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UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended April 2, 2022
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                    to
Commission File Number 000-08822
CAVCO INDUSTRIES INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware56-2405642
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
3636 North Central Ave, Ste 1200
PhoenixArizona85012
(Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)
(602) 256-6263
(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading SymbolName of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.01CVCOThe Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
(Nasdaq Global Select Market)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  ý    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes  ¨    No  ý
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  ý    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes  ý    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large Accelerated FilerýAccelerated Filer
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Emerging Growth Company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No  ý
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates as of October 2, 2021 (based on the closing price on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on October 2, 2021) was $1,182,534,831. Shares of Common Stock held by each officer, director and holder of 5% or more of the outstanding Common Stock have been excluded in that such persons may be deemed affiliates. This determination of affiliate status is not necessarily a conclusive determination for other purposes.
As of May 20, 2022, 8,887,465 shares of the registrant's Common Stock, $0.01 par value, were outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of Cavco Industries, Inc.'s Definitive Proxy Statement relating to its 2022 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, which is expected to be filed within 120 days following the end of the registrant's fiscal year ended April 2, 2022, are incorporated by reference into Part III hereof.



CAVCO INDUSTRIES, INC.
ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED APRIL 2, 2022
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
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PART I
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
General
Cavco Industries, Inc., a Delaware corporation, was formed on June 30, 2003, as a successor corporation to previous Cavco entities operating since 1965. Headquartered in Phoenix, Arizona, we design and produce factory-built homes primarily distributed through a network of independent and Company-owned retailers, planned community operators and residential developers. We are one of the largest producers of manufactured homes in the United States, based on reported wholesale shipments. Our products are marketed under a variety of brand names including Cavco, Fleetwood, Palm Harbor, Nationwide, Fairmont, Friendship, Chariot Eagle, Destiny, Commodore, Colony, Pennwest, R-Anell, Manorwood and MidCountry. We are also a leading producer of park model RVs, vacation cabins and factory-built commercial structures. Our finance subsidiary, CountryPlace Acceptance Corp. ("CountryPlace"), is an approved Federal National Mortgage Association ("FNMA" or "Fannie Mae") and Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation ("FHLMC" or "Freddie Mac") seller/servicer, and a Government National Mortgage Association ("GNMA" or "Ginnie Mae") mortgage-backed securities issuer that offers conforming mortgages, non-conforming mortgages and home-only loans to purchasers of factory-built homes. Our insurance subsidiary, Standard Casualty Company ("Standard Casualty"), provides property and casualty insurance primarily to owners of manufactured homes. The terms "Cavco," "us," "we," "our," the "Company," and any other similar terms refer to Cavco Industries, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries, unless otherwise indicated in this Annual Report on Form 10-K ("Annual Report").
We construct homes using an assembly-line process in which each module or floor section is completed in stages. This assembly-line process is designed to be flexible in order to accommodate customer requested customizations. Our operations include 26 homebuilding production lines located throughout the United States and we distribute our homes through 45 Company-owned U.S. retail stores and a network of independent distribution points in 48 states and Canada. Thirty-one Company-owned retail stores are located in Texas.
On September 24, 2021, we purchased certain manufactured housing assets and assumed certain liabilities of The Commodore Corporation ("Commodore"), including its six manufacturing facilities and two wholly-owned retail locations. The addition of Commodore expanded our geographic reach into the Northeast U.S. and enhanced our presence in the Midwest and Mid-Atlantic markets. It also expanded our reach to modular home customers, as their home production is generally split between manufactured and modular housing. Implementation of best practices of the Company and Commodore are expected to create efficiency improvements across our operations. In addition to our proven existing processes we can bring to the Commodore operations, we believe Commodore has developed and implemented advanced manufacturing technologies that will lead to improvements to Cavco's operations. Commodore also participates in commercial lending operations with its dealers, and we have continued most of these programs after acquisition. The transaction was accounted for as a business combination and the results of operations have been included in the accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements since the date of acquisition.
CountryPlace originates and services single-family, conforming and non-confirming residential mortgages and home-only loans, for itself and others. CountryPlace is authorized by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development ("HUD") to directly endorse Federal Housing Administration ("FHA") Title I and Title II mortgage insurance, is an approved lender with the U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs ("VA") and the U.S. Department of Agriculture ("USDA") under its Single Family Housing Guaranteed Loan Program, is approved by GNMA to issue GNMA-insured mortgage-backed securities and is authorized to sell mortgages to, and service mortgages for, FNMA and FHLMC. A conforming mortgage or loan is one that conforms to the guidelines of a Government-Sponsored Enterprise ("GSE"), such as Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac or a government agency, such as FHA; a non-conforming mortgage or loan does not conform to these guidelines. For further information relating to consumer loans receivable (see Note 6 to the Consolidated Financial Statements).
Standard Casualty, located in Texas, specializes in homeowner property and casualty insurance products for the manufactured housing industry and holds insurance licenses in multiple states, primarily serving the Texas, Arizona, New Mexico and Nevada markets. In addition to writing direct policies, Standard Casualty assumes and cedes reinsurance in the ordinary course of business (see Note 14 to the Consolidated Financial Statements).
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See Note 23 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for financial information regarding the Company's business segments, factory-built housing and financial services, which are also discussed below.
Business Strategies
Our operations are generally managed on a decentralized basis with oversight from the home office. This decentralization enables our operators the flexibility to adapt to local market demand, be more customer focused and have the autonomy to make swift decisions, while still being held accountable for operational and financial performance.
Our marketing efforts are focused on providing manufactured homes that are customizable and appeal to a wide range of home buyers, on a regional basis, in the markets we serve. The primary demographics for our products are entry-level and move-up buyers and persons age 55 and older. We also market to special niches such as subdivision developers and second home or vacation home buyers.
We focus on developing and maintaining the resources necessary to meet our customer's desire for varied and unique specifications in an efficient factory production environment. This enables us to attract distributors and consumers who desire the flexibility the custom home building process provides but who also seek the value and affordability created by building a home on a factory production line.
We strive to maintain a competitive advantage by reacting quickly to changes in the marketplace and to the specific needs of our distributors and consumers. We build homes of superior quality, offer innovative designs and floor plans, demonstrate exceptional value, provide the engineering and technical resources to enable custom home building and focus on responsive and efficient customer service after the sale.
Products
A majority of our products are constructed in accordance with the National Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards promulgated by HUD ("HUD code"). We also build park model RVs, constructed to standards approved by the American National Standards Institute, a private, non-profit organization that administers and coordinates a voluntary standardization and conformity program. Park model RVs are less than 400 square feet in size, primarily used as vacation dwellings and seasonal living, and placed in planned communities, recreational home parks and resorts. We also produce a wide variety of modular homes, which include single and multi-section ranch, split-level and Cape Cod style homes, as well as two- and three-story homes, multi-family units and commercial modular structures, including apartment buildings, condominiums, hotels, workforce housing, schools and housing for U.S. military troops (e.g., barracks). Commercial buildings are constructed in the same facilities in which the residential homes are built using similar assembly line processes and techniques. These commercial projects are generally engineered to the purchaser's specifications. The buildings are transported to the customer's site in the same manner as residential homes and are often set by crane and finished at the site.
We produce residential homes in a variety of floor plans. Most of these homes are single-story and generally range in size from approximately 500 to 3,300 square feet, but may be larger in the case of multi-level modular homes.
Each home typically contains a living room, dining area, kitchen, one to five bedrooms and one or more bathrooms, is equipped with central heat and hot water systems, kitchen appliances, floor coverings and window treatments. Upgrades can include fireplaces, central air conditioning, tile roofs, high ceilings, skylights, hardwood floors, custom cabinetry, granite countertops and eco-friendly elements. We also offer a variety of structural, decorative and energy efficient customizations to meet the home buyer's specifications.
With manufacturing facilities strategically positioned across the nation, we utilize local market research to design homes to meet the demands of our customers. We have the ability to react and modify floor plans and designs to consumers' specific needs. By offering a full range of homes from entry-level models to large custom homes and with the ability to engineer designs in-house, we can accommodate a wide spectrum of customer requests.
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We regularly introduce new floor plans and options to appeal to changing trends in different regions of the country. We have developed engineering systems that, through the use of computer-aided technology, permit customization of homes and assist with product development and enhancement. We work with a variety of partners to meet the expanding range of housing needs, including home buyer's private land, planned neighborhoods, recreational or resort properties and workforce accommodations for agriculture and industry.
We employ a concerted effort to identify niche market opportunities where our diverse product lines and custom building capabilities provide us with a competitive advantage. We are focused on building quality, energy efficient homes for the modern home buyer. Our green building initiatives involve the creation of an energy efficient envelope, including higher utilization of renewable materials and provide lower utility costs. We also build homes designed to use alternative energy sources, such as solar.
Once a factory-built home is built at our facilities, it is then generally transported by independent trucking companies either to a retail sales center, planned community, housing development, work site or the home buyer's site. Distributors, or other independent installers utilized by us for homes sold through our Company-owned retail stores, are responsible for placing the home on site and, in most instances, arranging for connections to utilities and providing installation and finish-out services. Although manufactured homes are designed to be transportable, cost considerations result in very few being moved from their original site after installation.
Factory-built Housing Segment
Manufacturing Operations. Our manufacturing facilities employ between approximately 100 to 350 employees each. Most homes are constructed in one or more floor sections or modules on a permanently affixed steel or wood support chassis. Each section is assembled in stages beginning with the construction of the chassis, followed by the addition of other constructed and purchased components, and ending with a final quality control inspection. The efficiency of the assembly-line process and the benefits of constructing homes in a controlled factory environment enables us to produce quality homes in less time and at a lower cost per square foot than building homes on individual sites.
We operate 26 homebuilding production lines in Millersburg and Woodburn, Oregon; Riverside, California; Nampa, Idaho; Phoenix and Goodyear, Arizona; Austin, Fort Worth, Seguin and Waco, Texas; Montevideo, Minnesota; Dorchester, Wisconsin; Nappanee and Goshen, Indiana; Lafayette, Tennessee; Douglas and Moultrie, Georgia; Shippenville and Emlenton, Pennsylvania; Martinsville and Rocky Mount, Virginia; Cherryville, North Carolina; and Ocala and Plant City, Florida. These manufacturing facilities range from approximately 79,000 to 341,000 square feet of floor space. The production schedules for our manufacturing facilities are based on wholesale orders received from independent and Company-owned retailers, planned community operators and residential developers. Our facilities are structured to operate on a one shift per day, five days per week basis, and a typical home is completed in approximately six production days.
Manufactured housing is a regional business and the primary geographic market for a typical manufacturing facility is within a cost effective shipping radius of 350 miles. Each of our manufacturing facilities serves multiple distributors and a number of one-time purchasers. Because homes are produced to fill existing wholesale orders, our factories generally do not carry finished goods inventories, except for homes awaiting delivery. Materials used in homebuilding operations are mainly standard items carried by major suppliers and consist of wood, wood products, steel, gypsum wallboard, windows, doors, fiberglass insulation, carpet, vinyl, fasteners, plumbing materials, aluminum, appliances and electrical items. Fluctuations in the cost of materials and labor may affect gross margins from home sales to the extent that costs cannot be efficiently matched to the home sales price. We continue to monitor and react to inflation in these materials by maintaining a focus on our product pricing in response to higher materials costs, but such product pricing increases may lag behind the escalation of such costs.
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From time to time and to varying degrees, we may experience shortages in the availability of materials and/or labor in the markets served. Availability of these inputs has not caused significant production halts in the current period, but we have experienced periodic shutdowns in other periods and shortages of primary building materials have caused production inefficiencies as we have needed to change processes in response to the delay in materials. These shortages may also result in extended order backlogs, delays in the delivery of homes and reduced gross margins from home sales.
Housing demand remains strong as qualified individuals continue pursuing affordable home-ownership. Home order rates have moderated from the extreme highs we saw during the summer of 2020 to the summer of 2021, but still remain above pre-pandemic rates, which we considered to be strong. The increase in orders outpaced production and raised our home order backlog at April 2, 2022 to approximately $1.1 billion in wholesale sales values, up $511 million from $603 million one year earlier. The year over year increase includes $264 million attributable to our acquisition of Commodore. Distributors may cancel orders prior to production without penalty. After production of a particular home has commenced, the order becomes non-cancelable and the distributor is obligated to take delivery of the home. Accordingly, until production of a particular home has commenced, we do not consider order backlog to be firm orders.
It is difficult to predict the future of housing demand, employee availability, our supply chain or the Company's performance and operations. We continue to focus on developing production growth opportunities by working to improve our production capabilities and processes and adjusting product offerings. We strive to balance the production levels and workforce size with the demand for our product offerings to maximize efficiencies. Maintaining an appropriately sized and well-trained workforce is key to increasing production to meet increased demand, and we face a major challenge in overcoming hiring difficulties in the current environment. However, we are continually reviewing wage rates of our production employees and have established other monetary incentive and benefit programs to ensure competitive compensation. We are also working to more extensively use online recruiting tools, update our recruitment brochures, enhance our training programs and improve the appearance and appeal of our manufacturing facilities to improve the recruitment and retention of qualified production employees and reduce annualized turnover rates. Although we continue to experience hiring challenges and other inefficiencies from building material supply disruptions, we have reduced our total open production positions needed by nearly 25% over the past year, bringing our total average plant capacity utilization rate to exceeding 80% during the fourth fiscal quarter of 2022, which is above pre-pandemic levels.
Distribution. We sold 16,697, 14,214 and 15,100 factory-built homes in fiscal years 2022, 2021 and 2020, respectively, through Company-owned and independent distribution channels.
As of April 2, 2022, there were a total of 45 Company-owned retail stores, located in Oregon, Arizona, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, Indiana, Oklahoma, Florida and New York. Thirty-one of the Company-owned retail stores are located in Texas. Company-owned retail stores are generally located on main roads or highways with high visibility, each having a sales office, which is generally a factory-built structure, and a variety of model homes of various sizes, floor plans, features and prices. Customers most often custom order a home to be built at one of our manufacturing facilities, or they may purchase a home from the inventory of homes maintained at retail locations, including a model home. Model homes may be displayed in a residential setting with sidewalks and landscaping. Each sales center usually employs a manager and one to five salespersons, who are compensated through a combination of salary and commission. We internally finance home inventories at Company-owned retail stores.
As of April 2, 2022, we had a network of independent distributors, of which 9% were in Arizona, 8% in Texas, 7% each in California, Florida and North Carolina and 6% each in Georgia and Oregon, based on the quantity of wholesale shipments during fiscal year 2022. The remaining 50% were in 41 other states and Canada. As is common in the industry, our independent distributors typically sell homes produced by other manufacturers in addition to those we produce. Some independent distributors operate multiple sales outlets. No independent distributor accounted for 10% or more of factory-built housing revenue during any fiscal year within the three-year period ended April 2, 2022.
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We continually seek to increase wholesale shipments by growing sales at existing independent distributors and by identifying new independent distributors to sell our homes. We provide comprehensive sales and product training, either physically or virtually, to independent retail sales associates, including providing opportunities to visit our manufacturing facilities to discuss and view new product designs as they are developed. These training seminars facilitate the sale of our homes by increasing the skill and knowledge of the retail sales consultants. In addition, we display our products at trade shows and support our distributors through the distribution of floor plan literature, brochures, decor selection displays, point of sale promotional material and internet-based marketing assistance.
Independent distributors frequently finance a portion of their home purchases through wholesale floor plan financing arrangements. In most cases, we receive a deposit or a commitment from the distributor's lender for each home ordered. We then manufacture the home and ship it at the distributor's expense. Payment is due from the lender upon shipment of the product. For a description of wholesale floor plan financing arrangements used by independent distributors and our obligations in connection with these arrangements, see "Company Provided Financing — Commercial Financing" below.
Warranties. We provide the retail home buyer a one-year limited warranty covering defects in material or workmanship in home structure, plumbing and electrical systems. Nonstructural components of a cosmetic nature are generally warranted for 120 days from the date of delivery, except in specific cases where state laws require longer warranty terms. The warranty does not extend to installation and setup of the home, as the distributor is generally responsible for these activities. Appliances, floor coverings, roofing and certain other components are warranted by their original manufacturer for various lengths of time.
Financial Services Segment
Finance. We provide a source of retail home buyer financing on competitive terms through our subsidiary, CountryPlace. We offer conforming and non-conforming mortgages and home-only loans to purchasers of numerous brands of factory-built homes sold by Company-owned retail stores and certain independent distributors, builders, communities and developers. We are authorized to directly endorse FHA Title I and Title II mortgage insurance, are an approved lender with the VA and the USDA under its Single Family Housing Guaranteed Loan Program, are approved to issue GNMA-insured mortgage-backed securities and are authorized to sell mortgages to, and service mortgages for, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. Most loans originated by us are sold to investors, and we provide various loan servicing functions for non-affiliated entities under contract.
The loan contracts are fixed and step rate and have monthly scheduled payments of principal and interest. The scheduled payments for each contract would, if made on their respective due dates, result in a full amortization of the contract. Loan contracts secured by collateral that is geographically concentrated could experience higher rates of delinquencies, default and foreclosure losses than loan contracts secured by collateral that is more geographically dispersed. Our loan contracts are secured by factory-built homes located in 26 states, with the largest concentrations in Texas, Florida, New Mexico, Oklahoma and Alabama (see Note 6 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional geographic concentration information).
We continue to assist customers in need by servicing existing loans and insurance policies and complying with state and federal regulations regarding loan forbearance, home foreclosures and policy cancellations. See further details in the "Government Regulation" section below.
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Certain loans serviced for investors expose us to cash flow deficits if customers do not make contractual monthly payments of principal and interest in a timely manner. For certain loans serviced for Ginnie Mae and Freddie Mac, and home-only loans serviced for certain other investors, we must remit scheduled monthly principal and/or interest payments and principal curtailments regardless of whether monthly mortgage payments are collected from borrowers. Ginnie Mae permits cash obligations on loans in forbearance from COVID-19 to be offset by other incoming cash flows from loans such as loan pre-payments. Through fiscal year 2022, monthly collections of principal and interest from borrowers have exceeded scheduled principal and interest payments owed to investors; however, mandatory extended forbearance under the Coronavirus Aid, Relief and Economic Security Act (the "CARES Act") and certain other regulations related to COVID-19 could negatively impact cash obligations in the future.
We believe that providing financing alternatives improves our responsiveness to the financing needs of prospective home buyers and presents opportunities for additional sources of loan origination and servicing revenues. We have expanded our home-only lending programs in recent years, partially with the support of independent third-party financiers. Home-only loans and non-conforming mortgages originated are either sold outright, grouped and sold as a pool of loans, or held for investment.
Insurance. Standard Casualty, located in Texas, specializes in homeowner property and casualty insurance products for the manufactured housing industry and holds insurance licenses in multiple states, primarily serving the Texas, Arizona, New Mexico and Nevada markets. In addition to writing direct policies, we assume and cede reinsurance in the ordinary course of business. In Texas, policies are written through one affiliated managing general agent, which produces all premiums, and through local agents, most of which are manufactured home distributors. All business outside the state of Texas is written on a direct basis through local agents.
Company Provided Financing
Consumer Financing. Sales of factory-built homes are significantly affected by the availability and cost of consumer financing. There are three basic types of consumer financing in the factory-built housing industry: conforming mortgage loans which comply with the requirements of FHA, VA, USDA or GSEs; non-conforming mortgages for purchasers of the home and the land on which the home is placed; and personal property loans (often referred to as home-only or chattel loans) for consumers where the home is the sole collateral for the loan (generally HUD code homes).
Limited secondary market availability for non-conforming mortgages and home-only personal property loans secured by manufactured homes continue to constrain industry growth. We work independently and with other industry participants to develop secondary market opportunities for manufactured home-only loans and non-conforming mortgage portfolios and expand lending availability in the industry. Additionally, we continue to invest in community-based lending initiatives that provide home-only financing to residents of certain manufactured home communities. We also develop and invest in home-only lending programs to grow sales of homes through traditional distribution points. We believe that growing our investment and participation in home-only lending may provide additional sales growth opportunities for our factory-built housing operations and reduce our exposure to the actions of independent lenders.
We also work independently and with industry trade associations to encourage favorable legislative and GSE action to address the financing needs of buyers of affordable homes. Federal law requires GSEs to implement the "Duty to Serve" requirements specified in the Federal Housing Enterprises Financial Safety and Soundness Act of 1992, as amended by the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008. In April 2022, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac released their Underserved Markets Plans for 2022-2024 that describe, with specificity, the actions they would take over the three-year period to fulfill the "Duty to Serve" obligation. As with prior plans, the 2022-2024 plans offer enhanced mortgage loan products for manufactured homes titled as real property, including Fannie Mae's "MH Advantage" and Freddie Mac's "ChoiceHome" programs that began in the latter part of calendar year 2018. Although some progress has been made with these programs, meaningful positive impact in the form of increased home orders has yet to be realized. The plans do not include purchases of home-only loans during the three-year timeframe. Expansion of the secondary market for home-only loans through GSEs could support further demand for housing as lending options would likely become more available to home buyers.
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Commercial Financing. Certain of our wholesale factory-built housing sales to independent distributors are purchased through wholesale floor plan financing arrangements. Under a typical floor plan financing arrangement, an independent financial institution specializing in this line of business provides the distributor with a loan for the purchase price of the home and maintains a security interest in the home as collateral. The financial institution customarily requires Cavco, as the manufacturer of the home, to enter into a separate repurchase agreement with the financial institution that, upon default by the distributor and under certain other circumstances, obligates us to repurchase the financed home at declining prices over the term of the repurchase agreement (which, in most cases, is 18 to 24 months). The price at which we may be obligated to repurchase a home under these agreements is based upon the amount financed, plus certain administrative and shipping expenses. Our obligation under these repurchase agreements ceases upon the purchase of the home by the retail customer. The maximum amount of contingent obligations under such repurchase agreements was approximately $141.0 million and $74.2 million as of April 2, 2022 and April 3, 2021, respectively. The increase is the result of higher home sales price, increased units under these programs and the addition of Commodore. The risk of loss under these agreements is spread over many distributors and is further reduced by the resale value of the homes that we obtain upon the execution of a repurchase.
We continue to make certain commercial loan programs available to members of our wholesale distribution chain. Under our commercial loan arrangements, we provide funds for financed home purchases by distributors, community owners and developers (see Note 7 to the Consolidated Financial Statements). Our involvement in commercial loans helps to increase the availability of manufactured home financing to distributors, community owners and developers and provides additional opportunity for product exposure to potential home buyers. While these initiatives support our ongoing efforts to expand product distribution, they also expose us to risks associated with the creditworthiness of this customer base and our inventory financing partners.
Industry Overview
General. Manufactured housing provides an alternative to other forms of new low-cost housing such as site-built housing and condominiums, and to existing housing such as pre-owned homes and apartments. According to statistics published by the Institute for Building Technology and Safety and the United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, for the 2021 calendar year, manufactured housing wholesale shipments of homes constructed in accordance with the HUD code accounted for an estimated 12.2% of all new single-family homes sold.
According to data reported by the Manufactured Housing Institute, approximately 106,000 HUD code manufactured homes were shipped during calendar year 2021, compared to the 94,000 shipped during calendar year 2020 and 95,000 shipments in 2019. Prior to 2019, annual shipments had increased each year since calendar year 2009 when 50,000 HUD code manufactured homes were shipped, the lowest level since the industry began recording statistics in 1959.
Home Buyer Demographics. We believe the sector of the housing market in which manufactured housing is most competitive includes consumers from diverse backgrounds with household incomes under $40,000. This segment has a high representation of persons age 55 and older, as well as young single persons and young married couples. The low cost of a fully-equipped manufactured home compared to a site-built alternative is attractive to these consumers. Persons in rural areas and those who presently live in manufactured homes also make up a significant portion of the demand for new manufactured housing. Innovative engineering and design, as well as efficient production techniques, continue to position manufactured homes to meet the demand for affordable housing in rural markets and manufactured housing communities. The markets for affordable factory-built housing are very competitive, as well as cyclical and seasonal. The industry is sensitive to employment levels, consumer confidence, the availability of financing and general economic conditions.
"First-time" and "move-up" buyers of affordable homes are historically among the largest segments of new manufactured home purchasers. Included in this group are lower-income households that are particularly affected by periods of low employment rates and underemployment. Consumer confidence is especially important among manufactured home buyers interested in our products for seasonal or retirement living.
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The two largest manufactured housing consumer demographics, young adults and those who are age 55 and older, are both growing. According to World Bank, the U.S. adult population is estimated to expand by approximately 9.1 million between 2022 and 2027. Young adults born from 1976 to 1995, often referred to as Gen Y or Millennials, represent a large segment of the population who are generally first-time home buyers attracted by the affordability, product diversity and location flexibility of factory-built homes. The age 55 and older category is reported to be the fastest growing segment of the U.S. population. This group is similarly interested in the value proposition; however, they are also motivated by the energy efficiency and low maintenance requirements of factory-built homes and by the lifestyle offered by planned communities that are specifically designed for homeowners that fall into this age group.
Competition
The manufactured housing industry is highly competitive at both the wholesale and retail levels, with competition based on several factors including price, product features, reputation for service and quality, depth of distribution, promotion, merchandising and the terms of retail customer financing. We compete with more than 30 other producers of manufactured homes, as well as with new and existing apartments, townhouses and condominiums and site-built homes.
There are a number of other national manufacturers competing for a significant share of the manufactured housing market in the United States, including Clayton Homes, Inc. and Skyline Champion Corporation, which may possess greater financial, manufacturing, distribution and marketing resources than us.
There are significant competitors to CountryPlace in the markets served. These competitors include national, regional and local banks, mortgage banks and independent finance companies such as: 21st Mortgage Corporation, an affiliate of Clayton Homes, Inc. and Berkshire Hathaway, Inc.; Triad Financial Services, Inc.; and Cascade Financial Services. Certain of these competitors are larger than CountryPlace and have access to substantially more capital. CountryPlace remains competitive in breadth of loan product offerings, interest rates, customer service and loan servicing capabilities.
The market for homeowners' insurance is highly competitive. Standard Casualty competes principally in property and casualty insurance for owners of manufactured homes with companies such as National Lloyds and American Modern Insurance, which may be larger and offer broader types of insurance allowing them to be more aggressive in their underwriting standards. Standard Casualty remains competitive in price, breadth of product offerings, product features, customer service, claim handling and use of technology.
Government Regulation
Our manufactured homes are subject to a number of federal, state and local laws, codes and regulations. Construction of manufactured housing is governed by the National Manufactured Housing Construction and Safety Standards Act of 1974, as amended, also referred to as the Home Construction Act. In 1976, HUD issued regulations under the Home Construction Act establishing comprehensive national construction standards. In 1994, the codes were amended and expanded to, among other things, address specific requirements for homes destined for geographic areas subject to severe weather conditions. The HUD regulations, known collectively as the Federal Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards, cover all aspects of manufactured home construction, including structural integrity, fire safety, wind loads, thermal protection and ventilation. Such regulations preempt conflicting state and local regulations on such matters and are subject to periodic change. Our manufacturing facilities, and the plans and specifications of the HUD code manufactured homes they produce, have been approved by a HUD-certified inspection agency. Further, an independent HUD-certified third-party inspector regularly reviews our manufactured homes for compliance with HUD regulations during construction. Failure to comply with applicable HUD regulations could expose us to a wide variety of sanctions, including mandated closings of our manufacturing facilities. We believe our manufactured homes are in substantial compliance with all present HUD requirements. Our park model RVs are not subject to HUD regulations, but we believe that our park model RVs are in substantial compliance with the standards of the American National Standards Institute.
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Transporting manufactured homes on highways is subject to regulation by various federal, state and local authorities. Such regulations may prescribe size and road use limitations and impose lower than normal speed limits and various other requirements. Generally, our distributors are responsible for the transportation of homes from our factory to the final destination through independent third-party transportation companies.
Our manufactured homes are subject to local zoning and housing regulations. In certain cities and counties in areas where our homes are sold, local governmental ordinances and regulations have been enacted which restrict the placement of manufactured homes on privately-owned land or which require the placement of manufactured homes in manufactured home communities. Such ordinances and regulations may adversely impact our ability to sell homes for installation in communities where they are in effect. A number of states have adopted procedures governing the installation of manufactured homes. Utility connections are subject to state and local regulations, which must be complied with by the distributor or other person installing the home.
