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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, DC 20549

FORM 20-F

REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR 12(g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

OR

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2021

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from to

OR

SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

Date of event requiring this shell company report

Commission file number 001-33060

DANAOS CORPORATION

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

Not Applicable

(Translation of Registrant’s name into English)

Republic of The Marshall Islands

(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

c/o Danaos Shipping Co. Ltd, Athens Branch
14 Akti Kondyli
185 45 Piraeus
Greece

(Address of principal executive offices)

Evangelos Chatzis
Chief Financial Officer
c/o Danaos Shipping Co. Ltd, Athens Branch
14 Akti Kondyli
185 45 Piraeus
Greece
Telephone: +30 210 419 6480
Facsimile: +30 210 419 6489

(Name, Address, Telephone Number and Facsimile Number of Company Contact Person)

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class

    

Trading Symbol(s)

    

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common stock, $0.01 par value per share

DAC

New York Stock Exchange

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

None.

Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act:

None.

As of December 31, 2021, there were 20,716,738 shares of the registrant’s common stock outstanding.

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act:

 Yes  No

If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

 Yes  No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.

 Yes  No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).

 Yes  No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer”, “accelerated filer” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

Large accelerated filer 

Accelerated filer 

Non-accelerated filer

Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:

U.S. GAAP 

International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board 

Other

If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow.

 Item 17  Item 18

If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).

 Yes  No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report:

Yes No

TABLE OF CONTENTS

    

Page

FORWARD-LOOKING INFORMATION

2

PART I

3

Item 1. Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers

3

Item 2. Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable

3

Item 3. Key Information

3

RISK FACTORS

5

Item 4. Information on the Company

30

Item 4A. Unresolved Staff Comments

45

Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects

46

Item 6. Directors, Senior Management and Employees

75

Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions

81

Item 8. Financial Information

87

Item 9. The Offer and Listing

88

Item 10. Additional Information

88

Item 11. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

102

Item 12. Description of Securities Other than Equity Securities

103

PART II

104

Item 13. Defaults, Dividend Arrearages and Delinquencies

104

Item 14. Material Modifications to the Rights of Security Holders and Use of Proceeds

104

Item 15. Controls and Procedures

104

Item 16A. Audit Committee Financial Expert

105

Item 16B. Code of Ethics

105

Item 16C. Principal Accountant Fees and Services

105

Item 16D. Exemptions from the Listing Standards for Audit Committees

106

Item 16E. Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers

106

Item 16F. Change in Registrant’s Certifying Accountant

106

Item 16G. Corporate Governance

106

Item 16H. Mine Safety Disclosure

106

Item 16I. Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections

107

PART III

107

Item 17. Financial Statements

107

Item 18. Financial Statements

107

Item 19. Exhibits

107

i

FORWARD-LOOKING INFORMATION

This annual report contains forward-looking statements based on beliefs of our management. Any statements contained in this annual report that are not historical facts are forward-looking statements as defined in Section 27A of the U.S. Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the U.S. Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. We have based these forward-looking statements on our current expectations and projections about future events, including:

future operating or financial results;
the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and efforts throughout the world to contain its spread;
pending acquisitions and dispositions, business strategies and expected capital spending;
operating expenses, availability of crew, number of off-hire days, drydocking requirements and insurance costs;
general market conditions and container shipping market trends, including charter rates, vessel values and factors affecting supply and demand;
our financial condition and liquidity, including our ability to comply with covenants in our financing arrangements and to service or refinance our outstanding indebtedness;
performance by our charterers of their obligations;
the availability of ships to purchase, the time that it may take to construct new ships, or the useful lives of our ships;
our ability to obtain financing in the future to fund acquisitions and other general corporate activities;
our continued ability to enter into multi-year, fixed-rate period charters with our customers;
our ability to leverage to our advantage our manager’s relationships and reputation in the containership shipping sector of the international shipping industry;
changes in governmental rules and regulations or actions taken by regulatory authorities;
potential liability from future litigation; and
other factors discussed in “Item 3. Key Information—Risk Factors” of this annual report.

The words “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “expect,” “forecast,” “intend,” “potential,” “may,” “plan,” “project,” “predict,” and “should” and similar expressions as they relate to us are intended to identify such forward-looking statements, but are not the exclusive means of identifying such statements. We may also from time to time make forward-looking statements in our periodic reports that we file with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) other information sent to our security holders, and other written materials. Such statements reflect our current views and assumptions and all forward-looking statements are subject to various risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from expectations. The factors that could affect our future financial results are discussed more fully in “Item 3. Key Information—Risk Factors” and in our other filings with the SEC. We caution readers of this annual report not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which speak only as of their dates. We undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements.

2

PART I

Danaos Corporation is a corporation domesticated in the Republic of The Marshall Islands that is referred to in this Annual Report on Form 20-F, together with its subsidiaries, as “Danaos Corporation,” “the Company,” “we,” “us,” or “our.” This report should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes thereto, which are included in Item 18 to this annual report.

We use the term “twenty foot equivalent unit,” or “TEU,” the international standard measure of containers, in describing the capacity of our containerships. Unless otherwise indicated, all references to currency amounts in this annual report are in U.S. dollars.

All data regarding our fleet and the terms of our charters is as of February 28, 2022. As of February 28, 2022, we owned 71 containerships aggregating 436,589 TEU in capacity. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—Business Overview—Our Fleet”.

On May 2, 2019, the Company effected a 1-for-14 reverse stock split of the issued and outstanding shares of common stock of the Company. All share and per share data disclosed in this annual report give effect to this reverse stock split.

Item 1.  Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers

Not Applicable.

Item 2.  Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable

Not Applicable.

Item 3.  Key Information

Capitalization and Indebtedness

The table below sets forth our consolidated capitalization as of December 31, 2021:

on an actual basis; and
on an as adjusted basis to reflect, in the period from January 1, 2022 to February 28, 2022, scheduled debt repayments under the $815 Million Senior Secured Credit Facility amounting to $20.4 million, $10.7 million related to our leasing obligations, $0.8 million related to Eurobank facility and $0.5 million related to our SinoPac senior secured credit facility.

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Other than as described above, there have been no material changes to our capitalization from debt or equity issuances, re-capitalizations, special dividends, or debt repayments as adjusted in the table below between January 1, 2022 and February 28, 2022.

As of December 31, 2021

    

Actual

    

As Adjusted

(US Dollars in thousands)

Capitalization

 

  

 

  

Debt:

 

  

 

  

Total debt(1) (2)

$

1,378,496

$

1,346,133

Stockholders’ equity:

 

  

 

  

Preferred stock, par value $0.01 per share; 100,000,000 preferred shares authorized and none issued; actual and as adjusted

 

 

Common stock, par value $0.01 per share; 750,000,000 shares authorized; 25,056,009 shares issued and 20,716,738 outstanding actual and as adjusted (3)

 

207

 

207

Additional paid-in capital(3)

 

770,676

 

770,676

Accumulated other comprehensive loss

 

(71,455)

 

(71,455)

Retained earnings(4)

 

1,388,595

 

1,388,595

Total stockholders’ equity

 

2,088,023

 

2,088,023

Total capitalization

$

3,466,519

$

3,434,156

(1)Long-term debt excludes accumulated accrued interest of $30.3 million outstanding as of December 31, 2021. All of the indebtedness reflected in the table is secured and is guaranteed by Danaos Corporation, in the case of indebtedness of our subsidiaries ($77.8 million on an actual basis) and leasing obligations of our subsidiaries ($226.5 million on an actual basis), or by our subsidiaries, in the case of indebtedness of Danaos Corporation ($774.3 million on an actual basis) and Senior Notes due 2028 ($300.0 million on an actual basis). See Note 5 “Fixed Assets, net & Right-of-use Assets” and Note 10 “Long-Term Debt, net” to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this annual report.
(2)Total debt is presented gross of the fair value adjustment and deferred finance costs, which amount to $10.0 million and $32.5 million, respectively.
(3)Actual and as adjusted issued and outstanding common stock include 19,300 shares of restricted stock, which are scheduled to vest on December 31, 2022, subject to satisfaction of the vesting terms.
(4)Does not reflect dividend of $0.75 per share of common stock declared amounting to $15.5 million, which was paid on February 28, 2022 to holders of record as of February 17, 2022.

Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds

Not Applicable.

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RISK FACTORS

Risk Factor Summary

An investment in our common stock is subject to a number of risks. The following summarizes some, but not all, of these risks. Please carefully consider all of the information discussed in “Item 3. Key Information— Risk Factors” in this annual report for a more thorough description of these and other risks.

Risks Inherent in Our Business

Our profitability and growth depend on the demand for containerships and global economic conditions, and charter rates for containerships may experience volatility or decline.
The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and efforts throughout the world to contain its spread, including effects on global economic activity, demand for seaborne transportation of containerized cargo, the ability and willingness of charterers to fulfill their obligations to us, charter rates for containerships, shipyards performing scrubber installations, drydocking and repairs, changing vessel crews and availability of financing.
The volatile container shipping market and difficulty finding profitable charters for our vessels.
The failure of our counterparties to meet their obligations under our charter agreements.
The loss of one of the limited number of customers that account for a large part of our revenues.
Global economic conditions, and the impact on consumer confidence and consumer spending.
Disruptions in world financial markets and the resulting governmental action could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
A decrease in the level of export of goods or an increase in trade protectionism globally could have a material adverse impact on our charterers’ business and could cause a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Our profitability and growth depends on our ability to expand relationships with existing charterers and to obtain new time charters, for which we will face substantial competition.
Containership values, which until recently had been at low levels for a prolonged period of time, may fluctuate substantially and again decline. Depressed vessel values could cause us to incur impairment charges.
The value of our in investment in ZIM ordinary shares may fluctuate substantially, and affect our results of operations.
We must make substantial capital expenditures to maintain the operating capacity of our fleet, which may reduce the amount of cash available for other purposes.
The aging of our fleet may result in increased operating costs in the future.
Increased competition in technology could reduce our charter hire income and our vessels’ values.
We rely on our information systems to conduct our business, and failure to protect these systems against security breaches, or the failure or unavailability of these systems, could adversely affect our business and results of operations.
Due to our lack of diversification, adverse developments in the containership transportation business could reduce our ability to meet our payment obligations and our profitability.

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Risks Related to our Financing Arrangements

Our ability to comply with various financial and collateral covenants in our credit facilities and other financing arrangements.
Substantial debt levels could limit our flexibility to obtain additional financing and our ability to service our outstanding indebtedness will depend on our future operating performance.
The terms of the $300 million aggregate principal amount of 8.500% Senior Notes due 2028 (the “Senior Notes”) issued by Danaos Corporation on February 11, 2021 contain covenants limiting our financial and operating flexibility.
Our ability to obtain additional debt financing for future acquisitions of vessels may be dependent on the performance of our then existing charters and the creditworthiness of our charterers.
We are exposed to volatility in, and related to the phasing out of, LIBOR and to exchange rate fluctuations.
We may enter into derivative contracts to hedge our exposure to fluctuations in interest rates, which could result in higher than market interest rates and charges against our income.

Environmental, Regulatory and Other Industry Related Risks

We are subject to regulation and liability under environmental laws that could require significant expenditures and affect our cash flows and net income.
Increased inspection procedures, tighter import and export controls and new security regulations could cause disruption of our containership business.
Uncertainties related to compliance with sanctions and embargo laws.
Governments could requisition our vessels during a period of war or emergency, maritime claimants could arrest our vessels and we may be impacted by terrorist attacks or acts of piracy or have contraband smuggled onto our vessels.
Our insurance may be insufficient to cover losses due to the shipping industry’s operational risks.
Compliance with safety and other requirements imposed by classification societies may be very costly and may adversely affect our business.

Risks Relating to Our Key Employees and Our Manager

Our business depends upon certain employees who may not necessarily continue to work for us.
The provisions in our restrictive covenant agreement with our chief executive officer restricting his ability to compete with us, like restrictive covenants generally, may not be enforceable.
We depend on our Manager to operate our business. Our Manager is a privately held company about which there is little publicly available information.

Risk Related to Investment in a Marshall Islands Corporation

We are a Marshall Islands corporation, which jurisdiction does not have well-developed corporate laws. It also may be difficult to enforce service of process or judgments against us, our officers and directors.

Tax Risks

We may have to pay tax on U.S.-source income or become a passive foreign investment company.

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Risks Inherent in Our Business

Our profitability and growth depend on the demand for containerships and global economic conditions, and the impact of consumer confidence and consumer spending on containerized shipping volume and charter rates. Charter hire rates for containerships may experience volatility or decline, which would, in turn, adversely affect our profitability.

The ocean-going container shipping industry, from which we derive all of our revenues, is both cyclical and volatile in terms of charter hire rates and profitability. Charter rates are impacted by various factors, including the level of global trade, including exports from China to Europe and the United States, resulting demand for the seaborne transportation of containerized cargoes and containership capacity. After reaching highs in 2005, containership charters declined severely in 2008 and 2009 due to the effects of the economic crisis and generally remained weak until the second half of 2020, since which time there has been robust demand for seaborne transportation of containerized cargo, with freight volumes and freight rates rebounding sharply. The benchmark rates have increased in all quoted size sectors, with the benchmark one-year daily rate of a 4,400 TEU Panamax containership, which was $36,000 in May 2008, $24,600 at the end of December 2020 and at an all-time high of $100,000 at the end of 2021. Variations in containership charter rates, which may again decline to low levels, result from changes in the supply and demand for ship capacity and changes in the supply and demand for the major products transported by containerships. Demand for our vessels depends on demand for the shipment of cargoes in containers and, in turn, containerships. The factors affecting the supply and demand for containerships and supply and demand for products shipped in containers are outside of our control, and the nature, timing and degree of changes in industry conditions are unpredictable. Any slowdown in the global economy, including due to events such as the coronavirus variant outbreaks, and disruptions in the credit markets or changes in consumer preferences may again reduce demand for products shipped in containers and, in turn, containership capacity.

