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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended October 1, 2022
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from __________ to __________.
Commission File Number 001-38842
 dis-20221001_g1.jpg
Delaware 83-0940635
State or Other Jurisdiction of I.R.S. Employer Identification
Incorporation or Organization
500 South Buena Vista Street
Burbank, California 91521
Address of Principal Executive Offices and Zip Code
(818) 560-1000
Registrant’s Telephone Number, Including Area Code 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $0.01 par valueDISNew York Stock Exchange
Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None.
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.  Yes   No  x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes  x No  o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer”, “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company”, and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerxAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).   Yes   No x
The aggregate market value of common stock held by non-affiliates (based on the closing price on the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter as reported on the New York Stock Exchange-Composite Transactions) was $249.5 billion. All executive officers and directors of the registrant and all persons filing a Schedule 13D with the Securities and Exchange Commission in respect to registrant’s common stock have been deemed, solely for the purpose of the foregoing calculation, to be “affiliates” of the registrant.
There were 1,823,591,988 shares of common stock outstanding as of November 16, 2022.
Documents Incorporated by Reference
Certain information required for Part III of this report is incorporated herein by reference to the proxy statement for the 2023 annual meeting of the Company’s shareholders.



THE WALT DISNEY COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARIES
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
  Page
PART I
ITEM 1.
ITEM 1A.
ITEM 1B.
ITEM 2.
ITEM 3.
ITEM 4.
PART II
ITEM 5.
ITEM 7.
ITEM 7A.
ITEM 8.
ITEM 9.
ITEM 9A.
ITEM 9B.
ITEM 9C
PART III
ITEM 10.
ITEM 11.
ITEM 12.
ITEM 13.
ITEM 14.
PART IV
ITEM 15.
ITEM 16.




Cautionary Note on Forward-Looking Statements
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. Forward-looking statements generally relate to future events or our future financial or operating performance and may include statements concerning, among other things, financial results, business plans (including statements regarding new services and products and future expenditures, costs and investments), future liabilities, impairments and amortization, competition, and the impact of COVID-19 on our businesses and results of operations. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements because they contain words such as “may,” “will,” “would,” “should,” “expects,” “plans,” “could,” “intends,” “target,” “projects,” “believes,” “estimates,” “anticipates,” “potential” or “continue” or the negative of these words or other similar terms or expressions that concern our expectations, strategy, plans or intentions. These statements reflect our current views with respect to future events and are based on assumptions as of the date of this report. These statements are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from expectations or results projected or implied by forward-looking statements.
Such differences may result from actions taken by the Company, including restructuring or strategic initiatives (including capital investments, asset acquisitions or dispositions, new or expanded business lines or cessation of certain operations), our execution of our business plans (including the content we create and IP we invest in, our pricing decisions and our cost structure) or other business decisions, as well as from developments beyond the Company’s control, including:
further deterioration in domestic and global economic conditions;
deterioration in or pressures from competitive conditions, including competition to create or acquire content;
consumer preferences and acceptance of our content, offerings, pricing model and price increases and the market for advertising sales on our direct-to-consumer services and linear networks;
health concerns and their impact on our businesses and productions;
international, regulatory, legal, political, or military developments;
technological developments;
labor markets and activities;
adverse weather conditions or natural disasters; and
availability of content;
each such risk includes the current and future impacts of, and is amplified by, COVID-19 and related mitigation efforts.
Such developments may further affect entertainment, travel and leisure businesses generally and may, among other things, affect (or further affect, as applicable):
our operations, business plans or profitability;
demand for our products and services;
the performance of the Company’s content;
our ability to create or obtain desirable content at or under the value we assign the content;
the advertising market for programming;
income tax expense; and
performance of some or all Company businesses either directly or through their impact on those who distribute our products.
Additional factors include those described in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including under the captions “Risk Factors,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” and “Business,” in our subsequent quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, including under the captions “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” and in our subsequent filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission.
A forward-looking statement is neither a prediction nor a guarantee of future events or circumstances. You should not place undue reliance on the forward-looking statements. Unless required by federal securities laws, we assume no obligation to update any of these forward-looking statements, or to update the reasons actual results could differ materially from those anticipated, to reflect circumstances or events that occur after the statements are made.
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PART I
ITEM 1. Business
The Walt Disney Company, together with its subsidiaries, is a diversified worldwide entertainment company with operations in two segments: Disney Media and Entertainment Distribution (DMED) and Disney Parks, Experiences and Products (DPEP).
The terms “Company”, “we”, “our” and “us” are used in this report to refer collectively to the parent company and the subsidiaries through which businesses are conducted.
COVID-19 Pandemic
Since early 2020, the world has been, and continues to be, impacted by the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) and its variants. COVID-19 and measures to prevent its spread have impacted our segments in a number of ways, most significantly at DPEP where our theme parks and resorts were closed and cruise ship sailings and guided tours were suspended. In addition, at DMED we delayed, or in some cases, shortened or cancelled theatrical releases and experienced disruptions in the production and availability of content. Operations have resumed at various points since May 2020, with certain theme park and resort operations and film and television productions resuming by the end of fiscal 2020 and throughout fiscal 2021. Although operations resumed, many of our businesses continue to experience impacts from COVID-19, such as incremental health and safety measures and related increased expenses, capacity restrictions and closures (including at some of our international parks and in theaters in certain markets), and disruption of content production activities.
The impact of COVID-19 related disruptions on our financial and operating results will be dictated by the currently unknowable duration and severity of COVID-19 and its variants, and among other things, governmental actions imposed in response to COVID-19 and individuals’ and companies’ risk tolerance regarding health matters going forward. We have incurred and will continue to incur additional costs to address government regulations and the safety of our employees, guests and talent.
Human Capital
The Company’s key human capital management objectives are to attract, retain and develop the highest quality talent. To support these objectives, the Company’s human resources programs are designed to develop talent to prepare them for critical roles and leadership positions for the future; reward and support employees through competitive pay, benefit, and perquisite programs; enhance the Company’s culture through efforts aimed at making the workplace more engaging and inclusive; acquire talent and facilitate internal talent mobility to create a high-performing, diverse workforce; engage employees as brand ambassadors of the Company’s content, products and experiences; and evolve and invest in technology, tools, and resources to enable employees at work.
The Company employed approximately 220,000 people as of October 1, 2022, of which approximately 166,000 were employed in the U.S. and approximately 54,000 were employed internationally. Our global workforce is comprised of approximately 78% full time and 15% part time employees, with another 7% being seasonal employees. A significant number of employees in various parts of our businesses, including employees of our theme parks, and writers, directors, actors and production personnel for our productions are covered by collective bargaining agreements. In addition, some of our employees outside the U.S. are represented by works councils, trade unions or other employee associations.
Some of our key programs and initiatives to attract, develop and retain our diverse workforce include:
Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion (DE&I): Our DE&I objectives are to build teams that reflect the life experiences of our audiences, while employing and supporting a diverse array of voices in our creative and production teams. Our DE&I initiatives and programs include:
The Company’s Reimagine Tomorrow efforts, which build on Disney’s longstanding commitment to diversity, equity and inclusion, and features a website, Disney’s first large-scale platform for amplifying underrepresented voices
Executive Incubator, Creative Talent Development and Inclusion, and the Disney Launchpad: Shorts Incubator, which are designed to create a pipeline of next-generation creative executives from underrepresented backgrounds
Development programs, which target underrepresented talent
Innovative learning opportunities, which spark dialogue among employees, leaders, Disney talent and external experts
Over 100 employee-led Business Employee Resource Groups (BERGs), which represent and support the diverse communities that make up our workforce
The Disney Look appearance guidelines, which were updated to cultivate a more inclusive environment that encourages and celebrates authentic expressions of belonging among employees
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Health, wellness, family resources, and other benefits: Disney’s benefit offerings are designed to meet the varied and evolving needs of a diverse workforce across businesses and geographies while helping our employees care for themselves and their families. We provide:
Healthcare options aimed at improving quality of care while limiting out-of-pocket costs
Family care resources, such as childcare programs for employees, including access to onsite/community centers, enhanced back-up care choices to include personal caregivers, childcare referral assistance and center discounts, homework help, a variety of parenting educational resources and a family building benefit supporting fertility treatments, adoptions or surrogacy
Free mental and behavioral health resources, including on-demand access to the Employee Assistance Program for employees and their dependents
Two Centers for Living Well that offer convenient, on-demand access to board-certified physicians and counselors
A multi-layered response to COVID-19, including testing and treatment under all Company medical plans at no cost to employees and dependents
Global Well-Being Week (introduced in 2022), a dedicated week for employees around the world to celebrate, learn and engage in well-being through in-person and virtual events and activities focused on physical, emotional, financial, and social well-being
Disney Aspire: We support the long-term career aspirations of our hourly employees and further our commitment to strengthening the communities in which we work through our education investment program, Disney Aspire. We pay 100% of the tuition costs upfront for participating employees at a variety of in-network learning providers and universities and reimburse employees for applicable books and fees. The program helps our employees achieve their goals professionally - whether at Disney or beyond - by equipping them with the skills they need to succeed in the rapidly changing 21st century career landscape. More than 16,000 current employees have enrolled in or graduated from a Disney Aspire program, and more than two-thirds of our program graduates have earned an Associate, Bachelor’s or Master’s degree.