Certain warranties we issue, including our principal homeowners' warranties, may be subject to the Magnuson-Moss Warranty Federal Trade Commission Improvement Act (the "Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act"), which regulates the descriptions of warranties on consumer products. In the case of warranties subject to the Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act, we are subject to a number of additional regulatory requirements. For example, warranties that are subject to the Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act must be included in a single easy-to-read document that is generally made available prior to purchase. The Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act also prohibits certain attempts to disclaim or modify implied warranties and the use of deceptive or misleading terms. A claim for a violation of the Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act can be the subject of an action in federal court in which consumers may be able to recover attorneys' fees. The description and substance of our warranties are also subject to a variety of state laws and regulations. A number of states require manufactured home producers and distributors to post bonds to ensure the satisfaction of consumer warranty claims.
A variety of laws affect the financing of the homes we manufacture. The Federal Consumer Credit Protection Act (the "Truth-in-Lending Act" or "TILA") and Regulation Z promulgated thereunder require written disclosure of information relating to such financing, including the amount of the annual percentage interest rate and any finance charges. The Federal Fair Credit Reporting Act also requires certain disclosures to potential customers concerning credit information used as a basis to deny credit. The Federal Equal Credit Opportunity Act and Regulation B promulgated thereunder prohibit discrimination against any credit applicant based on certain specified grounds. The Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act ("RESPA") and Regulation X promulgated thereunder require certain disclosures regarding the nature and costs of real estate settlements. The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau ("CFPB") has adopted or proposed various Trade Regulation Rules dealing with unfair credit and collection practices and the preservation of consumers' claims and defenses. Direct loans and mortgage loans eligible for inclusion in a Ginnie Mae security are subject to the credit underwriting requirements of the FHA, USDA or VA. A variety of state laws also regulate the form of financing documents and the allowable deposits, finance charge and fees chargeable pursuant to financing documents. The Fair Debt Collection Practices Act, implemented by Regulation F, applies to certain loans and contracts that we service for certain investors and prohibits debt collectors from engaging in harassment or abuse, making false or misleading representations, or engaging in unfair practices in debt collection.
In 2010, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the "Dodd-Frank Act") was passed into law. The Dodd-Frank Act was a sweeping piece of legislation designed to reform credit and lending practices after the global credit crisis of 2008. On May 24, 2018, the Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act (the "Dodd-Frank Reform Act") was signed into law. The Dodd-Frank Reform Act revises portions of the Dodd-Frank Act, reduces the regulatory burden on smaller financial institutions, including eliminating certain provisions of the Secure and Fair Enforcement for Mortgage Licensing Act of 2008 (the "SAFE Act"). With the elimination of certain provisions of the SAFE Act, manufactured housing distributors can now assist home buyers with securing financing for the purchase of homes; however, they may not assist in negotiating the financing terms. This has facilitated access to financing and makes the overall home buying experience smoother for the consumer.
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Certain CFPB mortgage finance rules required under the Dodd-Frank Act, and modified by the Dodd-Frank Reform Act, apply to consumer credit transactions secured by a dwelling, which include real property mortgages and home-only loans secured by manufactured homes. These rules defined standards for origination of a Qualified Mortgage ("QM"), established specific requirements for lenders to prove borrowers' ability to repay loans and outlined the conditions under which QMs are subject to safe harbor limitations on liability to borrowers. The rules also establish interest rates and other cost parameters for determining which QMs fall under safe harbor protection. Among other issues, QMs with interest rates and other costs outside the limits are deemed "rebuttable" by borrowers and expose the lender and its assignees (including investors in loans, pools of loans and instruments secured by loans or loan pools) to possible litigation and penalties.
The CFPB issued a final rule, effective June 30, 2021, with mandatory compliance as of October 1, 2022, which expands the definition of a General QM and gives lenders more leeway to determine a borrower's likelihood of repayment. Under the original QM rule, the ratio of the consumer's total monthly debt to total monthly income could not exceed 43% for a loan to be considered a QM. In December 2020, the Bureau issued a QM Final Rule which amended Regulation Z by replacing the original debt ratio-based QM definition with a limit based on loan pricing, among other changes to the definition.
The original QM rule also defined a temporary category of QMs, commonly known as the GSE Patch, which includes mortgages that are eligible to be purchased or guaranteed by either of the GSEs while operating under the federal conservatorship. Under the original QM rule, the GSE Patch was set to expire on July 1, 2021. However, the CFPB extended the mandatory compliance date of the new General QM rule beyond July 1, 2021. Nonetheless, some lenders originating loans for sale to the GSEs elected to no longer originate general QM loans with debt-to-income ratios in excess of 43% or GSE Patch QM loans for borrower applications received on or after July 1, 2021.
While many manufactured homes are currently financed with agency-conforming mortgages in which the ability to repay is verified, and interest rates and other costs are within the safe harbor limits established under the CFPB mortgage finance rules, certain loans to finance the purchase of manufactured homes, especially home-only loans and non-conforming mortgages, may fall outside the safe harbor limits. The rules have caused some lenders to curtail underwriting such loans, and some investors are reluctant to own or participate in owning such loans because of the uncertainty of potential litigation and other costs. As a result, some prospective buyers of manufactured homes may be unable to secure the financing necessary to complete purchases. In addition, compliance with the law and ongoing rule implementation has caused lenders to incur additional costs to implement new processes, procedures, controls and infrastructure required to comply with the regulations. Compliance may constrain lenders' ability to profitably price certain loans. Failure to comply with these regulations, changes in these or other regulations, or the imposition of additional regulations, could affect our earnings, limit our access to capital and have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
The CFPB rules amending TILA and RESPA expanded the types of mortgage loans that are subject to the protections of the Home Ownership and Equity Protections Act of 1994 ("HOEPA"), revised and expanded the tests for coverage under HOEPA, and imposed additional restrictions on mortgages that are covered by HOEPA. As a result, certain manufactured home loans are subject to HOEPA limits on interest rates and fees. Loans with rates or fees in excess of the limits are deemed "High Cost Mortgages" and provide additional protections for borrowers, including with respect to determining the value of the home. Based on our experience, we believe that most loans for the purchase of manufactured homes have been written at rates and fees that would not appear to be considered High Cost Mortgages under the new rule. Although some lenders may continue to offer loans that are now deemed High Cost Mortgages, the rate and fee limits appear to have deterred some lenders from offering loans to certain borrowers and may continue to make them reluctant to enter into loans subject to the provisions of HOEPA. As a result, some prospective buyers of manufactured homes may be unable to secure financing necessary to complete manufactured home purchases.
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The Dodd-Frank Act amended provisions of TILA to require rules for appraisals on principal residences securing higher-priced mortgage loans ("HPML"). Certain loans secured by manufactured homes, primarily home-only loans, could be considered HPMLs. Among other things, the rules require creditors to provide copies of appraisal reports to borrowers prior to loan closing, although loans secured solely by a manufactured home and not land are exempt from the HPML appraisal requirement so long as the lender provides the home buyer with alternative information about the home value in one of three allowable forms. While it's not possible to determine the magnitude of these changes, some prospective home buyers may be deterred from completing a manufactured home purchase as a result of the disclosure of the appraised value.
The Dodd-Frank Act also required integrating disclosures provided by lenders to borrowers under TILA and RESPA. The final rule became effective October 3, 2015. The TILA-RESPA Integrated Disclosure ("TRID") mandated extensive changes to the mortgage loan closing process and necessitated significant changes to mortgage origination systems.
Regulation C of the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act ("HMDA") requires certain financial institutions, including non-depository institutions, to collect, record, report and disclose information about their mortgage lending activity. The data-related requirements in the HMDA and Regulation C are used to identify potential discriminatory lending patterns and enforce anti-discrimination statutes. The Dodd-Frank Act transferred rulemaking authority for HMDA to the CFPB, effective in 2011. It also amended HMDA to require financial institutions to report additional data points and to collect, record and report additional information. The CFPB issued a final rule amending Regulation C, which became effective on January 1, 2018. Regulation C generally applies to consumer-purpose, closed-end loans and open-end lines of credit that are secured by a dwelling. Non-depository financial institutions are subject to Regulation C if they originate at least 25 covered closed-end mortgage loans or at least 100 covered open-end lines of credit in each of the two preceding calendar years. Violations of Regulation C, including incomplete, inaccurate or omitted data, are subject to administrative sanctions, including civil money penalties, and compliance can be enforced by the Federal Reserve Board, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, the National Credit Union Administration, HUD or the CFPB.
FHA Title I program guidelines provide Ginnie Mae the ability to securitize manufactured home FHA Title I loans. These guidelines are intended to allow lenders to obtain new capital, which can then be used to fund new loans for their customers. Home-only loans have languished for several years while these changes were meant to broaden home-only financing availability for prospective homeowners. We are aware of only a small number of loans currently being securitized under the Ginnie Mae program.
On March 27, 2020, the CARES Act was signed into law. While the CARES Act contains a variety of provisions, including, among other things, unemployment benefit expansion and emergency funding of public health care initiatives, it also grants forbearance rights and foreclosure protection to borrowers with loans purchased by a GSE or insured by FHA, USDA or VA. Borrowers with these federally backed mortgage loans who are experiencing hardship due to the COVID-19 pandemic may request forbearance for 6 months, regardless of delinquency status. Forbearance may be extended for an additional 6 months at the borrower's request, and they may request up to two additional three-month extensions, for a maximum of 18 months of total forbearance. The federal foreclosure moratorium expired on July 31, 2021; however mortgage servicers were precluded from proceeding with foreclosure until January 1, 2022. Effective August 31, 2021, the CFPB published rules to help homeowners pursue loss mitigation options with mortgage servicers to avoid foreclosure. These rules allowed mortgage servicers to offer certain streamlined loss mitigation options. The FHA allowed for an extension of the foreclosure-related eviction moratorium for foreclosed borrowers through September 30, 2021. When the eviction moratorium for federally backed loans ended, mortgage servicers could only proceed with foreclosures if borrowers had abandoned their properties or had not responded to mortgage servicers' efforts to assist with loss mitigation options. On February 18, 2022, President Biden extended the national emergency declaration for the COVID-19 pandemic beyond March 1, 2022.
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The Treasury Department issued guidance regarding the Homeowner Assistance Fund ("HAF"), which was established under section 3206 of the American Rescue Plan Act of 2021. The HAF was established to mitigate financial hardships associated with the COVID-19 pandemic by providing funds to eligible state agencies for the purpose of preventing homeowner mortgage delinquencies, defaults, foreclosures, loss of utilities or home energy services and displacements of homeowners experiencing financial hardship after January 21, 2020, through qualified expenditures related to mortgages and housing. Eligible state agencies participating in HAF are responsible for the selection and qualification of borrowers to receive HAF funds.
Numerous state and local governments also issued temporary emergency orders recommending or mandating that mortgage servicers accommodate borrowers experiencing hardship due to the COVID-19 pandemic. These emergency orders include a variety of provisions, including payment forbearance, waiver of late fees on past due payments, restrictions on reporting payment status to credit reporting agencies and moratorium on debt collection activities, foreclosures and evictions. We have implemented practices and adjusted policies to comply accordingly.
The GSEs require that seller/servicers such as CountryPlace maintain minimum levels of capital and liquidity to be eligible to service single-family mortgage loans guaranteed or owned by the GSEs. The current eligibility requirements became effective on December 31, 2015. On January 31, 2020, Federal Housing Finance Agency ("FHFA") initially released its "Servicer Eligibility 2.0" proposed enhancements to the requirements for public input, and on February 24, 2022, FHFA issued a revised proposal for public input. The proposed requirements establish a minimum level of tangible net worth that distinguishes between Ginnie Mae and Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac loan servicing, and include a fixed base capital requirement as well as an incremental charge that reflects the volume and risk of a seller/servicer's servicing portfolio. The final eligibility requirements are expected to be in effect as of December 31, 2022. Although the proposed eligibility requirements are not yet final and may change prior to their effective date, CountryPlace has evaluated the proposal and believes that its capital and liquidity are such that it will continue to satisfy the requirements as currently proposed once in effect.
On April 19, 2021, the CFPB issued an interim final rule, effective November 30, 2021, amending Regulation F to require debt collectors to provide written notice to certain consumers of their protections under the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's eviction moratorium order of March 29, 2021. The interim final rule also prohibits certain communications methods and content and places limits on debt collectors' attempts to communicate with consumers who are obligated to repay debt, attorneys representing them or related parties.
Standard Casualty's insurance operations are regulated by the state insurance departments where it underwrites its policies. Our insurance product sales are subject to various state insurance laws and regulations, which govern allowable charges and other insurance practices. Underwriting, premiums, investments and capital reserves (including dividend payments to stockholders) are subject to the rules and regulations of these state agencies.
Governmental authorities have the power to enforce compliance with applicable regulations and violations may result in the payment of fines, the entry of injunctions or both. Although we believe that our operations are in substantial compliance with the requirements of all applicable laws and regulations, these requirements have generally become more stringent in recent years. Accordingly, we are unable to predict the ultimate cost of compliance with all applicable laws and enforcement policies.
Seasonality
The housing industry is generally subject to seasonal fluctuations based on new home buyer purchasing patterns. Demand for our core new home products typically peaks each spring and summer before declining in the winter, consistent with the overall housing industry, although this pattern became distorted during the COVID-19 pandemic. Diversification among our product lines and operations has partially offset the impact of any seasonal fluctuations. Additionally, demand patterns for park model RVs, cabins and homes used primarily for retirement or seasonal living partially offset general housing seasonality.
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CountryPlace realizes no seasonal impacts from its mortgage servicing operations. However, the mortgage subsidiary does experience minimal seasonal fluctuation in its mortgage origination activities because of the time needed for loan application approval processes and subsequent home loan closing activities. Revenue for Standard Casualty is also not substantially impacted by seasonality, as it recognizes revenue from policy sales ratably over each policy's term year. However, we are subject to adverse effects from excessive policy claims that may occur during periods of inclement weather, including seasonal spring storms or fall hurricane activity in Texas where most of our policies are underwritten. Losses from catastrophic events are limited by reinsurance contracts in place as part of our loss mitigation structure.
Human Capital Resources
Our workforce is made up of approximately 6,300 skilled full-time team members. We believe that an engaged, productive workforce is critically important to creating shareholder value. To that end, we are committed to providing a safe workplace and opportunities for professional growth and advancement based on performance, qualification, demonstrated skill and achievement at a fair wage.
As part of our commitment to focus on safety, our Safety Now program builds safety awareness and provides training and incentives to create a "safety first" culture throughout our manufacturing operations. In addition to improved safety training, especially for our newest associates, elements of this program include encouraging employee suggestions for a safer workplace, enhanced safety signage and reward programs for teams with the lowest safety incident rates and those with the most improved safety records.
We also have a number of internal programs and campaigns to enhance the culture and capability of our workforce. Driven by our aspiration to make a difference by focusing on excellence, we are executing our SPARK initiative, which is designed to improve the onboarding experience of our team members and drive retention. Our IGNITION program provides leadership training to new managers and other employees in supervisory roles to enhance communication and other critical management skills to improve the oversight and motivation of other employees. This training includes increasing technical skills, improving professional skills, expanding technology experience and educating on safety and security protocols, to name a few.
We have a multi-channel bi-lingual compliance training initiative so that our team members will understand our commitment to, and their responsibility for, maintaining high standards of integrity in the workplace. The program has been rolled out through our learning management system, with each new and existing team member being provided the same training.
We intend to be an employer of choice. To that end, we consistently assess the current landscape and labor market to refine our total rewards programs. We also monitor our progress in raising the incomes of our lowest wage earners so they can achieve success for themselves and their families. In addition, we have started a program called Homes for Our Own. This program generally involves education and financial assistance for employees aspiring to own their own home. We strive to help employees understand the home buying process, from getting financially ready to buy and maintain a home to how the actual process works.
More information on the above programs and more can be found in our Corporate Responsibility Report, published on our website.
Available Information
The Company's periodic and current reports, proxy statements, as well as any amendments to such filings, are made available free of charge through our web site, www.cavco.com, as soon as reasonably practicable after they are electronically filed with, or furnished to, the Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC") pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the "Exchange Act").
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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
The Company's business involves a number of risks and uncertainties. You should carefully consider the following risks, together with the information provided elsewhere in this Annual Report. The items described below are not the only risks we face. Additional risks that are currently unknown to us or that are currently considered to be immaterial may also impair the business or adversely affect our financial condition or results of operations.
Business and Operational Risks
The impact of local or national emergencies, including the COVID-19 pandemic, can adversely affect our financial results, condition and prospects, including such impacts from state and federal regulatory action that restricts our ability to operate our business in the ordinary course and impacts on (i) customer demand and the availability of financing for our products, (ii) our supply chain and the availability of raw materials for the manufacture of our products, (iii) the availability of labor and the health and safety of our workforce and (iv) our liquidity and access to the capital markets
Severe weather conditions, natural disasters, hostilities and social unrest, terrorist activities, health epidemics or pandemics or other local or national emergencies (both ones quickly resolved and ones that endure over long periods of time) can adversely affect consumer spending and confidence levels and supply availability and costs, as well as local operations in impacted markets, all of which can affect our financial results, condition and prospects. Our sales of affordable homes are largely dependent on the ability of consumers to obtain financing for the purchase of a home. Consumer financing is dependent on a number of economic factors, including the employment status of borrowers, which may be adversely affected by local or national emergencies. Consumer confidence is also an important factor to support home purchases and is subject to the adverse effects of an emergency situation. Our products are produced in a manner that is considered labor-intensive and requires a consistent and available workforce, which may be adversely affected by a large-scale decline in public health conditions or other emergencies.
As it relates to the COVID-19 pandemic, our normal operations were constrained by actions we took to maintain a safe working environment for our employees, including compliance with mandated social distancing and other governmental requirements. Factory capacity utilization levels fell accordingly as the result of increased employee absenteeism and the pandemic impacts to our supply chain. Our primary suppliers are domestic, while also depending on materials originating from overseas. The ability of suppliers to fulfill orders on our behalf under pre-existing terms is dependent upon their particular circumstances, including those related to the COVID-19 pandemic. The magnitude of the COVID-19 pandemic, including the extent of any continuing impact on our business, financial position, results of operations or liquidity, which could be material, cannot be reasonably estimated at this time because of the continuing fluidity of the situation. It will depend on the duration and evolution of the pandemic, potential business disruptions and the overall impact on the national economy and consumer behavior.
National emergencies like the COVID-19 pandemic may also have the effect of heightening many of the other risks described below in this Item 1A or elsewhere in this Annual Report, such as: risks related to the successful completion of our growth and expansion goals; risks related to the ability of borrowers to make payments on their mortgages or loans and our ability to exercise remedies in such cases, including as a result of government restrictions on the exercise of such remedies; risks related to economic downturns, declining consumer confidence and other market forces and reduced demand for our products or buyers' ability to get financing for the purchase of our products; risks related to depressed home prices and elevated unemployment; risks related to the availability of labor and the pricing and availability of raw materials; risks related to our ability to remain in compliance with increasing levels of government regulation while maintaining economic and profitable operations; risks related to our ability to maintain adequate internal controls; and risks related to stock price fluctuations.
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The Company's results of operations can be adversely affected by labor shortages and the pricing and availability of transportation or raw materials
The homebuilding industry has from time to time experienced labor shortages and other labor related issues. A number of factors may adversely affect the labor force available to us and our subcontractors in one or more of our markets. This includes high employment levels, construction market conditions and government regulation, which include laws and regulations related to workers' health and safety, wage and hour practices and immigration patterns or restrictions. An overall labor shortage or a lack of skilled or unskilled labor could cause significant increases in costs or delays in construction of homes, which could have a material adverse effect upon our revenue and results of operations.
As our homes are transported by independent third-party transportation companies, shortages or increased transportation costs from rising fuel prices could have an adverse impact to our operations.
Our results of operations can also be affected by the pricing and availability of raw materials. Key building materials include wood and wood products, gypsum wallboard, steel, windows, appliances, insulation and other petroleum-based products. There can be no assurance that sufficient supplies of these and other raw materials will continue to be available to us. Sudden increases in price or lack of availability of raw materials can be caused by natural disaster, regulation or other market forces, as has occurred in recent years. We have experienced production halts from shortages of primary building materials in the past, and although we attempt to increase the sales prices of our homes in response to higher materials costs, such increases may lag behind the escalation of material costs.
Excessive health and safety incidents relating to our operations could be costly to the Company
Home construction is inherently dangerous. While safety is a top priority, any failure in health and safety performance may result in additional health and workers' compensation costs or penalties for non-compliance with relevant regulatory requirements, which may result in difficulty attracting labor or a negative impact to our reputation.
Some of the Company's manufacturing production employees are represented by unions, and failure to negotiate reasonable collective bargaining agreements may result in strikes, work stoppages or substantially higher ongoing labor costs
Certain manufacturing production employees (approximately 7% of our total employees) are represented by unions and are covered by collective bargaining agreements, which expire in April 2023 and February 2024. Wages, health and welfare benefits, work rules and other issues have historically been negotiated in a reasonable amount of time and have previously not resulted in any extended work stoppages. However, if we are unable to negotiate acceptable new agreements, it could result in worker strikes, loss of business, disruption of operations and increased operating costs as a result of higher wages or benefits paid to union members, which would have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
Increases in the rate of cancellations of home sales orders could have an adverse effect on the Company's business
Our backlog reflects home sales orders with our distributors and home buyers for homes that have not yet been delivered. Distributors and home buyers may cancel orders prior to production without penalty. If there is a downturn in the housing market, or if financing becomes less available or more expensive to obtain with higher interest rates, more distributors and homebuyers may cancel their agreements of sale with us, which would have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
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The Company may not be able to successfully integrate past or future acquisitions to attain the anticipated benefits and such acquisitions may adversely impact the Company's liquidity
We have acquired industry competitors in the past and may consider additional strategic acquisitions if such opportunities arise. Prior acquisitions and any other acquisitions that may be considered in the future involve a number of risks, including the diversion of our management's attention from the existing business for those transactions that we complete, or possible adverse effects on our operating results and liquidity during the integration process. In addition, we may not be able to successfully or profitably integrate, operate, maintain and manage the operations or employees of past or future acquisitions. During the integration stage of an acquisition, we also may not be able to maintain uniform standards, controls, procedures and policies, which may lead to financial losses.
The Company's involvement in vertically integrated lines of business, including manufactured housing consumer finance, commercial finance and insurance, exposes the Company to certain risks
We offer conforming mortgages, non-conforming mortgages and home-only loans to purchasers of factory-built homes sold by Company-owned retail stores and independent distributors, builders, communities and developers through our subsidiary, CountryPlace. Most loans we originate are sold to investors. We also provide various loan servicing functions for non-affiliated entities under contract.
If customers are unable to repay their loans, we may be adversely affected. We make loans to borrowers that we believe are creditworthy based on underwriting guidelines. However, the ability of these customers to repay their loans may be affected by a number of factors, including, but not limited to: national, regional and local economic conditions; changes or weakness in specific industry segments; natural hazard risks affecting the region in which the borrower resides; and employment, financial or unexpected life circumstances.
If customers do not repay their loans, we may repossess or foreclose on the secured property in order to liquidate the loan collateral and minimize losses. The homes and land securing the loans are subject to fluctuating market values and proceeds realized from liquidating repossessed or foreclosed property are highly susceptible to adverse movements in collateral values. Home price depreciation and elevated levels of unemployment may result in additional defaults and exacerbate actual loss severities upon collateral liquidation.
Some of the loans we originate or may originate in the future may not have a liquid market, or the market may contract rapidly and the loans may become illiquid. Although we offer loan products and price our loans at levels that we believe are marketable at the time of credit application approval, market conditions for such loans may deteriorate rapidly and significantly. Our ability to respond to changing market conditions is affected by credit approval and funding commitments we make in advance of loan completion. In this environment, it is difficult to predict the types of loan products and characteristics that may be susceptible to future market curtailments and tailor loan offerings accordingly. As a result, no assurances can be given that the market value of our loans will not decline in the future, or that a market will continue to exist for loan products.
We sell loans through GSE-related programs and to whole-loan purchasers and also finance certain loans with long-term credit facilities secured by the respective loans. In connection with these activities, we provide to GSEs, whole-loan purchasers and lenders, as the case may be, representations and warranties related to the loans sold or financed. These representations and warranties generally relate to the ownership of the loans, the validity of the liens securing the loans, the loans' compliance with the criteria for inclusion in the transactions, including compliance with underwriting standards or loan criteria established by buyers or lenders and our ability to deliver documentation in compliance with applicable laws. Generally, representations and warranties may be enforced at any time over the life of the loan. Upon a breach of a representation, we may be required to repurchase the loan or to indemnify a party for incurred losses. Although we maintain reserves for these contingent repurchase and indemnification obligations, these reserves may not be ultimately sufficient for incurred losses, which could have a material adverse effect on our operational results or financial condition.
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Standard Casualty specializes in homeowner property and casualty insurance products for the manufactured housing industry, primarily serving the Texas, Arizona, New Mexico and Nevada markets. Property and casualty insurance companies are subject to certain risk-based capital requirements usually in accordance with model rules as specified by the National Association of Insurance Commissioners. Under these requirements, the amount of capital and surplus maintained by a property and casualty insurance company is determined based on its various risk factors.
Certain of our premiums and benefits are assumed from and ceded to other insurance companies under various reinsurance agreements. The ceded reinsurance agreements provide us with increased capacity to write larger risks. We remain obligated for amounts ceded in the event that the reinsurers do not meet their obligations. Substantially all of our assumed reinsurance is with one entity. Further, our policies in force may be subject to numerous risks, including geographic concentration, adverse selection, home deterioration, unusual weather events and regulation. Although claim amounts are recoverable through reinsurance for catastrophic losses up to policy maximums, subject to certain conditions, significant losses may be realized and our results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.
Information technology failures or cyber incidents could harm the Company's business
We are increasingly dependent on information technology systems and infrastructure to operate our business. In the ordinary course of business, we collect, store, process and transmit significant amounts of sensitive information, including proprietary business information, personal information and other confidential information, including that of our customers, vendors and suppliers. All information systems are subject to disruption, breach or failure. Potential vulnerabilities can be exploited from inadvertent or intentional actions of our employees, third-party vendors and business partners or by malicious third parties. Attacks of this nature are increasing in their frequency, levels of persistence, sophistication and intensity, and are being conducted by a variety of threat actors, including sophisticated and organized groups and individuals with a wide range of expertise and motives, such as organized criminal groups, industrial spies, nation states and others. In addition to the extraction of sensitive information, attacks could include the deployment of harmful malware, ransomware, denial of service attacks or other means, which could affect service reliability and threaten the confidentiality, integrity and availability of information.
We use enterprise-grade information technology and computer resources to carry out important operational activities and to aggregate and maintain business records from a variety of systems. Although most information is stored on servers that are secured in commercial data centers, individual systems, including back-up systems, are subject to damage or interruption from power outages, telecommunications failures, human error, computer viruses, security breaches and cyber incidents, which may infect our network infrastructure. Such systems are also vulnerable to catastrophic events such as fires, tornadoes, earthquakes and hurricanes. Given the unpredictability of the timing, nature and scope of information technology disruptions, if our computer systems and our backup systems are damaged, breached or cease to function properly, we could potentially be subject to production downtimes, operational delays, distraction of management, the compromising of confidential or otherwise protected information, destruction or corruption of data, security breaches, other manipulation or improper use of our systems and networks and financial losses from remedial actions. Significant disruptions in our, or our third-party vendors', information technology systems or other data security breaches or cyber incidents could adversely affect the business operations and result in the loss or misappropriation of, and unauthorized access to, sensitive information, which may force us to incur significant costs and engage in litigation, harm our reputation and subject us to liability under laws, regulations and contractual obligations. In addition, the costs of maintaining adequate protection against such threats are expected to increase and could be material to our operations.
In March 2019, we suffered a cyber incident and attack to our computer networks. Although many of the costs and expenses we incurred related to this March 2019 incident were covered by insurance, we could in the future suffer a cyber incident that could result in material costs and losses that are not covered by insurance, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
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Failure to maintain the security of personally identifiable information could adversely affect the Company.
In connection with our business, we collect and retain personally identifiable information (e.g., information regarding our customers, suppliers and employees), and there is an expectation that we will adequately protect that information. A significant theft, loss or fraudulent use of the personally identifiable information we maintain, or of our data, by cyber-criminals or others could adversely impact our reputation and could result in significant costs, fines or litigation.

