10-K 1 dan20231231_10k.htm FORM 10-K dan20231231_10k.htm
0000026780 Dana Inc. false --12-31 FY 2023 false false false false 16 11 24 22 50,000,000 50,000,000 0.01 0.01 0 0 450,000,000 450,000,000 0.01 0.01 144,386,484 143,366,482 474,981 0 0.40 23 0.40 0.40 20 30 5 10 3 5 3 10 1 5 0 0 1 1 20 20 40 40 6 0 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 3 10 3 3 3 10 8 425 419 6 325 396 320 391 5 15 3 7 8 4 Certain assets are measured at fair value using the net asset value (NAV) per share (or its equivalent) practical expedient and have not been classified in the fair value hierarchy. This category comprises a combination of small-, mid- and large-cap equity stocks that are allocated at the investment manager's discretion. Investments include common and preferred securities as well as equity funds that invest in these instruments. Realized gains and losses from currency-related forward contracts associated with forecasted transactions or from other derivative instruments treated as cash flow hedges are reclassified from AOCI into the same line item in the consolidated statement of operations in which the underlying forecasted transaction or other hedged item is recorded. See Note 14 for additional details. This category comprises contracts placed with insurance companies where the underlying assets are invested in fixed interest securities. Weighted-average per share See Note 12 for additional details. In conjunction with the issuance of the April 2025 Notes we entered into 8-year fixed-to-fixed cross-currency swaps which have the effect of economically converting the April 2025 Notes to euro-denominated debt at a fixed rate of 3.850%. 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Table of Contents




Washington, DC 20549

Form 10-K

           Annual Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 

For the Fiscal Year Ended:  December 31, 2023


           Transition Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934

For the Transition Period From          to

Commission File Number:  1-1063

 Dana Incorporated

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)




(State of incorporation)

(IRS Employer Identification Number)

3939 Technology Drive, Maumee, OH


(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (419887-3000


Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:


Title of each class

Trading Symbol

Name of exchange on which registered

Common stock, par value $0.01 per share


New York Stock Exchange


Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None.


Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes  ☑  No  ☐


Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act. Yes  ☐  No  ☑


Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes    ☑   No   ☐


Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☑ No  ☐


Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company.  See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.:


Large accelerated filer



Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer


Smaller reporting company





Emerging growth company


If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  ☐


Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.   


If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.   


Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant's executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).   ☐


Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).  Yes        No  ☑


The aggregate market value of the common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant computed by reference to the closing price of the common stock on June 30, 2023 was $2,436,129,903.


There were 144,386,484 shares of the registrant's common stock outstanding at February 2, 2024.




Portions of the definitive Proxy Statement to be delivered to stockholders in connection with the Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held on April 24, 2024 are incorporated by reference into Part III.







YEAR ENDED December 31, 2023


Table of Contents 









Item 1



Item 1A

Risk Factors


Item 1B

Unresolved Staff Comments


Item 1C Cybersecurity 12

Item 2



Item 3

Legal Proceedings








Item 5

Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities


Item 6



Item 7

Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations


Item 7A

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk


Item 8

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data


Item 9

Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure


Item 9A

Controls and Procedures


Item 9B

Other Information


Item 9C Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections 71







Item 10

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance


Item 11

Executive Compensation


Item 12

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters


Item 13

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence


Item 14

Principal Accountant Fees and Services








Item 15

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules











Forward-Looking Information


Statements in this report (or otherwise made by us or on our behalf) that are not entirely historical constitute “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Such forward-looking statements can often be identified by words such as “anticipates,” “expects,” “believes,” “intends,” “plans,” “predicts,” “seeks,” “estimates,” “projects,” “outlook,” “may,” “will,” “should,” “would,” “could,” “potential,” “continue,” “ongoing” and similar expressions, variations or negatives of these words. These statements represent the present expectations of Dana Incorporated and its consolidated subsidiaries based on our current information and assumptions. Forward-looking statements are inherently subject to risks and uncertainties. Our plans, actions and actual results could differ materially from our present expectations due to a number of factors, including those discussed below and elsewhere in this report and in our other filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). All forward-looking statements speak only as of the date made and we undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statement to reflect events or circumstances that may arise after the date of this report.






(Dollars in millions, except per share amounts)



Item 1. Business




Dana Incorporated (Dana), with history dating back to 1904, is headquartered in Maumee, Ohio. We are a world leader in providing power-conveyance and energy-management solutions for vehicles and machinery. The company's portfolio improves the efficiency, performance, and sustainability of light vehicles, commercial vehicles, and off-highway equipment. From axles, driveshafts, transmissions, sealing and thermal products to electrification products including motors, inverters, controllers, e-sealing, e-thermal and digital solutions, we enable the propulsion of internal combustion engine (ICE), hybrid and electric powered vehicles by supplying nearly every major vehicle manufacturer in the world. We also serve the stationary industrial market. As of December 31, 2023 we employed approximately 41,800 people and operated in 31 countries.


The terms “Dana,” “we,” “our” and “us” are references to Dana. These references include the subsidiaries of Dana unless otherwise indicated or the context requires otherwise.


Overview of our Business


We have aligned our organization around four operating segments: Light Vehicle Drive Systems (Light Vehicle), Commercial Vehicle Drive and Motion Systems (Commercial Vehicle), Off-Highway Drive and Motion Systems (Off-Highway) and Power Technologies. These operating segments have global responsibility and accountability for business commercial activities and financial performance.


External sales by operating segment for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021 are as follows:











% of Total




% of Total




% of Total


Light Vehicle

  $ 4,035       38.2 %   $ 4,090       40.3 %   $ 3,773       42.2 %


    3,185       30.2 %     2,946       29.0 %     2,593       29.0 %

Commercial Vehicle

    2,092       19.8 %     1,979       19.5 %     1,532       17.1 %

Power Technologies

    1,243       11.8 %     1,141       11.2 %     1,047       11.7 %


  $ 10,555             $ 10,156             $ 8,945          


Refer to Segment Results of Operations in Item 7 and Note 20 to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8 for further financial information about our operating segments.




Our business is diversified across end-markets, products and customers. The following table summarizes the markets, products and largest customers of each of our operating segments as of December 31, 2023:










Light Vehicle

Light vehicle market:


Ford Motor Company


    Light trucks (full frame)


Stellantis N.V.*


    Sport utility vehicles

ICE, hybrid and e-transmissions

Toyota Motor Corporation


    Crossover utility vehicles

e-Axle systems



    Utility vans

e-Transmission systems



    Sports cars


Tata Motors Ltd (including


    Super sports cars

Electric motors

    Jaguar Land Rover)




Volkswagen AG









Commercial Vehicle

Commercial vehicle market:




    Medium duty trucks


Traton SE


    Heavy duty trucks

Hybrid and e-transmissions

AB Volvo



e-Axle systems

Daimler Truck AB


    Specialty vehicles

e-Transmission systems

Ford Motor Company




CNH Industrial N.V.

    Electric motors  










Off-Highway market:

Axles, hub drives and driveshafts

Deere & Company



ICE, hybrid and e-transmissions

CNH Industrial N.V.



e-Axle systems

AGCO Corporation



e-Transmission systems

Oshkosh Corporation



e-Hub drive systems

Manitou Group


    Material handling


JCB Inc.

      Industrial stationary Electric motors  


    Lawn care and recreational











Power Technologies

Light vehicle market

ICE sealing and thermal

Ford Motor Company


Commercial vehicle market


General Motors Company


Off-Highway market

e-Thermal cooling systems

Stellantis N.V.


Industrial stationary market

Battery cooling

Volkswagen AG



Electronics cooling

    (including Traton SE)
    Hydrogen fuel cell cooling Cummins Inc.



New power industrial cooling

Mercedes-Benz Group





* Via a directed supply relationship



Geographic Operations


We maintain administrative and operational organizations in North America, Europe, South America and Asia Pacific to support our operating segments, assist with the management of affiliate relations and facilitate financial and statutory reporting and tax compliance on a worldwide basis. Our operations are located in the following countries:


North America


South America

Asia Pacific











United States


South Africa












New Zealand










South Korea



United Kingdom




Our non-U.S. subsidiaries and affiliates manufacture and sell products similar to those we produce in the United States. Operations outside the U.S. may be subject to a greater risk of changing political, economic and social environments, changing governmental laws and regulations, currency revaluations and market fluctuations than our domestic operations. See the discussion of risk factors in Item 1A.


Sales reported by our non-U.S. subsidiaries comprised $6,063, or 57%, of our 2023 consolidated sales of $10,555. A summary of sales and long-lived assets by geographic region can be found in Note 20 to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8.


Customer Dependence


We are largely dependent on light vehicle, medium- and heavy-duty vehicle and off-highway original equipment manufacturer (OEM) customers. Ford Motor Company (Ford) and Stellantis N.V. (Stellantis) were the only individual customers accounting for 10% or more of our consolidated sales in one or more of the past three years. As a percentage of total sales from operations, our sales to Ford were approximately 20% in 2023, 19% in 2022 and 19% in 2021. Our sales to Stellantis (via a directed supply relationship) were approximately 9% in 2023, 11% in 2022 and 12% in 2021. Volkswagen AG (including Traton SE), PACCAR, Inc and Toyota Motor Corporation were our third, fourth and fifth largest customers in 2023. Our 10 largest customers collectively accounted for approximately 55% of our sales in 2023.


Loss of all or a substantial portion of our sales to Ford, Stellantis or other large volume customers would have a significant adverse effect on our financial results until such lost sales volume could be replaced and there is no assurance that any such lost volume would be replaced.


Sources and Availability of Raw Materials


We use a variety of raw materials in the production of our products, including steel and products containing steel, stainless steel, forgings, castings, bearings, semiconductors, and magnets and related rare earth materials. Other commodity purchases include aluminum, brass, copper and plastics. These materials are typically available from multiple qualified sources in quantities sufficient for our needs. However, some of our operations remain dependent on single sources for certain raw materials.


