SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
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TRITIUM DCFC LIMITED
ANNUAL REPORT FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 2023
TABLE OF CONTENTS
In this Annual Report on Form 20-F (the “Annual Report”), unless otherwise designated, the terms “we,” “us,” “our,” “Tritium,” the “Company” and “our company” refer to Tritium DCFC Limited and its subsidiaries and references to “Tritium Holdings” refer to Tritium Holdings Pty Ltd.
Unless otherwise indicated, references to a particular “fiscal year” are to our fiscal year ended June 30 of that year.
References to a year other than a “Fiscal” or “fiscal year” are to the calendar year ended December 31.
Unless otherwise stated in this Annual Report or the context otherwise requires, references to:
|●||“A&R Warrant Agreement” refers to the Amended & Restated Warrant Agreement, dated January 13, 2022, by and between the Company, Computershare Inc. and Computershare Trust Company.|
|●||“Business Combination” refers to the acquisition by the Company of all of the issued equity interests in Tritium Holdings and merger of DCRN with and into Merger Sub, in each case, on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth in the Business Combination Agreement.|
|●||“Business Combination Agreement” refers to the Business Combination Agreement, dated May 25, 2021 by and among Decarbonization Plus Acquisition Corporation II, Tritium Holdings Pty Ltd, Tritium DCFC Limited and Hulk Merger Sub, Inc.|
|●||“Corporations Act” refers to the Australian Corporations Act 2001 (Cth).|
|●||“DC” refers to direct current.|
|●||“DCRN” refer to Decarbonization Plus Acquisition Corporation II, a Delaware corporation.|
|●||“DCRN IPO” refers to DCRN’s initial public offering.|
|●||“DCRN Public Warrants” refers to warrants to purchase DCRN Class A Common Stock sold to the public in the DCRN IPO.|
|●||“DCRN Private Placement Warrants” refers to the warrants to purchase DCRN Class A Common Stock issued to DCRN Sponsor and certain of DCRN’s independent directors in a private placement.|
|●||“DCRN Sponsor” refers to Decarbonization Plus Acquisition Sponsor II LLC, a Delaware limited liability company.|
|●||“EGC” refers to emerging growth company as defined in Section 2(a)(19) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.|
|●||“ESG” refers to environmental, social and governance practices.|
|●||“EV” refers to electric vehicle.|
|●||“Exchange Act” refers to the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.|
|●||“Financing Warrant Agreement” refers to the Warrant Agreement, dated September 2, 2022, by and among the Company, Computershare Inc. and Computershare Trust.|
|●||“Financing Warrants” refers to warrants to purchase Ordinary Shares pursuant to the Financing Warrant Agreement.|
|●||“ICE” refers to internal combustion engine.|
|●||“JOBS Act” refers to the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012.|
|●||“Merger Sub” refers to Hulk Merger Sub, Inc., a Delaware corporation and wholly owned subsidiary of the Company.|
|●||“Nasdaq” refers to The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC.|
|●||“Ordinary Shares” refers to the ordinary shares of the Company, no par value.|
|●||“SEC” refers to Securities and Exchange Commission.|
|●||“Securities Act” refers to Securities Act of 1933, as amended.|
|●||“Tritium Australia” refers to Tritium Pty Ltd.|
|●||“U.S. GAAP” refers to generally accepted accounting principles in the United States.|
|●||“Warrants” refers to warrants to purchase Ordinary Shares pursuant to the A&R Warrant Agreement.|
MARKET AND INDUSTRY DATA
This Annual Report contains estimates, projections, and other information concerning our industry and business, as well as data regarding market research, estimates, and forecasts prepared by our management. Information that is based on estimates, forecasts, projections, market research, or similar methodologies is inherently subject to uncertainties, and actual events or circumstances may differ materially from events and circumstances that are assumed in this information. The industry in which we operate is subject to a high degree of uncertainty and risk due to a variety of factors, including those described in Item 3.D “Key Information—Risk Factors.” Unless otherwise expressly stated, we obtained industry, business, market, and other data from reports, research surveys, studies, and similar data prepared by market research firms and other third parties, industry and general publications, government data, and similar sources. In some cases, we do not expressly refer to the sources from which this data is derived. In that regard, when we refer to one or more sources of this type of data in any paragraph, you should assume that other data of this type appearing in the same paragraph is derived from sources that we paid for, sponsored, or conducted, unless otherwise expressly stated or the context otherwise requires. While we have compiled, extracted, and reproduced industry data from these sources, we have not independently verified the data. Forecasts and other forward-looking information with respect to industry, business, market, and other data are subject to the same qualifications and additional uncertainties regarding the other forward-looking statements in this Annual Report. For more information, see the section entitled “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”
TRADEMARKS AND TRADE NAMES
We own or have rights to various trademarks, service marks and trade names that we use in connection with the operation of our business. This Annual Report also contains trademarks, service marks and trade names of third parties, which are the property of their respective owners. The use or display of third parties’ trademarks, service marks, trade names or products in this Annual Report is not intended to create, and does not imply, a relationship with us, or an endorsement or sponsorship by or of us. Solely for convenience, the trademarks, service marks and trade names referred to in this Annual Report may appear with the ®, TM or SM symbols, but such references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights or the right of the applicable licensor to these trademarks, service marks and trade names.
PRESENTATION OF FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Our consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP.
Unless otherwise specified, all monetary amounts in this Annual Report are in U.S. dollars, all references to “$,” “US$,” “USD” and “dollars” mean U.S. dollars and all references to “A$” and “AUD” mean Australian dollars. Any discrepancies in any table between totals and sums of the amounts listed are due to rounding. Certain amounts and percentages have been rounded; consequently, certain figures may add up to be more or less than the total amount and certain percentages may add up to be more or less than 100% due to rounding. In particular and without limitation, amounts expressed in millions contained in this Annual Report have been rounded to a single decimal place for the convenience of readers.
Our reporting currency is the U.S. dollar. The determination of the functional and reporting currency of each group company is based on the primary currency in which the company operates. For us, the U.S. dollar is the functional currency. The functional currency of our subsidiaries is the local currency.
The translation of foreign currencies into U.S. dollars is performed for assets and liabilities at the end of each reporting period based on the then current exchange rates. For revenue and expense accounts, an average monthly foreign currency rate is applied. Adjustments resulting from translating foreign functional currency financial statements into U.S. dollars is recorded as part of a separate component of shareholders’ deficit and reported in our Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Loss. Foreign currency transaction gains and losses are included in other income (expense), net for the period.
CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Annual Report contains estimates and forward-looking statements. We intend such forward-looking statements to be covered by the safe harbor provisions for forward-looking statements contained in Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Exchange Act. All statements other than statements of historical facts contained in this Annual Report may be forward-looking statements. In some cases, these forward-looking statements can be identified by words or phrases such as “may,” “might,” “will,” “could,” “would,” “should,” “expect,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “target,” “seek,” “believe,” “estimate,” “predict,” “potential,” “continue,” “contemplate,” “possible” or the negative of these terms or other similar expressions. Statements regarding our future results of operations and financial position, profitability or growth strategies, financing and capitalization strategies, and plans and objectives of management for future operations are examples of forward-looking statements included herein.
Our estimates and forward-looking statements are based on our current expectations and estimates of future events and trends which affect or may affect our business, operations and industry. Although we believe that these estimates and forward-looking statements are based upon reasonable assumptions, they are subject to numerous known and unknown risks, uncertainties, other factors and assumptions, including the risks described in Item 3.D “Key Information—Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Annual Report.
You should not rely on forward-looking statements as predictions of future events as such statements are based upon information as of the date of this Annual Report and such information may be limited or incomplete. The results, events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements may not be achieved or occur, and actual results, events or circumstances could differ materially from those described in the forward-looking statements.
The forward-looking statements made in this Annual Report relate only to events as of the date on which the statements are made. We undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements made in this Annual Report to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this Annual Report or to reflect new information or the occurrence of unanticipated events, except as required by law. We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements, and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, joint ventures or investments.
RISK FACTORS SUMMARY
Investing in our securities entails a high degree of risk as more fully described under Item 3.D “Key Information—Risk Factors” in this Annual Report. You should carefully consider such risks before deciding to invest in our securities. These risks include, among others:
|●||We are a growth-stage company with a history of losses, and we expect to incur significant expenses and continuing losses for the near-term.|
|●||In the future, we may need to raise funds, which may result in the dilution of our shareholders, and such funds may not be available on favorable terms or at all.|
|●||We will need to raise funds and these funds may not be available when needed.|
|●||We have a significant number of outstanding warrants and convertible redeemable preference shares which, when exercised or converted, as applicable, may cause significant dilution to our shareholders, have a material adverse impact on the market price of our Ordinary Shares and make it more difficult for us to raise funds through future equity offerings.|
|●||We currently face competition from a number of companies and expect to face significant competition in the future as the market for EV charging develops.|
|●||We rely on a limited number of suppliers and manufacturers of certain key components for our charging stations. A loss of any of these partners, including as a result of a global supply shortage, major shipping disruption, or insolvency or acquisition, could negatively affect our business, financial condition and operating results.|
|●||Our future revenue growth will depend in significant part on our ability to increase sales of our products and services across all client classes, including public network operators, fuel retailers and fleet operators.|
|●||Failure to effectively expand our sales and marketing capabilities could harm our ability to increase our customer base, maintain and grow our market share and achieve broader market acceptance of our solutions.|
|●||We are dependent on a limited number of significant customers and distributors for a substantial portion of our revenues. The loss of any such customer or distributor, a reduction in sales to any such customer or distributor, or the decline in the financial condition of any such customer or distributor could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations if they are not replaced with another large sales order.|
|●||An inadequate services and support offering, or customers seeking to manage or conduct their own services and support, could significantly reduce our profitability.|
|●||Future revenue from our software business will depend on customers renewing their services subscriptions and subscribing to newly developed software license offerings.|
|●||While we have not made material acquisitions to date, should we pursue acquisitions in the future, we would be subject to risks associated with acquisitions.|
|●||Increases in labor costs, potential labor disputes and work stoppages or an inability to hire skilled manufacturing, sales and other personnel could adversely affect our business.|
|●||Our legal and accounting fees are high due to our dual-domicile structure of Australia and United States of America and we are expanding our operations internationally, which will expose us to additional tax, compliance, market and other risks.|
|●||Any delay in achieving our manufacturing expansion could impact revenue forecasts associated with these facilities.|
|●||If a safety issue occurs with our products, or similar products from another manufacturer, there could be adverse publicity around our products or the safety of charging stations generally, which could adversely affect our business and results of operations.|
|●||If products in our product roadmap, including our software licenses, do not achieve projected sales in the future in their planned channel, revenue forecasts for that product will not be met and our results of operations could be adversely affected.|
|●||Our business faces risks from pandemics, accidents, calamities or other causes or events which could adversely affect our business, particularly where these result in an interruption of our production capability at one or more of our manufacturing facilities|
|●||We have experienced rapid growth and expect to invest in growth for the foreseeable future. If we fail to manage growth effectively, our business, operating results and financial condition could be adversely affected.|
|●||The abundance of relatively inexpensive fuel, changes to fuel economy standards or the success of alternative fuels may negatively impact the EV market and depot charging sales opportunities for heavy vehicles and thus the demand for our products and services.|
|●||Our future growth and success are highly correlated with, and thus dependent upon, the continuing rapid adoption of EVs for passenger and fleet applications.|
|●||The EV market currently benefits from the availability of rebates, tax credits and other financial incentives from governments, utilities and other entities in many countries around the world to offset the purchase or operating cost of EVs and EV charging stations. Our sales and sales growth heavily rely on these incentives to continue the transition towards the electrification of transport, and therefore the demand for EV chargers.|
|●||The EV charging industry is characterized by rapid technological change, which requires us to continue to develop new products, more reliable products and product innovations. Any delays or failures in such developments could adversely affect market adoption of our products and our financial results.|
|●||Competition to increase market share may lead to our competitors reducing their margins, selling competing products at a loss or signing up to unfavorable contract terms, requiring us to either lose market share, sell our products for similarly low margins or increase our exposure to legal risk, which could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.|
|●||We may need to defend against intellectual property infringement or misappropriation claims or challenge the patents of our competitors, which may be time-consuming and expensive.|
|●||Our products are subject to numerous standards and regulations, which may materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations or financial condition.|
|●||Our technology may contain undisclosed or undetected defects, errors or bugs in its hardware or software components, which could impede market acceptance, harm our standing among existing or potential customers and drivers, and potentially subject us to legal claims and liabilities, all of which could significantly impact our business operations in an adverse manner.|
|●||We expect to incur product development costs and devote significant resources to developing new products, which could significantly reduce our profitability and may never result in revenue to us if such products do not meet market needs.|
|●||Our systems are susceptible to various forms of cyber threats, including computer malware, viruses, ransomware, hacking attempts, phishing attacks, and similar disruptions. These incidents have the potential to lead to security and privacy breaches, as well as interruptions and delays in our services and operations, which could significantly impact our business.|
|●||Our financial condition and results of operations are likely to fluctuate in the future due to, among other things, the cyclical nature of the automotive industry, which could cause our results to fall below expectations, resulting in a decline in the price of our Ordinary Shares.|
|●||Changes to applicable tax laws and regulations or exposure to additional tax liabilities could adversely affect our business and future profitability.|
|●||We have identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting. If we are unable to remediate these material weaknesses, or if we identify additional material weaknesses in the future or otherwise fail to maintain an effective system of internal control over financial reporting, this may result in material misstatements of our consolidated financial statements or cause us to fail to meet our periodic reporting obligations.|
|●||The report of Tritium’s independent registered public accounting firm contains an explanatory paragraph that expresses substantial doubt about Tritium’s ability, and, in turn, our ability, to continue as a going concern.|
|●||There are inherent limitations in all control systems, and misstatements due to error or fraud that could seriously harm our business may occur and not be detected.|
|●||We may be adversely affected by foreign currency fluctuations.|
|●||Data protection laws, and similar domestic or foreign regulations, may adversely affect our business.|
|●||Existing and future environmental health and safety laws and regulations could result in increased compliance costs or additional operating costs or construction costs and restrictions.|
|●||Our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected by disruptions in the global economy caused by the ongoing conflict between Russia and Ukraine.|
|●||Significant inflation could adversely affect our business and financial results.|
|●||Holders of our Preference Shares are entitled to certain payments under the Schedule of Terms that may be paid in cash or in Ordinary Shares, depending on the circumstances. If we make these payments in cash, it may require the expenditure of a substantial portion of our cash resources. If we make these payments in Ordinary Shares, it may result in substantial dilution to the holders of our Ordinary Shares.|
|●||The Schedule of Terms for the Preference Shares contain anti-dilution provisions that may result in the reduction of the conversion price of the Preference Shares in the future. This feature may result in an indeterminate number of Ordinary Shares being issued upon conversion of the Preference Shares. Sales of these shares will dilute the interests of other security holders and may depress the price of our Ordinary Shares and make it difficult for us to raise additional capital.|
WHERE TO FIND MORE INFORMATION
Our website address is tritiumcharging.com. We may use our website as a means of disclosing material non-public information. Such disclosures will be included on our website in the “Investors” section or at investors.tritiumcharging.com. We may also use certain social media channels, such as LinkedIn, Facebook or Twitter, as a means of disclosing information about us and our business to our colleagues, customers, investors and the public. While not all of the information that the Company posts to the Tritium website or to social media accounts is of a material nature, some information could be deemed to be material. Accordingly, investors should monitor our website and our social media channels, in addition to following our press releases, SEC filings and public conference calls and webcasts. However, information contained on, or that can be accessed through, these communications channels do not constitute a part of this Annual Report and are not incorporated by reference herein. Our SEC filings are available to you on the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov. This site contains reports and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC. The information on that website is not part of this Annual Report and is not incorporated by reference herein.
ITEM 1.IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS
ITEM 2.OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE
ITEM 3.KEY INFORMATION
B.Capitalization and Indebtedness
C.Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds
You should carefully consider the risks described below before making an investment decision. Additional risks not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also impair our business operations. Our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially and adversely affected by any of these risks. The trading price and value of our Ordinary Shares and Warrants could decline due to any of these risks, and you may lose all or part of your investment. This Annual Report also contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors, including the risks faced by us described below and elsewhere in this Annual Report.
Risks Related to Our Business
We are a growth-stage company with a history of losses, and we expect to incur significant expenses and continuing losses for the near-term.
We incurred total comprehensive losses of $118.6 million and $121.6 million for the full year ended June 30, 2023 and 2022, respectively. We believe we will continue to incur operating and comprehensive losses for the near-term. Even if we achieve profitability, there can be no assurance that we will be able maintain profitability in the future. Our potential profitability is particularly dependent upon the continued adoption of EVs by consumers and fleet operators, the widespread adoption of electric trucks and other vehicles, and other electric transportation modalities, which may not occur. Further, EV charging is a developing technology and our future business performance is dependent upon our ability to build and sell a differentiated or market leading technology. If EV charging technology commoditizes and prices decrease more rapidly than we have forecasted, our market share and results of operations may be adversely impacted.
We will need to raise funds and these funds may not be available when needed.
We will need to raise capital in the future to drive our profitability and further scale our business. We may raise funds through the issuance of equity, equity-related or debt securities, or through obtaining credit from government or financial institutions. We cannot be certain that such funds will be available on favorable terms when required, or at all. If we cannot raise funds when needed, our financial condition, results of operations, business and prospects could be materially and adversely affected. If we raise funds through the issuance of debt securities or through loan arrangements, the terms of such securities or loans could require significant interest payments, contain covenants that restrict our business, or other unfavorable terms. In addition, to the extent we raise funds through the sale of equity securities, our shareholders would experience dilution.
The current constraints on our liquidity could have important consequences. For example, they could:
|●||require us to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flows from operations to make interest and principal payments on our debt, reducing the availability of our cash flows to fund future capital expenditures, expansion efforts, working capital and other general corporate requirements;|
|●||increase the likelihood of negative outlook from credit rating agencies, or of a further downgrade to our current rating;|
|●||make it more difficult for us to satisfy our obligations under our various debt instruments;|
|●||increase our cost of borrowing and limit our ability to access additional debt to fund future growth or maintain adequate liquidity;|
|●||increase our vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions and adverse changes in governmental regulations;|
|●||limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and industry;|
|●||limit our operating flexibility through covenants with which we must comply; and|
|●||make us more vulnerable to increases in interest rates because of the variable interest rates on some of our borrowings.|
The occurrence of any of the foregoing factors, amongst other factors, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition, which could negatively impact an investor to recover its investment in our Ordinary Shares.
In the future, we may need to raise funds, which may result in the dilution of our shareholders, and such funds may not be available on favorable terms or at all.
We may need to raise additional capital in the future and may elect or be required to issue shares (including through our Preference Shares SPA (as defined below) or pursuant to incentive arrangements) or engage in fundraising activities for a variety of reasons, including funding acquisitions or growth initiatives. We used our committed equity facility with B Riley Principal Capital II, LLC (the “B. Riley Facility”) in June and July 2023, raising a total of approximately $2.4 million by issuing 1,631,302 new shares. On September 12, 2023, the B. Riley facility was terminated and we entered into a Securities Purchase Agreement (as amended on September 18, 2023, the “Preference Shares SPA”) with certain accredited investors (the “Preference Shares Investors”), pursuant to which we agreed to sell to the Preference Shares Investors an aggregate of 26,595,745 Series A Convertible Redeemable Preference Shares, no par value per share, and with stated value equal to $1.00 per share, convertible into Ordinary Shares, at an initial conversion price of $0.815 per share (the “Preference Shares”), pursuant to the terms of the Schedule of Terms of the Preference Shares (the “Schedule of Terms”).
We will be subject to the constraints of the Listing Rules of Nasdaq regarding the percentage of capital that we are able to issue within a 12-month period (other than where exceptions apply). Our shareholders may be diluted as a result of such issuances of our Ordinary Shares and fundraisings. Additionally, our Financing Warrants contain certain guaranteed value and anti-dilution protections that may result in the Financing Warrants being exercisable for more than the number of Ordinary Shares currently underlying the Financing Warrants. Our shareholders may be diluted if these guaranteed value or anti-dilution protections are invoked.
Additionally, we may raise additional funds through the issuance of debt securities or through obtaining credit from government or financial institutions. We cannot be certain that additional funds will be available on favorable terms when required, or at all. If we cannot raise additional funds when needed, our financial condition, results of operations, business and prospects could be materially and adversely affected. If we raise funds through the issuance of debt securities or through loan arrangements, the terms of such securities or loans could require significant interest payments, contain covenants that restrict our business, or other unfavorable terms.
Certain covenants could impair our ability to obtain further financing for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions or general corporate purposes. For example, our financing agreements may limit our ability to, among other things:
|●||pay dividends or make other distributions to our shareholders;|
|●||make restricted payments;|
|●||engage in transactions with affiliates;|
|●||modify certain material contracts; and|
|●||enter into business combinations.|
We have a significant number of outstanding warrants and convertible redeemable preference shares which, when exercised or converted, as applicable, may cause significant dilution to our shareholders, have a material adverse impact on the market price of our Ordinary Shares and make it more difficult for us to raise funds through future equity offerings.
Pursuant to the Financing Warrant Agreement and Preference Shares SPA, we issued to the investors a series of warrants and convertible redeemable preference shares, respectively. The issuance of shares of Ordinary Shares upon the exercise of the Financing Warrants or conversion of the convertible redeemable preference shares would dilute the percentage ownership interest of all shareholders, might dilute the book value per share of our Ordinary Shares and would increase the number of our publicly traded shares, which could depress the market price of our Ordinary Shares.
On September 12, 2023, the holders of the Financing Warrants delivered the required notice pursuant to the Financing Warrant Agreement Amendment of their intent to exchange all outstanding Financing Warrants for Ordinary Shares. Pursuant to the Notice, we issued 8,254,527 Ordinary Shares in consideration of the 1,173,372 issued and outstanding Financing Warrants.
As of the date of this Report, there were 10,441,503 Warrants outstanding at an exercise price of $$6.90 per share, and we may issue additional options, warrants and other types of equity in the future as part of stock-based compensation, capital raising transactions or other strategic transactions. To the extent these options and warrants are ultimately exercised, existing holders of our Ordinary Shares would experience dilution which may cause the price of our Ordinary Shares to decline.
We currently face competition from a number of companies and expect to face significant competition in the future as the market for EV charging develops.
The EV charging industry is relatively new, and the competitive landscape is still developing. Our growth in each of our markets requires differentiating ourselves as compared to our competition or being a market leader. If we are unable to penetrate, or further penetrate, the market in each of the geographies in which we operate or intend to operate, our future revenue growth and profits may be impacted. Successfully penetrating large emerging EV markets, such as North America and Europe, will require early engagement with customers to gain market share, and ongoing efforts to scale channels, installers, teams and processes. Further, a number of our competitors have opened factories in the United States to take advantage of the available government funding, which may adversely affect our ability to gain market share in North America. Our potential future entrance into additional markets may require establishing us against existing competitors. In addition, there are multiple competitors in North America and Europe that could begin selling and commissioning chargers of lower quality which, in turn, may cause poor driver experiences, hampering overall EV adoption or trust in EV charging providers.
We believe that we are differentiated from the majority of current publicly listed EV charger manufacturers in that we focus exclusively on developing DC fast charging solutions which are typically used for public and fleet applications. However, many EV charging manufacturers are offering home charging equipment, including less expensive and slower AC charging equipment, which could reduce demand for public DC fast charging capabilities if, for example, fleet owners find AC charging to be sufficient. Further, the continued or future adoption of home charging technologies could reduce the demand for public charging.
Tesla Inc. (“Tesla”) has a large public DC charging network in our key markets. In the past this network has been limited to Tesla vehicles. Tesla has opened portions of this network to other EVs, which could reduce overall demand for DC fast charging at other sites and demand for sales of our charging equipment. Additionally, other large automotive manufacturers have announced their willingness to adopt Tesla’s North American Charging Standard (NACS) connectors, potentially furthering the reach of Tesla’s network. Conversely, Tritium has an opportunity to integrate the NACS connectors into our chargers making them more accessible to Tesla drivers and increasing driver demand for our customers.
Additionally, future changes in charging preferences; the development of inductive EV charging capabilities; battery chemistries, ultralong-range batteries or energy storage technologies, industry standards or applications; driver behavior or battery EV efficiency may develop in ways that limit our future share gains in certain high promising markets or slow the growth of our addressable market. We may face competition from other EV charging technologies, such as battery swapping technology or wireless / inductive charging, or technologies which may be developed in the future. Competitors may be able to respond more quickly and effectively than us to new or changing opportunities, technologies, standards or customer requirements, and may be better equipped to initiate or withstand substantial price competition.
Further, our current or potential competitors may be acquired by third parties with greater available resources. As a result, competitors may be able to respond more quickly and effectively than us to new or changing opportunities, technologies, standards or customer requirements and may have the ability to initiate or withstand substantial price competition. In addition, competitors may in the future establish cooperative relationships with vendors of complementary products, technologies or services to increase the availability of their solutions in the marketplace. This competition may also materialize in the form of costly intellectual property disputes or litigation.