The Company's participation in certain financing programs for the purchase of its products by industry distributors and consumers may expose the Company to additional risk of credit loss, which could adversely impact its liquidity and results of operations
We are exposed to risks associated with the creditworthiness of certain independent distributors, builders, developers, community owners, inventory financing partners and home buyers, many of whom may be adversely affected by the volatile conditions in the economy and financial markets. These conditions could result in financial instability or other adverse effects, the consequences of which could include delinquencies by customers who purchase our products under special financing initiatives and the deterioration of collateral values. In addition, losses may be incurred if the collateral cannot be recovered or is liquidated at prices insufficient to recover recorded commercial loan notes receivable balances. The realization of any of these factors may adversely affect our cash flow, profitability and financial condition.
The Company's results of operations could be adversely affected by significant warranty and construction defect claims on factory-built housing
In the ordinary course of business, we are subject to home warranty and construction defect claims. We record a reserve for estimated future warranty costs relating to homes sold based upon an assessment of historical claim experience. Construction defect claims may arise significantly after product completion. Although we maintain general liability insurance and reserves for such claims, there can be no assurance that warranty and construction defect claims will remain at current levels or that such reserves will continue to be adequate. Additionally, the cost of insurance has increased significantly in recent years. If we are not able to maintain current levels of coverage, or if warranty and construction defect claims exceed current levels, our results of operations or financial condition could be adversely effected.
Products supplied to the Company or work done by subcontractors can expose the Company to risks that could adversely affect its business
We sometimes rely on subcontractors to perform certain processes such as home setup or warranty work. In some cases, subcontractors may use improper processes or defective materials, which could result in the need for us to perform repairs on homes. In addition, although we expect all of our employees, officers and directors to comply at all times with all applicable laws, rules and regulations, there may be instances in which subcontractors or others through whom we do business engage in practices that do not comply with applicable laws, regulations or governmental guidelines. When we learn of practices that do not comply with applicable laws, regulations or guidelines, we move actively to stop the non-complying practices as soon as possible. However, regardless of the steps we take after we learn of improper practices, we can in some instances be subject to fines or other governmental penalties and our reputation can be injured due to the practices having taken place.
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The Company has contingent repurchase obligations related to wholesale financing provided to industry distributors
In accordance with customary business practice in the manufactured housing industry, we have entered into repurchase agreements with various financial institutions and other credit sources who provide floor plan financing to industry distributors, which provide that we will be obligated, under certain circumstances, to repurchase homes sold to distributors in the event of a default by a distributor under floor plan financing arrangements. Under these agreements, we have agreed to repurchase homes at declining prices over the term of the agreement (which in most cases is 18 to 24 months). Our obligation under these repurchase agreements ceases upon the purchase of the home by the retail customer. The maximum amount of contingent obligations under such repurchase agreements was approximately $141.0 million as of April 2, 2022, before reduction for the resale value of the homes. We may be required to honor contingent repurchase obligations in the future and may incur additional expense as a consequence of these repurchase agreements. In addition, the ability to recover losses on homes repurchased could be at risk in a declining price environment.
A write-off of all or part of the Company's goodwill could adversely affect its results of operations and financial condition
As of April 2, 2022, 9% of our total assets consisted of goodwill, all of which is attributable to our factory-built housing segment. In accordance with Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") 350, Intangibles—Goodwill and Other ("ASC 350"), goodwill is tested annually for impairment. If goodwill becomes impaired, such impairment is charged as an expense in the period in which it occurs. Our goodwill could be impaired if developments affecting our manufacturing operations or the markets in which we produce manufactured homes lead us to conclude that the cash flows expected to be derived from our manufacturing operations will be substantially reduced.
If the Company is unable to establish or maintain relationships with its independent distributors who sell the Company's homes, revenue could decline
During fiscal year 2022, approximately 83% of our sales of factory-built homes were to independent distributors. As is common in the industry, independent distributors may also sell homes produced by competing manufacturers. We may not be able to establish relationships with new independent distributors or maintain good relationships with independent distributors that sell our homes. Even if we do establish and maintain relationships with independent distributors, these distributors are not obligated to sell our homes exclusively and may choose to sell competitors' homes. The independent distributors with whom we have relationships can cancel these relationships on short notice. In addition, these distributors may not remain financially solvent, as they are subject to industry, economic, demographic and seasonal trends similar to those faced by us. If we do not establish and maintain relationships with solvent independent distributors in one or more of our markets, revenue in those markets could decline.
The Company's business and operations are concentrated in certain geographic regions, which could be impacted by market declines
Our operations are concentrated in certain states, most notably Texas, California, Florida, Arizona and Oregon. Due to the concentrated nature of the operations, there could be instances where these regions are negatively impacted by economic, natural or population changes that could, in turn, negatively impact our results of operations more than other companies that are more geographically dispersed.
We operate 26 homebuilding production lines located in the Northwest, Southwest, South, Southeast, Midwest and Mid-Atlantic regions. We have a significant presence in Texas with factories in the cities of Austin, Ft. Worth, Seguin and Waco. Further, of the 45 Company-owned retail stores, 31 are located in Texas.
Loan contracts secured by collateral that is geographically concentrated could experience higher rates of delinquencies, default and foreclosure losses than loan contracts secured by collateral that is more geographically dispersed. We have loan contracts secured by factory-built homes located in 26 states, including Texas, Florida, New Mexico, Oklahoma and Alabama. Standard Casualty also specializes in writing contracts for the manufactured housing industry, primarily serving the Texas, Arizona, New Mexico and Nevada markets.
20