Factors that influence demand for containership capacity include:

supply and demand for products suitable for shipping in containers;
changes in global production of products transported by containerships;
the distance that container cargo products are to be moved by sea;
the globalization of manufacturing;
global and regional economic and political conditions;
developments in international trade;
changes in seaborne and other transportation patterns, including changes in the distances over which containerized cargoes are transported and steaming speed of vessels;
environmental and other regulatory developments; and
currency exchange rates.

Factors that influence the supply of containership capacity include:

the number of new building deliveries;
the scrapping rate of older containerships;
the price of steel and other raw materials;
changes in environmental and other regulations that may limit the useful life of containerships;
the number of containerships that are out of service; and

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port congestion.

Consumer purchases of discretionary items, many of which are transported by sea in containers, generally decline during periods where disposable income is adversely affected or there is economic uncertainty and, as a result, liner company customers may ship fewer containers or may ship containers only at reduced rates. In addition, a change in consumer behavior that results in reduced purchases of goods in connection with any easing of the pandemic, or otherwise, could have a similar effect. Any such decrease in shipping volume could adversely impact our liner company customers and, in turn, demand for containerships. Such decreases in recent years, led to declines in charter rates and vessel values in the containership sector and increased counterparty risk associated with the charters for our vessels, including defaults by certain of our customers.

Our ability to recharter our containerships upon the expiration or termination of their current charters and the charter rates payable under any renewal or replacement charters will depend upon, among other things, the prevailing state of the charter market for containerships. As of February 28, 2022, the charters for 7 of our vessels (excluding two vessels, which we agreed to sell in 2022) expire in 2022. If the charter market has weakened when our vessels’ charters expire, we may be forced to recharter the containerships, if we were able to recharter such vessels at all, at reduced rates and possibly at rates whereby we incur a loss. If we were unable to recharter our vessels on favorable terms, we may potentially scrap certain of such vessels, which may reduce our earnings or make our earnings volatile. The same issues will exist to the extent we acquire additional containerships and attempt to obtain multi-year charter arrangements as part of an acquisition and financing plan. The containership market also affects the value of our vessels, which follow the trends of freight rates and containership charter rates.

We may have difficulty securing profitable employment for our vessels in the containership market.

Of our 71 vessels, as of February 28, 2022, 7 of our vessels (excluding two vessels, which we agreed to sell in 2022) are employed on time charters expiring in 2022. Depending on the state of the containership charter market when we are seeking to employ these vessels, we may be unable to secure employment for these vessels at attractive rates, or at all, when, if applicable, their charters expire. Although we do not receive any revenues from our vessels while not employed, as was also the case for certain of our vessels for periods in recent years, we are required to pay expenses necessary to maintain the vessel in proper operating condition, insure it and service any indebtedness secured by such vessel. If we cannot re-charter our vessels profitably, our results of operations and operating cash flow will be adversely affected.

We are dependent on the ability and willingness of our charterers to honor their commitments to us for all of our revenues and the failure of our counterparties to meet their obligations under our charter agreements could cause us to suffer losses or otherwise adversely affect our business.

We derive all of our revenues from the payment of charter hire by our charterers. Each of our 71 containerships is currently employed under time or bareboat charters with 17 liner companies, with 72% of our revenues in 2021 generated from six such companies. We could lose a charterer or the benefits of a time charter if:

the charterer fails to make charter payments to us because of its financial inability, disagreements with us, defaults on a payment or otherwise;
the charterer exercises certain specific limited rights to terminate the charter;
we do not take delivery of any newbuilding containership we may contract for at the agreed time; or
the charterer terminates the charter because the ship fails to meet certain guaranteed speed and fuel consumption requirements and we are unable to rectify the situation or otherwise reach a mutually acceptable settlement.

In 2016, Hanjin Shipping cancelled the charters for eight of our vessels after it filed for court receivership in September 2016 and in July 2016 we agreed to modifications to the charters for 13 of our vessels with HMM with substantial charter rate reductions.

If we lose a time charter, we may be unable to re-deploy the related vessel on terms as favorable to us or at all. We would not receive any revenues from such a vessel while it remained unchartered, but we may be required to pay expenses necessary to maintain the vessel in proper operating condition, insure it and service any indebtedness secured by such vessel.

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The time charters on which we deploy our containerships may provide for charter rates that are above market rates prevailing at any particular time. The ability and willingness of each of our counterparties to perform its obligations under their time charters with us will depend on a number of factors that are beyond our control and may include, among other things, general economic conditions, the condition of the container shipping industry and the overall financial condition of the counterparty. The likelihood of a charterer seeking to renegotiate or defaulting on its charter with us may be heightened to the extent such customers are not able to utilize the vessels under charter from us, and instead leave such chartered vessels idle. Should a counterparty fail to honor its obligations under agreements with us, it may be difficult to secure substitute employment for such vessel, and any new charter arrangements we secure may be at lower rates, particularly if weaker charter markets are then prevailing.

If our charterers fail to meet their obligations to us or attempt to renegotiate our charter agreements, as part of a court-supervised restructuring or otherwise, we could sustain significant reductions in revenue and earnings which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows, as well as our ability to comply with the covenants and refinance our credit facilities. In such an event, we could be unable to service our debt and other obligations.

We depend upon a limited number of customers for a large part of our revenues. The loss of these customers could adversely affect us.

Our customers in the containership sector consist of a limited number of liner operators. The percentage of our revenues derived from these customers has varied in past years. In the past several years, CMA CGM, HMM, Yang Ming, MSC and ZIM have represented substantial amounts of our revenue. In 2021, approximately 72% of our operating revenues were generated by six customers, including 30% from CMA CGM and 17% from HMM, and in 2020 approximately 88% of our operating revenues were derived from six customers. As of February 28, 2022, we have charters for fifteen of our vessels with CMA CGM, for eight of our vessels with each of MSC and COSCO, for six of our vessels with each of Maersk and ZIM, for five of our vessels with each of OOCL and HMM, for four of our vessels with ONE, for three of our vessels with each of Yang Ming and Hapag Lloyd, for two of our vessels with PIL and for one of our vessels with each of TS Lines, KMTC, Niledutch, Samudera, SITC and Evergreen. We expect that a limited number of liner companies may continue to generate a substantial portion of our revenues. If any of these liner operators cease doing business or do not fulfill their obligations under their charters for our vessels, as was the case with Hanjin Shipping and HMM in 2016 for instance, due to financial pressure on these liner companies from any significant decreases in demand for the seaborne transport of containerized cargo or otherwise, our results of operations and cash flows, and ability to comply with covenants in our financing arrangements, could be adversely affected. Further, if we encounter any difficulties in our relationships with these charterers, our results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition could be adversely affected.

Containership values may again experience significant declines and over time may fluctuate substantially. Depressed vessel values could cause us to incur impairment charges for our vessels, or to incur a loss if these values are low at a time we are attempting to dispose of a vessel.

Containership market values can fluctuate substantially over time, and may again experience significant declines as they have in past years, due to a number of different factors, including:

prevailing economic conditions in the markets in which containerships operate;
changes in and the level of world trade;
the supply of containership capacity;
prevailing charter rates; and
the cost of retrofitting or modifying existing ships, as a result of technological advances in vessel design or equipment, changes in applicable environmental or other regulations or standards, or otherwise.

As of December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2016, we recorded an impairment loss of $210.7 million and $415.1 million, respectively, for our older vessels, and we have incurred impairment charges in prior years as well. In the future, if the market values of our vessels or other assets again experience deterioration or we lose the benefits of the existing charter arrangements for any of our vessels and cannot replace such arrangements with charters at comparable rates, we may be required to record additional impairment charges in our financial statements, which could adversely affect our results of operations. Any impairment charges incurred as a result of declines in charter rates could negatively affect our financial condition and results of operations. In addition, if we sell any

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vessel at a time when vessel prices have fallen and before we have recorded an impairment adjustment to our financial statements, the sale may be at less than the vessel’s carrying amount on our financial statements, resulting in a loss and a reduction in earnings.

The value of our in investment in ZIM ordinary shares may fluctuate substantially, which may increase the volatility of our earnings.

The trading price of ZIM’s ordinary shares on the NYSE and the corresponding value of our investment in ZIM ordinary shares, which was recorded in our balance sheet at $423.0 million as of December 31, 2021, may continue to fluctuate, as it has since ZIM’s initial public offering in January 2021, or decline substantially due to factors affecting the container shipping industry generally or ZIM specifically, which are outside of our control. For the year ended December 31, 2021, we recognized $543.65 million of gain on ZIM ordinary shares, of which $422.97 million was an unrealized gain related to the 7,186,950 ZIM ordinary shares that we continue to hold as of February 28, 2022, and received dividends on these shares amounting to $34.34 million (before income taxes on such dividends). We recognize all fluctuations in the fair value of our investment in ZIM ordinary shares in our consolidated statements of income, which may increase the volatility of our earnings. In addition, there can be no assurance that ZIM will continue to pay dividends or at what price we will be able to sell any ZIM ordinary shares which we elect to sell in the future, and therefore the amount of net proceeds received by us from our investment.

The COVID-19 virus pandemic and the resulting disruptions to the global economy and the container shipping industry could negatively affect our business, financial performance and our results of operations, including our ability to obtain charters and financing.

The outbreak of the COVID-19 virus has in 2020 led a number of countries, ports and organizations to take measures against its spread, such as quarantines and restrictions on travel. Such measures were taken initially in China, including Chinese ports, where we conduct a significant amount of our operations, and have since expanded to other countries globally covering most ports where we conduct business. These measures have and will likely continue to cause severe trade disruptions due to, among other things, the unavailability of personnel, supply chain disruption, interruptions of production and closure of businesses and facilities and reduced consumer demand. The duration and severity of this global health emergency and related disruptions remains uncertain.

The COVID-19 pandemic and the global response thereto has introduced uncertainty in a number of areas of our business, including our operational, commercial and financial activities. The severe impact of the pandemic on global economic activity resulted in a global recession and negatively affected global demand for the seaborne transportation of containerized cargoes in the first half of 2020, before demand recovered in the second half of 2020. If such conditions persist and again negatively affect demand for seaborne transportation of containerized cargoes, it could have a material adverse effect on our ability to secure charters at profitable rates, in a timely fashion without a period of off-hire, or at all, particularly for our vessels with charters expiring in 2022, as demand for additional charters could be significantly affected. Of our 71 vessels as of February 28, 2022, 7 vessels, 5 of which are below 6,500 TEU in capacity, are employed on time charters expiring in 2022. Container freight rates were volatile and containership charter market rates declined significantly in the first half of 2020 before significantly improving since that time, but may again decline, including if the negative impact of the pandemic on global economic activity persists for longer than anticipated or its easing impacts demand for the shipment of containerized goods due to shifts in consumer behavior or otherwise. Containerized trade was estimated to have increased by 6.5% in 2021 after it declined by 3.0% in 2020 compared to an estimated increase in global gross domestic product (“GDP”) of 5.9% in 2021, reflecting the effects of partial recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic. In general, container trade is correlated with global GDP, with container trade growing somewhat faster than global GDP over the past decade and accordingly a decline in global GDP, due to an extended period of COVID-19 related restrictions or otherwise, would be likely to cause container trade, and in turn charter rates and vessel values, to again decline.

These factors could also have a material adverse effect on the business of our liner company charterers, which could adversely affect their ability and willingness to perform their obligations under our existing charters as well as decreasing demand for future charters. If our charterers fail to meet their obligations to us or attempt to renegotiate our charter agreements, we could sustain significant reductions in revenue and earnings, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows, as well as our ability to comply with the covenants in, or refinance, our credit facilities.

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Until such time as the uncertainty surrounding the ability to contain the spread of COVID-19 abates, our business and the shipping industry as a whole may again be impacted by reduced demand for containerized shipping services, and continued disruptions from a reduced workforce and delays in crew changes as a result of quarantines applicable in numerous countries and ports and delays of vessels as a result of port checks due to cases, or suspected cases, of COVID-19 amongst crew, as well as delays in scheduled drydockings, intermediate or special surveys of vessels and scheduled and unscheduled ship repairs and upgrades, including the installation of scrubbers and ballast water treatment equipment. For example, we have experienced delays in Chinese shipyards related to the scheduled installations of the scrubbers on our vessels and delays in carrying of dry-docking repairs, which resulted in incremental off-hire time of our vessels ultimately leading to decreased operating revenue. In addition, travel restrictions imposed on a global level caused disruptions in scheduled crew changes on our vessels and delays in carrying out certain hull repairs and maintenance during the first quarter of 2020, which disruptions could continue to affect our operations.

The impact of COVID-19 on credit markets and financial institutions could also result in increased interest rate spreads and other costs of, and difficulty in obtaining, bank financing, including to refinance existing credit facilities and to finance the purchase price of additional vessel acquisitions, which could limit our ability to grow our business in line with our strategy.

Any prolonged slowdown in the global economy may again negatively impact worldwide demand for products transported by containerships, as it did in the first half of 2020, adversely affect the liquidity and financial position of our charterers and may decrease rechartering hire rates for our vessels, as could any decrease in demand for consumer products and other containerized cargo as the pandemic abates or otherwise. This could result in reductions in our revenue and the market value of our vessels, which could materially adversely affect our business and results of operations, as well as our ability to service or refinance our debt and comply with financial covenants of our credit facilities.

Disruptions in world financial markets and the resulting governmental action could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.