New competitors or alliances may emerge in the future that have greater market share, more widely adopted technologies, greater marketing expertise and greater financial resources, which could put us at a competitive disadvantage. Future competitors could also be better positioned to serve certain segments of our current or future target markets, which could create price pressure. In light of these factors, even if our offerings are more effective and of higher quality than those of our competitors, current or potential customers may accept competitive solutions. If we fail to adapt to changing market conditions or compete unsuccessfully with current charging providers or new competitors, our growth will be limited, which would adversely affect our business and results of operations.
We rely on a limited number of suppliers and manufacturers of certain key components for our charging stations. A loss of any of these partners, including as a result of a global supply shortage, major shipping disruption, or insolvency or acquisition, could negatively affect our business, financial condition and operating results.
We rely on a limited number of suppliers to manufacture components for our charging stations, including in some cases only a single supplier for some products and components. This reliance on a limited number of suppliers increases our risks, since we do not currently have proven reliable alternative or replacement suppliers for certain components beyond these key parties, and in some cases replacing the supplier would require re-certification of the charging station by relevant regulatory authorities. In the event of a disruption, we may not be able to increase capacity from other sources, or develop alternate or secondary sources, without incurring material additional costs and substantial delays. Thus, our business could be adversely affected if one or more of our suppliers is acquired or impacted by liquidity issues, any raw materials shortages or price increases, or manufacturing, shipping or regulatory disruptions. Across our product line, we develop equipment solutions based on preferred dual-source or common off-the-shelf vendors. However, due to our designs and the state of technological maturity of the fast DC charger supply chain, we rely on several single source vendors, the unavailability or failure of which can pose risks to our supply chain and delay revenue.
If we experience a significant increase in demand for our charging stations, or if we need to replace an existing supplier, it may not be possible to supplement or replace them on acceptable terms or at all, which may undermine our ability to deliver products to customers in a timely manner. For example, we may take a significant amount of time to identify a supplier that has the capability and resources to build charging station components in sufficient volume. Identifying suitable suppliers and sub-assembly manufacturers could be an extensive process that requires us to become satisfied with their component or sub-assembly specifications, quality control, technical capabilities, responsiveness and service, financial stability, regulatory compliance, and labor and other ESG practices. Accordingly, a loss of any significant suppliers or sub-assembly manufacturers could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results.
Our future revenue growth will depend in significant part on our ability to increase sales of our products and services across several client classes, including public network operators, fuel retailers and fleet operators.
Our future revenue growth will depend in significant part on our ability to increase sales of our products and services across several client classes, including public network operators, fuel retailers and fleet operators. Each client class includes its own associated risks. Public network operators face challenges to find appropriate sites, connect to the electrical grid, get sufficient electrical grid feed, obtain building approvals and install chargers efficiently. In addition, if drivers determine they prefer to charge at home more often, demand for public charging may fall. Fuel retailers face the same challenges as public network operators, additionally, fuel retailers may be incentivised to select competing technologies, or extend the sale of fuel and low emissions fuels (such as hydrogen), which gives them a competitive advantage in site storage and handling. The electrification of fleets (including last mile, auto dealerships and heavy vehicles) is an emerging industry. Fleet operators may not adopt EVs on a widespread basis and on the timelines we anticipate, or they may select less expensive AC slow charging equipment. In addition to the factors affecting the growth of the EV market generally, transitioning to an EV fleet can be costly and capital intensive, which could result in slower than anticipated adoption. Fleet operators may also require significant additional services and support, and if we are unable to provide such services and support, it may adversely affect our ability to attract additional fleet operators as customers. Any failure to attract and retain public network operators, fuel retailers or fleet operators as customers in the future would adversely affect our business and results of operations.
Failure to effectively expand our sales and marketing capabilities could harm our ability to increase our customer base, maintain and grow our market share and achieve broader market acceptance of our solutions.
Our ability to grow our customer base, achieve broader market acceptance, grow revenue and market share, and achieve and sustain profitability will depend, to a significant extent, on our ability to effectively expand our sales and marketing operations and activities. Sales and marketing expenses represent a significant percentage of our total revenue, and our operating results will suffer if sales and marketing expenditures do not contribute significantly to increasing revenue.
We are substantially dependent on our direct sales force to obtain new customers and grow existing customer sales. We plan to continue to expand our direct sales force both domestically and internationally, but we may not be able to recruit and hire a sufficient number of qualified sales personnel, which may adversely affect our ability to expand our sales capabilities and increase our account management capabilities. New hires require significant training and time before they achieve full productivity, particularly in new sales territories. Recent hires and planned hires may not become as productive as quickly as anticipated, and we may be unable to hire or retain sufficient numbers of qualified individuals. Furthermore, hiring sales personnel in new countries can be costly, complex, and time-consuming, and requires additional set up and upfront costs that may be disproportionate to the revenue expected, or ultimately achieved, from those countries. There is significant competition for direct sales personnel with strong sales skills, technical knowledge and large account management expertise. Our ability to achieve significant revenue growth in the future will depend, in large part, on our success in recruiting, training, incentivizing and retaining a sufficient number of qualified direct sales personnel and on such personnel attaining desired results within a reasonable amount of time. Our business will be harmed if continuing investment in its sales and marketing capabilities does not generate a significant increase in revenue.
We are dependent on a limited number of significant customers and distributors for a substantial portion of our revenues. The loss of any such customer or distributor, a reduction in sales to any such customer or distributor, or the decline in the financial condition of any such customer or distributor could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations if they are not replaced with another large sales order.
We are, and may continue to be, dependent on a limited number of customers and distributors for a substantial portion of our revenue. We cannot be certain that customers and/or distributors that have accounted for significant revenues in past periods, individually or as a group, will continue to generate similar revenues in any future period. The loss of any of our major customers could negatively affect our results of operations, and any reduction, delay or cancellation of orders from one or more of our significant customers, a decision by one or more of our significant customers to select products manufactured by a competitor, or a slow-down in their business due to funding delays or slower than expected driver utilisation or infrastructure rollout, would significantly and negatively impact our revenue. Additionally, the failure of our significant customers to pay their current or future outstanding balances would increase our operating expenses and reduce our cash flows.
We expect to generate revenue from services and support of our customer installation base. An inadequate services and support offering, or customers seeking to manage or conduct their own services and support, could significantly reduce our profitability.
Once a customer has installed our charging stations, station owners and drivers will rely on us to provide support services to resolve any issues that might arise in the future. Under resourced customers or customers new to the market may be unwilling to utilize our service and support offerings and may therefore represent a risk to our brand and reliability reputation. Rapid and high-quality customer support is important so station owners can provide charging services and so drivers can receive reliable charging for their EVs. The importance of high-quality customer support will increase as we seek to expand our business and pursue new customers and geographies. If we do not quickly resolve issues and provide effective support, our ability to retain customers or sell additional products and services to existing customers could suffer and our brand and reputation could be harmed.
Future revenue from our software business will depend on customers renewing their services subscriptions and subscribing to newly developed software license offerings. If customers do not agree to pay for the software that they have been previously making use of, or newly developed software, or stop using the software or any of our other subscription offerings, or if customers fail to add more stations, our business and operating results will be adversely affected.
In addition to selling charging station hardware, we expect that our future revenue will also depend on customers buying, or continuing to subscribe to, and pay for, our EV charging software services. Therefore, it is important that customers renew their subscriptions when their warranty expires, and that some customers purchase service level agreements which will include Tritium software licences, subscribe to new software modules, and/or add additional charging stations and services to their existing subscriptions. Customers may decide not to renew their subscriptions with a similar contract period, at the same prices or terms or with the same or a greater number of users, stations or level of functionality, or may not subscribe to newly developed software modules. Customer retention may decline or fluctuate as a result of a number of factors, including satisfaction with software and features, functionality of the charging stations, prices, the features and pricing of competing products, reductions in spending levels, mergers and acquisitions involving customers and deteriorating general economic conditions. If customers do not renew their subscriptions, if they renew on less favorable terms, or if they fail to add products or services, our business and operating results will be adversely affected.
While we have not made material acquisitions to date, should we pursue acquisitions in the future, we would be subject to risks associated with acquisitions.
We may acquire additional assets, products, technologies or businesses that are complementary to our existing business. The process of identifying and consummating acquisitions and the subsequent integration of new assets and businesses into our business would require attention from management and could result in a diversion of resources from our existing business, which in turn could have an adverse effect on our operations. Acquired assets or businesses may not generate the expected financial results. Acquisitions could also result in the use of cash, potentially dilutive issuances of equity securities, goodwill impairment charges, amortization expenses for other intangible assets and exposure to potential unknown liabilities of the acquired business.
Our management team has limited experience in operating a public company in the United States.
Our executive officers have limited experience in the management of a publicly traded company in the United States. The management team may not successfully or effectively manage the transition to a public company that will be subject to significant regulatory oversight and reporting obligations under U.S. federal securities laws. Their limited experience in dealing with the increasingly complex laws pertaining to public companies could be a significant cost to the company as external advisors are required, or a material risk in that they could fail to meet a requirement leading to loss or damage to the company. We may not have adequate personnel with the appropriate level of knowledge, experience and training in the accounting policies, practices or internal control over financial reporting required of public companies. The development and implementation of the standards and controls and the hiring of experienced personnel necessary to achieve the level of accounting standards required of a public company may require costs greater than expected.
Increases in labor costs, potential labor disputes and work stoppages or an inability to hire skilled manufacturing, sales and other personnel could adversely affect our business.
Our financial performance is affected by the availability of qualified personnel and the cost of labor. An increase in labor costs, work stoppages or disruptions at our facilities or those of our suppliers or transportation service providers, or other labor disruptions, could decrease our sales and increase our expenses. These factors could increase wages for certain roles or cause business operations to suffer. Although our employees are not represented by a union, our labor force may become subject to labor union organizing efforts, which could cause us to incur additional labor costs. Some of our employees are covered by Awards (as defined below) or, in the Netherlands, a Collective Labor Agreement (as defined below). In Australia, Awards are set by the Australian legislature and define the minimum terms of employment within a specific industry or occupation. Awards that apply to our employees in Australia include the Manufacturing and Associated Industries and Occupations Award, the Professional Employees Award and the Clerks Award (collectively, “Awards”). Employees employed by our Dutch subsidiaries (i.e., Tritium Europe B.V. and Tritium Technologies B.V.) are covered by a Collective Labor Agreement (“Collective Labor Agreement”), which sets out the minimum terms of their employment agreements.
The competition for skilled manufacturing, sales and other personnel is intense in the regions in which our manufacturing facilities are located. A significant increase in the salaries and wages paid by competing employers could result in a reduction of our labor force, increases in the salaries and wages that we must pay, or both. Additionally, potential employees may seek remote work options that are unavailable for certain positions. If we are unable to hire and retain skilled manufacturing, sales and other personnel, our ability to execute our business plan, and our results of operations, would suffer.
If we are unable to attract and retain key employees and hire qualified management, technical, engineering and sales personnel, our ability to compete and successfully grow our business would be harmed.
Our success depends, in part, on our continuing ability to attract, recruit, develop and retain qualified talent. Failure to do so effectively would adversely affect our business. Competition for employees can be intense, and in an industry which is growing as fast as ours, it is critical that we create and maintain a highly competitive employee value proposition, encompassing compensation & benefits, strong and inspiring leadership, clear and transparent career paths and a culture which creates the conditions for every employee to come to work and perform at their best and enables us to deliver our mission. Failure to create a competitive advantage in the talent market will result in slower recruitment turnaround, higher turnover levels and an increased number of talent and capability gaps, any one of which could impact our ability to execute our global business strategy.
Our legal and accounting fees are high due to our dual-domicile structure of Australia and United States of America and we are expanding our operations internationally, which will expose us to additional tax, compliance, market and other risks.
Our primary operations are in Australia, the United States and the Netherlands, which requires engagement by local and foreign legal and accounting firms resulting in higher overall servicing fees, and we maintain contractual relationships with suppliers and sub-assembly manufacturers throughout the world. We are continuing to invest to increase our presence in these regions and to expand globally. We are also exploring the possibility of establishing a services center in the United Kingdom. Managing this expansion requires additional resources and controls, and could subject us to risks associated with international operations, including:
|●||conformity with applicable business customs;|
|●||potential changes to our established business model;|
|●||difficulties in staffing and managing foreign operations in an environment of diverse culture, laws, and customers, and the increased travel, infrastructure, and legal and compliance costs associated with international operations;|
|●||differing driving habits and transportation modalities in other markets;|
|●||different levels of demand among commercial, fleet and residential customers;|
|●||compliance with multiple, potentially conflicting and changing governmental laws, regulations, certifications, and permitting processes including environmental, banking, employment, tax, information security, privacy, and data protection laws and regulations such as the EU General Data Protection Regulation (the “EU GDPR”), the United Kingdom General Data Protection Regulation and Data Protection Act 2018 (collectively, the “UK GDPR”) (the EU GDPR and UK GDPR together referred to as the “GDPR”), changing requirements for legally transferring data out of the European Economic Area, Singapore’s Personal Data Protection Act (“PDPA”), as amended, and the California Consumer Privacy Act (“CCPA”);|
|●||compliance with U.S. and foreign anti-bribery laws including the FCPA and the UK Bribery Act 2010 (the “UK Bribery Act”);|
|●||conforming products to various international regulatory and safety requirements as well as charging and other electric infrastructures;|
|●||difficulty in establishing, staffing and managing foreign operations;|
|●||difficulties in collecting payments in foreign currencies and associated foreign currency exposure;|
|●||restrictions on repatriation of earnings;|
|●||compliance with potentially conflicting and changing laws of taxing jurisdictions and compliance with applicable tax laws as they relate to international operations, the complexity and adverse consequences of such tax laws, and potentially adverse tax consequences due to changes in such tax laws; and|
|●||regional economic and political conditions.|
As a result of these risks, our current expansion efforts and any potential future international expansion efforts may not be successful.
Any delay in achieving our manufacturing expansion could impact revenue forecasts associated with these facilities.
While the Company has taken great steps to achieve its current manufacturing expansion, our ability to fund the establishment of new manufacturing facilities or expansion of existing facilities depends on, cash flow from future operations and further efforts to finance our activities, which may not materialize or be available at the needed levels, or other sources of funding, which may not be available at acceptable rates or at all. In addition, completion of these projects could be delayed due to factors outside of our control, including equipment delivery delays and other shipping delays or interruptions, supply chain issues, delays in customs processing, delays in obtaining regulatory approvals, work stoppages, imposition of new trade tariffs, and unusual weather conditions. Any delays in completion of these projects could impact revenue forecasts associated with the expanded facilities and could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In August 2022, we announced the grand opening of our U.S. manufacturing facility in Lebanon, Tennessee, which, as of the date of this Annual Report, is expected to eventually include up to five production lines, employ more than 600 people over the next five years and have the potential in the future to produce approximately 30,000 units per year at peak capacity. Any adverse developments in the global economy, disruptions to supply chains or issues obtaining manufacturing inputs, difficulty in obtaining the required permits, delays in construction or in staffing the facility could impact the facility’s ability to meet estimated production capacity or to begin production on the expected timeline and may increase the cost required to bring the facility on line and maintain its operations. Any further delays in achieving production capacity at the Tennessee facility or any of our other production facilities as a result of things like supply chain issues, worker shortages or stoppages, or other factors could negatively impact our revenue. Additionally, while all chargers produced at the facility are currently expected to comply with applicable Buy America Act provisions under U.S. Federal Highway Administration requirements for domestic sourcing, unforeseen supply chain disruptions, issues accessing manufacturing inputs, issues with product performance or reliability or a change in our strategic priorities for the facility could result in noncompliance with the relevant Buy America Act provisions.
If a safety issue occurs with our products, or similar products from another manufacturer, there could be adverse publicity around our products or the safety of charging stations generally, which could adversely affect our business and results of operations.
Manufacturers of EV charging stations, including us, may be subject to claims that their products have malfunctioned and, as a result, persons were injured and/or property was damaged. For example, under certain circumstances, including improper charging, lithium-ion batteries have been observed to catch fire or vent smoke and flames. In addition, our customers could be subjected to claims as a result of such incidents and may bring legal claims against us to attempt to hold us liable. Any of these events could result in negative publicity and reputational harm, which could adversely affect our business and results of its operations.
If products in our product roadmap, including our software licenses, do not achieve projected sales in the future in their planned channel, revenue forecasts for that product will not be met and our results of operations could be adversely affected.
We cannot assure you that the software and hardware technology on our product roadmap will prove to be commercially viable or meet projected revenue forecasts. Our business is based on new technology and if our software or hardware fails to achieve expected performance and cost metrics, we may be unable to develop demand for products and generate sufficient revenue to meet forecasts for one or more product channels. Further, we and/or our customers may experience operational problems with our products that could delay or defeat the ability of such products to generate revenue or operating profits. If we are unable to achieve our sales targets on time and within our planned budget, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected.
Our business faces risks from pandemics, accidents, calamities or other causes or events which could adversely affect our business, particularly where these result in an interruption of our production capability at one or more of our manufacturing facilities.
We manufacture our products at a limited number of manufacturing facilities, and we generally do not have redundant production capabilities that would enable us to shift production of a particular product rapidly to another facility in the event of a loss of one of, or a portion of one of, our manufacturing facilities. A catastrophic loss of the use of one or more of our manufacturing facilities due to accident, fire, explosion, labor issues, extreme weather events, natural disasters, condemnation, cyberattacks, cancellation or non-renewals of leases, terrorist attacks or other acts of violence or war or otherwise could have a material adverse effect on our production capabilities. In addition, unexpected failures, including as a result of power outages or similar disruptions outside of our control, of our equipment and machinery could result in production delays or the loss of raw materials or products in the equipment or machinery at the time of such failures. Further events that we may experience include, but are not limited to, an increase of the impact of COVID-19, new pandemics, acts of terrorism, an outbreak of international hostilities, fires, floods, earthquakes, labor strikes, civil wars, natural disasters, outbreaks of disease or other natural or man-made events or occurrences that may have a material adverse effect on our supply chain, the demand for our applications and our ability to conduct business.
Any of these events could result in substantial revenue loss and repair costs. An interruption in our production capabilities could also require us to make substantial capital expenditures to replace damaged or destroyed facilities or equipment. There are a limited number of manufacturers that make some of the equipment we use in our manufacturing facilities, and we could experience significant delay in replacing or repairing manufacturing equipment necessary to resume production. An interruption in our production capability, particularly if it is of significant duration, could result in a permanent loss of customers who decide to seek alternate products and could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.
Furthermore, difficult macroeconomic conditions, such as decreases in per capita income and level of disposable income, increased and prolonged unemployment or a decline in consumer confidence as a result of affects on the global economy following any pandemic, accident, calamity or other causes or events, could each have a material adverse effect on the demand for our products and services.
We have experienced rapid growth and expect to invest in growth for the foreseeable future. If we fail to manage growth effectively, our business, operating results and financial condition could be adversely affected.
We have experienced rapid growth in recent periods. For example, the number of full-time employees has grown from 222 in 2018 to 818 as of June 30, 2023. The growth and expansion of our business has placed, and continues to place, a significant strain on management, operations, financial infrastructure and corporate culture. In the event of further growth, our information technology systems and our internal control over financial reporting and procedures may not be adequate to support our operations and may introduce opportunities for data security incidents that may interrupt business operations and permit bad actors to obtain unauthorized access to business information or misappropriate funds. We may also face risks to the extent such bad actors infiltrate the information technology infrastructure of our contractors.
To manage growth in operations and personnel, we will need to continue to improve our operational, financial and management controls and reporting systems and procedures. Failure to manage growth effectively could result in difficulty or delays in attracting new customers, declines in quality or customer satisfaction, increases in costs, difficulties in introducing new products and services or enhancing existing products and services, loss of customers, loss of key personnel, information security vulnerabilities or other operational difficulties, any of which could adversely affect our business performance and operating results.
Risks Related to the EV Market
The abundance of relatively inexpensive fuel, changes to fuel economy standards or the success of alternative fuels may negatively impact the EV market and depot charging sales opportunities for heavy vehicles and thus the demand for our products and services.
An abundance of relatively inexpensive fuel may prevent or cause delays in customers purchasing electric vehicles. For example, fuel that is abundant and relatively inexpensive in the United States, such as compressed natural gas, may emerge as the preferred alternative to petroleum-based fuels. Regulatory bodies may also adopt rules that substantially favor certain alternatives to petroleum-based fuels over others, which may not necessarily be EVs. This may impose additional obstacles to the development of a more ubiquitous EV market and therefore the ease of purchase of EVs. If any of the above cause or contribute to consumers or businesses no longer purchasing EVs or purchasing them at a lower rate, it would materially and adversely affect our business, operating results, financial condition and prospects. Further, if the fuel efficiency of non-electric vehicles continues to increase, and the cost of vehicles using renewable transportation fuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel, improves, the demand for EVs could diminish. In addition, the EV fueling model is different than gasoline or other fuel models, requiring behavior change and education of influencers, consumers and others, such as regulatory bodies.
Our future growth and success are highly correlated with, and thus dependent upon, the continuing rapid adoption of EVs for passenger and fleet applications.
Our future growth is highly dependent upon the continued rapid adoption of EVs by governments, businesses and consumers. The market for EVs is still rapidly evolving, characterized by changing technologies, competitive pricing and other competitive factors, evolving government regulation and industry standards, changing consumer demands and behaviors, changing levels of concern related to environmental issues and government initiatives related to climate change and the environment generally, including the climate change initiatives of the Biden administration. Although demand for EVs has grown in recent years, there is no guarantee of continued growth or future demand. If the market for EVs develops more slowly than expected, or if demand for EVs decreases, our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results would be harmed. The market for EVs, and ultimately EV chargers, could be affected by numerous factors, such as:
|●||abundance of relatively inexpensive fuel;|
|●||competition, including from other types of charging methods, i.e., wireless and inductive charging and battery swaps|
|●||perceptions about EV features, quality, safety, performance and cost;|
|●||perceptions about the limited range over which EVs may be driven on a single battery charge;|
|●||perceptions about the convenience, speed and cost of charging EVs;|
|●||concerns regarding the availability of convenient fast-charging infrastructure;|
|●||competition, including from other types of alternative fuel vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and high fuel-economy internal combustion engine vehicles;|
|●||volatility in the cost of oil, gasoline and electricity;|
|●||concerns regarding the stability of the electrical grid;|
|●||the decline of an EV battery’s ability to hold a charge over time;|
|●||availability of service and maintenance for EVs;|
|●||availability of EV batteries;|
|●||availability of critical minerals and other components for the manufacture of EVs and EV batteries;|
|●||increases in fuel efficiency;|
|●||government regulations and economic incentives, including adverse changes in, or expiration of, favorable tax incentives related to EVs, EV charging stations or decarbonization generally as well as grants and other money made available to support purchase of EVs or the installation of charging infrastructure;|
|●||relaxation of government mandates or quotas regarding the sale of EVs, relaxation of emission standards or further reductions related to gasoline and other alternative fuel vehicles;|
|●||concerns about the future viability of EV manufacturers;|
|●||the number, price and variety of EV models available for purchase;|
|●||inflationary pressures on the cost of EVs and the cost of financing EV purchases; and|
|●||EV supply chain disruptions|
In addition, sales of vehicles in the automotive industry can be cyclical, which may affect the growth in the acceptance of EVs. It is uncertain how macroeconomic factors will impact demand for EVs, particularly because EVs can be more expensive than traditional gasoline-powered vehicles. Furthermore, because fleet operators are expected to make large purchases of EVs, this cyclicality and volatility in the automotive industry may be more pronounced with commercial purchasers, and any significant decline in demand from these customers could reduce demand for EV charging and our products and services in particular.
Demand for EVs may also be affected by factors directly impacting automobile prices or the cost of purchasing and operating automobiles, such as sales and financing incentives, prices of raw materials and parts and components, cost of fuel and governmental regulations, including tariffs, import regulation and other taxes. Volatility in demand may lead to lower vehicle unit sales, which may result in reduced demand for EV charging solutions and therefore adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.
The EV market currently benefits from the availability of rebates, tax credits and other financial incentives from governments, utilities and other entities in many countries around the world to offset the purchase or operating cost of EVs and EV charging stations. Our sales and sales growth heavily rely on these incentives to continue the transition towards the electrification of transport, and therefore the demand for EV chargers. The reduction, modification, or elimination of such benefits could cause reduced demand for EVs and EV charging stations, which would adversely affect our financial results.
The U.S. federal government, foreign governments, and some U.S. state and local governments provide incentives to end users and purchasers of EVs and EV charging stations in the form of rebates, tax credits, and other financial incentives. The EV market relies on these governmental rebates, tax credits, and other financial incentives to significantly lower the effective price of EVs and EV charging stations for customers and support widespread installation of EV charging infrastructure. However, these incentives may expire on a particular date, end when the allocated funding is exhausted, or be reduced or terminated as a matter of regulatory or legislative policy. In particular, U.S. federal tax credits to purchasers of EVs as well as EV charging stations under Section 30C of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”) to market its EV charging stations, have subsidized the cost of placing in service EV charging stations, and are expected to continue to do so under current legislation, like the Inflation Reduction Act. If a substantial number of credits or incentives, like those from the IRA, the National Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Law Formula Program, the Bipartisan Infrastructure Law, or many others were to end, or if our products were to not qualify for funding under those programs, there could be a negative impact on the EV and EV charging market, and adversely impact our business operations, financial results and expansion potential. See Item 4.B “Information on the Company—Business Overview—Government Regulation and Incentives” of this Annual Report.
