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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 _________________________________________________________
FORM 10-K
 _________________________________________________________
x
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                      to                     
Commission File Number 001-08174
 _________________________________________________________
DUCOMMUN INCORPORATED
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 _________________________________________________________
Delaware 95-0693330
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 (I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
200 Sandpointe Avenue, Suite 700, Santa Ana, California
 92707-5759
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (657335-3665
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class Trading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $.01 par value per share DCONew York Stock Exchange
 _________________________________________________________
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  ¨    No  x
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes  ¨    No  x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  x  No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes  x    No  ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
 
Large accelerated filer ¨Accelerated filer x
Non-accelerated filer ¨Smaller reporting company 
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.  x
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No  x
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates computed by reference to the price of which the common equity was last sold, or the average bid and asked price of such common equity, as of the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter ended July 1, 2023 was $635 million.
The number of shares of common stock outstanding on February 15, 2024 was 14,641,154.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
The following documents are incorporated by reference:
(a) Proxy Statement for the 2024 Annual Meeting of Shareholders (the “2024 Proxy Statement”), incorporated partially in Part III hereof.



DUCOMMUN INCORPORATED AND SUBSIDIARIES
  Page
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 1B.
Item 1C.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Item 7A.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
Item 9C.
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
Item 15.
Item 16.

2

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS AND RISK FACTORS
This Annual Report on Form 10-K (“Form 10-K”) contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements may be preceded by, followed by or include words such as “could,” “may,” “believe,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “plan,” “estimate,” “expect,” “would,” or similar expressions. These statements are based on the beliefs and assumptions of our management at the time such statements are made. Generally, forward-looking statements include information concerning our possible or assumed future actions, events or results of operations. Forward-looking statements specifically include, without limitation, the information in this Form 10-K regarding: future sales, earnings, cash flow, revenue recognition, uses of cash and other measures of financial performance, projections or expectations for future operations, including costs to complete contracts, goodwill impairment evaluations, useful life of intangible assets, unrecognized tax benefits and effective tax rate, environmental remediation costs, insurance recoveries, industry trends and expectations, including ramp up times for build rates, our plans with respect to restructuring activities, capital expenditures, completed acquisitions, future acquisitions and dispositions, and expected business opportunities that may be available to us.
Although we believe that the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are based on reasonable assumptions, these forward-looking statements are subject to numerous factors, risks and uncertainties that could cause actual outcomes and results to be materially different from those projected. We cannot guarantee future results, performance or achievements. Moreover, neither we nor any other person assumes responsibility for the accuracy and completeness of the forward-looking statements. All written and oral forward-looking statements made in connection with this Form 10-K that are attributable to us or persons acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by “Risk Factors” contained within Part I, Item 1A of this Form 10-K and other cautionary statements included herein.
There can be no assurance that other factors will not affect the accuracy of these forward-looking statements or that our actual results will not differ materially from the results anticipated in such forward-looking statements. While it is impossible to identify all such factors, some factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those estimated by us include, but are not limited to, those factors or conditions described under Risk Factors contained within Part I, Item 1A of this Form 10-K and the following:
our ability to manage and otherwise comply with our covenants with respect to our outstanding indebtedness;
our ability to service our indebtedness;
our acquisitions, business combinations, joint ventures, divestitures, or restructuring activities may entail certain operational and financial risks;
the cyclicality of our end-use markets and the level of new commercial and military aircraft orders;
industry and customer concentration;
production rates for various commercial and military aircraft programs;
the level of U.S. Government defense spending;
compliance with applicable regulatory requirements and changes in regulatory requirements, including regulatory requirements such as the Cybersecurity Maturity Model Certification (“CMMC”), applicable to government contracts and sub-contracts, and the Securities and Exchange Commission’s (“SEC”) “Cybersecurity Risk Management, Strategy, Governance, and Incident Disclosure” rule;
further consolidation of customers and suppliers in our markets;
product performance and delivery;
start-up costs, manufacturing inefficiencies and possible overruns on contracts;
increased design, product development, manufacturing, supply chain and other risks and uncertainties associated with our growth strategy to become a supplier of higher-level assemblies;
our ability to manage the risks associated with international operations and sales;
economic and geopolitical developments and conditions, including supply chain issues and rising or higher interest rates;
environmental, social, and governance (“ESG”) developments and their related impact;
pandemics, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, significantly impacting the global economy and most significantly, the commercial aerospace end-use market;
3

disasters, natural or otherwise, damaging or disrupting our operations;
unfavorable developments in the global credit markets;
our ability to operate within highly competitive markets;
technology changes and evolving industry and regulatory standards;
possible goodwill and other asset impairments;
the risk of environmental liabilities;
the risk of cybersecurity attacks, along with a potential significant ransom demand, or our inability to detect such attacks; and
litigation with respect to us.
We caution the reader that undue reliance should not be placed on any forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date of this Form 10-K. We do not undertake any duty or responsibility to update any of these forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this Form 10-K except as required by law.