The global economy has generally improved recently but remains subject to significant downside economic risks, as well as geopolitical risks, the emergence of populist and protectionist political movements in advanced economies and extraordinary events such as the ongoing coronavirus outbreak, which may negatively impact global economic growth, disrupt financial markets, and may lead to weaker consumer demand. A slowdown in the global economy may result in a decrease in worldwide demand for products transported by containerships. These issues, along with the re-pricing of credit risk and the difficulties being experienced by some financial institutions have made, and will likely continue to make, it difficult to obtain financing in the shipping industry. As a result of past disruptions in the credit markets, the cost of obtaining bank financing in the shipping industry has increased as many lenders have increased interest rates, enacted tighter lending standards, required more restrictive terms, including higher collateral ratios for advances, shorter maturities and smaller loan amounts, refused to refinance existing debt at maturity at all or on terms similar to our current debt. Furthermore, certain banks that have historically been significant lenders to the shipping industry have reduced or ceased lending activities in the shipping industry. We cannot be certain that financing will be available on acceptable terms or at all. If financing is not available when needed, or is available only on unfavorable terms, we may be unable to meet our obligations as they come due. In the absence of available financing, we may be unable to take advantage of business opportunities or respond to competitive pressures, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our revenues and results of operations.

We face risks attendant to changes in economic environments, changes in interest rates, and any instability in the banking and securities markets around the world, among other factors. Major market disruptions and adverse changes in market conditions and the regulatory climate in the United States and worldwide may adversely affect our business or impair our ability to borrow amounts under any future financial arrangements.

In addition, as a result of the economic situation in Greece, which has been slowly recovering from the sovereign debt crisis and the related austerity measures implemented by the Greek government, our operations in Greece may be subjected to new regulations that may require us to incur new or additional compliance or other administrative costs and may require that we pay to the Greek government new taxes or other fees. Furthermore, the change in the Greek government and potential shift in its policies may undermine Greece’s political and economic stability, which may adversely affect our operations and those of our Manager located in Greece. We also face the risk that strikes, work stoppages, civil unrest and violence within Greece may disrupt our shoreside operations and those of our Manager located in Greece.

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If global economic conditions weaken, particularly in Europe and in the Asia Pacific region, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Global economic conditions impact worldwide demand for various goods and, thus, container shipping. In particular, we anticipate a significant number of the port calls made by our vessels will continue to involve the loading or unloading of containers in ports in the Asia Pacific region. As a result, negative changes in economic conditions in any Asia Pacific country, in particular China which has been one of the world’s fastest growing economies in recent years, can have a significant impact on the demand for container shipping. However, if China’s pace of growth declines and other countries in the Asia Pacific region experience slower or negative economic growth in the future, this may negatively affect the economies of the United States and the European Union, or “EU”, and thus, may negatively impact container shipping demand. For example, the introduction of tariffs on selected imported goods mainly from Asia has provoked retaliatory measures from the affected countries, including China, which may create impediments to trade. Risks remaining from the recent recovery in Europe, including the possibility of sovereign debt defaults by EU member countries, including Greece, and any resulting weakness of the Euro, including against the Chinese renminbi, could adversely affect European consumer demand, particularly for goods imported, many of which are shipped in containerized form, from China and elsewhere in Asia, and reduce the availability of trade financing which is vital to the conduct of international shipping. In addition, the charters that we enter into with Chinese customers, including the charters we currently have with COSCO for eight of our vessels, may be subject to new regulations in China that may require us to incur new or additional compliance or other administrative costs and may require that we pay to the Chinese government new taxes or other fees. Changes in laws and regulations, including with regards to tax matters, and their implementation by local authorities could affect our vessels chartered to Chinese customers as well as our vessels calling to Chinese ports and could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. Our business, financial condition, results of operations, as well as our future prospects, will likely be materially and adversely affected by an economic downturn in any of these countries.

In addition, public health threats, such as the coronavirus, influenza and other highly communicable diseases or viruses, outbreaks of which have from time to time occurred in various parts of the world in which we operate, including China, could adversely impact our operations, and the operations of our customers.

A decrease in the level of export of goods, in particular from Asia, or an increase in trade protectionism globally, including from the United States, could have a material adverse impact on our charterers’ business and, in turn, could cause a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Our operations expose us to the risk that increased trade protectionism from the United States, China or other nations adversely affect our business. Governments may turn to trade barriers to protect or revive their domestic industries in the face of foreign imports, thereby depressing the demand for shipping. Restrictions on imports, including in the form of tariffs, could have a major impact on global trade and demand for shipping. Trade protectionism in the markets that our charterers serve may cause an increase in the cost of exported goods, the length of time required to deliver goods and the risks associated with exporting goods and, as a result, a decline in the volume of exported goods and demand for shipping.

In recent years, the United States instituted large tariffs on a wide variety of goods, including from China, which led to retaliatory tariffs from leaders of other countries including China. These policy pronouncements created significant uncertainty about the future relationship between the United States and China and other exporting countries, including with respect to trade policies, treaties, government regulations and tariffs and has led to concerns regarding the potential for an extended trade war. Tensions over trade and other matters remain high between the U.S. and China, and it is currently unclear what policies the current U.S. administration will pursue. Protectionist developments, or the perception they may occur, may have a material adverse effect on global economic conditions, and may significantly reduce global trade and, in particular, trade between the United States and other countries, including China.

Our containerships are deployed on routes involving containerized trade in and out of emerging markets, and our charterers’ container shipping and business revenue may be derived from the shipment of goods from Asia to various overseas export markets, including the United States and Europe. Any reduction in or hindrance to the output of Asia-based exporters could have a material adverse effect on the growth rate of Asia’s exports and on our charterers’ business.

Furthermore, the government of China has implemented economic policies aimed at increasing domestic consumption of Chinese-made goods and containing capital outflows. These policies may have the effect of reducing the supply of goods available for exports and the level of international trading and may, in turn, result in a decrease in demand for container shipping. In addition, reforms in China for a gradual shift to a “market economy” including with respect to the prices of certain commodities, are

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unprecedented or experimental and may be subject to revision, change or abolition and if these reforms are reversed or amended, the level of imports to and exports from China could be adversely affected.

Any new or increased trade barriers or restrictions on trade would have an adverse impact on our charterers’ business, operating results and financial condition and could thereby affect their ability to make timely charter hire payments to us and to renew and increase the number of their time charters with us. Such adverse developments could in turn have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flow, and our ability to service or refinance our debt.

Demand for the seaborne transport of products in containers has a significant impact on the financial performance of liner companies and, in turn, demand for containerships and our charter counterparty risk.

Demand for the seaborne transportation of products in containers, which is significantly impacted by global economic activity, remained at relatively low levels for a prolonged period from the onset of the global economic crisis of 2008 and 2009 until the second half of 2020. Consequently, during this period, the cargo volumes and freight rates achieved by liner companies, with which all of the existing vessels in our fleet are chartered, declined sharply, reducing liner company profitability and, at times, failing to cover the costs of liner companies operating vessels on their shipping lines. In response to such reduced cargo volume and freight rates, the number of vessels being actively deployed by liner companies decreased, before increasing alongside cargo volume and freight rates since the second half of 2020.

Any decline in demand for the services of our liner company customers could reduce demand for containerships and increase the likelihood of one or more of our customers being unable or unwilling to pay us the contracted charterhire rates under the charters for our vessels, such as we agreed with HMM in 2016 and ZIM in 2014 and Hanjin Shipping’s cancellation of long-term charters for eight of our vessels in 2016. We generate all of our revenues from these charters and if our charterers fail to meet their obligations to us, we would sustain significant reductions in revenue and earnings, which could materially adversely affect our business and results of operations, as well as our ability to comply with covenants in our credit facilities.

An over-supply of containership capacity may adversely affect charter rates and our ability to recharter our containerships at profitable rates or at all and, in turn, reduce our profitability.

While the size of the containership order book has declined from the historic highs reached in mid-2008, it increased in 2021 and at the end of 2021 newbuilding containerships representing approximately 23% of the existing global fleet capacity at that time, and a higher percentage of large containerships. Notwithstanding that some orders may be cancelled or delayed, the size of the orderbook will likely result in an increase in the size of the world containership fleet over the next few years. An over-supply of containership capacity, particularly in conjunction with any decline in the level of demand for the seaborne transport of containers, could negatively affect charter rates, which continued liner company consolidation may accentuate. We do not hedge against our exposure to changes in charter rates, due to increased supply of containerships or otherwise. As such, if the charter rate environment is weak when the current charters for our containerships expire or are terminated, we may only be able to recharter those containerships at reduced or unprofitable rates or we may not be able to charter those vessels at all.

Our profitability and growth depends on our ability to expand relationships with existing charterers and to obtain new time charters, for which we will face substantial competition from established companies with significant resources as well as new entrants.

One of our objectives is, when market conditions warrant, to acquire additional containerships in conjunction with entering into additional multi-year, fixed-rate time charters for these vessels, such as the vessels we acquired in 2020 and 2021. We employ our vessels in highly competitive markets that are capital intensive and highly fragmented, with a highly competitive process for obtaining new multi-year time charters that generally involves an intensive screening process and competitive bids, and often extends for several months. Generally, we compete for charters based on price, customer relationship, operating expertise, professional reputation and the size, age and condition of our vessels. In recent years, during the downturn in the containership charter market, other containership owners chartered their vessels to liner companies at extremely low rates, including at unprofitable levels, increasing the price pressure when competing to secure employment for our containerships. Container shipping charters are awarded based upon a variety of factors relating to the vessel operator, including:

shipping industry relationships and reputation for customer service and safety;
container shipping experience and quality of ship operations (including cost effectiveness);

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quality and experience of seafaring crew;
the ability to finance containerships at competitive rates and financial stability in general;
relationships with shipyards and the ability to get suitable berths;
construction management experience, including the ability to obtain on-time delivery of new ships according to customer specifications;
willingness to accept operational risks pursuant to the charter, such as allowing termination of the charter for force majeure events; and
competitiveness of the bid in terms of overall price.

We face substantial competition from a number of experienced companies, including state-sponsored entities and major shipping companies. Some of these competitors have significantly greater financial resources than we do and can therefore operate larger fleets and may be able to offer better charter rates. We anticipate that other marine transportation companies may also enter the containership sector, including many with strong reputations and extensive resources and experience. This increased competition may cause greater price competition for time charters and, in stronger market conditions, for secondhand vessels and newbuildings.

In addition, a number of our competitors in the containership sector, including several that are among the largest charter owners of containerships in the world, have been established in the form of a German KG (Kommanditgesellschaft), which provides tax benefits to private investors. Although the German tax law was amended to significantly restrict the tax benefits to taxpayers who invest in these entities after November 10, 2005, the tax benefits afforded to all investors in the KG-model shipping entities continue to be significant, and such entities may continue to be attractive investments. Their focus on these tax benefits allows the KG-model shipping entities more flexibility in offering lower charter rates to liner companies. Further, since the charter rate is generally considered to be one of the principal factors in a charterer’s decision to charter a vessel, the rates offered by these sizeable competitors can have a depressing effect throughout the charter market.

As a result of these factors, we may be unable to compete successfully with established companies with greater resources or new entrants for charters at a profitable level, or at all, which would have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

We may have more difficulty entering into multi-year, fixed-rate time charters if a more active short-term or spot container shipping market develops.

One of our principal strategies is to enter into multi-year, fixed-rate containership time charters particularly in strong charter rate environments, although in weaker charter rate environments, we would generally expect to target somewhat shorter charter terms, particularly for smaller vessels. As more vessels become available for the spot or short-term market, we may have difficulty entering into additional multi-year, fixed-rate time charters for our containerships due to the increased supply of containerships and the possibility of lower rates in the spot market and, as a result, our cash flows may be subject to instability in the long-term. A more active short-term or spot market may require us to enter into charters based on changing market rates, as opposed to contracts based on a fixed rate, which could result in a decrease in our cash flows and net income in periods when the market for container shipping is depressed or insufficient funds are available to cover our financing costs for related containerships.

Delays in deliveries of any newbuilding vessels we may order or any secondhand vessels we may agree to acquire could harm our business.

Delays in the delivery of any newbuilding containerships we may order or any secondhand vessels we may agree to acquire, would delay our receipt of revenues under any arranged time charters and could result in the cancellation of such time charters or other liabilities under such charters, and therefore adversely affect our anticipated results of operations. The delivery of any newbuilding containership could also be delayed because of, among other things:

work stoppages or other labor disturbances or other events that disrupt the operations of the shipyard building the vessels;

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quality or engineering problems;
changes in governmental regulations or maritime self-regulatory organization standards;
lack of raw materials;
bankruptcy or other financial crisis of the shipyard building the vessel;
our inability to obtain requisite financing or make timely payments;
a backlog of orders at the shipyard building the vessel;
hostilities or political or economic disturbances in the countries where the containerships are being built;
weather interference or catastrophic event, such as a major earthquake or fire;
our requests for changes to the original vessel specifications;
requests from the liner companies, with which we have arranged charters for such vessels, to delay construction and delivery of such vessels due to weak economic conditions and container shipping demand;
shortages of or delays in the receipt of necessary construction materials, such as steel;
our inability to obtain requisite permits or approvals; or
a dispute with the shipyard building the vessel.

The shipbuilders with which we contract for any newbuilding may be affected by instability in the financial markets and other market conditions, including with respect to the fluctuating price of commodities and currency exchange rates. In addition, the refund guarantors under any newbuilding contracts we enter into, which would be banks, financial institutions and other credit agencies, may also be affected by financial market conditions in the same manner as our lenders and, as a result, in weak market conditions may be unable or unwilling to meet their obligations under their refund guarantees. If shipbuilders or refund guarantors are unable or unwilling to meet their obligations to us, this will impact our acquisition of vessels and may materially and adversely affect our operations and our obligations under our financing arrangements.