Talent Development: We prioritize and invest in creating opportunities to help employees grow and build their careers through a multitude of training and development programs. These include online, instructor-led and on-the-job learning formats as well as executive talent and succession planning paired with an individualized development approach.
Social Responsibility and Community: The Company’s longstanding commitment to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) helps differentiate the Company as an employer. In 2021, we refreshed our CSR strategy to connect it more closely with the Company’s mission and commercial offerings and environmental and social opportunities relevant to our business and employees. Our CSR priorities include diversity, equity, and inclusion; environmental stewardship and conservation; giving back to our communities with a special focus on supporting children and families; human capital management; and operating responsibly. The strategy provides a path to embedding these CSR priorities into our offerings and operations in addition to our philanthropy. The Company also supports employees who give back to our communities with a generous matching gifts program and a unique employee volunteering program, Disney VoluntEARS, which rewards volunteer hours with the opportunity to direct not-for-profit donations by the Company.
Environmental and Sustainability
The Company has developed measurable environmental and sustainability goals for 2030, grounded in science and an assessment of where the Company’s operations have the most significant impact on the environment, as well as the areas where it can most effectively mitigate that impact. These goals include, among others, achieving net zero Scope 1 and 2 greenhouse gas emissions for our direct operations, and zero waste to landfill at our wholly owned and operated parks and resorts by 2030.
DISNEY MEDIA AND ENTERTAINMENT DISTRIBUTION
DMED encompasses the Company’s global film and episodic television content production and distribution activities. Content is distributed by a single organization across three significant lines of business: Linear Networks, Direct-to-Consumer and Content Sales/Licensing. Content is generally created/licensed by four groups: Studios, General Entertainment, Sports and International. The distribution organization has full accountability for the financial results of the entire media and entertainment business.
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The operations of DMED’s significant lines of business are as follows:
Linear Networks
Domestic Channels: ABC Television Network (ABC) and eight owned ABC television stations (Broadcasting), and Disney, ESPN, Freeform, FX and National Geographic branded domestic television networks (Cable)
International Channels: Disney, ESPN, Fox, National Geographic and Star branded television networks outside of the U.S.
A 50% equity investment in A+E Television Networks (A+E), which operates a variety of cable channels including A&E, HISTORY and Lifetime
Direct-to-Consumer
Disney+, Disney+ Hotstar, ESPN+, Hulu and Star+ direct-to-consumer (DTC) video streaming services
Content Sales/Licensing
Sale/licensing of film and television content to third-party television and subscription/advertising video-on-demand (TV/SVOD) services
Theatrical distribution
Home entertainment distribution (DVD, Blu-ray discs and electronic home video licenses)
Music distribution
Staging and licensing of live entertainment events on Broadway and around the world (Stage Plays)
DMED also includes the following activities that are reported with Content Sales/Licensing:
Post-production services by Industrial Light & Magic and Skywalker Sound
National Geographic magazine and online business
A 30% ownership interest in Tata Play Limited (formerly Tata Sky Limited), which operates a direct-to-home satellite distribution platform in India
The significant revenues of DMED are as follows:
Affiliate fees - Fees charged by our Linear Networks to multi-channel video programming distributors (i.e. cable, satellite, telecommunications and digital over-the-top (e.g. YouTube TV) service providers) (MVPDs) and television stations affiliated with ABC for the right to deliver our programming to their customers
Subscription fees - Fees charged to customers/subscribers for our DTC streaming services
Advertising - Sales of advertising time/space at Linear Networks and Direct-to-Consumer
TV/SVOD distribution - Licensing fees and other revenue for the right to use our film and television productions and revenue from fees charged to customers to view our sports programming (“pay-per-view”) and fees for streaming access to films that are also playing in theaters (“Premier Access”). TV/SVOD distribution revenue is primarily reported in Content Sales/Licensing, except for pay-per-view and Premier Access revenues, which are reported in Direct-to-Consumer.
Theatrical distribution - Rentals from licensing our film productions to theaters
Home entertainment - Sales of our film and television content to retailers and distributors in home video formats
Other content sales/licensing revenue - Revenues from licensing our music, ticket sales from stage play performances and fees from licensing our intellectual properties (“IP”) for use in stage plays
Other revenue - Fees from sub-licensing of sports programming rights (reported in Linear Networks) and sales of post-production services (reported with Content Sales/Licensing)
The significant expenses of DMED are as follows:
Operating expenses consist primarily of programming and production costs, technical support costs, operating labor, distribution costs and costs of sales. Programming and production costs include amortization of licensed programming rights (including sports rights), amortization of capitalized production costs, subscriber-based fees for programming our Hulu services, production costs related to live programming such as news and sports and amortization of participations and residual obligations. Programming and production costs also include fees paid to Linear Networks from other DMED businesses for the right to air our linear networks and related services. These costs are largely incurred across four content creation/licensing groups, as follows:
Studios - Primarily capitalized production costs related to films produced under the Walt Disney Pictures, Twentieth Century Studios, Marvel, Lucasfilm, Pixar and Searchlight Pictures banners
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General Entertainment - Primarily internal production of and acquisition of rights to episodic television programs and news content. Internal content is generally produced by the following television studios: ABC Signature; 20th Television; Disney Television Animation; FX Productions; and various studios for which we commission productions for our branded channels and DTC streaming services
Sports - Primarily acquisition of professional and college sports programming rights and related production costs
International - Primarily internal production of and acquisition of rights to local content outside the U.S. and Canada
Selling, general and administrative costs, including marketing costs
Depreciation and amortization
Media and Entertainment Distribution Strategy
The Company has significantly increased its focus on distribution of content via our own DTC streaming services relative to traditional distribution of content. In general, film content was traditionally distributed first in the theatrical market, followed by the home entertainment market and then in the TV/SVOD market. In general, episodic television content was traditionally launched on our domestic linear networks and licensed for use globally in other TV/SVOD windows. Although the Company continues to monetize a significant amount of its content in the traditional manner, our focus on our own DTC distribution has had a number of impacts including but not limited to:
in some cases, we are producing exclusive content for our DTC streaming services;
rather than selling our content in the TV/SVOD market, we generally distribute it on our DTC streaming services; and
in part because of the impact of COVID-19 on theatrical markets around the world, we may alter our traditional theatrical distribution approach, for example by making a film available on our DTC streaming services at the same time it is in theaters or shortly thereafter (e.g. Premier Access).
Over time, all else being equal, these impacts will tend to increase revenue and costs at Direct-to-Consumer and reduce revenue and costs at Content Sales/Licensing and Linear Networks. Our distribution approach is based on flexibility in our windowing strategy, and we may change our original launch and distribution strategy for any particular piece of content. Distribution decisions may impact revenues and viewership, and the allocation of costs to our businesses/distribution platforms, particularly programming, production and marketing costs, depends on the distribution approach.
A more detailed discussion of our distribution businesses and production groups follows.
Linear Networks
The majority of Linear Networks revenue is derived from affiliate fees and advertising sales. The Company’s linear networks businesses provide programming under multi-year licensing agreements with MVPDs and/or affiliated television stations that are generally based on contractually specified rates on a per subscriber basis. The amounts that we can charge to MVPDs for our networks is largely dependent on the quality and quantity of programming that we can provide and the competitive market for programming services. The ability to sell advertising time and the rates received are primarily dependent on the size and nature of the audience that the network can deliver to the advertiser as well as overall advertiser demand.
Linear Networks consist of our domestic and international branded television channels.
Domestic Channels
Our domestic channels include Cable operations comprising Disney, ESPN, Freeform, FX and National Geographic branded channels and Broadcasting operations comprising ABC and eight owned ABC affiliated television stations.
Cable
Disney Channels
Branded television channels include: Disney Channel; Disney Junior; and Disney XD (collectively Disney Channels).
Disney Channel - the Disney Channel airs original series and movie programming 24 hours a day targeted to kids ages 2 to 14. The channel features live-action comedy series, animated programming and preschool series as well as original movies and theatrical films.