PART I
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
GENERAL
Ducommun Incorporated (“Ducommun,” “the Company,” “we,” “us” or “our”) is a leading global provider of engineering and manufacturing services for high-performance products and high-cost-of failure applications used primarily in the aerospace and defense (“A&D”), industrial, medical and other industries (collectively, “Industrial”). Ducommun differentiates itself as a full-service solution-based provider, offering innovative, value-added proprietary products and manufacturing solutions to our customers in our primary businesses of electronics, structures, and integrated solutions. We operate through two primary business segments: Electronic Systems and Structural Systems. We are the successor to a business that was founded in California in 1849 and reincorporated in Delaware in 1970.
ACQUISITIONS
Acquisitions have been an important element of our growth strategy. We have supplemented our organic growth by identifying, acquiring and integrating acquisition opportunities that result in broader, more sophisticated product and service offerings while diversifying and expanding our customer base and markets.
For example, on April 25, 2023, we acquired 100% of the outstanding equity interests of BLR Aerospace L.L.C. (“BLR”), a privately-held leading provider of aerodynamic systems that enhance the productivity, performance, and safety of rotary and fixed-wing aircraft on commercial and military platforms. The initial purchase price was $115.0 million, net of cash acquired. We paid a gross aggregate of $117.0 million in cash upon the closing of the transaction. We utilized the 2022 Revolving Credit Facility (as defined below) to complete the acquisition. The acquisition of BLR adds to our strategy to diversify and offer more customized, value-driven engineered products with aftermarket opportunities, and was included in our Structural Systems segment.
PRODUCTS AND SERVICES
Business Segment Information
We operate through two primary strategic businesses, Electronic Systems and Structural Systems, each of which is a reportable segment. The results of operations among our operating segments vary due to differences in competitors, customers, extent of proprietary deliverables and performance. Electronic Systems designs, engineers and manufactures high-reliability electronic and electromechanical products used in worldwide technology-driven markets including A&D and Industrial end-use markets. Electronic Systems’ product offerings primarily range from prototype development to complex assemblies as discussed in more detail below. Structural Systems designs, engineers and manufactures various sizes of complex contoured aerostructure components and assemblies and supplies composite and metal bonded structures and assemblies. Structural Systems’ products are primarily used on commercial aircraft, military fixed-wing aircraft and military and commercial rotary-wing aircraft.
Electronic Systems
Electronic Systems has multiple major product offerings in electronics manufacturing for diverse, high-reliability applications: complex cable assemblies and interconnect systems, printed circuit board assemblies, higher-level electronic, electromechanical, and mechanical components and assemblies, and lightning diversion systems. Components, assemblies, and
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lightning diversion products are provided principally for domestic and foreign commercial and military fixed-wing aircraft, military and commercial rotary-wing aircraft and space programs. Further, we provide select industrial high-reliability applications for the industrial, medical, and other end-use markets. We build custom, high-performance electronics and electromechanical systems. Our products include sophisticated radar enclosures, aircraft avionics racks and shipboard communications and control enclosures, printed circuit board assemblies, cable assemblies, wire harnesses, and interconnect systems, lightning diversion strips, surge suppressors, conformal shields and other high-level complex assemblies. Electronic Systems utilizes a highly-integrated production process, including manufacturing, engineering, fabrication, machining, assembly, electronic integration, and related processes. Engineering, technical and program management services are provided to a wide range of customers.
In response to customer needs and utilizing our in-depth engineering expertise, Electronic Systems is also considered a leading supplier of engineered products including, illuminated pushbutton switches and panels for aviation and test systems, microwave and millimeter switches and filters for radio frequency systems and test instrumentation, motors and resolvers for motion control, and lightning diversion systems.
Electronic Systems also provides engineering expertise for aerospace system design, development, integration, and testing. We leverage the knowledge base, capabilities, talent, and technologies of this focused capability into direct support of our customers.
Structural Systems
Structural Systems has three major product offerings to support a global customer base: commercial aircraft, military fixed-wing aircraft, and military and commercial rotary-wing aircraft. Our applications include structural components, structural assemblies, bonded (metal and composite) components, precision profile extrusions and extruded assemblies, ammunition handling systems, magnetic seals, and aerodynamic systems. In the structural components products, Structural Systems provides design services, engineers, and manufacturing of large complex contoured aluminum, titanium and Inconel aerostructure components for the aerospace industry. Structural assembly products include winglets, engine components, and fuselage structural panels for aircraft. Metal and composite bonded structures and assemblies products include aircraft wing spoilers, large fuselage skins, rotor blades on rotary-wing aircraft and components, flight control surfaces, engine components, ammunition handling systems, magnetic seals, and aerodynamic systems. To support these products, Structural Systems maintains advanced machine milling, stretch-forming, hot-forming, metal bonding, composite layup, and chemical milling capabilities and has an extensive engineering capability to support both design services and manufacturing.
AEROSPACE AND DEFENSE END-USE MARKETS OVERVIEW
Our largest end-use markets are the aerospace and defense markets and our revenues from these markets represented 94% of our total net revenues in 2023. These markets are serviced by suppliers which are stratified, from the highest value provided to the lowest, into four tiers: original equipment manufacturers (“OEMs”), Tier One, Tier Two, and Tier Three. The OEMs provide the highest value and are also known as prime contractors (“Primes”). We derive a significant portion of our revenues from subcontracts with OEMs. As the Primes for various programs and platforms, the OEMs sell to their customers, who may include, depending upon the application, the U.S. Federal Government, foreign, state and local governments, global commercial airline carriers, regional jet carriers and various other customers. The OEMs also sell to global leasing companies that lease commercial aircraft. A significant portion of our revenues is earned from subcontracts with the Primes. Tier One suppliers manufacture aircraft sections and purchase assemblies. Tier Two suppliers provide more complex, value-added parts and may also assume more design risk, manufacturing risk, supply chain risk and project management risk than Tier Three suppliers. Tier Three suppliers principally provide components or detailed parts. We currently compete with Tier One, Tier Two, and Tier Three suppliers. Our business growth strategy is to differentiate ourselves from competitors by providing more complex assemblies to our customers as a higher value added supplier.
Commercial Aerospace End-Use Market
The commercial aerospace end-use market is highly cyclical and is impacted by the level of global air passenger traffic in general, which in turn is influenced by global economic conditions, fleet fuel and maintenance costs, geopolitical developments, pandemics, supply chain issues, and inflationary forces. Revenues from the commercial aerospace end-use market represented 41% of our total net revenues for 2023.
The residual effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting inflation, rising or high interest rates, supply chain issues, geopolitical developments, and other events have contributed and/or continues to contribute to a general slowdown in the global economy and most significantly, the adverse impact on demand for civil air travel. Further, one of our largest customers, The Boeing Company (“Boeing”), was notified by the Federal Aviation Administration (“FAA”) in early January 2024 it has initiated an investigation into Boeing’s quality control system. This was followed by the FAA announcing actions to increase its oversight of Boeing as well as not approving production rate increases or additional production lines for the 737 MAX until it is
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satisfied that Boeing is in full compliance with required quality control procedures. While there continues to be uncertainty, Boeing is continuing to work with airlines and government officials on delivery timing and expect to deliver most of the aircraft in inventory by the end of 2024. The combination of these factors has, in turn, created a significant challenge for some of our customers and the entire commercial aerospace manufacturing and services sector. Airline financial performance, which also plays a role in the demand for new capacity, has been adversely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic and aforementioned issues. According to the International Air Transport Association (“IATA”), it is estimating industry-wide profits of $23.3 billion for 2023, an increase from its forecast of $4.6 billion a year ago. For 2024, IATA is forecasting $25.7 billion in profits for the industry globally. Thus, the overall outlook continues to stabilize as we face uncertainties in the environment in the near-to medium-term as airlines are facing persistently high and volatile cost of fuel and tight labor conditions. The global economy is expecting an easing of inflation and interest rates, with regional economic and geopolitical difficulties adding uncertainty to the outlook and the financial viability of some airlines and regions.
In The Boeing Company’s (“Boeing”) 2023 Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”), they indicated that in 2023, global air traffic largely recovered to 2019 levels with domestic travel continuing to be the most robust and the single-aisle market following closely. International travel has mostly recovered and the wide-body market continues to be paced by the international travel recovery. The transition in the international commercial market from recovery to normal market conditions is progressing slowly as China international travel remains below 2019 levels. Overall, Boeing is experiencing strong demand from its airline customers globally.
The long-term outlook for the industry remains positive due to the fundamental drivers of air travel demand: economic growth, increasing propensity to travel due to increased trade, globalization, and improved airline services driven by liberalization of air traffic rights between countries. Boeing’s commercial market outlook forecast projects a three and a half percent growth rate in the global fleet over a 20 year period. Based on long-term global economic growth projections of two and six tenths percent average annual gross domestic product (“GDP”) growth, Boeing projects demand for 42,595 new airplanes over the next 20 years. However, the industry remains vulnerable to various developments including fuel price spikes, credit market fluctuations, acts of terrorism, natural disasters, conflicts, epidemics, pandemics, and increased global environmental regulations. We believe we are well positioned given our product capabilities, investment in inventories and contract assets, and our initiatives to increase operating efficiencies to participate in the near term recovery and the long term projected growth rate for commercial air traffic and build rates for large commercial aircraft for the airframe manufacturing industry. If the recovery is slower than anticipated or any of those various developments occur, it could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial position, and/or cash flows.
Defense End-Use Market
Our defense end-use market includes products used in military and space, including technologies and structures applications. The defense end-use market is highly cyclical and is impacted by the level of government defense spending. Government defense spending is impacted by national defense policies and priorities, political climates, fiscal budgetary constraints, U.S. Federal budget deficits, projected economic growth and the level of global military or security threats, or other conflicts. Revenues from the military and space end-use market in 2023 represented 53% of our total net revenues during 2023.
The U.S. government is currently operating under a continuing resolution (“CR”) to keep the government funded while the Congress works to enact full year fiscal year 2024 (“FY24”) appropriation bills. Under the Fiscal Responsibility Act of 2023, which imposes limits on discretionary spending for defense and non-defense programs in exchange for the lifting of the debt ceiling in June 2023, if Congress fails to enact all appropriation bills by April 30, 2024, then the budget caps will be reduced and corresponding automatic reductions to agency budget accounts will be enforced through sequestration. Future budget cuts or investment priority changes, including changes associated with the authorizations and appropriations process, could result in reductions, cancellations, and/or delays of existing contracts or programs. Any of these impacts could have a material effect on our results of operations, financial position, and/or cash flows. For additional information related to our revenues from customers whose principal sales are to the U.S. Government and our direct sales to the U.S. Government, see “Risk Factors” contained within Part I, Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K (“Form 10-K”).
INDUSTRIAL END-USE MARKETS OVERVIEW
Our industrial, medical and other (collectively, “Industrial”) end-use markets are diverse and are impacted by the customers’ needs for increasing electronic content and a desire to outsource. Factors expected to impact these markets include capital and industrial goods spending and general economic conditions. Our products are used in heavy industrial manufacturing systems and certain medical applications. Revenues from the Industrial end-use markets were 6% of our total net revenues during 2023.
We believe our business in these markets in the long-term, is stable and we are well positioned in these markets even though the residual effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting inflation, rising or high interest rates, and supply chain issues has had and will continue to have an impact on our business.
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SALES AND MARKETING
Our commercial revenues are substantially dependent on airframe manufacturers’ production rates of new aircraft. Deliveries of new aircraft by airframe manufacturers are dependent on the demand and financial capacity of its customers, primarily airlines and leasing companies, to purchase the aircraft. Thus, revenues from commercial aircraft could be affected as a result of changes in new aircraft orders, or the cancellation or deferral by airlines of purchases of ordered aircraft. Further, our revenues from commercial aircraft programs could be affected by changes in our customers’ inventory levels and changes in our customers’ aircraft production build rates as a result of changing demand by their end customer or in order to comply with regulatory requirements. Due to the effects from the lingering COVID-19 pandemic or regulatory compliance requirements, while both major large aircraft manufacturers, Boeing and Airbus SE (“Airbus”), have announced improved build rates, it will take longer to reach pre-COVID-19 pandemic levels. While the ramp up in production and demand will be slower in the near and medium future, we will continue to identify opportunities to expand our presence and offerings with both major large aircraft manufacturers and their supply chain.
Military components manufactured by us are employed in many of the country’s front-line fighters, bombers, rotary-wing aircraft and support aircraft, as well as land and sea-based applications. Our defense business is diversified among a number of military manufacturers and programs. In the space sector, we are expanding our presence with unmanned aerial vehicles and continue to support various satellite programs.
Our sales into the Industrial end-use markets are customer focused in various markets and driven primarily by their capital spending and manufacturing outsourcing demands.
We continue to broaden and diversify our customer base in the end-use markets we serve by providing innovative product and service solutions by drawing on our core competencies, experience and technical expertise. Net revenues related to military and space, commercial aerospace, and Industrial end-use markets in 2023 and 2022 were as follows:
2023 Revenue by Market Graph D3.jpg
Many of our contracts are firm fixed price contracts subject to termination at the convenience of the customer (as well as for default). In the event of termination for convenience, the customer generally is required to pay the costs we have incurred and certain other fees through the date of termination, plus a reasonable profit. Larger, long-term government subcontracts may have provisions for milestone payments, progress payments or cash advances for purchase of inventory.
Our marketing efforts primarily consist of developing strong, long-term relationships with our customers, which provide the basis for future sales. These close relationships allow us to gain a better insight into each customer’s business needs, identify ways to provide greater value to the customer, and allow us to be designated early in the design process for various products and/or high volume products.
SEASONALITY
The timing of our revenues is governed by the purchasing patterns of our customers, and, as a result, we may not generate revenues equally during the year. However, no material portion of our business is considered to be seasonal.
MAJOR CUSTOMERS
We currently generate the majority of our revenues from the aerospace and defense industries. As a result, we have significant revenues from certain customers. Boeing and RTX Corporation (f/k/a Raytheon Technologies Corporation) (“RTX”) were our largest customers, with Boeing generating 8.2% and RTX generating 16.8% of our 2023 net revenues. Revenues from our top
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10 customers, including Boeing and RTX, were 59% of total net revenues during 2023. Net revenues by major customer for 2023 and 2022 were as follows:
2023 Revenue by Customer Graph D3.jpg
Net revenues from our customers, except the U.S. Government, are diversified over a number of different military and space, commercial aerospace, industrial, medical and other products. For additional information on revenues from major customers, see Note 16 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Form 10-K.
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
We perform concurrent engineering with our customers and product development activities under our self-funded programs, as well as under contracts with others. Concurrent engineering and product development activities are performed for commercial, military and space applications.
RAW MATERIALS AND COMPONENTS
Raw materials and components used in the manufacturing of our products include aluminum, titanium, steel and carbon fibers, as well as a wide variety of electronic interconnect and circuit card assemblies and components. These raw materials are generally available from a number of suppliers and are generally in adequate supply. However, from time to time, and due to the lingering effects from the COVID-19 pandemic, we have experienced increases in lead times and limited availability of various items including aluminum, titanium and certain other raw materials and/or components. Moreover, certain components, supplies and raw materials for our operations are purchased from single source suppliers and occasionally, directed by our customers. In such instances, we strive to develop alternative sources and design modifications to minimize the potential for business interruptions.
COMPETITION
The markets we serve are highly competitive, and our products and services are affected by varying degrees of competition. We compete worldwide with domestic and international companies in most markets. These companies may have competitive advantages as a result of greater financial resources, economies of scale and bundled products and services that we do not offer. Additional information related to competition is discussed in Risk Factors contained within Part I, Item 1A of this Form 10-K. Our ability to compete depends principally upon the breadth of our technical capabilities, the quality of our goods and services, competitive pricing, product performance, design and engineering capabilities, new product innovation, the ability to solve specific customer needs, and customer relationships.
PATENTS AND LICENSES
We have several patents, but we do not believe that our operations are dependent upon any single patent or group of patents. In general, we rely on technical superiority, continual product improvement, exclusive product features, superior lead time, on-time delivery performance, quality, and customer relationships to maintain our competitive advantage.
REMAINING PERFORMANCE OBLIGATIONS AND BACKLOG
We define performance obligations as customer placed purchase orders (“POs”) with firm fixed price and firm delivery dates. The majority of the long-term agreements (“LTAs”) we enter into do not meet the definition of a contract under Accounting Standards Codification 606 (“ASC 606”) and thus, the backlog amount may or may not be greater than the remaining performance obligations amount as defined under ASC 606. Revenue based on remaining performance obligations is subject to delivery delays or program cancellations, which are beyond our control. Remaining performance obligations were $963.5
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million at December 31, 2023. We anticipate recognizing an estimated 70% or $674.0 million of our remaining performance obligations during 2024.
We define backlog as potential revenue that is based on customer placed POs and LTAs with firm fixed price and expected delivery dates of 24 months or less. Backlog is subject to delivery delays or program cancellations, which are beyond our control. Backlog is affected by timing differences in the placement of customer orders, and tends to be concentrated in several programs to a greater extent, than our net revenues. As a result of these factors, trends in our overall level of backlog may not be indicative of trends in our future net revenues. Backlog was $993.6 million at December 31, 2023, compared to $960.8 million at December 31, 2022. The increase in backlog was primarily in the military and space end-use markets, partially offset by a decrease in the commercial aerospace end-use markets and the industrial end-use markets.
ENVIRONMENTAL MATTERS
Our business, operations and facilities are subject to numerous stringent federal, state and local environmental laws and regulations issued by government agencies, including the Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”). Among other matters, these regulatory authorities impose requirements that regulate the emission, discharge, generation, management, transport and disposal of hazardous and non-hazardous materials, pollutants and contaminants. These regulations govern public and private response actions to hazardous or regulated substances that could be or have been released into the environment, or endanger human health, and they require us to obtain and maintain licenses and permits in connection with our operations. We may also be required to investigate and remediate the effects of the release or disposal of materials at sites associated with past and present operations. Additionally, this extensive regulatory framework imposes significant compliance burdens and risks on us. For example, California recently passed two wide-reaching bills that will impose significant and mandatory climate-related reporting requirements for large public and private companies doing business in the state. The bills will ultimately require annual disclosure of audited Scope 1, 2, and 3 greenhouse gas (“GHG”) emissions and biennial disclosure related to certain climate risks beginning in January 2026. We anticipate that capital expenditures will continue to be required for the foreseeable future to upgrade and maintain our environmental compliance efforts, however, we currently do not expect such expenditures to be material in 2024 and the near term.
Structural Systems has been directed by California environmental agencies to investigate and take corrective action for groundwater contamination at its facilities located in Adelanto (a.k.a., El Mirage) and Monrovia, California. Based on currently available information, we have accrued $1.5 million at December 31, 2023 for our estimated liabilities related to these sites. For further information, see Note 15 in the accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Form 10-K. In addition, see Risk Factors contained within Part I, Item 1A of this Form 10-K for certain risks related to environmental matters.
HUMAN CAPITAL
Our employees are critical to our success. We promote a culture of honesty, respect, trust, and teamwork through our Code of Business Conduct. Also, we have been engaged in a number of social matters and issues, both within the Company in our management of human capital, and externally with our community based initiatives.
Employee Safety and Health
The safety of our workforce remains our highest priority as evidenced by our response to the COVID-19 pandemic over the last four years. To this end, we continue to focus on protecting the health and safety of our employees and maintaining a safe work environment, including during the COVID-19 pandemic where we followed the COVID-19 safety guidelines provided by state and local governments and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention at all of our facilities.
We implemented the use of employee health and safety key performance indicators (“KPIs”) that were regularly communicated to our employees by senior management to improve safety outcomes. In 2023, we continued to invest in infrastructure to improve internal safety protocols related to key processes and refined our health and safety software tools to track and engage our performance centers to further reduce our lost time and total recordable incident rates.
Diversity and Inclusion
Diversity and inclusion has been and will continue to be important to our success. As part of our continuing improvement in this area, we implemented diversity and inclusion initiatives in 2019 to help accelerate the process of developing diverse, and qualified talent and applicant pools. To that end, we are seeing an increase in the number of women and individuals from underrepresented communities being promoted on merit into leadership roles. In 2020, we partnered with the Fund II Foundation to utilize its innovative internX platform to provide access to highly qualified and diverse science, technology, engineering and math (“STEM”) students. We believe that broadening the diversity of our pool of potential qualified applicants at the intern level will support our efforts at a diverse workforce reflective of the population and help us continue to develop a more diverse leadership team as our interns continue in their careers.
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Talent Acquisition, Retention, and Development
We attract, develop, and retain employee talent by offering competitive compensation packages and fostering a culture of care about their well-being. In addition, we endeavor to be a proactive corporate citizen by being responsive and supportive of the needs of our employees to attract qualified talent. We strive to provide equal opportunities for qualified members of underrepresented communities and women for advancement within our company and award merit-based scholarships to the children and grandchildren of our employees so that they may develop the skills that will support their entry into the workforce. In addition, in 2018, we implemented an Employee Stock Purchase Plan (“ESPP”) to provide employees the opportunity to share in the ownership of our company and benefit from our performance through the purchase of our company’s stock. The ESPP allows eligible employees to accumulate contributions through after-tax payroll deductions to purchase shares of our Company’s stock at a 15% discount and serves as one of the key retention mechanisms for our human capital.
Workforce Demographics
As of December 31, 2023, we had a highly skilled workforce of 2,265 employees, of which 368 are subject to collective bargaining agreements expiring in April 2025 and June 2024. However, the Monrovia, California performance center that employs 97 of our collective bargaining employees that are covered by an agreement expiring in June 2024 will be ceasing production and the facility will close by the middle of 2024. See Note 3 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Form 10-K for further discussion. Historically, we have been successful in negotiating renewals to expiring agreements without material disruption of operating activities, and believe our relations with our employees are good. See Risk Factors contained within Part I, Item 1A of this Form 10-K for additional information regarding certain risks related to our employees.
AVAILABLE INFORMATION
General information about us can be obtained from our website address at www.ducommun.com. Our Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports, if any, are available free of charge on our website as soon as reasonably practicable after they are filed with or furnished to the SEC. Information included on our website is not incorporated by reference in this Form 10-K. The SEC also maintains a website at www.sec.gov that contains reports, proxy statements and other information regarding SEC registrants, including our company.
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
Our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows may be affected by known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors. We have summarized below the significant, known material risks to our business. Additional risk factors not currently known to us or that we currently believe are immaterial may also impair our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Any of these risks, uncertainties and other factors could cause our future financial results to differ materially from recent financial results or from currently anticipated future financial results. The risk factors below should be considered together with the information included elsewhere in this Form 10-K as well as other required filings by us with the SEC.
CAPITAL STRUCTURE RISKS
Our indebtedness could limit our financing options, adversely affect our financial condition, and prevent us from fulfilling our debt obligations.
In July 2022, we completed a refinancing of our then existing debt by entering into a new term loan (“2022 Term Loan”) and a new revolving credit facility (“2022 Revolving Credit Facility”). The 2022 Term Loan is a $250.0 million senior secured loan that matures in July 2027. The 2022 Revolving Credit Facility is a $200.0 million senior secured revolving credit facility that matures in July 2027. The 2022 Term Loan and 2022 Revolving Credit Facility, collectively are the new credit facilities (“2022 Credit Facilities”). The terms of the 2022 Term Loan require us to make installment payments of 0.625% of the initial outstanding principal balance on a quarterly basis during years one and two, 1.250% during years three and four, and 1.875% during year five, on the last business day of each calendar quarter. In addition, the undrawn portion of the commitment of the 2022 Revolving Credit Facility is subject to a commitment fee ranging from 0.175% to 0.275%, based upon the consolidated total net adjusted leverage ratio.
At December 31, 2023, we had a total of $266.0 million of outstanding long-term debt under the 2022 Credit Facilities. The total long-term debt was primarily the result of our acquisitions, including Lightning Diversion Systems, LLC (“LDS”) in September 2017, Certified Thermoplastics Co., LLC (“CTP”) in April 2018, Nobles Worldwide, Inc. (“Nobles”) in October 2019, and BLR Aerospace, L.L.C. (“BLR”) on April 25, 2023.
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Our ability to obtain additional financing or complete a debt refinancing in the future may be limited. Should we not have ready access to capital markets, we may have to undertake alternative financing plans, such as selling assets; reducing or delaying scheduled expansions, acquisitions and/or capital investments; or seeking various other forms of capital. Our ability to complete reasonable alternative financing plans may be affected by circumstances and economic events outside of our control. We cannot ensure that we would be able to refinance our debt or enter into alternative financing plans in adequate amounts on commercially reasonable terms, terms acceptable to us or at all, or that such plans guarantee that we would be able to meet our debt obligations.
Our level of debt could:
limit our ability to obtain additional financing to fund capital expenditures, investments or acquisitions or other general corporate requirements;
require a portion of our cash flows to be dedicated to debt service payments instead of other purposes, thereby reducing the amount of cash flows available for working capital, capital expenditures, investments or acquisitions or other general corporate purposes;
increase our vulnerability to adverse changes in general economic, industry and competitive conditions;
place us at a disadvantage compared to other, less leveraged competitors;
expose us to the risk of increased borrowing costs and rising or high interest rates as a portion of our current borrowings under our 2022 Credit Facilities bear interest at variable rates (our interest rate swaps, with an aggregate total notional amount of $150.0 million and seven year tenor, became effective on January 1, 2024), which could further adversely impact our cash flows;
limit our flexibility to plan for and react to changes in our business and the industry in which we compete;
restrict us from making strategic acquisitions;
expose us to risk of unfavorable changes in the global credit markets; and
make it more difficult for us to satisfy our obligations with respect to the 2022 Credit Facilities and our other debt.
The occurrence of any one of these events could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and ability to satisfy our obligations in respect of our outstanding debt.
We require a considerable amount of cash to run our business.
Our ability to make payments on our debt in the future and to fund planned capital expenditures and working capital needs, will depend upon our ability to generate significant cash in the future. Our ability to generate cash is subject to economic, financial, competitive, legislative, regulatory and other factors that may be beyond our control.
The terms of the 2022 Term Loan require us to make installment payments of 0.625% of the initial outstanding principal balance on a quarterly basis during years one and two, 1.250% during years three and four, and 1.875% during year five, on the last business day of each calendar quarter. In addition, the undrawn portion of the commitment of the 2022 Revolving Credit Facility is subject to a commitment fee ranging from 0.175% to 0.275%, based upon the consolidated total net adjusted leverage ratio.
On April 25, 2023, we acquired 100% of the outstanding equity interests of BLR for an initial purchase price of $115.0 million, net of cash acquired, all payable in cash. We paid a gross aggregate of $117.0 million in cash upon the closing of the transaction. We utilized the 2022 Revolving Credit Facility to complete the acquisition. See Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Form 10-K for further discussion.
In July 2022, as a result of completing a refinancing of our existing debt, we were required to complete an amendment of all the forward interest rate swaps (“Amended Forward Interest Rate Swaps”) we entered into in November 2021 that were based on U.S. dollar-one month London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) to be based on one month Term Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”) as borrowings can only be based on SOFR. The Amended Forward Interest Rate Swaps, with an aggregate total notional amount of $150.0 million and all with a seven year tenor, became effective on January 1, 2024. The weighted average fixed rate of the Amended Forward Interest Rate Swaps was 1.7%. At December 31, 2023, the outstanding balance on the 2022 Credit Facilities was $266.0 million with an average interest rate of 7.53%. Should interest rates increase significantly, our debt service cost on the variable portion of our debt will increase. Any inability to generate sufficient cash flow could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations. See Note 1 and Note 9 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Form 10-K for further discussion.
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While we expect to meet all of our financial obligations, we cannot ensure that our business will generate sufficient cash flow from operations in an amount sufficient to enable us to pay our debt or to fund our other liquidity needs.
We require a considerable amount of cash to fund our anticipated voluntary principal prepayments on our Credit Facilities.
Our ability to reduce the debt outstanding under our 2022 Credit Facilities through voluntary principal prepayments will be a contributing factor to our ability to keep our interest rate towards the lower end of the interest rate range as defined in the 2022 Credit Facilities. Our ability to make such prepayments will depend upon our ability to generate significant cash in the future. We cannot ensure that our business will generate sufficient cash flow from operations to fund any such prepayments.
The covenants in our credit facilities impose restrictions that may limit our operating and financial flexibility.
We are required to comply with a leverage covenant as defined in the 2022 Credit Facilities. The leverage covenant is defined as Consolidated Funded Indebtedness less unrestricted cash and cash equivalents in excess of $5.0 million, divided by consolidated earnings before interest, taxes and depreciation and amortization (“EBITDA”) and other adjustments.
At December 31, 2023, we were in compliance with the leverage covenant under the 2022 Credit Facilities. However, there is no assurance that we will continue to be in compliance with the leverage covenant in future periods.
The 2022 Credit Facilities’ agreements contains a number of significant restrictions and covenants that limit our ability, among other things, to incur additional indebtedness, to create liens, to make certain payments, to make certain investments, to engage in transactions with affiliates, to sell certain assets or enter into mergers.
These covenants could materially and adversely affect our ability to finance our future operations or capital needs. Furthermore, they may restrict our ability to expand, pursue our business strategies and otherwise conduct our business. Our ability to comply with these covenants may be affected by circumstances and events beyond our control, such as prevailing economic conditions and changes in regulations, and we cannot ensure that we will be able to comply with such covenants. These restrictions also limit our ability to obtain future financings to withstand a future downturn in our business or the economy in general.
A breach of any covenant in the 2022 Credit Facilities could result in a default under the 2022 Credit Facilities. A default, if not waived, could result in acceleration of the debt outstanding under the agreement. A default could permit our lenders to foreclose on any of our assets securing such debt. Even if new financing were available at that time, it may not be on terms or amounts that are acceptable to us or terms as favorable as our current agreements. If our debt is in default for any reason, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected.
The typical trading volume of our common stock may affect an investor’s ability to sell significant stock holdings in the future without negatively impacting stock price.
The level of trading activity may vary daily and typically represents only a small percentage of outstanding shares. As a result, a stockholder who sells a significant amount of shares in a short period of time could negatively affect our share price.
Our amount of debt may require us to raise additional capital to fund acquisitions.
We may sell additional shares of common stock or other equity securities to raise capital in the future, which could dilute the value of an investor’s holdings.
BUSINESS AND OPERATIONAL RISKS
Our end-use markets are cyclical.
We sell our products into aerospace, defense, and industrial end-use markets, which are cyclical and have experienced periodic declines. Our sales are, therefore, unpredictable and may tend to fluctuate based on a number of factors, including global economic conditions, U.S. defense budgetary spending, geopolitical developments and conditions, pandemics, supply chain shortages, rising or high interest rates and other developments affecting our end-use markets and the customers served. Consequently, results of operations in any period should not be considered indicative of the operating results that may be experienced in any future period.
We depend upon a select base of industries and customers, which subjects us to unique risks which may adversely affect us.
We currently generate the majority of our revenues from customers in the aerospace and defense industry. Our business depends, in part, on the level of new military and commercial aircraft orders. As a result, we have significant sales to certain
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customers. Sales to The Boeing Company (“Boeing”), Spirit AeroSystems Holdings, Inc. (“Spirit”), and Viasat, Inc. (“Viasat”) comprise a significant portion of our commercial aerospace end-use market in 2023. A significant portion of our net sales in our military and space end-use markets are made under subcontracts with original equipment manufacturers (“OEMs”), under their prime contracts with the U. S. Government. We had significant sales to General Dynamics Corporation (“GD”), Northrop Grumman Corporation (“Northrop”), and RTX Corporation (f/k/a Raytheon Technologies Corporation) (“RTX”) in 2023 in our defense technologies end-use market.
Our customers may experience delays in the launch and certification of new products, labor strikes, diminished liquidity or credit unavailability, weak demand for their products, or other difficulties in their business. In addition, shifts in government spending priorities have caused and may continue to cause additional uncertainty in the placement of orders.
Our revenues from our top ten customers, which represented 59% of our total 2023 net revenues, were diversified over a number of different aerospace and defense products. Any significant change in production rates by these customers would have a material effect on our results of operations and cash flows. There is no assurance that our current significant customers will continue to buy products from us at current levels, or that we will retain any or all of our existing customers, or that we will be able to form new relationships with customers upon the loss of one or more of our existing customers. This risk may be further complicated by pricing pressures, competition prevalent in our industry and other factors. A significant reduction in sales to any of our major customers, the loss of a major customer, or a default of a major customer on accounts receivable could have a material adverse impact on our financial results.
Boeing was one of our largest customers in 2023, and the 737 MAX was one of our highest commercial end use market revenue platforms. While Boeing has received approval from all the major civil aviation regulators around the world for its 737 MAX to return to service, our production rates are still below pre-COVID-19 pandemic levels. Further, as noted earlier, in early January 2024, the FAA initiated an investigation into Boeing’s quality control system. This was followed by the FAA announcing actions to increase its oversight of Boeing as well as not approving production rate increases or additional production lines for the 737 MAX until it is satisfied that Boeing is in full compliance with required quality control procedures. Revenue growth with our other commercial customers, including Airbus SE (“Airbus”), and continued solid demand from defense OEMs (also known as prime contractors) have helped to mitigate a significant portion of this risk for the time being. However, the residual effects of the COVID-19 pandemic along with inflationary forces, supply chain issues, and rising or high interest rates continues to dampen civil air travel demand in various segments and markets, and if traveler demand does not return in the near future, it may make it difficult to continue to offset a significant portion of this risk.
We generally make sales under purchase orders and contracts that are subject to cancellation, modification or rescheduling. Changes in the economic environment and the financial condition of the industries we serve could result in customer cancellation of contractual orders or requests for rescheduling. Some of our contracts have specific provisions relating to schedule and performance, and failure to deliver in accordance with such provisions could result in cancellations, modifications, rescheduling and/or penalties, in some cases at the customers’ convenience and without prior notice. While we have normally recovered our direct and indirect costs plus profit, such cancellations, modifications, or rescheduling that cannot be replaced in a timely fashion, could have a material adverse effect on our financial results.
A significant portion of our business depends upon U.S. Government defense spending.
We derive a significant portion of our business from customers whose principal sales are to the U.S. Government. Accordingly, the success of our business depends upon government spending generally or for specific departments or agencies in particular. Such spending, among other factors, is subject to the uncertainties of governmental appropriations and national defense policies and priorities, constraints of the budgetary process, timing and potential changes in these policies and priorities, and the adoption of new laws or regulations or changes to existing laws or regulations.