The delivery of any secondhand containership we may agree to acquire could be delayed because of, among other things, hostilities or political disturbances, non-performance of the purchase agreement with respect to the vessels by the seller, our inability to obtain requisite permits, approvals or financing or damage to or destruction of the vessels while being operated by the seller prior to the delivery date.

We may have difficulty properly managing our growth through acquisitions of additional vessels and we may not realize the expected benefits from these acquisitions, which may have an adverse effect on our financial condition and performance.

To the extent market conditions warrant and we are able to obtain sufficient financing for such purposes, we intend to grow our business by ordering newbuilding containerships and through selective acquisitions of additional vessels. Future growth will primarily depend on:

locating and acquiring suitable vessels;
identifying and consummating vessel acquisitions or joint ventures relating to vessel acquisitions;
enlarging our customer base;
developments in the charter markets in which we operate that make it attractive for us to expand our fleet;

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managing any expansion;
the operations of the shipyard building any newbuilding containerships we may order; and
obtaining required financing on acceptable terms.

During periods in which charter rates are high, vessel values generally are high as well, as is the case currently, and it may be difficult to acquire vessels at favorable prices at those times. In addition, growing any business by acquisition presents numerous risks, such as managing relationships with customers and integrating newly acquired assets into existing infrastructure. We cannot give any assurance that we will be successful in executing any growth plans or that we will not incur significant expenses and losses in connection with any future growth efforts.

We are a holding company and we depend on the ability of our subsidiaries to distribute funds to us in order to satisfy our financial obligations and pay dividends to our stockholders.

We are a holding company and our subsidiaries conduct all of our operations and own all of our operating assets. We have no significant assets other than the equity interests in our subsidiaries, including the subsidiaries that hold our investment in ZIM ordinary shares. As a result, our ability to pay our contractual obligations and pay dividends to our stockholders in the future depends on our subsidiaries and their ability to distribute funds to us. The ability of a subsidiary to make these distributions could be affected by our financing arrangements, a claim or other action by a third party, including a creditor, or by the law of their respective jurisdictions of incorporation which regulates the payment of dividends by companies. Any limitations on our ability to receive cash from our subsidiaries may negatively affect our cash flows and ability to pay dividends to our stockholders.

If we are unable to fund our capital expenditures for additional vessels, we may not be able to grow our fleet.

We would have to make substantial capital expenditures to grow our fleet. We have no remaining borrowing availability under our existing credit facilities or other financing arrangements. In order to fund capital expenditures for future fleet growth, we generally plan to use equity and debt financing. Our ability to access the capital markets through future offerings may be limited by our financial condition at the time of any such offering as well as by adverse market conditions resulting from, among other things, general economic conditions, conditions in the containership charter market and contingencies and uncertainties that are beyond our control. Our failure to obtain funds for future capital expenditures could limit our ability to grow our fleet.

We must make substantial capital expenditures to maintain the operating capacity of our fleet, which may reduce the amount of cash available for other purposes, including the payment of dividends to our stockholders.

Maintenance capital expenditures include capital expenditures associated with modifying an existing vessel or acquiring a new vessel to the extent these expenditures are incurred to maintain the operating capacity of our existing fleet. These expenditures could increase as a result of changes in the cost of labor and materials; customer requirements; increases in our fleet size or the cost of replacement vessels; governmental regulations and maritime self-regulatory organization standards relating to safety, security or the environment; and competitive standards. Significant capital expenditures, including to maintain the operating capacity of our fleet, may reduce the cash available for other purposes, including the payment of dividends to our stockholders.

The aging of our fleet may result in increased operating costs in the future, which could adversely affect our earnings and cash flows.

In general, the cost of maintaining a vessel in good operating condition increases with the age of the vessel. As our fleet ages, we may incur increased costs. Older vessels are typically less fuel efficient and more costly to maintain than more recently constructed vessels due to improvements in engine technology. Cargo insurance rates also increase with the age of a vessel, making older vessels less desirable to charterers. Governmental regulations and safety or other equipment standards related to the age of a vessel may also require expenditures for alterations or the addition of new equipment to our vessels, and may restrict the type of activities in which our vessels may engage. Our current fleet of 71 containerships had an average age (weighted by TEU capacity) of approximately 13.3 years as of December 31, 2021, and we cannot assure you that, as our vessels age, market conditions will justify such expenditures or will enable us to profitably operate our vessels during the remainder of their expected useful lives.

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Increased competition in technology and innovation could reduce our charter hire income and the value of our vessels.

The charter rates and the value and operational life of a vessel are determined by a number of factors, including the vessel’s efficiency, operational flexibility and physical life. Efficiency includes speed and fuel economy. Flexibility includes the ability to enter harbors, utilize related docking facilities and pass through canals and straits. Physical life is related to the original design and construction, maintenance and the impact of the stress of operations. If new ship designs currently promoted by shipyards as more fuel efficient perform as promoted or containerships are built that are more efficient or flexible or have longer physical lives than our vessels, competition from these more technologically advanced containerships could adversely affect the amount of charter-hire payments that we receive for our containerships once their current time charters expire and the resale value of our containerships. This could adversely affect our results of operations.

We rely on our information systems to conduct our business, and failure to protect these systems against security breaches could adversely affect our business and results of operations. Additionally, if these systems fail or become unavailable for any significant period of time, our business could be harmed.

The efficient operation of our business is dependent on computer hardware and software systems. Information systems are vulnerable to security breaches by computer hackers and cyberterrorists. We rely on industry accepted security measures and technology to securely maintain confidential and proprietary information maintained on our information systems. However, these measures and technology may not adequately prevent security breaches. In addition, the unavailability of the information systems or the failure of these systems to perform as anticipated for any reason could disrupt our business and could result in decreased performance and increased operating costs, causing our business and results of operations to suffer. Any significant interruption or failure of our information systems or any significant breach of security could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition, as well as our cash flows.

Because we generate all of our revenues in United States dollars but incur a portion of our expenses in other currencies, exchange rate fluctuations could hurt our results of operations.

We generate all of our revenues in United States dollars and for the year ended December 31, 2021, we incurred approximately 24.0% of our vessels’ expenses in currencies other than United States dollars, mainly Euros. This difference could lead to fluctuations in net income due to changes in the value of the United States dollar relative to the other currencies, in particular the Euro. Expenses incurred in foreign currencies against which the United States dollar falls in value could increase, thereby decreasing our net income. We have not hedged our currency exposure and, as a result, our U.S. dollar-denominated results of operations and financial condition could suffer.

Due to our lack of diversification, adverse developments in the containership transportation business could reduce our ability to meet our payment obligations and our profitability.

We rely exclusively on the cash flows generated from charters for our vessels that operate in the containership sector of the shipping industry. Due to our lack of diversification, adverse developments in the container shipping industry have a significantly greater impact on our financial condition and results of operations than if we maintained more diverse assets or lines of business.

Risks Related to our Financing Arrangements

Containership charter rates and vessel values may affect our ability to comply with various financial and collateral covenants in our credit facilities, and are financing arrangement impose operating and financial restrictions on us.

Our credit facilities and other financing arrangements, which are secured by, among other things, mortgages on our vessels, require us to maintain specified collateral coverage ratios and satisfy financial covenants. See “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Credit Facilities.” Our ability to comply with covenants and restrictions contained in our financing arrangements may be affected by events beyond our control, including prevailing economic, financial and industry conditions. Low containership charter rates, or the failure of our charterers to fulfill their obligations under their charters for our vessels, due to financial pressure on these liner companies from weak demand for the seaborne transport of containerized cargo or otherwise, may adversely affect our ability to comply with these covenants. The market value of containerships is sensitive to, among other things, changes in the charter markets with vessel values deteriorating in times when charter rates are falling and improving when charter rates are anticipated to rise.

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If we are unable to meet our covenant compliance obligations under our credit facilities and other financing arrangements, and are unable to reach an agreement with our lenders to obtain compliance waivers, our lenders could then accelerate our indebtedness and foreclose on the vessels in our fleet securing those credit facilities. Any such default could result in cross-defaults under our other credit facilities and financing arrangements, including the Senior Notes, and the consequent acceleration of the indebtedness thereunder and the commencement of similar foreclosure proceedings by other lenders. The loss of any of our vessels would have a material adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition and could impair our ability to operate our business.

In addition, our credit facilities, and any future credit facility we enter into likely will, impose operating and financial restrictions on us and our subsidiaries, including relating to incurrence of debt and liens, making acquisitions and investments and paying dividends on or repurchasing our stock. Therefore, we may need to seek permission from our lenders in order to engage in some actions. Our lenders’ interests may be different from ours and we may not be able to obtain our lenders’ permission when needed. This may limit our ability to finance our future operations or capital requirements, make acquisitions or pursue business opportunities or pay dividends on our shares.

Substantial debt levels could limit our flexibility to obtain additional financing and pursue other business opportunities and our ability to service our outstanding indebtedness will depend on our future operating performance, including the charter rates we receive under charters for our vessels.

We have aggregate principal amount of indebtedness, including leaseback obligations, outstanding of $1.4 billion, as of December 31, 2021. In addition, we may seek to incur substantial additional indebtedness, as market conditions warrant, to grow our fleet to the extent that we are able to obtain such financing. This level of debt could have important consequences to us, including the following:

our ability to obtain additional financing, if necessary, for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions or other purposes may be impaired or such financing may be unavailable on favorable terms;
we will need to use a substantial portion of our free cash from operations to make principal and interest payments on our debt, reducing the funds that would otherwise be available for future business opportunities;
our debt level could make us more vulnerable than our competitors with less debt to competitive pressures or a downturn in our business or the economy generally; and
our debt level may limit our flexibility in responding to changing business and economic conditions.

Our ability to service our debt will depend upon, among other things, our future financial and operating performance, which will be affected by prevailing economic conditions and financial, business, regulatory and other factors, some of which are beyond our control. In particular, the charter rates we obtain for our vessels, including our vessels on shorter term time charters or other charters expiring in the near future, will have a significant impact on our ability to service our indebtedness. If we do not generate sufficient cash flow to service our debt, we may be forced to take actions such as reducing or delaying our business activities, acquisitions, investments or capital expenditures, selling assets, refinancing our debt or seeking additional equity capital. We may not be able to effect any of these remedies on satisfactory terms, or at all.

In addition, we do not have any additional amounts available for borrowing under our existing credit facilities. Accordingly, we are currently dependent on our cash flows from operations to meet our operating expenses and debt service obligations. If we need additional liquidity and are unable to obtain such liquidity from existing or new lenders or in the capital markets, or if our existing financing arrangements do not permit additional debt that we require (and we are unable to obtain waivers from required lenders), we may be unable to meet our liquidity obligations which could lead to a default under our credit facilities and Senior Notes. Our current financing arrangements also impose, and future financing arrangements may impose, operating and financial restrictions on us that may limit our ability to take certain actions, including the incurrence of additional indebtedness by existing subsidiaries, creating liens on our existing assets and selling capital stock of our existing subsidiaries.

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The terms of the Senior Notes contain covenants limiting our financial and operating flexibility.

Covenants contained in the documentation relating to the Senior Notes restricts our ability and the ability of our subsidiaries to, among other things:

pay dividends, make distributions, redeem or repurchase equity interests and make certain other restricted payments or investments;
incur additional indebtedness or issue certain equity interests;
merge, consolidate or sell all or substantially all of our assets;
issue or sell capital stock of some of our subsidiaries;
create liens on assets; and
enter into certain transactions with affiliates or related persons.

All of these limitations are subject to limitations, exceptions and qualifications. These restrictive covenants could limit our ability to pursue our growth plan, restrict our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and industry and increase our vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions. We may enter into additional financing arrangements in the future which could further restrict our flexibility. Any defaults of covenants contained in the Senior Notes may lead to an event of default under the Senior Notes and the indenture and may lead to cross-defaults under our other indebtedness.

Our ability to obtain additional debt financing for future acquisitions of vessels may be dependent on the performance of our then existing charters and the creditworthiness of our charterers, as well as the perceived impact of emissions by our vessels on the climate.

We have no remaining borrowing availability under our existing credit facilities. We intend, however, to borrow against vessels we may acquire in the future as part of our growth plan. The actual or perceived credit quality of our charterers, and any defaults by them, may materially affect our ability to obtain the additional capital resources that we will require to purchase additional vessels or may significantly increase our costs of obtaining such capital. Our inability to obtain additional financing or committing to financing on unattractive terms could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

In 2019, a number of leading lenders to the shipping industry and other industry participants announced a global framework by which financial institutions can assess the climate alignment of their ship finance portfolios, called the Poseidon Principles, and additional lenders have subsequently announced their intention to adhere to such principles. If the ships in our fleet are deemed not to satisfy the emissions and other sustainability standards contemplated by the Poseidon Principles, or other Environmental Social Governance (ESG) standards required by lenders or investors, the availability and cost of bank or other financing for such vessels may be adversely affected.

We are exposed to volatility in LIBOR.

Loans advanced under our credit facilities are, generally, advanced at a floating rate based on LIBOR, which has increased recently, after a long period of relative stability at historically low levels, and has been volatile in past years, which can affect the amount of interest payable on our debt, and which, in turn, could have an adverse effect on our earnings and cash flow. LIBOR rates were at historically low levels for an extended period of time and may continue to increase from these low levels. Our financial condition could be materially adversely affected at any time that we have not entered into interest rate hedging arrangements to hedge our interest rate exposure and the interest rates applicable to our credit facilities and any other financing arrangements we may enter into in the future increase. Moreover, even if we have entered into interest rate swaps or other derivative instruments for purposes of managing our interest rate or bunker cost exposure, our hedging strategies may not be effective and we may incur substantial losses.

