on their respective fair values at the date of acquisition. Rental equipment generally represents the largest component and was 37% of total assets acquired during the two years ended December 31, 2022, followed by goodwill at 30% and other intangible assets at 20%. There were no acquisitions made during the year ended December 31, 2023. Goodwill is attributable to the synergies and economies of scale expected from the combination of the businesses.
In addition to long-lived fixed assets, we also acquire other assets and assume liabilities. These other assets and liabilities typically include, but are not limited to, parts inventory, accounts receivable, accounts payable, deferred revenue and other working capital items. Because of their short-term nature, the fair values of these other assets and liabilities generally approximate the carrying values reflected on the acquired entities’ balance sheets. However, when appropriate, we adjust these carrying values for factors such as collectability and existence. The intangible assets that we have acquired included goodwill and customer relationships. Goodwill was calculated as the excess of the cost of the acquired entity over the fair value of the net assets acquired. Customer relationships were valued based on an excess earnings or income approach with consideration to projected cash flows.
Our estimates of the values of tangible assets from our business combinations, principally rental equipment, utilize data that reflect quoted prices for similar assets available in active markets (such as the used equipment market). For this reason, estimates of the fair values of these items is not considered to be highly subjective or complex. However, to estimate the values of intangible assets we utilize income methods that involve forecasting future cash flow related to the acquired businesses. The estimates of future cash flow require us to establish expectations about customer demand, investments in maintaining or expanding infrastructure for the markets the businesses serve, and the supply and capacity of equipment in the rental market, among others. Additionally, we are required to establish expectations for the businesses’ cost of capital and ability to acquire and maintain equipment in the future. Critical estimates utilized in valuing intangible assets acquired include, but are not limited to, free cash flows, taxes, amortization, customer attrition rates, discount rates and long-term growth rates. Changes in these assumptions would have an impact to the amount of intangible assets recorded and the resulting amortization expense.
Goodwill and the Evaluation of Goodwill Impairment
Goodwill represents the excess of cost over the fair value of identifiable net assets of businesses acquired. We review goodwill for impairment at least annually or more frequently as warranted by triggering events that indicate potential impairment. The Company may perform qualitative and quantitative impairment analyses on October 1 annually to evaluate whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of its reporting units is less than their respective carrying amounts as of the annual assessment date. Goodwill is analyzed for impairment at the reporting unit level, which we have determined to be our operating segments, ERS, TES, and APS. A qualitative assessment (“Step 0 test”) may include, but is not limited to, reviewing factors such as macroeconomic conditions, industry and market considerations, cost factors, financial performance and other entity or reporting unit specific events. When performing a Step 0 test, if we determine that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying value, we then perform a quantitative goodwill impairment analysis (“Step 1 test”) by comparing the carrying amount to an estimate of the fair value of the reporting unit. We performed the Step 0 test for each of our reporting units and supplemented the analysis by performing a Step 1 test specific to the ERS and APS reporting units as of October 1, 2023. In performing the supplemental Step 1 test in 2023 related to the ERS and APS reporting units, we estimated the fair value of each reporting unit using the income approach. The income approach utilizes assumptions regarding estimated future cash flows and other factors to determine the fair value of the respective assets.
Factors that management must estimate when performing impairment tests include rental and sales volumes and prices, inflation, discount rates, tax rates and capital spending. Significant management judgment is involved in estimating these factors, and they
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include inherent uncertainties. The estimates of future cash flow require us to establish expectations about customer demand, investments in maintaining or expanding infrastructure for the markets each reporting unit serves, and the supply and capacity of equipment in the rental market, among others. Additionally, we are required to establish expectations for the businesses’ cost of capital and ability to acquire and maintain equipment in the future. Measurement of the recoverability of these assets is dependent upon the accuracy of the assumptions used in making these estimates, as well as how the estimates compare to our eventual future operating performance. Changes in these estimates, many of which fall under Level 3 within the fair value measurement hierarchy (refer to Note 2: Summary of Significant Accounting Policies – Fair Value Measurements to the consolidated financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K), could change our conclusion regarding the impairment of goodwill assets and potentially reduce the carrying value of goodwill on our balance sheet and reduce our income in the year in which it is recorded.
As a result of our analyses, the Company determined that there was no impairment of goodwill.
Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
Allowance for doubtful accounts represents our estimate of current expected credit losses on our trade accounts receivable. Accounts receivable from customers are generated from our leasing, sales and service businesses. We make judgments regarding our expected credit losses, which are based on an assessment of historical credit losses, ability of customers to pay, current financial conditions of customers, as well as forecasts of collections and losses. Other factors that could lead to credit losses include adverse trends in the end-market industries that we serve and macroeconomic trends, each of which is considered in our forecasts. Estimated credit losses related to accounts receivable generated through leasing activities are recorded as a reduction to rental revenue. Estimated credit losses related to accounts receivable generated through sales and service activities are recorded within selling, general and administrative expense. The allowance for doubtful accounts represents our estimate of credit losses expected on our trade receivables. Although we believe that our estimates and judgments are reasonable, actual results may differ from these estimates. At December 31, 2023, a 100 basis point increase to our credit loss estimate would increase our allowance for doubtful accounts by approximately $0.9 million.
Income Taxes
We account for income taxes under the asset and liability method, which requires the recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences (meaning, inclusions of income and deductions in income tax returns to be filed in future periods) of events that have been included in the financial statements. These items may be referred to as “temporary differences.” Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the differences between their financial statement carrying amount (or, basis) and the carrying amount for taxes (or, tax basis) using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to affect income in the future tax filings. The effect of a change in tax rates on deferred tax assets and liabilities is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date.
We record deferred tax assets to the extent we believe that it is more likely than not that these assets will be realized in the future. Future realization of deferred income tax assets (meaning, items that may provide tax deductions in future periods) requires evidence that there will be sufficient taxable income in those future periods, or within any carryback periods available under tax law. We evaluate the realizability of our deferred tax assets on a quarterly basis. To be realized, there must be an objective and verifiable basis for the expectation of taxable income in future periods to offset, or “consume,” the deferred tax assets. The evaluation includes the consideration of all available factors, both positive and negative, regarding (i) the estimated future reversals of existing taxable temporary differences (that is, deferred tax liabilities), (ii) forecasted future taxable income, exclusive of those reversing temporary differences and carryforwards, (iii) historical taxable income in prior carryback periods, if carryback is permitted, and (iv) potential tax planning strategies that may be employed to prevent an operating loss or tax credit carryforward from expiring unused. The verifiable evidence, such as future reversals of existing temporary differences and the ability to carryback, are considered before estimated future taxable income (exclusive of temporary differences and tax planning strategies) is considered because future taxable income estimates are more subjective. The majority of our deferred tax assets are comprised of income tax carryforwards, including federal and state net operating loss carryforwards (“NOLs”) and non-deductible interest expense carryforwards. Some of these carryforwards are subject to annual usage limitations and expiration, while other state NOLs and a portion of federal NOLs do not have expirations.
While we remain in a financial reporting loss position based on a cumulative pre-tax loss for the three-year period ended December 31, 2023, the determination of the valuation allowance is based on our evaluation of the periods over which future taxable items are expected to be utilized to offset tax loss and deduction carryforward items in those future periods. That is, future forecasts of our taxable income are not considered in the evaluation of realizability of our deferred tax assets. Therefore, changes in our deferred tax asset valuation allowances will primarily be affected by changes in the estimates of the time periods over which those future taxable items will occur. At December 31, 2023, our deferred tax asset valuation allowance was $67.6 million.