The Company's income tax provision and other tax liabilities may be insufficient if taxing authorities initiate and are successful in asserting tax positions that are contrary to the Company's position.
In the normal course of business, we are audited by various federal, state and local authorities regarding income tax matters. Significant judgment is required to determine our provision for income taxes and our liabilities for federal, state, local and other taxes. Although we believe our approach to determining the appropriate tax treatment is supportable and in accordance with tax laws and regulations and relevant accounting literature, it is possible that the final tax authority will take a position that is materially different than ours. As each audit is conducted, adjustments, if any, are recorded in our consolidated financial statements in the period determined. Such differences could have a material adverse effect on our income tax provision or benefit, or other tax reserves, and, consequently, on our results of operations, financial position or cash flows.
A prolonged delay by Congress and the President to approve budgets or continuing appropriation resolutions to facilitate the operations of the federal government could delay the completion of home sales and/or cause cancellations, and thereby negatively impact the Company's deliveries and revenues
Congress and the President may not timely approve budgets or appropriation legislation to facilitate the operations of the federal government. As a result, many federal agencies have historically and may again cease or curtail some activities. The affected activities include issuance of HUD certification labels to manufacturers, Internal Revenue Service verification of loan applicants' tax return information and approvals by the FHA and other government agencies to fund or insure mortgage loans under programs that these agencies operate. As a number of our home buyers use these programs to obtain financing to purchase homes, and many lenders, including CountryPlace, require ongoing coordination with these and other governmental entities to originate home loans, a prolonged delay in the performance of their activities could prevent prospective qualified buyers from obtaining the loans they need to complete such purchases, which could lead to delays or cancellations of home sales. These and other affected governmental bodies could cause interruptions in various aspects of our business and investments. Depending on the length of disruption, such factors could have a material adverse impact on our consolidated financial statements.
Industry and Economic Risks
Tightened credit standards, curtailed lending activity by home-only lenders and increased government lending regulations continue to constrain the consumer financing market which could continue to restrict sales of the Company's homes
Consumers who buy our manufactured homes have historically secured retail financing from third-party lenders. Home-only financing is usually more difficult to obtain than financing for site-built homes. The availability, terms and costs of retail financing depend on the lending practices of financial institutions, governmental policies and economic and other conditions, all of which are beyond our control.
Over time, home-only lenders have tightened the credit underwriting standards for loans to purchase manufactured homes, which has reduced lending volumes and negatively impacted our revenue. Most of the national lenders who have historically provided home-only loans have exited the manufactured housing sector of the home loan industry. Retail sales of manufactured housing could be adversely affected if remaining retail lenders curtail industry lending activities or exit the industry altogether.
Changes in laws or other events that adversely affect liquidity in the secondary mortgage market could hurt the business. GSEs and the FHA play significant roles in insuring or purchasing home mortgages and creating or insuring investment securities secured by home mortgages that are either sold to investors or held in their portfolios. These organizations provide significant liquidity to the secondary market. Any new federal laws or regulations that restrict or curtail their activities, or any other events or conditions that alter the roles of these organizations in the housing finance market, could affect the ability of our customers to obtain mortgage loans or could increase mortgage interest rates, fees and credit standards, which could reduce demand for our homes and/or the loans that we originate and adversely affect our results of operations.
21