Increased regulatory oversight, uncertainty relating to the LIBOR calculation process and phasing out of LIBOR may adversely affect the amounts of interest we pay under our debt arrangements and our results of operations.

Regulators and law enforcement agencies in the United Kingdom and elsewhere are conducting civil and criminal investigations into whether the banks that contribute to the British Bankers’ Association (the “BBA”) in connection with the calculation of daily LIBOR may have been under-reporting or otherwise manipulating or attempting to manipulate LIBOR. A number of BBA member banks have entered into settlements with their regulators and law enforcement agencies with respect to this alleged manipulation of LIBOR.

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On July 27, 2017, the United Kingdom Financial Conduct Authority (“FCA”), which regulates LIBOR, announced that it intends to stop persuading or compelling banks to submit rates for the calculation of LIBOR to the administrator of LIBOR after 2021 (the “FCA Announcement”). The FCA Announcement indicates that the continuation of LIBOR on the current basis is not guaranteed after 2021. On November 30, 2020 the administrator of LIBOR, ICE Benchmark Administration (“IBA”), announced that it would consult on ceasing to determine one-week and two-month U.S. dollar LIBOR with effect from December 31, 2021 deadline but ceasing to determine the remaining U.S. dollar LIBOR tenors, including three-month LIBOR which most of our loan agreements are based on, on June 30, 2023. The Secured Overnight Financing Rate, or “SOFR”, has been proposed by the Alternative Reference Rate Committee, a committee convened by the U.S. Federal Reserve that includes major market participants and on which regulators participate, as an alternative rate to replace U.S. Dollar LIBOR. It is not possible currently to predict the effect of the FCA Announcement, including any discontinuation or change in the method by which LIBOR rates are determined, or how any such changes or alternative methods for calculating benchmark interest rates would be applied to any particular existing agreement containing terms based on LIBOR, such as our existing loan agreements. Any such changes or developments in the method pursuant to which LIBOR rates are determined may result in an increase in reported LIBOR rates or any alternative rates. If that were to occur, the amount of interest we pay under our credit facilities and any other financing arrangements may be adversely affected which may adversely affect our results of operations.

We may enter into derivative contracts to hedge our exposure to fluctuations in interest rates, which could result in higher than market interest rates and charges against our income.

We do not currently have any interest rate swap arrangements. In the past, however, we have entered into interest rate swaps in substantial aggregate notional amounts, generally for purposes of managing our exposure to fluctuations in interest rates applicable to indebtedness under our credit facilities, which were advanced at floating rates based on LIBOR, as well as interest rate swap agreements converting fixed interest rate exposure under our credit facilities advanced at a fixed rate of interest to floating rates based on LIBOR. Any hedging strategies we choose to employ, may not be effective and we may again incur substantial losses, as we did in 2015 and prior years. Unless we satisfy the requirements to qualify for hedge accounting for interest rate swaps and any other derivative instruments, we would recognize all fluctuations in the fair value of any such contracts in our consolidated Statements of Operations. Recognition of such fluctuations in our statement of operations may increase the volatility of our earnings. Any hedging activities we engage in may not effectively manage our interest rate exposure or have the desired impact on our financial conditions or results of operations.

Environmental, Regulatory and Other Industry Related Risks

We are subject to regulation and liability under environmental laws that could require significant expenditures and affect our cash flows and net income.

Our business and the operation of our vessels are materially affected by environmental regulation in the form of international, national, state and local laws, regulations, conventions and standards in force in international waters and the jurisdictions in which our vessels operate, as well as in the country or countries of their registration, including those governing the management and disposal of hazardous substances and wastes, the cleanup of oil spills and other contamination, air emissions, wastewater discharges and ballast water management, or “BWM”. Because such conventions, laws, and regulations are often revised, we cannot predict the ultimate cost of complying with such requirements or their impact on the resale price or useful life of our vessels. We are required by various governmental and quasi-governmental agencies to obtain certain permits, licenses, certificates and financial assurances with respect to our operations. Many environmental requirements are designed to reduce the risk of pollution, such as from oil spills, and our compliance with these requirements could be costly. To comply with these and other regulations, including: (i) the sulfur emission requirements of Annex VI of the International Convention for the Prevention of Marine Pollution from Ships, or “MARPOL”, which instituted a global 0.5% (lowered from 3.5% as of January 1, 2020) sulfur cap on marine fuel consumed by a vessel, unless the vessel is equipped with a scrubber, and (ii) the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments, or “BWM Convention”, of the International Maritime Organization, or “IMO”, which requires vessels to install expensive ballast water treatment systems, we may be required to incur additional costs to meet new maintenance and inspection requirements, develop contingency plans for potential spills, and obtain insurance coverage. Additionally, the increased demand for low sulfur fuels may increase the costs of fuel for our vessels that do not have scrubbers, although our charterers are responsible for the cost of fuel for vessels while under time or bareboat charter on which all of our vessels are currently deployed, and impact the charter rate charterers are willing to pay for vessels without scrubbers. Additional conventions, laws and regulations may be adopted that could limit our ability to do business or increase the cost of doing business and which may materially and adversely affect our operations.

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Environmental requirements can also affect the resale value or useful lives of our vessels, could require a reduction in cargo capacity, ship modifications or operational changes or restrictions, could lead to decreased availability of insurance coverage for environmental matters or could result in the denial of access to certain jurisdictional waters or ports or detention in certain ports. Under local, national and foreign laws, as well as international treaties and conventions, we could incur material liabilities, including cleanup obligations and natural resource damages liability, in the event that there is a release of petroleum or hazardous materials from our vessels or otherwise in connection with our operations. Environmental laws often impose strict liability for remediation of spills and releases of oil and hazardous substances, which could subject us to liability without regard to whether we were negligent or at fault. We could also become subject to personal injury or property damage claims relating to the release of hazardous substances associated with our existing or historic operations. Violations of, or liabilities under, environmental requirements can result in substantial penalties, fines and other sanctions, including, in certain instances, seizure or detention of our vessels.

The operation of our vessels is also affected by the requirements set forth in the IMO’s International Management Code for the Safe Operation of Ships and Pollution Prevention, or the “ISM Code”. The ISM Code requires shipowners and bareboat charterers to develop and maintain an extensive “Safety Management System,” or “SMS”, that includes the adoption of a safety and environmental protection policy setting forth instructions and procedures for safe operation and describing procedures for dealing with emergencies. Failure to comply with the ISM Code may subject us to increased liability, may decrease available insurance coverage for the affected ships, and may result in denial of access to, or detention in, certain ports.

In connection with a 2001 incident involving the presence of oil on the water on the starboard side of one of our former vessels, the Henry (ex CMA CGM Passiflore), in Long Beach, California, our Manager pled guilty to one count of negligent discharge of oil and one count of obstruction of justice, based on a charge of attempted concealment of the source of the discharge. Consistent with the government’s practice in similar cases, our Manager agreed, among other things, to develop and implement an approved third-party consultant monitored environmental compliance plan. Any violation of this environmental compliance plan or any penalties, restitution or heightened environmental compliance plan requirements that are imposed relating to alleged discharges in any other action involving our fleet or our Manager could negatively affect our operations and business.

Climate change and greenhouse gas restrictions may adversely impact our operations.

Due to concern over the risks of climate change, a number of countries and the IMO, have adopted, or are considering the adoption of, regulatory frameworks to reduce greenhouse gas emission from ships. These regulatory measures may include adoption of cap and trade regimes, carbon taxes, increased efficiency standards and incentives or mandates for renewable energy. Emissions of greenhouse gases from international shipping currently are not subject to the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, or the “Kyoto Protocol”, or any amendments or successor agreements. The Paris Agreement adopted under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in December 2015, which contemplates commitments from each nation party thereto to take action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and limit increases in global temperatures, did not include any restrictions or other measures specific to shipping emissions. However, restrictions on shipping emissions are likely to continue to be considered and a new treaty may be adopted in the future that includes additional restrictions on shipping emissions to those already adopted under MARPOL. For example, in 2021 the United States announced its commitment to working with the IMO to adopt a goal of achieving zero emissions from international shipping by 2050. Compliance with future changes in laws and regulations relating to climate change could increase the costs of operating and maintaining our ships and could require us to install new emission controls, as well as acquire allowances, pay taxes related to our greenhouse gas emissions or administer and manage a greenhouse gas emissions program.

Increased inspection procedures, tighter import and export controls and new security regulations could cause disruption of our containership business.

International container shipping is subject to security and customs inspection and related procedures in countries of origin, destination, and certain trans-shipment points. These inspection procedures can result in cargo seizure, delays in the loading, offloading, trans-shipment, or delivery of containers, and the levying of customs duties, fines or other penalties against exporters or importers and, in some cases, charterers and charter owners.

Since the events of September 11, 2001, U.S. authorities increased container inspection rates and further increases have been contemplated. Government investment in non-intrusive container scanning technology has grown and there is interest in electronic monitoring technology, including so-called “e-seals” and “smart” containers, that would enable remote, centralized monitoring of containers during shipment to identify tampering with or opening of the containers, along with potentially measuring other

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characteristics such as temperature, air pressure, motion, chemicals, biological agents and radiation. Also, additional vessel security requirements have been imposed including the installation of security alert and automatic information systems on board vessels.

It is further unclear what changes, if any, to the existing inspection and security procedures will ultimately be proposed or implemented, or how any such changes will affect the industry. It is possible that such changes could impose additional financial and legal obligations, including additional responsibility for inspecting and recording the contents of containers and complying with additional security procedures on board vessels, such as those imposed under the ISPS Code. Changes to the inspection and security procedures and container security could result in additional costs and obligations on carriers and may, in certain cases, render the shipment of certain types of goods by container uneconomical or impractical. Additional costs that may arise from current inspection or security procedures or future proposals that may not be fully recoverable from customers through higher rates or security surcharges.

Our vessels may call on ports located in countries that are subject to restrictions imposed by the United States government.

From time to time on charterers’ instructions, our vessels have called and may again call on ports located in countries subject to sanctions and embargoes imposed by the United States government and countries identified by the United States government as state sponsors of terrorism. The U.S. sanctions and embargo laws and regulations vary in their application, as they do not all apply to the same covered persons or proscribe the same activities, and such sanctions and embargo laws and regulations may be amended or strengthened over time.

On January 16, 2016, “Implementation Day” for the Iran Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA), the United States lifted its secondary sanctions against Iran which prohibited certain conduct by non-U.S. companies and individuals that occurred entirely outside of U.S. jurisdiction involving specified industry sectors in Iran, including the energy, petrochemical, automotive, financial, banking, mining, shipbuilding and shipping sectors. By lifting the secondary sanctions against Iran, the U.S. government effectively removed U.S. imposed restraints on dealings by non-U.S. companies, such as our Company, and individuals with these formerly targeted Iranian business sectors. Non-U.S. companies continued to be prohibited under U.S. sanctions from (i) knowingly engaging in conduct that seeks to evade U.S. restrictions on transactions or dealings with Iran or that causes the export of goods or services from the United States to Iran, (ii) exporting, reexporting or transferring to Iran any goods, technology, or services originally exported from the U.S. and/or subject to U.S. export jurisdiction and (iii) conducting transactions with the Iranian or Iran-related individuals and entities that remain or are placed in the future on OFAC’s list of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons (SDN List), notwithstanding the lifting of secondary sanctions. However, on August 6, 2018, the U.S. re-imposed an initial round of secondary sanctions and as of November 5, 2018, all of the secondary sanctions the U.S. had suspended under the JCPOA have been re-imposed.

The U.S. government’s primary Iran sanctions have remained in place throughout recent years and as a consequence, U.S. persons continue to be broadly prohibited from engaging in transactions or dealings in or with Iran or its government. In addition, U.S. persons continue to be broadly prohibited from engaging in transactions or dealings with the Government of Iran and Iranian financial institutions, which effectively impacts the transfer of funds to, from, or through the U.S. financial system whether denominated in US dollars or any other currency.

In 2021, 2020 and 2019, no vessels operated by us made any calls to ports in Cuba, Iran, North Korea, Syria or Sudan. Although we believe that we are in compliance with all applicable sanctions and embargo laws and regulations, and intend to maintain such compliance, there can be no assurance that we will be in compliance in the future, particularly as the scope of certain laws may be unclear and may be subject to changing interpretations. Any such violation could result in fines or other penalties and could result in some investors deciding, or being required, to divest their interest, or not to invest, in the Company. Additionally, some investors may decide to divest their interest, or not to invest, in the Company simply because we do business with companies that do lawful business in sanctioned countries. Moreover, our charterers may violate applicable sanctions and embargo laws and regulations as a result of actions that do not involve us or our vessels, and those violations could in turn negatively affect our reputation. We may also be adversely affected by the consequences of war, the effects of terrorism, civil unrest and governmental actions in these and surrounding countries.

Failure to comply with the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and other anti-bribery legislation in other jurisdictions could result in fines, criminal penalties, contract terminations and an adverse effect on our business.

We may operate in a number of countries throughout the world, including countries known to have a reputation for corruption. We are committed to doing business in accordance with applicable anti-corruption laws and have adopted a code of business conduct and ethics which is consistent and in full compliance with the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, or the “FCPA”. We are

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subject, however, to the risk that persons and entities whom we engage or their agents may take actions that are determined to be in violation of such anti-corruption laws, including the FCPA. Any such violation could result in substantial fines, sanctions, civil and/or criminal penalties, or curtailment of operations in certain jurisdictions, and might adversely affect our business, results of operations or financial condition. In addition, actual or alleged violations could damage our reputation and ability to do business. Furthermore, detecting, investigating, and resolving actual or alleged violations is expensive and can consume significant time and attention of our senior management.

Governments could requisition our vessels during a period of war or emergency, resulting in loss of earnings.