These and other factors could cause the government and government agencies, or prime contractors that use us as a subcontractor, to reduce their purchases under existing contracts, to exercise their rights to terminate contracts for convenience or to abstain from exercising options to renew contracts, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Further, the levels of U.S. Department of Defense (“U.S. DoD”) spending in future periods are difficult to predict and are impacted by numerous factors such as the political environment, U.S. foreign policy, macroeconomic conditions and the ability of the U.S. Government to enact relevant legislation such as the authorization and appropriations bills. For instance, the U.S. government is currently operating under a continuing resolution (“CR”) to keep the government funded while the Congress works to enact full year fiscal year 2024 (“FY24”) appropriation bills. Under the Fiscal Responsibility Act of 2023, which imposes limits on discretionary spending for defense and non-defense programs in exchange for the lifting of the debt ceiling in June 2023, if Congress fails to enact all appropriation bills by April 30, 2024, then the budget caps will be reduced and corresponding automatic reductions to agency budget accounts will be enforced through sequestration which could have a
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material effect on our results of operations, financial position, and/or cash flows. Further, there continues to be uncertainty with respect to future program-level appropriations for the U.S. DoD and other government agencies for fiscal year 2025 and beyond. Accordingly, long-term uncertainty remains with respect to overall levels of defense spending and it is likely that U.S. Government discretionary spending levels will continue to be subject to pressure.
Exports of certain of our products and our production facility in Guaymas, Mexico are subject to various export control regulations and authorizations, and we may not be successful in obtaining the necessary U.S. Government approvals and related export licenses for proposed sales to certain foreign customers.
We must comply with numerous laws and regulations relating to the export of some of our products before we are permitted to sell or manufacture those products outside the United States. Compliance often entails the submission and timely receipt of the necessary export approvals, licenses, or authorizations from the U.S. Government. Over the last several years, the U.S. export licensing environment for munitions has been adversely affected by a number of factors, including, but not limited to, the changing geopolitical environment and heightened tensions with other countries (which shift and evolve over time). Accordingly, we can give no assurance that we will be successful in obtaining, in a timely manner or at all, the approvals, licenses or authorizations we need to sell or manufacture our products outside the United States, which may result in the cancellation of orders and significant penalties to our customers if we do not make deliveries and fulfill our contractual commitments. Any significant delay in, or impairment of, our ability to sell products outside of the United States could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Contracts with some of our customers, including Federal government contracts, contain provisions which give our customers a variety of rights that are unfavorable to us and the OEMs to whom we provide products and services, including the ability to terminate a contract at any time for convenience.
Contracts with some of our customers, including Federal government contracts, contain provisions and are subject to laws and regulations that provide rights and remedies not typically found in commercial contracts. These provisions may allow our customers to:
terminate existing contracts, in whole or in part, for convenience, as well as for default, or if funds for contract performance for any subsequent year become unavailable;
terminate existing contracts if we are suspended or debarred from doing business with the federal government or with a governmental agency;
prohibit future procurement awards with a particular agency as a result of a finding of an organizational conflict of interest based upon prior related work performed for the agency that would give a contractor an unfair advantage over competing contractors; and
claim rights in products and systems produced by us.
If the U.S. Government terminates a contract for convenience, the counterparty with whom we have contracted on a subcontract may terminate its contract with us. As a result of any such termination, whether on a direct government contract or subcontract, we may recover only our incurred or committed costs, settlement expenses and profit on work completed prior to the termination. If the U.S. Government terminates a direct contract with us for default, we may not even recover those amounts and instead may be liable for excess costs incurred by the U.S. Government in procuring undelivered items and services from another source.
In addition, the U.S. Government is typically required to open all programs to competitive bidding and, therefore, may not automatically renew any of its prime contracts. If one or more of our customers’ government prime or subcontracts is terminated or canceled, our failure to replace sales generated from such contracts would result in lower sales and could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Further consolidation in the aerospace industry could adversely affect our business and financial results.
The aerospace and defense industry is experiencing significant consolidation, including our customers, competitors and suppliers. Consolidation among our customers may result in delays in the awarding of new contracts and losses of existing business. Consolidation among our competitors may result in larger competitors with greater resources and market share, which could adversely affect our ability to compete successfully. Consolidation among our suppliers may result in fewer sources of supply and increased cost to us.
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Our growth strategy includes evaluating selected acquisitions, which entails certain risks to our business and financial performance.
We have historically achieved a portion of our growth through acquisitions and expect to evaluate selected future acquisitions as part of our strategy for growth. Any acquisition of another business entails risks and it is possible that we may not realize the expected benefits from an acquisition or that an acquisition could adversely affect our existing operations. Acquisitions entail certain risks, including:
difficulty in integrating the operations and personnel of the acquired company within our existing operations or in maintaining uniform standards;
loss of key employees or customers of the acquired company;
the failure to achieve anticipated synergies;
unrecorded liabilities of acquired companies that we fail to discover during our due diligence investigations or that are not subject to indemnification or reimbursement by the seller; and
management and other personnel having their time and resources diverted to evaluate, negotiate and integrate acquisitions.
We may not be successful in achieving expected operating efficiencies and sustaining or improving operating expense reductions, and may experience business disruptions associated with restructuring, performance center consolidations, realignment, cost reduction, and other strategic initiatives.
In recent years, we have implemented a number of restructuring, realignment, and cost reduction initiatives, including performance center consolidations, organizational realignments, and reductions in our workforce. While we have realized some efficiencies from these actions, we may not realize the benefits of these initiatives to the extent we anticipated. Further, such benefits may be realized later than expected, and the ongoing difficulties in implementing these measures may be greater than anticipated, which could cause us to incur additional costs or result in business disruptions. In addition, if these measures are not successful or sustainable, we may have to undertake additional realignment and cost reduction efforts, which could result in significant additional charges. Moreover, if our restructuring and realignment efforts prove ineffective, our ability to achieve our other strategic and business plan goals may be adversely impacted.
As we move up the value chain to become a more value added supplier, enhanced design, product development, manufacturing, supply chain project management and other skills will be required.
We may encounter difficulties as we execute our growth strategy to move up the value chain to become a more value added supplier of more complex assemblies. Difficulties we may encounter include, but are not limited to, the need for enhanced and expanded product design skills, enhanced ability to control and influence our suppliers, enhanced quality control systems and infrastructure, enhanced large-scale project management skills, and expanded industry certifications. Assuming incremental project design responsibilities would require us to assume additional risk in developing cost estimates and could expose us to increased risk of losses. There can be no assurance that we will be successful in obtaining the enhanced skills required to move up the value chain or that our customers will outsource such functions to us.
Risks associated with operating and conducting our business outside the United States could adversely impact us.
We have a manufacturing facility that we lease in Mexico and also derive a portion of our net revenues from direct foreign sales. Further, our customers may derive portions of their revenues from non-U.S. customers. As a result, we are subject to the risks of conducting and operating our business internationally, including:
political instability;
economic and geopolitical developments and conditions;
pandemics and disasters, natural or otherwise;
compliance with a variety of international laws, as well as U.S. laws affecting the activities of U.S. companies conducting business abroad, including, but not limited to, the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act;
imposition of taxes, export control approvals or licenses, tariffs, embargoes and other trade restrictions;
difficulties repatriating funds or restrictions on cash transfers; and
potential for new tariffs imposed on imports by the U.S. administration.
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While the impact of these factors is difficult to predict, we believe any one or more of these factors could have a material adverse effect on our financial results.
Customer pricing pressures could reduce the demand and/or price for our products and services.
The markets we serve are highly competitive and price sensitive. We compete worldwide with a number of domestic and international companies that have substantially greater manufacturing, purchasing, marketing and financial resources than we do. Many of our customers have the in-house capability to fulfill their manufacturing requirements. Our larger competitors may be able to compete more effectively for very large-scale contracts than we can by providing different or greater capabilities or benefits such as technical qualifications, past performance on large-scale contracts, geographic presence, price and availability of key professional personnel. If we are unable to successfully compete for new business, our net revenues growth and operating margins may decline.
Some of our major customers have completed extensive cost containment efforts and we expect continued pricing pressures in 2024 and beyond. Competitive pricing pressures may have an adverse effect on our financial condition and operating results. Further, there can be no assurance that competition from existing or potential competitors in other segments of our business will not have a material adverse effect on our financial results. If we do not continue to compete effectively and win contracts, our future business, financial condition, results of operations and our ability to meet our financial obligations may be materially compromised.
Our products and processes are subject to risk of obsolescence as a result of changes in technology and evolving industry and regulatory standards.
The future success of our business depends in large part upon our and our customers’ ability to maintain and enhance technological capabilities, develop and market manufacturing services that meet changing customer needs and successfully anticipate or respond to technological advances in manufacturing processes such as the incorporation of artificial intelligence and other disruptive technologies on a cost-effective and timely basis, while meeting evolving industry and regulatory standards. To address these risks, we invest in product design and development, and incur related capital expenditures. There can be no guarantee that our product design and development efforts will be successful, or that funds required to be invested in product design and development or incurred as capital expenditures will not increase materially in the future.
We may not have the ability to renew facilities leases on terms favorable to us and relocation of operations presents risks due to business interruption.
Certain of our manufacturing facilities and offices are leased and have lease terms that expire between 2024 and 2032. The majority of these leases provide renewal options at the fair market rental rate at the time of renewal, which, if renewed, could be significantly higher than our current rental rates. We may be unable to offset these cost increases by charging more for our products and services. Furthermore, continued economic conditions may continue to negatively impact and create greater pressure in the commercial real estate market, causing higher incidences of landlord default and/or lender foreclosure of properties, including properties occupied by us. While we maintain certain non-disturbance rights in most cases, it is not certain that such rights will in all cases be upheld and our continued right of occupancy in such instances could be potentially jeopardized. An occurrence of any of these events could have a material adverse effect on our financial results.
Additionally, if we choose to move any of our operations, those operations may be subject to additional relocation costs and associated risks of business interruption.
LEGAL, REGULATORY, TAX, AND ACCOUNTING RISKS
We are subject to extensive regulation and audit by the Defense Contract Audit Agency.
The accuracy and appropriateness of certain costs and expenses used to substantiate our direct and indirect costs for the U.S. Government contracts are subject to extensive regulation and audit by the Defense Contract Audit Agency, an arm of the U.S. DoD. Such audits and reviews could result in adjustments to our contract costs and profitability. However, we cannot ensure the outcome of any future audits and adjustments may be required to reduce net sales or profits upon completion and final negotiation of audits. If any audit or review were to uncover inaccurate costs or improper activities, we could be subject to penalties and sanctions, including termination of contracts, forfeiture of profits, suspension of payments, fines and suspension or prohibition from conducting future business with the U.S. Government. Any such outcome could have a material adverse effect on our financial results.
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We are subject to a number of procurement laws and regulations. Our business and our reputation could be adversely affected if we fail to comply with these laws.
We must comply with and are affected by laws and regulations relating to the award, administration and performance of U.S. Government contracts. Government contract laws and regulations affect how we do business with our customers and impose certain risks and costs on our business. A violation of specific laws and regulations, by us, our employees, or others working on our behalf, such as a supplier or a venture partner, could harm our reputation and result in the imposition of fines and penalties, the termination of our contracts, suspension or debarment from bidding on or being awarded contracts, loss of our ability to export products or services and civil or criminal investigations or proceedings.
In some instances, these laws and regulations impose terms or rights that are different from those typically found in commercial transactions. For example, the U.S. Government may terminate any of our customers’ government contracts and subcontracts either at its convenience or for default based on our performance. Upon termination for convenience of a fixed-price type contract, we normally are entitled to receive the purchase price for delivered items, reimbursement for allowable costs for work-in-process and an allowance for profit on the contract or adjustment for loss if completion of performance would have resulted in a loss.
Our operations are subject to numerous extensive, complex, costly and evolving laws, regulations and restrictions, including cybersecurity requirements, and failure to comply with these laws, regulations and restrictions could subject us to penalties and sanctions that could harm our business.
Prime contracts with our major customers that have contracts with various agencies of the U.S. Government are subject to numerous laws, regulations and certifications, which affect how we do business with our customers and may impose added costs to our business. As a result, our contracts and operations are subject to numerous extensive, complex, costly and evolving laws, regulations and restrictions, principally by the U.S. Government or their agencies. These laws, regulations and restrictions govern items including, but not limited to, the formation, administration and performance of U.S. Government contracts, disclosure of cost and pricing data, civil penalties for violations of false claims to the U.S. Government for payment, defining reimbursable costs, establishing ethical standards for the procurement process, controlling the import and export of defense articles and services, and cybersecurity requirements, such as Cybersecurity Maturity Model Certification (“CMMC”).
Noncompliance could expose us to liability for penalties, including termination of our contracts and subcontracts, disqualification from bidding on future U.S. Government contracts and subcontracts, suspension or debarment from U.S. Government contracting and various other fines and penalties. Noncompliance found by any one agency could result in fines, penalties, debarment or suspension from receiving additional contracts with all U.S. Government agencies. Given our dependence on U.S. Government business, suspension or debarment could have a material adverse effect on our financial results.
In addition, the U.S. Government may revise its procurement practices or adopt new contract rules and regulations at any time, including increased usage of fixed-price contracts, procurement reform, and compliance with cybersecurity requirements. Such changes could impair our ability to obtain new contracts or subcontracts or renew contracts or subcontracts under which we currently perform when those contracts are put up for competitive bidding. Any new contracting methods could be costly or administratively difficult for us to implement and could adversely affect our future net revenues.
In addition, our international operations subject us to numerous U.S. and foreign laws and regulations, including, without limitation, regulations relating to import-export control, technology transfer restrictions, repatriation of earnings, exchange controls, the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, and the anti-boycott provisions of the U.S. Export Administration Act. Changes in regulations or political environments may affect our ability to conduct business in foreign markets including investment, procurement and repatriation of earnings. Failure by us or our sales representatives or consultants to comply with these laws and regulations could result in certain liabilities and could possibly result in suspension or debarment from government contracts or suspension of our export privileges, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial results.
Environmental liabilities could adversely affect our financial results.
We are subject to various federal, local, and foreign environmental laws and regulations, including those relating to the use, storage, transport, discharge and disposal of hazardous and non-hazardous chemicals and materials used and emissions generated during our manufacturing process. We do not carry insurance for these potential environmental liabilities. Any failure by us to comply with present or future regulations could subject us to future liabilities or the suspension of production, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial results. Moreover, some environmental laws relating to contaminated sites can impose joint and several liability retroactively regardless of fault or the legality of the activities giving rise to the contamination. Compliance with existing or future environmental laws and regulations may require extensive capital expenditures, increase our cost or impact our production capabilities. Even if such expenditures are made, there can be no assurance that we will be able to comply. We have been directed to investigate and take corrective action for groundwater
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contamination at certain sites and our ultimate liability for such matters will depend upon a number of factors. See Note 15 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Form 10-K for further information.
We may be subject to litigation, other legal proceedings and indemnity claims, and, if any of these are resolved adversely against us in amounts that exceed the limits of our insurance coverage, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
From time to time, we and our subsidiaries are involved in various legal and other proceedings that are incidental to the conduct of our business. Any litigation, other legal proceedings or indemnity claims could result in an unfavorable judgment that may not be reversed upon appeal or in payments of substantial monetary damages or fines that may exceed our insurance coverage limits, or we may decide to settle on similarly unfavorable terms, any of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations. We could also suffer an adverse impact on our reputation and a diversion of management’s attention and resources, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. See Note 13 and Note 15 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Form 10-K for further information.
Product liability claims in excess of insurance could adversely affect our financial results and financial condition.
We face potential liability for property damage, personal injury, or death as a result of the failure of products designed or manufactured by us. Although we currently maintain product liability insurance (including aircraft product liability insurance), any material product liability not covered by insurance could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
We use estimates when bidding on fixed-price contracts. Changes in our estimates could adversely affect our financial results.
We enter into contracts providing for a firm, fixed-price for the sale of a majority of our products, regardless of the production costs incurred by us. In many cases, we make multi-year firm, fixed-price commitments to our customers, without assurance that our anticipated production costs will be achieved. Contract bidding and accounting require judgment relative to assessing risks, estimating contract net sales and costs, including estimating cost increases over time and efficiencies to be gained, and making assumptions for supplier sourcing and quality, manufacturing scheduling and technical issues over the life of the contract. Such assumptions can be particularly difficult to estimate for contracts with new customers. Inaccurate estimates of these costs could result in reduced profits or incurred losses. Due to the significance of the judgments and estimates involved, it is possible that materially different amounts could be obtained if different assumptions were used or if the underlying circumstances were to change. Therefore, any changes in our underlying assumptions, circumstances or estimates could have a material adverse effect on our financial results.
Goodwill and/or other assets could be impaired in the future, which could result in substantial charges.
Goodwill is tested for impairment on an annual basis as of the first day of our fourth quarter or more frequently if events or circumstances occur which could indicate potential impairment. In assessing the recoverability of goodwill, management is required to make certain critical estimates and assumptions. These estimates and assumptions include projected sales levels, including the addition of new customers, programs or platforms and increased content on existing programs or platforms, improvements in manufacturing efficiency, and reductions in operating costs. Due to many variables inherent in the estimation of a business’s fair value and the relative size of our recorded goodwill, changes in estimates and assumptions may have a material effect on the results of our impairment analysis. If any of these or other estimates and assumptions are not realized in the future, or if market multiples decline, we may be required to record an impairment charge for goodwill.
We also test intangible assets with indefinite life periods for potential impairment annually and on an interim basis if there are indicators of potential impairment.
In addition, we evaluate amortizable intangible assets, fixed assets, production cost of contracts, and lease right-of-use assets for impairment if there are indicators of a potential impairment.
Further, impairment charges may be incurred against other intangible assets or long-term assets if asset utilization declines, customer demand declines or other circumstances indicate that the asset carrying value may not be recoverable.
Our goodwill and other intangible assets as of December 31, 2023 were $410.9 million, or 37% of total assets. If our goodwill and/or other assets are impaired, it could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition. See “Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets” in Note 7 of our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Form 10-K for further information.
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We expect to face increased costs and resources to comply with the new SEC cybersecurity rule.
The SEC recently adopted a rule, “Cybersecurity Risk Management, Strategy, Governance, and Incident Disclosure,” that enhances and standardizes disclosures regarding cybersecurity risk management and governance, as well as material cybersecurity incidents. Under this new rule, public companies are now required to make annual disclosures describing their processes for identifying and managing material cybersecurity risks, management’s role in assessing and managing such risks, and the Board of Directors’ oversight of cybersecurity risks. Companies also must disclose in a Form 8-K, the nature, scope, and timing of any material cybersecurity incidents identified and the material impact or reasonably likely material impact on the company within four business days of determining a cybersecurity incident is material. We expect to face increased costs to comply with this new SEC cybersecurity rule, including increased costs for cybersecurity training, staffing, and management. In addition, the requirement to report cybersecurity incidents within such a short timeframe could mean there may not be sufficient time to halt a breach before having to report it, potentially giving the hackers an advantage.
Unanticipated changes in our tax provision or exposure to additional income tax liabilities could affect our profitability.
Significant judgment is required in determining our provision for income taxes. In the ordinary course of our business, there are transactions and calculations where the ultimate tax determination is uncertain. Furthermore, changes in income tax laws and regulations, or their interpretation, could result in higher or lower income tax rates assessed or changes in the taxability of certain sales or the deductibility of certain expenses, thereby affecting our income tax expense and profitability. In addition, we are regularly under audit by tax authorities. The final determination of tax audits and any related litigation could be materially different from our historical income tax provisions and accruals.
Management has identified a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting which could, if not remediated, adversely impact the reliability of our financial reports, cause us to submit our financial reports in an untimely fashion, result in material misstatements in our financial statements and cause current and potential stockholders to lose confidence in our financial reporting, which in turn could adversely affect the trading price of our stock.
We have concluded that there is a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting as we did not design and maintain effective controls over the accuracy of contract terms and the reasonableness of gross margin assumptions used to recognize revenue. Specifically, we did not verify that amendments to purchase orders and gross margin percentage assumptions used in the Company’s revenue recognition analysis were properly reviewed at a sufficient level of precision. The material weakness resulted in immaterial adjustments to net revenues and contract assets as of and for the quarterly and annual periods ending December 31, 2023. Additionally, until remediated, this material weakness could result in future misstatements of net revenues and contract assets that would result in a material misstatement to the annual or interim consolidated financial statements that would not be prevented or detected. Thus, management has determined that our disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting were not effective as of December 31, 2023.
Under standards established by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (“PCAOB”), a material weakness is a deficiency, or combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of our annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected and corrected on a timely basis. The existence of this issue could adversely affect us, our reputation or investor perceptions of us. We have and will continue to take additional measures to remediate the underlying causes of the material weakness noted above. As we continue to evaluate and work to remediate the material weakness, we may determine to take additional measures to address the control deficiencies. Also, see Item 9A in Part II of this Form 10-K.
Although we plan to complete this remediation process as quickly as possible, our measures may not prove to be successful in remediating this material weakness. If our remedial measures are insufficient to address the material weakness, or if additional material weaknesses or significant deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting are discovered or occur in the future, our consolidated financial statements may contain material misstatements and we could be required to restate our financial results. In addition, if we are unable to successfully remediate this material weakness and if we are unable to produce accurate and timely financial statements, our stock price may be adversely affected and we may be unable to maintain compliance with applicable stock exchange listing requirements and debt covenant requirements.
Our ability to accurately report our financial results or prevent fraud may be adversely affected if our internal control over financial reporting is not effective.
The accuracy of our financial reporting is dependent on the effectiveness of our internal controls. We are required to provide a report from management to our shareholders on our internal control over financial reporting that includes an assessment of the effectiveness of these controls. Internal control over financial reporting has inherent limitations, including human error, the possibility that controls could be circumvented or become inadequate as a result of changed conditions, and fraud. Due to these
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inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting might not prevent or detect all misstatements or fraud. If we cannot maintain and execute adequate internal control over financial reporting or implement required new or improved controls that provide reasonable assurance of the reliability of the financial reporting and preparation of our financial statements for external use, our ability to accurately report our financial results or prevent fraud could be adversely affected.
LABOR AND SUPPLY CHAIN RISKS
We are dependent upon our ability to attract and retain key personnel.
Our success depends in part upon our ability to attract and retain key engineering, technical and managerial personnel, at both the executive and performance center level. We face competition for management, engineering and technical personnel from other companies and organizations. The loss of members of our senior management group, or key engineering and technical personnel, could negatively impact our ability to grow and remain competitive in the future and could have a material adverse effect on our financial results.
Labor disruptions by our employees could adversely affect our business.
As of December 31, 2023, we employed 2,265 people. Two of our performance centers are parties to collective bargaining agreements, covering 97 full time hourly employees in one of those performance centers and 271 full time hourly employees in the other performance center, which will expire in June 2024 and April 2025, respectively. However, the Monrovia, California performance center that employs 97 of our collective bargaining employees that are covered by an agreement that expires in June 2024 will be ceasing production and the facility is currently expected to close by the middle of 2024. See Note 3 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Form 10-K for further information. Although we have not experienced any material labor-related work stoppage and consider our relations with our employees to be good, labor stoppages may occur in the future. If the unionized workers were to engage in a strike or other work stoppage, if we are unable to negotiate acceptable collective bargaining agreements with the unions or if other employees were to become unionized, we could experience a significant disruption of our operations, higher ongoing labor costs and possible loss of customer contracts, which could have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
We rely on our suppliers to meet the quality and delivery expectations of our customers.
Our ability to deliver our products and services on schedule and to satisfy specific quality levels is dependent upon a variety of factors, including execution of internal performance plans, availability of raw materials, internal and supplier produced parts and structures, conversion of raw materials into parts and assemblies, and performance of suppliers and others.
We rely on numerous third-party suppliers for raw materials and a large proportion of the components used in our production process. Certain of these raw materials and components are available only from single sources or a limited number of suppliers, or similarly, customers’ specifications may require us to obtain raw materials and/or components from a single source or certain suppliers. Many of our suppliers are small companies with limited financial resources and manufacturing capabilities. We do not currently have the ability to manufacture these components ourselves. These and other factors, including the impact from import tariffs, the loss of a critical supplier or raw materials and/or component shortages, could cause disruptions or cost inefficiencies in our operations. Additionally, our competitors that have greater direct purchasing power, may have product cost advantages which could have a material adverse effect on our financial results.
GENERAL RISKS
Pandemics and other disease outbreaks such as COVID-19 and similar health threats that may arise in the future may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
While the commercial aerospace industry continues to recover from the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, new variants of that disease, along with other similar public health threats may have or may continue to have an adverse impact on our employees, operations, businesses of our customers, suppliers and distribution partners, and volatility in the financial markets. Changes in our operations in response to the COVID-19 pandemic and other health threats or employee illnesses resulting from such diseases, has resulted in and may continue to result in inefficiencies or delays, including in sales and product development efforts and our manufacturing and supply chain, and additional costs related to business continuity initiatives, that cannot be fully mitigated through succession planning, employees working remotely, or teleconferencing technologies. The long-term impact to our business remains unknown due to the numerous uncertainties that have risen from such health threats, including the severity of the disease, the duration of the outbreak, the likelihood of resurgences of the outbreak, including the emergence and spread of variants, actions that may be taken by governmental authorities in response to the disease, the timing, distribution, efficacy and public acceptance of vaccines, long-term impact from diseases or vaccines, and related unintended or unanticipated consequences.
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Our ability to continue to manufacture products is highly dependent on our ability to maintain the safety and health of our performance center employees. While we continue to follow guidelines and requirements of governmental authorities and taking preventive and protective measures to prioritize the safety and well-being of our employees, these measures are not always successful. Thus far, the ability of our employees to work has not been significantly impacted by individuals contracting or being exposed to COVID-19 or its variants. However, if an outbreak of COVID-19 or other viruses does occur at any of our performance centers, it may disrupt our ability to manufacture products and thus, have a material and adverse impact on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Increased scrutiny from investors, lenders, and other market participants regarding our environmental, social, and governance, or sustainability responsibilities could expose us to additional costs and adversely impact our liquidity, results of operations, reputation, employee retention, and stock price.
There is an increasing focus from certain investors, customers, and other key stakeholders concerning corporate responsibility, specifically related to environmental, social, and governance (“ESG”) factors. Some investors may use ESG criteria to guide their investment strategies and, in some cases, may choose not to invest in us if they believe our policies relating to corporate responsibilities are inadequate. Lenders may also use ESG criteria to guide their lending practices and, in some cases, may choose not to lend to us.
The ESG factors by which companies’ corporate responsibility practices are assessed may change. This could result in greater expectations of us and cause us to undertake costly initiatives to satisfy such new criteria. If we are unable to satisfy the new corporate responsibility criteria, investors may view our policies related to corporate responsibility as inadequate. We risk damage to our reputation in the event our corporate responsibility procedures or goals do not meet the standards or goals set by various constituencies. In addition, if our competitors’ corporate responsibility performance is perceived to be greater than ours, potential or current investors may elect to invest in our competitors instead. Further, in the event we communicate certain initiatives or goals related to ESG, we could fail, or be perceived to have failed, in our achievement of such initiatives or goals. If we fail to satisfy the expectations of investors and other key stakeholders, or our initiatives are not executed as planned, our reputation, employee retention, and willingness of our customers and suppliers to do business with us, financial results, and stock price could be materially and adversely affected.
Cybersecurity attacks, internal system or service failures may adversely impact our business and operations.
Any system or service disruptions, including those caused by projects to improve our information technology systems, if not anticipated and appropriately mitigated, could disrupt our business and impair our ability to effectively provide products and related services to our customers and could have a material adverse effect on our business. We could also be subject to systems failures, including network, software or hardware failures, whether caused by us, third-party service providers, intruders or hackers, computer viruses, natural disasters, power shortages or terrorist attacks. Cybersecurity threats are evolving and include, but are not limited to, malicious software, unauthorized attempts to gain access to sensitive, confidential or otherwise protected information related to us or our products, our employees, customers or suppliers, or other acts that could lead to disruptions in our business, which risk may be heightened by the increased prevalence and use of artificial intelligence. Any such failures could cause loss of data and interruptions or delays in our business, cause us to incur remediation costs, subject us to claims and damage our reputation. In addition, such cybersecurity attacks may result in a significant ransom demand. Further, the failure or disruption of our communications or utilities could cause us to interrupt or suspend our operations or otherwise adversely affect our business. Our property and business interruption insurance may be inadequate to compensate us for all losses that may occur as a result of any system or operational failure or disruption which would adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We may be unable to adequately protect or enforce our intellectual property rights.
Our intellectual property rights may not be sufficiently broad or otherwise may not provide us a significant competitive advantage, and patents may not be issued for pending or future patent applications owned by or licensed to us. As patents expire, we could face increased competition, which could negatively impact our operating results. Infringement of our intellectual property and other proprietary rights by a third party, or copying of our technology in countries where we do not hold patents, could result in uncompensated lost market and revenue opportunities. We cannot be certain that the measures we have implemented will prevent our intellectual property from being improperly disclosed, challenged, invalidated, or circumvented, particularly in countries where intellectual property rights are not highly developed or protected. For example, competitors may avoid infringement liability by developing non-infringing competing technologies or by effectively concealing infringement. We may need to spend significant resources monitoring and enforcing our intellectual property rights and we may not be aware of or able to detect or prove infringement by third parties. Our ability to enforce our intellectual property rights is subject to litigation risks, as well as uncertainty as to the protection and enforceability of those rights in some countries. If we seek to enforce our intellectual property rights, we may be subject to claims that those rights are invalid or unenforceable, and
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others may seek counterclaims against us, which could have a negative impact on our business. In addition, changes in intellectual property laws or their interpretation may impact our ability to protect and assert our intellectual property rights, increase costs and uncertainties in the prosecution of patent applications and enforcement or defense of issued patents, and diminish the value of our intellectual property. If we do not protect and enforce our intellectual property rights successfully, or if they are circumvented, invalidated, or rendered obsolete by the rapid pace of technological change, it could have an adverse impact on our competitive position and our operating results.
Assertions by third parties that we violated their intellectual property rights could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Third parties may claim that we, our customers, licensees, or parties indemnified by us are infringing upon or otherwise violating their intellectual property rights. Such claims may be made by competitors seeking to obtain a competitive advantage or by other parties. Additionally, in recent years, individuals and groups have begun purchasing intellectual property assets for the purpose of making claims of infringement and attempting to extract settlements from companies like ours.
Any claims that we violated a third party’s intellectual property rights can be time consuming and costly to defend and distract management’s attention and resources, even if the claims are without merit. Such claims may also require us to redesign affected products and services, enter into costly settlement or license agreements or pay costly damage awards, or face a temporary or permanent injunction prohibiting us from marketing or providing the affected products and services. Even if we have an agreement to indemnify us against such costs, the indemnifying party may not have sufficient financial resources or otherwise be unable to uphold its contractual obligations. If we cannot or do not license the infringed technology on favorable terms or cannot or do not substitute similar technology from another source, our revenue and earnings could be adversely impacted.
Damage or destruction of our facilities caused by storms, earthquake, fires or other causes could adversely affect our financial results and financial condition.
We have operations located in regions of the U.S. and Mexico that may be exposed to damaging storms, earthquakes, fires and other natural disasters. Although we maintain standard property casualty insurance covering our properties and may be able to recover costs associated with certain natural disasters through insurance, we do not carry any earthquake insurance because of the cost of such insurance. Many of our properties are located in Southern California, an area subject to earthquake activity. Our California performance centers generated $185.9 million in net revenues during 2023. Even if covered by insurance, any significant damage or destruction of our facilities due to storms, earthquakes, fires or other natural disasters could result in our inability to meet customer delivery schedules and may result in the loss of customers and significant additional costs to us. Thus, any significant damage or destruction of our properties could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. See discussion of a fire in June 2020 which severely damaged our Guaymas, Mexico performance center in Note 15 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Form 10-K for further information.
 
ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.

ITEM 1C. CYBERSECURITY
We have an enterprise-wide approach to addressing cybersecurity risk, including input and participation from management and support from our Information Technology (“IT”) Steering Committee that is comprised of our Senior Vice President Electronic and Structural Systems, Chief Financial Officer, General Counsel, Chief Human Resources Officer, Vice President Supply Chain Management, and Chief Information Security Officer (Head of IT and Cybersecurity or “CISO”). Our cybersecurity risk management program leverages the National Institute of Standards and Technology (“NIST”) Framework which augmented with Cybersecurity Maturity Model Certification (“CMMC”) components to meet our particular needs. We regularly assess the threat landscape and take a holistic view of the cybersecurity risks, with a layered cybersecurity strategy based on protection, detection, and mitigation. Our IT security team, which is comprised of internal resources, reviews enterprise risk management-level cybersecurity risks at least annually.
Our CISO is responsible for developing, implementing, and maintaining our information security strategy and program, as well as reporting various cybersecurity risk matters to our IT Steering Committee, and the Board’s Innovation Committee. The Innovations Committee is a subset of the full Board of Directors which receive regular updates on our cybersecurity program.
Our CISO has over 17 years of experience leading cybersecurity oversight for several companies and is updated on cyber events related to the monitoring, prevention, detection, mitigation, and remediation efforts from our IT security team. The IT
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security team have broad cybersecurity expertise or industry certifications and are knowledgeable in the use of cybersecurity tools and software. In addition, third-party cybersecurity services are used to augment our in-house capabilities, as needed.
We continue to expand investments in IT security, including additional end-user security awareness training, using layered defenses, identifying and protecting critical systems, strengthening monitoring and alerting, and engaging experts as needed. We also use an industry standard risk quantification model to identify, measure, and prioritize cybersecurity risks. This in turn, helps us develop and implement effective security controls and technology defenses. In addition, all employees are required to complete various cybersecurity trainings on a regular basis. Further, we perform periodic simulations and tabletop exercises with the IT security team and will continue to expand its participants as appropriate. Our assessment of risks associated with the use of third party providers on a limited basis is part of our current overall cybersecurity risk management approach. As the threats and attacks are becoming more sophisticated, we will modify and enhance our cybersecurity program as needed.
As a defense contractor, we must also comply with extensive regulations, including requirements imposed by the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (“DFARS”) related to adequately safeguarding controlled unclassified information (“CUI”). The Department of Defense (“DoD”) will require defense contractors to comply with its CMMC program in the future. We are incorporating the requirements of the CMMC program into our overall cybersecurity program and anticipate we will be in position to meet such requirements when it becomes effective.
Cybersecurity threats, including as a result of any previous cybersecurity incidents have not materially affected or are not reasonably likely to materiality affect us, including our business strategy, results of operations or financial condition. See “Cybersecurity attacks, internal system or service failures may adversely impact our business and operations” in Risk Factors included in Part I, Item 1A of this Form 10-K. Such incidents, whether or not successful, could result in our incurring significant costs related to, for example, rebuilding our internal systems, implementing additional threat protection measures, defending against litigation, responding to regulatory inquiries or actions, paying damages, providing customers with incentives to maintain a business relationship with us, or taking other remedial steps with third-parties, as well as incurring significant reputational harm. In addition, these threats are constantly evolving, thereby increasing the difficulty of successfully defending against them or implementing adequate preventive measures. For more information regarding the risks we face from cybersecurity threats, please see Risk Factors included in Part I, Item 1A of this Form 10-K.
ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
Our headquarters are located in Santa Ana, California. As of December 31, 2023, we owned or leased facilities and land for corporate functions and manufacturing at locations throughout the United States and a manufacturing location outside the United States. We believe our existing facilities are suitable and adequate for our present purposes. Each of our reportable segments uses each of these facilities.

ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
See Note 15 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Form 10-K for a description of our legal proceedings.

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.
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PART II

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR THE REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol DCO. As of December 31, 2023, we had 134 holders of record of our common stock. We have not paid any dividends since the first quarter of 2011 and we do not expect to pay dividends for the foreseeable future.
See “Part III, Item 12. SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT AND RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS” for information relating to shares to be issued under equity compensation plans.
Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities
None.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
None.
Performance Graph
The following graph compares the yearly percentage change in our cumulative total shareholder return with the cumulative total return of the Russell 2000 Index and the median of our 2024 Proxy Statement peers (“Median of Peers”) over a five year period, assuming the reinvestment of any dividends. The graph is not necessarily indicative of future price performance:
DCO 5 Year Chart For 2023 10-K.jpg

ITEM 6. [Reserved]
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Item 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Overview
Ducommun Incorporated (“Ducommun,” “the Company,” “we,” “us” or “our”) is a leading global provider of engineering and manufacturing services for high-performance products and high-cost-of failure applications used primarily in the aerospace and defense (“A&D”), industrial, medical, and other industries (“Industrial”). We differentiate ourselves as a full-service solution-based provider, offering a wide range of value-added products and services in our primary businesses of electronics, structures and integrated solutions. We operate through two primary business segments: Electronic Systems and Structural Systems, each of which is a reportable segment.
COVID-19 Pandemic Impact on Our Business
The COVID-19 pandemic had a significant impact on our overall business during the prior year ended December 31, 2022. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, precautionary measures were instituted by governments and businesses to mitigate its spread, including the imposition of travel restrictions, quarantines, shelter in place directives, and shutting down of non-essential businesses.
The residual effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting inflation, rising or high interest rates, supply chain issues, geopolitical developments, and other events have contributed and/or continue to contribute to a general slowdown in the global economy and most significantly, the commercial aerospace end-use market. Further, one of our largest customers, The Boeing Company (“Boeing”), was notified by the Federal Aviation Administration (“FAA”) in early January 2024 it has initiated an investigation into Boeing’s quality control system. This was followed by the FAA announcing actions to increase its oversight of Boeing as well as not approving production rate increases or additional production lines for the 737 MAX until it is satisfied that Boeing is in full compliance with required quality control procedures. For 2024, while both major large aircraft manufacturers, Boeing and Airbus SE, have announced either similar or increases in build rates compared to 2023, the ramp up is slower than expected and below pre-pandemic levels. In its 2023 Annual Report on Form 10-K, Boeing indicated that in 2023, global air traffic largely recovered to 2019 levels with domestic travel continuing to be the most robust and international travel has mostly recovered. While the full extent and impact of the COVID-19 pandemic cannot be reasonably estimated with certainty, in the prior year, the COVID-19 pandemic had a significant impact on our business, the businesses of our customers and suppliers, as well as our results of operations and financial condition, and such lingering effects along with compliance with regulatory compliance, could have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition for 2024 and beyond. See Risk Factors included in Part I, Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K (“Form 10-K”).
Recap for the year ended December 31, 2023:
Net revenues of $757.0 million
Net income of $15.9 million, or $1.14 per diluted share
Adjusted EBITDA of $101.5 million
Non-GAAP Financial Measures
Adjusted earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, amortization, stock-based compensation expense, restructuring charges, Guaymas fire related expenses, other fire related expenses, insurance recoveries related to loss on operating assets, insurance recoveries related to business interruption, inventory purchase accounting adjustments, loss on extinguishment of debt, other debt refinancing costs, gain on sale-leaseback, and success bonus related to the completion of sale-leaseback transaction (“Adjusted EBITDA”) was $101.5 million and $94.7 million for the years ended December 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively.
When viewed with our financial results prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”) and accompanying reconciliations, we believe Adjusted EBITDA provides additional useful information that clarifies and enhances the understanding of the factors and trends affecting our past performance and future prospects. We define this measure, explain how it is calculated and provide a reconciliation of this measure to the most comparable GAAP measure in the table below. Adjusted EBITDA and the related financial ratios, as presented in this Form 10-K, are supplemental measures of our performance that are not required by, or presented in accordance with, GAAP. They are not a measurement of our financial performance under GAAP and should not be considered as alternatives to net income or any other performance measures derived in accordance with GAAP, or as an alternative to net cash provided by operating activities as a measurement of our liquidity. The presentation of these measures should not be interpreted to mean that our future results will be unaffected by unusual or nonrecurring items.
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We use Adjusted EBITDA as a non-GAAP operating performance measure internally as a complementary financial measure to evaluate the performance and trends of our businesses. We present Adjusted EBITDA and the related financial ratios, as applicable, because we believe that measures such as these provide useful information with respect to our ability to meet our operating commitments.
Adjusted EBITDA has limitations as an analytical tool, and you should not consider it in isolation or as a substitute for analysis of our results as reported under GAAP. Some of these limitations include:
It does not reflect our cash expenditures, future requirements for capital expenditures or contractual commitments;
It does not reflect changes in, or cash requirements for, our working capital needs;
It does not reflect the significant interest expense or the cash requirements necessary to service interest or principal payments on our debt;
Although depreciation and amortization are non-cash charges, the assets being depreciated and amortized will often have to be replaced in the future, and Adjusted EBITDA does not reflect any cash requirements for such replacements;
It is not adjusted for all non-cash income or expense items that are reflected in our statements of cash flows;
It does not reflect the impact on earnings or charges resulting from matters unrelated to our ongoing operations; and
Other companies in our industry may calculate Adjusted EBITDA differently from us, limiting its usefulness as a comparative measure.
As a result of these limitations, Adjusted EBITDA and the related financial ratios should not be considered as measures of discretionary cash available to us to invest in the growth of our business or as a measure of cash that will be available to us to meet our obligations. You should compensate for these limitations by relying primarily on our GAAP results and using Adjusted EBITDA only as supplemental information. See our consolidated financial statements contained in this Form 10-K.
Even with the limitations above, we believe that Adjusted EBITDA is useful to an investor in evaluating our results of operations as this measure:
Is widely used by investors to measure a company’s operating performance without regard to items excluded from the calculation of such terms, which can vary substantially from company to company depending upon accounting methods and book value of assets, capital structure and the method by which assets were acquired, among other factors;
Helps investors to evaluate and compare the results of our operations from period to period by removing the effect of our capital structure from our operating performance; and
Is used by our management team for various other purposes in presentations to our Board of Directors as a basis for strategic planning and forecasting.
The following financial items have been added back to or subtracted from our net income when calculating Adjusted EBITDA:
Interest expense may be useful to investors for determining current cash flow;
Income tax expense may be useful to investors because it represents the taxes which may be payable for the period and the change in deferred taxes during the period, and may reduce cash flow available for use in our business;
Depreciation may be useful to investors because it generally represents the wear and tear on our property and equipment used in our operations;
Amortization expense may be useful to investors because it represents the estimated attrition of our acquired customer base and the diminishing value of product rights;
Stock-based compensation expense may be useful to our investors for determining current cash flow;
Restructuring charges may be useful to our investors in evaluating our core operating performance;
Guaymas fire related expenses may be useful to our investors in evaluating our core operating performance;
Other fire related expenses may be useful to our investors in evaluating our core operating performance;
Insurance recoveries related to loss on operating assets (property and equipment, inventories, and other assets) may be useful to our investors in evaluating our core operating performance;
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Insurance recoveries related to business interruption may be useful to our investors in evaluating our core operating performance;
Purchase accounting inventory step-ups may be useful to our investors as they do not necessarily reflect the current or on-going cash charges related to our core operating performance;
Loss on extinguishment of debt may be useful to our investors for determining current cash flow;
Other debt refinancing costs may be useful to our investors in evaluating our core operating performance;
Gain on sale-leaseback may be useful to our investors in evaluating our core operating performance; and
Success bonus related to completion of sale-leaseback transaction may be useful to our investors in evaluating our core operating performance.
Reconciliations of net income to Adjusted EBITDA and the presentation of Adjusted EBITDA as a percentage of net revenues were as follows:
(Dollars in thousands)
Years Ended December 31,
202320222021
Net income$15,928 $28,789 $135,536 
Interest expense20,773 11,571 11,187 
Income tax expense451 4,533 34,948 
Depreciation15,473 14,535 14,051 
Amortization17,098 16,886 14,338 
Stock-based compensation expense (1)
15,045 10,744 11,212 
Restructuring charges (2)
14,855 6,686 — 
Guaymas fire related expenses3,896 4,466 2,486 
Other fire related expenses477 — — 
Insurance recoveries related to loss on operating assets(5,724)— — 
Insurance recoveries related to business interruption(2,289)(5,400)— 
Inventory purchase accounting adjustments (3)(4)
5,531 1,381 106 
Loss on extinguishment of debt— 295 — 
Other debt refinancing costs— 224 — 
Gain on sale-leaseback— — (132,522)
Success bonus related to completion of sale-leaseback transaction (5)
— — 1,451 
Adjusted EBITDA$101,514 $94,710 $92,793 
% of net revenues13.4 %13.3 %14.4 %