Increases in costs, disruption of supply or shortage of raw materials, particularly lithium-ion battery cells, could harm the ability of EV manufacturers to produce electric vehicles.
EV manufacturers may experience increases in the cost of, or a sustained interruption in the supply or shortage of, raw materials, particularly where there are a limited number of vendors and original equipment manufacturers (“OEMs”). Any such cost increase or supply interruption or shortage could materially negatively impact their businesses as well as our business prospects, financial condition and operating results. EV and EV battery manufacturers use various raw materials including aluminium, steel, carbon fiber, non-ferrous metals (such as copper), lithium, and cobalt. The prices for these raw materials fluctuate depending on market conditions and global demand and could adversely affect their businesses and our business prospects and operating results. Additionally, certain EV and EV battery manufacturers may be required to comply with supply chain diligence requirements under the “Buy America” Act in obtaining certain of these raw materials, which may result in increased procurement costs if only a limited number of suppliers meet such criteria. As such, we are exposed to multiple risks relating to price fluctuations for lithium-ion cells. These risks include:
|●||the inability or unwillingness of current battery manufacturers to build or operate battery cell manufacturing plants to supply the numbers of lithium-ion cells required to support the growth of the EV industry as demand for such cells increases;|
|●||disruption in the supply of cells due to quality issues or recalls by the battery cell manufacturers; and|
|●||an increase in the cost of raw materials, such as cobalt and lithium, used in lithium-ion cells.|
Any disruption in the supply of battery cells could temporarily disrupt production of all EVs. Moreover, battery cell manufacturers may refuse to supply to EV manufacturers if they determine that the vehicles are not sufficiently safe. Substantial increases in the prices for raw materials would increase EV and EV battery manufacturers’ operating costs and could reduce their margins if the increased costs cannot be recouped through increased EV prices. This would likely result in the production of fewer EVs and EV batteries by manufacturers.
The EV charging industry is characterized by rapid technological change, which requires us to continue to develop new products, enhance their reliability and develop product innovations. Any delays or failures in such development could adversely affect market adoption of our products and our financial results.
Continuing technological changes in battery and other EV technologies could adversely affect adoption of current EV charging technology, including our products. Our future success will depend upon our ability to timely develop and introduce a variety of new capabilities and innovations to our existing product offerings, as well as introduce a variety of new and improved product offerings, to address the changing needs of EV charging. Wireless inductive EV charging and battery swap offerings could also become more viable and gain some market share. As new products are introduced, gross margins tend to decline in the near-term and improve as the product become more mature and with a more efficient manufacturing process.
As EV technologies change, we may need to upgrade or adapt our charging station technology and introduce new products and services in order to serve vehicles that have the latest technology, in particular battery cell technology, which could involve substantial costs. Even if we are able to keep pace with changes in technology and develop new products and services, our product development expenses could increase, our gross margins could be adversely affected in some periods and our prior products could become obsolete more quickly than expected.
We cannot guarantee that any new products will be released in a timely manner, or at all, or achieve market acceptance. Delays in delivering new products that meet customer requirements could damage our relationships with customers and lead them to seek alternative providers. Delays in introducing products, improvements and innovations or the failure to offer innovative products or services at competitive prices may cause existing and potential customers to purchase our competitors’ products or services.
If we are unable to devote adequate resources to develop and improve products, or cannot otherwise successfully develop products or services that meet customer requirements on a timely basis or that remain competitive with technological alternatives, our products and services could lose market share, our revenue will decline, we may experience higher operating losses and our business and prospects will be adversely affected.
Certain estimates of market opportunity and forecasts of market growth may prove to be inaccurate.
This Annual Report includes estimates of the addressable market for our products and solutions, and the EV market in general. Market opportunity estimates and growth forecasts, whether obtained from third-party sources or developed internally, are subject to significant uncertainty and are based on assumptions and estimates that may prove to be inaccurate. The estimates and forecasts in this Annual Report relating to the size and expected growth of the target market, market demand and adoption, capacity to address this demand and pricing may also prove to be inaccurate. In particular, estimates regarding the current and projected market opportunity are difficult to predict. The estimated addressable market may not materialize as fast as expected, if ever, and even if the markets meet the size estimates and growth forecasted in this Annual Report, our business could fail to grow at similar rates.
Competition to increase market share may lead to our competitors reducing their margins, selling competing products at a loss or signing up to unfavorable contract terms, requiring us to either lose market share, sell our products for similarly low margins or increase our exposure to legal risk, which could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
Competitive price pressures could negatively affect our operating results. The EV market in which we operate is both highly competitive and is at a relatively early stage. In addition, several of our larger competitors have significantly greater resources than us and may potentially sell products and services below cost in order to gain market share. If our competitors offer discounts on certain products or services in the future, we have in the past and may in the future decide to lower prices on our products and/or services, which could adversely affect our gross margins, financial condition and results of operations.
Competitive pressure to gain market share could result in our competitors executing agreements with unfavorable contract terms that shift key risks onto the charger manufacturer, such as new product development and certification timeframes, component failures and requirements to proactively retrofit parts, which have not yet failed, and extended warranty offerings without utilisation caps. If our competitors decide to sign contracts on these terms, we may decide to sign up for them in order to compete, which could adversely affect our results of operations.
If market-driven price reductions exceed forecasted price reductions, our cost reduction activities may not offset those reduced prices, which could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
The markets in which we participate are intensely competitive and are likely to remain intensely competitive for the foreseeable future. We have experienced pricing pressure on many of our products and anticipate continued pricing pressure in the future. Ongoing and heightened competitive pricing pressure makes it increasingly important for us to reduce the unit costs of our products. Although we have undertaken and expect to continue to undertake productivity enhancement and cost reduction initiatives, including significant investments in our facilities to improve manufacturing efficiency, cost and product quality, we cannot make assurances that we will complete all of these initiatives, fully realize the estimated cost savings from such activities, or be able to continue to reduce costs and increase productivity. If we are not able to reduce costs sufficiently to offset reduced prices, our market share, margin and results of operations may be adversely affected.
Risks Related to Our Technology, Intellectual Property and Infrastructure
We may need to defend against intellectual property infringement or misappropriation claims or challenge the patents of our competitors, which may be time-consuming and expensive.
From time to time, the holders of intellectual property rights may assert their rights and urge us to take licenses, and/or may bring suits against us alleging infringement or misappropriation of such rights. There can be no assurance that we will be able to mitigate the risk of such suits or successfully combat legal demands by competitors or other third parties. Accordingly, we may consider entering into licensing agreements with respect to such rights, although no assurance can be given that such licenses can be obtained on acceptable terms or at all, or that we will be able to avoid such litigation or arbitration. Further, such licenses and associated disputes could significantly increase our operating expenses. If we are unable to successfully resolve any such dispute, we may be required to cease making, selling or incorporating certain key components or intellectual property into the products and services we offer, to pay substantial damages and/or royalties, to redesign our products and services, and/or to establish and maintain alternative branding. In addition, to the extent that our customers and business partners become the subject of any allegation or claim regarding the infringement or misappropriation of intellectual property rights related to our products and services, we may be required to indemnify such customers and business partners. Further, we may be forced to challenge the patents of our competitors, either in conjunction with defending an infringement claim or separately, in order to protect our rights to sell our current and future products. If we are required to take one or more such actions, our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected. In addition, any litigation or other disputes, whether or not valid, could result in substantial costs, negative publicity and diversion of resources and management attention.
Our business may be adversely affected if we are unable to maintain, protect and enforce intellectual property.
Our success depends, at least in part, on our ability to protect our technology and intellectual property. To accomplish this, we rely on, and plan to continue relying on, a combination of patent, trade secret, copyright, trademark and other intellectual property law as well as contractual rights to establish, retain ownership of, and protect our intellectual property. Despite our efforts to protect our intellectual property, third parties may attempt to copy or otherwise obtain and use our intellectual property or seek court declarations that our intellectual property is invalid or unenforceable, or that they do not infringe upon our intellectual property. Monitoring unauthorized use of our intellectual property is difficult and costly, and the steps we have taken or may take in the future in an effort to prevent or combat infringement, misappropriation or other violations may be unsuccessful. Any litigation could result in significant expense to us, including the diversion of management’s time, and may not ultimately be resolved in our favor. Failure to adequately protect and enforce our intellectual property could result in competitors offering similar products, potentially resulting in the loss of some of our competitive advantage and a decrease in revenue which would adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.
The measures we take to protect our intellectual property from infringement, misappropriation or unauthorized use by others may not be effective for various reasons, including the following:
|●||any patent applications we submit may not result in the issuance of patents;|
|●||the scope of issued patents may not be broad enough to cover a competitor’s products;|
|●||any patents or trademarks may be challenged by competitors and/or invalidated or cancelled by courts or governmental authorities;|
|●||the costs associated with enforcing patents or other intellectual property rights or confidentiality agreements may make aggressive enforcement impracticable;|
|●||current and future competitors may circumvent our patents or independently develop similar trade secrets or works of authorship, such as software;|
|●||know-how and other proprietary information we purport to hold as a trade secret may not qualify as a trade secret under applicable laws; and|
|●||proprietary designs and technology embodied in our products may be discoverable by third parties through means that do not constitute violations of applicable laws.|
Patent, trademark, trade secret and other intellectual property laws are geographical in scope and vary throughout the world. Some foreign countries do not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as do the laws of the United States. Further, policing the unauthorized use of its intellectual property in foreign jurisdictions may be difficult or impossible. For example, the laws, regulations and legal requirements in China are subject to frequent changes and the exact obligations under and enforcement of laws and regulations related to intellectual property rights are often subject to unpublished internal government interpretations and policies, which makes it challenging to ascertain compliance with such laws. Therefore, our intellectual property rights may not be as strong or as easily enforced outside of the United States.
To protect our trade secrets and other proprietary information, we typically require employees, consultants and others to whom we grant access to the information to enter into confidentiality agreements. However, we cannot assure you that we have entered into these agreements with everyone who has access to our proprietary information, that the agreements will provide meaningful protection in the event of any unauthorized use, misappropriation or disclosure of our proprietary information, and that the agreements will not be breached. It may be possible for a third party to copy or otherwise obtain and use our proprietary rights. We employ people on product development projects and in the factory and necessarily disclose to those persons our trade secrets and know-how concerning our hardware and software. There is a risk that our employees may improperly disclose our trade secrets to our competitors for commercial advantage, including in countries where the legal system does not support enforceability of intellectual property rights. Customers may also dismantle our hardware for the purposes of reverse engineering it. While we take legal and other steps to protect our trade secrets and know-how, there can be no assurance that any protective measure taken by us has been or will be adequate to protect our proprietary rights from industrial espionage or other risks of trade secret misappropriation.
We may be the target of industrial espionage and it is difficult for us to protect against industrial espionage carried out by foreign state actors. This exposes us to the risk of potential theft of trade secrets, intellectual property and industry know-how by employees who may act for other countries, including such countries that do not offer protection or enforcement of laws and regulations related to intellectual property infringement.
Certain patents in the EV industry may come to be considered “standard essential patents”. If this is the case with respect to any of our patents, we may be required to license certain of our technology on “fair, reasonable and non-discriminatory” terms, which may decrease our revenue. Further, competitors, vendors, or customers may, in certain instances, be free to create variations or derivative works of our technology and intellectual property, and those derivative works may become directly competitive with our offerings.
Finally, we may not be able to leverage, or obtain ownership of, all technology and intellectual property developed by our vendors in connection with design and manufacture of our products, thereby jeopardizing our ability to obtain a competitive advantage over our competitors.
Our products are subject to numerous standards and regulations, which may materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations or financial condition. The current lack of certainty and alignment in international standards and regulations may lead to multiple production variants of the same product, products failing customer testing, retrofit requirements for already fielded products, litigation with customers facing retrofit expenses, additional test and compliance expenses and further unexpected costs, and we may not be able to comply with new standards and regulations on a competitive timeline or at all.
Emerging industry standards for EV station management, coupled with utilities and other large organizations mandating their own adoption of specifications that may not become widely adopted in the industry, may hinder innovation or slow new product or new feature introduction. Countries may also establish conflicting standards and regulations, increasing product development and compliance costs, delaying deliveries to customers and reducing profitability by introducing additional complexity and lack of standardization of production processes. In addition, automobile manufacturers may choose to utilize their own proprietary systems, which could lock out competition for EV charging stations, or to use their size and market position to influence the market, which could limit our market and reach to customers, negatively impacting our business.
Further, should regulatory bodies later impose a standard for EV charging stations that is not compatible with our infrastructure, we may incur significant costs to adapt our business model to the new regulatory standard, which may require significant time and, as a result, may have a material adverse effect on our revenues or results of operations.
Our technology may contain undisclosed or undetected defects, errors or bugs in its hardware or software components, which could impede market acceptance, harm our standing among existing or potential customers and drivers, and potentially subject us to legal claims and liabilities, all of which could significantly impact our business operations in an adverse manner.
We may be subject to claims that charging stations have malfunctioned and that, as a result, persons or property were injured or damaged. The insurance that we carry may be insufficient or may not apply to all situations. Similarly, to the extent that such malfunctions are related to components obtained from third-party vendors, such vendors may not assume responsibility for such malfunctions. In addition, our customers could be subjected to claims as a result of such incidents and may bring legal claims against us to attempt to hold us liable. Any of these events could adversely affect our brand, relationships with customers, operating results or financial condition.
Furthermore, our software platform is complex, developed for over a decade by many developers, and includes a number of licensed third-party commercial and open-source software libraries. Our software has contained defects and errors in the past and may in the future contain undetected defects or errors. We are continuing to develop the features and functionality of our platform through updates and enhancements, and as we do, we may introduce additional defects or errors that may not be detected until after deployment to customers. In addition, if our products and services, including any updates or patches, are not implemented (which requires customer consent) or are not used correctly or as intended, inadequate performance and disruptions in service may result.
Any defects or errors in product or services offerings, or the perception of such defects or errors, or other performance problems could result in any of the following, each of which could adversely affect our business and results of its operations:
|●||expenditure of significant financial and product development resources, including recalls, in efforts to analyze, correct, eliminate or work around errors or defects;|
|●||loss of existing or potential customers or partners;|
|●||interruptions or delays in sales;|
|●||delayed or lost revenue;|
|●||delay or failure to attain market acceptance;|
|●||delay in the development or release of new functionality or improvements;|
|●||negative publicity and reputational harm;|
|●||sales credits or refunds;|
|●||exposure of confidential or proprietary information;|
|●||diversion of development and customer service resources;|
|●||breach of warranty claims;|
|●||legal claims under applicable laws, rules and regulations; and|
|●||an increase in collection cycles for accounts receivable or the expense and risk of litigation.|
Although we have contractual protections, such as warranty disclaimers and limitation of liability provisions, in many of our agreements with customers, resellers and other business partners, such protections may not be uniformly implemented in all contracts and, where implemented, may not fully or effectively protect us from claims by customers, resellers, business partners or other third parties, including, for example claims of systematic defects that may require replacement or repair at the cost of the Company. Any insurance coverage or indemnification obligations of suppliers may not adequately cover all such claims, or cover only a portion of such claims. A successful product liability, systematic defect, warranty, or other similar claim could have an adverse effect on our business, operating results, and financial condition. In addition, even claims that ultimately are unsuccessful could result in expenditure of funds in litigation or settlement agreements, divert management’s time and other resources and cause reputational harm.
In addition, we rely on some open-source software and libraries issued under the GNU General Public License (or similar “copyleft” licenses) for development of our products and may continue to rely on similar copyleft licenses. Use of such copyleft-licensed software or libraries could require us to disclose and license our proprietary source code and permit others to create derivative works of such source code, all at no cost.
We expect to incur product development costs and devote significant resources to developing new products, which could significantly reduce our profitability and may never result in revenue to us if such products do not meet market needs.
Our future growth depends on penetrating new markets, adapting existing products to new applications and customer requirements, and introducing new products that achieve market acceptance. We plan to incur significant product development expenses in the future as part of our efforts to design, develop, manufacture, certify and introduce new products and enhance existing products. Tritium’s product development expenses were $15.4 million and $14.0 million for the fiscal years ended June 30, 2023 and 2022, respectively, and we believe our product development expenses are likely to grow in the future. We have also incurred and will continue to incur material tooling, equipment, parts and facility costs in support of our product development efforts. Further, our product development program may not produce successful or timely results, and our new products may not achieve market acceptance, create additional revenue or become profitable. If we fail to offer high-quality support to station owners and drivers, our business and reputation will suffer.
Our systems are susceptible to various forms of cyber threats, including computer malware, viruses, ransomware, hacking attempts, phishing attacks, and similar disruptions. These incidents have the potential to lead to security and privacy breaches, as well as interruptions and delays in our services and operations, which could significantly impact our business.
Computer malware, viruses, physical or electronic break-ins and similar disruptions could lead to interruptions and delays in our services and operations and loss, access, disclosure, alteration, destruction, misuse or theft of data, including confidential, proprietary or personal data. Computer malware, viruses, ransomware, hacking, phishing, and other attacks against online networks have become more prevalent and may occur on our systems and the systems of our third-party vendors in the future. We have implemented security measures, such as multi-factor authentication and security incident and event management tools. But, any attempts by cyber attackers to disrupt our and our third-party vendors’ services or systems, access our data or any improper loss, access, disclosure, alteration, destruction, misuse or theft of data, if successful, could harm our business, introduce liability to individual, result in the misappropriation of funds, be expensive to remedy and damage our reputation or brand. Additionally, a number of legislative and regulatory bodies have adopted breach notification and other requirements in the event that data subject to such laws is accessed by unauthorized persons, and complying with such numerous and complex regulations in the event of unauthorized access would be expensive and difficult, and failure to comply with these regulations could subject us to regulatory scrutiny and additional liability. Insurance may not be sufficient to cover significant expenses and losses related to cyber-attacks. As cyber-attacks evolve, the cost of measures designed to prevent such attacks continues to increase, and we may not be able to cause the implementation or enforcement of such preventions with respect to our third-party vendors. Though it is difficult to determine what, if any, harm may directly result from any specific interruption or attack, any failure to maintain performance, reliability, security and availability of systems and technical infrastructure may, in addition to other losses, harm our reputation, brand and ability to attract customers. See the section entitled “Data protection laws, and similar domestic or foreign regulations, may adversely affect our business.”
We and our third-party vendors have previously experienced, and may in the future experience, service disruptions, outages and other performance problems with our software and computer systems. These issues can be caused by a variety of factors, including infrastructure changes, cyber-security threats, third-party vendors, human or software errors and capacity constraints. If our services are unavailable when users attempt to access them, they may seek other services, which could reduce demand for our solutions from target customers.
We have processes and procedures in place designed to enable us to recover from a disaster or catastrophe and continue business operations. However, there are several factors ranging from human error to data corruption that could materially impact the efficacy of such processes and procedures, including by lengthening the time services are partially or fully unavailable to customers and users. It may be difficult or impossible to perform some or all recovery steps and continue normal business operations due to the nature of a particular disaster or catastrophe, especially during peak periods, which could cause additional reputational damages, or loss of revenues, any of which could adversely affect our business and financial results.
Our operations rely on the support of external cloud service providers for the functioning of specific elements of our service and any disruptions, service delays, or limitations in scaling capacity with these providers could potentially hinder the utilization and functionality of our EV charging stations and other services, which has the potential to adversely impact our business operations and expose us to potential liabilities.
We currently serve our business partners and drivers using third-party cloud service providers. Any outage or failure of such cloud services could negatively affect our product connectivity and performance. Further, we depend on connectivity from our charging stations to our data network through cellular service and virtual private networking providers. Any incident (including those provided above) affecting a cloud service provider’s network or a cellular and/or virtual private networking services provider’s infrastructure or operations or any other entity in our collective supply chain, whether caused by fire, flood, storm, earthquake, power loss, telecommunications failures, breach of security protocols, computer viruses and disabling devices, failure of access control mechanisms, natural disasters, war, criminal act, military actions, terrorist attacks and other similar events could negatively affect the use, functionality or availability of our EV charging stations and services.
Financial, Tax and Accounting Risks
Our financial condition and results of operations are likely to fluctuate in the future due to, among other things, the cyclical nature of the automotive industry, which could cause our results to fall below expectations, resulting in a decline in the price of our Ordinary Shares.
Our financial condition and results of operations have fluctuated in the past and may continue to fluctuate in the future due to a variety of factors, many of which are beyond our control.
In addition to the other risks described herein, the following factors could also cause our financial condition and results of operations to fluctuate in the future:
|●||the timing and volume of new sales;|
|●||weather conditions which prevent or delay site installation;|
|●||fluctuations in service costs, particularly due to unexpected costs of servicing and maintaining charging stations;|
|●||the timing of new product introductions, which can initially have lower gross margins;|
|●||weaker than anticipated demand for charging stations, whether due to changes in government incentives and policies or due to other conditions;|
|●||fluctuations in sales and marketing or product development expenses;|
|●||supply chain interruptions and manufacturing errors or delivery delays;|
|●||failure to increase manufacturing capacity by the forecasted amount, or within the expected timeframe;|
|●||the timing and availability of new products relative to customers’ and investors’ expectations;|
|●||the length of the sales and installation cycle for a particular customer;|
|●||the impact of COVID-19, including manufacturing or shipping delays and travel restrictions on our workforce or our customers, suppliers, vendors, certification and test agencies, or business partners;|
|●||disruptions in sales, production, service or other business activities;|
|●||our inability to attract and retain qualified personnel; and|
|●||unanticipated changes in federal, state, local, or foreign government incentive programs, which can affect demand for EVs.|
Fluctuations in operating results and cash flow could, among other things, give rise to short-term liquidity issues. In addition, revenue and other operating results in the future may fall short of the expectations of investors and financial analysts, which could have an adverse effect on the price of our Ordinary Shares.
Changes to applicable tax laws and regulations or exposure to additional tax liabilities could adversely affect our business and future profitability.
We conduct operations, directly and through our subsidiaries, in Australia, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States, and we and our subsidiaries are subject to income taxes in Australia, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States. We may also in the future become subject to income taxes in other foreign jurisdictions. Our effective income tax rate could be adversely affected by a number of factors, including changes in the valuation of deferred tax assets and liabilities, changes in tax laws, changes in accounting and tax standards or practices, changes in the composition of operating income by tax jurisdiction, changes in our operating results before taxes, and the outcome of income tax audits in Australia, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, the United States, or other jurisdictions. We will regularly assess all of these matters to determine the adequacy of our tax liabilities. If any of our assessments are ultimately determined to be incorrect, our business, results of operations, or financial condition could be materially adversely affected.
Due to the complexity of multinational tax obligations and filings, we and our subsidiaries may have a heightened risk related to audits or examinations by federal, state, provincial, and local taxing authorities in the jurisdictions in which we operate. Outcomes from these audits or examinations could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, or financial condition.
The tax laws of Australia, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States, as well as potentially any other jurisdiction in which we may operate in the future, have detailed transfer pricing rules that require that all transactions with related parties satisfy arm’s length pricing principles. Although we believe that our transfer pricing policies have been reasonably determined in accordance with arm’s length principles, the taxation authorities in the jurisdictions where we do business could challenge our transfer pricing policies. International transfer pricing is a subjective area of taxation and generally involves a significant degree of judgment. If any of these taxation authorities were to successfully challenge our transfer pricing policies, we could be subject to additional income tax expenses, including interest and penalties. Any such increase in our income tax expense and related interest and penalties could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, or financial condition.
We may also be adversely affected by changes in the relevant tax laws and tax rates, treaties, regulations, administrative practices and principles, judicial decisions, and interpretations thereof, in each case, possibly with retroactive effect.
As a result of our expansion of operations, the tax laws may not be favorable, our effective tax rate may fluctuate, tax obligations may become significantly more complex and subject to greater risk of examination by taxing authorities or we may be subject to future changes in tax laws, in each case, the impacts of which could adversely affect our after-tax profitability and financial results.
In the event that we expand our operating business domestically or internationally, our effective tax rates may fluctuate widely in the future. Future effective tax rates could be affected by: operating losses in jurisdictions where no tax benefit can be recorded under U.S. GAAP, changes in deferred tax assets and liabilities, changes in tax laws or the regulatory environment, changes in accounting and tax standards or practices, changes in the composition of operating income by tax jurisdiction, and the pre-tax operating results of our business.