A government of a ship’s registry could requisition for title or seize our vessels. Requisition for title occurs when a government takes control of a ship and becomes the owner. Also, a government could requisition our containerships for hire. Requisition for hire occurs when a government takes control of a ship and effectively becomes the charterer at dictated charter rates. Generally, requisitions occur during a period of war or emergency. Government requisition of one or more of our vessels may negatively impact our revenues and results of operations.

Terrorist attacks and international hostilities could affect our results of operations and financial condition.

Terrorist attacks such as the attacks on the United States on September 11, 2001 and more recent attacks in other parts of the world, and the continuing response of the United States and other countries to these attacks, as well as the threat of future terrorist attacks, continue to cause uncertainty in the world financial markets and may affect our business, results of operations and financial condition. Events in the Middle East and North Africa, including Egypt and Syria, and the conflicts in Iraq, Syria and Afghanistan may lead to additional acts of terrorism, regional conflict and other armed conflicts around the world, which may contribute to economic instability in the global financial markets. These uncertainties could also adversely affect our ability to obtain additional financing on terms acceptable to us, or at all.

Terrorist attacks targeted at sea vessels, such as the October 2002 attack in Yemen on the VLCC Limburg, a ship not related to us, may in the future also negatively affect our operations and financial condition and directly impact our containerships or our customers. Future terrorist attacks could result in increased volatility of the financial markets in the United States and globally and could result in an economic recession affecting the United States or the entire world. Any of these occurrences could have a material adverse impact on our operating results, revenue and costs.

Changing economic, political and governmental conditions in the countries where we are engaged in business or where our vessels are registered could affect us. In addition, future hostilities or other political instability in regions where our vessels trade could also affect our trade patterns and adversely affect our operations and performance. The developing conflict between Russia and Ukraine, and related sanctions imposed by the U.S., EU and others, could affect the crewing operations of our Manager, which has crewing offices in St. Petersburg, Odessa and Mariupol, and trade patterns involving ports in the Black Sea or Russia.

Acts of piracy on ocean-going vessels have recently increased in frequency, which could adversely affect our business.

Acts of piracy have historically affected ocean-going vessels trading in regions of the world such as the South China Sea and in the Gulf of Aden off the coast of Somalia. Despite leveling off somewhat in the last few years, the frequency of piracy incidents has increased significantly since 2008, particularly in the Gulf of Aden off the coast of Somalia. For example, in January 2010, the Maran Centaurus, a tanker vessel not affiliated with us, was captured by pirates in the Indian Ocean while carrying crude oil estimated to be worth $20 million and was released in January 2010 upon a ransom payment of over $5 million. In addition, crew costs, including costs due to employing onboard security guards, could increase in such circumstances. We may not be adequately insured to cover losses from these incidents, which could have a material adverse effect on us. In addition, any detention or hijacking as a result of an act of piracy against our vessels, or an increase in cost, or unavailability, of insurance for our vessels, could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

The smuggling of drugs or other contraband onto our vessels may lead to governmental claims against us.

Our vessels call in ports in South America and other areas where smugglers attempt to hide drugs and other contraband on vessels, with or without the knowledge of crew members. To the extent our vessels are found with contraband, whether inside or attached to the hull of our vessel and whether with or without the knowledge of any of our crew, we may face governmental or other regulatory claims or penalties which could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

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Risks inherent in the operation of ocean-going vessels could affect our business and reputation, which could adversely affect our expenses, net income and stock price.

The operation of ocean-going vessels carries inherent risks. These risks include the possibility of:

marine disaster;
environmental accidents;
grounding, fire, explosions and collisions;
cargo and property losses or damage;
business interruptions caused by mechanical failure, human error, war, terrorism, political action in various countries, or adverse weather conditions;
work stoppages or other labor problems with crew members serving on our vessels, substantially all of whom are unionized and covered by collective bargaining agreements; and
piracy.

Such occurrences could result in death or injury to persons, loss of property or environmental damage, delays in the delivery of cargo, loss of revenues from or termination of charter contracts, governmental fines, penalties or restrictions on conducting business, higher insurance rates, and damage to our reputation and customer relationships generally. Any of these circumstances or events could increase our costs or lower our revenues. The involvement of our vessels in an environmental disaster may harm our reputation as a safe and reliable vessel owner and operator.

Our insurance may be insufficient to cover losses that may occur to our property or result from our operations due to the inherent operational risks of the shipping industry.

The operation of any vessel includes risks such as mechanical failure, collision, fire, contact with floating objects, property loss, cargo loss or damage and business interruption due to political circumstances in foreign countries, hostilities and labor strikes. In addition, there is always an inherent possibility of a marine disaster, including oil spills and other environmental mishaps. There are also liabilities arising from owning and operating vessels in international trade. We procure insurance for our fleet against risks commonly insured against by vessel owners and operators. Our current insurance includes (i) hull and machinery insurance covering damage to our vessels’ hull and machinery from, among other things, contact with fixed and floating objects, (ii) war risks insurance covering losses associated with the outbreak or escalation of hostilities, and (iii) protection and indemnity (“P&I”) insurance (which includes environmental damage and pollution insurance) covering third-party and crew liabilities such as expenses resulting from the injury or death of crew members, passengers and other third parties, the loss or damage to cargo, third-party claims arising from collisions with other vessels, damage to other third-party property (except where such cover is provided in the hull and machinery policy), pollution arising from oil or other substances and salvage, towing and other related costs.

We can give no assurance that we are adequately insured against all risks or that our insurers will pay a particular claim. Even if our insurance coverage is adequate to cover our losses, we may not be able to obtain a timely replacement vessel in the event of a loss. Under the terms of our credit facilities, we will be subject to restrictions on the use of any proceeds we may receive from claims under our insurance policies. Furthermore, in the future, we may not be able to obtain adequate insurance coverage at reasonable rates for our fleet. We may also be subject to calls, or premiums, in amounts based not only on our own claim records but also the claim records of all other members of the P&I associations through which we receive indemnity insurance coverage for tort liability. Our insurance policies also contain deductibles, limitations and exclusions which, although we believe are standard in the shipping industry, may nevertheless increase our costs.

In addition, we do not currently carry loss of hire insurance. Loss of hire insurance covers the loss of revenue during extended vessel off-hire periods, such as those that occur during an unscheduled drydocking due to damage to the vessel from accidents. Accordingly, any loss of a vessel or any extended period of vessel off-hire, due to an accident or otherwise, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

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Maritime claimants could arrest our vessels, which could interrupt our cash flows.

Crew members, suppliers of goods and services to a vessel, shippers of cargo and other parties may be entitled to a maritime lien against that vessel for unsatisfied debts, claims or damages. In many jurisdictions, a maritime lien holder may enforce its lien by arresting a vessel through foreclosure proceedings. The arrest or attachment of one or more of our vessels could interrupt our cash flows and require us to pay large sums of money to have the arrest lifted.

In addition, in some jurisdictions, such as South Africa, under the “sister ship” theory of liability, a claimant may arrest both the vessel that is subject to the claimant’s maritime lien and any “associated” vessel, which is any vessel owned or controlled by the same owner. Claimants could try to assert “sister ship” liability against one vessel in our fleet for claims relating to another of our ships.

Most insurance underwriters make it a condition for insurance coverage that a vessel be certified as “in class” by a classification society which is a member of the International Association of Classification Societies. All of our vessels are certified as being “in class” by Lloyd’s Register of Shipping, Bureau Veritas, NKK, Det Norske Veritas (“DNV”) & Germanischer Lloyd, the Korean Register of Shipping and the American Bureau of Shipping.

Compliance with safety and other requirements imposed by classification societies may be very costly and may adversely affect our business.

The hull and machinery of every commercial vessel must be classed by a classification society authorized by its country of registry. The classification society certifies that a vessel is safe and seaworthy in accordance with the applicable rules and regulations of the country of registry of the vessel and the International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, or “SOLAS”, and all vessels must be awarded ISM certification.

A vessel must undergo annual surveys, intermediate surveys and special surveys. In lieu of a special survey, a vessel’s machinery may be on a continuous survey cycle, under which the machinery would be surveyed periodically over a five-year period. Each of the vessels in our fleet is on a special survey cycle for hull inspection and a continuous survey cycle for machinery inspection.

If any vessel does not maintain its class or fails any annual, intermediate or special survey, and/or loses its certification, the vessel will be unable to trade between ports and will be unemployable, and we could be in violation of certain covenants in our loan agreements. This would negatively impact our operating results and financial condition.

Risks Relating to Our Key Employees and Our Manager

Our business depends upon certain employees who may not necessarily continue to work for us.

Our future success depends to a significant extent upon our chief executive officer, Dr. John Coustas, and certain members of our senior management and that of our Manager. Dr. Coustas has substantial experience in the container shipping industry and has worked with us and our Manager for many years. He and others employed by us and our Manager are crucial to the execution of our business strategies and to the growth and development of our business. In addition, under the terms of our credit facilities and other financing arrangements, Dr. Coustas ceasing to serve as our Chief Executive Officer and a director of our Company, would give rise to the lenders being able to require us to repay in full debt outstanding under such agreements. If these certain individuals were no longer to be affiliated with us or our Manager, or if we were to otherwise cease to receive advisory services from them, we may be unable to recruit other employees with equivalent talent and experience, and our business and financial condition may suffer as a result.

The provisions in our restrictive covenant agreement with our chief executive officer restricting his ability to compete with us, like restrictive covenants generally, may not be enforceable.

Dr. Coustas, our chief executive officer, has entered into a restrictive covenant agreement with us under which he is precluded during the term of our management agreement with our manager, Danaos Shipping, and for one year thereafter from owning and operating drybulk ships or containerships larger than 2,500 TEUs and from acquiring or investing in a business that owns or operates such vessels. Courts generally do not favor the enforcement of such restrictions, particularly when they involve individuals and could be construed as infringing on their ability to be employed or to earn a livelihood. Our ability to enforce these restrictions, should it ever become necessary, will depend upon the circumstances that exist at the time enforcement is sought. We cannot be assured that a court would enforce the restrictions as written by way of an injunction or that we could necessarily establish a case for damages as a result of a violation of the restrictive covenants.

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In addition, DIL as trustee of the 883 Trust and Dr. Coustas are permitted to terminate the restrictive covenant agreement upon the occurrence of certain transactions constituting a “Change of Control” of the Company which are not within the control of Dr. Coustas or DIL, including where Dr. Coustas ceases to be both the Chief Executive Officer of the Company and a director of the Company without his consent in connection with a hostile takeover of the Company by a third party. Upon such an occurrence, the non-competition restrictions on our Manager under our management agreement would also cease to apply.

We depend on our manager to operate our business.

Pursuant to the management agreement and the individual ship management agreements, our Manager and its affiliates provides us with technical, administrative and certain commercial services (including vessel maintenance, crewing, purchasing, shipyard supervision, insurance, assistance with regulatory compliance and financial services). Our operational success will depend significantly upon our Manager’s satisfactory performance of these services. Our business would be harmed if our Manager failed to perform these services satisfactorily. In addition, if the management agreement were to be terminated or if its terms were to be altered, our business could be adversely affected, as we may not be able to immediately replace such services, and even if replacement services were immediately available, the terms offered could be less favorable than the ones currently offered by our Manager. Our management agreement with any new manager may not be as favorable.

Our ability to compete for and enter into new time charters and to expand our relationships with our existing charterers depends largely on our relationship with our Manager and its reputation and relationships in the shipping industry. If our Manager suffers material damage to its reputation or relationships, it may harm our ability to:

renew existing charters upon their expiration;
obtain new charters;
successfully interact with shipyards during periods of shipyard construction constraints;
obtain financing on commercially acceptable terms or at all;
maintain satisfactory relationships with our charterers and suppliers; or
successfully execute our business strategies.

If our ability to do any of the things described above is impaired, it could have a material adverse effect on our business and affect our profitability.

Our manager is a privately held company and there is little or no publicly available information about it.

The ability of our Manager to continue providing services for our benefit will depend in part on its own financial strength. Circumstances beyond our control could impair our Manager’s financial strength, and because it is a privately held company, information about its financial strength is not available. As a result, our stockholders might have little advance warning of problems affecting our Manager, even though these problems could have a material adverse effect on us. As part of our reporting obligations as a public company, we will disclose information regarding our Manager that has a material impact on us to the extent that we become aware of such information.

Risks Relating to Investment in a Marshall Islands Corporation

We are a Marshall Islands corporation, and the Marshall Islands does not have a well-developed body of corporate law or a bankruptcy act.

Our corporate affairs are governed by our articles of incorporation and bylaws and by the Marshall Islands Business Corporations Act, or BCA. The provisions of the BCA are similar to provisions of the corporation laws of a number of states in the United States. However, there have been few judicial cases in the Republic of The Marshall Islands interpreting the BCA. The rights and fiduciary responsibilities of directors under the law of the Republic of The Marshall Islands are not as clearly established as the rights and fiduciary responsibilities of directors under statutes or judicial precedent in existence in certain U.S. jurisdictions. Stockholder rights

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may differ as well. While the BCA does specifically incorporate the non-statutory law, or judicial case law, of the State of Delaware and other states with substantially similar legislative provisions, our public stockholders may have more difficulty in protecting their interests in the face of actions by the management, directors or controlling stockholders than would stockholders of a corporation incorporated in a U.S. jurisdiction.

The Marshall Islands has no established bankruptcy act, and as a result, any bankruptcy action involving our company would have to be initiated outside the Marshall Islands, and our security holders may find it difficult or impossible to pursue their claims in such other jurisdiction.

It may be difficult to enforce service of process and enforcement of judgments against us and our officers and directors.