Some investors are reluctant to own or participate in owning such loans because of the uncertainty of potential litigation and other costs. As a result, some prospective buyers of manufactured homes may be unable to secure the financing necessary to complete purchases. In addition, enhanced regulatory and compliance costs could force lenders to implement new processes, procedures, controls and infrastructure required to comply with the regulations. Compliance may constrain lenders' ability to profitably price certain loans. Failure to comply with such regulations, changes in these or other regulations, or the imposition of additional regulations, could affect our earnings, limit our access to capital and have a material adverse effect on the business and results of operations.
An increase in interest rates could reduce potential buyers' ability or desire to obtain financing with which to buy homes and adversely affect the Company's business or financial results.
The Federal Reserve Board has recently raised its benchmark rate, with further increases possible. Increases in interest rates could significantly increase the cost of owning a new home, which usually reduces the number of potential buyers who can afford, or are willing, to purchase homes we build. This could adversely impact demand for our homes and the ability of potential customers to obtain financing, adversely affecting our business, financial condition and operating results.
Availability of wholesale financing for industry distributors continues to be limited to a few floor plan lenders and lending limits may be reduced from time to time which can negatively affect distributor demand
Manufactured housing distributors generally finance their inventory purchases with wholesale floor plan financing provided by lending institutions. The availability of wholesale financing is significantly affected by the number of floor plan lenders and their lending limits. Our independent distributors rely primarily on 21st Mortgage Corporation and smaller national and regional lending institutions that specialize in providing wholesale floor plan financing to manufactured housing distributors. Floor plan financing providers could further reduce their levels of floor plan lending. Reduced availability of floor plan lending negatively affects the inventory levels of our independent distributors, the number of retail sales center locations and related wholesale demand, and the availability of, and access to, capital on an ongoing basis.
The Company's operating results could be affected by market forces and declining housing demand
As a participant in the homebuilding industry, we are subject to market forces beyond our control. These market forces include employment levels, employment growth, interest rates, consumer confidence, home input supply availability, land availability and development costs, suppliers impacted by global conflicts, apartment and rental housing vacancy levels, inflation, deflation and the health of the general economy. Unfavorable changes in any of the above factors or other issues could have an adverse effect on our revenues, earnings or financial position.
The cyclical and seasonal nature of the manufactured housing industry causes the Company's revenues and operating results to fluctuate, and we expect this cyclicality and seasonality to continue in the future
The manufactured housing industry is highly cyclical and seasonal and is influenced by many national and regional economic and demographic factors, including the availability of consumer financing for home buyers, the availability of wholesale financing for distributors, seasonality of demand, consumer confidence, interest rates, demographic and employment trends, income levels, housing demand, general economic conditions, including inflation and recessions, and the availability of suitable home sites. As a result of the foregoing economic, demographic and other factors, our revenues and operating results fluctuate, and we expect them to continue to fluctuate in the future.
22

The manufactured housing industry is highly competitive, and increased competition may result in lower revenue
The manufactured housing industry is highly competitive. Competition at both the manufacturing and retail levels is based upon many factors, including price, product features, reputation for service and quality, merchandising, terms of distributor promotional programs and the terms of retail customer financing. Numerous companies produce manufactured homes in our markets. Certain competitors also have their own retail distribution systems and consumer finance and insurance operations. In addition, there are many independent manufactured housing retail locations in most areas where we have retail operations. We believe that where wholesale floor plan financing is available, it is relatively easy for new distributors to enter into our markets as competitors. In addition, our products compete with other forms of low- to moderate-cost housing, including new and existing site-built homes, apartments, townhouses and condominiums. If we are unable to compete effectively in this environment, revenues could be reduced.
Deterioration in economic conditions and turmoil in financial markets could reduce the Company's earnings and financial condition
Deterioration in global, national, regional or local economic conditions and turmoil in financial markets could have a negative impact on our business. Among other things, unfavorable changes in employment levels, job growth, consumer confidence and income, inflation, deflation, trade tariffs, foreign currency exchange rates and interest rates may further reduce demand for our products or have an adverse effect on the availability of financing to our customers, which could negatively affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Legal and Regulatory Risks
If favorable local zoning ordinances are not adopted or if local zoning ordinances become further restricted, the Company's revenue could decline and its business could be adversely affected
Manufactured housing communities and individual home placements are subject to local zoning ordinances and other local regulations relating to utility service and construction of roadways. In the past, property owners often have resisted the adoption of zoning ordinances permitting the location of manufactured homes in residential areas, which we believe has restricted the growth of the industry. Manufactured homes may not achieve widespread acceptance and localities may not adopt zoning ordinances permitting the development of manufactured home communities. If favorable local zoning ordinances are not adopted or become further restricted, our revenue could decline and the business, results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.
The Company is subject to extensive regulation affecting the production and sale of manufactured housing, which could adversely affect its profitability
A variety of federal, state and local laws and regulations affect the production and sale of manufactured housing. Please refer to the section above under the heading "Business - Government Regulation" for a description of many of these laws and regulations. Our failure to comply with such laws and regulations could expose us to a wide variety of sanctions, including closing one or more manufacturing facilities. Regulatory matters affecting our operations are under regular review by governmental bodies and we cannot predict what effect, if any, new laws and regulations would have on us or the manufactured housing industry. Failure to comply with applicable laws or regulations or the passage in the future of new and more stringent laws, may adversely affect our financial condition or results of operations.

The Company may face risks related to the potential outcomes of the SEC litigation, including potential penalties, expense, the use of significant management time and attention or potential reputational damage that the Company may suffer as a result of the litigation
As disclosed in Part I, Item 3, Legal Proceedings, since 2018, we have been cooperating with an investigation by the enforcement staff of the SEC regarding trading in personal and Company accounts directed by the Company's former Chief Executive Officer, Joseph Stegmayer. On September 2, 2021, the SEC filed a civil complaint in the United States District Court District of Arizona, naming the Company, along with Mr. Stegmayer and the Company's former Chief Financial Officer. The case is currently in the discovery phase of litigation.
23

We are unable to predict what consequences any investigation by any regulatory agency may have on us, including significant legal and accounting expenses. These matters may also divert management's attention from other business concerns, which could harm the business and could result in reputational damage. Any proceedings commenced against us by a regulatory agency could result in administrative orders against us, the imposition of penalties and/or fines against us and/or the imposition of sanctions against certain of our current or former officers, directors and/or employees. The investigations, litigation or remedial actions we have taken or are currently undertaking may adversely affect our business. If we are subject to adverse findings resulting from the SEC litigation, we could be required to pay damages and/or penalties or have other remedies imposed on us.

Losses not covered by our Director and Officer ("D&O") insurance may be large, which could adversely impact the Company's financial performance
We maintain D&O liability insurance for losses or advancement of defense costs in the event legal actions are brought against the Company's directors, officers or employees for alleged wrongful acts in their capacity as directors, officers or employees. Such D&O insurance contains certain customary exclusions that may make it unavailable to the Company or its directors and officers in the event it is needed; and, in any case, the D&O insurance may not be adequate to fully protect the Company against liability for the conduct of its directors, officers or employees or the Company's indemnification obligations to its directors and officers.
General Risk Factors
The loss of any of the Company's executive officers, senior leadership or business operations managers or a significant number of operating employees could reduce its ability to execute its business strategy and could have a material adverse effect on its business and results of operations
We are dependent to a significant extent upon the efforts of our executive officers, senior leaders and business operations managers. The loss of the services of one or more of these individuals could impair our ability to execute our business strategy and have a material adverse effect upon our business, financial condition and results of operations. Also, the loss of a significant number of operating employees and our ability to hire qualified replacements could have a material adverse effect on our business. We currently have no key person life or other insurance for our executive officers.
The Company's liquidity and ability to raise capital may be limited
We may need to obtain debt or additional equity financing in the future. The type, timing and terms of the financing selected will depend on, among other things, our cash needs, the availability of other financing sources and prevailing conditions in the financial markets. There can be no assurance that any of these sources will be available to us at any time or that they will be available on satisfactory terms.
Certain provisions of the Company's organizational documents could delay or make more difficult a change in control of the Company
Certain provisions of the Company's restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws could delay or make more difficult transactions involving a change of control, and may have the effect of entrenching the current management or possibly depressing the market price of the Company's common stock. For example, the Company's restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws authorize blank series preferred stock, establish a staggered board of directors and impose certain procedural and other requirements for stockholder proposals.
ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.
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ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
The following table sets forth certain information with respect to the Company's core properties:
LocationDate of
Commencement
of Operations
Owned /
Leased
Square
Feet
Active manufacturing facilities:
Millersburg, Oregon1995Owned169,000 
Woodburn, Oregon1976Owned221,000 
Riverside, California1960Owned107,000 
Nampa, Idaho1957Owned171,000 
Goodyear, Arizona1993Leased250,000 
Phoenix, Arizona1978Owned79,000 
Austin, Texas1981Owned181,000 
Fort Worth, Texas1993Owned121,000 
Seguin, Texas2006Owned129,000 
Waco, Texas1971Owned132,000 
Montevideo, Minnesota1982Owned305,000 
Dorchester, Wisconsin1975Leased160,000 
Nappanee, Indiana1971Owned341,000 
Goshen, Indiana1972Owned163,000 
Lafayette, Tennessee1996Owned149,000 
Moultrie, Georgia2003Owned230,000 
Douglas, Georgia1988Owned142,000 
Shippenville, Pennsylvania (1)1972Owned162,000 
Shippenville, Pennsylvania (2)1988Owned164,000 
Emlenton, Pennsylvania2004Owned126,000 
Martinsville, Virginia1969Owned132,000 
Rocky Mount, Virginia1995Owned137,000 
Cherryville, North Carolina1973Owned254,000 
Ocala, Florida1984Owned91,000 
Plant City, Florida1981Owned87,000 
Component and supply facilities:
Martinsville, Virginia1972Owned192,000 
Nappanee, Indiana1971Leased77,000 
Inactive manufacturing facilities:
Glendale, ArizonaOwned118,000 
Hamlet, North CarolinaOwned184,000 
Plant City, FloridaOwned94,000 
Administrative and other locations:
Phoenix, ArizonaLeased15,000 
Addison, TexasLeased24,000 
Plano, TexasLeased11,000 
New Braunfels, TexasOwned9,000 
Elkhart, IndianaLeased23,000 
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We own the land on which manufacturing facilities are located, except for the Goodyear, Arizona plant, which is currently leased through June 2026, with no current options to extend; and the Dorchester, Wisconsin plant, currently under lease through August 2037, with options to extend. We also own substantially all of the machinery and equipment used at these factories. In addition to production facilities, we own an office building and land in New Braunfels, Texas, which houses Standard Casualty's operations, as well as eight properties upon which active, Company-owned retail stores are located. The remaining active sales centers and a claims office are leased under operating leases with lease terms generally ranging from monthly to five years. Company-owned retail stores generally range in sizes up to nine acres. We lease office spaces in Plano and Addison, Texas for CountryPlace operations and factory-built housing administrative support services, respectively, pursuant to leases that expire in May 2025 and November 2023, respectively. The Phoenix, Arizona home office is leased through February 2026, with an option to extend for an additional three years. The Elkhart, Indiana office is leased through February 2040, with options to extend. In Nappanee, Indiana, we also operate a supply facility whose lease expires in August 2022. We believe that all of these facilities are adequately maintained and suitable for the purposes for which they are used.
ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
See the information under the "Legal Matters" caption in Note 16 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, which is incorporated herein by reference.
ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.
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PART II
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
The Company's common stock is traded on the Nasdaq Global Select Market ("Nasdaq") under the symbol CVCO.
As of May 20, 2022, the Company had 537 stockholders of record and approximately 22,450 beneficial holders of its common stock, based upon information in securities position listings by registered clearing agencies upon request of the Company's transfer agent.
In the past two fiscal years, we have not paid any dividends on the Company's common stock. The payment of dividends to Company stockholders is subject to the discretion of the Board of Directors, and various factors may prevent us from paying dividends. Such factors include Company cash requirements and liquidity and the requirements of state, corporate and other laws.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
On October 27, 2020, the Company's Board of Directors approved a $100 million stock repurchase program that may be used to purchase its outstanding common stock. The repurchases may be made in the open market or in privately negotiated transactions in compliance with applicable state and federal securities laws and other legal requirements. The level of repurchase activity is subject to market conditions and other investment opportunities. The repurchase program does not obligate us to acquire any particular amount of common stock and may be suspended or discontinued at any time. The repurchase program is funded using our available cash. Share repurchase activity during the three months ended April 2, 2022 was as follows (in thousands, except number of shares and per share amounts):
PeriodTotal Number of Shares PurchasedAverage Price Paid Per ShareTotal Number of Shares Purchased as Part of the Publicly Announced ProgramApproximate Dollar Value of Shares That May Yet Be Purchased Under the Program
January 2, 2022 to
      February 5, 2022
— $— — $— 
February 6, 2022 to
      March 5, 2022
— — — — 
March 6, 2022 to
      April 2, 2022
115,200 264.52 115,200 38,960 
115,200115,200
Subsequent to fiscal 2022 year end, we utilized the remaining $39 million under this program. On May 25, 2022, the Company's Board of Directors approved another $100 million stock repurchase program under the same terms and conditions as the previous plan.
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Performance Graph
The following graph compares the yearly change in the cumulative total stockholder return on Cavco common stock during the five fiscal years ended April 2, 2022, with that of the Nasdaq Composite Index and the iShares U.S. Home Construction ETF. The comparison assumes $100 (with reinvestment of all dividends) was invested on April 1, 2017, in Cavco common stock and in each of the foregoing indices.
CAVCO INDUSTRIES, INC.
4/1/20173/31/20183/30/20193/28/20204/3/20214/2/2022
Cavco Industries, Inc.$100 $149 $101 $128 $200 $209 
Nasdaq Composite Index$100 $119 $131 $127 $228 $241 
iShares U.S. Home Construction ETF$100 $124 $111 $97 $221 $192 