Additionally, we may be subject to significant income, withholding, and other tax obligations in the United States or other jurisdictions and may become subject to taxation in numerous additional U.S. state and local and non-U.S. jurisdictions with respect to income, operations and subsidiaries related to those jurisdictions. Our after-tax profitability and financial results could be subject to volatility or be affected by numerous factors, including (a) the availability of tax deductions, credits, exemptions, refunds and other benefits to reduce tax liabilities, (b) changes in the valuation of deferred tax assets and liabilities, if any, (c) the expected timing and amount of the release of any tax valuation allowances, (d) the tax treatment of stock-based compensation, (e) changes in the relative amount of earnings subject to tax in the various jurisdictions, (f) the potential business expansion into, or otherwise becoming subject to tax in, additional jurisdictions, (g) changes to existing intercompany structure (and any costs related thereto) and business operations, (h) the extent of intercompany transactions and the extent to which taxing authorities in relevant jurisdictions respect those intercompany transactions, (i) the ability to structure business operations in an efficient and competitive manner, and (j) the availability of foreign income tax offsets in Australia. Outcomes from audits or examinations by taxing authorities could have an adverse effect on our after-tax profitability and financial condition. Additionally, the Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”) and several foreign tax authorities have increasingly focused attention on intercompany transfer pricing with respect to sales of products and services and the use of intangibles. Tax authorities could disagree with our intercompany charges, cross-jurisdictional transfer pricing or other matters and assess additional taxes. If we do not prevail in any such disagreements, our profitability may be affected.
Our after-tax profitability and financial results may also be adversely affected by changes in relevant tax laws and tax rates, treaties, regulations, administrative practices and principles, judicial decisions and interpretations thereof, in each case, possibly with retroactive effect.
The ability of us to utilize net operating loss and tax credit carryforwards following the Business Combination is conditioned upon us attaining profitability and generating taxable income. We have incurred significant net losses since inception and we anticipate we will continue to incur significant losses. Additionally, our ability to utilize net operating loss and tax credit carryforwards to offset future taxable income may be limited.
As at June 30, 2023, the majority of carried forward tax losses within our company are in Tritium Australia, which had carried forward tax losses of approximately $283.7 million, which may be available to reduce future Australian taxable income. These tax losses can be carried forward indefinitely, subject to the satisfaction of certain Australian loss testing provisions. For Australian tax purposes, carried forward tax losses may be utilized to reduce an entity’s taxable income to the extent that the entity satisfies either the Continuity of Ownership Test (“COT”) or the Business Continuity Test (“BCT”).
The COT requires that the same persons beneficially held more than 50% of the rights to voting, dividends and capital distributions from the start of the income year in which the tax loss was incurred to the end of the income year in which the loss is sought to be utilized to reduce the entity’s taxable income.
The BCT incorporates the Same Business Test, which broadly requires a company to carry on the same business at the end of the income year in which the loss is utilized as it carried on just prior to any breach of the COT, and the less stringent Similar Business Test (“SiBT”) which compares the businesses to see if the businesses at the relevant test times were similar. The SiBT allows for changes in the business resulting from attempts to grow or rehabilitate the business but is only applicable to losses incurred in income years beginning from July 1, 2015. With respect to Tritium Australia, it is expected that the Business Combination will cause the COT to be failed and accordingly the BCT position will need to be closely monitored going forward as Tritium Australia’s business expands.
For Australian income tax purposes, carried forward tax losses may only be utilized to reduce taxable income by the entity which originally incurred the loss unless the losses are transferred.
If we or any of our subsidiaries are characterized as a passive foreign investment company for U.S. federal income tax purposes, U.S. Holders may suffer adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences.
A non-U.S. corporation generally will be treated as a passive foreign investment company (“PFIC”) for U.S. federal income tax purposes, in any taxable year if either (1) at least 75% of its gross income for such year is passive income or (2) at least 50% of the value of its assets (generally based on an average of the quarterly values of the assets) during such year is attributable to assets that produce or are held for the production of passive income. Based on the current and anticipated composition of the income, assets and operations of our company and our subsidiaries, we do not believe we will be treated as a PFIC for the current taxable year.
However, whether we or any of our subsidiaries are a PFIC for any taxable year is a factual determination that depends on, among other things, the composition of our income and assets, our market value and the market value of our subsidiaries’ shares and assets. Changes in the composition of our income or asset may cause us to be or become a PFIC for the current or subsequent taxable years. In addition, whether we are treated as a PFIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes is determined annually after the close of each taxable year and, thus, is subject to significant uncertainty. Moreover, the application of the PFIC rules is subject to uncertainty in several respects, and we cannot assure you that the IRS will not take a contrary position or that a court will not sustain such a challenge by the IRS. Accordingly, there can be no assurances that we will not be treated as a PFIC for the current taxable year or in any future taxable year.
If we are a PFIC for any taxable year, a U.S. Holder (as defined below in the section “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—U.S. Holders”) may be subject to adverse tax consequences and may incur certain information reporting obligations. For a further discussion, see “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—U.S. Holders—Passive Foreign Investment Company Rules.” U.S. holders are strongly encouraged to consult their own advisors regarding the potential application of these rules to us and the ownership of Ordinary Shares and/or Warrants.
If a United States person is treated as owning at least 10% of the Ordinary Shares, such holder may be subject to adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences.
If a United States person is treated as owning (directly, indirectly or constructively) at least 10% of the value or voting power of the Ordinary Shares, and we are a “controlled foreign corporation” for U.S. federal income tax purposes, such person may be treated as a “United States shareholder” with respect to us and any of our subsidiaries that are controlled foreign corporations. A United States shareholder of a controlled foreign corporation may be required to annually report and include in its U.S. taxable income its pro rata share of “Subpart F income,” “global intangible low-taxed income” and investments in U.S. property by any such controlled foreign corporations, whether or not we make any distributions. An individual that is a United States shareholder with respect to a controlled foreign corporation generally would not be allowed certain tax deductions or foreign tax credits that would be allowed to a United States shareholder that is a U.S. corporation. A failure to comply with these reporting obligations may subject a United States shareholder to significant monetary penalties and may prevent the statute of limitations with respect to such holder’s U.S. federal income tax return for the year for which reporting was due from starting. We cannot provide any assurances that we will assist investors in determining whether we or any of our non-U.S. subsidiaries are treated as a controlled foreign corporation or whether such investor is treated as a United States shareholder with respect to any of such controlled foreign corporations or furnish to any United States shareholders information that may be necessary to comply with the aforementioned reporting and tax paying obligations. A United States investor should consult their own advisors regarding the potential application of these rules to its investment in Ordinary Shares and/or Warrants.
Our reported financial results may be negatively impacted by changes in U.S. GAAP.
U.S. GAAP is subject to interpretation by the Financial Accounting Standards Board’s (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”), the SEC and various bodies formed to promulgate and interpret accounting principles. A change in these principles or interpretations could have a significant effect on reported financial results and may even affect the reporting of transactions completed before the announcement or effectiveness of a change.
We are an “emerging growth company” and we cannot be certain if the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies will make our securities less attractive to investors and may make it more difficult to compare performance with other public companies.
We are an EGC as defined in Section 2(a)(19) of the Securities Act, as modified by the JOBS Act, and we intend to take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to public companies that are not EGCs, including the fact that we are exempt from the requirement to obtain an attestation report from our auditors on management’s assessment of our internal control over financial reporting under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”) for up to five years or until we no longer qualify as an EGC, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in periodic reports and proxy statements, and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. We may take advantage of these provisions until the last day of our fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the completion of the Business Combination or until we are no longer deemed an EGC. Investors may find our securities less attractive because we will continue to rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our securities less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our securities, and the stock price may be more volatile.
An EGC may elect to delay the adoption of new or revised accounting standards. With us making this election, Section 102(b)(2) of the JOBS Act allows us to delay adoption of new or revised accounting standards until those standards apply to non-public business entities. As a result, the financial statements contained in this Annual Report and those that we will file in the future may not be comparable to companies that comply with public business entities revised accounting standards effective dates.
We are incurring significant increased expenses and administrative burdens as a public company, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Further, we have significant legal and accounting fees due to our dual-domicile structure of Australia and the United States.
We are facing increased legal, accounting, administrative and other costs and expenses as a public company that we did not incur as a private company. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act, including the requirements of Section 404, as well as rules and regulations subsequently implemented by the SEC, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 and the rules and regulations promulgated and to be promulgated thereunder, the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (“PCAOB”) and the securities exchanges, impose additional reporting and other obligations on public companies. Compliance with public company requirements has increased costs and made certain activities more time-consuming. In addition, expenses associated with SEC reporting requirements will be incurred. Furthermore, if any issues in complying with these requirements are identified (for example, if the auditors identify a significant deficiency or additional material weaknesses in the internal control over financial reporting), we could incur additional costs to rectify those issues, and the existence of those issues could adversely affect our reputation or investor perceptions. In addition, we have director and officer liability insurance, which has substantial additional premiums. The additional reporting and other obligations imposed by these rules and regulations has increased legal and financial compliance costs and the costs of related legal, accounting and administrative activities. Advocacy efforts by stockholders and third parties may also prompt additional changes in governance and reporting requirements, which could further increase costs.
Our primary operations are in Australia, the United States and the Netherlands, and we are domiciled in both the United States and Australia, all of which requires engagement by local and foreign legal and accounting firms resulting in higher overall servicing fees. Such higher fees are burdensome the Company and may adversely affect our business and operations.
We have identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting. If we are unable to remediate these material weaknesses, or if we identify additional material weaknesses in the future or otherwise fail to maintain an effective system of internal control over financial reporting, this may result in material misstatements of our consolidated financial statements or cause us to fail to meet our periodic reporting obligations.
We are required to provide management’s attestation on internal control over financial reporting as a public company. Management may not be able to effectively and timely implement controls and procedures that adequately respond to the increased regulatory compliance and reporting requirements that are applicable to us as a newly public company. If we are not able to implement the additional requirements of Section 404(a) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act in a timely manner or with adequate compliance, we may not be able to assess whether our internal control over financial reporting are effective, which may subject us to adverse regulatory consequences and could harm investor confidence.
Our management have identified three material weaknesses in the design and operation of our internal control over financial reporting in connection with the preparation of our financial statements, as previously disclosed in our Annual Report on Form 20-F for the year ended June 30, 2022. A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of a company’s annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. As of June 30, 2023, the material weaknesses have not yet been remediated.
The material weaknesses referenced above are described below:
|●||Lack of appropriately designed, implemented and documented procedures and controls at both entity level and process level to allow for Tritium to achieve complete, accurate and timely financial reporting. This is pervasive across the entity level and each of the key business processes, including controls over the preparation and review of account reconciliations and journal entries, revenue recognition processes, inventory existence processes, and controls over information technology to ensure access to financial data is adequately restricted to appropriate personnel.|
|●||Segregation of duties has not been sufficiently established across the key business and financial processes. Given the size, nature of the organization, and lack of enforced controls over information technology to ensure access to financial data is adequately restricted to appropriate personnel, segregation of duties has not been consistently applied to the key business and financial processes across the organization. A consequence of the lack of segregation of duties is the heightened risk of fraud or material misstatement when no appropriate mitigating controls are in place.|
|●||Lack of personnel with appropriate knowledge and experience relating to U.S. GAAP and SEC reporting requirements to enable the entity to design and maintain an effective financial reporting process. A lack of knowledge and experience in these areas may lead to the Company being in breach of SEC financial reporting and other related requirements, especially given that the current finance function has not been designed to include sufficient accounting and financial reporting personnel with (i) the requisite knowledge and experience in the application of SEC financial reporting rules and regulations; and (ii) the appropriate expertise in the relevant U.S. accounting standards.|
As described in Part II, Item 15. “Controls and Procedures”, we have concluded that our internal control over financial reporting was ineffective as of June 30, 2023 because material weaknesses existed in our internal control over financial reporting. We have taken a number of measures to remediate the material weaknesses described above; however, if we are unable to remediate our material weaknesses in a timely manner or we identify additional material weaknesses, we may be unable to provide required financial information in a timely and reliable manner and we may incorrectly report financial information. Likewise, if our financial statements are not filed on a timely basis, we could be subject to sanctions or investigations by the stock exchange on which our Ordinary Shares are listed, the SEC or other regulatory authorities. Failure to timely file will cause us to be ineligible to utilize short form registration statements on Form F-3 or Form F-4, which may impair our ability to obtain capital in a timely fashion to execute our business strategies or issue shares to effect an acquisition. In either case, this could result in a material adverse effect on our business. The existence of material weaknesses or significant deficiencies in internal control over financial reporting could adversely affect our reputation or investor perceptions of us, which could have a negative effect on the trading price of our Ordinary Shares. In addition, we will incur additional costs to remediate material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting, as described in Part II, Item 15. “Controls and Procedures”.
We can give no assurance that the measures we have taken and plan to take in the future will remediate the material weaknesses identified or that any additional material weaknesses or restatements of financial results will not arise in the future due to a failure to implement and maintain adequate internal control over financial reporting or circumvention of these controls. In addition, even if we are successful in strengthening our controls and procedures, in the future those controls and procedures may not be adequate to prevent or identify irregularities or errors or to facilitate the fair presentation of our financial statements.
The report of our independent registered public accounting firm contains an explanatory paragraph that expresses substantial doubt about our ability, to continue as a going concern.
The report of our independent registered public accounting firm with respect to our consolidated financial statements as of June 30, 2023 and 2022 and for each of the three years ended June 30, 2023, 2022 and 2021 indicates that our financial statements have been prepared assuming that we will continue as a going concern. The report states that, since we have incurred net losses for the years ended June 30, 2023, 2022 and 2021, and we need to raise additional funds to meet our obligations and sustain our operations, there is substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern.
Our ability to continue as a going concern is dependent upon our success in obtaining additional equity or debt financing, attaining further operating efficiencies, reducing expenditures and ultimately, generating significant revenue growth. We need significant additional funding to execute our business plan and to continue operations. Our plans to raise additional capital, including our ability to consummate any equity or debt financing, or take other actions to address any doubt regarding our ability to continue as a going concern, may not be successful. We continue to seek and evaluate opportunities to raise additional funds through the issuance of our securities, asset sales, and through arrangements with strategic partners. If capital is not available to us when, and in the amounts needed, we could be required to liquidate our inventory, cease or curtail operations, or seek restructuring options. There can be no assurance that we would be able to obtain additional liquidity when needed or under acceptable terms, if at all. The perception of our ability to continue as a going concern may make it more difficult for us to obtain financing for the continuation of our operations and could result in the loss of confidence by investors, customers and employees, and continued cash losses may risk our status as a going concern. In the event we are forced to liquidate and/or file for bankruptcy, our investors could suffer a total loss on their investment.
Our plans in regard to these matters are described in Note 1 to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report. Our consolidated financial statements do not include any adjustments that might result from the outcome of this uncertainty.
There are inherent limitations in all control systems, and misstatements due to error or fraud that could seriously harm our business may occur and not be detected.
Our management does not expect that our internal and disclosure controls will prevent all possible error and fraud. A control system, no matter how well conceived and operated, can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurance that the objectives of the control
system are met. In addition, the design of a control system must reflect the fact that there are resource constraints, and the benefit of controls must be relative to their costs. Because of the inherent limitations in all control systems, an evaluation of controls can only provide reasonable assurance that all material control issues and instances of fraud, if any, in us will be detected. These inherent limitations include the realities that judgments in decision-making can be faulty and that breakdowns can occur because of simple error or mistake. Further, controls can be circumvented by the individual acts of some persons or by collusion of two or more persons. The design of any system of controls is based in part upon certain assumptions about the likelihood of future events, and there can be no assurance that any design will succeed in achieving its stated goals under all potential future conditions. Because of inherent limitations in a cost-effective control system, misstatements due to error or fraud may occur and not be detected.
We may be adversely affected by foreign currency fluctuations.
We routinely transact business in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. Additionally, we maintain a portion of our cash and investments in currencies other than the U.S. dollar and may, from time to time, experience losses resulting from fluctuations in the values of these foreign currencies, which could cause our reported net earnings to decrease, or could result in a negative impact to our shareholders’ deficit. In addition, failure to manage foreign currency exposures could cause our results of operations to be more volatile. Adverse, unforeseen or rapidly shifting currency valuations in our key markets may magnify these risks over time.
Risks Related to Legal Matters and Regulations
Data protection laws, and similar domestic or foreign regulations, may adversely affect our business.
National and local governments and agencies in the countries in which we operate and in which our customers operate have adopted, are considering adopting, or may adopt laws and regulations regarding the collection, use, storage, disclosure, and other processing of information regarding consumers and other individuals, including our employees and employees of our service providers, which could impact our ability to offer services in certain jurisdictions. Laws and regulations relating to the collection, use, disclosure, security, and other processing of individuals’ information are constantly evolving, can vary significantly from jurisdiction to jurisdiction and are particularly stringent in Europe, the United Kingdom, the United States and Japan. The costs of compliance with, and other burdens imposed by, laws, regulations, standards, and other obligations relating to privacy, data protection, and information security are significant. In addition, some companies, particularly larger enterprises, often will not contract with vendors that do not meet these rigorous standards. Accordingly, the failure, or perceived inability, to comply with these laws, regulations, standards, and other obligations may limit the use and adoption of our solutions, reduce overall demand, lead to regulatory investigations, litigation, and significant fines, penalties, or liabilities for actual or alleged noncompliance, or slow the pace at which we close sales transactions, any of which could harm our business. Moreover, if we or any of our employees or contractors fail or are believed to fail to adhere to appropriate practices regarding customers’ data, it may damage our reputation and brand.
Additionally, existing laws, regulations, standards, and other obligations may be interpreted in new and differing manners in the future and may be inconsistent among jurisdictions. Future laws, regulations, standards, and other obligations, and changes in the interpretation of existing laws, regulations, standards, and other obligations could result in increased regulation, increased costs of compliance and penalties for non-compliance, and limitations on data collection, use, disclosure, and transfer for us and our customers.
Additionally, the European Union adopted the GDPR in 2016, and it became effective in May 2018. In Europe and the UK, we are subject to the GDPR, which imposes a comprehensive data privacy compliance regime. The GDPR regulates cross-border transfers of personal data out of the EEA and the UK. The GDPR regulates cross-border transfers of personal data out of the EEA and the UK. The European Union and United States agreed in 2016 to a framework for data transferred from the European Union to the United States (Privacy Shield) to relevant self-certified US entities, but this framework was challenged and declared invalid by the Court of Justice of the European Union (“CJEU”) on July 16, 2020, thereby creating additional legal risks for us. In addition, the other bases on which we and our customers rely for the transfer of personal data across national borders, such as the Standard Contractual Clauses promulgated and modernized by the EU Commission on June 4, 2021 (and the UK Addendum to the EU standard contractual clauses/UK International Data Transfer Agreement), commonly referred to as the Model Clauses, continue to be subjected to regulatory and judicial scrutiny. For example, the CJEU noted in its decision of July 16, 2020 that reliance on the Model Clauses alone may not necessarily be sufficient in all circumstances and that transfers must be assessed on a case-by-case basis. Following a period of legal complexity and uncertainty regarding international personal data transfers, particularly to the United States, we expect the regulatory guidance and enforcement landscape to continue to develop, in relation to transfers to the United States and elsewhere. If we or our customers are unable to transfer data between and among countries and regions in which we operate, it could decrease demand for our products and services or require us to modify or restrict some of our products or services. In addition, the other bases on which we and our customers rely for the transfer of personal data across national borders, such as the Standard Contractual Clauses promulgated and modernized by the EU Commission on June 4, 2021, commonly referred to as the Model Clauses, continue to be subjected to regulatory and judicial scrutiny. If we or our customers are unable to transfer data between and among countries and regions in which we operate, it could decrease demand for our products and services or require us to modify or restrict some of our products or services. Further, certain US states have adopted new or modified privacy and security laws and regulations that may apply to our business. For example, California adopted the CCPA, which went into effect in 2020 and was amended by the California Privacy Rights Act, which went into effect on July 1, 2023. Although we initiated a compliance program designed to ensure CCPA compliance after consulting with outside privacy counsel, we may remain exposed to ongoing legal risks related to the CCPA and the California Privacy Rights Act, as well as similar legislation passed in Virginia, Colorado, Connecticut, Utah, Indiana, Iowa, Montana, Tennessee, Texas, Oregon. Further, other states considering such laws, and there remains increased interest at the federal level. Additionally, Singapore adopted the PDPA in 2012, which was amended in 2022 to introduce (amongst other matters), an increased financial penalty cap and the mandatory data breach notification requirement.
The costs of compliance with, and other burdens imposed by, laws and regulations relating to privacy, data protection, and information security that are applicable to the businesses of customers may adversely affect our ability and willingness to handle, store, use, transmit and otherwise process certain types of information, such as demographic and other personal information, limit the use and adoption of our products and services and could have an adverse impact on our business.
In addition to government activity, privacy advocacy groups, the technology industry, and other industries have established or may establish various new, additional, or different self-regulatory standards that may place additional burdens on technology companies. Customers may expect that we will meet voluntary certifications or adhere to other standards established by them or third parties. If we are unable to maintain these certifications or meet these standards, it could reduce demand for our solutions and adversely affect our business.
Failure to comply with anticorruption and anti-money laundering laws, including the FCPA and similar laws associated with activities outside of the United States, could subject us to penalties and other adverse consequences.
We are subject to the FCPA, the U.S. domestic bribery statute contained in 18 U.S.C. § 201, the U.S. Travel Act, the USA PATRIOT Act, the UK Bribery Act, and possibly other anti-bribery and anti-money laundering laws in countries in which we conduct activities. We face significant risks if we fail to comply with the FCPA and other anti-corruption laws that prohibit companies and their employees and third-party intermediaries from promising, authorizing, offering, or providing, directly or indirectly, improper payments or benefits to foreign government officials, political parties, and private-sector recipients for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business, directing business to any person, or securing any advantage. Any violation of the FCPA, other applicable anti-corruption laws, and anti-money laundering laws could result in whistleblower complaints, adverse media coverage, investigations, loss of export privileges, or severe criminal or civil sanctions, which could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, business, operating results, and prospects. In addition, responding to any enforcement action may result in a significant diversion of management’s attention and resources, significant defense costs, and other professional fees.
We could be adversely impacted if we fail to comply with U.S. and international import and export laws.
We export products from Australia across the globe and import goods into Australia, the Netherlands and the United States, and in the future plan to further export products from the United States. Due to our significant foreign sales, we are subject to trade and import and export regulations in multiple jurisdictions. As a result, compliance with multiple trade sanctions and embargoes and import and export laws and regulations pose a constant challenge and risk to us. Furthermore, the laws and regulations concerning import activity, export recordkeeping and reporting, export control and economic sanctions are complex and constantly changing. Any failure to comply with applicable legal and regulatory trading obligations could result in criminal and civil penalties and sanctions, such as fines, imprisonment, debarment from governmental contracts, seizure of shipments, loss of import and export privileges, reputational damage, and a reduction in the value of our securities.
Failure to comply with laws relating to labor and employment could subject us to penalties and other adverse consequences.
We are subject to various employment-related laws in the jurisdictions in which our employees are based. We face risks if we fail to comply with applicable U.S. federal or state wage law or applicable U.S. federal or state labor and employment laws, or wage, labor or employment laws applicable to our employees outside of the United States. Any violation of applicable wage laws or other labor- or employment-related laws could result in complaints by current or former employees, adverse media coverage, investigations, and damages or penalties, which could have a materially adverse effect on our reputation, business, operating results, and prospects. In addition, responding to any such proceeding may result in a significant diversion of management’s attention and resources, significant defense costs, and other professional fees.
Existing and future environmental health and safety laws and regulations could result in increased compliance costs or additional operating costs or construction costs and restrictions. Failure to comply with such laws and regulations may result in substantial fines or other limitations that may adversely impact our financial results or results of operations.
We and our operations, as well as those of our contractors, suppliers, and customers, are subject to certain federal, state, local and foreign environmental laws and regulations governing, among other things, the generation, use, handling, storage, transportation, and disposal of hazardous substances and wastes. We may also be subject to a variety of product stewardship and manufacturer responsibility laws and regulations, primarily relating to the collection, reuse, and recycling of electronic wastes and hardware, whether hazardous or not, as well as regulations regarding the hazardous material contents of electronic product components and product packaging, and non-hazardous wastes. These laws may require us or others in our supply chain to obtain permits and comply with procedures that impose various restrictions and obligations that may have material or adverse effects on our operations. If key permits and approvals cannot be obtained on acceptable terms, or if other operations requirements cannot be met in a manner satisfactory for our operations or on a timeline that meets our commercial obligations, it may adversely impact our business.
Environmental and health and safety laws and regulations can be complex, are subject to change, and may become more stringent in the future, such as through new requirements enacted at the supranational, national, sub-national, and/or local level or new or modified regulations that may be implemented under existing law. The nature and extent of any changes in these laws, rules, regulations and permits may be unpredictable and may have material effects on our business. Future legislation and regulations or changes in existing legislation and regulations, or interpretations thereof, including those relating to hardware manufacturing, electronic waste, or batteries, could cause additional expenditures, restrictions and delays in connection with our operations as well as other future projects, the extent of which cannot be predicted. For instance, California may adopt more stringent regulation for DC fast charging by 2024 and, in February 2023, the U.S. Department of Transportation and U.S. Department of Energy announced plans to include minimum standards and “Buy America” requirements for EV charger stations funded by certain U.S. federal programs. In addition, various local, state, and national incentives exist or may come to exist to encourage the installation of EV charging stations; nevertheless, the level and duration of such incentives are not guaranteed and may be subject to change over time.