While our suppliers have generally been able to support our needs, our operations may experience shortages and delays in the supply of raw material from time to time due to strong market demand, capacity limitations, supply chain disruptions, short lead times, production schedule increases from our customers and other problems experienced by the suppliers. A significant or prolonged shortage of critical components from any of our suppliers could adversely impact our ability to meet our production schedules and to deliver our products to our customers in a timely manner.




Our businesses are generally not seasonal. However, in the light vehicle market, our sales are closely related to the production schedules of our OEM customers and those schedules have historically been weakest in the third quarter of the year due to a large number of model year changeovers that occur during this period. Additionally, third-quarter production schedules in Europe are typically impacted by summer vacation schedules and fourth-quarter production is affected globally by year-end holidays.





A substantial amount of the new business we are awarded by OEMs is granted well in advance of a program launch. These awards typically extend through the life of the given program. This backlog of new business does not represent firm orders. We estimate future sales from new business using the projected volume under these programs.




Within each of our markets, we compete with a variety of independent suppliers and distributors, as well as with the in-house operations of certain OEMs. With a focus on product innovation, we differentiate ourselves through efficiency and performance, reliability, materials and processes, sustainability and product extension.


The following table summarizes our principal competitors by operating segment as of December 31, 2023:



Principal Competitors




Light Vehicle

American Axle & Manufacturing Holdings, Inc.

Magna International Inc.


BorgWarner Inc.

Schaeffler AG


Hofer Powertrain GmbH

Valeo SE


Jing-Jin Electric Technologies Co. Ltd.

ZF Friedrichshafen AG
  Linamar Corporation Vertically integrated OEM operations







Commercial Vehicle

Allison Transmission Holdings, Inc.

Eugen Klein GmbH


BorgWarner Inc.

Hendrickson Holdings, LLC


Cummins Inc.

Tirsan Kardan A.Ş.


Danfoss A/S

ZF Friedrichshafen AG

  Eaton Corporation plc Vertically integrated OEM operations








Bonfiglioli Riduttori S.p.A.

Kohler Co.


Carraro S.p.A.

SEW-Eurodrive GmbH


Comer Industries S.p.A.

Zapi S.p.A.
  Danfoss A/S ZF Friedrichshafen AG



Vertically integrated OEM operations







Power Technologies

Denso Corporation

Mahle GmbH


ElringKlinger AG

Tenneco Inc.


Freudenberg Group

Valeo SE


Hanon Systems

YinLun Co., LTD





Intellectual Property


Our proprietary driveline and power technologies product lines have strong identities in the markets we serve. Throughout these product lines, we manufacture and sell our products under a number of patents that have been obtained over a period of years and expire at various times. We consider each of these patents to be of value and aggressively protect our rights in key markets. We are involved with many product lines and the loss or expiration of any particular patent would not materially affect our sales and profits.


We own or have licensed numerous trademarks that are registered or subject to pending applications in many jurisdictions. For example, our Spicer®, Spicer ElectrifiedTM, Victor Reinz®, Long®, GrazianoTM and Dana TM4TM trademarks are widely recognized in their market segments. We regard our trademarks as valuable assets and strategically pursue available protection of these rights.



Engineering and Research and Development


Since our introduction of the automotive universal joint in 1904, we have been focused on technological innovation. Our objective is to be an essential partner to our customers and we remain highly focused on offering superior product quality, technologically advanced products, world-class service and competitive prices. To enhance quality and reduce costs, we use statistical process control, cellular manufacturing, flexible regional production and assembly, global sourcing and extensive employee training.


We engage in ongoing engineering and research and development activities to improve the reliability, performance and cost-effectiveness of our existing products and to design and develop innovative products that meet customer requirements for new applications. We integrate related operations to create a more innovative environment, speed product development, maximize efficiency and improve communication and information sharing among our research and development operations. At December 31, 2023, we had eleven stand-alone technical and engineering centers and fourteen additional sites at which we conduct research and development activities. Our research and development costs were $237 in 2023, $201 in 2022 and $178 in 2021. Total engineering expenses including research and development were $369 in 2023, $321 in 2022 and $297 in 2021. Over the past several years our engineering spend has been more heavily focused on research and development activities, progressing key electrification initiatives.


Our research and development is targeted to create unique value for our customers. Our technologies are enabling the electrification of vehicles and accessories to improve efficiency and reduce the impact of carbon emissions. Our advanced drivelines are more efficient than ever before and include mechatronic systems to enhance performance. Our power technologies group is also developing new ways to keep batteries and power electronics at optimum temperatures to improve their efficiency and operation. Together the collaborative teamwork between our four business units enable Dana to differentiate by developing complete in-house 4-in-1 electrified propulsion systems, including motors, inverters, axles/transmissions and thermal management solutions. We have developed innovative fuel cell products to support the new-energy hydrogen vehicles and industrial stationary markets.


Human Capital


Our talented people power a customer-centric organization that is continuously improving the performance and efficiency of vehicles and machines around the globe. The following table summarizes our employees by operating segment and geographical region as of December 31, 2023:



  Employees     Region   Employees  

Light Vehicle

    13,900     North America     15,900  


    11,800     Europe     11,500  

Commercial Vehicle

    7,800     Asia Pacific     10,100  

Power Technologies

    6,100     South America     4,300  

Technical and administrative

    2,200     Total     41,800  




Safety – The health and safety of employees remain our highest priority and we believe our company has an essential responsibility to safeguard life, health, property, and the environment for the well-being of all involved. Through a commitment to proactive processes, we actively promote and pursue safety in all that we do. This is achieved through a consistent commitment to excellence in, health, safety, security management, and risk elimination. Dana’s health, safety and security programs ensure that all employees receive training, guidance, and assistance in safety awareness and risk prevention. An implemented, verified, audited, and communicated occupational health and safety management system reflects Dana’s internal and external commitment to all our stakeholders in identifying and reducing the health and safety risk of our employees around the world. Dana has developed robust safety systems, including detailed work instructions and processes for standard and non-standard work, as well as regular layer process audits to ensure that we carefully consider safety in each of our work functions.


Diversity, Equity and Inclusion – Our vision is to maintain a diverse and inclusive, global organization that develops, fosters, and attracts great people whose perspectives are encouraged, heard, valued, and supported. We are committed to advancing and reflecting the communities we serve.  At Dana, we are proud to have an employee-centric organization that challenges the status quo by ensuring our business policies, processes and culture allow us to continuously build upon our diverse strengths to further grow a strong, inclusive work environment. Dana remains focused on cultivating an inclusive culture that embraces diversity and equity to enable Dana people to contribute to their full potential and have a sense of belonging. To achieve this, our diversity, equity, and inclusion strategy is guided by five pillars: leadership commitment; diversity representation; awareness, education and development; employee and community growth; and cross-functional collaboration.


Retention and Employee Development – Dana believes the development of its people is critical to the company’s success. The company empowers individuals to lead their development by articulating their professional, personal, and career growth aspirations to their manager. Development of all Dana people is strongly encouraged and should be considered each year as a part of their goals. Fair access to development opportunities to maintain a sustainable, diverse, and high-performance pipeline of talent is supported by Dana leaders at all levels of the organization. The company also provides regular training for our associates across the globe, providing the opportunity to enhance their skills and keep pace with technological change and offers a mentorship program to help guide and coach employees to ensure the company is developing a diverse leadership talent pool. This development is supported and measured with robust performance management and development plans that encourages employees to continuously improve upon their past performance and build on critical skills the company requires to remain competitive.



Business Resource Groups – Dana has a network of Business Resource Groups (BRGs) to empower employees and enhance Dana’s ability to develop, retain, and attract top talent. These BRGs are executive leadership-supported, employee-led initiatives with the mission to inspire growth and innovation and foster belonging for all employees. BRGs provide employees opportunities for development, mentoring, networking, and utilizing their talents in ways that positively impact the business.  Our BRGs currently include:


  African American Resource Group (AARG) – Dana's AARG group is committed to supporting the career development of African American talent through thought-leadership workshops and community events. The group provides Dana insight to the best practices for sourcing and retaining top talent.
  Connected Cultures – Dana's Connected Cultures group aims to recognize and celebrate the cultural fluency and diversity of Dana people. The group focuses on increasing cultural awareness by promoting understanding and respects of different beliefs, values and customs across diverse groups.
  Dana Alumni – With more than a century of rich history, Dana leverages its vast network of Alumni, including retirees and former long-time employees to help them remain informed about the company's latest initiatives and to gather ideas on how to best continue to engage our workforce.
  Dana Women’s Network (DAWN) – The company’s DAWN group is focused on providing professional networking and career development for women at Dana. They also promote activities that engage Dana’s senior leaders to better understand how the company can support women at work.
  Green Team – Dana's Green Team resource group helps to advance Dana's mission to be sustainably responsible in our business practices. The group helps to inform and drive grassroots employee initiatives on reducing our impact on the environment.
  LGBTQ+A – The LGBTQ+A group focuses on maintaining an inclusive working environment that enables the company to leverage a diverse leadership pipeline. It has assisted in providing educational resources and community activities to engage the Dana team on best ways to support our LGBTQ+A colleagues.

Military and Veterans – The military and veterans group supports active-duty and veteran military personnel by understanding their unique needs and finding the best ways to support them. This group's understanding of the needs of those who have served also allows the company to consider the best way to engage candidates and recruit them to Dana.

  New to Dana (NTD) – The NTD group is open to all new Dana employees to help acclimate them to the Dana business culture and understand the company’s rich history. It provides resources, support, and professional development opportunities to new employees as they transition into their job responsibilities at Dana.


Recruiting – As a company, we collaborate with internationally recognized organizations to reach out to diverse talent and implement best practices for recruiting individuals who work within our core business functions. Dana’s talent acquisition group focuses on recruitment of talented people to the company while continuing to maintain best-in-class processes to address the unique market conditions we face across our global facilities.