Disney Junior - the Disney Junior channel airs programming 24 hours a day targeted to kids ages 2 to 7 and their parents and caregivers. The channel features animated and live-action programming that blends Disney’s storytelling and characters with learning. Disney Junior also airs as a programming block on the Disney Channel.
Disney XD - the Disney XD channel airs programming 24 hours a day targeted to kids ages 6 to 11. The channel features a mix of live-action and animated programming.
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ESPN
Branded television channels include eight 24-hour domestic television sports channels: ESPN and ESPN2 (both of which are dedicated to professional and college sports as well as sports news and original programming); ESPNU (which is dedicated to college sports); ESPNEWS (which re-airs select ESPN studio shows and airs a variety of other programming); SEC Network (which is dedicated to Southeastern Conference college athletics); Longhorn Network (which is dedicated to The University of Texas athletics); ESPN Deportes (which airs professional and college sports as well as studio shows in Spanish); and ACC Network (which is dedicated to Atlantic Coast Conference college athletics). In addition, ESPN programs the sports schedule on ABC, which is branded ESPN on ABC.
ESPN also includes the following:
ESPN.com, which delivers sports news, information and video on internet-connected devices, with approximately 20 editions in five languages globally. In the U.S., ESPN.com also features live video streams of ESPN channels to authenticated MVPD subscribers. Non-subscribers have limited access to certain content.
ESPN app, which is an all-in-one sports content platform, serving fans with a personalized digital destination on streaming devices. The app content includes news, highlights and real-time interactive features, including real-time scores, play-by-play and fantasy sports scores. ESPN+ subscribers can access the ESPN+ content from the app. In the U.S., the app also features live video streams of ESPN’s linear channels and exclusive events to authenticated MVPD subscribers. Non-subscribers have limited access to certain content.
ESPN Radio, which is the largest sports radio network in the U.S. In fiscal 2022, the Company sold its four owned radio stations for an amount that was not material.
In addition, ESPN owns and operates the following events: ESPYs (annual awards show); X Games (winter and summer action sports competitions), which were sold in October 2022 for an amount that was not material; and a portfolio of collegiate sporting events including: football bowl games, basketball games, softball games and post-season award shows.
ESPN is owned 80% by the Company and 20% by Hearst Corporation (Hearst).
Freeform
Freeform is a channel targeted to viewers ages 18 to 34 that airs original, Company owned (“library”) and licensed television series, films and holiday programming events.
FX Channels
Branded general entertainment television channels include: FX; FXM; and FXX (collectively FX Channels), which air a mix of original, library and licensed television series and films.
National Geographic Channels
Branded television channels include: National Geographic; Nat Geo Wild; and Nat Geo Mundo (collectively National Geographic Channels). National Geographic Channels air scripted and documentary programming on such topics as natural history, adventure, science, exploration and culture.
National Geographic, including the magazine and online business reported in Content Sales/Licensing, is owned 73% by the Company and 27% by the National Geographic Society.
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The number of subscribers (in millions) for the Company’s significant domestic cable channels are as follows:
Subscribers(1)
Disney
Disney Channel74
Disney Junior54
Disney XD53
ESPN
ESPN74
ESPN274
ESPNU51
ESPNEWS(2)
56
SEC Network(2)
51
ACC Network(2)
50
Freeform73
FX Channels
FX74
FXX71
FXM46
National Geographic Channels
National Geographic73
National Geographic Wild46
(1)Based on Nielsen Media Research estimates as of September 2022 (except where noted). Estimates include traditional MVPD and the majority of digital OTT subscriber counts.
(2)Because Nielsen Media Research does not measure this channel, estimated subscribers are according to SNL Kagan as of December 2021.
Broadcasting
ABC
As of October 1, 2022, ABC had affiliation agreements with approximately 240 local television stations reaching almost 100% of U.S. television households. ABC broadcasts programs in the primetime, daytime, late night, news and sports “dayparts”. ABC is also available digitally through the ABC App and website to authenticated MVPD subscribers. Non-subscribers have more limited access to on-demand episodes.
ABC also produces a variety of primetime specials, news and daytime programming.
Domestic Television Stations
The Company owns eight television stations, six of which are located in the top ten television household markets in the U.S. All of our television stations are affiliated with ABC and collectively reach approximately 20% of the nation’s television households.
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The stations we own are as follows:
TV StationMarket
Television Market
Ranking(1)
WABCNew York, NY1
KABCLos Angeles, CA2
WLSChicago, IL3
WPVIPhiladelphia, PA4
KGOSan Francisco, CA8
KTRKHouston, TX9
WTVDRaleigh-Durham, NC24
KFSNFresno, CA55
(1)Based on Nielsen Media Research, U.S. Television Household Estimates, January 1, 2022
International Channels
Our International Channels focus on General Entertainment, Sports and/or Family programming and operate under four significant brands: Disney; ESPN; Fox; and Star. Our international channels use content from the Company’s various studios, including library titles, as well as content acquired from third parties.
The Company’s increased focus on DTC distribution in international markets is expected to negatively impact the International Channels business as we shift the primary means of monetizing our content from licensing of linear channels to distribution on our DTC platforms.
General Entertainment
The Company operates approximately 220 General Entertainment channels outside the U.S. primarily under the Fox, National Geographic and Star brands, which are broadcast in approximately 40 languages and 180 countries/territories.
Fox branded channels air a variety of scripted, reality and documentary programming. Channels are often thematically branded, focusing on such topics as comedy, cooking, crime and movies, and are broadcast in most regions internationally.
National Geographic branded channels air scripted and documentary programming on such topics as natural history, science, exploration and culture, and are broadcast in most regions internationally.
Star branded channels air a variety of scripted, reality and documentary programming primarily in India. Channels are also broadcast in other countries in Asia Pacific and Latin America.
In addition, the Company operates UTV and Bindass branded channels principally in India. UTV Action and UTV Movies offer Bollywood movies as well as Hollywood, Asian and Indian regional movies dubbed in Hindi. Bindass is a youth entertainment channel.
Sports
The Company operates approximately 55 Sports channels outside the U.S. under the ESPN, Fox and Star brands, which are broadcast in approximately 10 languages and 105 countries/territories.
ESPN branded channels primarily operate in Latin America, Asia Pacific and Europe. In the Netherlands, the ESPN branded channels are operated by Eredivisie Media & Marketing CV (EMM), which has the media and sponsorship rights of the Dutch Premier League for soccer. The Company owns 51% of EMM.
Fox branded sports channels primarily operate in Latin America, Asia Pacific and Europe. Fox Sports Premium, a pay television service in Argentina, airs the matches of the professional soccer league in Argentina.
Star branded sports channels primarily operate in India and certain other countries in Asia Pacific. Star has rights to various sports programming including cricket, soccer, tennis and field hockey.
Family
The Company operates approximately 75 Family channels outside the U.S. primarily under the Disney brand, which are broadcast in approximately 25 languages and 175 countries/territories.
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As of September 2022, the estimated number of subscribers (in millions) for the Company’s significant international channels, based on internal management reports, are as follows:
Subscribers
Disney
Disney Channel151
Disney Junior141
ESPN(1)
62
Fox(1)
139
National Geographic(1)
289
Star
General Entertainment(1)
180
Sports(1)
83
(1)Reflects our estimate of each unique subscriber that has access to one or more of these branded channels.
Equity Investments
The Company has investments in media businesses that are accounted for under the equity method, the most significant of which are A+E and CTV Specialty Television, Inc. (CTV). The Company’s share of the financial results for these investments is reported as “Equity in the income (loss) of investees, net” in the Company’s Consolidated Statements of Operations.
A+E
A+E is owned 50% by the Company and 50% by Hearst. A+E operates a variety of cable channels:
A&E – which offers entertainment programming including original reality and scripted series
HISTORY – which offers original series and event-driven specials
Lifetime and Lifetime Movie Network (LMN) – which offer female-focused programming
FYI – which offers contemporary lifestyle programming
A+E programming is available in approximately 200 countries and territories. A+E’s networks are distributed internationally under multi-year licensing agreements with MVPDs. A+E programming is also sold to international television broadcasters and SVOD services.
As of September 2022, the number of domestic subscribers (in millions) for A+E channels are as follows:
Subscribers(1)
A&E69
HISTORY70
Lifetime69
LMN52
FYI42
(1)Based on Nielsen Media Research estimates as of September 2022. Estimates include traditional MVPD and the majority of digital OTT subscriber counts.
CTV
ESPN holds a 30% equity interest in CTV, which owns television channels in Canada, including The Sports Networks (TSN) 1-5, Le Réseau des Sports (RDS), RDS2, RDS Info, ESPN Classic Canada, Discovery Canada and Animal Planet Canada.