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Recent Accounting Pronouncements
See Note 2: Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, to our Annual Report on Form 10-K for a discussion of recently issued and adopted accounting pronouncements.

Item 7A.     Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Interest rate risk
We are subject to interest rate market risk in connection with our long-term debt. Our principal interest rate exposure relates to outstanding amounts under our ABL facility and our floor plan financing arrangements. Interest rate changes generally impact the amount of our interest payments and, therefore, our future net income and cash flows, assuming other factors are held constant. As of December 31, 2023, we had $1,214.7 million aggregate principal amount of variable rate debt, consisting of the balance outstanding under the ABL Facility and floor plan financing arrangements. Holding other variables constant, each one-eighth percentage point increase or decrease in the applicable interest rates would correspondingly change our interest expense under the ABL Facility and floor plan financing arrangements by approximately $1.5 million on an annual basis.
We, from time to time, may manage a portion of our risks from exposures to fluctuations in interest rates as part of our risk management program through the use of derivative financial instruments. The objective of controlling these risks is to limit the impact on earnings and cash flows caused by fluctuations in the interest rates of our variable-rate debt.
Foreign currency exchange rate risk
During the year ended December 31, 2023, we generated $48.6 million of revenue in Canadian dollars. Each 100 basis point increase or decrease in the average Canadian dollar to U.S. dollar exchange rate for the year would have correspondingly changed our revenues by approximately $0.5 million. We do not currently hedge our exchange rate exposure.
37

Item 8.    Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

Custom Truck One Source, Inc. and Subsidiaries
Consolidated Financial Statements Index
Page No.
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm - Ernst & Young LLP (PCAOB ID No. 42)
Consolidated Financial Statements:
Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income (Loss)
Consolidated Balance Sheets
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity (Deficit)
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
38

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
To the Stockholders and the Board of Directors of Custom Truck One Source, Inc.
Opinion on the Financial Statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Custom Truck One Source, Inc. (the Company) as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, the related consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss), stockholders’ equity (deficit) and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2023, and the related notes and financial statement schedule listed in the Index at Item 15(a) (collectively referred to as the “consolidated financial statements”). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company at December 31, 2023 and 2022, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2023, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.