Health and Wellness – Dana understands the importance of advocating for the health and well-being of our employees. Health initiatives can have a long-lasting, sustainable impact on employee well-being, but healthy habits do not develop overnight. The company is continuously evaluating new opportunities for programs that help address factors that influence health-related behaviors, which can have a long-lasting impact on an employee’s well-being. We support vaccination programs to encourage employees to maintain their health and the  health of their coworkers and communities. Dana understands the needs of individuals are unique and continues to offer initiatives spanning the spectrum of health and wellness to help provide a supportive work environment where employees strive for balance in their lives. We have enhanced our employee assistance programs around the world to support the emotional, physical and financial needs of our employees. Our program includes the traditional employee assistance services, but also gives employees access to legal services, dependent care support, financial advice, and mindfulness programs, such as meditation, positivity training tools, and inspirational videos to help manage anxiety, depression, stress, sleep and more.


We encourage you to review the “Empowering People” section of our annual Sustainability and Social Responsibility Report (located on our website) for more detailed information regarding our Human Capital programs and initiatives. Nothing on our website, including our annual Sustainability and Social Responsibility Report or sections thereof, shall be deemed incorporated by reference into this Annual Report.


Environmental Compliance


We make capital expenditures in the normal course of business as necessary to ensure that our facilities are in compliance with applicable environmental laws and regulations. The cost of environmental compliance has not been a material part of capital expenditures and did not have a material adverse effect on our earnings or competitive position in 2023.


Available Information


Our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 as amended (Exchange Act) are available, free of charge, on or through our Internet website at http://www.dana.com/investors as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such materials with, or furnish them to, the SEC. Copies of any materials we file with the SEC can also be obtained free of charge through the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov. We also post our Corporate Governance Guidelines, Standards of Business Conduct for Members of the Board of Directors, Board Committee membership lists and charters, Standards of Business Conduct and other corporate governance materials on our Internet website. Copies of these posted materials are also available in print, free of charge, to any stockholder upon request from: Dana Incorporated, Investor Relations, P.O. Box 1000, Maumee, Ohio 43537, or via telephone in the U.S. at 800-537-8823 or e-mail at InvestorRelations@dana.com. The inclusion of our website address in this report is an inactive textual reference only and is not intended to include or incorporate by reference the information on our website into this report.




Item 1A. Risk Factors


We are impacted by events and conditions that affect the light vehicle, commercial vehicle and off-highway markets that we serve, as well as by factors specific to Dana. Among the risks that could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations are the following, many of which are interrelated.


Risk Factors Related to the Markets We Serve


A downturn in the global economy could have a substantial adverse effect on our business.


Our business is tied to general economic and industry conditions as demand for vehicles depends largely on the strength of the economy, employment levels, consumer confidence levels, the availability and cost of credit and the cost of fuel. These factors have had and could continue to have a substantial impact on our business. Adverse global economic conditions could also cause our customers and suppliers to experience severe economic constraints in the future, including bankruptcy, which could have a material adverse impact on our financial position and results of operations.


Our results of operations could be adversely affected by climate change, natural catastrophes or public health crises, in the locations in which we, our customers or our suppliers operate.


There is global scientific consensus that emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) continue to alter the composition of Earth’s atmosphere in ways that are affecting and are expected to continue to affect the global climate. These considerations may lead to new international, national, regional, or local legislative or regulatory responses. Various stakeholders, including legislators and regulators, shareholders, and non-governmental organizations, as well as companies in many business sectors, including Dana, are continuing to look for ways to reduce GHG emissions. The regulation of GHG emissions from certain stationary or mobile sources or the imposition of carbon pricing mechanisms could result in additional costs to Dana in the form of taxes or emission allowances, facilities improvements, and energy costs, which would increase Dana’s operating costs through higher utility, transportation, and materials costs. Because the impact of any future climate change-related legislative, regulatory, or product standard requirements on Dana’s global businesses and products is dependent on the timing and design of mandates or standards, Dana is unable to predict their potential impact at this time. The potential physical impacts of climate change on Dana’s facilities, suppliers, and customers and therefore on Dana’s operations are highly uncertain and will be particular to the circumstances developing in various geographic regions. These may include extreme weather events and long-term changes in temperature levels and water availability. These potential physical effects may adversely affect the demand for Dana’s products and the cost, production, sales, and financial performance of Dana’s operations.


A natural disaster could disrupt our operations, or our customers’ or suppliers’ operations and could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition. Although we have continuity plans designed to mitigate the impact of natural disasters on our operations, those plans may be insufficient, and any catastrophe may disrupt our ability to manufacture and deliver products to our customers, resulting in an adverse impact on our business and results of operations.


In addition, our global operations expose us to risks associated with public health crises, such as epidemics and pandemics, which could harm our business and cause our operating results to suffer. Pandemics, such as the novel coronavirus disease (COVID) pandemic, may have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition. Efforts to combat a pandemic can be complicated by viral variants and uneven access to, and acceptance and effectiveness of, vaccines globally. Pandemics may negatively impact the global economy, disrupt our operations as well as those of our customers, suppliers, and the global supply chains in which we participate, and create significant volatility and disruption of financial markets. The extent of the impact of a pandemic on our business and financial performance, including our ability to execute our near-term and long-term operational, strategic, and capital structure initiatives, will depend on the duration and severity of the pandemic, which are uncertain and cannot be predicted.


We may face facility closure requirements and other operational restrictions with respect to some or all of our locations for prolonged periods of time due to, among other factors, evolving and increasingly stringent governmental restrictions including public health directives, quarantine policies or social distancing measures. We operate as part of the complex integrated global supply chains of our largest customers. As a pandemic dissipates at varying times and rates in different regions around the world, there could be a prolonged negative impact on these global supply chains. Our ability to continue operations at specific facilities will be impacted by the interdependencies of the various participants of these global supply chains, which are largely beyond our direct control. A prolonged shut down of these global supply chains would have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.


Rising interest rates could have a substantial adverse effect on our business


Rising interest rates could have a dampening effect on overall economic activity, the financial condition of our customers and the financial condition of the end customers who ultimately create demand for the products we supply, all of which could negatively affect demand for our products. An increase in interest rates could make it difficult for us to obtain financing at attractive rates, impacting our ability to execute on our growth strategies or future acquisitions.



We could be adversely impacted by the loss of any of our significant customers, changes in their requirements for our products or changes in their financial condition.


We are reliant upon sales to several significant customers. Sales to our ten largest customers accounted for 55% of our overall sales in 2023. Changes in our business relationships with any of our large customers or in the timing, size and continuation of their various programs could have a material adverse impact on us.


The loss of any of these customers, the loss of business with respect to one or more of their vehicle models on which we have high component content, or a significant decline in the production levels of such vehicles would negatively impact our business, results of operations and financial condition. Pricing pressure from our customers also poses certain risks. Inability on our part to offset pricing concessions with cost reductions would adversely affect our profitability. We are continually bidding on new business with these customers, as well as seeking to diversify our customer base, but there is no assurance that our efforts will be successful. Further, to the extent that the financial condition of our largest customers deteriorates, including possible bankruptcies, mergers or liquidations, or their sales otherwise decline, our financial position and results of operations could be adversely affected.


We may be adversely impacted by changes in international legislative and political conditions.


We operate in 31 countries around the world and we depend on significant foreign suppliers and customers. Further, we have several growth initiatives that are targeting emerging markets like China and India. Legislative and political activities within the countries where we conduct business, particularly in emerging markets and less developed countries, could adversely impact our ability to operate in those countries. The political situation in a number of countries in which we operate could create instability in our contractual relationships with no effective legal safeguards for resolution of these issues, or potentially result in the seizure of our assets. We operate in Argentina, where trade-related initiatives and other government restrictions limit our ability to optimize operating effectiveness. At December 31, 2023, our net asset exposure related to Argentina was approximately $50, including $20 of net fixed assets.


We may be adversely impacted by changes in trade policies and proposed or imposed tariffs, including but not limited to, the imposition of new tariffs by the U.S. government on imports to the U.S. and/or the imposition of retaliatory tariffs by foreign countries.


Section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962, as amended (the Trade Act), gives the executive branch of the U.S. government broad authority to restrict imports in the interest of national security by imposing tariffs. Tariffs imposed on imported steel and aluminum could raise the costs associated with manufacturing our products. We work with our customers to recover a portion of any increased costs, and with our suppliers to defray costs, associated with tariffs. While we have been successful in the past recovering a significant portion of costs increases, there is no assurance that cost increases resulting from trade policies and tariffs will not adversely impact our profitability. Our sales may also be adversely impacted if tariffs are assessed directly on the products we produce or on our customers’ products containing content sourced from us.


We may be adversely impacted by the strength of the U.S. dollar relative to the currencies in the other countries in which we do business.


Approximately 57% of our sales in 2023 were from operations located in countries other than the U.S. Currency variations can have an impact on our results (expressed in U.S. dollars). Currency variations can also adversely affect margins on sales of our products in countries outside of the U.S. and margins on sales of products that include components obtained from affiliates or other suppliers located outside of the U.S. Strengthening of the U.S. dollar against the euro and currencies of other countries in which we have operations could have an adverse effect on our results reported in U.S. dollars. We use a combination of natural hedging techniques and financial derivatives to mitigate foreign currency exchange rate risks. Such hedging activities may be ineffective or may not offset more than a portion of the adverse financial impact resulting from currency variations.


We may be adversely impacted by new laws, regulations or policies of governmental organizations related to increased fuel economy standards and reduced greenhouse gas emissions, or changes in existing ones.


The markets and customers we serve are subject to substantial government regulation, which often differs by state, region and country. These regulations, and proposals for additional regulation, are advanced primarily out of concern for the environment (including concerns about global climate change and its impact) and energy independence. We anticipate that the number and extent of these regulations, and the costs to comply with them, will increase significantly in the future.


In the U.S., vehicle fuel economy and greenhouse gas emissions are regulated under a harmonized national program administered by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Other governments in the markets we serve are also creating new policies to address these same issues, including the European Union, Brazil, China and India. These government regulatory requirements could significantly affect our customers by altering their global product development plans and substantially increasing their costs, which could result in limitations on the types of vehicles they sell and the geographical markets they serve. Any of these outcomes could adversely affect our financial position and results of operations.



Company-Specific Risk Factors


We have taken, and continue to take, cost-reduction actions. Although our process includes planning for potential negative consequences, the cost-reduction actions may expose us to additional production risk and could adversely affect our sales, profitability and ability to retain and attract employees.