Direct-to-Consumer
Our DTC businesses are subscription services that provide video streaming of general entertainment, family and sports programming (services are offered individually or in various bundles) that are offered to customers directly or through third-party distributors on mobile and internet connected devices.
Disney+ Services (includes Disney+ Hotstar and Star+)
Disney+ is a subscription-based DTC service with Disney, Pixar, Marvel, Star Wars and National Geographic branded programming, which are all top level selections or “tiles” within the Disney+ interface. Outside the U.S. and Latin America, Disney+ also includes a Star branded tile, which features general entertainment programming.
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Disney+ Hotstar is a subscription-based DTC service available in India, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. Programming includes television shows, movies, sports and original series in approximately ten languages, in addition to gaming and social features. Disney+ Hotstar has exclusive streaming rights to cricket from the International Cricket Council (ICC) and the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI), along with other cricket rights.
Star+ is a standalone DTC service in Latin America with a variety of general entertainment content and live sports programming.
Disney+ services use content from the Company’s various studios, including library titles, as well as content acquired from third parties.
The majority of Disney+ revenue is derived from subscription fees. In addition, Disney+ Hotstar generates advertising revenue and Disney+ generates Premier Access fees. The Company plans to introduce an ad-supported Disney+ service in the U.S. in December 2022 and internationally starting in late 2023.
As of October 1, 2022, the estimated number of paid Disney+, Disney+ Hotstar and Star+ subscribers, based on internal management reports, was approximately 164 million.
ESPN+
ESPN+ is a subscription-based DTC service offering thousands of live sporting events, on-demand sports content and original programming. ESPN+ revenue is derived from subscription fees, pay-per-view fees and, to a lesser extent, advertising sales. Live events available through the service include mixed martial arts, soccer, hockey, boxing, baseball, college sports, golf, tennis and cricket. ESPN+ is currently the exclusive distributor for Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) pay-per-view events in the U.S. As of October 1, 2022, the estimated number of paid ESPN+ subscribers, based on internal management reports, was approximately 24 million.
Hearst has a 20% interest in the Company’s DTC sports business.
Hulu
Hulu is a subscription-based DTC service with general entertainment content from the Company’s various studios as well as content licensed from third parties. Hulu’s revenue is primarily derived from subscription fees and advertising sales. Hulu offers SVOD services with or without advertising in addition to a digital OTT MVPD (Live TV) service that is available with either of Hulu’s SVOD services and, since December 2021, includes the Disney+ and ESPN+ DTC services. Hulu’s Live TV service includes live linear streams of cable networks and the major broadcast networks. In addition, Hulu offers subscriptions to premium services such as HBOMax, Cinemax, Starz and Showtime, which can be added to the Hulu service. Certain programming from ABC, Freeform and FX Channels is also available on the Hulu SVOD service one day after airing on these channels. As of October 1, 2022, the estimated number of paid Hulu subscribers, based on internal management reports, was approximately 47 million.
The Company has a 67% ownership interest in and full operational control of Hulu. NBC Universal (NBCU) owns the remaining 33% of Hulu. The Company has a put/call agreement with NBCU, which provides NBCU the option to require the Company to purchase NBCU’s interest in Hulu and the Company the option to require NBCU to sell its interest in Hulu to the Company, in both cases, beginning in January 2024 (see Note 2 of the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information).
Content Sales/Licensing and Other
The majority of Content Sales/Licensing revenue is derived from TV/SVOD, theatrical and home entertainment distribution. In addition, revenue is generated from music distribution and stage plays.
The Company also publishes National Geographic magazine and provides post-production services through Industrial Light & Magic and Skywalker Sound. These activities are reported with Content Sales/Licensing.
TV/SVOD Distribution
Although we generally intend to use our film and television content on our DTC services and linear networks in TV/SVOD windows, we also license our content to third-party television networks, television stations and other video service providers for distribution to viewers on television or a variety of internet-connected devices, including through other DTC services.
Theatrical Distribution
The Company licenses full-length live-action and animated films from the Company’s Studio production groups to theaters globally. Cumulatively through October 1, 2022, the Company has released approximately 1,100 full-length live-action films and 100 full-length animated films. In the domestic and most major international markets, we generally distribute and market our films directly. In certain international markets our films are distributed by independent companies. During fiscal
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2023, we expect to release approximately 20 films, although we may choose to distribute certain films exclusively on our DTC streaming services in certain territories.
The Company incurs significant marketing and advertising costs before and throughout the theatrical release of a film in an effort to generate public awareness of the film, to increase the public’s intent to view the film and to help generate consumer interest in the subsequent home entertainment and other ancillary markets. These costs are expensed as incurred, which may result in a loss on a film in the theatrical markets, including in periods prior to the theatrical release of the film.
Home Entertainment Distribution
We distribute the Company’s film and episodic television content in home entertainment markets in physical (DVD and Blu-ray disc) and electronic formats globally.
Domestically, we distribute directly to retailers and wholesalers. Internationally, we distribute directly and through independent distribution companies. Physical formats of our film and episodic television content are generally sold to retailers, such as Walmart and Target, and electronic formats are sold through e-tailers, such as Apple and Amazon, and MVPDs, such as Comcast and DirecTV. The Company also operates Disney Movie Club, which sells DVD/Blu-ray discs directly to consumers in the U.S. and Canada.
Distribution of film content in the home entertainment window generally starts within three months after the theatrical release. Electronic formats may be released up to two weeks ahead of the physical release.
Distribution of episodic television content in the home entertainment window includes digital sales of season passes that can be purchased prior to, during and after the broadcast season with individual episodes typically available to season pass customers shortly after the initial airing of the show in each territory. Individual episodes are also available for digital purchase shortly after their initial airing in each territory.
As of October 1, 2022, we have approximately 2,200 produced and acquired film titles that are actively distributed in the home entertainment window, including approximately 1,900 live-action titles and approximately 300 animated titles.
Concurrently with physical home entertainment distribution, we license titles to video-on-demand services (such as Apple and Amazon) for electronic delivery to consumers for a specified rental period.
Disney Theatrical Group
Disney Theatrical Group develops, produces and licenses live entertainment events on Broadway and around the world. Productions include The Lion King, Frozen, Aladdin and Beauty and the Beast.
Disney Theatrical Group also licenses the Company’s IP to Feld Entertainment, the producer of Disney On Ice and Marvel Universe Live!.
Music Distribution
The Disney Music Group (DMG) commissions new music for the Company’s motion pictures and television programs and develops, produces, markets and distributes the Company’s music worldwide either directly or through license agreements. DMG also licenses the songs and recording copyrights to third parties for printed music, records, audio-visual devices, public performances and digital distribution and produces live musical concerts. DMG labels include Walt Disney Records and Hollywood Records.
Equity Investment
The Company has a 30% effective interest in Tata Play Limited, which operates a direct-to-home satellite distribution platform in India.
Studios
The Studios produce motion pictures under the Walt Disney Pictures, Twentieth Century Studios, Marvel, Lucasfilm, Pixar and Searchlight Pictures banners. Costs to produce the films are generally capitalized and allocated to the distribution platform utilizing the content.
Marvel licensed rights to produce and distribute Spider-Man films to Sony Pictures Entertainment (Sony) prior to the Company’s fiscal 2010 acquisition of Marvel. In general, Sony incurs the costs to produce and distribute Spider-Man films and the Company licenses the merchandise rights to third parties. The Company pays Sony a licensing fee based on each film’s box office receipts, subject to specified limits. In general, the Company distributes other Marvel-produced films.
The Studios film library includes content from approximately 100 years of production history, as well as acquired film libraries and totals approximately 5,100 live-action titles and 400 animation titles. The library includes approximately 50 movies and approximately 30 series that the Studios group produced for initial distribution on our DTC platforms.
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In fiscal 2023, the Studios plan to produce approximately 40 titles, which include films and episodic television programs, for distribution theatrically and/or on our DTC platforms.
General Entertainment
Content produced by General Entertainment primarily consists of original episodic television programs, network news and daytime/nighttime content. General Entertainment also acquires episodic television programming rights. Original content is generally produced by the following Company owned television studios: ABC Signature; 20th Television; Disney Branded Television; FX Productions; and National Geographic Studios. Original content is also commissioned by General Entertainment and produced by various other third-party studios. Costs to produce original content are generally capitalized and allocated to the distribution platform utilizing the content. Program development is carried out in collaboration with writers, producers and creative teams.
General Entertainments television programming library includes content from approximately 70 years of production history. Series with four or more seasons include approximately 75 one-hour dramas, 55 half-hour comedies, 5 half-hour non-scripted series, 30 one-hour non-scripted series, 15 half-hour animated series and 10 half-hour live-action series. The library includes approximately 130 series that the General Entertainment group produced for initial distribution on our DTC platforms.