Throughout the world, electrical appliances are subject to various mandatory and voluntary standards, including requirements in some jurisdictions, including the United States, that products be listed by ULSE Inc. (“UL”). or other similar recognized laboratories. In the United States, we are required to undergo certification and testing of compliance with UL standards, as well as other national and industry specific standards. We endeavor to have our products designed to meet the certification requirements of, and to be certified in, each of the jurisdictions in which they are sold. Compliance with such certifications could be costly and if we or our products were to fail to comply with any such certifications, we could be limited in our ability to sell and market our products, which would have a material adverse effect on our business financial condition and results of operations.
Further, we currently rely on third parties to ensure compliance with certain environmental laws, including those related to the disposal of hazardous and non-hazardous wastes. Any failure to properly handle or dispose of such wastes, regardless of whether such failure is due to us or our contractors, may result in liability under environmental laws, including, but not limited to, the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, under which liability may be imposed without regard to fault or degree of contribution for the investigation and clean-up of contaminated sites, as well as impacts to human health and damages to natural resources, and the Environmental Protection Act of 1994 (Queensland). The costs of liability for contamination could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial conditions, or results of operations. Additionally, we may not be able to secure contracts with third parties to continue our key supply chain and disposal services for our business, which may result in increased costs for compliance with environmental laws and regulations.
We may also generate or dispose of solid wastes, which may include hazardous wastes that are subject to the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (“RCRA”), and comparable state statutes. While RCRA regulates both solid and hazardous wastes, it imposes strict requirements on the generation, storage, treatment, transportation and disposal of hazardous wastes. Certain components of our chargers may be excluded from RCRA’s hazardous waste regulations, provided certain requirements are met. However, if these components do not meet all of the established requirements for the exclusion, or if the requirements for the exclusion change, we may be required to treat such products as hazardous waste, which are subject to more rigorous and costly disposal requirements. Any such changes in the laws and regulations, or our ability to qualify the materials it uses for exclusions under such laws and regulations, could adversely affect our operating expenses. Additionally, we may not be able to secure contracts with third parties to continue their key supply chain and disposal services for our business, which may result in increased costs for compliance with environmental laws and regulations.
Australian takeover laws may discourage takeover offers being made for us or may discourage the acquisition of large numbers of our Ordinary Shares.
We are incorporated in Australia and are subject to the takeover laws of Australia. Amongst other things, we are subject to the Australian Corporations Act 2001 (Cth) (the “Corporations Act”). Subject to a range of exceptions, the Corporations Act prohibits the acquisition of a direct or indirect interest in our issued voting shares if the acquisition of that interest will lead to that person’s or someone else’s voting power in our company increasing from 20% or below to more than 20%, or increasing from a starting point that is above 20% and below 90%. Exceptions to the general prohibition include circumstances where the person makes a formal takeover bid for our company, if the person obtains shareholder approval for the acquisition or if the person acquires less than 3% of the voting power of our company in any rolling six-month period. Australian takeover laws may discourage takeover offers being made for our company or may discourage the acquisition of large numbers of our Ordinary Shares.
The rights of our shareholders are governed by Australian law and our constitution and differ from the rights of stockholders under U.S. corporate and securities laws. Holders of our Ordinary Shares may have difficulty effecting service of process in the United States or enforcing judgments obtained in the United States.
We are a public company incorporated under the laws of Australia. Therefore, the rights of our shareholders are governed by Australian law and our constitution. These rights differ from the typical rights of stockholders of U.S. corporations. Circumstances that under U.S. law may entitle a stockholder of a U.S. company to claim damages may also give rise to a cause of action under Australian law entitling a shareholder in an Australian company to claim damages. However, this will not always be the case. Our shareholders may have difficulties enforcing, in actions brought in courts in jurisdictions located outside the United States, liabilities under U.S. securities laws. In particular, if such a shareholder sought to bring proceedings in Australia based on U.S. securities laws, considerations include:
|●||it may not be possible, or may be costly or time consuming, to effect service of process in the United States upon us or our non-U.S. resident directors or executive officers;|
|●||it may be difficult to enforce a judgment obtained in a U.S. court against us or our directors, including judgments under U.S. federal securities laws;|
|●||an Australian court may deny the recognition or enforcement of punitive damages or other awards or reduce the amount of damages granted by a U.S. court;|
|●||issues of private international law may apply which may lead to disputes about where court action or proceedings should be allowed to commence or continue, or which law of which jurisdiction applies and to which parts of the litigation;|
|●||an Australian court may not recognize a claim or may refuse to enforce it, in which case a claim may be required to be re-litigated before an Australian court in which procedure differs from U.S. civil procedure in a number of respects;|
|●||in applying Australian conflict of laws rules, that U.S. law (including U.S. securities laws) may not apply to the relationship between our shareholders and us or our directors and officers; and/or|
|●||that the U.S. securities laws may be regarded as having a public or penal nature and should not be enforced by the Australian court.|
Our shareholders may also have difficulties enforcing in courts outside the United States judgments obtained in the U.S. courts against any of our directors and executive officers or us, including actions under the civil liability provisions of the U.S. securities laws.
Our Ordinary Shares are subject to Australian insolvency laws which are substantially different from U.S. insolvency laws and may offer less protections to our shareholders compared to U.S. insolvency laws.
As a public company incorporated under the laws of Australia, we are subject to Australian insolvency laws and may also be subject to the insolvency laws of other jurisdictions in which we conduct business or have assets. These laws may apply where any insolvency proceedings or procedures are to be initiated against us. Australian insolvency laws may offer our shareholders less protection than they would have had under U.S. insolvency laws and it may be more difficult (or even impossible) for shareholders to recover the amount they could expect to recover in a liquidation under U.S. insolvency laws.
We may be deemed a payment service provider or energy supplier under local or international laws and may become subject to extensive and complex legislation and regulations or may in certain cases be required to register as a regulated entity under those jurisdictions’ laws and regulations.
We may be subject to payment service provider or energy supplier laws and regulations in the jurisdictions in which we conduct business or have assets. These laws and regulations may apply if we are deemed to be a payment service provider or energy supplier under Australian laws or the laws of other jurisdictions in which we conduct business or have assets. If these laws and regulations apply to us, then we may need to register as a regulated entity in the relevant jurisdiction and may also be subject to extensive and complex laws and regulations.
We may be involved from time to time in legal proceedings and commercial or contractual disputes, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
From time to time, we may be involved in legal proceedings and commercial disputes. Such proceedings or disputes are typically claims that arise in the ordinary course of business, including, without limitation, commercial or contractual disputes, and other disputes with customers and suppliers, intellectual property matters, environmental issues, tax matters and employment matters. There can be no assurance that such proceedings and claims, should they arise, will not have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Risks Related to Our Securities
Sales of a substantial number of our securities in the public market by our securityholders could cause the price of our Ordinary Shares and Warrants to fall.
Sales of a substantial number of Ordinary Shares and/or Warrants in the public market by our securityholders, or the perception that those sales might occur, could depress the market price of our Ordinary Shares and Warrants and could impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional equity securities. We are unable to predict the effect that such sales may have on the prevailing market price of our Ordinary Shares and Warrants.
Concentration of ownership among our existing executive officers, directors and their affiliates may prevent new investors from influencing significant corporate decisions.
Our executive officers, directors and their affiliates hold approximately 29.48% of the outstanding Ordinary Shares as of June 30, 2023. As a result, these shareholders are able to exercise a significant level of control over all matters requiring shareholder approval, including the election of directors, any amendment of our constitution and approval of significant corporate transactions. This control could have the effect of delaying or preventing a change of control or changes in management and will make the approval of certain transactions difficult or impossible without the support of these shareholders.
There is no guarantee that our Warrants will continue to be in the money, and they may expire worthless.
As of the date of this Annual Report, the exercise price for our Public Warrants and Private Placement Warrants is $6.90 per Ordinary Share, while the warrants issued in conjunction with the refinancing of the senior debt facility and the uncommitted accordion facility feature of up to $10.0 million included in the CIGNA Refinance Loan 2022 (“the Accordion Facility”). have an exercise price of $0.0001 per Ordinary Share. As of June 30, 2023, the sale price of our Ordinary Shares was $1.09 per share. If the price of our Ordinary Shares remains below $6.90 per share, the exercise price of our Warrants, warrant holders will be unlikely to cash exercise their Warrants resulting in little or no cash proceeds to us. There is no guarantee that our Warrants will be in the money and prior to their expiration, and as such, our Warrants may expire worthless.
Furthermore, as of September 12, 2023, we issued the Financing Warrants which further increased the number of outstanding warrants. The Financing Warrants, in addition to the Public Warrants and Private Placement Warrants, may cause significant dilution to our shareholders and further exacerbate the price at which the warrant holders may redeem their warrants making for an increased risk of the warrants potentially having little to no value.
Certain existing shareholders purchased our securities at a price below the current trading price of such securities, and may realize significant profits in the event of an increase in trading price. Future investors in the Company may not experience a similar investment return.
Before we listed on Nasdaq, certain existing shareholders purchased our securities at a price below the current trading price of such securities, and may realize significant profits in the event of an increase in trading price. Future investors in the Company may not experience a similar investment return. Certain of our shareholders acquired Ordinary Shares at prices below the current trading price of our Ordinary Shares, and may realize significant profits in the event of an increase in trading price.
Investors who purchase our Ordinary Shares in the open market following the Business Combination may not experience a similar rate of return on the securities they purchase due to differences in the purchase prices and the current trading price. Additionally, even though our Ordinary Shares may be trading at a price below the trading price of DCRN’s common stock prior to the Business Combination, certain affiliates may still be incentivized to sell their shares due to the relatively lower price they paid to acquire such shares.
We may amend the terms of our Warrants in a manner that may be adverse to holders of our Warrants with the approval by the holders of at least 50% of the then-outstanding Public Warrants (as defined below) (or, if applicable, 65% of the then-outstanding Public Warrants and 65% of the then-outstanding Private Placement Warrants (as defined below), voting as separate classes). As a result, the exercise price of our Warrants could be increased, the exercise period could be shortened and the number of our Ordinary Shares purchasable upon exercise of a Warrant could be decreased, all without a holder’s approval.
The warrants to purchase DCRN Public Warrants in the DCRN IPO, and the warrants to purchase DCRN Private Placement Warrants were issued in registered form under a warrant agreement. Such warrant agreement was amended and restate in connection with the consummation of the Business Combination to the A&R Warrant Agreement and all warrants converted into warrants to purchase an equal number of our Ordinary Shares (as converted, such DCRN Public Warrants being referred to as “Public Warrants,” such DCRN Private Placement Warrants being referred to as “Private Placement Warrants” and collectively referred to as the “DCRN Warrants”). The A&R Warrant Agreement provides that the terms of our Warrants may be amended without the consent of any holder to cure any ambiguity or correct any defective provision, but requires the approval by the holders of at least 50% of the then-outstanding Public Warrants to make any other modifications or amendments, including any change that adversely affects the interests of the registered holders of Public Warrants. Accordingly, we may amend the terms of our Warrants in a manner adverse to a holder if holders of at least 50% of the then-outstanding Public Warrants (or, in the case of an amendment that adversely affects the Public Warrants in a different manner than the Private Placement Warrants or vice versa, 65% of the then-outstanding Public Warrants and 65% of the then-outstanding Private Placement Warrants, voting as separate classes) approve of such amendment. Although our ability to amend the terms of our Warrants with the consent of at least 50% of the then-outstanding Public Warrants (or, if applicable, 65% of the then-outstanding Public Warrants and 65% of the then-outstanding Private Placement Warrants, voting as separate classes) is unlimited, examples of such amendments could be amendments to, among other things, increase the exercise price of the Warrants, convert the Warrants into cash or stock (at a ratio different than initially provided), shorten the exercise period or decrease the number of the Ordinary Shares purchasable upon exercise of a Warrant.
We may redeem unexpired Warrants prior to their exercise at a time that is disadvantageous to Warrant holders, thereby making such Warrants worthless.
Under the A&R Warrant Agreement, as adjusted in accordance with the terms of the agreement, we have the ability to redeem outstanding Warrants at any time after they become exercisable and prior to their expiration, at a price of $0.01 per Warrant, provided that the last reported sales price of our Ordinary Shares equals or exceeds $10.80 per share (as adjusted for stock splits, stock dividends, reorganizations, recapitalizations and the like) for any 20 trading days within a 30 trading-day period ending on the third trading day prior to the date on which we give proper notice of such redemption and provided certain other conditions are met. If and when the Warrants become redeemable by us, we may exercise our redemption right even if we are unable to register or qualify the underlying securities for sale under all applicable state securities laws. Redemption of the outstanding Warrants could force you (a) to exercise your Warrants and pay the exercise price therefor at a time when it may be disadvantageous for you to do so, (b) to sell your Warrants at the then-current market price when you might otherwise wish to hold your Warrants or (c) to accept the nominal redemption price which, at the time the outstanding Warrants are called for redemption, is likely to be substantially less than the market value of your Warrants.
The A&R Warrant Agreement designates the courts of the State of New York or the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York as the sole and exclusive forum for certain types of actions and proceedings that may be initiated by holders of our Warrants, which could limit the ability of warrant holders to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us.
The A&R Warrant Agreement provides that, subject to applicable law, (i) any action, proceeding or claim against us arising out of or relating in any way to the A&R Warrant Agreement, including under the Securities Act, will be brought and enforced in the courts of the State of New York or the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York, and (ii) that we irrevocably submit to such jurisdiction, which jurisdiction shall be the exclusive forum for any such action, proceeding or claim. We will waive any objection to such exclusive jurisdiction and that such courts represent an inconvenient forum. Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in any Warrants shall be deemed to have notice of and to have consented to the forum provisions in the A&R Warrant Agreement. If any action, the subject matter of which is within the scope of the forum provisions of the A&R Warrant Agreement, is filed in a court other than a court of the State of New York or the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York (a “foreign action”) in the name of any holder of our Warrants, such holder shall be deemed to have consented to: (x) the personal jurisdiction of the state and federal courts located in the State of New York in connection with any action brought in any such court to enforce the forum provisions (an “enforcement action”), and (y) having service of process made upon such warrant holder in any such enforcement action by service upon such warrant holder’s counsel in the foreign action as agent for such warrant holder.
We note, however, that there is uncertainty as to whether a court would enforce this provision and that investors cannot waive compliance with the federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder. Section 22 of the Securities Act creates concurrent jurisdiction for state and federal courts over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Securities Act or the rules and regulations thereunder.
This choice-of-forum provision may limit a Warrant holder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us, which may discourage such lawsuits. Additionally, Warrant holders who do bring a claim in the courts of the State of New York or the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York could face additional litigation costs in pursuing any such claim, particularly if they do not reside in or near New York. Alternatively, if a court were to find this provision of A&R Warrant Agreement inapplicable or unenforceable with respect to one or more of the specified types of actions or proceedings, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such matters in other jurisdictions, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations and result in a diversion of the time and resources of our management and board of directors.
Notwithstanding the foregoing, these provisions of the A&R Warrant Agreement do not apply to suits brought to enforce any liability or duty created by the Exchange Act or any other claim for which the federal district courts of the United States of America are the sole and exclusive forum. Section 27 of the Exchange Act creates exclusive federal jurisdiction over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or the rules and regulations thereunder.
If securities or industry analysts do not publish or cease publishing research or reports about us, our business or our market, or if they change their recommendations regarding our Ordinary Shares adversely, the price and trading volume of our Ordinary Shares could decline.
The trading market for our Ordinary Shares will be influenced by the research and reports that industry or securities analysts may publish about us, our business, our market or our competitors. If any of the analysts who may cover us change their recommendation regarding our Ordinary Shares adversely, or provide more favorable relative recommendations about our competitors, the price of our Ordinary Shares would likely decline. If any analyst who may cover us were to cease their coverage or fail to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which could cause our stock price or trading volume to decline.
We are a holding company. Our sole material assets are our cash and equity interest in Tritium Holdings and its other direct and indirect subsidiaries and we are accordingly dependent upon distributions from such subsidiaries to pay taxes and cover our corporate and other overhead expenses.
Our sole material assets are cash and our equity interest in Tritium Holdings and its other direct and indirect subsidiaries. We have no independent means of generating revenue. To the extent any subsidiary has available cash, we intend to cause the subsidiary to make non-pro rata payments to us to reimburse us for our corporate and other overhead expenses. To the extent that we need funds and a subsidiary is restricted from making such distributions or payment under applicable law or regulation or under the terms of any financing arrangements due to restrictive covenants or otherwise, or are otherwise unable to provide such funds, our liquidity and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.
The price at which our Ordinary Shares and Warrants are quoted on Nasdaq may increase or decrease due to a number of factors, which may negatively affect the price of our Ordinary Shares and Warrants.
The price at which our Ordinary Shares and Warrants are quoted on Nasdaq may increase or decrease due to a number of factors. These factors may cause our Ordinary Shares and Warrants to trade at prices above or below the price at which our Ordinary Shares and Warrants are being offered under this document. There is no assurance that the price of our Ordinary Shares and Warrants will increase following the quotation of our Ordinary Shares and Warrants on Nasdaq, even if our operations and financial performance improve. Some of the factors, which may affect the price of our Ordinary Shares and Warrants include:
|●||fluctuations in the domestic and international market for listed stocks;|
|●||general economic conditions, including interest rates, inflation rates, exchange rates, commodity and oil prices;|
|●||changes to government fiscal, monetary or regulatory policies, legislation or regulation;|
|●||inclusion in or removal from market indices;|
|●||changes to government fiscal, monetary or regulatory policy, legislation or regulation;|
|●||acquisition and dilution;|
|●||the nature of the markets in which we operate; and|
|●||general operational and business risks.|
Other factors, which may negatively affect investor sentiment and influence us, specifically, or the stock market more generally, include acts of terrorism, an outbreak of international hostilities or tensions, fires, floods, earthquakes, labor strikes, civil wars, natural disasters, outbreaks of disease or other man-made or natural events. We have a limited ability to insure against some of the risks mentioned above.
There is no guarantee that we will pay dividends or make other distributions in the future. If we are able to pay dividends, there is no guarantee that we will be able to offer fully franked dividends.
Our ability to pay dividends or make other distributions in the future is contingent on profits and certain other factors, including the capital and operational expenditure requirements of the business. Under the Corporations Act, a dividend may only be paid if our assets exceed our liabilities immediately before the dividend is declared and the excess is sufficient for the payment of the dividend, the payment of the dividend is fair and reasonable to our shareholders as a whole and the payment of the dividend does not materially prejudice our ability to pay our creditors. Therefore, there is no assurance that dividends will be paid. Moreover, to the extent that we pay any dividends, our ability to offer fully franked dividends is contingent on making taxable profits. Our taxable profits may be difficult to predict, making the payment of franked dividends unpredictable. A component of Australia’s corporate tax system is dividend imputation, whereby some or all of the tax paid by a company may be attributed, or imputed, to the shareholders by way of a tax credit (known as a franking credit) to reduce income tax payable on that dividend income. A dividend that is “fully franked” carries a franking credit equivalent to the tax paid by the company on those profits distributed to Australian shareholders. A fully franked dividend distributed to non-Australian shareholders is not subject to Australian dividend withholding tax. The value of franking credits to a shareholder will differ depending on the shareholder’s particular tax circumstances. Our shareholders should also be aware that the ability to use franking credits, either as a tax offset or to claim a refund after the end of the income year, will depend on the individual tax position of each shareholder. See the section entitled “Material Australian Tax Considerations” for more information regarding the Australian tax consequences of our future dividends.
Risks Related to Our Series A Convertible Redeemable Preference Shares
Holders of our Preference Shares are entitled to certain payments under the Schedule of Terms that may be paid in cash or in Ordinary Shares, depending on the circumstances. If we make these payments in cash, it may require the expenditure of a substantial portion of our cash resources. If we make these payments in Ordinary Shares, it may result in substantial dilution to the holders of our Ordinary Shares.
We will be required to redeem the Preference Shares in equal installments, commencing on September 21, 2023, with each subsequent installment due and payable every twenty (20) trading days thereafter until such Preference Shares are redeemed (each an “Installment Date”). The installment payments are payable, at our election, in cash, or subject to certain limitations, in Ordinary Shares valued at the greater of (A) the Floor Price and (B) the lower of (i) the Conversion Price then in effect, (ii) 94% of the arithmetic average of the three (3) lowest daily VWAPs of the ten (10) trading days prior to the payment date and (iii) 94% of the VWAP of the trading day prior to payment date. For purposes of the Schedule of Terms, “Floor Price” means $0.15, subject to adjustment for stock splits, stock dividends, stock combinations, recapitalizations or other similar events, provided (a) that if on an Adjustment Date the Floor Price then in effect is higher than the Adjusted Floor Price with respect to such Adjustment Date, on such Adjustment Date the Floor Price shall be automatically lowered to such applicable Adjusted Floor Price and (b) that we may reduce the Floor Price to any amount set forth in a written notice to the holder with at least five (5) trading day prior written notice (or such other time as we and the holder shall mutually agree); provided, further, that any such reduction shall be irrevocable and shall not be subject to increase thereafter.
Our ability to make payments due to the holders of our Preference Shares using Ordinary Shares is subject to certain limitations set forth in the Schedule of Terms. If we are unable to make installment payments in Ordinary Shares, we may be forced to make such payments in cash. If we do not have sufficient cash resources to make these payments, we may need to raise additional equity or debt capital, and we cannot provide any assurance that we will be successful in doing so. If are unable to raise sufficient capital to meet our payment obligations, we may need to delay, reduce or eliminate certain research and development programs or other operations, sell some or all of our assets or merge with another entity.
Our ability to make payments due to the holders of our Preference Shares using cash is also limited by the amount of cash we have on hand at the time such payments are due as well as certain provisions of the Corporations Act. Further, we may make the installment payments due to holders of Preference Shares in the form of Ordinary Shares to the extent allowed under the Schedule of Terms and applicable law in order to preserve our cash resources. The issuance of Ordinary Shares to the holders of our Preference Shares with increase the number of Ordinary Shares outstanding and could result in substantial dilution to the existing holders of our Ordinary Shares.
The Schedule of Terms for the Preference Shares contain anti-dilution provisions that may result in the reduction of the conversion price of the Preference Shares in the future. This feature may result in an indeterminate number of Ordinary Shares being issued upon conversion of the Preference Shares. Sales of these shares will dilute the interests of other security holders and may depress the price of our Ordinary Shares and make it difficult for us to raise additional capital.
The Schedule of Terms for our Preference Shares contains provisions which require the lowering of the applicable conversion price, as then in effect, to a discount of the prevailing market price of our Ordinary Shares as a result of a Triggering Event, Equity Conditions Failure or the existence or occurrence of certain other conditions or events, as described in the Schedule of Terms. If in the future, while any of our Preference Shares are outstanding, the relevant conversion price may be reduced as a result of such events or conditions, which will result in a greater number of Ordinary Shares being issuable upon conversion of the Preference Shares, which in turn will have a greater dilutive effect on our shareholders. In addition, the floor price on the conversion price may be adjusted, so we cannot determine the maximum total number of shares potentially issuable upon conversion. If this condition becomes true then we will be required to issue more Ordinary Shares upon conversion of the Preference Shares than initially anticipated. The potential for such additional issuances may depress the price of our Ordinary Shares regardless of our business performance. We may find it more difficult to raise additional equity capital while any of our Preference Shares is outstanding.
Under the Preference Shares SPA we are subject to certain restrictive covenants that may make it difficult to procure additional financing.
The Preference Shares SPA contains the following restrictive covenants: (i) we are prohibited, until no Preference Shares remain outstanding, from issuing or selling certain convertible securities or entering into any agreement whereby we may issue or sell securities at a future determined price after the execution of the Preference Shares SPA, we agreed not to issue or sell any equity security or convertible security, subject to certain exceptions; and (ii) we agreed to offer to the investors party to the Preference Shares SPA, until the later of no Preference Shares being outstanding and the maturity date of the Preference Shares, the opportunity to participate in any subsequent securities offerings by us. If we require additional funding while these restrictive covenants remain in effect, we may be unable to effect a financing transaction while remaining in compliance with the terms of the Preference Shares SPA, or we may be forced to seek a waiver from the investors party to the Preference Shares SPA.
General Risk Factors
The JOBS Act permits EGCs like us to take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements applicable to public companies that are not EGCs.
We qualify as an EGC. As such, we expect to take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements applicable to public companies that are not EGCs, including (a) the exemption from the auditor attestation requirements with respect to internal control over financial reporting under Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, (b) the exemptions from say-on-pay, say-on-frequency and say-on-golden parachute voting requirements and (c) reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements. As a result, our shareholders may not have access to certain information they deem important. We will remain an EGC until the earliest of (a) the last day of the fiscal year (i) following February 8, 2026, the fifth anniversary of DCRN’s initial public offering, (ii) in which we have total annual gross revenue of at least $1.235 billion (as adjusted for inflation pursuant to SEC rules from time to time) or (iii) in which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer, which means the market value of our Ordinary Shares and Warrants that are held by non-affiliates exceeds $700.0 million as of the last business day of the prior second fiscal quarter, and (b) the date on which we have issued more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt during the prior three year period.