We have been reducing costs in all of our businesses and have discontinued product lines, exited businesses, consolidated manufacturing operations and positioned operations in lower cost locations. The impact of these cost-reduction actions on our sales and profitability may be influenced by many factors including our ability to successfully complete these ongoing efforts, our ability to generate the level of cost savings we expect or that are necessary to enable us to effectively compete, delays in implementation of anticipated workforce reductions, decline in employee morale and the potential inability to meet operational targets due to our inability to retain or recruit key employees.


We depend on our subsidiaries for cash to satisfy the obligations of the company.


Our subsidiaries conduct all of our operations and own substantially all of our assets. Our cash flow and our ability to meet our obligations depend on the cash flow of our subsidiaries. In addition, the payment of funds in the form of dividends, intercompany payments, tax sharing payments and otherwise may be subject to restrictions under the laws of the countries of incorporation of our subsidiaries or the by-laws of the subsidiary.


Labor stoppages or work slowdowns at Dana, key suppliers or our customers could result in a disruption in our operations and have a material adverse effect on our businesses.


We and our customers rely on our respective suppliers to provide parts needed to maintain production levels. We all rely on workforces represented by labor unions. Workforce disputes that result in work stoppages or slowdowns could disrupt operations of all of these businesses, which in turn could have a material adverse effect on the supply of, or demand for, the products we supply our customers.


We could be adversely affected if we are unable to recover portions of commodity (including costs of steel and other raw materials), labor, transportation and energy costs from our customers.


Commodity, labor, transportation and energy costs have been volatile over the past several of years creating pressure on our profit margins. We continue to work with our customers to recover a portion of our material cost increases. While we have been successful in the past recovering a significant portion of such cost increases, there is no assurance that increases in commodity costs, which can be impacted by a variety of factors, including changes in trade laws and tariffs, will not adversely impact our profitability in the future. We may also experience labor shortages in certain geographies and increased competition for qualified candidates. These shortages could adversely affect our ability to meet customer demand and increase labor costs, which would reduce our profitability. Standard freight may increase due to shipping container and truck driver shortages and port congestion attributable to global supply chain disruptions resulting from regional and global pandemics and conflicts. We may also incur significant premium freight, resulting from frequent changes in customer order patterns. If we are unable to pass labor, transportation and energy cost increases on to our customer base or otherwise mitigate the costs, our profit margin could be adversely affected.


We could be adversely affected if we experience shortages of components from our suppliers or if disruptions in the supply chain lead to parts shortages for our customers.


A substantial portion of our annual cost of sales is driven by the purchase of goods and services. To manage and minimize these costs, we have been consolidating our supplier base. As a result, we are dependent on single sources of supply for some components of our products. We select our suppliers based on total value (including price, delivery and quality), taking into consideration their production capacities and financial condition, and we expect that they will be able to support our needs. However, there is no assurance that adverse financial conditions, including bankruptcies of our suppliers, reduced levels of production, natural disasters or other problems experienced by our suppliers will not result in shortages or delays in their supply of components to us or even in the financial collapse of one or more such suppliers. If we were to experience a significant or prolonged shortage of critical components from any of our suppliers, particularly those who are sole sources, and were unable to procure the components from other sources, we would be unable to meet our production schedules for some of our key products and to ship such products to our customers in a timely fashion, which would adversely affect our sales, profitability and customer relations.


Adverse economic conditions, natural disasters and other factors can similarly lead to financial distress or production problems for other suppliers to our customers which can create disruptions to our production levels. Any such supply-chain induced disruptions to our production are likely to create operating inefficiencies that will adversely affect our sales, profitability and customer relations.


Our profitability and results of operations may be adversely affected by program launch difficulties.


The launch of new business is a complex process, the success of which depends on a wide range of factors, including the production readiness of our manufacturing facilities and manufacturing processes and those of our suppliers, as well as factors related to tooling, equipment, employees, initial product quality and other factors. Our failure to successfully launch material new or takeover business could have an adverse effect on our profitability and results of operations.



We use important intellectual property in our business. If we are unable to protect our intellectual property or if a third party makes assertions against us or our customers relating to intellectual property rights, our business could be adversely affected.


We own important intellectual property, including patents, trademarks, copyrights and trade secrets, and are involved in numerous licensing arrangements. Our intellectual property plays an important role in maintaining our competitive position in a number of the markets that we serve. Our competitors may develop technologies that are similar or superior to our proprietary technologies or design around the patents we own or license. Further, as we expand our operations in jurisdictions where the protection of intellectual property rights is less robust, the risk of others duplicating our proprietary technologies increases, despite efforts we undertake to protect them. Developments or assertions by or against us relating to intellectual property rights, and any inability to protect these rights, could have a material adverse impact on our business and our competitive position.


We could encounter unexpected difficulties integrating acquisitions and operating joint ventures.


We acquired businesses in recent years, and we may complete additional acquisitions and investments in the future that complement or expand our businesses. The success of this strategy will depend on our ability to successfully complete these transactions or arrangements, to integrate the businesses acquired in these transactions and to develop satisfactory working arrangements with our strategic partners in the joint ventures. We could encounter unexpected difficulties in completing these transactions and integrating the acquisitions with our existing operations. We also may not realize the degree or timing of benefits anticipated when we entered into a transaction.


Several of our joint ventures operate pursuant to established agreements and, as such, we do not unilaterally control the joint venture. There is a risk that the partners’ objectives for the joint venture may not be aligned with ours, leading to potential differences over management of the joint venture that could adversely impact its financial performance and consequent contribution to our earnings. Additionally, inability on the part of our partners to satisfy their contractual obligations under the agreements could adversely impact our results of operations and financial position. Certain of our joint venture partners have the ability to put their ownership interests to Dana at fair value. If a joint venture partner were to put its ownership interest to Dana, it could cause Dana to outlay significant amounts of cash to purchase the joint venture partner's ownership interest in addition to increased future cash outlays required to fund 100% of the operations on a go-forward basis, reducing available funds for other strategic initiatives and capital investments.


We could be adversely impacted by the costs of environmental, health, safety and product liability compliance.


Our operations are subject to environmental laws and regulations in the U.S. and other countries that govern emissions to the air; discharges to water; the generation, handling, storage, transportation, treatment and disposal of waste materials; and the cleanup of contaminated properties. Historically, environmental costs related to our former and existing operations have not been material. However, there is no assurance that the costs of complying with current environmental laws and regulations, or those that may be adopted in the future, will not increase and adversely impact us.


There is also no assurance that the costs of complying with current laws and regulations, or those that may be adopted in the future, that relate to health, safety and product liability matters will not adversely impact us. There is also a risk of warranty and product liability claims, as well as product recalls, if our products fail to perform to specifications or cause property damage, injury or death. (See Notes 15 and 16 to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8 for additional information on product liabilities and warranties.)


A failure of our information technology infrastructure could adversely impact our business and operations.


We recognize the increasing volume of cyber attacks and employ commercially practical efforts to provide reasonable assurance that the risks of such attacks are appropriately mitigated. Each year, we evaluate the threat profile of our industry to stay abreast of trends and to provide reasonable assurance our existing countermeasures will address any new threats identified. Despite our implementation of security measures, our IT systems and those of our service providers are vulnerable to circumstances beyond our reasonable control including acts of terror, acts of government, natural disasters, civil unrest and denial of service attacks which may lead to the theft of our intellectual property, trade secrets or business disruption. To the extent that any disruption or security breach results in a loss or damage to our data or an inappropriate disclosure of confidential information, it could cause significant damage to our reputation, affect our relationships with our customers, suppliers and employees, lead to claims against the company and ultimately harm our business. Additionally, we may be required to incur significant costs to protect against damage caused by these disruptions or security breaches in the future.


We participate in certain multi-employer pension plans which are not fully funded.


We contribute to certain multi-employer defined benefit pension plans for certain of our union-represented employees in the U.S. in accordance with our collective bargaining agreements. Contributions are based on hours worked except in cases of layoff or leave where we generally contribute based on 40 hours per week for a maximum of one year. The plans are not fully funded as of December 31, 2023. We could be held liable to the plans for our obligation, as well as those of other employers, due to our participation in the plans. Contribution rates could increase if the plans are required to adopt a funding improvement plan, if the performance of plan assets does not meet expectations or as a result of future collectively bargained wage and benefit agreements. (See Note 12 to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8 for additional information on multi-employer pension plans.)


Changes in interest rates and asset returns could increase our pension funding obligations and reduce our profitability.


We have unfunded obligations under certain of our defined benefit pension and other postretirement benefit plans. The valuation of our future payment obligations under the plans and the related plan assets are subject to significant adverse changes if the credit and capital markets cause interest rates and projected rates of return to decline. Such declines could also require us to make significant additional contributions to our pension plans in the future. A material increase in the unfunded obligations of these plans could also result in a significant increase in our pension expense in the future.



We may incur additional tax expense or become subject to additional tax exposure.


Our provision for income taxes and the cash outlays required to satisfy our income tax obligations in the future could be adversely affected by numerous factors. These factors include changes in the level of earnings in the tax jurisdictions in which we operate, changes in the valuation of deferred tax assets and liabilities, changes in our plans to repatriate the earnings of our non-U.S. operations to the U.S. and changes in tax laws and regulations.


Our income tax returns are subject to examination by federal, state and local tax authorities in the U.S. and tax authorities outside the U.S. The results of these examinations and the ongoing assessments of our tax exposures could also have an adverse effect on our provision for income taxes and the cash outlays required to satisfy our income tax obligations.


An inability to provide products with the technology required to satisfy customer requirements would adversely impact our ability to successfully compete in our markets.


The vehicular markets in which we operate are undergoing significant technological change, with increasing focus on electrified and autonomous vehicles. These and other technological advances could render certain of our products obsolete. Maintaining our competitive position is dependent on our ability to develop commercially-viable products and services that support the future technologies embraced by our customers.


We could be adversely impacted by increased competition in the markets we serve.