cvco-20220402_g1.jpg
ITEM 6. [RESERVED]
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ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Forward-Looking Statements
This Annual Report includes "forward-looking statements," within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, Section 21E of the Exchange Act and the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. In general, all statements included or incorporated in this Annual Report that are not historical in nature are forward-looking. These may include statements about the Company's plans, strategies and prospects under the headings "Business," and "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations." Forward-looking statements are often characterized by the use of words such as "believes," "estimates," "expects," "projects," "may," "will," "intends," "plans," or "anticipates," or by discussions of strategy, plans or intentions. Forward-looking statements are typically included, for example, in discussions regarding the manufactured housing and site-built housing industries; our financial performance and operating results; our liquidity and financial resources; our outlook with respect to the Company and the manufactured housing business in general; the expected effect of certain risks and uncertainties on our business, financial condition and results of operations; economic conditions and consumer confidence; increasing interest rates; potential acquisitions, strategic investments and other expansions; operational and legal risks; how we may be affected by the COVID-19 pandemic or any other pandemic or outbreak; labor shortages and the pricing and availability of raw materials; governmental regulations and legal proceedings; the availability of favorable consumer and wholesale manufactured home financing; and the ultimate outcome of our commitments and contingencies.
Forward-looking statements involve risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements, many of which are beyond our control. To the extent that our assumptions and expectations differ from actual results, our ability to meet such forward-looking statements, including the ability to generate positive cash flow from operations, may be significantly hindered. Factors that could affect our results and cause them to materially differ from those contained in the forward-looking statements include, without limitation, those discussed under Item 1A, "Risk Factors," and elsewhere in this Annual Report. We expressly disclaim any obligation to update any forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law. For all of these reasons, you should not place undue reliance on any such forward-looking statements included in this Annual Report.
Introduction
The following should be read in conjunction with the Company's Consolidated Financial Statements and the related Notes that appear in Part IV of this Report. References to "Note" or "Notes" pertain to the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Company Outlook
Housing demand remains strong as qualified individuals continue pursuing affordable home-ownership. Home order rates have moderated from the extreme highs we saw during the summer of 2020 to the summer of 2021, but still remain above pre-pandemic rates, which we considered to be strong.
We maintain a backlog of orders from our network of licensed distributors, communities and developers. Distributors may cancel orders prior to production without penalty. Accordingly, until the production of a particular unit has commenced, we do not consider our backlog to be firm orders. We strive to manage our production levels, capacity and workforce size based upon current market demand. The backlog of home sales orders at April 2, 2022 was $1.1 billion in total, up $511 million from $603 million as of April 3, 2021. The year over year increase includes $264 million attributable to Commodore. Backlog excludes home orders that have been paused or canceled at the request of the customer.
Although we continue to experience hiring challenges and other inefficiencies from building material supply disruptions, we have reduced our total open production positions needed by nearly 25% over the past year, bringing our total average plant capacity utilization rate to exceeding 80% during the fourth fiscal quarter of 2022, which is above pre-pandemic levels.
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While it is difficult to predict the future of housing demand, employee availability, supply chain and Company performance and operations, maintaining an appropriately sized and well-trained workforce is key to increasing production to meet increased demand, and we face challenges in overcoming labor-related difficulties in the current environment to increase home production. We continually review the wage rates of our production employees and have established other monetary incentive and benefit programs, with a goal of providing competitive compensation. We are also working to more extensively use web-based recruiting tools, update our recruitment brochures and improve the appearance and appeal of our manufacturing facilities to improve the recruitment and retention of qualified production employees and reduce annualized turnover rates. We believe our ability to recruit the workforce we need to help meet the overall need for affordable housing continues to improve.
We continue to make certain commercial loan programs available to members of our wholesale distribution chain. Under direct commercial loan arrangements, we provide funds for financed home purchases by distributors, community owners and developers (see Note 7 to the Consolidated Financial Statements). Our involvement in commercial loans helps to increase the availability of manufactured home financing to distributors, community owners and developers and provides additional opportunity for product exposure to potential home buyers. While these initiatives support our ongoing efforts to expand product distribution, they also expose us to risks associated with the creditworthiness of this customer base and our inventory financing partners.
In the financial services segment, we continue to assist customers in need by servicing existing loans and insurance policies and complying with state and federal regulations regarding loan forbearance, home foreclosures and policy cancellations. Certain loans serviced for investors expose us to cash flow deficits if customers do not make contractual monthly payments of principal and interest in a timely manner. For certain loans serviced for Ginnie Mae and Freddie Mac, and home-only loans serviced for certain other investors, we must remit scheduled monthly principal and/or interest payments and principal curtailments regardless of whether monthly mortgage payments are collected from borrowers. Ginnie Mae permits cash obligations on loans in forbearance from COVID-19 to be offset by other incoming cash flows from loans such as loan pre-payments. Through fiscal year 2022, monthly collections of principal and interest from borrowers have exceeded scheduled principal and interest payments owed to investors; however, mandatory extended forbearance under the CARES Act and certain other regulations related to COVID-19 could negatively impact cash obligations in the future.
The lack of an efficient secondary market for manufactured home-only loans and the limited number of institutions providing such loans results in higher borrowing costs for home-only loans and continues to constrain industry growth. We work independently and with other industry participants to develop secondary market opportunities for manufactured home-only loan and non-conforming mortgage portfolios and expand lending availability in the industry. Additionally, we continue to invest in community-based lending initiatives that provide home-only financing to residents of certain manufactured home communities. We also develop and invest in home-only lending programs to grow sales of homes through traditional distribution points. We believe that growing our investment and participation in home-only lending may provide additional sales growth opportunities for our factory-built housing operations and reduce our exposure to the actions of independent lenders.
We also work independently and with industry trade associations to encourage favorable legislative and GSE action to address the financing needs of buyers of affordable homes. Federal law requires GSEs to implement the "Duty to Serve" requirements specified in the Federal Housing Enterprises Financial Safety and Soundness Act of 1992, as amended by the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008. In April 2022, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac released their Underserved Markets Plans for 2022-2024 that describe, with specificity, the actions they would take over the three-year period to fulfill the "Duty to Serve" obligation. As with prior plans, the 2022-2024 plans offer enhanced mortgage loan products for manufactured homes titled as real property, including Fannie Mae's "MH Advantage" and Freddie Mac's "ChoiceHome" programs that began in the latter part of calendar year 2018. Although some progress has been made with these programs, meaningful positive impact in the form of increased home orders has yet to be realized. The plans do not include purchases of home-only loans during the three-year timeframe. Expansion of the secondary market for home-only loans through GSEs could support further demand for housing as lending options would likely become more available to home buyers.
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The insurance subsidiary is subject to adverse effects from excessive policy claims that may occur during periods of inclement weather, including seasonal spring storms or fall hurricane activity in Texas where most of its policies are underwritten. Where applicable, losses from catastrophic events are mitigated by reinsurance contracts in place as part of our loss mitigation structure.
Results of Operations
Fiscal Year 2022 Compared to Fiscal Year 2021
Net Revenue.
Net revenue consisted of the following for fiscal years 2022 and 2021, respectively:
 Year Ended
 ($ in thousands, except revenue per home sold)April 2,
2022
April 3,
2021
Change
Net revenue:
Factory-built housing$1,556,283 $1,037,889 $518,394 49.9 %
Financial services70,875 70,162 713 1.0 %
$1,627,158 $1,108,051 $519,107 46.8 %
Total homes sold16,69714,2142,48317.5 %
Net factory-built housing revenue per home sold$93,207 $73,019 $20,188 27.6 %
In the factory-built housing segment, the increase in Net revenue was primarily due to higher legacy home selling prices, which provided $302.0 million, and higher legacy home sales volume from increased factory capacity utilization, which contributed $39.4 million. The higher home prices were primarily driven by product price increases, and to a lesser extent a shift toward more multi-section homes. Home sales volume also increased from the addition of Craftsman Homes, LLC and Craftsman Homes Development, LLC (together, "Craftsman") and Commodore, which provided $13.8 million and $166.7 million, respectively. These increases were partially offset by the prior year period containing an extra week of production, given the fiscal calendar.
Net factory-built housing revenue per home sold is a volatile metric dependent upon several factors. A primary factor is the price disparity between sales of homes to independent distributors, builders, communities and developers ("Wholesale") and sales of homes to consumers by Company-owned retail stores ("Retail"). Wholesale sales prices are primarily comprised of the home and the cost to ship the home from a homebuilding facility to the home-site. Retail home prices include these items and retail markup, as well as items that are largely subject to home buyer discretion, including, but not limited to, installation, utility connections, site improvements, landscaping and additional services. Changes to the proportion of home sales among our distribution channels between reporting periods impacts the overall net revenue per home sold. For fiscal 2022, we sold 13,888 homes Wholesale and 2,809 Retail versus 11,225 homes Wholesale and 2,989 homes Retail in the prior year. Our homes are constructed in one or more floor sections ("modules") which are then installed on the customer's site. Fluctuations in net factory-built housing revenue per home sold are also partially the result of changes in the number of modules per home, the selection of different home types/models and optional home upgrades, creating changes in product mix. These selections vary regularly based on consumer interests, local housing preferences and economic circumstances. Product prices are also periodically adjusted for the cost and availability of raw materials included in, and labor used to produce, each home. For these reasons, we have experienced, and expect to continue to experience, volatility in overall net factory-built housing revenue per home sold. The table below presents the mix of modules and homes sold for the fiscal years 2022 and 2021, respectively:
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Year Ended
April 2,
2022
April 3,
2021
Change
ModulesHomesModulesHomesModulesHomes
HUD code homes24,497 14,136 20,948 12,339 16.9 %14.6 %
Modular homes3,569 1,742 2,009 945 77.7 %84.3 %
Park model RVs819 819 930930 (11.9)%(11.9)%
28,885 16,697 23,887 14,214 20.9 %17.5 %
Financial services segment revenue increased 1.0% primarily due to $4.5 million from more insurance policies in force in the current year, $1.5 million in greater loan servicing income and $1.1 million in net higher proceeds from home loan sales. These increases were partially offset by $3.8 million in lower interest income earned on the acquired consumer loan portfolios that continue to amortize and $2.6 million in lower unrealized gains on marketable equity securities in the insurance subsidiary's portfolio.
Gross Profit. 
Gross profit consisted of the following for fiscal years 2022 and 2021, respectively:
 Year Ended
($ in thousands)April 2,
2022
April 3,
2021
 Change
Gross profit:
Factory-built housing$372,250 $199,604 $172,646 86.5 %
Financial services36,499 39,373 (2,874)(7.3)%
$408,749 $238,977 $169,772 71.0 %
Gross profit as % of Net revenue:
Consolidated25.1 %21.6 %N/A3.5 %
Factory-built housing23.9 %19.2 %N/A4.7 %
Financial services51.5 %56.1 %N/A(4.6)%
In the factory-built housing segment, Gross profit increased $323.8 million from higher home sales prices and $30.1 million from more units sold, partially offset by $181.3 million from higher material costs. In the financial services segment, Gross profit decreased primarily due to higher weather related claims, lower interest income earned on the acquired consumer loan portfolios and lower unrealized gains on marketable equity securities compared to the prior year period.
32