(1)2023 and 2022 included $2.7 million and $1.2 million, respectively, of stock-based compensation expense for awards with both performance and market conditions that will be settled in cash.
(2)2023 and 2022 included $0.3 million and $0.5 million, respectively, of restructuring charges that were recorded as cost of sales.
(3)2023 included inventory purchase accounting adjustments of inventory that was stepped up as part of our purchase price allocation from our acquisition of BLR Aerospace, LLC (“BLR”) on April 25, 2023 and is a part of our Structural Systems operating segment.
(4)2022 and 2021 included inventory purchase accounting adjustments of inventory that was stepped up as part of our purchase price allocation from our acquisition of Magnetic Seal LLC (f/k/a Magnetic Seal Corporation, “MagSeal”) in December 2021 and is a part of our Structural Systems operating segment.
(5)2021 included $1.3 million of success bonus related to the completion of the sale-leaseback transaction that was recorded as part of cost of sales.
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RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
2023 Compared to 2022
The following table sets forth net revenues, selected financial data, the effective tax rate and diluted earnings per share:
(Dollars in thousands, except per share data)
Years Ended December 31,
2023%
of Net Revenues
2022%
of Net Revenues
Net Revenues$756,992 100.0 %$712,537 100.0 %
Cost of Sales593,805 78.4 %568,240 79.7 %
Gross Profit163,187 21.6 %144,297 20.3 %
Selling, General and Administrative Expenses119,728 15.8 %98,351 13.8 %
Restructuring Charges14,542 1.9 %6,158 0.9 %
Operating Income28,917 3.9 %39,788 5.6 %
Interest Expense(20,773)(2.7)%(11,571)(1.6)%
Loss on Extinguishment of Debt— — %(295)— %
Other Income, Net8,235 1.1 %5,400 0.8 %
Income Before Taxes16,379 2.3 %33,322 4.8 %
Income Tax Expense451 nm4,533 nm
Net Income$15,928 2.1 %$28,789 4.0 %
Effective Tax Rate2.8 %nm13.6 %nm
Diluted Earnings Per Share$1.14 nm$2.33 nm
nm = not meaningful
Net Revenues by End-Use Market and Operating Segment
Net revenues by end-use market and operating segment during 2023 and 2022, respectively, were as follows:
(Dollars in thousands)
Years Ended December 31,
% of Net Revenues
Change2023202220232022
Consolidated Ducommun
Military and space$(16,882)$403,819 $420,701 53.3 %59.1 %
Commercial aerospace
61,782 309,291 247,509 40.9 %34.7 %
Industrial(445)43,882 44,327 5.8 %6.2 %
Total$44,455 $756,992 $712,537 100.0 %100.0 %
Electronic Systems
Military and space$(20,696)$293,485 $314,181 68.2 %71.3 %
Commercial aerospace10,639 92,769 82,130 21.6 %18.6 %
Industrial(445)43,882 44,327 10.2 %10.1 %
Total$(10,502)$430,136 $440,638 100.0 %100.0 %
Structural Systems
Military and space$3,814 $110,334 $106,520 33.8 %39.2 %
Commercial aerospace51,143 216,522 165,379 66.2 %60.8 %
Total$54,957 $326,856 $271,899 100.0 %100.0 %
Net revenues for 2023 were $757.0 million compared to $712.5 million for 2022. The year-over-year increase was primarily due to the following:
$61.8 million higher revenues in our commercial aerospace end-use markets due to higher build rates on large aircraft platforms and other commercial aerospace platforms; partially offset by
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$16.9 million lower revenues in our military and space end-use markets due to lower build rates on various missile platforms and military fixed-wing aircraft platforms, partially offset by higher build rates on military rotary-wing aircraft platforms, a portion of which was related to BLR, and other military and space platforms.
Net Revenues by Major Customers
A significant portion of our net revenues are from our top ten customers as follows:
Years Ended December 31,
20232022
Boeing Company8.2 %6.7 %
General Dynamics Corporation3.8 %5.7 %
Northrop Grumman Corporation5.5 %5.7 %
RTX Corporation16.8 %21.6 %
Spirit AeroSystems Holdings, Inc.6.4 %5.7 %
Viasat, Inc.5.5 %5.4 %
Top ten customers(1)
58.7 %61.4 %
(1) Includes The Boeing Company (“Boeing”), General Dynamics Corporation (“GD”), Northrop Grumman Corporation (“Northrop”), RTX Corporation (f/k/a Raytheon Technologies Corporation) (“RTX”), Spirit AeroSystems Holdings, Inc. (“Spirit”), and Viasat, Inc. (“Viasat”).
The revenues from Boeing, GD, Northrop, RTX, Spirit, and Viasat are diversified over a number of commercial, military and space programs and some of which were generated by both operating segments.
Gross Profit
Gross profit consists of net revenues less cost of sales. Cost of sales includes the cost of production of finished products and other expenses related to inventory management, manufacturing quality, and order fulfillment. Gross profit margin increased to 21.6% in 2023 compared to 20.3% in 2022 primarily due to favorable manufacturing volume, partially offset by unfavorable product mix and higher other manufacturing costs.
Selling, General and Administrative (“SG&A”) Expenses
SG&A expenses increased $21.4 million in 2023 compared to 2022 primarily due to BLR SG&A expenses of $10.7 million which did not exist in the prior year period, higher compensation and benefits costs of $4.2 million, higher stock-based compensation expense of $3.9 million, and higher professional services fees of $1.6 million, a portion of which was related to the BLR acquisition.
Restructuring Charges
Restructuring charges increased $8.2 million (the portion recorded in cost of sales decreased $0.2 million) in 2023 compared to 2022 primarily due to the restructuring plan that was approved and commenced in April 2022 that is expected to better position us for stronger performance. See Note 3 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Form 10-K for further information.
Interest Expense
Interest expense increased in 2023 compared to 2022 primarily due to higher interest rates and a higher outstanding debt balance, mainly due to the acquisition of BLR on April 25, 2023. See Note 2 and Note 9 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Form 10-K for further information.
Income Tax Expense
We recorded an income tax expense of $0.5 million (an effective tax rate of 2.8%) in 2023, compared to $4.5 million (an effective tax rate of 13.6%) in 2022. The decrease in the effective tax rate for 2023 compared to 2022 was primarily due to lower pre-tax income for 2023 compared to 2022, which caused the research and development tax credits to have a higher income tax benefit impact on the effective tax rate. The higher income tax benefit on the effective tax rate was partially offset by higher income tax expense related to non-deductible book compensation expenses.
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Our unrecognized tax benefits were $4.5 million and $4.9 million in 2023 and 2022, respectively. We record interest and penalty charges, if any, related to uncertain tax positions as a component of tax expense and unrecognized tax benefits. The amounts accrued for interest and penalty charges as of December 31, 2023 and 2022 were not significant. If recognized, $2.6 million would affect the effective income tax rate. As a result of statute of limitations set to expire in 2024, we expect decreases to our unrecognized tax benefits of $0.8 million in the next twelve months.
We file U.S. Federal and state income tax returns. We are subject to examination by the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) for tax years after 2019 and by state taxing authorities for tax years after 2018. While we are no longer subject to examination prior to those periods, carryforwards generated prior to those periods may still be adjusted upon examination by the IRS or state taxing authority if they either have been or will be used in a subsequent period. We believe we have adequately accrued for tax deficiencies or reductions in tax benefits, if any, that could result from the examination and all open audit years.
The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (“TCJA”), which was signed into U.S. law in December 2017, eliminated the option to immediately deduct research and development expenditures in the year incurred under Section 174 effective January 1, 2022. The amended provision under Section 174 requires us to capitalize and amortize these expenditures over five years (for U.S.-based research). For the year ended December 31, 2023, we recorded an increase to income taxes payable of $9.7 million and a decrease to net deferred tax liabilities of a similar amount. We are monitoring legislation for any further changes to Section 174 and the potential impact to our financial statements in 2024.
In August 2022, the U.S. enacted the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022 (“IRA”) which aims to curb inflation by reducing the deficit, lowering prescription drug prices, and investing in domestic energy production while promoting clean energy. We considered the provisions in the IRA and determined they have no or minimal impact to our overall income taxes.
In August 2022, the U.S. enacted the Creating Helpful Incentives to Produce Semiconductors Act of 2022 (“CHIPS Act”) which provides new funding to boost domestic research and manufacturing of semiconductors in the United States. We considered the provisions in the CHIPS Act and determined they have no or minimal impact to our overall income taxes.
Net Income and Earnings per Diluted Share
Net income and earnings per diluted share for 2023 were $15.9 million, or $1.14 per diluted share, compared to net income and earnings per diluted share for 2022 of $28.8 million, or $2.33 per diluted share. The decrease in net income in 2023 compared to 2022 was primarily due to higher SG&A expenses of $21.4 million, higher interest expense of $9.2 million, higher restructuring charges of $8.2 million (the portion recorded in cost of sales decreased $0.2 million), partially offset by higher gross profit of $18.9 million, lower income tax expense of $4.1 million, and higher other income, net of $2.8 million.
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Business Segment Performance
We report our financial performance based upon the two reportable operating segments: Electronic Systems and Structural Systems. The results of operations differ between our reportable operating segments due to differences in competitors, customers, extent of proprietary deliverables and performance. The following table summarizes our business segment performance for 2023 and 2022:
 
%(Dollars in thousands)
Years Ended December 31,
%
of Net  Revenues
%
of Net  Revenues
Change2023202220232022
Net Revenues
Electronic Systems(2.4)%$430,136 $440,638 56.8 %61.8 %
Structural Systems20.2 %326,856 271,899 43.2 %38.2 %
Total Net Revenues6.2 %$756,992 $712,537 100.0 %100.0 %
Segment Operating Income
Electronic Systems$42,086 $49,876 9.8 %11.3 %
Structural Systems23,460 17,225 7.2 %6.3 %
65,546 67,101 
Corporate General and Administrative Expenses (1)
(36,629)(27,313)(4.8)%(3.8)%
Total Operating Income$28,917 $39,788 3.8 %5.6 %
Adjusted EBITDA
Electronic Systems
Operating Income$42,086 $49,876 
Other Income222 — 
Depreciation and Amortization14,276 13,974 
Stock-Based Compensation Expense462 186 
Restructuring Charges6,412 3,786 
63,458 67,822 14.8 %15.4 %
Structural Systems
Operating Income23,460 17,225 
Depreciation and Amortization18,060 17,212 
Stock-Based Compensation Expense387 163 
Restructuring Charges8,334 2,900 
Inventory Purchase Accounting Adjustments5,531 1,381 
Guaymas Fire Related Expenses3,896 4,466 
Other Fire Related Expenses477 — 
60,145 43,347 18.4 %15.9 %
Corporate General and Administrative Expenses (1)
Operating Loss(36,629)(27,313)
Depreciation and Amortization235 235 
Stock-Based Compensation Expense14,196 10,395 
Restructuring Charges109 — 
Other Debt Refinancing Costs— 224 
(22,089)(16,459)
Adjusted EBITDA$101,514 $94,710 13.4 %13.3 %
Capital Expenditures
Electronic Systems$6,007 $10,717 
Structural Systems13,127 8,834 
Corporate Administration— — 
Total Capital Expenditures$19,134 $19,551 
(1)Includes costs not allocated to either the Electronic Systems or Structural Systems operating segments.
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Electronic Systems
Electronic Systems’ net revenues in 2023 compared to 2022 decreased $10.5 million primarily due to the following:
$20.7 million lower revenues in our military and space end-use markets due to lower build rates on military fixed-wing aircraft platforms and various missile platforms, partially offset by higher build rates on other military and space platforms; partially offset by
$10.6 million higher revenues in our commercial aerospace end-use markets due to higher build rates on other commercial aerospace platforms, partially offset by lower build rates on regional and business aircraft platforms.
Electronic Systems segment operating income in 2023 compared to 2022 decreased $7.8 million primarily due to unfavorable product mix and higher restructuring charges, partially offset by favorable manufacturing volume.
Structural Systems
Structural Systems’ net revenues in 2023 compared to 2022 increased $55.0 million primarily due to the following:
$51.1 million higher revenues in commercial aerospace end-use markets due to higher build rates on large aircraft platforms, other commercial aerospace platforms, regional and business aircraft platforms, and commercial rotary-wing aircraft platforms; and
$3.8 million higher revenues in military and space end-use markets due to higher build rates on military rotary-wing platforms, a portion of which was related to BLR, and other military and space platforms, partially offset by lower build rates on various missile platforms and military fixed-wing aircraft platforms.
The Structural Systems operating income in 2023 compared to 2022 increased $6.2 million primarily due to favorable manufacturing volume and favorable product mix, partially offset by higher restructuring charges, higher inventory purchase accounting adjustments, and unfavorable other manufacturing costs.
In June 2020, a fire severely damaged our performance center in Guaymas, Mexico, which is part of our Structural Systems segment. We have insurance coverage and up to a capped amount, expect the damaged items will be covered, less our deductible. The full financial impact cannot be estimated at this time as we are currently working with our insurance carriers to determine the cause of the fire. The loss of production from the Guaymas performance center was being absorbed by our other existing performance centers, however, we have reestablished and are in the process of ramping up our manufacturing capabilities in a different leased facility in Guaymas. A neighboring, non-related manufacturing facility, also suffered fire damage during the same time as the fire that severely damaged our Guaymas performance center. The cause of the fire is still undetermined and as such, there is no amount of loss that is probable and reasonably estimable at this time. If we are ultimately deemed to be responsible or partly responsible, it is possible we could incur a loss in excess of our insurance coverage limits, which could be material to our cash flow, liquidity, or financial results. See Note 13 and Note 15 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Form 10-K for additional information.
On April 29, 2023, a fire damaged a relatively small portion of one of our performance centers in our Structural Systems reporting segment. Our insurance covers damage, up to a capped amount, to the property and equipment at replacement cost, as well as business interruption and recovery related expenses caused by the fire, less our per claim deductible. There was a loss of production in this damaged portion of the performance center for a short period of time but did not result in significant disruption to customer delivery schedules. Production in this damaged portion has since resumed. The insurance claim for damages to our operating assets and business interruption was deemed final and closed by our insurance company during the fourth quarter of 2023 and since the remaining gain contingencies were deemed resolved, the remaining $0.3 million was recognized in the fourth quarter of 2023, for an aggregate total of $0.4 million recorded as other income during 2023. See Note 15 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Form 10-K for additional information.
Corporate General and Administrative (“CG&A”) Expenses
CG&A expenses in 2023 compared to 2022 increased $9.3 million primarily due to higher stock-based compensation expense of $3.9 million, higher compensation and benefits costs of $3.4 million, and higher professional services fees of $1.5 million, mainly due to the BLR acquisition.
Backlog
We define backlog as customer placed purchase orders (“POs”) and long-term agreements (“LTAs”) with firm fixed price and expected delivery dates of 24 months or less. The majority of the LTAs do not meet the definition of a contract under ASC 606 and thus, the backlog amount disclosed below is greater than the remaining performance obligations amount disclosed in Note 1 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Form 10-K. Backlog is subject to delivery delays or program cancellations, which are beyond our control. Backlog is affected by timing differences in the placement of customer
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orders and tends to be concentrated in several programs to a greater extent than our net revenues. As a result of these factors, trends in our overall level of backlog may not be indicative of trends in our future net revenues.
The increase in backlog was primarily in the military and space end-use markets; partially offset by a decrease in the commercial aerospace end-use markets and industrial end-use markets. $656.0 million of total backlog is expected to be delivered over the next 12 months. The following table summarizes our backlog for 2023 and 2022:
(Dollars in thousands)
December 31,
Change20232022
Consolidated Ducommun
Military and space$69,789 $527,143 $457,354 
Commercial aerospace(20,598)429,494 450,092 
Industrial(16,443)36,931 53,374 
Total$32,748 $993,568 $960,820 
Electronic Systems
Military and space$36,099 $397,681 $361,582 
Commercial aerospace(37,596)87,994 125,590 
Industrial(16,443)36,931 53,374 
Total$(17,940)$522,606 $540,546 
Structural Systems
Military and space$33,690 $129,462 $95,772 
Commercial aerospace16,998 341,500 324,502 
Total$50,688 $470,962 $420,274 
2022 Compared to 2021
See Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations in our 2022 Form 10-K filed with the SEC on February 16, 2023.
LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES
Available Liquidity
Total debt, the weighted-average interest rate, cash and cash equivalents and available credit facilities were as follows:
(Dollars in millions)
December 31,
20232022
Total debt, including short-term portion$266.0 $248.4 
Weighted-average interest rate on debt7.53 %4.36 %
Term Loans interest rate6.93 %4.24 %
Cash and cash equivalents$42.9 $46.2 
Unused Revolving Credit Facility$176.0 $199.8 
In July 2022, we completed a refinancing of all our existing debt by entering into a new term loan (“2022 Term Loan”) and a new revolving credit facility (“2022 Revolving Credit Facility”). The 2022 Term Loan is a $250.0 million senior secured loan that matures on July 14, 2027. The 2022 Revolving Credit Facility is a $200.0 million senior secured revolving credit facility that matures on July 14, 2027. The 2022 Term Loan and 2022 Revolving Credit Facility, collectively are the new credit facilities (“2022 Credit Facilities”). In conjunction with the closing of the 2022 Credit Facilities, we utilized the entire $250.0 million of proceeds from the 2022 Term Loan plus our existing cash on hand to pay off our entire debt balance outstanding of $254.2 million under our prior credit facilities. At the same leverage ratio, the interest rate spread in the 2022 Credit Facilities is lower than the interest rate spread under our prior credit facilities. Interest payments are typically paid on a monthly or quarterly basis, depending on the interest rate selected, on the last business day each month or quarter. In addition, the 2022 Term Loan requires quarterly amortization payments of 0.625% during year one and year two, 1.250% during year three and year four, and 1.875% during year five of the original outstanding principal balance of the 2022 Term Loan amount, on the last business day each quarter. Further, the undrawn portion of the commitment of the 2022 Revolving Credit Facility is subject to a commitment
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fee ranging from 0.175% to 0.275%, based upon the consolidated total net adjusted leverage ratio, typically paid on a quarterly basis, on the last business day each quarter. However, the 2022 Revolving Credit Facility does not require any principal installment payments. As of December 31, 2023, we were in compliance with all covenants required under the 2022 Credit Facilities. See Note 9 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Form 10-K for further information.
We made the mandatory quarterly amortization payments under our term loans of $6.3 million and $5.1 million during 2023 and 2022, respectively. In addition, we paid down an aggregate total of $30.0 million on the term loans during the first quarter of 2022.
As of December 31, 2023, we had $176.0 million of unused borrowing capacity under the 2022 Revolving Credit Facility, after deducting $0.2 million for standby letters of credit.
In April 2022, management approved and commenced a restructuring plan that will position us for stronger performance. The restructuring plan mainly reduces headcount and consolidate facilities. As a result of this restructuring plan, we analyzed the need to write-down inventory and impair long-lived assets, including operating lease right-of-use assets. As of December 31, 2023, we estimate the remaining amount of charges related to this initiative to be $5.0 million to $7.0 million in total pre-tax restructuring charges through 2023. Of these charges, we estimate $4.5 million to $6.0 million to be cash payments for employee separation and other facility consolidation related expenses, and $0.5 million to $1.0 million to be non-cash charges for impairment of long-lived assets. On an annualized basis, we anticipate these restructuring actions will result in total cost savings of $11.0 million to $13.0 million. See Note 3 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Form 10-K for further information.
In November 2021, we entered into derivative contracts, U.S. dollar-one month LIBOR forward interest rate swaps designated as cash flow hedges, all with an effective date of January 1, 2024, for an aggregate total notional amount of $150.0 million, weighted average fixed rate of 1.8%, and all terminating on January 1, 2031 (“Forward Interest Rate Swaps”). The Forward Interest Rate Swaps mature on a monthly basis, with fixed amount payer payment dates on the first day of each calendar month, commencing on February 1, 2024 through January 1, 2031. See Note 1 and Note 9 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Form 10-K for further information.
In July 2022, as a result of completing a refinancing of our existing debt, we were required to complete an amendment of the Forward Interest Rate Swaps (“Amended Forward Interest Rate Swaps”). The Forward Interest Rate Swaps were based on U.S. dollar-one month LIBOR and were amended to be based on one month Term SOFR as borrowings using LIBOR are no longer available under the 2022 Credit Facilities. The Amended Forward Interest Rate Swaps weighted average fixed rate was 1.7% as a result of the difference between U.S. dollar-one month LIBOR and one month Term SOFR. See Note 1 and Note 9 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Form 10-K for further information.
On April 25, 2023, we completed the acquisition of BLR. The initial purchase price for BLR was $115.0 million, net of cash acquired, all payable in cash. We paid a gross aggregate of $117.0 million in cash upon the closing of the transaction. We utilized the 2022 Revolving Credit Facility to complete the acquisition. See Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Form 10-K for further information.
On May 18, 2023, we completed a public offering of our common stock resulting in net proceeds of $85.1 million. The public stock offering net proceeds along with cash on hand were used to pay down $85.2 million on the 2022 Revolving Credit Facility that was drawn on and utilized to complete the acquisition of BLR. See Note 2, Note 9, and Note 10 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Form 10-K for further information.
We expect to spend a total of $23.0 million to $25.0 million for capital expenditures in 2024, financed by cash generated from operations, principally to support both growth in existing programs as well as new contract awards in Electronic Systems and Structural Systems. As part of our strategic plan to become a supplier of higher-level assemblies and win new contract awards, additional up-front investment in tooling will be required for newer programs which have higher engineering content and higher levels of complexity in assemblies.
We believe the ongoing aerospace and defense subcontractor consolidation makes acquisitions an increasingly important component of our future growth. We will continue to make prudent acquisitions and capital expenditures for manufacturing equipment and facilities to support long-term contracts for commercial and military aircraft and defense programs.
We continue to depend on operating cash flow and the availability of our 2022 Credit Facilities to provide short-term liquidity. Cash generated from operations and bank borrowing capacity is expected to provide sufficient liquidity to meet our obligations during the next twelve months from the date of issuance of these financial statements.
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Cash Flow Summary
2023 Compared to 2022
Net cash provided by operating activities during 2023 was $31.1 million, compared to $32.7 million during 2022. The lower net cash provided by operating activities during 2023 was primarily due to lower accounts payable mainly due to timing of payments, higher inventories mainly due to longer lead times and to support revenue growth, and lower net income, partially offset by lower contract assets and higher contract liabilities.
Net cash used in investing activities during 2023 was $133.5 million compared to $19.2 million during 2022. The higher net cash used in investing activities during 2023 was primarily due to payments for the acquisition of BLR.
Net cash provided by financing activities during 2023 was $99.0 million compared to net cash used of $43.5 million during 2022. The higher net cash provided by financing activities during 2023 was primarily due to $85.1 million net proceeds from the issuance of common stock in a public offering and $23.8 million net borrowings under the revolving credit facility for the acquisition of BLR, partially offset by the voluntary $30.0 million pay down on term loans in the prior year 2022.
2022 Compared to 2021
See Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations in our 2022 Form 10-K filed with the SEC on February 16, 2023.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
Our off-balance sheet arrangements consist of operating and finance leases not recorded as a result of the practical expedients utilized, right of offset of industrial revenue bonds and associated failed sales-leasebacks on property and equipment, and indemnities, none of which we believe may have a material current or future effect on our financial condition, liquidity, capital resources, or results of operations.
CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND ESTIMATES
Critical accounting policies and estimates are those accounting policies and estimates that can have a significant impact on the presentation of our financial condition and results of operations and that require the use of subjective estimates based upon past experience and management’s judgment. Because of the uncertainty inherent in such estimates, actual results may differ from these estimates. Below are those policies applied in preparing our financial statements that management believes are the most dependent on the application of estimates and assumptions. See Note 1 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Form 10-K for additional accounting policies.
Revenue Recognition
Our customers typically engage us to manufacture products based on designs and specifications provided by the end-use customer. This requires the building of tooling and manufacturing first article inspection products (prototypes) before volume manufacturing. Contracts with our customers generally include a termination for convenience clause.
We have a significant number of contracts that are started and completed within the same year, as well as contracts derived from long-term agreements and programs that can span several years. We recognize revenue under Accounting Standards Codification 606, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers” (“ASC 606”), which utilizes a five-step model.
The definition of a contract for us is typically defined as a customer purchase order as this is when we achieve an enforceable right to payment. The majority of our contracts are firm fixed-price contracts. The deliverables within a customer purchase order are analyzed to determine the number of performance obligations. At times, in order to achieve economies of scale and based on our customer’s forecasted demand, we may build in advance of receiving a purchase order from our customer. When that occurs, we would not recognize revenue until we have received the customer purchase order.
A performance obligation is a promise in a contract to transfer a distinct good or service to the customer, and is the unit of account under ASC 606. A contract’s transaction price is allocated to each distinct performance obligation and recognized as revenue when, or as, control is transferred and the performance obligation is satisfied. The majority of our contracts have a single performance obligation as the promise to transfer the individual goods or services are highly interrelated or meet the series guidance. For contracts with multiple performance obligations, we allocate the contract transaction price to each performance obligation using our best estimate of the standalone selling price of each distinct good or service in the contract. The primary method used to estimate the standalone selling price is the expected cost plus a margin approach, under which we forecast our expected costs of satisfying a performance obligation and then add an appropriate margin for that distinct good or service.