The mobility industry is beginning to shift away from petroleum fuel vehicles ("ICE" vehicles) and migrate to alternate fuel vehicles (as a group "EV-based vehicles"). As the market transitions from ICE vehicles to EV-based vehicles, the Company anticipates its content per vehicle opportunity will increase up to three-fold on a dollar basis. The Company's primary driveline content on ICE vehicles includes axles and driveshafts. As the market transitions to EV-based vehicles we anticipate losing driveshaft content but adding additional driveline content in the form of gearboxes, e-motors, e-axles, power electronics, and software controls. We anticipate a similar three-fold opportunity in thermal and sealing products, as current ICE-vehicle content is replaced with EV-based vehicle content including metallic bipolar plates, battery cold plates and power electronic cooling modules. With the increased content opportunity presented by EV-based vehicles, we are beginning to see increased competition when it comes to bidding on new customer programs. The number of competitors bidding on EV-based vehicle programs is higher than what we historically experienced on ICE vehicle programs. In addition, our OEM customers continue to assess which EV-based components they will vertically integrate and for which programs. A significant increase in competition for EV-based vehicle programs from existing and new market entrants could negatively impact our sales and profitability. A significant increase in vertical integration of EV-based vehicle components by our OEM customers could negatively impact our sales and profitability.


We could be adversely impacted by an extended transition period away from petroleum fuel vehicles to alternate fuel vehicles.


As the market transitions from ICE vehicles to EV-based vehicles, we will continue to experience elevated levels of research and development costs, capital investment and inventory levels. During the transition period, we will need to maintain production capacity to meet both ICE and EV-related customer demand, requiring incremental capital investment and reducing our ability to operate at scale. In addition, we will need to maintain incremental levels of inventory to satisfy ICE and EV-related customer demand, as raw materials and components used in the production of ICE and EV-related products are largely unique. An extended transition period could negatively impact our profitability, cash flows and financial position.


Failure to appropriately anticipate and react to the cyclical and volatile nature of production rates and customer demands in our business can adversely impact our results of operations.


Our financial performance is directly related to production levels of our customers. In several of our markets, customer production levels are prone to significant cyclicality, influenced by general economic conditions, changing consumer preferences, regulatory changes, and other factors. Oftentimes the rapidity of the downcycles and upcycles can be severe. Successfully executing operationally during periods of extreme downward and upward demand pressures can be challenging. Our inability to recognize and react appropriately to the production cycles inherent in our markets can adversely impact our operating results.


Our continued success is dependent on being able to retain and attract requisite talent.


Sustaining and growing our business requires that we continue to retain, develop and attract people with the requisite skills. With the vehicles of the future expected to undergo significant technological change, having qualified people savvy in the right technologies will be a key factor in our ability to develop the products necessary to successfully compete in the future. As a global organization, we are also dependent on our ability to attract and maintain a diverse work force that is fully engaged supporting our company’s objectives and initiatives.


Failure to maintain effective internal controls could adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.


Regulatory provisions governing the financial reporting of U.S. public companies require that we maintain effective disclosure controls and internal controls over financial reporting across our operations in 31 countries. Effective internal controls are designed to provide reasonable assurance of compliance, and, as such, they can be susceptible to human error, circumvention or override, and fraud. Failure to maintain adequate, effective internal controls could result in potential financial misstatements or other forms of noncompliance that have an adverse impact on our results of operations, financial condition or organizational reputation.



Our working capital requirements may negatively affect our liquidity.


Our working capital requirements can vary significantly, depending in part on the level, variability and timing of our customers’ orders and production schedules and availability of raw materials and components from our suppliers. As production volumes increase, our working capital requirements to support the higher volumes generally increase. If our working capital needs exceed our cash flows from operations, we look to our cash and cash equivalents balances and unused capacity of our Revolving Facility to satisfy those needs, as well as other potential sources of additional capital, which may not be available on satisfactory terms or in adequate amounts.


Developments in the financial markets or downgrades to Dana's credit rating could restrict our access to capital and increase financing costs.


At December 31, 2023, Dana had consolidated debt obligations of $2,679, with cash and cash equivalents of $529 and unused revolving credit capacity of $1,141. Our ability to grow the business and satisfy debt service obligations is dependent, in part, on our ability to gain access to capital at competitive costs. External factors beyond our control can adversely affect capital markets – either tightening availability of capital or increasing the cost of available capital. Failure on our part to maintain adequate financial performance and appropriate credit metrics can also affect our ability to access capital at competitive prices.


Increased scrutiny from the public, investors, and others regarding our environmental, social, and governance ("ESG") practices could impact our reputation.


We have a board committee and an executive officer position with responsibility for sustainability, additional dedicated employee resources, a cross-functional/business sustainability leadership team to further develop and implement an enterprise-wide sustainability strategy, and we have published a sustainability report. Our sustainability report includes our policies and practices on a variety of ESG matters, including the value creation opportunities provided by our products; diversity, equity, and inclusion; employee health and safety; community giving; and human capital management. These efforts may result in increased investor, media, employee, and other stakeholder attention to such initiatives, and such stakeholders may not be satisfied with our ESG practices or initiatives. Additionally, organizations that inform investors on ESG matters have developed rating systems for evaluating companies on their approach to ESG. Unfavorable ratings may lead to negative investor sentiment, which could negatively impact our stock price and our ability to access capital at competitive prices. Any failure, or perceived failure, to respond to ESG concerns could harm our business and reputation.


Risk Factors Related to our Securities


Provisions in our Restated Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws may discourage a takeover attempt.


Certain provisions of our Restated Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws, as well as the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware, may have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control of Dana. Such provisions, including those governing the nomination of directors, limiting who may call special stockholders’ meetings and eliminating stockholder action by written consent, may make it more difficult for other persons, without the approval of our board of directors, to make a tender offer or otherwise acquire substantial amounts of common stock or to launch other takeover attempts that a stockholder might consider to be in such stockholder’s best interest.


Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments




Item 1C. Cybersecurity


Dana maintains a risk management program overseen by our Executive Leadership Team. Our Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer and Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary / Chief Compliance and Sustainability Officer (General Counsel) have responsibility for our risk management program. In addition, our Business Unit Presidents and functional leads oversee strategic and operational risks, including cybersecurity risks. Cybersecurity is a top priority, and our cybersecurity program is driven by our commitment to maintaining a strong security architecture, active governance, and robust controls. Our cybersecurity program is led by our Director of Cybersecurity and GRC (DOC) and overseen by Dana’s Enterprise Cybersecurity Steering Committee (ECSC). The ECSC is sponsored by senior leaders from disciplines such as Information Technology, Legal, Human Resources, Engineering, Product Development, and Operations, and includes the Senior Vice President and Chief Information Officer (CIO); General Counsel; Senior Vice President and Chief Human Resources Officer; Senior Vice President and Chief Technology Officer; and Senior Vice President Global Operations. The ECSC is responsible for developing and overseeing strategies related to Dana’s cybersecurity program. As set forth in its charter, our Technology & Sustainability Committee, comprised of independent directors, has oversight responsibilities for cybersecurity risk and includes members with significant cybersecurity experience. The DOC and CIO regularly provide updates on Dana’s cybersecurity program to the Board and the Technology & Sustainability Committee.


Dana’s global cybersecurity team is charged with executing enterprise, product, and manufacturing cybersecurity programs and policies with a focus on security architecture, penetration testing, cyber risk management, incident response, vulnerability management, intelligence, awareness and training, and governance. Dana’s cybersecurity programs utilize the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Cybersecurity Framework and leverage the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 27001 standard for information security. Dana periodically contracts with external auditing firms to assess the maturity of Dana’s cybersecurity program against the NIST Cybersecurity Framework. The results of these audits are shared with the Technology & Sustainability Committee. Dana leverages independent security ratings services assessments to aid in measuring our progress along the cybersecurity continuum as well as for measurement against peer companies. Dana’s supplier risk management process incorporates cybersecurity review and assessment procedures over third-party vendors and service providers.


Dana has an established cybersecurity awareness training program. Formal training on topics relating to cybersecurity is mandatory at least annually for all employees with access to the Company’s network. Training is administered and tracked through online learning modules. Training topics include how to escalate suspicious activities including phishing, viruses, spams, insider threats, suspect human behaviors or safety issues. Training is supplemented by phishing awareness campaigns.


In the event a high-risk cybersecurity incident is identified, our Incident Response Team will coordinate the response in accordance with our Information Security Incident Response Plan and make necessary communications to the ECSC and executive leadership. The DOC and CIO will make any required communications to the Chief Executive Officer (CEO), with the CEO making any required communications to the Board and Technology & Sustainability Committee. Our CEO, Chief Financial Officer, General Counsel and CIO are responsible for assessing such incidents for materiality, ensuring that any required notification or communication occurs and determining, among other things, whether any prohibition on the trading of our common stock by insiders should be imposed prior to the disclosure of information about a material cybersecurity event.


In the last three years we have not experienced any cybersecurity incident that has been material to the results of our operations or that has caused us to incur any material expenses.



Item 2. Properties















Manufacturing and assembly plants

    31       19       19       19       88  


As of December 31, 2023, we had eighty-eight major manufacturing and assembly plants. In addition, we had nine aftermarket sales and services facilities supporting our mobility customers and twenty-two service and assembly facilities supporting our stationary equipment customers. We maintain eleven stand-alone technical and engineering centers in addition to fourteen technical and engineering centers housed within our manufacturing and assembly plants.


Our world headquarters is located in Maumee, Ohio. This facility and other facilities in the greater Detroit, Michigan and Maumee, Ohio areas house functions that have global or North American regional responsibility for finance and accounting, tax, treasury, risk management, legal, human resources, procurement and supply chain management, communications and information technology. We operate numerous other management, marketing and administrative facilities globally.


Item 3. Legal Proceedings


We are a party to various pending judicial and administrative proceedings that arose in the ordinary course of business. After reviewing the currently pending lawsuits and proceedings (including the probable outcomes, reasonably anticipated costs and expenses and our established reserves for uninsured liabilities), we do not believe that any liabilities that may result from these proceedings are reasonably likely to have a material adverse effect on our liquidity, financial condition or results of operations. Legal proceedings are also discussed in Note 15 to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8.






Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities


Market information — Our common stock trades on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) under the symbol "DAN."