In addition, Section 107 of the JOBS Act provides that an EGC may take advantage of the exemption from complying with new or revised accounting standards provided in Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act as long as it is an EGC. An EGC can therefore delay the adoption of certain accounting standards until those standards would otherwise apply to private companies. The JOBS Act provides that a company may elect to opt out of the extended transition period and comply with the requirements that apply to non-EGCs, but any such election to opt out is irrevocable. We have elected not to opt out of such extended transition period, which means that when a standard is issued or revised and it has different application dates for public or private companies, we, as an EGC, can adopt the new or revised standard at the time private companies adopt the new or revised standard. This may make comparison of our financial statements with another public company, which is neither an EGC nor an EGC, which has opted out of using the extended transition period, difficult or impossible because of the potential differences in accounting standards used.
We cannot predict if investors will find our Ordinary Shares and Warrants less attractive because we will rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our Ordinary Shares and Warrants less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our Ordinary Shares and Warrants, and their stock price may be more volatile.
As a “foreign private issuer” under the rules and regulations of the SEC, we are permitted to, and may, file less or different information with the SEC than a company incorporated in the United States or otherwise not filing as a “foreign private issuer,” and will follow certain home country corporate governance practices in lieu of certain Nasdaq requirements applicable to U.S. issuers.
We are considered a “foreign private issuer” under the Exchange Act and is therefore exempt from certain rules under the Exchange Act, including the proxy rules, which impose certain disclosure and procedural requirements for proxy solicitations for U.S. and other issuers. Moreover, we are not be required to file periodic reports and financial statements with the SEC as frequently or within the same timeframes as U.S. companies with securities registered under the Exchange Act. Although we currently prepare our financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, we are not required to do so, or to reconcile to U.S. GAAP, if we instead elect to prepare our financial statements in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board. Further, under Australian law, we prepare financial statements on a semi-annual and an annual basis, and we are not required to prepare or file quarterly financial information. We currently intend to publish our results on a semi-annual and an annual basis assuming we are subject to the reporting requirements of Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act and qualify as a “foreign private issuer” at the time of publication. We intend to publicly (1) file our audited annual financial statements on Form 20-F with the SEC and (2) furnish semi-annual financial statements on Form 6-K to the SEC. We are also not required to comply with Regulation Fair Disclosure, which imposes restrictions on the selective disclosure of material information to shareholders. In addition, our officers, directors and principal shareholders are exempt from the reporting and short-swing profit recovery provisions of Section 16 of the Exchange Act and the rules under the Exchange Act with respect to their purchases and sales of our securities. Accordingly, holders of our securities may receive less extensive, less timely, more infrequent or different information about our company than may be available about a U.S. domestic public company.
In addition, as a “foreign private issuer” whose shares are listed on Nasdaq, we are permitted, subject to certain exceptions, to follow certain home country rules in lieu of certain Nasdaq listing requirements, which we intend to take advantage of. A foreign private issuer must disclose in its annual reports filed with the SEC each Nasdaq requirement with which it does not comply, followed by a description of its applicable home country practice. We have the option to rely on available exemptions under Nasdaq’s Listing Rules that would allow us to follow our home country practice, including, among other things, the ability to opt out of (i) the requirement that our board of directors be comprised of a majority independent directors, (ii) the requirement that our independent directors meet regularly in executive sessions and (iii) the requirement that we obtain shareholder approval prior to the issuance of securities in connection with certain acquisitions, private placements of securities, or the establishment or amendment of certain stock option, purchase or other compensation plans. Our board of directors is comprised of a majority of independent directors. See Item 6. “Directors, Senior Management and Employees—Board Practices—Independence of Directors” for additional information.
We could lose our status as a “foreign private issuer” under current SEC rules and regulations if more than 50% of our outstanding voting securities become directly or indirectly held of record by U.S. holders and any one of the following is true: (i) the majority of our directors or executive officers are U.S. citizens or residents; (ii) more than 50% of our assets are located in the United States; or (iii) our business is administered principally in the United States. If we lose our status as a foreign private issuer in the future, we will no longer be exempt from the rules described above and, among other things, will be required to file periodic reports and annual and quarterly financial statements as if we were a company incorporated in the United States. If this were to happen, we would likely incur substantial costs in fulfilling these additional regulatory requirements and members of our management would likely have to divert time and resources from other responsibilities to ensuring these additional regulatory requirements are fulfilled.
The majority of our directors and executive officers are non-residents of the United States and as a result, it may not be possible for investors to enforce civil liabilities against those directors and executive officers.
The majority of our directors and executive officers are non-residents of the United States, and all or a substantial portion of the assets of such persons are located outside the United States. As a result, it may not be possible for investors to effect service of process within the United States upon such persons or to enforce against them judgments obtained in U.S. courts predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the federal securities laws of the United States. There is doubt as to the enforceability in Australia in original actions, or in actions for enforcement of judgments of U.S. courts, of civil liabilities to the extent predicated upon the federal securities laws of the United States. In Australia, civil liability of directors and officers is dealt with by both common law and by various statutes, including the Corporations Act and the Civil Liability Act 2003 (Qld).
Our constitution and other Australian laws and regulations applicable to us may adversely affect our ability to take actions that could be deemed beneficial to our shareholders.
As an Australian company, we are subject to different corporate requirements than a corporation organized under the laws of the United States. Our constitution, as well as the Corporations Act, set forth various rights and obligations that are unique to us as an Australian company. These requirements may limit or otherwise adversely affect our ability to take actions that could be beneficial to our shareholders, including provisions that:
|●||specify that general meetings of our shareholders can be called only by our board of directors or otherwise by shareholders in accordance with the Corporations Act;|
|●||allow the directors to appoint a person either as an additional director or as a director to fill a casual vacancy (i.e., a vacancy, which arises due to a person ceasing to be a director of a company prior to the general meeting of the company); and|
|●||allow the activities of the company to be managed by, or under the direction of, the directors.|
Provisions of the laws of Australia may also have the effect of delaying or preventing a change of control or changes in our management. For example, the Corporations Act includes provisions that:
|●||require that any action to be taken by our shareholders be effected at a duly called general meeting (including the annual general meeting) and not by written consent;|
|●||permit shareholders to requisition a general meeting only if shareholders with at least 5% voting power request the meeting; and|
|●||require the approval of shareholders with at least 75% voting power to amend the provisions of our constitution.|
In addition, because we are a public limited company organized under the laws of Australia and have more than 50 registered members, we are subject to Australia’s takeovers laws. Australia’s Takeovers Panel is a peer review body that operates as the primary forum for the resolution of takeover disputes in Australia. The Australian Securities and Investments Commission (the “ASIC”) is the main body responsible for regulating and enforcing Australia’s takeovers laws, and has the power to refer matters to the Takeovers Panel. Australia’s takeovers laws regulate both Australian entities listed on a prescribed financial market operated in Australia and Australian companies that have more than 50 registered members. For so long as we meet this criteria, we will be subject to the rules and restrictions applying under Australia’s takeovers laws in respect of the manner in which we respond or react to any takeover bid or other corporate control transaction, including but not limited to the following: (i) our ability to enter into deal protection arrangements with a bidder would be limited; and (ii) we may not, without the approval of our shareholders, be able to perform certain actions that could have the effect of frustrating an offer, such as issuing shares or carrying out acquisitions or disposals or entering into arrangements that may grant options or rights in respect of our shares or assets.
Our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected by disruptions in the global economy caused by the ongoing conflict between Russia and Ukraine.
The global economy has been negatively impacted by the military conflict between Russia and Ukraine. Furthermore, governments in the United States, United Kingdom, European Union and Australia have each imposed export controls on certain products and/or financial and economic sanctions on certain industry sectors and parties in Russia. Although we have no operations in Russia or Ukraine, we believe some shortages in materials, increased costs for raw material and other supply chain issues are at least partially attributable to the negative impact of the Russia-Ukraine military conflict on the global economy. Further escalation of geopolitical tensions related to the military conflict, including increased trade barriers or restrictions on global trade, could result in, among other things, cyberattacks, additional supply disruptions, lower consumer demand and changes to foreign exchange rates and financial markets, any of which may adversely affect our business and supply chain. In addition, the effects of the ongoing conflict could heighten many of our known risks described herein under “Risk Factors.”
The United Kingdom’s exit from the European Union may adversely impact our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
The United Kingdom withdrew from the European Union (“Brexit”) on January 31, 2020, subject to a transitional/implementation period, which ended on December 31, 2020. On December 24, 2020, the United Kingdom announced that it had reached agreement on a draft EU-UK Trade and Cooperation Agreement (“TCA”) covering trade in goods and in services, digital trade, intellectual property, public procurement aviation and road transport, energy, fisheries, social security coordination, law enforcement and judicial cooperation in criminal matters, thematic cooperation and participation in the European Union programs. The UK Parliament ratified the United Kingdom’s entry into, and implementation of, the TCA on December 30, 2020 pursuant to the EU (Future Relationship) Act 2020. The impact of Brexit on the economic outlook of the Eurozone and the United Kingdom, and associated global implications, remain uncertain. As a result of the legal, political and economic uncertainty surrounding Brexit, we may experience reductions in business activity, increased delivery times, increased funding costs, increased operating costs due to trade tariffs, increased trade compliance burden and costs to capture, administer and record all item and part origins for customs authorities, differing standards in the United Kingdom and the European Union, and the need to acquire new certifications, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Significant inflation could adversely affect our business and financial results.
Although historically our operations have not been materially affected by inflation and we have been successful in adjusting prices to our customers to reflect changes in our material and labor costs, the rate of current inflation and resulting pressures on our costs and pricing could adversely impact our business and financial results. Inflation can adversely affect us by increasing our operating costs, including our materials, freight and labor costs, which are already under pressure due to supply chain constraints and the continuing effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. Financing pressures from inflation can have a negative impact on customers’ willingness to purchase our products in the same volumes and at the same rates as previously anticipated. In a highly inflationary environment, we may be unable to raise the sales prices of our products at or above the rate of inflation, which could reduce our profit margins having a material adverse effect on our financial performance.
Events outside our control may have a material adverse effect on our supply chain, the demand for our applications and our ability to conduct business.
Events may occur within or outside Australia that negatively impact global, Australian or other local economies relevant to our financial performance, operations and/or the price of our Ordinary Shares. These events include but are not limited to an increase of the impact of COVID-19, new pandemics, acts of terrorism, an outbreak of international hostilities, fires, floods, earthquakes, labor strikes, civil wars, natural disasters, outbreaks of disease or other natural or man-made events or occurrences that may have a material adverse effect on our supply chain, the demand for our applications and our ability to conduct business.
ITEM 4.INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY
A.History and Development of the Company
DCRN was incorporated on December 4, 2020 for the purpose of effecting a merger, capital stock exchange, asset acquisition, stock purchase, reorganization or similar business combination with one or more businesses. We were incorporated as an Australian company on May 7, 2021. Tritium Holdings was incorporated on July 21, 2010.
On May 25, 2021, we entered into the Business Combination Agreement with DCRN, Tritium Holdings and Merger Sub, pursuant to which we completed the Business Combination.
Our principal capital expenditures in the last three financial years have been primarily on payments for property plant and equipment which were $7.95 million, $7.02 million and $2.57 million for the fiscal years ended June 30, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively.
The following table presents our capital expenditure by geographic area based on the entity that holds the capital items. The entity’s geographical area is based on the place of incorporation.
June 30, 2023
June 30, 2022
June 30, 2021
Total Capital Expenditure
For a further discussion of our principal capital expenditures and divestitures, refer to Item 5. “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Liquidity and Capital Resources,” Note 13. “Property, Plant and Equipment” and Note 22. “Segment Reporting” to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report.
Our principal place of business is 48 Miller Street Murarrie, QLD 4172 Australia. Our telephone number is +61 (07) 3147 8500.
Our agent for service of process in the United States is Cogency Global Inc., 122 East 42nd Street, 18th Floor New York, NY 10168.
The Nature of the Company’s Operations
We design, sell, manufacture and service proprietary hardware and associated software to create advanced and reliable DC fast chargers for EVs. Our technology is engineered to be easy to manufacture, install, own, service and use, and our compact, robust chargers are designed to look great on Main Street and thrive in harsh conditions. As of June 30, 2023, we have sold more than 13,300 DC fast chargers and have provided high-power charging sessions across 47 countries.
Major auto manufacturers such as BMW, Ford, GM, Honda, and Volkswagen, among others, have committed to producing more EVs and various governments have begun implementing supportive policies. For example, a bipartisan infrastructure bill supports a $7.5 billion investment toward new EV chargers in the United States over the next decade and the Biden Administration has established a target for 500,000 new chargers in the United States over the next decade and has established a target for 50% of all new car sales to be EVs by 2030. In the coming years, we believe EVs will cost less than ICE vehicles. Bloomberg New Energy Finance (“BNEF”) has forecasted that this price parity in Europe can be achieved by 2027, and in all countries and vehicle segments by 2029. In addition, BNEF has forecasted that EVs are expected to increase from 4% of global passenger vehicle sales in 2020 to 75% by 2040. Additional factors propelling this shift from ICE vehicles to EVs include proposed fossil fuel bans or restrictions, transit electrification mandates and utility incentive programs. However, the global transition to an EV-based transportation network will depend on, among other things, the availability of sufficient charging infrastructure. Accordingly, a BNEF report projects that the cumulative EV charging infrastructure investment including hardware, installation, maintenance, and other services in the United States and Europe will be approximately $193.0 billion by 2030 and increasing to $500.0 billion by 2040. We believe we are at the forefront of the charging equipment build-out, focusing exclusively on DC fast charging of EVs.
Our DC Fast Charging
DC fast chargers have certain advantages over alternating current (“AC”) chargers. Compared to DC charging, AC charging is generally slower. Because DC fast chargers are generally faster than AC chargers, they tend to reduce charging time and may contribute to reduced range anxiety for EV drivers. For example, a typical AC charger may take approximately 91 minutes and 47 minutes at 3.7 kW and 7.7 kW, respectively, to add 20 miles of range to a battery-powered EV (“BEV”). Most BEVs are limited to receiving between seven and 11 kW via onboard AC charging due to space, weight and heat restrictions, resulting in an average time of 47 minutes to add 20 miles of range. Conversely, off-board DC fast charging can deliver more power in less time than AC charging, adding 20 miles of range in approximately seven minutes at 50 kW, or in approximately one minute at 350 kW. Nearly all BEV passenger vehicles are capable of charging at 50 kW DC, with newer models capable of charging at approximately 200 kW DC or more. Due to their efficiency, we believe DC fast chargers will play a critical role in meeting EV energy demand in the future, and driver preferences for fast, convenient charging.
Industry studies estimate that more than 13 million DC fast chargers will be needed by 2040. We believe we are well positioned to help meet this demand because our charging systems are designed to supply charging operators across a full range of customer types, including public network operators, fleets, retail operators, EV manufacturers, fuel retailers, utilities and heavy duty and industrial vehicles.
We focus exclusively on DC fast charging solutions for EVs. This has led to us developing technology solutions differentiated from those of many of our competitors. Our fully liquid-cooled charging technology enables the charging station to achieve an ingress protection (“IP”) 65 rating and be sealed from dirt, dust, salt and other corrosive contaminants, and to operate in a wide range of ambient temperatures and environmental conditions. In contrast, many of our competitors offer air-cooled chargers, which require both a physically larger charging station to accommodate internal space for air circulation, and the use of air filters for dust, moisture and corrosion prevention. These air filters may need to be replaced as frequently as twice a year, with each replacement requiring a site visit to the charging station.
Our technology has been designed with a small and narrow physical footprint to maximize real estate utilization, and with the goal of enabling superior reliability and longevity in the field. The differentiated and patented design can reduce the total cost of ownership up to 37% over ten years of operation compared to air-cooled charging systems. The smaller footprint design allows our chargers to be installed almost anywhere with sufficient grid feed and reduces or eliminates the number of car parking spaces lost to charging stations for site hosts.
Our most recently launched products further differentiate us from many of our competitors. Our retail modular (“RTM”) model charging system, which launched in the fourth calendar quarter of 2020, is built on a modular and scalable technology platform that is designed to allow power conversion modules in the charging stations to be quickly replaced or upgraded. This modularity is designed to allow charging operators to increase or reduce the power capacity of each charging unit depending on the operator’s utilization needs. Our park modular (“PKM”) model charging system, which we launched in December 2021, is built upon the same modular, scalable charging platform as the RTM system, and will also allow the site operator to easily scale the number of charging outlets at a site in a cost-effective manner by relocating rectification from the charging units to a centralized rectification unit. From an internal operations perspective, we believe that the modular and scalable components will improve logistics and customer support across the Tritium organization and will reduce costs by minimizing the number of components required to build and service chargers, simplifying the servicing of chargers in the field and optimizing failure modes. We believe that the modular scalable technology platform will also facilitate faster new product development based on common core building blocks across the product suite and will streamline the compliance and certification processes.
We also develop embedded firmware that operates the charging hardware and interaction with the vehicle, and platform software, which provides user interfaces to manage operators’ charging assets. Eight years of operating history and millions of charging sessions provide insight into driver behavior, charging patterns, grid interaction and the overall performance of our systems. This information is not only used for internal decision making, but we believe access to this data provides a competitive advantage over newcomers to the EV charging industry.
Our embedded firmware and charging technology software has been developed in-house, using both proprietary and industry-wide standards and protocols. Our firmware allows the charger to communicate securely and seamlessly with the vehicle and to ensure safety protocols are met. In 2020, we became the first charging station manufacturer in the world to implement the Plug and Charge (ISO 15118) software standard, enabling charging operators to take payment via the charging cable and eliminating the need for credit cards, RFID cards or smartphone apps.
Vehicle manufacturers need to ensure their EVs operate correctly with public charging infrastructure. To facilitate this, we provide confidential testing facilities at our main site locations in Brisbane, Amsterdam and Los Angeles. Based on these tests, we believe EV manufacturers can ensure compliant charging infrastructure compatibility with their new EVs prior to releasing them to the market.
Our platform software, MyTritium (which is reflective of a migration of two separate systems used in the past, “Pulse” and “MyTritium,” into a single technology platform that performs the functions of both systems), provides charging station operators with a charger and service management platform that details charging history, performance and asset utilization data, as well as a ticketing system for fault management. Our roadmap for software development includes significant enhancements to the platform software, such as new features and functionality, to help increase subscription levels. The software roadmap also includes the launch and ongoing development of a new API as well as new software modules, including advertising, preventative maintenance, and fleet utilization optimization.
Since selling our first 50 kW charger in 2014, we have developed a talented and experienced engineering team.
Our Chief Executive Officer, Jane Hunter, joined us four years ago from an executive role at Boeing, where she worked for more than seven years, specializing in the commercialization of disruptive technology. Ms. Hunter was the Chief Operating Officer of Boeing’s global Phantom Works division, the rapid prototyping and advanced technology division charged with taking early-stage research through test and prototype to commercialization. She led a portfolio of approximately 12 to 15 disruptive technology projects with a focus on autonomous underwater and aerial systems, including UAV/UUV hardware, the mission systems to drive the vehicles, advanced sensor and data fusion technology, as well as UAV detection systems. Ms. Hunter has been publicly recognized for her achievements in these fields, in particular for her contribution to Boeing’s Airpower Teaming System (also known as the Loyal Wingman), a 38-foot stealth, intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance, unmanned aerial vehicle.
Our Chief Technology Officer, Glen Bethel joined Tritium in January 2022 and formerly served as the company’s Vice President of Operations Engineering. Mr. Bethel has deep expertise in electronics and systems engineering, computer science, software development, and systems integration, including senior engineering roles at Boeing Defence Australia leading research and development and developing and integrating capabilities into the Loyal Wingman project. Mr. Bethel also has complex modelling and simulation expertise through past roles with Boeing Defence as the Technical Lead for the Systems Analysis Laboratory and from his tenure as the CIO of the Land Warfare Development Centre in the Australian Army, in which he also served for over 20 years in electronics and systems engineering roles.
Our Vice President of Product Development, Brian Johns leads new product development and introduction to manufacturing, as well as the company’s product roadmap. Mr. Johns has more than 20 years of experience in Australia and across Asia, developing engineered product solutions for industries including consumer appliances, industrial, automotive, military, and medical. Mr. Johns is an industrial engineer with deep product development and design for manufacturing experience. He most recently served as General Manager of Product, Innovation, Engineering, Quality, and Development for Disc Brakes Australia and previously as Technical Director and CTO (Hong Kong/China) of Innova Products.
Our Program Director, Bronwyn Morris, leads complex new product programs and joined Tritium in July 2023. Ms. Morris was employed at Boeing Defence Australia from 2014 through to 2023 and from 2005 through to 2011, in various technical roles including as a senior systems engineering lead and as the Integrated Product Team Manager – Field Hardware & Assembly for the Currawong Program (Land 2072), a complex defense communications engineering program. Ms. Morris was also a senior project manager at Fujitsu and served in the Australian Army as a communications technician for nine years.
Other Tritium engineering staff participate regularly in industry working groups and testing symposiums to ensure that we remain at the forefront of emerging EV charging standards, regulations, and innovations.
Leading Edge Rapid Product Development
We have a strong history of rapid and leading-edge product development in the emerging EV charging station design and manufacturing industry. We were an early market participant for 50 kW charging stations (selling our first 50 kW charger in 2014) and secured early contracts to develop and commercialize high power charging equipment with an output of 350 kW, in what was at the time a nascent market. Most recently, we have developed our Modular Scalable Charging (“MSC”) architecture, and DC bus architecture (patents pending), on which the next generation of our products will be built. We anticipate that these new architectures will enable faster development, simpler compliance and certification approvals and servicing from a common base of core product building blocks and components.
The ability to ensure certification standards are being met during the product development phase will also be expedited by our new testing facility, which we believe, based on facilities available to us for product testing, ranks among the world’s highest power electromagnetic compatibility (“EMC”) test facilities for EV chargers when it opened in November 2021. EMC testing is required for electronic products to be sold to the public, ensuring they do not emit levels of electromagnetic energy that cause interference to other devices in the vicinity, and there are very few global test and certification agencies that can test ultra-fast and high-power charging products. Our EMC test facility also houses a full range of advanced testing equipment such as thermal and environmental test chambers, ingress and impact testing, and glow-wire test facilities. We believe this new facility will ultimately allow us to develop and bring certified and self-certified products to market more quickly.
Principal Markets in Which the Company Competes
Most DC charging providers are limited to a single geographic business region due to varying compliance standards. We sell a range of products that meet the standards in most countries in North America, Europe, and the Asia Pacific, which allows us to currently sell charging equipment into 47 countries. We hold a market share for DC fast chargers of approximately 30% in the United States and 12% in Europe as of June 30, 2023. Based on sales order figures for the full year ended June 30, 2023, the United States and Europe accounted for approximately 27% and 53% of sales orders received by the Company, respectively. In the Asia Pacific, we believe we are the leading supplier of DC fast chargers in both Australia and New Zealand with a market share of approximately 75% as of June 30, 2023. To meet the needs of our customers across these geographies, we offer 24/7 global support and a range of service level agreements for in-field support. The information regarding the Company’s market share is based on third party databases and the Company’s estimates.
For a description of the principal markets in which we compete, including a breakdown of total revenues see Note 22 to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this document. The Company has the same activity in each market and therefore did not include an additional breakdown by category of activity.
We principally compete with approximately five to ten major DC charging manufacturers that are based in Europe and the United States.
We are differentiated from other DC charging manufacturers through our DC fast charging technology that has been developed in-house, including the proprietary and patented liquid cooling system that allows us to obtain an ingress protection rating of IP65. We believe that our new generation of charging technology, the MSC platform, which launched in the fourth calendar quarter of 2021, will further differentiate us and provide additional benefits to our customers. The new MSC technology platform is a fully sealed, liquid cooled, module-based design that not only protects the internal power electronics equipment from particle ingress, but also makes the charger easier to service with power modules that can be lifted by a single person, and increases redundancy in the case of a module failure. The unique design allows the system to be modular and scalable in three dimensions across the whole site, where operators can scale the options available to drivers by (i) adding more charging stations, (ii) adding more power modules to charging stations, or (iii) adding more power capacity in the site centralized rectification unit. The MSC design provides increased efficiency to operators as well as increased flexibility to better match charging demand to installed capacity, as well as the flexibility to expand the site over time as driver demand increases.
We also compete with AC charger manufacturers in applications where slow charging may be sufficient, such as small commercial settings or overnight fleet charging applications. Furthermore, our competition includes other types of alternative fuel vehicles, plug-in hybrid EVs and high fuel-economy gasoline powered vehicles.
In addition, there are other means for charging EVs that could affect the level of demand for public charging capabilities. For example, Tesla Inc. continues to build out its proprietary supercharger network, which could reduce overall demand for EV charging at other sites. In addition, many EV manufacturers are now offering home charging equipment which could reduce the demand for public fast charging services if EV owners find charging at home to be sufficient for their personal charging requirements. Additionally, other large automotive manufacturers have announced their willingness to adapt to Tesla’s proprietary supercharger connectors, potentially furthering the reach of Tesla’s network. Tritium intends to integrate the NACS connector into our charging stations when it is available and approved by appropriate regulators/compliance bodies.