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We manufacture most products to customer specifications and the product cannot be easily modified to satisfy another customer’s order. As such, these products are deemed to have no alternative use once the manufacturing process begins. In the event the customer invokes a termination for convenience clause, we would be entitled to costs incurred to date plus a reasonable profit. Contract costs typically include labor, materials, overhead, and when applicable, subcontractor costs. For most of our products, we are building assets with no alternative use and have enforceable right to payment, and thus, we recognize revenue using the over time method.
The majority of our performance obligations are satisfied over time as work progresses. Typically, revenue is recognized over time using an input measure (i.e., costs incurred to date relative to total estimated costs at completion, also known as cost-to-cost plus reasonable profit) to determine progress. Our typical revenue contract is a firm fixed price contract, and the cost of raw materials could make up a significant amount of the total costs incurred. As such, we believe using the total costs incurred input method would be the most appropriate method. While the cost of raw materials could make up a significant amount of the total costs incurred, there is a direct relationship between our inputs and the transfer of control of goods or services to the customer.
Contract estimates are based on various assumptions to project the outcome of future events that can span multiple months or years. These assumptions include labor productivity and availability; the complexity of the work to be performed; the cost and availability of materials; and the performance of subcontractors.
As a significant change in one or more of these estimates could affect the progress completed (and related profitability) on our contracts, we review and update our contract-related estimates on a regular basis. We recognize such adjustments under the cumulative catch-up method. Under this method, the impact of the adjustment is recognized in the period the adjustment is identified. Revenue and profit in future periods of contract performance is recognized using the adjusted estimate.
The impact of adjustments in contract estimates on our operating earnings can be reflected in either operating costs and expenses or revenue. See Note 1 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Form 10-K for the net impact of these adjustments to our consolidated financial statements for 2023 and 2022.
Payments under long-term contracts may be received before or after revenue is recognized. When revenue is recognized before we bill our customer, a contract asset is created for the work performed but not yet billed. Similarly, when we receive payment before we ship our products to our customer and have met the shipping terms, a contract liability is created for the advance or progress payment. When a contract liability and a contract asset exist on the same contract, we report it on a net basis.
We record provisions for the total anticipated losses on contracts, considering total estimated costs to complete the contract compared to total anticipated revenues, in the period in which such losses are identified. The provisions for estimated losses on contracts require us to make certain estimates and assumptions, including those with respect to the future revenue under a contract and the future cost to complete the contract. Our estimate of the future cost to complete a contract may include assumptions as to changes in manufacturing efficiency, operating and material costs, and our ability to resolve claims and assertions with our customers. If any of these or other assumptions and estimates do not materialize in the future, we may be required to adjust the provisions for estimated losses on contracts. The provision for estimated losses on contracts is included as part of contract liabilities on the consolidated balance sheets.
Production cost of contracts includes non-recurring production costs, such as design and engineering costs, and tooling and other special-purpose machinery necessary to build parts as specified in a contract. Production costs of contracts are recorded to cost of sales using the over time revenue recognition model. We review the value of the production cost of contracts on a quarterly basis to ensure when added to the estimated cost to complete, the value is not greater than the estimated realizable value of the related contracts.
Business Combinations
When a business is acquired, we allocate the purchase price by recording the assets acquired and liabilities assumed at their estimated fair values as of the acquisition date, with the excess cost recorded as goodwill. A preliminary fair value is determined once a business is acquired, with the final determination of fair value to be completed no later than one year from the date of acquisition.
To determine the estimated fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed requires significant judgment and estimates, including the selection of valuation methodologies, estimates of future revenues, costs and cash flows, discount rates, and selection of comparable companies. We engage the assistance of valuation specialists in concluding on fair value measurements in determining the fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed in business combinations.
The fair value of the intangible assets is estimated using several valuation methodologies, including the income based or market based approaches, which represent Level 3 fair value measurements. Inputs to fair value analyses and other aspects of the allocation of the purchase price require judgment. The values for technology and trade name are typically estimated using the relief from royalty methodology, while the value for customer relationships is typically estimated based on a multi-period excess earnings approach. The more significant inputs used in the technology intangible asset valuation included (i) future
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revenues, (ii) the technology decay rate, (iii) the royalty rate, and (iv) the discount rate. The more significant inputs used in the customer relationships intangible asset valuation include (i) future revenues, (ii) the projected earnings before interest, taxes, and amortization (“EBITA”) margins, (iii) the customer attrition rates, and (iv) the discount rate. The useful lives are estimated based on the underlying agreements or the future economic benefit expected to be received from the assets.
Acquisition related costs are not included as components of consideration transferred but instead, expensed as incurred and are included in selling, general and administrative expenses in our consolidated statements of income. See Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Form 10-K.
Goodwill
Goodwill is evaluated for impairment on an annual basis on the first day of the fourth fiscal quarter. If certain factors occur, including significant under performance of our business relative to expected operating results, significant adverse economic and industry trends, significant decline in our market capitalization for an extended period of time relative to net book value, a decision to divest individual businesses within a reporting unit, or a decision to group individual businesses differently, we may be required to perform an interim impairment test prior to the fourth quarter.
For goodwill impairment testing purposes, we have defined our reporting units as Electronic Systems and Structural Systems. We may use either a qualitative or quantitative approach when testing a reporting unit’s goodwill for impairment. The qualitative approach for potential impairment analysis is performed to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit was less than its carrying amount.
The quantitative approach for potential impairment analysis is performed by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit to its carrying value, including goodwill. Fair value is estimated by management using a combination of the income approach (which is based on a discounted cash flow model) and the market approach. Management’s cash flow projections include significant judgments and assumptions, including the amount and timing of expected cash flows, long-term growth rates, and discount rates. The cash flows used in the discounted cash flow model are based on our best estimate of future revenues, gross margins, and adjusted after-tax earnings. If any of these assumptions are incorrect, it will impact the estimated fair value of a reporting unit. The market approach also requires management judgment in selecting comparable companies, business acquisitions and the transaction values observed and its related control premiums.
In the fourth quarter of 2023, the carrying amount of goodwill at the date of the most recent annual impairment evaluation for Electronic Systems and Structural Systems was $117.4 million and $127.2 million, respectively. For both reporting units, we performed a quantitative (step one) goodwill impairment analysis. The fair value of our Electronic Systems and Structural Systems segments exceeded their respective carrying values and thus, were not deemed impaired.
Other Intangible Assets
We amortize acquired other intangible assets with finite lives over the estimated economic lives of the assets, ranging from 2 years to 23 years, generally using the straight-line method. The value of other intangibles acquired through business combinations has been estimated using present value techniques which involve estimates of future cash flows. We evaluate other intangible assets for recoverability considering undiscounted cash flows when significant changes in conditions occur, and recognize impairment losses, if any, based upon the estimated fair value of the assets.
Accounting for Stock-Based Compensation
We measure and recognize compensation expense for share-based payment transactions to our employees and non-employees at their estimated fair value. The expense is measured at the grant date, based on the calculated fair value of the share-based award, and is recognized over the requisite service period (generally the vesting period of the equity award). The fair value of stock options is determined using the Black-Scholes-Merton (“Black-Scholes”) valuation model, which requires assumptions and judgments regarding stock price volatility, risk-free interest rates, and expected options terms. Management’s estimates could differ from actual results. The fair value of unvested stock awards is determined based on the closing price of the underlying common stock on the date of grant except for market condition awards for which the fair value was based on a Monte Carlo simulation model.
Inventories
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value with cost being determined using a moving average cost basis for raw materials and actual cost for work-in-process and finished goods. The majority of our inventory is charged to cost of sales as raw materials are placed into production. Inventoried costs include raw materials, outside processing, direct labor and allocated overhead, adjusted for any abnormal amounts of idle performance center expense, freight, handling costs, and wasted materials (spoilage) incurred. We assess the inventory carrying value and reduce it, if necessary, to its net realizable value based on customer orders on hand, and internal demand forecasts using management’s best estimates given information currently available. The majority of our revenues are recognized over time, however, for revenue contracts where revenue is recognized
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using the point in time method, inventory is not reduced until it is shipped or transfer of control to the customer has occurred. Our ending inventory consists of raw materials, work-in-process, and finished goods.
Income Taxes
Income taxes are accounted for using an asset and liability approach that requires the recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized, using enacted tax rates, for the expected future tax consequences of temporary differences between the book and tax bases of recorded assets and liabilities, operating losses, and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred tax assets are evaluated quarterly and are reduced by a valuation allowance if it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized.
Tax positions taken or expected to be taken in a tax return are recognized when it is more-likely-than-not, based on technical merits, to be sustained upon examination by taxing authorities. The amount recognized is measured as the largest amount of benefit that is greater than 50% likely of being realized upon ultimate settlement, including resolution of related appeals and/or litigation process, if any.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
See Note 1 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Form 10-K for a description of recent accounting pronouncements.

ITEM 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
Our main market risk exposure relates to changes in interest rates on our outstanding long-term debt. At December 31, 2023, we had borrowings of $266.0 million under our 2022 Credit Facilities.
The 2022 Term Loan bears interest, at our option, at a rate equal to either (i) Term Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“Term SOFR”) plus an applicable margin ranging from 1.375% to 2.375% per year or (ii) Base Rate (defined as the highest of [a] Federal Funds Rate plus 0.50%, [b] Bank of America’s prime rate, and [c] Term SOFR plus 1.00%, and if the Base Rate is less than zero percent, it will be deemed zero percent) plus an applicable margin ranging from 0.375% to 1.375% per year, in each case based upon the consolidated total net adjusted leverage ratio.
The 2022 Revolving Credit Facility bears interest, at our option, at a rate equal to either (i) Term SOFR plus an applicable margin ranging from 1.375% to 2.375% per year or (ii) Base Rate (defined as the highest of [a] Federal Funds Rate plus 0.50%, [b] Bank of America’s prime rate, and [c] Term SOFR plus 1.00%, and if the Base Rate is less than zero percent, it will be deemed zero percent) plus an applicable margin ranging from 0.375% to 1.375% per year, in each case based upon the consolidated total net adjusted leverage ratio.
A hypothetical 10% increase or decrease in the interest rate would have an immaterial impact on our financial condition and results of operations.
 
ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
The financial statements and supplementary data together with the report thereon of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP included in Part IV, Item 15(a) 1 and 2 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K are included herein by reference.

ITEM 9. CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE
None.
 
ITEM 9A. CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES
Disclosure Controls and Procedures
Disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (“Exchange Act”)) are designed to provide reasonable assurance that information required to be disclosed in reports we file or submit under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the rules and forms of the SEC and that such information is accumulated and communicated to our management, including the Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosures.
Under the supervision and with the participation of our management, including the Chief Executive Officer and the Chief Financial Officer, we carried out an evaluation of the effectiveness of the design and operation of our disclosure controls and procedures as of the end of the period covered by this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Based on this evaluation, the Company’s
38

Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures were not effective at the reasonable assurance level as of December 31, 2023, because of a material weakness in internal control over financial reporting as described below.
Management’s Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
Management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting as defined in Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) under the Exchange Act. The Company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”). The Company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the Company; (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with GAAP, and that receipts and expenditures of the Company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the Company; and (iii) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use or disposition of the Company’s assets that could have a material effect on our financial statements.
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
Management of the Company has assessed the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023. In making this assessment, management used the criteria set forth by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (“COSO”) Internal Control-Integrated Framework (2013).
A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of the Company’s annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. In connection with management’s assessment of our internal control over financial reporting, management has identified the following material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023.
We did not design and maintain effective controls over the accuracy of contract terms and the reasonableness of gross margin assumptions used to recognize revenue. Specifically, we did not verify that amendments to purchase orders and gross margin percentage assumptions used in the Company’s revenue recognition analysis were properly reviewed at a sufficient level of precision.
This material weakness resulted in immaterial adjustments to net revenues and contract assets as of and for the quarterly and annual periods ending December 31, 2023. Additionally, until remediated, this material weakness could result in future misstatements of net revenues and contract assets that would result in a material misstatement to the annual or interim consolidated financial statements that would not be prevented or detected.
As a result of the material weakness, management concluded our internal control over financial reporting was not effective as of December 31, 2023 based on criteria in Internal Control-Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the COSO.
The effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023 has been audited by PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their report, which is included in Item 15 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Management’s Remediation Activities
We are committed to maintaining strong internal control over financial reporting. With regard to internal control over financial reporting related to revenue recognition, our Chief Financial Officer is responsible for implementing changes and improvements in internal control over financial reporting and for remediating the material weakness.
The Company’s management, with oversight from the Company’s Audit Committee, is in the process of developing and implementing remediation plans in response to the identified material weakness described above. Specifically, the Company is designing and implementing additional control activities over the accuracy of amendments to purchase orders and enhancing the level of precision utilized to review the reasonableness of gross margin percentage assumptions used in our revenue recognition analysis.
This material weakness will not be considered remediated until the applicable remedial controls operate for a sufficient period of time and management has concluded, through testing, that these controls are operating effectively. The Company believes the above measures will remediate the control deficiencies it has identified and strengthen its internal control over financial reporting. The Company is committed to continuing to improve its internal control processes and will continue to review, optimize and enhance its financial reporting controls and procedures.
39

Changes in Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
There were no changes in our internal control over financial reporting (as defined in Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) under the Exchange Act) that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting during the quarter ended December 31, 2023.
 