We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (2013 framework) and our report dated March 7, 2024 expressed an adverse opinion thereon.
Basis for Opinion
These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audit. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
Critical Audit Matter
The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current period audit of the financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that: (1) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective or complex judgments. The communication of the critical audit matter does not alter in any way our opinion on the consolidated financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matter or on the account or disclosure to which it relates.
39

Valuation of Goodwill of the Equipment Rental Solutions and Aftermarket Parts and Services Reporting Units
Description of the Matter
At December 31, 2023, the Company’s goodwill was $704.0 million with $498.8 million assigned to the Equipment Rental Solutions (ERS) reporting unit and $37.9 million assigned to the Aftermarket Parts and Services (APS) reporting unit. As described in Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements, goodwill is tested for impairment annually on October 1st and whenever events or circumstances indicate a reporting unit’s fair value may be less than its carrying value. The Company estimates the fair value of its reporting units using the income approach using discounted estimated future cash flows.

Auditing management's annual goodwill impairment analysis for the ERS and APS reporting units was complex and highly judgmental due to the significant estimation required by management to determine the fair value of the reporting units. In particular, the income approach fair value estimates were sensitive to significant assumptions, such as the revenue growth and discount rate for the ERS and APS reporting units, which are affected by expectations about future market or economic conditions.

How We Addressed the Matter in Our Audit
We obtained an understanding of the Company’s goodwill impairment assessment for the ERS and APS reporting units.

To test the estimated fair values of the Company’s ERS and APS reporting units, we performed audit procedures that included, among others, evaluating the valuation methodology and testing the significant assumptions discussed above used by the Company in its analysis. We involved our internal valuation specialists to assist in the evaluation of the valuation methodology and testing certain significant assumptions, including the discount rate. We compared the significant assumptions, such as revenue growth, used by management to current industry and economic data, recent historical performance and other factors. We assessed the historical accuracy of management’s estimates and performed sensitivity analyses of significant assumptions to evaluate the changes in the fair values of the reporting units that would result from changes in the assumptions. We also tested the underlying data used by the Company in its analysis for completeness and accuracy.
/s/ Ernst & Young LLP
We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2021.
Kansas City, Missouri
March 7, 2024
40

Custom Truck One Source, Inc.
Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income (Loss)
For the Years Ended
(in $000s, except per share data)202320222021
Revenue
Rental revenue$478,910 $464,039 $370,067 
Equipment sales1,253,453 982,341 695,334 
Parts sales and services132,737 126,706 101,753 
Total revenue1,865,100 1,573,086 1,167,154 
Cost of Revenue
Cost of rental revenue120,198 110,272 99,885 
Depreciation of rental equipment170,664 171,703 157,110 
Cost of equipment sales1,016,149 805,852 618,444 
Cost of parts sales and services103,829 101,511 81,702 
Total cost of revenue1,410,840 1,189,338 957,141 
Gross Profit454,260 383,748 210,013 
Operating Expenses
Selling, general and administrative expenses231,403 210,868 155,783 
Amortization27,110 33,940 40,754 
Non-rental depreciation10,656 9,414 3,613 
Transaction expenses and other14,143 26,218 51,830 
Total operating expenses283,312 280,440 251,980 
Operating Income (Loss)170,948 103,308 (41,967)
Other Expense
Loss on extinguishment of debt  61,695 
Interest expense, net131,315 88,906 72,843 
Financing and other (income) expense(18,443)(32,330)571 
Total other expense112,872 56,576 135,109 
Income (Loss) Before Income Taxes58,076 46,732 (177,076)
Income Tax Expense7,364 7,827 4,425 
Net Income (Loss)$50,712 $38,905 $(181,501)
Other Comprehensive Income (Loss):
Unrealized foreign currency translation adjustments, net$2,969 $(8,947)$ 
Other Comprehensive Income (Loss)2,969 (8,947) 
Comprehensive Income (Loss)$53,681 $29,958 $(181,501)
Net Income (Loss) Per Share:
Basic$0.21 $0.16 $(0.75)
Diluted$0.21 $0.16 $(0.75)
Weighted-Average Common Shares Outstanding:
Basic (in thousands)245,093 247,152 241,370 
Diluted (in thousands)245,726 247,705 241,370 
See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.
41