We are a Marshall Islands corporation, and our registered office is located outside of the United States in the Marshall Islands. A majority of our directors and officers reside outside of the United States, and a substantial portion of our assets and the assets of our officers and directors are located outside of the United States. As a result, you may have difficulty serving legal process within the United States upon us or any of these persons. You may also have difficulty enforcing, both in and outside of the United States, judgments you may obtain in the U.S. courts against us or these persons in any action, including actions based upon the civil liability provisions of U.S. federal or state securities laws.

There is also substantial doubt that the courts of the Marshall Islands would enter judgments in original actions brought in those courts predicated on U.S. federal or state securities laws. Even if you were successful in bringing an action of this kind, the laws of the Marshall Islands may prevent or restrict you from enforcing a judgment against our assets or our directors and officers.

Risks Relating to Our Common Stock

The market price of our common stock has fluctuated widely and the market price of our common stock may fluctuate in the future.

The market price of our common stock has fluctuated widely since our initial public offering in October 2006 and may continue to do so as a result of many factors, including future share issuances, sales of shares by existing stockholders, our actual results of operations and perceived prospects, the prospects of our competitors and of the shipping industry in general and in particular the containership sector, differences between our actual financial and operating results and those expected by investors and analysts, changes in analysts’ recommendations or projections, changes in general valuations for companies in the shipping industry, particularly the containership sector, changes in general economic or market conditions and broader market fluctuations.

We may not continue to pay dividends on our common stock, particularly if market conditions change.

We reinstated quarterly cash dividend payments on our common stock in 2021; however, there can be no assurance that we will pay dividends or as to the amount of any dividend. Declaration and payment of any future dividend is subject to the discretion of our board of directors. The timing and amount of dividend payments will be dependent upon our earnings, financial condition, cash requirements and availability, fleet renewal and expansion, restrictions in our credit facilities, finance leases and Senior Notes, which include limitations on the amount of dividends and other restricted payments that we may make, the provisions of Marshall Islands law affecting the payment of distributions to stockholders and other factors. Under our credit facilities, we are permitted to pay dividends if, among other things, a default has not occurred and is continuing or would occur as a result of the payment of such dividend, and we remain in compliance with the financial covenants applicable to the obligors thereunder. In addition, we are a holding company, and we depend on the ability of our subsidiaries to distribute funds to us in order to satisfy our financial obligations and to make any dividend payments. We cannot assure you that we will continue to pay dividends in the future or the amounts of any such dividends.

Future issuances of equity and equity related securities may result in significant dilution and could adversely affect the market price of our common stock.

We may seek to sell shares in the future to satisfy our capital and operating needs and to finance further growth we may have to issue additional shares of common or preferred stock in addition to any additional debt we may incur. If we sell shares in the future, the prices at which we sell these future shares will vary, and these variations may be significant. We cannot predict the effect that future sales of our common stock or other equity related securities would have on the market price of our common stock.

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Sales of our common stock by stockholders, or the perception that these sales may occur, especially by our directors or significant stockholders, may cause our share price to decline.

If our stockholders, in particular our affiliates and significant stockholders, sell substantial amounts of our common stock in the public market, or are perceived by the public market as intending to sell, the trading price of our common stock could decline. In addition, sales of these shares of common stock could impair our ability to raise capital in the future. We have filed shelf registration statements with the SEC registering under the Securities Act close to half of the outstanding shares of our common stock for resale on behalf of existing stockholders, including our executive officers and directors. These shares may be resold in registered transactions and may also be resold subject to the requirements of Rule 144 under the Securities Act. We cannot predict the timing or amount of future sales of these shares of common stock, or the perception that such sales could occur, which may adversely affect prevailing market prices for our common stock.

Certain of our major stockholders will have significant influence over certain matters and may have interests that are different from the interests of our other stockholders.

Certain of our major stockholders may have interests that are different from, or are in addition to, the interests of our other stockholders. In particular, Danaos Investment Limited as Trustee of the 883 Trust (“DIL”), which is affiliated with our Chief Executive Officer, owns approximately 39.0% of our outstanding shares of common stock as of February 28, 2022. There may be real or apparent conflicts of interest with respect to matters affecting such stockholders and their affiliates whose interests in some circumstances may be adverse to our interests.

For so long as a stockholder continues to own a significant percentage of our common stock, it will be able to significantly influence the composition of our Board of Directors and the approval of actions requiring stockholder approval through its voting power. Accordingly, during such period of time, such stockholder will have significant influence with respect to our management, business plans and policies, including the appointment and removal of our officers. In particular, for so long as such stockholder continues to own a significant percentage of our common stock, it may be able to cause or prevent a change of control of our company or a change in the composition of our board of directors and could preclude an unsolicited acquisition of our company. The concentration of ownership could potentially deprive you of an opportunity to receive a premium for your common stock as part of a sale of our company and might affect the market price of our common stock.

Such a stockholder and its affiliates engage in a broad spectrum of activities. In the ordinary course of its business activities, such stockholder may engage in activities where its interests conflict with our interests or those of our stockholders. For example, it may have an interest in our pursuing acquisitions, divestitures and other transactions that, in its judgment, could enhance its investment, even though such transactions might involve risks to us and our other stockholders. Such potential conflicts may delay or limit the opportunities available to us, and it is possible that conflicts may be resolved in a manner adverse to us or result in agreements that are less favorable to us than terms that would be obtained in arm’s-length negotiations with unaffiliated third-parties.

As a foreign private issuer we are entitled to rely upon exemptions from certain NYSE corporate governance standards, and to the extent we elect to rely on these exemptions, you may not have the same protections afforded to stockholders of companies that are subject to all of the NYSE corporate governance requirements.

As a foreign private issuer, we are entitled to rely upon exemptions from many of the NYSE’s corporate governance practices. To the extent we rely on any of these exemptions, including to have an employee director on our nominating and corporate governance committee and issue shares without shareholder approval, you may not have the same protections afforded to stockholders of companies that are subject to all of the NYSE corporate governance requirements.

Anti-takeover provisions in our organizational documents, as well as terms of our credit facilities and Senior Notes, could make it difficult for our stockholders to replace or remove our current board of directors or could have the effect of discouraging, delaying or preventing a merger or acquisition, which could adversely affect the market price of the shares of our common stock.

Several provisions of our articles of incorporation and bylaws could make it difficult for our stockholders to change the composition of our board of directors in any one year, preventing them from changing the composition of our management. In addition, the same provisions may discourage, delay or prevent a merger or acquisition that stockholders may consider favorable.

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These provisions:

authorize our board of directors to issue “blank check” preferred stock without stockholder approval;
provide for a classified board of directors with staggered, three-year terms;
prohibit cumulative voting in the election of directors;
authorize the removal of directors only for cause and only upon the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 662/3% of the outstanding stock entitled to vote for those directors;
prohibit stockholder action by written consent unless the written consent is signed by all stockholders entitled to vote on the action;
establish advance notice requirements for nominations for election to our board of directors or for proposing matters that can be acted on by stockholders at stockholder meetings; and
restrict business combinations with interested stockholders.

In addition, a “Change of Control”, as defined our Citi/NatWest $815 million Senior Secured Credit Facility, will give rise to a mandatory prepayment in full of our Citi/NatWest $815 million Senior Secured Credit Facility. See “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Citi/NatWest $815 million Senior Secured Credit Facility.” In addition, the terms of our Senior Notes require us to offer to repurchase all of our outstanding Senior Notes if there is a “change of control” as defined in the indenture for our Senior Notes. See “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Senior Notes.”

These anti-takeover provisions could substantially impede the ability of public stockholders to benefit from a change in control and, as a result, may adversely affect the market price of our common stock and your ability to realize any potential change of control premium.

Tax Risks

We may have to pay tax on U.S.-source income, which would reduce our earnings.

Under the United States Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, 50% of the gross shipping income of a ship owning or chartering corporation, such as ourselves, that is attributable to transportation that begins or ends, but that does not both begin and end, in the United States is characterized as U.S.-source shipping income and as such is subject to a 4% U.S. federal income tax without allowance for deduction, unless that corporation qualifies for exemption from tax under Section 883 of the Code and the Treasury Regulations promulgated thereunder.

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We believe that we and our subsidiaries have previously qualified for this statutory tax exemption and have taken that position for U.S. federal income tax reporting purposes. It is uncertain as to whether we will continue to qualify for this statutory tax exemption, and there are factual circumstances beyond our control that could cause us or our subsidiaries to fail to qualify for the benefit of this tax exemption and thus to be subject to U.S. federal income tax on U.S.-source shipping income. There can be no assurance that we or any of our subsidiaries will qualify for this tax exemption for any year. For example, even assuming, as we expect will be the case, that our shares are regularly and primarily traded on an established securities market in the United States, if stockholders each of whom owns, actually or under applicable attribution rules, 5% or more of our shares own, in the aggregate, 50% or more of our shares, then we and our subsidiaries will generally not be eligible for the Section 883 exemption unless we can establish, in accordance with specified ownership certification procedures, either (i) that a sufficient number of the shares in the closely-held block are owned, directly or under the applicable attribution rules, by “qualified stockholders” (generally, individuals resident in certain non-U.S. jurisdictions) so that the shares in the closely-held block that are not so owned could not constitute 50% or more of our shares for more than half of the days in the relevant tax year or (ii) that qualified stockholders owned more than 50% of our shares for at least half of the days in the relevant taxable year. There can be no assurance that we will be able to establish such ownership by qualified stockholders for any tax year.

If we or our subsidiaries are not entitled to the exemption under Section 883 for any taxable year, we or our subsidiaries would be subject for those years to a 4% U.S. federal income tax on our gross U.S. source shipping income. The imposition of this taxation could have a negative effect on our business and would result in decreased earnings available for distribution to our stockholders. A number of our charters contain provisions that obligate the charterers to reimburse us for the 4% gross basis tax on our U.S. source shipping income.

If we were treated as a “passive foreign investment company,” certain adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences could result to U.S. stockholders.

A foreign corporation will be treated as a “passive foreign investment company,” or PFIC, for U.S. federal income tax purposes if at least 75% of its gross income for any taxable year consists of certain types of “passive income,” or at least 50% of the average value of the corporation’s assets produce or are held for the production of those types of “passive income.” For purposes of these tests, “passive income” includes dividends, interest, and gains from the sale or exchange of investment property and rents and royalties other than rents and royalties that are received from unrelated parties in connection with the active conduct of a trade or business. For purposes of these tests, income derived from the performance of services does not constitute “passive income.” In general, U.S. stockholders of a PFIC are subject to a disadvantageous U.S. federal income tax regime with respect to the distributions they receive from the PFIC, and the gain, if any, they derive from the sale or other disposition of their shares in the PFIC. If we are treated as a PFIC for any taxable year, we will provide information to U.S. stockholders to enable them to make certain elections to alleviate certain of the adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences that would arise as a result of holding an interest in a PFIC.

While there are legal uncertainties involved in this determination, including as a result of a decision of the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit in Tidewater Inc. and Subsidiaries v. United States, 565 F.3d 299 (5th Cir. 2009) which held that income derived from certain time chartering activities should be treated as rental income rather than services income for purposes of the foreign sales corporation rules under the U.S. Internal Revenue Code, we believe we should not be treated as a PFIC for the taxable year ended December 31, 2021. However, if the principles of the Tidewater decision were applicable to our time charters, we would likely be treated as a PFIC. Moreover, there is no assurance that the nature of our assets, income and operations will not change or that we can avoid being treated as a PFIC for subsequent years.

Item 4.Information on the Company

History and Development of the Company

Danaos Corporation is an international owner of containerships, chartering its vessels to many of the world’s largest liner companies. We are a corporation domesticated in the Republic of The Marshall Islands on October 7, 2005, under the Marshall Islands Business Corporations Act, after having been incorporated as a Liberian company in 1998 in connection with the consolidation of our assets under Danaos Holdings Limited. In connection with our domestication in the Marshall Islands we changed our name from Danaos Holdings Limited to Danaos Corporation.

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Our Company’s long history in the shipping industry dates back to the 1960s. Our largest stockholder is DIL, an entity affiliated with our Chief Executive Officer, Dr. John Coustas. Dimitris Coustas, the father of Dr. Coustas, first invested in shipping in 1963 and founded our Manager, in 1972. Since that time it has continuously provided seaborne transportation services under the management of the Coustas family. After assuming management of our company in 1987, Dr. Coustas has focused our strategy on building a large, modern containership fleet to serve the container shipping industry and grown our fleet from three multi-purpose vessels with a capacity of 2,395 TEUs to our current fleet of 71 containerships aggregating 436,589 TEUs as of February 28, 2022.

Danaos Corporation completed its initial public offering and was publicly listed on the New York Stock Exchange in October 2006. In August 2010, we completed a sale of $200 million of common stock, and in 2015 formed our Gemini joint venture. In August 2018, we consummated a comprehensive debt refinancing, which resulted in, among other things, a $551.0 million reduction in our debt. In November 2019, we completed a public offering of our common stock for gross proceeds of $56.5 million, including a significant investment by DIL and the Coustas family. In October 2020 we repurchased 4,339,271 shares of common stock for an aggregate purchase price of $31.1 million in privately negotiated transactions. In February 2021, we sold $300 million of 8.50% senior unsecured notes due 2028 and used the proceeds therefrom, together with proceeds from a new $815 million senior secured credit facility with a four-year term and a new $135 million sale and leaseback arrangement, to implement a $1.25 billion refinancing of a substantial majority of our outstanding senior secured indebtedness in April 2021. On July 1, 2021 we exercised our option to acquire the remaining 51% equity interest in Gemini. See “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects.”

Danaos Corporation operates through a number of subsidiaries incorporated in Liberia, Cyprus, Malta, the Republic of the Marshall Islands and Singapore, all of which are wholly owned by Danaos Corporation and either directly or indirectly own the vessels in our fleet. A list of our active subsidiaries as of February 28, 2022 and their jurisdictions of incorporation, is set forth in Exhibit 8 to this Annual Report on Form 20-F.