ITEM 9B. OTHER INFORMATION
None.
 
ITEM 9C. DISCLOSURE REGARDING FOREIGN JURISDICTIONS THAT PREVENT INSPECTIONS
Not applicable.
40

PART III
ITEM 10. DIRECTORS, EXECUTIVE OFFICERS AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE
Directors of the Registrant
The information under the caption “Directors’ Backgrounds and Qualifications” in the 2024 Proxy Statement is incorporated herein by reference.
On February 1, 2024, we appointed David B. Carter as a Class I Director, effective immediately, to serve for a term expiring at the annual meeting of stockholders in 2025 and until his successor is elected and qualified.
Executive Officers of the Registrant
The information under the caption “Named Executive Officers” in the 2024 Proxy Statement is incorporated herein by reference.
Audit Committee and Audit Committee Financial Expert
The information under the caption “Committees of the Board of Directors” relating to the Audit Committee of the Board of Directors in the 2024 Proxy Statement is incorporated herein by reference.
Compliance with Section 16(a) of the Exchange Act
The information under the caption “Delinquent Section 16(a) Reports” in the 2024 Proxy Statement is incorporated herein by reference.
Code of Business Conduct and Ethics
The information under the caption “Code of Business Conduct and Ethics” in the 2024 Proxy Statement is incorporated herein by reference.
Insider Trading Policies and Procedures
The information under the caption “Key Governance Documents” in the 2024 Proxy Statement is incorporated herein by reference.
 
ITEM 11. EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION
The information under the captions “2023 Compensation Discussion and Analysis” and “Compensation of Directors” in the 2024 Proxy Statement is incorporated herein by reference.
 
ITEM 12. SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT AND RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS
The information under the caption “Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management” in the 2024 Proxy Statement is incorporated herein by reference.
41

Securities Authorized for Issuance under Equity Compensation Plans
The following table provides information about our compensation plans under which equity securities are authorized for issuance as of December 31, 2023:
 
Number of Securities
to be Issued Upon
Exercise of
Outstanding
Options,
Warrants and Rights
(a)
Weighted-Average
Exercise Price of
Outstanding
Options,
Warrants and Rights
(b)
Number of  Securities
Remaining
Available for
Future Issuance
Under Equity
Compensation Plans
(Excluding Securities
Reflected
in Column
(a))(c)(3)
Equity compensation plans approved by security holders(1)
616,152 $38.66 141,377 
Employee stock purchase plan approved by security holders(2)
— — 497,766 
Equity compensation plans not approved by security holders— — — 
Total616,152 639,143 
 
(1)Consists of the Amended and Restated 2020 Stock Incentive Plan. The number of securities to be issued consists of 137,150 for stock options, 209,814 for restricted stock units and 269,188 for performance stock units at target. The weighted average exercise price applies only to the stock options.
(2)The 2018 Employee Stock Purchase Plan enables employees to purchase our common stock at a 15% discount to the lower of the market value at the beginning or end of each six month offering period. As such, the number of shares that may be issued during a given six month period and the purchase price of such shares cannot be determined in advance. See Note 11 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
(3)Awards are not restricted to any specified form or structure and may include, without limitation, sales or bonuses of stock, restricted stock, stock options, reload stock options, stock purchase warrants, other rights to acquire stock, securities convertible into or redeemable for stock, stock appreciation rights, limited stock appreciation rights, phantom stock, dividend equivalents, performance units or performance shares, and an award may consist of one such security or benefit, or two or more of them in tandem or in alternative.
ITEM 13. CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED TRANSACTIONS, AND DIRECTOR INDEPENDENCE
The information under the caption “Certain Relationships and Related Transactions” and “Director Independence” in the 2024 Proxy Statement is incorporated herein by reference.
 
ITEM 14. PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTANT FEES AND SERVICES
The information under the caption “Principal Accountant Fees and Services” and “Policy for Pre-Approval of Independent Accountant Services” contained in the 2024 Proxy Statement is incorporated herein by reference.

42

PART IV
 
ITEM 15. EXHIBITS AND FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES
(a)
1.      Financial Statements
The following consolidated financial statements of Ducommun Incorporated and subsidiaries, are incorporated by reference in Item 8 of this report.
  Page
2.      Financial Statement Schedule
The following schedule for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022, and 2021 is filed herewith:
Schedule II - Consolidated Valuation and Qualifying Accounts
All other schedules have been omitted because they are not applicable, not required, or the information has been otherwise supplied in the financial statements or notes thereto.
3.      Exhibits
See Item 15(b) for a list of exhibits.— 
ITEM 16. FORM 10-K SUMMARY
— 
Signatures
— 

43

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
To the Board of Directors and Shareholders of Ducommun Incorporated
Opinions on the Financial Statements and Internal Control over Financial Reporting
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Ducommun Incorporated and its subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, and the related consolidated statements of income, of comprehensive income, of changes in shareholders’ equity and of cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2023, including the related notes and financial statement schedule listed in the index appearing under Item 15(a)(2) (collectively referred to as the “consolidated financial statements”). We also have audited the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO).
In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2023 in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. Also in our opinion, the Company did not maintain, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the COSO because a material weakness in internal control over financial reporting existed as of that date as the Company did not design and maintain effective controls over the accuracy of contract terms and the reasonableness of gross margin assumptions used to recognize revenue. Specifically, the Company did not verify that amendments to purchase orders and gross margin percentage assumptions used in the Company’s revenue recognition analysis were properly reviewed at a sufficient level of precision.
A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of the annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. The material weakness referred to above is described in Management’s Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting appearing under Item 9A. We considered this material weakness in determining the nature, timing, and extent of audit tests applied in our audit of the 2023 consolidated financial statements, and our opinion regarding the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting does not affect our opinion on those consolidated financial statements.
Basis for Opinions
The Company’s management is responsible for these consolidated financial statements, for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting, and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in management’s report referred to above. Our responsibility is to express opinions on the Company’s consolidated financial statements and on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB) and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud, and whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects.
Our audits of the consolidated financial statements included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. Our audit of internal control over financial reporting included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our audits also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinions.
44

Definition and Limitations of Internal Control over Financial Reporting
A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (iii) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
Critical Audit Matters
The critical audit matters communicated below are matters arising from the current period audit of the consolidated financial statements that were communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that (i) relate to accounts or disclosures that are material to the consolidated financial statements and (ii) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the consolidated financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matters below, providing separate opinions on the critical audit matters or on the accounts or disclosures to which they relate.
Goodwill Impairment Assessment - Structural Systems Reporting Unit
As described in Notes 1 and 7 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company’s consolidated goodwill balance was $244.6 million as of December 31, 2023, and the goodwill associated with the Structural Systems reporting unit was $127.2 million. Goodwill is evaluated for impairment on an annual basis on the first day of the fourth fiscal quarter. If certain factors occur, management may be required to perform an interim impairment test prior to the fourth quarter. The quantitative approach for potential impairment analysis is performed by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit to its carrying value, including goodwill. Fair value is estimated by management using a combination of the income approach (which is based on a discounted cash flow model) and the market approach. Management’s cash flow projections include significant judgments and assumptions, including the amount and timing of expected cash flows, long-term growth rates, and discount rates. The cash flows used in the discounted cash flow model are based on management’s best estimate of future revenues, gross margins, and adjusted after-tax earnings. The market approach also requires management judgment in selecting comparable companies, business acquisitions and the transaction values observed and its related control premiums.
The principal considerations for our determination that performing procedures relating to the goodwill impairment assessment of the Structural Systems reporting unit is a critical audit matter are (i) the significant judgment by management when developing the fair value estimate of the Structural Systems reporting unit based on a discounted cash flow model; (ii) a high degree of auditor judgment, subjectivity, and effort in performing procedures and evaluating management’s significant assumptions related to the estimate of gross margins and the discount rate; and (iii) the audit effort involved the use of professionals with specialized skill and knowledge.
Addressing the matter involved performing procedures and evaluating audit evidence in connection with forming our overall opinion on the consolidated financial statements. These procedures included testing the effectiveness of controls relating to management’s goodwill impairment assessment, including controls over the valuation of the Structural Systems reporting unit. These procedures also included, among others (i) testing management’s process for developing the fair value estimate of the Structural Systems reporting unit based on a discounted cash flow model; (ii) evaluating the appropriateness of the discounted cash flow model used by management; (iii) testing the completeness and accuracy of underlying data used in the discounted cash flow model; and (iv) evaluating the reasonableness of the significant assumptions used by management related to the estimate of gross margins and the discount rate. Evaluating management’s assumption related to the estimate of gross margins involved evaluating whether the assumption used by management was reasonable considering (i) the current and past performance of the Structural Systems reporting unit; (ii) the consistency with external market and industry data; and (iii) whether the assumption was consistent with evidence obtained in other areas of the audit. Professionals with specialized skill and knowledge were used to assist in evaluating (i) the appropriateness of the discounted cash flow model and (ii) the reasonableness of the discount rate assumption.
45

Acquisition of BLR Aerospace, L.L.C. - Valuation of Certain Technology and Certain Customer Relationships Intangible Assets
As described in Notes 1 and 2 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company completed the acquisition of BLR Aerospace, L.L.C. for $114.4 million, net of cash acquired, on April 25, 2023. The acquisition resulted in $35.6 million of technology and $15.0 million of customer relationships, of which a significant portion relates to certain technology and certain customer relationships, which were determined using valuation techniques consistent with the income approach to measure fair value. Management estimated fair value using the relief from royalty methodology for technology and the multi-period excess earnings approach for customer relationships. Inputs to the income approach models require judgment. The more significant inputs used in the technology intangible asset valuation included (i) future revenues, (ii) the technology decay rate, (iii) the royalty rate, and (iv) the discount rate. The more significant inputs used in the customer relationships intangible asset valuation included (i) future revenues, (ii) the projected earnings before interest, taxes, and amortization (EBITA) margins, (iii) the customer attrition rates, and (iv) the discount rate.
The principal considerations for our determination that performing procedures relating to the valuation of certain technology and certain customer relationships intangible assets acquired in the acquisition of BLR Aerospace, L.L.C. is a critical audit matter are (i) the significant judgment by management when developing the fair value estimate of certain technology and certain customer relationships intangible assets acquired; (ii) a high degree of auditor judgment, subjectivity, and effort in performing procedures and evaluating management’s significant assumptions related to future revenues, the technology decay rate, the royalty rate, and the discount rate for certain technology and future revenues, the projected EBITA margins, the customer attrition rate, and the discount rate for certain customer relationships; and (iii) the audit effort involved the use of professionals with specialized skill and knowledge.
Addressing the matter involved performing procedures and evaluating audit evidence in connection with forming our overall opinion on the consolidated financial statements. These procedures included testing the effectiveness of controls relating to the acquisition accounting, including controls over management’s valuation of certain technology and certain customer relationships intangible assets acquired. These procedures also included, among others (i) reading the purchase agreement; (ii) testing management’s process for developing the fair value estimate of certain technology and certain customer relationships intangible assets acquired; (iii) evaluating the appropriateness of the relief from royalty methodology and the multi-period excess earnings approach used by management; (iv) testing the completeness and accuracy of the underlying data used in the relief from royalty methodology and the multi-period excess earnings approach; and (v) evaluating the reasonableness of the significant assumptions used by management related to future revenues, the technology decay rate, the royalty rate, and the discount rate for certain technology and future revenues, the projected EBITA margins, the customer attrition rate, and the discount rate for certain customer relationships. Evaluating management’s assumptions related to future revenues for certain technology and future revenues and the projected EBITA margins for certain customer relationships involved considering (i) the current and past performance of BLR Aerospace, L.L.C. and (ii) the consistency with external market and industry data. Professionals with specialized skill and knowledge were used to assist in evaluating (i) the appropriateness of the relief from royalty methodology and the multi-period excess earnings approach and (ii) the reasonableness of the technology decay rate, the royalty rate, and the discount rate assumptions for certain technology and the customer attrition rate and the discount rate assumptions for certain customer relationships.
/s/ PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP
Irvine, California
February 22, 2024
We have served as the Company’s auditor since 1989.

46

Ducommun Incorporated and Subsidiaries
Consolidated Balance Sheets
(Dollars in thousands, except share and per share data)
 December 31,
 20232022
Assets
Current Assets
Cash and cash equivalents$42,863 $46,246 
Accounts receivable (net of allowance for credit losses of $2,006 and $589 at December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively)
104,692 103,958 
Contract assets177,686 191,290 
Inventories199,201 171,211 
Production cost of contracts7,778 5,693 
Other current assets17,349 8,938 
Total Current Assets549,569 527,336 
Property and Equipment, Net111,379 106,225 
Operating Lease Right-of-Use Assets29,513 34,632 
Goodwill244,600 203,407 
Intangibles, Net166,343 127,201 
Deferred Income Taxes641  
Other Assets18,874 22,705 
Total Assets$1,120,919 $1,021,506 
Liabilities and Shareholders’ Equity
Current Liabilities
Accounts payable$72,265 $90,143 
Contract liabilities53,492 47,068 
Accrued and other liabilities42,260 48,820 
Operating lease liabilities7,873 7,155 
Current portion of long-term debt7,813 6,250 
Total Current Liabilities183,703 199,436 
Long-Term Debt, Less Current Portion256,961 240,595 
Non-Current Operating Lease Liabilities22,947 28,841 
Deferred Income Taxes4,766 13,953 
Other Long-Term Liabilities16,448 12,721 
Total Liabilities484,825 495,546 
Commitments and Contingencies (Notes 13, 15)
Shareholders’ Equity
Common stock - $0.01 par value; 35,000,000 shares authorized; 14,600,766 and 12,106,285 shares issued and outstanding at December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively
146 121 
Additional paid-in capital206,197 112,042 
Retained earnings421,980 406,052 
Accumulated other comprehensive income7,771 7,745 
Total Shareholders’ Equity636,094 525,960 
Total Liabilities and Shareholders’ Equity$1,120,919 $1,021,506 
See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.
47

Ducommun Incorporated and Subsidiaries
Consolidated Statements of Income
(Dollars in thousands, except per share amounts)
 Years Ended December 31,
 202320222021
Net Revenues$756,992 $712,537 $645,413 
Cost of Sales593,805 568,240 502,953 
Gross Profit163,187 144,297 142,460 
Selling, General and Administrative Expenses
119,728 98,351 93,579 
Restructuring Charges14,542 6,158  
Operating Income28,917 39,788 48,881 
Interest Expense(20,773)(11,571)(11,187)
Loss on Extinguishment of Debt (295) 
Gain on Sale-Leaseback  132,522 
Other Income, Net8,235 5,400 268 
Income Before Taxes16,379 33,322 170,484 
Income Tax Expense451 4,533 34,948 
Net Income$15,928 $28,789 $135,536 
Earnings Per Share
Basic earnings per share$1.16 $2.38 $11.41 
Diluted earnings per share$1.14 $2.33 $11.06 
Weighted-Average Number of Shares Outstanding
Basic13,717 12,074 11,879 
Diluted13,972 12,366 12,251 
See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.
48

Ducommun Incorporated and Subsidiaries
Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income
(Dollars in thousands)
 
Years Ended December 31,
202320222021
Net Income$15,928 $28,789 $135,536 
Other Comprehensive Income, Net of Tax:
Pension Adjustments:
Amortization of actuarial losses and prior service costs, net of tax of $53, $143, and $309 for 2023, 2022, and 2021, respectively
167 442 976 
Actuarial gains (losses) arising during the period, net of tax of $394, $722, and $902 for 2023, 2022, and 2021, respectively
(1,268)2,259 2,859 
Change in net unrealized (losses) gains on cash flow hedges, net of tax of $344, $3,753, and $391 for 2023, 2022, and 2021, respectively
1,127 12,077 (1,268)
Other Comprehensive Income, Net of Tax26 14,778 2,567 
Comprehensive Income, Net of Tax$15,954 $43,567 $138,103 
See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.
49

Ducommun Incorporated and Subsidiaries
Consolidated Statements of Changes in Shareholders’ Equity
(Dollars in thousands, except share data)
 
Shares
Outstanding
Common
Stock
Additional
Paid-In
Capital
Retained
Earnings
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Income (Loss)
Total
Shareholders’
Equity
Balance at December 31, 202011,728,212 $117 $97,090 $241,727 $(9,600)$329,334 
Net income— — — 135,536 — 135,536 
Other comprehensive loss, net of tax— — — — 2,567 2,567 
Employee stock purchase plan56,524 1 2,903 — — 2,904 
Stock options exercised48,769 1 1,732 — — 1,733 
Stock repurchased related to the exercise of stock options and stock awards vested(155,653)(2)(8,682)— — (