In fiscal 2023, General Entertainment plans to produce or commission more than 270 original programs, most of which will include multiple episodes. Productions generally include comedies, dramas, animations, documentaries, specials, made for TV movies, shorts and network news content. The vast majority of programming will be used on our Linear Networks and/or our DTC platforms. Programming is also produced for third-parties, many of which have domestic linear distribution rights, while the Company has SVOD and international distribution rights.
Sports
The Company has various professional and college sports programming rights, which the Sports group uses to produce content aired on our Linear Networks and distributed on our DTC platforms, including live events, sports news and original content. In the U.S., rights include college football (including bowl games and the College Football Playoff) and basketball, the National Basketball Association (NBA), the National Football League (NFL), MLB, US Open Tennis, the Professional Golfers’ Association (PGA) Championship, the Women’s National Basketball Association (WNBA), soccer, Top Rank Boxing, the Wimbledon Championships, the Masters golf tournament, mixed martial arts and the National Hockey League (NHL). Internationally, rights include various cricket events (for which the Company has the global distribution rights to certain events) and soccer (including English Premier League, LaLiga, Bundesliga and multiple UEFA leagues).
International
The International group focuses on the development and production of locally created and relevant entertainment and sports content to support growth across the Company’s portfolio of streaming services. In addition, this group also oversees international media operations, including international linear channels, local advertising sales and local content sales and distribution. International has produced approximately 150 movies and series for initial distribution on the DTC platforms worldwide.
Competition and Seasonality
The Company’s Linear Networks and DTC streaming services compete for viewers primarily with other television networks, independent television stations and other media, such as other DTC streaming services and video games. With respect to the sale of advertising time, we compete with other television networks, independent television stations, MVPDs and other advertising media such as digital content, newspapers, magazines, radio and billboards. Our television and radio stations primarily compete for audiences and advertisers in local market areas.
The Company’s Linear Networks compete with other networks for carriage by MVPDs. The Company’s contractual agreements with MVPDs are renewed or renegotiated from time to time in the ordinary course of business. Consolidation and other market conditions in the cable, satellite and telecommunication distribution industry and other factors may adversely affect the Company’s ability to obtain and maintain contractual terms for the distribution of its various programming services that are as favorable as those currently in place.
The Content Sales/Licensing businesses compete with all forms of entertainment. A significant number of companies produce and/or distribute theatrical and television content, distribute products in the home entertainment market, provide pay television and SVOD services, and produce music and live theater.
The operating results of Content Sales/Licensing fluctuate due to the timing and performance of releases in the theatrical, home entertainment and television markets. Release dates are determined by several factors, including competition and the timing of vacation and holiday periods.
The Company’s websites and digital products compete with other websites and entertainment products.
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We also compete with other media and entertainment companies, independent production companies and SVOD services for the acquisition of sports rights, creative and performing talent, story properties, show concepts, scripted and other programming, advertiser support and exhibition outlets that are essential to the success of our DMED businesses.
Advertising revenues at Linear Networks and Direct-to-Consumer are subject to seasonal advertising patterns, changes in viewership levels and the demand for sports programming. In general, domestic advertising revenues are typically somewhat higher during the fall and somewhat lower during the summer months. In addition, advertising revenues generated from sports programming are impacted by the timing of sports seasons and events, which varies throughout the year or may take place periodically (e.g. biannually, quadrennially). Affiliate revenues vary with the subscriber trends of MVPDs.
Federal Regulation
Television and radio broadcasting are subject to extensive regulation by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) under federal laws and regulations, including the Communications Act of 1934, as amended. Violation of FCC regulations can result in substantial monetary fines, limited renewals of licenses and, in egregious cases, denial of license renewal or revocation of a license. FCC regulations that affect DMED include the following:
Licensing of television and radio stations. Each of the television and radio stations we own must be licensed by the FCC. These licenses are granted for periods of up to eight years, and we must obtain renewal of licenses as they expire in order to continue operating the stations. We (and the acquiring entity in the case of a divestiture) must also obtain FCC approval whenever we seek to have a license transferred in connection with the acquisition or divestiture of a station. The FCC may decline to renew or approve the transfer of a license in certain circumstances and may delay renewals while permitting a licensee to continue operating. Although we have received such renewals and approvals in the past or have been permitted to continue operations when renewal is delayed, there can be no assurance that this will be the case in the future.
Television and radio station ownership limits. The FCC imposes limitations on the number of television stations and radio stations we can own in a specific market, on the combined number of television and radio stations we can own in a single market and on the aggregate percentage of the national audience that can be reached by television stations we own. Currently:
FCC regulations may restrict our ability to own more than one television station in a market, depending on the size and nature of the market. We do not own more than one television station in any market.
Federal statutes permit our television stations in the aggregate to reach a maximum of 39% of the national audience. Pursuant to the most recent decision by the FCC as to how to calculate compliance with this limit, our eight stations reach approximately 20% of the national audience.
FCC regulations in some cases impose restrictions on our ability to acquire additional radio or television stations in the markets in which we own radio stations. We do not believe any such limitations are material to our current operating plans.
Dual networks. FCC rules currently prohibit any of the four major broadcast television networks — ABC, CBS, Fox and NBC — from being under common ownership or control.
Regulation of programming. The FCC regulates broadcast programming by, among other things, banning “indecent” programming, regulating political advertising and imposing commercial time limits during children’s programming. Penalties for broadcasting indecent programming can be over $400,000 per indecent utterance or image per station.
Federal legislation and FCC rules also limit the amount of commercial matter that may be shown on broadcast or cable channels during programming designed for children 12 years of age and younger. In addition, broadcast stations are generally required to provide an average of three hours per week of programming that has as a “significant purpose” meeting the educational and informational needs of children 16 years of age and younger. FCC rules also give television station owners the right to reject or refuse network programming in certain circumstances or to substitute programming that the licensee reasonably believes to be of greater local or national importance.
Cable and satellite carriage of broadcast television stations. With respect to MVPDs operating within a television station’s Designated Market Area, FCC rules require that every three years each television station elect either “must carry” status, pursuant to which MVPDs generally must carry a local television station in the station’s market, or “retransmission consent” status, pursuant to which the MVPDs must negotiate with the television station to obtain the consent of the television station prior to carrying its signal. The ABC owned television stations have historically elected retransmission consent.
Cable and satellite carriage of programming. The Communications Act and FCC rules regulate some aspects of negotiations between programmers and distributors regarding the carriage of networks by cable and satellite distribution companies, and some cable and satellite distribution companies have sought regulation of additional aspects of the carriage of programming on their systems. New legislation, court action or regulation in this area could have an impact on the Company’s operations.
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The foregoing is a brief summary of certain provisions of the Communications Act, other legislation and specific FCC rules and policies. Reference should be made to the Communications Act, other legislation, FCC rules and public notices and rulings of the FCC for further information concerning the nature and extent of the FCC’s regulatory authority.
FCC laws and regulations are subject to change, and the Company generally cannot predict whether new legislation, court action or regulations, or a change in the extent of application or enforcement of current laws and regulations, would have an adverse impact on our operations.
DISNEY PARKS, EXPERIENCES AND PRODUCTS
The operations of DPEP’s significant lines of business are as follows:
Parks & Experiences:
Theme parks and resorts, which include: Walt Disney World Resort in Florida; Disneyland Resort in California; Disneyland Paris; Hong Kong Disneyland Resort (48% ownership interest); and Shanghai Disney Resort (43% ownership interest), all of which are consolidated in our results. Additionally, the Company licenses our IP to a third party to operate Tokyo Disney Resort.
Disney Cruise Line, Disney Vacation Club, National Geographic Expeditions (73% ownership interest), Adventures by Disney and Aulani, a Disney Resort & Spa in Hawaii
Consumer Products:
Licensing of our trade names, characters, visual, literary and other IP to various manufacturers, game developers, publishers and retailers throughout the world, for use on merchandise, published materials and games
Sale of branded merchandise through online, retail and wholesale businesses, and development and publishing of books, comic books and magazines (except National Geographic magazine, which is reported in DMED)
The significant revenues of DPEP are as follows:
Theme park admissions - Sales of tickets for admission to our theme parks and for premium access to certain attractions (e.g. Genie+ and Lightning Lane)
Parks & Experiences merchandise, food and beverage - Sales of merchandise, food and beverages at our theme parks and resorts and cruise ships
Resorts and vacations - Sales of room nights at hotels, sales of cruise and other vacations and sales and rentals of vacation club properties
Merchandise licensing and retail:
Merchandise licensing - Royalties from licensing our IP for use on consumer goods
Retail - Sales of merchandise through internet shopping sites generally branded shopDisney and at The Disney Store, as well as to wholesalers (including books, comic books and magazines)
Parks licensing and other - Revenues from sponsorships and co-branding opportunities, real estate rent and sales and royalties earned on Tokyo Disney Resort revenues
The significant expenses of DPEP are as follows:
Operating expenses consisting primarily of operating labor, costs of goods sold, infrastructure costs, supplies, commissions and entertainment offerings. Infrastructure costs include technology support costs, repairs and maintenance, property taxes, utilities and fuel, retail occupancy costs, insurance and transportation
Selling, general and administrative costs, including marketing costs
Depreciation and amortization
Significant capital investments:
In recent years, the majority of the Company’s capital spend has been at our parks and experiences business, which is principally for theme park and resort expansion, new attractions, cruise ships, capital improvements and systems infrastructure. The various investment plans discussed in the “Parks & Experiences” section are based on management’s current expectations. Actual investment may differ.