We believe the primary factors on which we compete include:
|●||charging speed of its chargers compared to AC chargers;|
|●||total cost of ownership compared to air-cooled chargers;|
|●||variety and quality of product offerings;|
|●||product performance and reliability;|
|●||ease of use;|
|●||brand awareness and trust;|
|●||quality of support; and|
|●||scale and location of operations.|
We believe we compete favorably with respect to each of these factors, in particular product performance, reliability, total cost of ownership and ease of use.
We have not experienced any material seasonality in our business.
We are a technology provider that primarily generates revenue from the sale of DC fast charging solutions. Our solutions are made up of core charging hardware including embedded on-device firmware, adjacent software platforms that let owners monitor and manage their assets, and ongoing maintenance services including the provision of spare parts, extended warranties, services outside warranty and a range of service level agreement options.
Charging Station Hardware Portfolio
Stand Alone Chargers
|●||50 kW: Our 50 kW charger, the RT50, was introduced in 2014 and was the first fully liquid cooled DC charger on the market, a feature that remains unique to Tritium. The patented liquid cooling allows the charger to be fully sealed, achieving an IP65 ingress protection rating. We stopped manufacturing this charger in the first quarter of calendar year 2023, but we continue to provide service to existing chargers and offer the RTM50, a modular solution with better serviceability.|
|●||75 kW: Our 75 kW charger, the RTM75, builds on the competitive advantages of the RT50 product. The RTM75 retains our signature small and narrow footprint and lower total cost of ownership, enabled by liquid cooling technology, while introducing our new MSC hardware platform. The MSC platform in the 75 kW product is comprised of three individual 25 kW liquid cooled power modules. These individual power modules can be lifted by a single person for service purposes, provide increased redundancy in case of failure and can be quickly and easily re-configured or replaced. The RTM75 model offers simultaneous charging of two vehicles, maximizing revenue opportunities for operators of busy charging stations. Like all Tritium chargers, the patented liquid cooling system within the charging station allows for IP65 sealed ingress protection, and a wide operational range across challenging environmental conditions such as high and low temperatures, dust, humidity, and corrosive salt air, making it ideally suited for segments such as mining, marinas and ports.|
Figure 1: Our 75 kW RTM75 model deployed at the Monaco Yacht Club, Portofino Yacht Marina and in Venice, for electric boat charging.
|●||175 kW: Our 175 kW charger, the RT175-S, was introduced in 2020 and is a high-powered DC charger capable of continued 175 kW output at up to 104°F/40°C due to the use of our patented liquid cooling technology. The RT175-S is designed for direct connection to a 600 V and 60 Hz power connection, providing specific advantages in North America. An integrated safety loop, tilt sensor and optional escutcheon panel with interlocking isolator provides increased safety features well suited for customized use in the heavy infrastructure sector. The 175 kW charging station is liquid cooled and fully sealed at an IP65 rating. We stopped manufacturing this charger in the second quarter of 2023, but we continue to provide service to existing chargers.|
|●||150 kW: Our 150kW charger, the PKM150, was introduced in 2021 and is the first fast charging system to be released on Tritium’s PKM architecture. The PKM150 system leverages Tritium’s patented liquid-cooled modular design, pioneered with the Company’s award-winning RTM fast charger, and provides customers with the opportunity to choose between 50kW, 100kW or 150kW of dual-cable charging station power to meet their business needs. The modular construction of these chargers is designed for fast and easy serviceability compared to non-modular systems, and provides for load balancing between stations and cables, and grid connection load management capabilities. For the operator, The PKM150 has been designed to reduce operators’ capital expenditure in two ways. First, power is transmitted around the charging park at 950V DC rather than 400V alternating current. This halves the gauge of cabling required to wire the site. Second, the system’s elegant design allows customers to grow site power and scale to meet future demands, providing customers with the opportunity to delay capital expenditure by expanding the charger’s capacity as their site utilization grows. Like all Tritium chargers, the PKM150 is backed by our 24/7 specialist customer care and comes with a two-year warranty.|
|●||350 kW: Our 350 kW high-powered charger, the PK350, was introduced in 2018 and is an ultra-fast charging platform, available as 175 kW upgradeable to 350 kW, or at 350 kW from the outset. The PK350 is designed to be deployed at charging parks, where multiple chargers are installed, as the architecture is optimized for larger sites where power can be balanced across available charging stations. The PK350 architecture focuses on delivering operational efficiency by minimizing isolation points, as fewer isolation points reduce conversion losses from grid to vehicle, thereby reducing operator expenditure. High voltage DC transition between charging stations reduces cable sizes and reduces heat in the cabling, delivering further efficiency savings. This high-power charging park configuration is ideally suited to traditional fuel stations, motorways, rest stops, transit hubs and large commercial fleets including buses, vans and small trucks. The PK350 is deployed as two charging stations with an adjacent power unit. The PK350 power units are typically located away from smaller charging stations, which allows customers to maximize their site’s real estate while still providing the high-power charging they need. Like all Tritium chargers, the patented liquid cooling system within the charging station allows for IP65 sealed ingress protection. We stopped manufacturing this charger in the second quarter of 2023, but we continue to provide service to existing chargers.|
|●||MyTritium Software: A service management platform where charging station operators can review training materials and service information, and submit service tickets for issues and faults. MyTritium reflects a merger of the previous MyTritium and Tritium Pulse Software (a charger management platform that enables charging station operators to view charging history, performance and utilization data, and fault notifications) platforms into a common technology framework in order to realize efficiencies and common platform advantages. Currently two MyTritium licenses are provided for the duration of the warranty period with an option to purchase more licenses or extend the license post-warranty.|
Service and Maintenance Portfolio
|●||Warranties: Our charging equipment is sold with a two-year parts and labor or parts-only warranty as standard. During this period, we provide replacement and repair services for all non-consumable parts. Paid warranty extensions are available, typically up to a maximum length of five years, if purchased upfront at the time of the original equipment purchase. Level 1 contact center support provided by Tritium is comprised of direct support to purchasers and/or end owners of the charging equipment. Tritium is not responsible for supporting drivers and public users of the charging stations. Only manufacturing defects are covered by the charging equipment warranty. We provide 24/7 remote phone support for level 1 trouble shooting, diagnosis and remote resolution. Remediation of some fault types requires onsite service by trained and accredited personnel using Tritium authorized spare parts. This field support leverages Tritium’s global service network, comprised primarily of outsourced trained service agents, who have been accredited to work on Tritium chargers through our online and in-person / interactive video training platform.|
|●||Service Level Agreements (“SLAs”): Paid SLAs are available to customers who require guaranteed or expedited response and remedy times for any equipment faults and may be available for the life of the charger.|
|●||Spare Parts Sales: Post warranty-period replacement parts for our products are available to all of our existing customers as they operate and maintain their Tritium charging assets for their advertised ten-year operating life.|
Markets, Marketing Channels & Opportunities
We sell our DC charging solutions in North America, Europe, and the Asia Pacific and have over 100 existing commercial customers, with chargers deployed in 47 countries.
We believe the market for DC charging solutions is poised to expand rapidly, in line with EV adoption. The rapid deployment of DC fast chargers and an expected overall shift to higher power charging in the next 20 years could increase our market opportunity as a designer and manufacturer of DC charging equipment with an already established market position in high-power charging.
We are currently focused on six key customer types across the charging landscape: Charge Point Operators (“CPOs”), Automakers, Fleets, Fuel Stations, Retail, and Utilities. Each segment has different business drivers for investing in DC chargers; however, our products are segment-agnostic and can be used across all target sectors. We aim to address the emerging markets of heavy-duty vehicle charging and residential and fleet low power DC charging in the future.
|●||Charge Point Operators: We work with many global DC fast charging networks. The CPO business model is focused on revenue from charging sessions only and requires low ongoing operational costs. This model is well suited to our products and product architecture that focuses on delivering the lowest total cost of ownership to owner operators. Liquid cooling technology also delivers chargers that generally have a smaller footprint and a narrower profile as compared to air-cooled chargers, giving CPOs flexible deployment options.|
|●||Automakers: Automakers operate Tritium charging assets at a range of sites. Some operate public charging networks, acting like CPOs, to facilitate vehicle sales, and some offer charging at their showrooms. The complete driver experience is important to the automaker business model, so we provide confidential testing facilities to automakers evaluating new vehicle compatibility with compliant charging infrastructure. We have also applied years of field experience to the human user interface on its charging equipment, supporting what we believe to be a premium and intuitive driver experience. Brand experience is also important to automakers, and we provide customized branded vinyl wraps on our charging equipment to enable the customer’s fleet of chargers to reflect their overall brand image. For this type of customer, our slim profile chargers have sold well into luxury car showrooms, where aesthetics are a differentiator.|
|●||EV Fleets: We sell chargers to fleet operators who rely on their charging infrastructure to run their business, including corporate passenger vehicle, utility vehicle, van, small truck and bus fleets. We offer fleet operators high reliability enabled by our unique liquid cooled technology, using fully sealed, liquid cooled components that reduce maintenance. The new generation of Tritium chargers have been designed with modular and scalable power architectures, allowing both higher levels of redundancy and rapid repair times using single person lift power modules. These new features and the liquid cooling are designed with fleet and operations managers in mind, providing an overall lower total cost of ownership than competitor offerings, as well as superior reliability and easy serviceability.|
|●||Fuel Stations: We sell chargers to fuel station operators globally, allowing these businesses to deploy charging equipment at their existing sites and also to expand their business model to new charging locations decoupled from the highly regulated environment of traditional fuel stations. We have worked with fuel station businesses to prototype an in-store payment experience where the charging session can be paid inside the fuel retail outlet, allowing fuel stations to cross-sell and up-sell convenience items during the charging session.|
|●||Retail: The slimline profile and customized branding available on our charging equipment is important to retail customers who do not want to lose car parking spaces through the deployment of charging equipment and who value the look and feel of hardware installed near their businesses. Various payment options are available on Tritium chargers, suited to retail customers, which does not want the complexity of an RFID tag or an app and requires simple customer payment mechanisms. Our RTM75 is well suited to this segment, where the business driver is convenient co-located charging that drives foot traffic into the store, due to their charging speeds which are attractive, but not too fast.|
|●||Utilities: We sell equipment to energy utilities directly in geographies where utilities can own and operate charging stations, as well as to the customers of utilities and to the CPO businesses they run or own. The new generation of our products will have an optional internal DC electricity meter, a compliance requirement that has been implemented in Germany and which is likely to become mandatory in other countries in the future.|
|●||Heavy Duty: Operators of heavy duty, freight, logistics and mining vehicles and equipment are beginning to electrify their fleets and require DC high-power charging infrastructure to ensure that their fleets continue to operate efficiently and cost effectively. We are expanding sales coverage to work with these heavy-duty customers who require chargers that can operate in harsh industrial conditions. Our charging units are sealed to an ingress protection IP65 rating, preventing dust, water, and corrosive air from entering the charging station. This sealed design allows Tritium chargers to operate in both mining and industrial port locations where we have sold chargers to support utility vehicles and small trucks, respectively.|
|●||Multiple Outlet Low Power DC Fleet Charging: A future Tritium market opportunity may be using lower power DC charging in the fleet and depot segment to provide a distributed DC architecture. In the future, this distributed architecture could centralize AC to DC power conversion equipment (rectification), and then use a satellite system of distributed DC 25 kW charging units. We believe that this layout could reduce cabling costs for operators, and benefit from more cost-effective, centralized, larger sized power conversion equipment. We expect that this system layout could provide operators with more flexibility in how the charging capacity is scaled, and by using DC technology could provide more granular charging information to operators.|
We sell our products directly and via resellers generally contracted under a distributor agreement on our preferred terms and conditions.
The future product roadmap is centered on a continued expansion of the MSC architecture. The MSC architecture is our transition to a modular based charging design that continues to deliver key Tritium selling points, such as a fully sealed IP65 enclosure, while providing new features and functionality to the owners and operators of Tritium charging equipment.
We plan to release several new products including a range of software modules and expanded service coverage over next five years. In the near-term, the expansion of our product portfolio included the PKM150 release, which was officially launched in December 2021, and upcoming, the PKM400 release, planned for launch in the first quarter of calendar year 2024, with first sales expected to occur in the fourth quarter of calendar year 2024. Both chargers utilize the MSC charging architecture to help operators better manage their capital expenditure by providing the ability to expand their charging sites in two ways. With the PKM150 (and planned for the PKM400), operators can use Tritium charging equipment to scale up the charging capacity of each charger over time by adding new charging modules or the ability to scale out the charging site over time by adding new charging stations to the site, as illustrated by the following graphic:
We also have on the product roadmap a multi-connector fleet product using the 400kW rectifier unit, followed by a 1MW charger.
We have invested a significant amount of time and expense into development of our DC fast charging technologies. Our ability to maintain our leadership position depends in part on our ongoing product development activities. Our hardware and software product development is principally conducted at its headquarters in Brisbane. As of June 30, 2023, we had 137 full-time employees in total engaged in our product development activities.
Our product development team is responsible for the design, development, rapid prototyping, testing, certification, and operational handover to manufacturing of products. Our product development focus remains on innovating and optimizing DC charging technology to ensure we remain a technology leader in this field, specifically focusing on our ability to differentiate by delivering lower total cost of ownership, greater ease of use and reliability advantages to customers.
The expansion of our Brisbane, Australia-based product development test and prototyping center was completed and began full operations in November 2021. We believe the expanded product development center ranks among the world’s highest power EMC facility for EV chargers, based on facilities available to us for product testing. The EMC facility will allow us to expedite testing and prototyping, reducing compliance and certification timelines to bring products to market more rapidly. Our test facility is designed to be able to test up to 720 kW devices, in both EMC and Thermal test chambers, to IEC standards.
Manufacturing and Raw Materials
We design, test, commercialize, and manufacture our products in-house. We have facilities capable of manufacturing in Australia and the United States, but currently manufacture most of our charging hardware in Lebanon, Tennessee. Each Tritium fast charger undergoes high power testing to ensure the safety and reliability of the charging equipment before it is deployed in the field.
In February 2022, we announced site selection for our U.S. manufacturing facility in Tennessee, which will include up to five production lines, and employ more than 600 people over the next five years and have the potential in the future to produce approximately 30,000 units per year at peak capacity. Production began at the Tennessee facility in the third calendar quarter of 2022. As of the first quarter of the calendar year 2023, all chargers produced at the facility comply with applicable Buy America Act provisions under Federal Highway Administration requirements for domestic sourcing.
Components are sourced from a diverse global supply chain, an increasing percentage of which is local to the Tennessee factory. We work to have dual suppliers of critical components to reduce supply chain risk, but certification requirements can limit available supplier options. Lead-times for some raw materials, particularly for semi-conductor parts, in some cases are at 40-60 weeks. Supply is constrained which consequently leads pressures regarding price increases. Purchase orders have been placed on some parts and materials up to 18 months advance, after which industry reports suggest more capacity will be available. Our operations team works closely with its engineering team to introduce new products to the production line, establish and monitor quality control points, plan ongoing production, and coordinate deliveries to our or directly to the customer.
Manufacturing of the chargers is generally limited to final assembly rather than component manufacturing. Tooling is generally lightweight and mobile, and the single most expensive piece of manufacturing equipment is the end-of-line test equipment. This means our capex requirements are relatively low.
Our ability to obtain and maintain intellectual property protection for our products and technology is fundamental to the long-term success of our business. We rely on a combination of intellectual property laws, including patent, trademark, copyright, trade secret, laws, confidentiality policies and procedures and contractual rights to establish, maintain and protect our intellectual property and confidential information and data used in our business.
As of June 30, 2023, we had three granted standard Australian patents, four pending standard Australian patent applications and six provisional Australian patent applications. Additionally, as of June 30, 2023, we had five U.S. pending utility patent applications and one patent application pending in Germany. As of June 30, 2023, we had four European Union pending patent applications. Furthermore, we have three pending standard patent applications in New Zealand and three pending standard patent applications in Singapore. These patents and patent applications relate to various functionalities associated with our EV charging stations and architecture. In addition, our issued patents are projected to expire between 2031 and 2038, excluding any possible patent term adjustments or extensions and assuming payment of all appropriate maintenance, renewal, annuity or other governmental fees, as applicable.
The term of individual patents depends upon the legal term for patents in the countries in which they are granted. In most countries, including the United States and Australia, the patent term is 20 years from the earliest claimed filing date of a non-provisional patent application in the applicable country. In the United States, a patent’s term may, in certain cases, be lengthened by patent term adjustment, which compensates a patentee for administrative delays by the United States Patent and Trademark Office in examining and granting a patent, or may be shortened if a patent is terminally disclaimed over a commonly owned patent or a patent naming a common inventor and having an earlier expiration date. In Australia, the right to seek a patent term extension only applies to pharmaceutical patents (to recognize and compensate patentees for time spent on product development and regulatory authorization).
Our ability to stop third parties from making, using or commercializing any of our patented inventions will depend in part on our success in obtaining, defending and enforcing patent claims that cover our technology, inventions and improvements. We cannot provide any assurance that any of our current or future patent applications will result in the issuance of patents in any particular jurisdiction, or that any of our current or future issued patents will effectively protect any of our current or future technology from infringement. Nor can we be sure that any patents will prevent others from commercializing infringing products or technology, provide us with any competitive advantage, or will not be challenged, invalidated or circumvented.
We seek registrations for our trademarks relating to our key brands and products in the United States and other jurisdictions where we deem appropriate. We also rely on trade secret protection for our unpatented proprietary technology. As of June 30, 2023, we had two U.S. trademark registrations, seven Australian trademark registrations and three Australian trademark applications. We intend to pursue additional intellectual property registrations to the extent we believe it would be beneficial and cost-effective.
Government Regulation and Incentives
Throughout the world, electrical appliances are subject to various mandatory and voluntary standards, including requirements in some jurisdictions, including the United States, that products be listed by UL or other similar recognized laboratories. In the United States, we are required to undergo certification and testing of compliance with UL standards, as well as other national and industry specific standards. We endeavor to have our products designed to meet the certification requirements of, and to be certified in, each of the jurisdictions in which they are sold.
As a marketer and distributor of consumer products, we are subject to the Consumer Products Safety Act and the Federal Hazardous Substances Act, which empower the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (“CPSC”) to seek to exclude products that are found to be unsafe or hazardous from the market. Under certain circumstances, the CPSC could require us to repair, replace or refund the purchase price of one or more of our products, or we may voluntarily do so.
We are subject to the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, as amended (“OSHA”) in the United States. OSHA establishes certain employer responsibilities, including maintenance of a workplace free of recognized hazards likely to cause death or serious injury, compliance with standards promulgated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and various recordkeeping, disclosure and procedural requirements. Various standards, including standards for notices of hazards, safety in excavation and demolition work and the handling of asbestos, may apply to our operations.
We are subject to the Work Health and Safety Act 2011 (Qld) and the Work Health and Safety Regulation 2011, as amended, in Queensland, Australia and the Occupational Health and Safety Act 1984 (WA) and Occupational Safety and Health Regulations 1996, as amended, in Western Australia, Australia. This legislation establishes certain responsibilities for persons conducting a business to secure the health and safety of workers and workplaces including duties to eliminate or minimize risks to health and safety as is reasonably practicable and various record keeping, disclosure and procedural requirements.
The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (“NEMA”) is the association of electrical equipment and medical imaging manufacturers. NEMA provides a forum for the development of technical standards that are in the best interests of the industry and users, advocacy of industry policies on legislative and regulatory matters, and collection, analysis, and dissemination of industry data.
Bipartisan Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act
In November 2021, the Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act (“IIJA”), a bipartisan infrastructure bill, was signed into law in the United States. The IIJA authorizes $18.6 billion to fund new and existing EV-related programs, including (i) $5 billion in new funding to develop and build a nationwide network of 500,000 EV charging stations, referred to as the National Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Formula Program (the “NEVI Program”); (ii) $2.5 billion for publicly accessible alternative fuel infrastructure (i.e., EV charging stations and hydrogen, propane and natural gas fueling infrastructure), referred to as the competitive Charging and Fueling Infrastructure Grants program (the “Competitive Grants Program”); and (iii) approximately $10.9 billion in funding for transitioning school buses, transit buses and passenger ferries to low- and/or zero-emissions alternatives.
Both the NEVI Program and the Competitive Grants Program prioritize charging infrastructure along the National Alternative Fuels Corridor, a network of designated highways nominated by states with signage to highlight routes with available charging stations open to the public and easily accessible. Both programs also have an 80% maximum federal cost share, meaning states must provide 20% of project costs.
We intend to target the funding under the NEVI Program and the Competitive Grants Program either as a direct recipient or indirectly through supporting charging equipment operators that have chosen to use our charging equipment. If our charging equipment fails to comply with standards or requirements implemented in connection with the NEVI Program, the Competitive Grants Program or any other aspects of the IIJA, we may be unable to target or access funding under those programs.
Under the NEVI Program, eligible public entities may contract with private sector entities to acquire and install publicly accessible alternative fuel infrastructure such as EV charging stations and hydrogen, propane and/or natural gas fueling infrastructure in their designated areas. The NEVI Program is intended to provide dedicated funding to states to deploy EV charging infrastructure and establish an interconnected network intended to facilitate data collection, access and reliability. Funding under this program is expected to first be directed to build out a national EV charging station network, principally along interstate highways. Funds may also be used to contract with private entities to install, operate and maintain publicly accessible EV charging facilities. On February 10, 2022, the Federal Highway Administration (“FHWA”) published guidance for the NEVI Program. On August 2, 2022, the U.S. Department of Transportation and the U.S. Department of Energy announced that all 50 states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico had submitted their EV Infrastructure Deployment Plans to the Joint Office of Energy and Transportation (“Joint Office”). These plans indicate how each state intends to utilize the funding it receives under the NEVI Program. Submission of an EV Infrastructure Deployment Plan is a prerequisite to receiving funding under the program. By September 27, 2022, EV infrastructure plans from all 50 states, plus Washington D.C. And Puerto Rico had been approved.
In addition, on June 22, 2022, the FHWA issued a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (“NOPR”) on minimum standards and requirements for projects funded under the NEVI Program and for EV charger construction projects funded under Title 23 (Highways), United States Code. The NOPR seeks to ensure there will be a nationwide network of EV chargers that can be used by any type of EV. The NEVI Program also has several guidelines in the use of program funds relating to user experience and reliability, strategic and efficient locations, equity, labor and workforce, private investment and data and cybersecurity, among other things. In particular, with respect to user experience and reliability, under the NEVI Program charging infrastructure must be interoperable across payment systems, EV brands, EV supply equipment, EV service providers, and the grid and must also provide 24-hour access to power on a reliable network and achieve 97% reliability. The final rule reflecting these requirements was published on February 28, 2023.
Competitive Grants Program
The Competitive Grants Program (also known as the Corridor and Community grants) provide competitive grants to states, local governments, metropolitan planning organizations, and other public-sector entities to support the installation of publicly accessible charging infrastructure, or stations for alternative fuels such as hydrogen or natural gas. IIJA requires at least 50% of these funds to be designated for a community grant program prioritizing rural and low- and moderate-income communities with a low ratio of private parking spaces. The Competitive Grants Program began issuing notices of funding in late 2022 and continue to issue such notices on a rolling basis.
Environmental Laws and Regulation
We are subject to a variety of environmental laws and regulations, including, among others, water use and discharge, air emissions, use of chemicals and recycled materials, energy sources, the storage, handling, and disposal of hazardous materials and waste, the protection of the environment and natural resources, and the remediation of environmental contamination. We are required to obtain and comply with the terms and conditions of environmental permits, many of which may be difficult and expensive to obtain and must be renewed on a periodic basis. A failure to comply with these laws, regulations or permits could result in substantial civil and criminal fines and penalties, the suspension or loss of such permits, and possibly orders to cease non-compliant operations.
Our manufacturing operations may be required to meet certain emissions limitations, either by the use of emissions control equipment or modifications to our manufacturing practices. These operations may also require permits or require us to otherwise register our facilities with various government agencies. Failure to obtain such permits or comply with such emissions requirements may result in substantial fines or penalties, require us to expend substantial resources to obtain compliance, or otherwise adversely impact our business or results of operations.
Hazardous Materials and Waste
We are subject to laws and regulations regarding the handling and disposal of hazardous substances and solid wastes, including electronic wastes and batteries. These laws generally regulate the generation, storage, treatment, transportation and disposal of solid and hazardous waste, and may impose strict, joint and several liability for the investigation and remediation of areas where hazardous substances may have been released or disposed. For instance, the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (“CERCLA”), also known as the Superfund law, in the United States and comparable state laws impose liability, without regard to fault or the legality of the original conduct, on certain classes of persons. These persons include current and prior owners or operators of the site where the release occurred as well as companies that disposed or arranged for the disposal of hazardous substances found at the site. Under CERCLA, we may be subject to joint and several strict liability for the costs of cleaning up the hazardous substances that have been released into the environment, for damages to natural resources and for the costs of certain health studies. CERCLA also authorizes the United States Environmental Protection Agency and, in some instances, third parties to act in response to threats to the public health or the environment and to seek to recover from the responsible classes of persons the costs they incur. We may handle hazardous substances within the meaning of CERCLA, or similar state statutes, in the course of ordinary operations and, as a result, may be jointly and severally liable under CERCLA for all or part of the costs required to clean up sites at which these hazardous substances have been released into the environment.