Holders of common stock — Based on reports by our transfer agent, there were approximately 2,370 registered holders of our common stock on February 2, 2024.


Reference is made to the Equity Compensation Plan Information section of Item 12 for certain information regarding our equity compensation plans.


Stockholder return — The following graph shows the cumulative total shareholder return for our common stock since December 31, 2018. The graph compares our performance to that of the Standard & Poor’s 500 Stock Index (S&P 500) and the Dow Jones US Auto Parts Index. The comparison assumes $100 was invested at the closing price on December 31, 2018. Each of the returns shown assumes that all dividends paid were reinvested.


Performance chart

















Dana Incorporated

  $ 100.00     $ 136.92     $ 148.28     $ 176.24     $ 119.72     $ 118.86  

S&P 500

    100.00       131.49       155.68       200.37       164.08       207.21  

Dow Jones US Auto Parts Index

    100.00       127.43       149.74       181.18       133.28       133.22  


Issuer's purchases of equity securities — Our common stock share repurchase program expired on December 31, 2023. No shares of our common stock were repurchased under the program during the fourth quarter of 2023.



Trading arrangements — During the three months ended December 31, 2023, none of the Company’s directors or executive officers adopted, modified or terminated any contract, instruction or written plan for the purchase or sale of Company securities that was intended to satisfy the affirmative defense conditions of Rule 10b5-1(c) or any non-Rule 10b5-1 trading agreement.


Annual meeting — We will hold an annual meeting of shareholders on April 24, 2024.


Item 6. [Reserved]



Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Dollars in millions)


Discussion and analysis of our results of operations pertaining to 2022 compared to 2021 not included in this Form 10-K can be found in Item 7, "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022. The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with the financial statements and accompanying notes in Item 8.


Management Overview


We are a global provider of high-technology products to virtually every major vehicle manufacturer in the world. We also serve the stationary industrial market. Our technologies include drive systems (axles, driveshafts, transmissions, and wheel and track drives); motion systems (winches, slew drives, and hub drives); electrodynamic technologies (motors, inverters, software and control systems, battery-management systems, and fuel cell plates); sealing solutions (gaskets, seals, cam covers, and oil pan modules); thermal-management technologies (transmission and engine oil cooling, battery and electronics cooling, charge air cooling, and thermal-acoustical protective shielding); and digital solutions (active and passive system controls and descriptive and predictive analytics). We serve our global light vehicle, medium/heavy vehicle and off-highway markets through four business units – Light Vehicle Drive Systems (Light Vehicle), Commercial Vehicle Drive and Motion Systems (Commercial Vehicle), Off-Highway Drive and Motion Systems (Off-Highway) and Power Technologies, which is the center of excellence for sealing and thermal-management technologies that span all customers in our on-highway and off-highway markets. We have a diverse customer base and geographic footprint which minimizes our exposure to individual market and segment declines. In 2023, 45% of our sales came from North American operations and 55% from operations throughout the rest of the world. Our sales by operating segment were Light Vehicle – 38%, Commercial Vehicle – 20%, Off-Highway – 30% and Power Technologies – 12%.


Operational and Strategic Initiatives


Our enterprise strategy builds on our strong technology foundation and leverages our resources across the organization while driving a customer-centric focus, expanding our global markets, and delivering innovative solutions as we evolve into the era of vehicle electrification.


Central to our strategy is leveraging our core operations. This foundational element enables us to infuse strong operational disciplines throughout the strategy, making it practical, actionable, and effective. It enables us to capitalize on being a major drive systems supplier across all three end mobility markets. We are achieving improved profitability by actively seeking synergies across our engineering, purchasing, and manufacturing base. We have strengthened the portfolio by acquiring critical assets, and we are utilizing our physical and intellectual capital to amplify innovation across the enterprise. Leveraging these core elements can further expand the cost efficiencies of our common technologies and deliver a sustainable competitive advantage for Dana.


Driving customer centricity continues to be at the heart of who we are. Putting our customers at the center of our value system is firmly embedded in our culture and is driving growth by focusing on customer relationships and providing value to our customers. These relationships are strengthened as we are physically located where we need to be in order to provide unparalleled service, and we are prioritizing our customers’ needs as we engineer solutions that differentiate their products, while making it easier to do business with Dana by digitizing their experience. Our customer-centric focus has uniquely positioned us to win more than our fair share of new business and capitalize on future customer outsourcing initiatives.


Expanding global markets means utilizing our global capabilities and presence to further penetrate growth markets, focusing on Asia due to its position as the largest mobility market in the world with the highest market growth rate as well as its lead in the adoption of new energy vehicles. We are investing across various avenues to increase our presence in Asia Pacific by forging new partnerships, expanding inorganically, and growing organically. We continue to operate in this region through wholly owned and joint ventures with local market partners. We have recently made acquisitions that have augmented our footprint in the region, specifically in India and China. All the while, we have been making meaningful organic investments to grow with existing and new customers, primarily in Thailand, India, and China. These added capabilities have enabled us to target the domestic Asia Pacific markets and utilize the capacity for export to other global markets. We continue to enhance and expand our global footprint, optimizing it to capture growth across all of our end markets.


Delivering innovative solutions enables us to capitalize on market growth trends as we evolve our core technology capabilities. We are also focused on enhancing our physical products with digital content to provide smart systems, and we see an opportunity to become a digital systems provider by delivering software as a service to our traditional end customers. This focus on delivering solutions based on our core technology is leading to new business wins and increasing our content per vehicle. We have made significant investments - both organically and inorganically - allowing us to move to the next phase, which is to Lead electric propulsion.



We continue to deliver on our goal to accelerate vehicle electrification through both core Dana technologies and targeted strategic acquisitions and are positioned today to lead the market. Our investments in electrodynamic expertise and technologies combined with Dana’s longstanding mechatronics capabilities has allowed us to develop and deliver fully integrated e-Propulsion systems that are power-dense and achieve optimal efficiency through the integration of the components that we offer due to our mechatronics capabilities. With recent electric vehicle program awards, we are well on our way to achieving our growth objectives in this emerging market.


The development and implementation of our enterprise strategy is positioning Dana to grow profitably due to increased customer focus as we leverage our core capabilities, expand into new markets, develop and commercialize new technologies, including for electric vehicles.


Capital Structure Initiatives


In addition to investing in our business, we plan to prioritize a balanced allocation of capital while maintaining a strong balance sheet.


Shareholder return initiatives — When evaluating capital structure initiatives, we balance our growth opportunities with maintaining a strong balance sheet and returning capital to shareholders via dividends and share repurchases. Except for three quarters in 2020, when we temporarily suspended dividends to common shareholders in response to the global COVID pandemic, we have paid quarterly dividends to our common shareholders since the first quarter of 2012. We also utilize share repurchases to provide returns to our shareholders. We repurchased $25 and $23 of common shares in 2022 and 2021, respectively.


Financing initiatives — Our current portfolio of unsecured senior notes is structured such that no more than $469 of senior notes comes due in any calendar year, with no maturities until the second quarter of 2025. In addition, during 2023 we extended the maturity of our $1,150 revolving credit facility to March 2028. See Note 13 to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8 for additional information.


Other Initiatives


Aftermarket opportunities — We have a global group dedicated to identifying and developing aftermarket growth opportunities that leverage the capabilities within our existing businesses – targeting increased future aftermarket sales. Powered by recognized brands such as Dana®, Spicer®, Spicer Electrified™, Victor Reinz®, Glaser®, GWB®, Thompson®, Tru-Cool®, SVL®, and Transejes™, Dana delivers a broad range of aftermarket solutions – including genuine, all makes, and value lines – servicing passenger, commercial and off-highway vehicles across the globe.


Selective acquisitions — Although transformational opportunities will be considered when strategically and economically attractive, our acquisition focus is principally directed at “bolt-on” or adjacent acquisition opportunities that have a strategic fit with our existing core businesses, particularly opportunities that support our enterprise strategy and enhance the value proposition of our product offerings. Any potential acquisition will be evaluated in the same manner we currently consider customer program opportunities and other uses of capital – with a disciplined financial approach designed to ensure profitable growth and increased shareholder value.




We have actively grown our electric vehicle capabilities through multiple acquisitions, positioning us to deliver complete e-Propulsion systems with in-house electrodynamics. Our acquisitions of TM4 Inc. (TM4), S.M.E. S.p.A. (SME), Prestolite E-Propulsion Systems (Beijing) Limited (PEPS), Ashwoods Innovations Limited (Ashwoods), Oerlikon Drive Systems, Nordresa Motors, Inc., Rational Motion GmbH and Pi Innovo Holding Limited have enhanced our portfolio of core technologies including e-motors, power inverters, software and controls, and advance mechatronics. Our strategic partner, Hydro-Québec, owns 45% redeemable noncontrolling interests in the Dana TM4 joint venture entities. See Note 9 to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8 for additional information.




We manage our operations globally through four operating segments. Our Light Vehicle and Power Technologies segments primarily support light vehicle original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) with products for light trucks, SUVs, CUVs, vans and passenger cars. The Commercial Vehicle segment supports the OEMs of on-highway commercial vehicles (primarily trucks and buses), while our Off-Highway segment supports OEMs of off-highway vehicles (primarily wheeled vehicles used in construction, mining and agricultural applications).




Trends in Our Markets


We serve our customers in three core global end markets: light vehicle, primarily full frame trucks and SUVs; commercial vehicle, including medium-and heavy-duty trucks and busses; and off-highway, including construction, mining, and agriculture equipment. 


Each of our end-markets has unique cyclical dynamics and market drivers. These cycles are impacted by periods of investment where end-user vehicle fleets are refreshed or expanded in reaction to demand usage patterns, regulatory changes, or when the age of vehicles in service reach their useful life. Key market drivers include regional economic growth rates; cost and availability of end customer financing; industrial output; commodity production and pricing; and residential and nonresidential construction rates. Our multi-market coverage and broad customer base help provide stability across the cycles while mitigating secular variability. In 2020, all of our end-markets were impacted to varying degrees by the COVID pandemic, which initially resulted in lower demand driven by production shutdowns related to virus mitigation efforts in the regions we serve. During 2021, we generally saw improvement across all of our end markets despite production levels being muted by global supply chain disruptions driven in part by transportation inefficiencies and labor, commodity and semiconductor chip shortages. During 2022 and 2023, we continued to see incremental improvement across our end markets despite continuing, but lessening, global supply chain disruptions.