Selling, General and Administrative Expenses.
Selling, general and administrative expenses consisted of the following for fiscal years 2022 and 2021, respectively:
 Year Ended
($ in thousands)April 2,
2022
April 3,
2021
Change
Selling, general and administrative expenses:
Factory-built housing$186,278 $130,498 $55,780 42.7 %
Financial services19,975 19,654 321 1.6 %
$206,253 $150,152 $56,101 37.4 %
Selling, general and administrative expenses as % of Net revenue:12.7 %13.6 %N/A(0.9)%
Selling, general and administrative expenses related to factory-built housing increased primarily due to $30.4 million in higher wages and benefits and incentive compensation expense on improved earnings, $19.0 million attributable to acquired entities, $6.9 million in expenses incurred in engaging third-party consultants in relation to pursuing the non-recurring energy efficient home tax credits and $2.4 million in Commodore related acquisition transaction costs, partially offset by $4.2 million of amortization of additional Director & Officer insurance premiums in the prior year that did not repeat.
Selling, general and administrative expenses related to financial services increased primarily from higher salary expenses from continued growth and increased wages and benefits costs.
As a percentage of Net revenue, Selling, general and administrative expenses improved 90 basis points from better utilization of fixed costs on higher sales.
Interest Expense.
Interest expense was $0.7 million in both fiscal year 2022 and 2021, and consists primarily of debt service on the financings of manufactured home-only loans and interest related to finance leases. We realized a decrease in interest expense from the elimination of the securitized bond interest as we exercised our right to repurchase the 2007-1 securitized loan portfolio in August 2019. However, this was offset by an increase in interest expense from the secured credit facilities as well as additional finance leases.
Other Income, net
Other income, net primarily consists of realized and unrealized gains and losses on corporate investments, interest income related to commercial loan receivable balances, interest income earned on cash balances and gains and losses from the sale of property, plant and equipment and assets held for sale. For fiscal years 2022 and 2021, Other income, net was $10.2 million and $8.8 million, respectively, an increase of $1.4 million or 15.9%. This increase was primarily from a $3.3 million revaluation gain recognized on the consolidation of an equity method investment and $1.2 million higher interest income on commercial loans from the addition of Commodore, partially offset by $3.2 million lower unrealized gains on corporate equity investments in the current year.
33

Income Before Income Taxes.
Income before income taxes consisted of the following for fiscal years 2022 and 2021, respectively:
 Year Ended
($ in thousands)April 2,
2022
April 3,
2021
Change
Income before income taxes:
Factory-built housing$197,282 $78,937 $118,345 149.9 %
Financial services14,707 17,975 (3,268)(18.2)%
$211,989 $96,912 $115,077 118.7 %
Income Tax Expense.
Income tax expense was $14.2 million, resulting in an effective tax rate of 6.7% for the fiscal year ended April 2, 2022, compared to income tax expense of $20.3 million and an effective rate of 20.9% for the fiscal year ended April 3, 2021. The lower effective tax rate in the current year period primarily relates to $35.7 million in estimated non-recurring net tax credits related to the sale of energy efficient homes between fiscal year 2018 and fiscal third quarter 2022, available under the Internal Revenue Code §45L, offset by an increase in income before income taxes. The tax credit for energy efficient homes expired in its current form as of December 31, 2021.
Fiscal Year 2021 Compared to Fiscal Year 2020
See Part II, Item 7, "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" in the Company's 2021 Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
We believe that cash and cash equivalents at April 2, 2022, together with cash flow from operations, will be sufficient to fund our operations, cover our obligations and provide for growth for the next 12 months and into the foreseeable future. We maintain cash in U.S. Treasury and other money market funds, some of which are in excess of federally insured limits. We expect to continue to evaluate potential acquisitions of, or strategic investments in, businesses that are complementary to the Company, as well as other expansion opportunities. Such transactions may require the use of cash and have other impacts on our liquidity and capital resources. Because of our sufficient cash position, we have not historically sought external sources of liquidity, with the exception of certain credit facilities for the home-only lending programs. Regardless, depending on our operating results and strategic opportunities, we may choose to seek additional or alternative sources of financing in the future. There can be no assurance that such financing would be available on satisfactory terms, if at all. If this financing were not available, it could be necessary for us to reevaluate our long-term operating plans to make more efficient use of our existing capital resources at such time. The exact nature of any changes to our plans that would be considered depends on various factors, such as conditions in the factory-built housing industry and general economic conditions outside of our control.
State insurance regulations restrict the amount of dividends that can be paid to stockholders of insurance companies. As a result, the assets owned by our insurance subsidiary are generally not available to satisfy the claims of Cavco or its legal subsidiaries. We believe that stockholders' equity at the insurance subsidiary remains sufficient and do not believe that the ability to pay ordinary dividends to Cavco will be restricted per state regulations.
34

The following is a summary of the Company's cash flows for fiscal years 2022 and 2021, respectively:
Year Ended
($ in thousands)April 2,
2022
April 3,
2021
$ Change
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at beginning of the fiscal year$339,307 $255,607 $83,700 
Net cash provided by operating activities144,224 114,031 30,193 
Net cash used in investing activities(159,102)(23,349)(135,753)
Net cash used in financing activities(65,095)(6,982)(58,113)
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at end of the fiscal year$259,334 $339,307 $(79,973)
Net cash provided by operating activities increased primarily due to the increased profitability, partially offset by increased costs for operating activities, including rising costs of our raw materials and higher purchases of such materials, increased accounts receivables from timing of collections and increased sales and refunds related to the estimated net tax credits under the Internal Revenue Code §45L which have not been received.
Consumer loan originations decreased $2.6 million to $159.0 million during the year ended April 2, 2022, from $161.6 million during the year ended April 3, 2021. Proceeds from the sale of consumer loans provided $184.8 million in cash, compared to $167.1 million in the previous year, a net increase of $17.7 million.
Net cash used in investing activities for the year ended April 2, 2022 included purchases of Commodore and Craftsman, as well as purchases of property, plant and equipment. Net cash used in investing activities for the year ended April 3, 2021 was primarily for purchases of property, plant and equipment, including the new park model RV facility in Arizona, which is expected to be operational in mid-calendar year of 2022, partially offset by net proceeds from sales of investments.
Net cash used in financing activities for the year ended April 2, 2022 was primarily related to common stock repurchases and the payments of the secured term loans, which have been paid in full as of January 1, 2022, partially offset by proceeds received from the exercise of stock options. Net cash used in financing activities for the year ended April 3, 2021 was mainly for the payments of tax liabilities on the exercise of stock options and payments on secured financings.
Obligations and Commitments
We enter into commercial loan agreements with distributors, communities and developers under which the Company provides funds for financing homes. In addition, we enter into commercial loan arrangements with certain distributors of our products under which the Company provides funds for wholesale purchases. We have also invested in community-based lending initiatives that provide home-only financing to new residents of certain manufactured home communities. For additional information regarding our commercial loans receivable, see Note 7 to the Consolidated Financial Statements. Further, we invest in and develop home-only loan pools and lending programs to attract third-party financier interest in order to grow sales of new homes through traditional distribution points.
We have contractual lease obligations for certain production and retail locations, office space and equipment with durations ranging from monthly to 20 years. Certain lease agreements include one or more options to renew, with renewal terms that can extend the lease term by one to three years or more. For additional information related to these obligations, see Note 9 to the Consolidated Financial Statements. In addition, we also have contingent commitments at April 2, 2022 consisting of contingent repurchase obligations, construction contingent commitments, interest rate lock commitments ("IRLCs") and forward loan sale commitments. For additional information related to these contingent obligations, see Note 16 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
See Part II, Item 7, "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations— Liquidity and Capital Resources" in the Company's 2021 Annual Report on Form 10-K for a discussion of changes in liquidity between fiscal years 2021 and 2020.
35

Critical Accounting Estimates
Our discussion and analysis of the Company's financial condition and results of operations is based upon its Consolidated Financial Statements, which have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles. The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. We base these estimates and judgments on historical experience and on various other factors that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions. See "Forward-Looking Statements" above.
We believe the following accounting policies are critical to Company operating results or may affect significant judgments and estimates used in the preparation of the Consolidated Financial Statements and should be read in conjunction with the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Warranties. Estimates include the number of homes still under warranty, including homes in distributor inventories, homes purchased by consumers still within the one-year warranty period, the timing in which work orders are completed and the historical average costs incurred to service a home. While the number of homes still under warranty and the timing in which work orders are completed are readily determinable, the average costs incurred will vary based on market prices and availability, which are the primary subjective inputs in estimating the reserve. We expect that a 5% increase in average costs would increase our reserve proportionally.
Income Taxes and Deferred Tax Assets and Liabilities. The determination of the need for, or amount of, any valuation allowance involves significant judgment and is based upon the evaluation of both positive and negative evidence, including estimates of anticipated taxable profits in various jurisdictions with which the deferred tax assets are associated. At April 2, 2022, based on historical profits earned and forecasted taxable profits, we determined that all deferred tax assets, except for certain state net operating loss deferred tax assets, would be utilized in future periods. Additionally, the overall state income tax rate is based on income apportionment by state, which is estimated using prior year results, along with expected current year impacts.
Goodwill and Other Intangibles. We evaluate the fair value of reporting units and when we record an impairment loss on goodwill. During the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2022 we conducted our annual goodwill impairment test and no impairment charges were recorded. The estimated fair values of our two reporting units exceeded their carrying values at the date of their most recent estimated fair value determination. However, estimated fair values would need to decrease by over 450% for there to be indicators of impairment. The fair value evaluation of intangible assets acquired includes the use of acceptable valuation approaches utilizing unobservable inputs, which may lead to a high level of uncertainty. These Level 3 inputs relate to forecasts of future cash flows, pre-tax income and revenue growth rates, as well as the selection of royalty and discount rates. The analysis depends upon a number of judgments, estimates and assumptions. Accordingly, such testing is subject to uncertainties, which could cause fair value to fluctuate.
Other Matters
Impact of Inflation. At the end of the period, inflation was the highest in the U.S. in over 30 years. Our ability to maintain certain levels of gross margin can be adversely impacted by sudden increases in specific costs, such as the increases in material and labor. In addition, measures used to combat inflation, such as increases in interest rates, could also have an impact on the ability of home buyers to obtain affordable financing. We can give no assurance that inflation will not affect future profitability.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
See Note 1 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for a discussion of recently issued and adopted accounting pronouncements.
36

ITEM 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
Market risk is the risk of loss arising from adverse changes in market prices and interest rates. We may from time to time be exposed to interest rate risk inherent in our financial instruments, but we are not currently subject to foreign currency or commodity price risk. We manage exposure to these market risks through our regular operating and financing activities.
The Company's operations are interest rate sensitive. As overall manufactured housing demand can be adversely affected by increases in interest rates, a significant increase in wholesale or mortgage interest rates may negatively affect the ability of distributors and home buyers to secure financing. Higher interest rates could unfavorably impact revenues, gross margins and net earnings.
We are exposed to market risk related to the accessibility and terms of long-term financing of our consumer loans. While we previously accessed the asset-backed securities market to provide term financing of home-only and non-conforming mortgage originations, at present, independent asset-backed and mortgage-backed securitization markets are not readily available to us or other manufactured housing lenders. Accordingly, we have not securitized our loan originations as a means to obtain long-term funding.
We are also exposed to market risks related to the consumer and commercial loan notes receivables. For fixed and step rate instruments, changes in interest rates do not change future earnings and cash flows. However, changes in interest rates could affect the fair value of these instruments. Assuming the level of these instruments as of April 2, 2022 is held constant, a 1% (100 basis points) unfavorable change in average interest rates would adversely impact the fair value of these instruments, as follows:
($ in thousands)Reduction in Fair Value
Consumer loans receivable$2,592 
Commercial loans receivable421 
Securitized financings
883 
In originating loans for sale, we issue IRLCs to prospective borrowers and third-party originators. These IRLCs represent an agreement to extend credit to a loan applicant, whereby the interest rate on the loan is set prior to loan closing or sale. These IRLCs bind us to fund the approved loan at the specified rate regardless of whether interest rates or market prices for similar loans have changed between the commitment date and the closing date. As such, outstanding IRLCs are subject to interest rate risk and related loan sale price risk during the period from the date of the IRLC through the earlier of the loan sale date or IRLC expiration date. The loan commitments generally range between 30 and 180 days; however, borrowers are not obligated to close the related loans. As a result, we are also subject to fallout risk related to IRLCs, which is realized if approved borrowers choose not to close on the loans within the terms of the IRLCs. As of April 2, 2022, we had outstanding IRLCs with a notional amount of $51.7 million recorded at fair value in accordance with FASB ASC 815, Derivatives and Hedging. The estimated fair values of IRLCs are based on quoted market values and are recorded in Prepaid expenses and other current assets, for net favorable positions, or Accrued expenses and other current liabilities, for net unfavorable positions, in the Consolidated Balance Sheets. The fair value of IRLCs is based on the value of the underlying loan adjusted for: (i) estimated cost to complete and originate the loan and (ii) the estimated percentage of IRLCs that will result in closed loans. The initial and subsequent changes in the value of IRLCs are a component of current income. Assuming the level of IRLCs is held constant, a 1% (100 basis points) increase in average interest rates would decrease the fair value of the obligations by approximately $88,000.
ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
Reference is made to the Consolidated Financial Statements, the Reports thereon, the Notes thereto and the supplementary data commencing on page F-1 of this report, which Consolidated Financial Statements, Reports, Notes and data are incorporated herein by reference.
37

ITEM 9. CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE
None.
ITEM 9A. CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES
Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures
The Company carried out an evaluation, under the supervision and with the participation of the Company's management, including its President and Chief Executive Officer and its Chief Financial Officer, of the effectiveness of its disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in the Exchange Act Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e)). Based upon that evaluation, the Company's President and Chief Executive Officer and its Chief Accounting Officer concluded that, as of April 2, 2022, its disclosure controls and procedures were effective.
Management's Report on Internal Controls Over Financial Reporting
The management of Cavco Industries, Inc. (the "Company") is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting, as such term is defined in Exchange Act Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f). Internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. Internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that in reasonable detail accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the Company's assets; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, and that the Company's receipts and expenditures are being made only in accordance with authorizations of our management and directors; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use or disposition of the Company's assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
Because of its inherent limitations, the Company's controls and procedures may not prevent or detect misstatements. A control system, no matter how well conceived and operated, can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurance that the objectives of the controls system are met. Because of the inherent limitations in all controls systems, no evaluation of controls can provide absolute assurance that all control issues and instances of fraud, if any, have been detected.
Management assessed the effectiveness of the Company's internal control over financial reporting based on the criteria in Internal Control—Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission ("2013 framework"). Based on management's evaluation under the criteria in the 2013 framework, management concluded that the Company's internal control over financial reporting was effective as of April 2, 2022.
The scope of management's assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting did not include the internal controls of Craftsman or Commodore, which are included in the 2022 consolidated financial statements of Cavco Industries, Inc. since the acquisition dates of July 4, 2021 and September 24, 2021, respectively, and which comprised approximately 17% of total assets and 11% of net revenues as of and for the year ended April 2, 2022, respectively.
The effectiveness of the Company's internal control over financial reporting as of April 2, 2022 has been audited by RSM US LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their report, which appears herein.
38

Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting
There have been no changes in the Company's internal control over financial reporting (as defined in Exchange Act Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f)) that occurred during the fiscal quarter ended April 2, 2022, which have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, the Company's internal control over financial reporting.
39

REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
To the Shareholders and the Board of Directors of Cavco Industries, Inc.

Opinion on the Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
We have audited Cavco Industries, Inc. and subsidiaries' (the Company) internal control over financial reporting as of April 2, 2022, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission in 2013. In our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of April 2, 2022, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission in 2013.
 
We have also audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the consolidated balance sheets of the Company as of April 2, 2022 and April 3, 2021, and the related consolidated statements of comprehensive income, stockholders' equity and redeemable noncontrolling interest, and cash flows for each of the three fiscal years in the period ended April 2, 2022, and the related notes of the Company and our report dated May 31, 2022 expressed an unqualified opinion.

As described in Management's Report on Internal Controls Over Financial Reporting, management has excluded Craftsman and Commodore from its assessment of internal control over financial reporting as of April 2, 2022, because they were acquired by the Company in purchase business combinations in the second fiscal quarter of 2022. We have also excluded Craftsman and Commodore from our audit of internal control over financial reporting. Craftsman and Commodore are subsidiaries whose total assets and net income represent approximately 17% and 11%, respectively, of the related consolidated financial statement amounts as of and for the year ended April 2, 2022.
 