Parks & Experiences
Walt Disney World Resort
The Walt Disney World Resort is located approximately 20 miles southwest of Orlando, Florida, on approximately 25,000 acres of land. The resort includes theme parks (the Magic Kingdom, EPCOT, Disney’s Hollywood Studios and Disney’s Animal Kingdom); hotels; vacation club properties; a retail, dining and entertainment complex (Disney Springs); a sports
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complex; conference centers; campgrounds; golf courses; water parks; and other recreational facilities designed to attract visitors for an extended stay.
The Walt Disney World Resort is marketed through a variety of international, national and local advertising and promotional activities. A number of attractions and restaurants in each of the theme parks are sponsored or operated by other companies under multi-year agreements.
Magic Kingdom — The Magic Kingdom consists of six themed areas: Adventureland, Fantasyland, Frontierland, Liberty Square, Main Street USA and Tomorrowland. Each land provides a unique guest experience featuring themed attractions, restaurants, merchandise shops and entertainment experiences. Tomorrowland is currently undergoing an expansion including the Tron Lightcycle/Run, which is scheduled to open in Spring 2023.
EPCOT — EPCOT consists of four major themed areas: World Showcase, World Celebration, World Nature and World Discovery. All areas feature themed attractions, restaurants, merchandise shops and entertainment experiences. Countries represented with pavilions include Canada, China, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Morocco, Norway, the United Kingdom and the U.S. EPCOT is undergoing a multi-year transformation, which includes the addition of Guardians of the Galaxy: Cosmic Rewind, which opened in the summer of 2022 and Journey of Water, inspired by Moana, which is scheduled to open late 2023.
Disney’s Hollywood Studios — Disney’s Hollywood Studios consists of eight themed areas: Animation Courtyard, Commissary Lane, Echo Lake, Grand Avenue, Hollywood Boulevard, Star Wars: Galaxy’s Edge, Sunset Boulevard and Toy Story Land. The areas provide behind-the-scenes glimpses of Hollywood-style action through various shows and attractions and offer themed food service, merchandise shops and entertainment experiences.
Disney’s Animal Kingdom — Disney’s Animal Kingdom consists of a 145-foot tall Tree of Life centerpiece surrounded by five themed areas: Africa, Asia, DinoLand USA, Discovery Island and Pandora - The World of Avatar. Each themed area contains attractions, restaurants, merchandise shops and entertainment experiences. The park features more than 300 species of live mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians and 3,000 varieties of vegetation.
Hotels, Vacation Club Properties and Other Resort Facilities — As of October 1, 2022, the Company owned and operated 19 resort hotels and vacation club facilities at the Walt Disney World Resort, with approximately 23,000 rooms and 3,600 vacation club units. Resort facilities include 500,000 square feet of conference meeting space and Disney’s Fort Wilderness camping and recreational area, which offers approximately 800 campsites.
Disney Springs is an approximately 120-acre retail, dining and entertainment complex and consists of four areas: Marketplace, The Landing, Town Center and West Side. The areas are home to more than 150 venues including the 64,000-square-foot World of Disney retail store. Most of the Disney Springs facilities are operated by third parties that pay rent to the Company.
Ten independently-operated hotels with approximately 7,000 rooms are situated on property leased from the Company.
ESPN Wide World of Sports Complex is a 230-acre center that hosts professional caliber training and competitions, festival and tournament events and interactive sports activities. The complex, which welcomes both amateur and professional athletes, accommodates multiple sporting events, including baseball, basketball, football, soccer, softball, tennis and track and field. It also includes a stadium, as well as two venues designed for cheerleading, dance competitions and other indoor sports.
Other recreational amenities and activities available at the Walt Disney World Resort include three championship golf courses, miniature golf courses, full-service spas, tennis, sailing, swimming, horseback riding and a number of other sports and leisure time activities. The resort also includes two water parks: Disney’s Blizzard Beach and Disney’s Typhoon Lagoon.
Disneyland Resort
The Company owns 489 acres and has rights under a long-term lease for use of an additional 52 acres of land in Anaheim, California. The Disneyland Resort includes two theme parks (Disneyland and Disney California Adventure), three resort hotels and a retail, dining and entertainment complex (Downtown Disney).
The Disneyland Resort is marketed through a variety of international, national and local advertising and promotional activities. A number of the attractions and restaurants in the theme parks are sponsored or operated by other companies under multi-year agreements.
Disneyland — Disneyland consists of nine themed areas: Adventureland, Critter Country, Fantasyland, Frontierland, Main Street USA, Mickey’s Toontown, New Orleans Square, Star Wars: Galaxy’s Edge, and Tomorrowland. These areas feature themed attractions, restaurants, merchandise shops and entertainment experiences. Mickey’s Toontown is currently undergoing an expansion and transformation, including the addition of Mickey and Minnie’s Runaway Railway, which is scheduled to open in early 2023.
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Disney California Adventure — Disney California Adventure is adjacent to Disneyland and includes eight themed areas: Avengers Campus, Buena Vista Street, Cars Land, Grizzly Peak, Hollywood Land, Pacific Wharf (which will be transformed into San Fransokyo from Big Hero 6), Paradise Gardens Park and Pixar Pier. These areas include themed attractions, restaurants, merchandise shops and entertainment experiences.
Hotels, Vacation Club Units and Other Resort Facilities — Disneyland Resort includes three Company owned and operated hotels and vacation club facilities with approximately 2,400 rooms, 50 vacation club units and 180,000 square feet of conference meeting space.
Downtown Disney is a themed 15-acre retail, entertainment and dining complex with approximately 30 venues located adjacent to both Disneyland and Disney California Adventure. Most of the Downtown Disney facilities are operated by third parties that pay rent to the Company.
Aulani, a Disney Resort & Spa
Aulani, a Disney Resort & Spa, is a Company-operated family resort on a 21-acre oceanfront property on Oahu, Hawaii featuring approximately 350 hotel rooms, an 18,000-square-foot spa and 12,000 square feet of conference meeting space. The resort also has approximately 480 vacation club units.
Disneyland Paris
Disneyland Paris is located on approximately 5,200-acres in Marne-la-Vallée, approximately 20 miles east of Paris, France. The land is being developed pursuant to a master agreement with French governmental authorities. Disneyland Paris includes two theme parks (Disneyland Park and Walt Disney Studios Park); seven themed resort hotels; two convention centers; a shopping, dining and entertainment complex (Disney Village); and a 27-hole golf facility. Of the 5,200 acres comprising the site, approximately half have been developed to date, including a planned community (Val d’Europe) and an eco-tourism destination (Villages Nature).
Disneyland Park — Disneyland Park consists of five themed areas: Adventureland, Discoveryland, Fantasyland, Frontierland and Main Street USA. These areas include themed attractions, restaurants, merchandise shops and entertainment experiences.
Walt Disney Studios Park — Walt Disney Studios Park includes five themed areas: Front Lot, Production Courtyard, Toon Studio, Worlds of Pixar and Avengers Campus, which opened in the summer of 2022. These areas each include themed attractions, restaurants, merchandise shops and entertainment experiences. Walt Disney Studios Park is undergoing a multi-year expansion that will include a new themed area based on Frozen.
Hotels and Other Facilities — Disneyland Paris operates seven resort hotels, with approximately 5,750 rooms and 250,000 square feet of conference meeting space. In addition, five on-site hotels that are owned and operated by third parties provide approximately 1,500 rooms.
Disney Village is an approximately 500,000-square-foot retail, dining and entertainment complex located between the theme parks and the hotels. A number of the Disney Village facilities are operated by third parties that pay rent to the Company.
Val d’Europe is a planned community near Disneyland Paris that is being developed in phases. Val d’Europe currently includes a regional train station, hotels and a town center consisting of a shopping center as well as office, commercial and residential space. Third parties operate these developments on land leased or purchased from the Company.