Light vehicle markets — Our driveline business is weighted more heavily to the truck and SUV segments of the light-vehicle market versus the passenger-car segment. Our vehicle content is greater on rear-wheel drive, four-wheel drive, and all-wheel drive vehicles, as well as hybrid and electric vehicles. During 2023, light-truck markets improved across all regions except North America, which was negatively impacted by labor strikes during the fourth quarter of 2024 at the U.S. operations of several original equipment manufacturers. The outlook for the full year of 2024 reflects global light-truck production being relatively stable across all regions in comparison with the prior year.


Commercial vehicle markets — Our primary business is driveline systems for medium and heavy-duty trucks and busses, including the emerging market for hybrid and electric vehicles. Key regional markets are North America, South America (primarily Brazil) and Asia Pacific. During 2023, production of Class-8 trucks in North America increased 8% over 2022 reflecting increased demand driven by higher freight volumes and rates during the first half of 2023, with demand tapering during the second half of 2023 as freight volumes and rates trended downward. The outlook for 2024 is for weakening demand with production down moderately from 2023 levels driven by lower year-over-year freight volumes and rates. Medium-duty truck production in North America experienced a modest 9% year-over-year increase from 2022. The outlook for 2024 is for a modest decrease in production over the prior year. Outside of North America, production of medium- and heavy-duty trucks in South America declined 32% in 2023 reflecting weak economic conditions in the region. The 2024 outlook for South America is for a modest increase in production from 2023 as local economic conditions are expected to somewhat improve. Production of medium- and heavy-duty trucks in Asia Pacific, driven by China and India, increased 18% in 2023. The 2024 outlook for Asia Pacific is for a modest increase in production from the prior year.


Off-highway markets — Our off-highway business has a large presence outside of North America, with 68% of its 2023 sales coming from products manufactured in Europe; however, a large portion of these products are utilized in vehicle production outside the region. The construction equipment segment of the off-highway market is closely related to global economic growth and infrastructure investment. The global construction equipment market continued to rebound in 2023 with production up 5% over the prior year. The outlook for 2024 is for modest growth in North America, South America and Asia Pacific, partially offset by moderately lower production levels in Europe. End-user investment in the mining equipment segment is driven by prices for commodity products produced by underground mining. The global mining equipment market has been mostly stable over the past several years as industry participants have maintained vehicle inventory levels to match commodity output, and this trend is expected to continue in 2024. The agriculture equipment market is the third of our key off-highway segments. Like the underground mining segment, investment in agriculture equipment is primarily driven by prices for farm commodities. Farm commodity price decreases in 2023 spurred a 2% decrease in agriculture equipment production. The outlook for 2024 is for global end-market demand to remain relatively flat with the prior year.


Foreign currency — With 57% of our 2023 sales coming from outside the U.S., international currency movements can have a significant effect on our sales and results of operations. The euro zone countries and India accounted for 50% and 10% of our 2023 non-U.S. sales, respectively, while Brazil and China both accounted for 8%. Although sales in South Africa are less than 5% of our non-U.S. sales, the rand has been volatile and significantly impacted sales from time to time. International currencies weakened against the U.S. dollar in 2023, decreasing 2023 sales by $9. A weaker Indian rupee, South African rand and Chinese renminbi were partially offset by a stronger euro and Brazilian real.


Argentina has experienced significant inflationary pressures the past several years, contributing to significant devaluation of its currency among other economic challenges. Our Argentine operation supports our Light Vehicle operating segment. Our sales in Argentina for 2023 of approximately $215 are 2% of our consolidated sales and our net asset exposure related to Argentina was approximately $50, including $20 of net fixed assets, at December 31, 2023. During the second quarter of 2018, we determined that Argentina's economy met the GAAP definition of a highly inflationary economy. In assessing Argentina's economy as highly inflationary we considered its three-year cumulative inflation rate along with other factors. As a result, effective July 1, 2018, the U.S. dollar is the functional currency for our Argentine operations, rather than the Argentine peso. Beginning July 1, 2018, peso-denominated monetary assets and liabilities are remeasured into U.S. dollars using current Argentine peso exchange rates with resulting translation gains or losses included in results of operations. Nonmonetary assets and liabilities are remeasured into U.S. dollar using historic Argentine peso exchange rates. Reference is made to Note 1 of our consolidated financial statements in Item 8 for additional information.



Commodity costs — The cost of our products may be significantly impacted by changes in raw material commodity prices, the most important to us being those of various grades of steel, aluminum, copper, brass and rare earth materials. The effects of changes in commodity prices are reflected directly in our purchases of commodities and indirectly through our purchases of products such as castings, forgings, bearings, batteries and component parts that include commodities. Most of our major customer agreements provide for the sharing of significant commodity price changes with those customers based on the movement in various published commodity indexes. Where such formal agreements are not present, we have historically been successful implementing price adjustments that largely compensate for the inflationary impact of material costs. Material cost changes will customarily have some impact on our financial results as customer pricing adjustments typically lag commodity price changes. Lower commodity prices increased year-over-year earnings by $51 in 2023. Material recovery pricing actions decreased year-over-year earnings by $2 in 2023.


Sales, Earnings and Cash Flow Outlook















$10,650 - $11,150

  $ 10,555     $ 10,156     $ 8,945  

Adjusted EBITDA


$875 - $975

  $ 845     $ 700     $ 795  

Net cash provided by operating activities


$475 - $525

  $ 476     $ 649     $ 158  

Purchases of property, plant and equipment


~4% of sales

  $ 501     $ 440     $ 369  

Free Cash Flow


$25 - $75

  $ (25 )   $ 209     $ (211 )


Adjusted EBITDA and free cash flow are non-GAAP financial measures. See the Non-GAAP Financial Measures discussion below for definitions of our non-GAAP financial measures and reconciliations to the most directly comparable U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) measures. We have not provided a reconciliation of our adjusted EBITDA outlook to the most comparable GAAP measure of net income. Providing net income guidance is potentially misleading and not practical given the difficulty of projecting event driven transactional and other non-core operating items that are included in net income, including restructuring actions, asset impairments and certain income tax adjustments. The accompanying reconciliations of these non-GAAP measures with the most comparable GAAP measures for the historical periods presented are indicative of the reconciliations that will be prepared upon completion of the periods covered by the non-GAAP guidance.


Our 2024 sales outlook is $10,650 to $11,150, reflecting a modest improvement in global market demand and $350 of net new business backlog. Based on our current sales and exchange rate outlook for 2023, we expect overall stability in international currencies with a modest headwind to sales primarily due to a weaker euro, Chinese renminbi and Thai baht. At sales levels in our current outlook for 2024, a 5% movement on the euro would impact our annual sales by approximately $140. A 5% change on the Chinese renminbi, Indian rupee or Brazilian real rates would impact our annual sales in each of those countries by approximately $30. At our current sales outlook for 2024, we expect full year 2024 adjusted EBITDA to approximate $875 to $975. Adjusted EBITDA Margin is expected to be 8.5% at the midpoint of our guidance range, a 50 basis-point improvement over 2023, reflecting higher margin net new business and improving operational performance being partially offset by the benefit of the material cost recovery tailwind experienced in 2023 dissipating in 2024, as commodity prices stabilize, and increased investment to support our electrification strategy. We expect to generate free cash flow of approximately $50 at the midpoint of our guidance range reflecting the benefit of higher year-over-year adjusted EBITDA and lower capital spending being largely offset by higher year-over-year cash paid for interest and income taxes and increased working capital to support higher sales levels.


Among our operational and strategic initiatives are increased focus on and investment in product technology – delivering products and technology that are key to bringing solutions to issues of paramount importance to our customers. Our success on this front is measured, in part, by our sales backlog – net new business awarded that will be launching over the next three years, adding to our base annual sales. This backlog excludes replacement business and represents incremental sales associated with new programs for which we have received formal customer awards. At December 31, 2023, our sales backlog of net new business for the 2024 through 2026 period was $950. We expect to realize $350 of our sales backlog in 2024, with incremental sales backlog of $300 being realized in both 2025 and 2026. Our sales backlog is approximately 75% attributable to electric-vehicle content with the balance attributable to traditional ICE-vehicle content. Our sales backlog is balanced across all of our end markets.




Consolidated Results of Operations


Summary Consolidated Results of Operations (2023 versus 2022) 







% of


% of






Net Sales




Net Sales




Net sales

  $ 10,555             $ 10,156             $ 399  

Cost of sales

    9,655       91.5 %     9,393       92.5 %     262  

Gross margin

    900       8.5 %     763       7.5 %     137  

Selling, general and administrative expenses

    549       5.2 %     495       4.9 %     54  

Amortization of intangibles

    13               14               (1 )

Restructuring charges, net

    25               (1 )             26  

Impairment of goodwill

                  (191 )             191  

Other income (expense), net

    3               22               (19 )

Earnings before interest and income taxes

    316               86               230  

Loss on extinguishment of debt

    (1 )                           (1 )

Interest income

    17               11               6  

Interest expense

    154               128               26  

Earnings (loss) before income taxes

    178               (31 )             209  

Income tax expense

    121               284               (163 )

Equity in earnings (loss) of affiliates

    (9 )             4               (13 )

Net income (loss)

    48               (311 )             359  

Less: Noncontrolling interests net income

    22               15               7  

Less: Redeemable noncontrolling interests net loss

    (12 )             (84 )             72  

Net income (loss) attributable to the parent company

  $ 38             $ (242 )           $ 280  


Sales — The following table shows changes in our sales by geographic region.