We also generate solid wastes, which may include hazardous wastes that are subject to the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (“RCRA”) and comparable state statutes. While RCRA regulates both solid and hazardous wastes, it imposes strict requirements on the generation, storage, treatment, transportation and disposal of hazardous wastes. Certain components of our products may be excluded from RCRA’s hazardous waste regulations, provided certain requirements are met. However, if these components do not meet all of the established requirements for the exclusion to apply, or if the requirements for the exclusion change, we may be required to treat such products as hazardous waste, which are subject to more rigorous and costly disposal requirements.
In Europe, we are subject to the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive (the “WEEE Directive”). The WEEE Directive requires certain entities, such as us, to finance the collection and recycling of waste electrical and electronic equipment at product end-of-life; specifically, it provides for the creation of collection schemes where consumers return waste electrical and electronic equipment to merchants, such as us. The WEEE Directive also sets registration requirements, collection and recycling targets, and other requirements. Compliance with the WEEE Directive may require substantial resources, and if we fail to properly manage such waste electrical and electronic equipment we may be subject to fines, sanctions, or other actions that may adversely affect our financial operations. Any changes in such laws or regulations, or any changes in our ability to qualify the materials used for exclusions under such laws and regulations, could adversely affect our business performance, operating expenses, or results of operations.
Increasingly, jurisdictions require companies to monitor and address certain practices from their supply chains. For example, several jurisdictions have adopted or are considering adopting supply chain diligence laws. Compliance with such laws entails substantial costs and may require modifying our supply chains if any issues are discovered or could result in substantial fines. Additionally, should we fail to sufficiently monitor our supply chains, we may be subject to fines or penalties for non-compliance, which may have an adverse effect on our operations. Similar or more stringent laws also exist in other jurisdictions where we operate.
Government Mandates, Incentives and Programs
The U.S. federal government, certain foreign governments and some U.S. state and local governments provide incentives to end users and purchasers of EVs and EV charging stations in the form of rebates, tax credits and other financial incentives. These governmental rebates, tax credits and other financial incentives significantly lower the effective price of EVs and EV charging stations to customers.
For example, the U.S. Inflation Reduction Act (the “IRA”), which was signed into law by President Biden on August 16, 2022, provides nearly $370 billion in climate change investments to help reduce carbon emissions by 40 percent by 2030. The IRA provides significant tax breaks for businesses that purchase new medium and heavy-duty EVs and new chargers. Key provisions of the IRA would also revise and expand tax credits for EVs by providing a new tax credit of $4,000 for the sale of used electric cars and expanded tax credits of up to $7,500 for purchasers of certain new EVs. Businesses can use many of the credits after receiving other grants or rebates like funding under the NEVI Program.
However, these incentives may expire, cease due to lack of funding, or be reduced or terminated as a matter of regulatory or legislative policy. Any reduction in rebates, tax credits or other financial incentives could reduce the demand for EVs and for charging infrastructure, including infrastructure offered by us.
Our legal name is Tritium DCFC Limited and we are organized under the laws of Australia. The following table sets forth all of our significant subsidiaries.
Name of Subsidiary
Decarbonization Plus Acquisition Corporation II
Tritium Holdings Pty Ltd
Tritium Nominee Pty Ltd
Tritium America Corporation
Tritium Europe B.V.
Tritium Pty Ltd
Tritium Technologies Limited
Tritium Technologies LLC
Tritium Technologies B.V.
D.Property, Plant and Equipment
Our headquarters are located in Brisbane, Australia where we currently lease approximately 3,959 square meters (or approximately 42,614 square feet) of office space, product development and test facilities under a lease that expires on December 10, 2028. In addition to our headquarters, we also lease two other sites in Brisbane, including (i) a factory site with approximately 8,477 square meters (or approximately 91,246 square feet) under a lease with an initial term that expires on May 31, 2024 (with a Company option for two additional two-year options to renew this lease in its favour); and (ii) a warehouse and office site with approximately 3,400 square meters (or approximately 36,597 square feet) under a lease we entered into in April 2022 that expires April 30, 2029. We also lease a manufacturing facility in Lebanon, Tennessee (with approximately 229,314 square feet under a lease that expires May 31, 2027 and a current used square footage of 132,124). We believe this space is sufficient to meet our needs for the next 12 months and that any additional space we may require will be available on commercially reasonable terms. Tritium has recently vacated (i) a previous Brisbane factory site of 1,559 square meters (or approximately 16,781 square feet) in September 2022 and (ii) a previous Brisbane warehouse site of 1,723 square meters (or approximately 18,546 square feet) in August 2023. These sites were vacated given the expanded warehousing and manufacturing capacity of Tritium across both its Tennessee and Brisbane sites.
We also maintain office, manufacturing and logistics facilities in Torrance, California, Lebanon, Tennessee and Amsterdam, Netherlands.
The significant increase in demand for product necessitated a substantial increase in production capacity. After an extensive research study, Tennessee was selected as the location for a new facility. During 2023, we spent $6.4 million in construction and End of Line testing infrastructure, with an additional $2.0 million anticipated in period ending December 31, 2023. We believe that the Tennessee facility has the potential in the future to produce approximately 30,000 units per year at peak capacity.
ITEM 4A.UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
ITEM 5.OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS
The following discussion and analysis provides information which our management believes is relevant to an assessment and understanding of the consolidated results of operations and financial condition of Tritium DCFC Limited (including its subsidiaries, “Tritium”). The discussion should be read together with the historical consolidated financial statements of Tritium for the periods presented, and the related notes that are included elsewhere in this document. This discussion may contain forward-looking statements based upon current expectations that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements, including those set forth under “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements,” as a result of various factors, including those set forth under Item 3.D “Key Information—Risk Factors” or in other parts of this document.
Under Australian law, we prepare financial statements on a semi-annual and an annual basis, and we are not required to prepare or file quarterly financial information. We currently intend to publish our results on a semi-annual and an annual basis, assuming we are subject to the reporting requirements of Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act and qualify as a “foreign private issuer” at the time of publication. We intend to continue to publicly (1) file our audited annual financial statements on Form 20-F with the SEC and (2) furnish semi-annual financial statements on Form 6-K to the SEC.
We design, sell, manufacture and service proprietary hardware and associated software to create advanced and reliable direct current (“DC”) fast chargers for electric vehicles (“EVs”). Our technology is engineered to be easy to manufacture, install, own and use. Our compact, robust chargers are designed to look great on Main Street and thrive in harsh conditions. As of June 30, 2023, we have already sold over 13,300 DC fast chargers across 47 countries. These chargers provide over 25,000 high-power charging sessions every day.
Major auto manufacturers such as BMW, Ford, GM, Honda, and Volkswagen, among others, have committed to producing more EVs and various governments have begun implementing supportive policies. For example, a bipartisan infrastructure bill supports a $7.5 billion investment toward new EV chargers in the United States over the next decade and the Biden Administration has established a target for 500,000 new chargers in the United States over the next decade and has established a target for 50% of all new car sales to be EVs by 2030. In the coming years, we believe EVs will cost less than internal combustion engine (“ICE”) vehicles. Bloomberg New Energy Finance (“BNEF”) has forecasted that this price parity in Europe can be achieved by 2027, and in all countries and vehicle segments by 2029. In addition, BNEF has forecasted that EVs are expected to increase from 4% of global passenger vehicle sales in 2020 to 75% by 2040. Additional factors propelling this shift from ICE vehicles to EVs include proposed fossil fuel bans or restrictions, transit electrification mandates and utility incentive programs. However, the global transition to an EV-based transportation network will depend on, among other things, the availability of sufficient charging infrastructure. Accordingly, a BNEF report projects that the cumulative EV charging infrastructure investment including hardware, installation, maintenance, and other services in the United States and Europe will be approximately $193 billion by 2030 and increasing to $500 billion by 2040. We believe we are at the forefront of the charging equipment build-out, focusing exclusively on DC fast charging of EVs.
Key Factors Affecting Operating Results
We believe our performance and future success depend on several factors that present significant opportunities for us, but that also pose risks and challenges, including those discussed below and in the section entitled Item 3.D “Key Information—Risk Factors.”
Growth in EV Adoption
Our revenue growth is directly tied to the charging requirements resulting from the continued adoption of passenger and commercial EVs, which drives demand for charging infrastructure. The market for EVs is still rapidly evolving and, although demand for EVs has grown in recent years, there is no guarantee such demand will persist. Factors impacting the adoption of EVs include, but are not limited to, consumer perceptions about EV features, quality, safety, performance, availability and cost; consumer perceptions about the limited range over which EVs may be driven on a single battery charge; volatility in the cost of oil and gasoline; availability of government-backed incentives to purchase EVs; changes to fuel economy standards and/or the success of alternative fuels; evolving governmental regulation and political support for EVs; availability of charging stations and services for EVs; consumers’ perception about the convenience and cost of charging EVs; global supply chain shortages of components used in EVs, and increases in fuel efficiency.
We service the DC fast charging market. Typically, only battery electric vehicle (“BEVs”) can use DC fast chargers, so demand for DC charging is dependent on continued growth in the BEV segment. According to BNEF, approximately 14% of global passenger vehicle sales in 2022 were EVs. BNEF expects sales of EVs to grow to over 44% of the global passenger vehicle market by 2030. In addition, macroeconomic factors could impact demand for EVs. For example, because many EVs are more expensive than comparable traditional gasoline-powered vehicles, a decline in sales in the automotive industry globally could result in lower prices on ICE vehicles and may reduce EV sales due to the price disparity. If the market for EVs does not develop as expected, or if there is any slowdown or delay in overall EV adoption rates, our ability to increase our revenue or grow our business would be negatively impacted.
In North America, our DC fast-charging equipment ranges in power from 50 kW to 175 kW and is certified by TÜV SÜD to UL specifications. In Europe, our DC fast-charging equipment ranges in power from 50 kW to 350 kW and is certified by TÜV SÜD to the Conformité Européenne certification mark. These certifications differentiate us from most DC fast charging original equipment manufacturer competitors who are focused on only one region due to regulatory and certification complexity. However, we expect that new competitors may enter the market and existing competitors may expand their geographic coverage to multiple regions and improve their internal capabilities to meet regulatory and certification approvals, develop enhanced software or further expand their service coverage. This is already being seen in North America driven by government funding for DC fast chargers. If our market share decreases due to increased competition, our revenue and ability to generate profits in the future may be impacted. Tesla has opened up their previously proprietary DC charging network to other vehicle manufacturers – this may reduce Tritium’s sales. However, the addition of a Tesla connector planned for Tritium’s chargers will increase the expected utilisation of our chargers and could increase sales demand.
We sell our products directly and via resellers generally contracted under a distributor agreement on our preferred terms and conditions.
For additional information, see Item 4. “Business Overview—Distribution” and Item 3.D “Key Information—Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business.”
International Operations Expansion
We currently operate in the United States, Europe and Australia. We intend to grow operations through ongoing or planned investment in new production facilities, particularly in the United States. We expect our manufacturing facilities to conduct final assembly of our EV charging hardware, with the majority of components purchased from third-party suppliers. Expansion of our manufacturing facilities is intended to increase speed to market of our fast chargers and reduce freight costs and delays due to the ability to deliver products via road transport. Multiple risks could constrain our ability to meet our deployment plans.
Strategic planning for the total number of facilities globally, their scale, location, timing and cost is ongoing. In early 2022, we announced site selection and entry into a lease agreement for a new U.S. manufacturing facility located in Lebanon, Tennessee, and in the third calendar quarter of 2022, production began at the facility. The Company reviews opportunities and destinations for further expansion annually in line with forecast demand and intends to open a 24/7 remote support and field services center in the United Kingdom in 2024.
The projects and expansion plans discussed above are subject to a number of factors outside of our control that may affect the location, cost, timing and/or scale of our manufacturing facilities, or may prevent such facilities from being built at all. See Item 3.D “Key Information—Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business—We have experienced rapid growth and expect to invest in growth for the foreseeable future. If we fail to manage growth effectively, our business, operating results and financial condition could be adversely affected” and Item 3.D “Key Information—Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business—Any delay in achieving our manufacturing expansion planned could impact revenue forecasts associated with these facilities.”
Government Mandates, Incentives and Programs
The U.S. federal government, certain foreign governments and some U.S. state and local governments provide incentives to end users and purchasers of EVs and EV charging stations in the form of rebates, tax credits and other financial incentives. These governmental rebates, tax credits and other financial incentives significantly lower the effective price of EVs and EV charging stations to customers. However, these incentives may expire, cease due to lack of funding or be reduced or terminated as a matter of regulatory or legislative policy. Any reduction in rebates, tax credits or other financial incentives could reduce the demand for EVs and for charging infrastructure, including infrastructure offered by us.
On May 25, 2021, we entered into a Business Combination Agreement (the “Business Combination Agreement”) with Decarbonization Plus Acquisition Corporation II, a Delaware corporation (“DCRN”), Tritium Holdings Pty Ltd (“Tritium Holdings”) and Hulk Merger Sub, Inc., a Delaware corporation and wholly owned subsidiary of the Company (“Merger Sub”), pursuant to which, among other things, we acquired all of the issued equity interests in Tritium Holdings and DCRN merged with and into Merger Sub, in each case, on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth therein (the “Business Combination”).
Components of Results of Operations
Hardware revenue consists of revenue generated from the sale of EV chargers. We have three major lines: (i) Stand Alone Chargers, (ii) Distributed Chargers and (iii) Other. Stand Alone charging systems are single-user units and in the RT175-S model, include a power unit. Distributed charging systems can have multiple-user units connected in one system. Distributed charging systems are sold as a site configuration and range upwards from a one-user unit site to a four-user unit site. Other consists primarily of spare parts sold to customers. Hardware revenue is also broken down into revenue received by (i) parties related to us and (ii) external parties unrelated to us.
Revenue from the sale of EV chargers is recognized when we transfer control of the chargers to the customer.
In certain circumstances, our customers may request us to store products on the customer’s behalf until the customer is ready to collect or have the goods delivered to their specified location. This may arise if customers are not ready to take delivery as a result, generally, of delays in their site construction and rollout or obtaining necessary customs clearances. In these situations, the transfer of control of these products to the customer occurs when the finished products are ready for delivery to the customer. In assessing the transfer of control in these “bill-and-hold” arrangements, we assess whether we:
|●||billed the customers in full;|
|●||made the products available for the customer, end of line testing of the product is completed and notification made of the completion of manufacture;|
|●||identified the product physically and systematically as belonging to a specific customer and segregated in our warehouse; and|
|●||do not have the ability to direct the product to a different customer.|
In assessing bill-and-hold arrangements, we are required to make a judgement on whether there is commercial substance to the customer’s request and that the customer agrees that control has passed and we have the right to bill the customer.
We also provide a standard warranty for general repairs for either two or three years on all EV chargers sold. This standard warranty is not considered a separate performance obligation. The estimated warranty costs are recognized as a liability when we transfer control of the chargers to the customer.
In calendar year 2023 to date, the Company has relied on air freight to fulfill very few out-bound customer orders and we intend to use ground shipping and sea shipping rather than air freight whenever possible to deliver out-bound customer orders. While we expect the use of ground shipping and sea shipping to improve our revenues, any delays in achieving production capacity at the Tennessee facility or any of our other production facilities as a result of issues such as supply chain complexity (for example, the requirement to localize 55% of the component costs to meet NEVI funding), worker shortages or stoppages, inventory inaccuracies or other factors, such as the ongoing need to use air freight for in-bound supplier orders, could negatively impact our revenue.
Software revenue relates to services for the sale of MyTritium licenses and other software upgrades.
Service and Maintenance Revenue
We generate revenue from service and maintenance related to commissioning, repair, maintenance and training. Generally, revenue related to service and maintenance is recognized when the service and/or maintenance has been provided, either over time or at a particular point in time. Service and maintenance revenue is broken down into revenue received by (i) parties related to us and (ii) external parties unrelated to us. We recognize the material portion of our revenue from service and maintenance when the service and/or maintenance is performed. However, if the service and/or maintenance is performed over a period of time, and if the outcome can be reliably estimated, we use the stage of completion of the services based on an input method (e.g., costs incurred) to determine the appropriate level of revenue to be recognized in the period.
We provide an extended warranty to our customers for an additional fee. Extended warranty revenue is recognized as a contract liability on receipt and, after the standard warranty expires, recognized over the period in which the service and/or maintenance is provided based on the time elapsed.
Cost of Goods Sold
We manufacture our products in our facilities in Australia and the United States. We currently manufacture most of our charging hardware in Lebanon, Tennessee. Cost of goods sold for hardware revenue includes raw materials, associated freight, warranty costs, which is calculated as the difference between the consumption and recognition of the provision during the period, depreciation of equipment directly related to production, labor costs and overhead costs directly attributable to the manufacture of products. Overhead costs include lease costs and indirect labor costs directly attributable to the manufacture of products. Warranty costs are estimated based on historical product failure rates and repair expenses.
The decision to use air freight to fulfill our offshore orders beginning on October 17, 2022, increased our freight costs and decreased our gross margin for the year ended June 30, 2023. As of the third quarter of 2023, most orders were delivered using ocean and ground shipping rather than air freight.
Further, although we have no operations in Russia or Ukraine, we believe some shortages in materials, increased costs for raw material and other supply chain issues are at least partially attributable to the negative impact of the Russia-Ukraine military conflict on the global economy and on supply chains generally. If the conflict worsens or continues to disrupt the global economy and indirectly affect supply chains, or if supply chains remain challenged generally, our cost of goods sold could be negatively impacted.
We have been impacted by global electronics and semiconductor shortages. Components are sourced from a diverse global supply chain and then shipped to our Brisbane and Tennessee factories. We work to have dual suppliers of critical components to reduce supply chain risk, but certification requirements can limit available supplier options. Raw materials and components have been subject to price inflation and most commodities follow relevant PPI (Producer Price Index) indexes between 5% and 30% inflation (over the past 18 months). Electronics/semi-conductors have an increased short-term price premium due to global supply constraints and compounded by price increases from spot buying due to limited supply. To date, supply has improved despite previous experiences across most electronic components/semiconductors as consumed by our major EMS (Electronics Manufacturing Suppliers) suppliers including PCBAs (Printed Circuit Board Assemblies), electronic modules and devices. Shortages of semiconductor components may in the future affect all suppliers as an industry wide global constraint which would affect most major automotive OEMs which use similar semiconductor commodities and have reported reduced production as a result.
Service and Maintenance
Cost of goods sold for service and maintenance revenue includes spare part materials and labor costs, including the cost of subcontractors and overhead costs directly attributable to the commissioning and repairs of products. Overhead costs include salaries and related personnel expenses and warranty provisions. Costs associated with software revenue are included within service and maintenance.
Segment Gross Profit (Loss)
Segment gross profit (loss) is calculated as revenue less cost of goods sold. Segment gross margin is Segment gross profit (loss) expressed as a percentage of total revenue. We offer a range of EV chargers with each charger having a varied contribution to Segment gross profit (loss). Segment gross profit (loss) and margin vary from period to period due to the mix of products sold, manufacturing costs and warranty costs. In addition, see “Results of Operations-Segment Gross Profit (Loss)” below for additional information.
Selling, General and Administrative Expenses
Selling, general and administrative (“SG&A”) expenses consist primarily of employee-related expenses, including share-based payments expense, and costs to sell and market our products and services, non-production equipment related depreciation, as well as the costs of managing our company overall, such as information technology, insurance, rent, professional fees, travel and other administrative expenses.
We expect our SG&A expenses to increase as we continue to expand our business. We expect to increase our salesforce in major markets, including the United States, Asia Pacific and Europe. We also expect to incur additional expenses as a result of operating as a public company, including increased legal and accounting costs, investor relations costs, higher insurance premiums and compliance costs.
Product Development Expenses
Product development costs primarily consist of employee labor costs for those employees engaged in product development activities, including the development, design and testing of new products. Other product development costs include tools, materials and equipment and other project costs related to product development. Product development costs are expensed as incurred.
Recently, our product development efforts have been focused on developing our modular charging architecture and advancing the development of other products and technologies. We expect our product development expenses to increase on an absolute basis and they may increase as a percentage of total revenue for the foreseeable future as we continue to invest in product development activities to achieve our full suite of planned products.
Foreign Exchange Gain/(Loss)
Foreign exchange gain/(loss) includes realized and unrealized exchange gains and losses. Foreign currency transactions are translated into functional currency using the exchange rates prevailing at the dates of the transactions. Foreign exchange gains and losses result from the settlement of such transactions and from the translation at financial year-end exchange rates of monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies.
Depreciation expenses for production-related equipment are included in the cost of goods sold. Non-production depreciation expense which consists primarily of depreciation and amortization in relation to fixed assets, leased assets and leasehold improvements is included in selling, general and administrative expenses. Property, plant and equipment, excluding freehold land, is depreciated on a straight-line and reducing balance basis over the asset’s useful life to us, commencing when the asset is ready for use. Leased assets and leasehold improvements are amortized over the shorter of either the unexpired period of the lease or their estimated useful life.
The depreciation rates used for each class of depreciable asset are shown below:
Plant and equipment
12.5% to 33.34
Furniture, Fixtures and Fittings
An item of property, plant and equipment and any significant part initially recognized is derecognized upon disposal. Any gain or loss arising on de-recognition of the asset (calculated as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset) is included in the statement of profit or loss when the asset is derecognized.
At the end of each annual reporting period, the depreciation method, useful life and residual value of each asset is reviewed. Any revisions are accounted for prospectively as a change in estimate.
We intend to continue to expand our new production facility in the United States. To the extent we execute on this contemplated expansion, we expect our depreciation expenses to increase as a result.
Finance costs consist primarily of the interest and borrowing costs incurred on (i) the Senior Loan Note Subscription Agreement dated September 2, 2022 by and among Tritium Holdings, CBA Corporate Services (NSW) Pty Limited, HealthSpring Life & Health Insurance Company, Inc, Cigna Health and Life Insurance Company, Barings Target Yield Infrastructure Debt Holdco 1 S.A.R.L, Martello Re Limited, REL Batavia Partnership, L.P., among other parties, as amended on November 18, 2022, and on and from November 18, 2022 (the “CIGNA Refinance Loan 2022”), from the original agreement dated July 22, 2021 (the “CIGNA Refinance Loan 2021”), also including Riverstone Energy Limited and Sunset Power Pty Ltd as trustee of St Baker Family Trust who are both an accordion facility lender, (ii) the St Baker term loan (the “Term Loan Facility”), dated December 23, 2022, by and between Tritium Pty Ltd and Sunset Power Pty Ltd as trustee of St Baker Family Trust, among other parties (the “Term Facility Lender”), (iii) the St Baker unsecured and subordinated loan agreement (the “Unsecured Facility – Sunset Power”), dated May 5, 2023 by and between Tritium and Sunset Power Pty Ltd as trustee of St Baker Family Trust, among other parties (the “St Baker Lender”), (iv) the O-CORP unsecured and subordinated loan agreement (the “Unsecured Facility – O-CORP” and, together with the Unsecured Facility – Sunset Power, the “Unsecured Facilities”), dated May 5, 2023 by and between Tritium and O-CORP EV LLC, among other parties (the “O-Corp Lender”) and (v), as of September 12, 2023 the Preference Shares SPA with the Preference Shares Investors, pursuant to which we agreed to sell to the Preference Shares Investors an aggregate of 26,595,745 Preference Shares convertible into Ordinary Shares, at an initial conversion price of $0.815 per share, pursuant to the terms of the Schedule of Terms.
See Note 31 – Subsequent Events to our consolidated financial statements for the year ended June 30, 2023 included elsewhere in this document for information as of the date of this report regarding further finance costs.
Revision of Financial Statements for Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 2022
Certain inventory items were incorrectly measured as of June 30, 2022 which led to them being overstated in our Annual Report on Form 20-F. We procured certain parts on behalf of a raw material supplier that, once consumed by the supplier, were not subsequently updated in accordance with the requirements of the applicable accounting guidance. While the impact of the adjustment was immaterial, we have corrected the presentation on a voluntary basis by revising the affected financial statement line items for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2022 as presented herein. There was no impact on previously reported cashflows. Refer to Note 2 of the Financial Statements for the year ended June 30, 2023 for further details on line items impacted.
Results of Operations
Comparison of the Fiscal Years Ended June 30, 2023 to the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 2022
The following table summarizes Tritium’s results of operations for the fiscal years ended June 30, 2023 and 2022:
Year Ended June 30,
June 30, 2023 to 2022
(in thousands, except
Hardware revenue, external parties
Hardware revenue, related parties
Service and maintenance revenue, external parties
Cost of goods sold
Hardware—cost of goods sold
Service and maintenance—cost of goods sold
Total cost of goods sold
Operating costs and expenses
Selling, general and administrative expense
Product development expense
Foreign exchange gain/(loss)
Total operating costs and expenses
Loss from operations
Finance costs – related parties