Basis for Opinion
The Company's management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting in the accompanying Management's Report on Internal Controls Over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company's internal control over financial reporting based on our audit. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.



We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audit included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our audit also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.
 
40

Definition and Limitations of Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
A company's internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company's internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use or disposition of the company's assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
 
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
/s/ RSM US LLP
Phoenix, Arizona
May 31, 2022
41

ITEM 9B. OTHER INFORMATION
None.
ITEM 9C. DISCLOSURE REGARDING FOREIGN JURISDICTIONS THAT PREVENT INSPECTIONS
Not applicable.
PART III
ITEM 10. DIRECTORS, EXECUTIVE OFFICERS AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE
The information required to be disclosed by this item is incorporated herein by reference to our definitive proxy statement for the 2022 Annual Meeting of Stockholders (the "2022 Proxy Statement"), which proxy statement we expect to file with the SEC within 120 days after the end of our fiscal year ended April 2, 2022.
The Company has a Code of Conduct that applies to all directors, officers and employees of the Company. A copy of the Company's Code of Conduct is located on the Company's website at www.cavco.com or will be mailed, at no charge, upon request submitted to Mickey R. Dragash, Secretary, Cavco Industries, Inc., 3636 North Central Avenue, Suite 1200, Phoenix, Arizona, 85012. If the Company makes any amendment to, or grants any waivers of, a provision of the Code of Conduct that applies to its principal executive officer, principal financial officer or principal accounting officer where such amendment or waiver is required to be disclosed under applicable SEC rules, the Company intends to disclose such amendment or waiver and the reasons therefore on its website at www.cavco.com.
ITEM 11. EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION
The information required to be disclosed by this item is incorporated herein by reference to our 2022 Proxy Statement.
ITEM 12. SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT AND RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS
The information required to be disclosed by this item is incorporated herein by reference to our 2022 Proxy Statement.
Equity Compensation Plan Information
The following table sets forth information as of April 2, 2022, with respect to the Company's compensation plans and individual compensation arrangements under which the Company's equity securities were authorized for issuance to directors, officers, employees, consultants and certain other persons and entities in exchange for the provision of goods or services.
Plan CategoryNumber of
Securities to be
Issued Upon
Exercise of
Outstanding
Options,
Warrants and
Rights (a)
Weighted-
Average Exercise
Price of
Outstanding
Options,
Warrants and
Rights
Number of Securities
Remaining Available for
Future Issuance Under
Equity Compensation
Plans (Excluding
Securities Reflected in
Column (a))
Equity compensation plans approved by stockholders230,614 $131.53 283,208 
Equity compensation plans not approved by stockholders— — — 
Total230,614 $131.53 283,208 
42

ITEM 13. CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED TRANSACTIONS, AND DIRECTOR INDEPENDENCE
The information required to be disclosed by this item is incorporated herein by reference to our 2022 Proxy Statement.
ITEM 14. PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTING FEES AND SERVICES
The information required to be disclosed by this item is incorporated herein by reference to our 2022 Proxy Statement.
43

PART IV
ITEM 15. EXHIBITS, FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES
Financial Statements and Financial Statement Schedules
Financial Statements are listed in the Index to Consolidated Financial Statements on page F-1 of this report.
All schedules have been omitted because they are not applicable or the required information is included in the Consolidated Financial Statements or Notes thereto.
Exhibits
The documents listed below are being filed or have previously been filed on behalf of the Company and are incorporated herein by reference from the documents indicated and made a part hereof. Exhibits not identified as previously filed are filed herewith.
Copies of any of the exhibits referred to below will be furnished at no cost to security holders who make a written request to Mickey R. Dragash, Secretary, Cavco Industries, Inc., 3636 North Central Avenue, Suite 1200, Phoenix, Arizona, 85012 or via the Company website (www.cavco.com).
 
Exhibit
Number
ExhibitFiled/Furnished Herewith or
Incorporated by Reference
Exhibit 3.1 to the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2004
Exhibit 3.1 to the Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended June 30, 2006
Exhibit 3.1 to the Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended September 27, 2015
Exhibit 3.1 to the Periodic Report on Form 8-K filed on January 29, 2020
Exhibit 4.1 to the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended March 28, 2020
Exhibit 10.6 to the Registration Statement on Form 10/A (File No. 000-08822) filed by Cavco on May 30, 2003
Exhibit 10.1 to the Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended June 30, 2010
Exhibit A to the Corporation's Definitive Proxy Statement for its 2005 Annual Meeting of Stockholders filed by the Company with the Securities and Exchange Commission on May 23, 2005
Exhibit 10.2 to the Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended June 30, 2010
Exhibit 10.1 to the Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended September 26, 2015
Exhibit 10.1 to the Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended June 30, 2012
Exhibit 10.1 to the Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended July 2, 2016
Exhibit 10.1 to the Current Report on Form 8-K filed on January 8, 2019
Exhibit 10.2.10 to the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended March 30, 2019
Filed herewith
Exhibit 10.1 to the Current Report on Form 8-K filed on April 2, 2019
Exhibit 10.6 to the Current Report on Form 8-K filed on April 2, 2019
Exhibit 10.3.6 to the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended March 28, 2020
44

Exhibit
Number
ExhibitFiled/Furnished Herewith or
Incorporated by Reference
Current Report on Form 8-K filed on August 10, 2021
Exhibit 10.1 to the Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended October 2, 2021
Exhibit 10.3.8 to the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended March 28, 2020
Current Report on Form 8-K filed on June 27, 2019
Current Report on Form 8-K filed on July 2, 2021
Exhibit 10.5 to Current Report on Form 8-K filed on April 2, 2019
Exhibit 10.2 to the Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended October 2, 2021
Exhibit 10.6 to the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended March 28, 2020
Exhibit 10.3 to the Current Report on Form 8-K filed on July 26, 2021
Filed herewith
Filed herewith
Filed herewith
Filed herewith
Furnished herewith
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*Management contract or compensatory plan or arrangement
**These certifications are not "filed" for purposes of Section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or otherwise subject to the liability of that section. These certifications are not to be deemed incorporated by reference into any filing under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, unless Cavco specifically incorporates them by reference.
ITEM 16. FORM 10-K SUMMARY
None.
45

SIGNATURES
Pursuant to the requirements of Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the Registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized.
CAVCO INDUSTRIES, INC.
Date: May 31, 2022/s/ William C. Boor
William C. Boor
President and Chief Executive Officer
(Principal Executive Officer)
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, this report has been signed below by the following persons on behalf of the registrant and in the capacities and on the dates indicated.
SignatureTitleDate
/s/ William C. BoorDirector, President and Chief Executive OfficerMay 31, 2022
William C. Boor(Principal Executive Officer)
/s/ Allison K. AdenExecutive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer & TreasurerMay 31, 2022
Allison K. Aden(Principal Financial Officer)
/s/ Paul W. BigbeeChief Accounting OfficerMay 31, 2022
Paul W. Bigbee(Principal Accounting Officer)
/s/ Steven G. BungerChairman of the Board of DirectorsMay 30, 2022
Steven G. Bunger
/s/ Susan L. BlountDirectorMay 31, 2022
Susan L. Blount
/s/ David A. GreenblattDirectorMay 31, 2022
David A. Greenblatt
/s/ Richard A. KerleyDirectorMay 30, 2022
Richard A. Kerley
/s/ Steven W. MosterDirectorMay 31, 2022
Steven W. Moster
/s/ Julia W. SzeDirectorMay 31, 2022
Julia W. Sze
46

CAVCO INDUSTRIES, INC.
INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
 
F-1

REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
To the Shareholders and the Board of Directors of Cavco Industries, Inc.

Opinion on the Financial Statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Cavco Industries, Inc. and its subsidiaries (the Company) as of April 2, 2022 and April 3, 2021, the related consolidated statements of comprehensive income, stockholders' equity and redeemable noncontrolling interest, and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended April 2, 2022, and the related notes to the consolidated financial statements (collectively, the financial statements). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of April 2, 2022 and April 3, 2021, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended April 2, 2022, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
 
We have also audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the Company's internal control over financial reporting as of April 2, 2022, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission in 2013, and our report dated May 31, 2022 expressed an unqualified opinion on the effectiveness of the Company's internal control over financial reporting.

Basis for Opinion
These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company's financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
 
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

Critical Audit Matters
The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current period audit of the financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that: (1) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing separate opinions on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.

F-2

Acquisition of The Commodore Corporation – Valuation of Acquired Customer-Related Intangibles, Trademarks, and Trade Names
As described in Note 22 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company completed the acquisition of certain manufactured housing assets and assumed certain liabilities of The Commodore Corporation for $146.2 million on September 24, 2021. The Company accounted for this transaction under the acquisition method of accounting for business combinations. Accordingly, the purchase price was allocated to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed based on their respective fair values, including identified intangible assets of $12.5 million, and resulting goodwill of $21.3 million. As described in Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements, to value the identified intangible assets, which consist of customer-related intangibles, trademarks, and trade names, the Company used the income approach, which is a method of using discounted cash flows to value intangible assets. The process requires management to make significant assumptions regarding the estimates that would be used by a market participant, which include, where applicable, forecast of future cash flows and pre-tax income, forecasted revenue growth rates, royalty rates, and discount rates.
We identified the valuation of customer-related intangibles, trademarks, and trade names acquired as a critical audit matter as there was a high degree of auditor judgment and increased audit effort when performing audit procedures to evaluate the reasonableness of significant estimates and assumptions utilized in management’s intangible asset valuation processes.
Our audit procedures related to the significant estimates and assumptions, including forecasts of future cash flows, pre-tax income and revenue growth rates, as well as the selection of the royalty rates and discount rates, for acquired intangible assets included the following, among others:
We obtained an understanding of the relevant controls related to the valuation of the intangible assets, including management’s controls over forecasts of future revenues, cash flows and future pre-tax income, as well as the selection of the royalty rates and discount rates, and tested such controls for design and operating effectiveness.
We evaluated the reasonableness of management’s forecasts of future cash flows and pre-tax income by comparing the projections to historical results and certain peer companies.
With the assistance of our fair value specialists, we evaluated the reasonableness of the valuation methodology, royalty rates and discount rates utilized by management by:
Testing the source information underlying the determination of the royalty rates and discount rates by comparing it to independent sources and verifying that it reflects the nature and characteristics of underlying assets being valued;
Testing the mathematical accuracy of the calculations; and
Developing a range of independent estimates for the discount rates and comparing those to the discount rates selected by management.

/s/ RSM US LLP
RSM US LLP
Firm ID: 49
We have served as the Company's auditor since 2015.
Phoenix, Arizona
May 31, 2022

F-3

CAVCO INDUSTRIES, INC.
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(Dollars in thousands, except per share amounts)
April 2,
2022
April 3,
2021
ASSETS
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$244,150 $322,279 
Restricted cash, current14,849 16,693 
Accounts receivable, net96,052 47,396 
Short-term investments20,086 19,496 
Current portion of consumer loans receivable, net20,639 37,690 
Current portion of commercial loans receivable, net32,272 14,568 
Current portion of commercial loans receivable from affiliates, net372 4,664 
Inventories243,971 131,234 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets71,726 57,779 
Total current assets744,117 651,799 
Restricted cash335 335 
Investments34,933 35,010 
Consumer loans receivable, net29,245 37,108 
Commercial loans receivable, net33,708 20,281 
Commercial loans receivable from affiliate, net2,214 4,801 
Property, plant and equipment, net164,016 96,794 
Goodwill100,993 75,090 
Other intangibles, net28,459 14,363 
Operating lease right-of-use assets16,952 16,252 
Total assets$1,154,972 $951,833 
LIABILITIES, REDEEMABLE NONCONTROLLING INTEREST AND STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY
Current liabilities:
Accounts payable$43,082 $32,120 
Accrued expenses and other current liabilities250,304 203,133 
Current portion of secured financings and other784 1,851 
Total current liabilities294,170 237,104 
Operating lease liabilities13,158 13,361 
Secured financings and other10,836 10,335 
Deferred income taxes5,528 7,393 
Redeemable noncontrolling interest825  
Stockholders' equity:
Preferred stock, $0.01 par value; 1,000,000 shares authorized; No shares issued or outstanding
  
Common stock, $0.01 par value; 40,000,000 shares authorized; Issued 9,292,278 and 9,241,256 shares, respectively
93 92 
Treasury stock, at cost; 241,773 and 6,600 shares, respectively
(61,040)(1,441)
Additional paid-in capital263,049 253,835 
Retained earnings628,756 431,057 
Accumulated other comprehensive (loss) income (403)97 
Total stockholders' equity830,455 683,640 
Total liabilities, redeemable noncontrolling interest and stockholders' equity$1,154,972 $951,833 
See accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
F-4

CAVCO INDUSTRIES, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
(Dollars in thousands, except per share amounts)
Year Ended
April 2,
2022
April 3,
2021
March 28,
2020
Net revenue
$1,627,158 $1,108,051 $1,061,774 
Cost of sales
1,218,409 869,074 831,256 
Gross profit
408,749 238,977 230,518 
Selling, general and administrative expenses
206,253 150,152 145,611 
Income from operations
202,496 88,825 84,907 
Interest expense
(702)(738)(1,495)
Other income, net
10,195 8,825 9,567 
Income before income taxes
211,989 96,912 92,979 
Income tax expense
(14,247)(20,266)(17,913)
Net income
197,742 76,646 75,066 
Less: net income attributable to redeemable noncontrolling interest
43   
Net income attributable to Cavco common stockholders
$197,699 $76,646 $75,066 
Comprehensive income
Net income
$197,742 $76,646 $75,066 
Reclassification adjustment for securities sold
(17)19 18 
Applicable income taxes4 (4)(4)
Net change in unrealized position of investments held
(616)(10)132 
Applicable income taxes
129 2 (28)
Comprehensive income197,242 76,653 75,184 
Less: comprehensive income attributable to redeemable noncontrolling interest43   
Comprehensive income attributable to Cavco common stockholders$197,199 $76,653 $75,184 
Net income per share attributable to Cavco common stockholders
Basic$21.54 $8.34 $8.22 
Diluted$21.34 $8.25 $8.10 
Weighted average shares outstanding:
Basic9,178,593 9,189,052 9,129,639 
Diluted9,264,153 9,293,134 9,268,784 

See accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
F-5

CAVCO INDUSTRIES, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY AND REDEEMABLE NONCONTROLLING INTEREST
(Dollars in thousands)
Stockholders' Equity
Treasury
Stock
Additional paid-in capitalRetained earningsAccumulated other comprehensive (loss) incomeTotalRedeemable Noncontrolling Interest
Common Stock
SharesAmount
Balance, March 30, 20199,098,320 $91 $ $249,447 $280,078 $(28)$529,588 $ 
Net income    75,066  75,066  
Other comprehensive income, net     118 118 — 
Issuance of common stock under stock incentive plans74,922 1  (1,068)  (1,067)— 
Stock-based compensation   3,881   3,881 — 
Balance, March 28, 20209,173,242 $92 $ $252,260 $355,144 $90 $607,586 $ 
Cumulative effect of implementing ASU 2016-13, net
—    (733