Amount of Change Due To






















North America

  $ 4,752     $ 4,923     $ (171 )   $ (1 )   $     $ (170 )


    3,550       3,059       491       31               460  

South America

    731       788       (57 )     11               (68 )

Asia Pacific

    1,522       1,386       136       (50 )             186  


  $ 10,555     $ 10,156     $ 399     $ (9 )   $     $ 408  


Sales in 2023 were $399 higher than in 2022. Weaker international currencies reduced sales by $9, principally due to a weaker Indian rupee, South African rand and Chinese renminbi, partially offset by a stronger euro and Brazilian real. The organic sales increase of $408, or 4%, resulted from improved overall market demand and the conversion of sales backlog. Pricing actions, including material commodity price and inflationary cost adjustments, increased sales by $409.


The North America organic sales decrease of 3% was driven principally by a full-frame light-truck customer program that ended in 2022, labor strikes during the fourth quarter of 2023 by the International Union, United Automobile, Aerospace and Agricultural Implement Workers of America (UAW) at the U.S. operations of certain of our customers, and lower light-truck production levels, partially offset by stronger medium/heavy-truck production volumes, higher light-vehicle engine production levels and the conversion of sales backlog. Year-over-year full-frame light-truck production was down 2% while light vehicle engine production was up 12% compared with 2022. Year-over-year Class 8 truck production was up 8% while Classes 5-7 truck production was up 9%. Excluding currency effects, sales in Europe were up 15% compared with 2022. With our significant Off-Highway presence in the region, a stronger construction/mining equipment market was a major factor. The year-over-year organic sales increase in Europe for this operating segment was 10% compared with 2022. Sales in Europe also benefited from higher year-over-year light-truck and medium/heavy-truck production of 16% and 17%, respectively. Excluding currency effects, sales in South America were 9% lower than 2022 reflecting lower medium/heavy-truck production. Year-over-year South America medium/heavy-truck production was 32% lower than 2022. Excluding currency effects, sales in Asia Pacific increased 13% compared to 2022 due to stronger light-truck and medium/heavy-truck production levels compared with 2022. Year-over-year light-truck production was up 13% while medium/heavy-truck production was up 18%.


Cost of sales and gross margin — Cost of sales for 2023 increased $262, or 3%, when compared to 2022. Cost of sales as a percent of sales was 100 basis points lower than in the previous year. Incremental margins provided by increased sales volumes, material cost savings of $114, lower commodity costs of $51 and lower premium freight of $48 were partially offset by non-material inflationary cost impacts of $296, higher warranty expense of $14, higher program launch costs of $21 and operational inefficiencies primarily attributed to continued global supply chain disruptions and frequent customer order changes made with little to no advance
notification. Commodity cost are primarily driven by certain grades of steel and aluminum. Non-material inflation includes higher labor, energy and transportation rates.


Gross margin of $900 for 2023 increased $137 from 2022. Gross margin as a percent of sales was 8.5% in 2023, 100 basis points higher than in 2022. The improvement in gross margin as a percent of sales was driven principally by the cost of sales factors referenced above. Material cost recovery mechanisms with our customers lag material cost changes by our suppliers by approximately 90 days. With commodity costs abating slightly during 2023, gross margin was positively impacted by net material cost recoveries on both a dollar and percentage basis. The recovery of non-material inflation is not specifically provided for in our current contracts with customers resulting in prolonged negotiations and indeterminate recoveries.



Selling, general and administrative expenses (SG&A) — SG&A expenses in 2023 were $549 (5.2% of sales) as compared to $495 (4.9% of sales) in 2021. SG&A expenses were $54 higher in 2023 primarily due to higher salaried employee wages and incentive compensation, increased software technology investments and travel expenses.


Amortization of intangibles — Amortization expense was $13 in 2023 and $14 in 2022.


Restructuring charges, net — Net restructuring charges were $25 in 2023 and ($1) in 2022. See Note 4 of our consolidated financial statements in Item 8 for additional information.


Impairment of goodwill — During the third quarter of 2022, we recorded a $191 goodwill impairment charge. See Note 3 of our consolidated financial statements in Item 8 for additional information.


Other income (expense), net — The following table shows the major components of other income (expense), net.







Non-service cost components of pension and OPEB costs

  $ (13 )   $ (7 )

Government assistance

    16       8  

Foreign exchange gain (loss)

    (13 )     4  

Strategic transaction expenses

    (5 )     (8 )

Other, net

    18       25  

Other income (expense), net

  $ 3     $ 22  


We continue to account for Argentina as a highly inflationary economy and remeasure the financial statements of our Argentine subsidiaries as if their functional currency was the U.S. dollar. The foreign exchange loss in 2023 was primarily due to the Argentine government significantly devaluing the Argentine peso during the fourth quarter of 2023. Strategic transaction expenses relate primarily to costs incurred in connection with acquisition and divestiture related activities, including costs to complete the transaction and post-closing integration costs. Strategic transaction expenses in 2023 and 2022 were primarily attributable to investigating potential acquisitions and business ventures and other strategic initiatives.


Loss on extinguishment of debt  On June 9, 2023 we redeemed $200 of our April 2025 Notes. The $1 loss on extinguishment of debt is comprised of the write-off of previously deferred financing costs associated with the April 2025 Notes. See Note 13 of our consolidated financial statements in Item 8 for additional information.


Interest income and interest expense — Interest income increased from $11 in 2022 to $17 in 2023, due to higher average cash balances and higher interest rates being paid on cash deposits. Interest expense increased from $128 in 2022 to $154 in 2023, due to higher average debt levels and higher interest rates on outstanding borrowings. Average effective interest rates, inclusive of amortization of debt issuance costs, approximated 5.6% in 2023 and 4.7% in 2022.


Income tax expense — Income tax expense was $121 in 2023 and $284 in 2022. During 2023, we recorded tax expense of $19 for income tax reserves associated with prior tax years in foreign jurisdictions. In addition, we recorded net benefit of $55 on the intercompany sale of intangible assets to the U.S. During 2022, we recognized tax expense of $240 to record valuation allowance in the U.S., which includes $189 on U.S. federal credits and attributes and $51 related to U.S. state attributes. In addition, we recorded a tax benefit of $32 for U.S. tax credits generated. During 2022, we recorded a pre-tax goodwill impairment charge of $191 with an associated income tax benefit of $2. See Note 17 to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8 for additional information.


Equity in earnings of affiliates — Net earnings (loss) from equity investments was a loss of $9 in 2023 and earnings of $4 in 2022. Equity in loss of Dongfeng Dana Axle Co., Ltd. (DDAC) was $16 in 2023 and $1 in 2022. The year-over-year decrease in DDAC's earnings was primarily due to valuation allowances being recorded against certain deferred tax assets.




Segment Results of Operations (2023 versus 2022)


Light Vehicle
















  $ 4,090     $ 158       3.9 %

Volume and mix

    (209 )     (16 )        


    184       75          

Currency effects

    (30 )     (5 )        


  $ 4,035     $ 212       5.3 %


Light Vehicle sales in 2023, exclusive of currency effects, were 1% lower than 2022 reflecting generally stronger global markets, the conversion of sales backlog and the benefit of net customer pricing and cost recovery actions being offset by a customer program ending in 2022 and labor strikes during the fourth quarter of 2023 by the UAW at the U.S. operations of certain of our customers. Year-over-year North America full-frame light-truck production decreased 2% while light-truck production in Europe, South America and Asia Pacific increased 16%, 7% and 13%, respectively. Net customer pricing and cost recovery actions increased year-over-year sales by $184.


Light Vehicle segment EBITDA increased by $54 in 2023. Lower sales volumes decreased year-over-year earnings by $16 (8% decremental margin). The year-over-year performance-related earnings increase was driven by net customer pricing and cost recovery actions of $184, commodity cost decreases of $40, material costs savings of $35, lower premium freight costs of $21, lower warranty expense of $3 and operational efficiencies of $13. Partially offsetting these performance-related earnings increases were inflationary cost increases of $187, higher incentive compensation of $12, higher program launch costs of $6 and higher spending on electrification initiatives of $16.


Commercial Vehicle
















  $ 1,979     $ 43       2.2 %

Volume and mix

    32       18          


    76       29          

Currency effects

    5       (3 )        


  $ 2,092     $ 87       4.2 %


Commercial Vehicles sales in 2023, exclusive of currency effects, were 5% higher than 2022 reflecting improved North America and Europe markets, the conversion of sales backlog and the benefit of net customer pricing and cost recovery actions, partially offset by a weaker South America market. Year-over-year North America Class 8 production was up 8% while Classes 5-7 was up 9%. Year-over-year medium/heavy-truck production in Europe was up 17% while medium/heavy-truck production in South America was down 32%. Net customer pricing and cost recovery actions increased year-over-year sales by $76.


Commercial Vehicle segment EBITDA increased by $44 in 2023. Higher sales volumes and improved product mix provided a year-over-year earnings increase of $18 (56% incremental margin). The year-over-year performance-related earnings increase was driven by net customer pricing and cost recovery actions of $76, material cost savings of $33, lower spending on electrification initiatives of $17 and lower premium freight costs of $12. Partially offsetting these performance-related earnings increases were operational inefficiencies of $60, inflationary cost increases of $22, higher program launch costs of $9, higher incentive compensation of $9, higher warranty costs of $8 and commodity cost increases of $1.


















  $ 2,946     $ 404       13.7 %

Volume and mix

    131       37          


    95       24          

Currency effects



  $ 3,185     $ 465       14.6 %


Off-Highway sales in 2023, exclusive of currency effects, were 8% higher than 2022 reflecting strong global markets, the conversion of sales backlog and the benefit of net customer pricing and cost recovery actions. Year-over-year global construction/mining equipment markets increased 5% while global agricultural equipment markets were relatively stable with production decreasing 2%. Net customer pricing and cost recovery actions increased year-over-year sales by $95.


Off-Highway segment EBITDA increased by $61 in 2023. Higher sales volumes provided a year-over-year earnings increase of $37 (28% incremental margin). The year-over-year performance-related earnings increase was driven by net customer pricing and cost recovery actions of $95, material cost savings of $33, lower premium freight costs of $14 and commodity cost decreases of $14. Partially offsetting these performance-related earnings increases were inflationary cost increases of $82, operational inefficiencies of $31, higher warranty expenses of $9, higher incentive compensation of $9 and higher spending on electrification initiatives of $1.


Power Technologies