Custom Truck One Source, Inc.
Consolidated Balance Sheets
(in $000s, except share data)December 31, 2023December 31, 2022
Assets
Current Assets
Cash and cash equivalents$10,309 $14,360 
Accounts receivable, net 215,089 193,106 
Financing receivables, net30,845 38,271 
Inventory985,794 596,724 
Prepaid expenses and other23,862 25,784 
Total current assets1,265,899 868,245 
Property and equipment, net142,115 121,956 
Rental equipment, net916,704 883,674 
Goodwill704,011 703,827 
Intangible assets, net277,212 304,132 
Operating lease assets38,426 29,434 
Other assets23,430 26,944 
Total Assets$3,367,797 $2,938,212 
Liabilities and Stockholders' Equity
Current Liabilities
Accounts payable$117,653 $87,255 
Accrued expenses73,847 68,784 
Deferred revenue and customer deposits28,758 34,671 
Floor plan payables - trade253,197 136,634 
Floor plan payables - non-trade409,113 293,536 
Operating lease liabilities - current6,564 5,262 
Current maturities of long-term debt8,257 6,940 
Current portion of finance lease obligations 1,796 
Total current liabilities897,389 634,878 
Long-term debt, net1,487,136 1,354,766 
Finance leases 3,206 
Operating lease liabilities - noncurrent32,714 24,818 
Deferred income taxes33,355 29,086 
Warrants and other liabilities 3,015 
Total long-term liabilities1,553,205 1,414,891 
Stockholders' Equity
Common stock — $0.0001 par value, 500,000,000 shares authorized, 249,903,120 and 248,311,104 shares issued and outstanding, at December 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively
25 25 
Treasury stock, at cost — 8,891,788 and 2,241,069 shares at December 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively
(56,524)(15,537)
Additional paid-in capital1,537,553 1,521,487 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(5,978)(8,947)
Accumulated deficit(557,873)(608,585)
Total stockholders' equity917,203 888,443 
Total Liabilities and Stockholders' Equity$3,367,797 $2,938,212 
See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.
42

Custom Truck One Source, Inc.
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
Years Ended December 31,
(in $000s)202320222021
Operating Activities
Net income (loss)$50,712 $38,905 $(181,501)
Adjustments to reconcile net income (loss) to net cash flow from operating activities:
Depreciation and amortization218,993 223,483 209,073 
Amortization of debt issuance costs5,653 4,860 4,740 
Loss on extinguishment of debt  61,695 
Provision for losses on accounts receivable8,522 12,650 11,103 
Share-based compensation13,309 12,297 17,313 
Gain on sales and disposals of rental equipment(67,721)(55,213)(11,636)
Change in fair value of derivative and warrants(2,485)(20,290)6,192 
Deferred tax expense4,241 7,387 3,863 
Changes in assets and liabilities:
Accounts and financing receivables(20,879)(36,821)(37,716)
Inventories(388,063)(194,691)46,574 
Prepaids, operating leases and other3,518 (11,936)(6,123)
Accounts payable28,339 (5,589)8,060 
Accrued expenses and other liabilities4,339 8,108 5,580 
Floor plan payables - trade, net116,563 63,920 (18,276)
Customer deposits and deferred revenue(5,924)(1,102)19,985 
Net cash flow from operating activities(30,883)45,968 138,926 
Investing Activities
Acquisition of businesses, net of cash acquired (49,832)(1,337,686)
Purchases of rental equipment(364,190)(340,791)(188,389)
Proceeds from sales and disposals of rental equipment229,559 205,852 99,833 
Purchase of non-rental property and cloud computing arrangements(41,967)(34,165)(3,238)
Net cash flow from investing activities(176,598)(218,936)(1,429,480)
Financing Activities
Proceeds from debt21,417  952,743 
Proceeds from issuance of common stock  883,000 
Payment of common stock issuance costs  (6,386)
Payment of premiums on debt extinguishment  (53,469)
Share-based payments792 (1,838)(652)
Borrowings under revolving credit facilities221,046 153,036 491,084 
Repayments under revolving credit facilities(106,377)(110,249)(347,111)
Repayments of notes payable(7,679)(1,012)(507,509)
Finance lease payments(2,682)(3,955)(5,223)
Repurchase of common stock(38,845)(10,279) 
Acquisition of inventory through floor plan payables - non-trade789,199 619,896 304,902 
Repayment of floor plan payables - non-trade(673,622)(491,599)(353,641)
Payment of debt issuance costs(373)(104)(34,694)
Net cash flow from financing activities202,876 153,896 1,323,044 
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents554 (2,470) 
Net Change in Cash and Cash Equivalents(4,051)(21,542)32,490 
Cash and Cash Equivalents at Beginning of Period14,360 35,902 3,412 
Cash and Cash Equivalents at End of Period$10,309 $14,360 $35,902 


Custom Truck One Source, Inc.
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows — Continued
Years Ended December 31,
(in $000s)202320222021
Supplemental Cash Flow Information
Interest paid$122,868 $81,177 $92,625 
Income taxes paid2,133 567 541 
Non-Cash Investing and Financing Activities
Non-cash consideration - acquisition of business  187,935 
Property and equipment purchases in accounts payable2,120