Villages Nature is an eco-tourism resort that consists of recreational facilities, restaurants and 900 vacation units. The resort is a 50% joint venture between the Company and Pierre & Vacances-Center Parcs, which manages the venture.
Hong Kong Disneyland Resort
The Company owns a 48% interest in Hong Kong Disneyland Resort and the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) owns a 52% interest. The resort is located on 310 acres on Lantau Island and is in close proximity to the Hong Kong International Airport and the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge. Hong Kong Disneyland Resort includes one theme park and three themed resort hotels. A separate Hong Kong subsidiary of the Company is responsible for managing Hong Kong Disneyland Resort. The Company is entitled to receive royalties and management fees based on the operating performance of Hong Kong Disneyland Resort.
Hong Kong Disneyland — Hong Kong Disneyland consists of seven themed areas: Adventureland, Fantasyland, Grizzly Gulch, Main Street USA, Mystic Point, Tomorrowland and Toy Story Land. These areas feature themed attractions, restaurants, merchandise shops and entertainment experiences. The park is in the midst of a multi-year expansion project that includes a Frozen-themed area, expected to open in 2023.
Hotels — Hong Kong Disneyland Resort includes three themed hotels with a total of 1,750 rooms and approximately 16,000 square feet of conference meeting space.
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Shanghai Disney Resort
The Company owns a 43% interest in Shanghai Disney Resort and Shanghai Shendi (Group) Co., Ltd (Shendi) owns a 57% interest. The resort is located in the Pudong district of Shanghai on approximately 1,000 acres of land, which includes the Shanghai Disneyland theme park; two themed resort hotels; a retail, dining and entertainment complex (Disneytown); and an outdoor recreation area. A management company, in which the Company has a 70% interest and Shendi has a 30% interest, is responsible for operating the resort and receives a management fee based on the operating performance of Shanghai Disney Resort. The Company is also entitled to royalties based on the resort’s revenues.
Shanghai Disneyland — Shanghai Disneyland consists of seven themed areas: Adventure Isle, Fantasyland, Gardens of Imagination, Mickey Avenue, Tomorrowland, Toy Story Land and Treasure Cove. These areas feature themed attractions, shows, restaurants, merchandise shops and entertainment experiences. The Company is constructing an eighth themed area based on the animated film Zootopia.
Hotels and Other Facilities — Shanghai Disneyland Resort includes two themed hotels with a total of 1,220 rooms. Disneytown is an 11-acre outdoor complex of dining, shopping and entertainment venues located adjacent to Shanghai Disneyland. Most Disneytown facilities are operated by third parties that pay rent to Shanghai Disney Resort.
Tokyo Disney Resort
Tokyo Disney Resort is located on 494 acres of land, six miles east of downtown Tokyo, Japan. The Company earns royalties on revenues generated by the Tokyo Disney Resort, which is owned and operated by Oriental Land Co., Ltd. (OLC), a third-party Japanese corporation. The resort includes two theme parks (Tokyo Disneyland and Tokyo DisneySea); five Disney-branded hotels; six other hotels (operated by third parties other than OLC); a retail, dining and entertainment complex (Ikspiari); and Bon Voyage, a Disney-themed merchandise location.
Tokyo Disneyland — Tokyo Disneyland consists of seven themed areas: Adventureland, Critter Country, Fantasyland, Tomorrowland, Toontown, Westernland and World Bazaar.
Tokyo DisneySea — Tokyo DisneySea is divided into seven “ports of call,” including American Waterfront, Arabian Coast, Lost River Delta, Mediterranean Harbor, Mermaid Lagoon, Mysterious Island and Port Discovery. OLC is expanding Tokyo DisneySea to include an eighth themed port, Fantasy Springs expected to open in spring 2024.
Hotels and Other Resort Facilities — Tokyo Disney Resort includes five Disney-branded hotels with a total of more than 3,000 rooms and a monorail, which links the theme parks and resort hotels with Ikspiari. OLC is currently constructing a 475-room Disney-branded hotel at Tokyo DisneySea that is expected to open in spring 2024.
Disney Vacation Club (DVC)
DVC offers ownership interests in 15 resort facilities located at the Walt Disney World Resort; Disneyland Resort; Aulani; Vero Beach, Florida; and Hilton Head Island, South Carolina. Available units are offered for sale under a vacation ownership plan and are operated as hotel rooms when not occupied by vacation club members. The Company’s vacation club units range from deluxe studios to three-bedroom grand villas. Unit counts in this document are presented in terms of two-bedroom equivalents. DVC had approximately 4,400 vacation club units as of October 1, 2022 and is scheduled to open an additional 135 units at The Villas at Disneyland Hotel in 2023. The Company also plans to open additional units at Disney’s Polynesian Village Resort in late 2024.
Storyliving by Disney
The Company is developing its first Storyliving by Disney residential community, Cotino, in Rancho Mirage, California.
Disney Cruise Line
Disney Cruise Line is a five-ship vacation cruise line, which operates out of ports in North America and Europe. The Disney Magic and the Disney Wonder are 85,000-ton 875-stateroom ships; the Disney Dream and the Disney Fantasy are 130,000-ton 1,250-stateroom ships; and the Disney Wish, launched in July 2022, is a 140,000-ton 1,250-stateroom ship. The ships cater to families, children, teenagers and adults, with themed areas and activities for each group. Many cruise vacations include a visit to Disney’s Castaway Cay, a 1,000-acre private Bahamian island.
Disney Cruise Line is adding the Disney Treasure and a seventh ship, which are to be delivered from the shipyard in fiscal 2025 and fiscal 2026, respectively. Both of these ships will be approximately 140,000 tons with 1,250 staterooms and will be powered by liquefied natural gas.
In November 2022, the Company purchased a partially completed ship for an amount that is not material. The ship will be approximately 200,000 tons. Disney Cruise Line will incur the cost to complete construction with total costs anticipated to be less than our recent fleet additions. This ship is expected to be delivered in 2025.
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The Company has approximately 550 acres of land at Lighthouse Point on the island of Eleuthera, which is scheduled to open as a Disney Cruise Line destination in 2024.
Adventures by Disney and National Geographic Expeditions
Adventures by Disney and National Geographic Expeditions offer guided tour packages predominantly at non-Disney sites around the world.
Walt Disney Imagineering
Walt Disney Imagineering provides master planning, real estate development, attraction, entertainment and show design, engineering support, production support, project management and research and development for DPEP.
Consumer Products
Licensing
The Company’s merchandise licensing operations cover a diverse range of product categories, the most significant of which are: toys, apparel, games, home décor and furnishings, accessories, food, books, health and beauty, stationery, footwear, magazines and consumer electronics. The Company licenses characters from its film, television and other properties for use on third-party products in these categories and earns royalties, which are usually based on a fixed percentage of the wholesale or retail selling price of the products. Some of the major properties licensed by the Company include: Mickey and Friends, Star Wars, Spider-Man, Disney Princess, Avengers, Frozen, Toy Story, Winnie the Pooh and Cars.
Retail
The Company sells Disney-, Marvel-, Pixar- and Lucasfilm-branded products through shopDisney branded internet sites and Disney Store branded retail locations. At October 1, 2022, the Company owns and operates approximately 40 stores in Japan, 20 stores in North America, three stores in Europe and one store in China.
The Company creates, distributes and publishes a variety of products in multiple countries and languages based on the Company’s branded franchises. The products include children’s books and comic books.
Competition and Seasonality
The Company’s theme parks and resorts as well as Disney Cruise Line and Disney Vacation Club compete with other forms of entertainment, lodging, tourism and recreational activities. The profitability of the leisure-time industry may be influenced by various factors that are not directly controllable, such as economic conditions including business cycle and exchange rate fluctuations, health concerns, the political environment, travel industry trends, amount of available leisure time, oil and transportation prices, weather patterns and natural disasters. The licensing and retail business competes with other licensors, retailers and publishers of character, brand and celebrity names, as well as other licensors, publishers and developers of game software, online video content, websites, other types of home entertainment and retailers of toys and kids merchandise.
All of the theme parks and the associated resort facilities are operated on a year-round basis. Typically, theme park attendance and resort occupancy fluctuate based on the seasonal nature of vacation travel and leisure activities, the opening of new guest offerings and pricing and promotional offers. Peak attendance and resort occupancy generally occur during the summer months when school vacations occur and during early winter and spring holiday periods. The licensing, retail and wholesale businesses are influenced by seasonal consumer purchasing behavior, which generally results in higher revenues during the Company’s first and fourth fiscal quarter, and by the timing and performance of theatrical and game releases and cable programming broadcasts.