Our principal executive offices are c/o Danaos Shipping Co. Ltd., Athens Branch, 14 Akti Kondyli, 185 45 Piraeus, Greece. Our telephone number at that address is +30 210 419 6480.

Business Overview

We are an international owner of containerships, chartering our vessels to many of the world’s largest liner companies. As of February 28, 2022, we had a fleet of 71 containerships aggregating 436,589 TEUs.

Our strategy is to charter our containerships under multi-year, fixed-rate period charters to a diverse group of liner companies, including many of the largest companies globally, as measured by TEU capacity. As of February 28, 2022, these customers included CMA-CGM, Hyundai Merchant Marine (“HMM”), MSC, Yang Ming, Hapag Lloyd, ZIM, Maersk, COSCO, OOCL, ONE, PIL, Evergreen, KMTC, Niledutch, Samudera, SITC and TS Lines.

As of December 31, 2021, the average remaining duration of the charters for our 71 containerships was 4.0 years (weighted by aggregate contracted charter hire). As of December 31, 2021, these contracts are expected to provide total contracted revenues of approximately $2.85 billion during their fixed terms, which expire between 2022 and 2028. Our charters have initial terms ranging up to 18 years, which provide us with stable cash flows and high utilization rates. Our fleet ranges in size from 2,200–13,100 TEU, providing us flexibility to serve the diverse needs of our customers.

Our Fleet

General

Danaos is one of the largest containership operating lessors in the world. Since going public in 2006, we have more than tripled our TEU carrying capacity. Today, our fleet includes some of the largest containerships in the world, which are designed with certain technological advances and customized modifications that make them efficient with respect to both voyage speed and loading capability when compared to many existing vessels operating in the containership sector.

We deploy our containership fleet principally under multi-year charters with major liner companies that operate regularly scheduled routes between large commercial ports, although in weaker containership charter markets such as is currently prevailing we charter more of our vessels on shorter term charters so as to be available to take advantage of any increase in charter rates. As of February 28, 2022, our containership fleet was comprised of sixty-nine containerships deployed on time charters, seven of which are scheduled to expire in 2022 (excluding two vessels, which we agreed to sell in 2022) and two containerships deployed on bareboat

31

charters. The average age (weighted by TEU) of the 71 vessels in our containership fleet was approximately 13.4 years as of February 28, 2022. As of December 31, 2021, the average remaining duration of the charters for our containership fleet was 4.0 years (weighted by aggregate contracted charter hire).

Characteristics

The table below provides additional information, as of February 28, 2022, about our fleet of 71 cellular containerships.

Year

Size

Expiration of

Contracted Employment

Charter

Extension Options(4)

Vessel Name

    

Built

    

(TEU)

    

Charter (1)

    

Charterer

    

through (2)

    

Rate (3)

    

Period

    

Charter Rate

Hyundai Ambition

 

2012

 

13,100

 

June 2024

 

HMM

 

June 2024

$

64,918

 

+ 3 years

$

60,418

Hyundai Speed

 

2012

 

13,100

 

June 2024

 

HMM

 

June 2024

$

64,918

 

+ 3 years

$

60,418

Hyundai Smart

 

2012

 

13,100

 

May 2024

 

HMM

 

May 2024

$

64,918

 

+ 3 years

$

60,418

Hyundai Respect(5)

 

2012

 

13,100

 

March 2024

 

HMM

 

March 2024

$

64,918

 

+ 3 years

$

60,418

Hyundai Honour(5)

 

2012

 

13,100

 

February 2024

 

HMM

 

February 2024

$

64,918

 

+ 3 years

$

60,418

Express Rome

 

2011

 

10,100

 

May 2022

 

Hapag Lloyd

 

May 2022

$

28,000

 

+ 10 up to 14 months

$

29,000

 

 

+ 10 up to 14 months

$

30,000

Express Berlin

 

2011

 

10,100

 

June 2023

 

Yang Ming

 

June 2023

$

27,750

 

+ 3 months

$

27,750

Express Athens

 

2011

 

10,100

 

May 2022

 

Hapag Lloyd

 

May 2022

$

28,000

 

+ 10 up to 14 months

$

29,000

 

 

+ 10 up to 14 months

$

30,000

Le Havre

 

2006

 

9,580

 

June 2028

 

MSC

 

August 2023

$

23,000

 

Confidential (10)

June 2028

$

58,500

+4 months

$

58,500

Pusan C

 

2006

 

9,580

 

May 2028

 

MSC

 

July 2023

$

23,000

 

Confidential (10)

May 2028

$

58,500

+4 months

$

58,500

Bremen

 

2009

 

9,012

 

January 2028

 

MSC

 

March 2023

$

23,000

 

Confidential (10)

January 2028

$

56,000

+4 months

$

56,000

C Hamburg

 

2009

 

9,012

 

January 2028

 

MSC

 

March 2023

$

23,000

 

Confidential (10)

January 2028

$

56,000

+4 months

$

56,000

Niledutch Lion

 

2008

 

8,626

 

May 2026

 

Niledutch

 

May 2022

$

28,000

 

May 2026

$

47,500

+ 4 months

$

47,500

Belita (8)

2006

8,533

July 2026

CMA CGM

February 2022

$

25,000

July 2026

$

45,000

+ 6 months

$

45,000

Charleston

 

2005

 

8,533

 

February 2026

 

RCL

 

February 2022

$

30,000

 

PIL

February 2026

$

47,500

+ 4 months

$

47,500

CMA CGM Melisande (5)

 

2012

 

8,530

 

May 2024

 

CMA CGM

 

November 2023

$

43,000

 

+ 6 months

$

43,000

 

 

 

 

 

May 2024 / November 2024

at market (6)

 

+ 6 months

at market (6)

CMA CGM Attila (5)

2011

8,530

October 2023

CMA CGM

 

April 2023

$

43,000

+ 6 months

$

43,000

 

 

 

 

 

October 2023 / April 2024

at market (6)

 

+ 6 months

at market (6)

CMA CGM Tancredi (5)

2011

8,530

November 2023

CMA CGM

 

May 2023

$

43,000

+ 6 months

$

43,000

November 2023 / May 2024

at market (6)

+ 6 months

at market (6)

CMA CGM Bianca (5)

2011

8,530

January 2024

CMA CGM

 

July 2023

$

43,000

+ 6 months

$

43,000

 

 

 

 

 

January 2024 / July 2024

at market (6)

 

+ 6 months

at market (6)

CMA CGM Samson (5)

2011

8,530

March 2024

CMA CGM

 

September 2023

$

43,000

+ 6 months

$

43,000

 

 

 

 

 

March 2024 / September 2024

at market (6)

 

+ 6 months

at market (6)

America

2004

8,468

April 2028

MSC

 

June 2023

$

22,000

 

 

 

 

Confidential (10)

 

April 2028

$

56,000

 

+ 4 months

$

56,000

Europe

 

2004

 

8,468

 

May 2028

 

MSC

 

July 2023

$

22,000

 

 

 

 

 

Confidential (10)

 

May 2028

$

56,000

 

+ 4 months

$

56,000

Phoebe

 

2005

 

8,463

 

August 2026

 

ONE

 

August 2022

$

24,000

 

  

PIL

 

August 2023

$

60,000

 

 

 

 

 

August 2025

$

55,000

 

  

 

August 2026

$

50,000

+ 4 months

$

55,000

CMA CGM Moliere

 

2009

 

6,500

 

March 2027

 

CMA CGM

 

April 2022

$

110,000

 

Confidential (10)

 

March 2027

$

55,000

+ 2 months

$

55,000

CMA CGM Musset

 

2010

 

6,500

 

October 2022

 

CMA CGM

 

April 2022

$

34,350

 

  

 

October 2022

at market (6)

+ 6 months

at market (6)

CMA CGM Nerval

 

2010

 

6,500

 

December 2022

 

CMA CGM

 

June 2022

$

34,350

 

  

 

December 2022

at market (6)

+ 6 months

at market (6)

CMA CGM Rabelais

 

2010

 

6,500

 

February 2023

 

CMA CGM

 

August 2022

$

34,350

 

 

 

 

 

 

February 2023

at market (6)

 

+ 6 months

at market (6)

CMA CGM Racine

 

2010

 

6,500

 

March 2023

 

CMA CGM

 

September 2022

$

34,350

 

March 2023

at market (6)

 

+ 6 months

at market (6)

YM Mandate

 

2010

 

6,500

 

January 2028

 

Yang Ming

 

January 2028

$

26,890 (7)

 

+ 8 months

$

26,890 (7)

YM Maturity

 

2010

 

6,500

 

April 2028

 

Yang Ming

 

April 2028

$

26,890 (7)

 

+ 8 months

$

26,890 (7)

Leo C (8)

2002

6,422

August 2022

MSC

August 2022

$

18,000

 

+ 4 months

$

18,000

Catherine C (8)

 

2001

 

6,422

 

November 2022

 

MSC

 

November 2022

$

18,000

 

  

Dimitra C

2002

6,402

January 2023

Hapag Lloyd

 

January 2023

$

20,000

 

+ 3 months

$

20,000

 

+ 12 months

$

21,500

Zim Savannah (ex Performance)

 

2002

 

6,402

 

May 2024

 

ZIM

 

May 2024

$

36,000

 

+ 6 months

$

36,000

Kota Lima(ex Genoa) (5) (8)

2002

5,544

November 2024

PIL

 

November 2024

$

39,999

+ 4 months

$

39,999

 

 

 

 

 

 

+ 10 up to 14 months

$

27,500

 

 

 

 

 

 

+ 10 up to 12 months

$

24,000

Suez Canal (5) (8)

2002

5,610

 

March 2023

 

TS Lines

 

March 2023

$

30,000

 

+ 4 months

$

30,000

Wide Alpha (9)

 

2014

 

5,466

 

March 2024

 

ONE

 

March 2024

$

18,500

 

+ 3 months

$

18,500

Wide Bravo (9)

 

2014

 

5,466

 

June 2025

 

Maersk

 

June 2022

$

19,500

 

 

 

 

 

Confidential (10)

 

June 2025

$

55,500

 

+ 4 months

$

55,500

Maersk Euphrates (9)

 

2014

 

5,466

 

April 2024

 

Maersk

 

April 2024

$

17,500

 

+ 4 months

$

17,500

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Wide Hotel (9)

2015

5,466

May 2024

ONE

 

May 2024

$

18,500

 

+ 3 months

$

18,500

Wide India (9)

 

2015

 

5,466

 

September 2025

 

Maersk

 

October 2022

$

19,500

 

 

 

 

 

Confidential (10)

 

September 2025

$

53,500

 

+4 months

$

53,500

Wide Juliet (9)

2015

5,466

June 2023

ONE

 

June 2023

$

19,950

 

+ 3 months

$

19,950

Rio Grande

 

2008

 

4,253

 

November 2024

 

OOCL

 

January 2023

$

68,000

 

 

 

 

 

 

December 2023

$

50,000

 

 

 

 

 

 

November 2024

$

17,000

 

+ 2 months

$

45,000

ZIM Sao Paolo

 

2008

 

4,253

 

February 2023

 

ZIM

 

February 2023

$

21,150

 

+ 4 months

$

21,150

 

 

 

 

 

 

+ 13 months

$

25,000

ZIM Kingston

 

2008

 

4,253

 

April 2023

 

ZIM

 

April 2023

$

25,500

 

+ 4 months

$

25,500

ZIM Monaco

 

2009

 

4,253

 

July 2022

 

ZIM

 

July 2022

$

20,000

 

+ 2 months

$

20,000

 

 

 

 

 

 

+ 5 months

$

22,000

Dalian

2009

4,253

November 2022

KMTC

November 2022

$

30,750

+ 4 months

$

30,750

ZIM Luanda

2009

4,253

August 2025

ZIM

August 2025

$

30,000

+ 4 months

$

30,000

Seattle C

 

2007

 

4,253

 

November 2024

 

OOCL

 

December 2022

$

68,000

 

 

 

 

 

 

December 2023

$

50,000

 

 

 

 

 

 

November 2024

$

17,000

 

+ 2 months

$

45,000

Vancouver

 

2007

 

4,253

 

November 2024

 

OOCL

 

January 2023

$

68,000

 

  

 

December 2023

$

50,000

 

 

 

 

 

 

November 2024

$

17,000

 

+ 2 months

$

45,000

Derby D

    

2004

    

4,253

    

January 2027

    

CMA CGM

    

March 2022

    

$

25,000

    

 

 

 

 

 

January 2027

$

36,275

 

+ 3 months

$

36,275

Tongala (ex ANL Tongala)

2004

4,253

January 2023

ZIM

 

January 2023

$

30,750

 

+ 4 months

$

30,750

Dimitris C

 

2001

 

3,430

 

November 2025

 

CMA CGM

 

March 2022

$

21,500

 

  

 

November 2025

$

40,000

 

+ 4 months

$

40,000

Express Argentina

 

2010

 

3,400

 

May 2023

 

Maersk

 

May 2023

$

26,500

 

+ 4 months

$

26,500

Express Brazil

 

2010

 

3,400

 

June 2025

 

CMA CGM

 

June 2025

$

37,750

 

+ 2 months

$

37,750

Express France

2010

3,400

September 2025

CMA CGM

September 2025

$

37,750

+ 2 months

$

37,750

Express Spain

2011

3,400

January 2025

Cosco

March 2022

$

20,400

January 2025

$

40,000

+ 2 months

$

40,000

Express Black Sea

2011

3,400

January 2025

Cosco

March 2022

$

21,150

January 2025

$

40,000

+ 2 months

$

40,000

Singapore

2004

3,314

May 2024

OOCL

November 2022

$

44,000