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY PROTECTION
The Company’s businesses throughout the world are affected by its ability to exploit and protect against infringement of its IP, including trademarks, trade names, copyrights, patents and trade secrets. Important IP includes rights in the content of motion pictures, television programs, electronic games, sound recordings, character likenesses, theme park attractions, books and magazines, and merchandise. Risks related to the protection and exploitation of IP rights and information concerning the expiration of certain of our copyrights are set forth in Item 1A – Risk Factors.
AVAILABLE INFORMATION
Our annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports are available without charge on our website, www.disney.com/investors, as soon as reasonably practicable after they are filed electronically with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). We are providing the address to our internet site solely for the information of investors. We do not intend the address to be an active link or to otherwise incorporate the contents of the website into this report.
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ITEM 1A. Risk Factors
For an enterprise as large and complex as the Company, a wide range of factors could materially affect future developments and performance. In addition to the factors affecting specific business operations identified in connection with the description of these operations and the financial results of these operations elsewhere in our filings with the SEC, the most significant factors affecting our business include the following:
BUSINESS, ECONOMIC, MARKET and OPERATING CONDITION RISKS
The adverse impact of COVID-19 on our businesses will continue for an unknown length of time and may continue to impact certain of our key sources of revenue.
Since early 2020, the world has been and continues to be impacted by COVID-19 and its variants. COVID-19 and measures to prevent its spread have impacted our segments in a number of ways, most significantly at DPEP where our theme parks and resorts were closed and cruise ship sailings and guided tours were suspended. In addition, at DMED we delayed, or in some cases, shortened or canceled theatrical releases and experienced disruptions in the production and availability of content. Collectively, our impacted businesses have historically been the source of the majority of our revenue. Operations have resumed at various points since May 2020, with certain theme parks and resort operations and film and television productions resuming by the end of fiscal 2020 and throughout 2021. Although operations resumed, many of our businesses continue to experience impacts from COVID-19, such as incremental health and safety measures and related increased expenses, capacity restrictions and closures (including at some of our international parks and in theaters in certain markets), and disruptions of content production activities.
COVID-19 impacts and future health outbreaks and pandemics could hasten the erosion of historical sources of revenue at our Linear Networks businesses and change consumer preferences. For example, COVID-19 impacts have changed, and may continue to change, consumer behavior and consumption patterns, such as theater-going to watch movies. Some industries in which our customers operate, such as theatrical distribution, retail and travel, have experienced, and could continue to experience, contraction and financial distress, which could impact the profitability of our businesses going forward.
Our mitigation efforts in response to the impacts of COVID-19 on our businesses have had, or may continue to have, negative impacts. For example, in response to COVID-19 impacts, we incurred significant additional indebtedness and delayed or suspended certain projects in which we have invested, particularly at our parks and resorts and studio operations. In addition, we may take mitigation actions in the future to respond to the impacts of COVID-19 or other health outbreaks or pandemics on our businesses, such as raising additional financing; not declaring future dividends; further suspending or reducing capital spending; reducing film and television content investments; implementing furloughs or reductions in force or modifying our operating strategy. These and other of our mitigating actions may have an adverse impact on our businesses. Additionally, there are limitations on our ability to mitigate the adverse financial impact of COVID-19 and other health outbreaks or pandemics, including the fixed costs of our theme park business and the impact such events may have on capital markets and our cost of borrowing.
Geographic variation in government requirements and ongoing changes to restrictions have disrupted and could further disrupt our businesses, including our production operations. Our operations could be suspended, re-suspended or subjected to new or reinstated limitations by government action or otherwise in the future as a result of developments related to COVID-19, such as the expansion of the Omicron subvariants or other variants, and other future health outbreaks and pandemics. For example, our international parks have reopened and closed multiple times since the onset of COVID-19. Some of our employees who returned to work were later refurloughed. Our operations could be further negatively impacted and our reputation could be negatively impacted by a significant COVID-19 or other health outbreak impacting our employees, customers or others interacting with our businesses, including our supply chain.
The impacts of COVID-19 to our business have generally amplified, or reduced our ability to mitigate, the other risks discussed in our filings with the SEC and our remediation efforts may not be successful.
COVID-19 also makes it more challenging for management to estimate future performance of our businesses. COVID-19 has already adversely impacted our businesses and net cash flow, and we expect the ultimate magnitude of these disruptions on our financial and operational results will be dictated by the length of time that such disruptions continue which will, in turn, depend on the currently unknowable duration and severity of the impacts of COVID-19, and among other things, the impact and duration of governmental actions imposed in response to COVID-19 and individuals’ and companies’ risk tolerance regarding health matters going forward.
Changes in U.S., global, and regional economic conditions are expected to have an adverse effect on the profitability of our businesses.
A decline in economic conditions, such as recession, economic downturn, and/or inflationary conditions in the U.S. and other regions of the world in which we do business can adversely affect demand and/or expenses for any of our businesses, thus reducing our revenue and earnings. Past declines in economic conditions reduced spending at our parks and resorts, purchases
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of and prices for advertising on our broadcast and cable networks and owned stations, performance of our home entertainment releases, and purchases of Company-branded consumer products, and similar impacts can be expected as such conditions recur. The current decline in economic conditions could also reduce attendance at our parks and resorts, prices that MVPDs pay for our cable programming, purchases of and prices for advertising on our DTC products or subscription levels for our cable programming or DTC products, while also increasing the prices we pay for goods, services and labor. Economic conditions can also impair the ability of those with whom we do business to satisfy their obligations to us. In addition, an increase in price levels generally, or in price levels in a particular sector such as current inflation in the domestic and global energy sector and other pronounced price increases generally and in certain other sectors, could result in a shift in consumer demand away from the entertainment and consumer products we offer, which could also adversely affect our revenues and, at the same time, increase our costs. A decline in economic conditions could impact implementation of our business plans, such as our plans to realign our cost structure and for the new DTC ad-supported service, pricing structure and price increases. In addition, actions to reduce inflation, including raising interest rates, increase our cost of borrowing, which in turn could make it more difficult to obtain financing for our operations or investments on favorable terms. Further, global economic conditions may impact foreign currency exchange rates against the U.S. dollar. The current or continued strength in the value of the U.S. dollar has adversely impacted the U.S. dollar value of revenue we receive and expect to receive from other markets and may reduce international demand for our products and services. A decrease in the value of the U.S. dollar may increase our labor, supply or other costs in non-U.S. markets. Although we hedge exposure to certain foreign currency fluctuations, any such hedging activity may not substantially offset the negative financial impact of exchange rate fluctuations and is not expected to offset all such negative financial impact, particularly in periods of sustained U.S. dollar strength relative to multiple foreign currencies. Further, economic or political conditions in countries outside the U.S. also have reduced, and could continue to reduce, our ability to hedge exposure to currency fluctuations in those countries or our ability to repatriate revenue from those countries. Broader supply chain delays, such as those currently impacting global distribution may further exacerbate current inflationary pressures and impact our ability to sell and deliver goods or otherwise disrupt our operations. The adverse impact on our businesses of the decline in economic conditions will depend, in part, on its severity and duration and our ability to mitigate the impacts of this decline on our businesses will be limited.
Changes in technology and in consumer consumption patterns may affect demand for our entertainment products, the revenue we can generate from these products or the cost of producing or distributing products.
The media entertainment and internet businesses in which we participate increasingly depend on our ability to successfully adapt to shifting patterns of content consumption through the adoption and exploitation of new technologies. New technologies affect the demand for our products, the manner in which our products are distributed to consumers, ways we charge for and receive revenue for our entertainment products and the stability of those revenue streams, the sources and nature of competing content offerings, the time and manner in which consumers acquire and view some of our entertainment products and the options available to advertisers for reaching their desired audiences. This trend has impacted the business model for certain traditional forms of distribution, as evidenced by the industry-wide decline in ratings for broadcast television, the reduction in demand for home entertainment sales of theatrical content, the development of alternative distribution channels for broadcast and cable programming and declines in subscriber levels for traditional cable channels, including for a number of our networks. In addition, theater-going to watch movies currently is, and may continue to be, below pre-COVID-19 levels. Declines in linear viewership have resulted in decreased advertising revenue. In order to respond to these developments, we regularly consider, and from time to time implement changes to our business models, most recently by developing, investing in and acquiring DTC products, initiating plans to again reorganize our media and entertainment businesses to advance our DTC strategies, and developing next generation storytelling offerings. There can be no assurance that our DTC offerings, next generation storytelling offerings and other efforts will successfully respond to these changes. In addition, declines in certain traditional forms of distribution may increase the cost of content allocable to our DTC offerings, negatively impacting the profitability of our DTC offerings. We expect to forgo revenue from traditional sources, particularly as we expand our DTC offerings. To date we have experienced significant losses in our DTC businesses. There can be no assurance that the DTC model and other business models we may develop will ultimately be profitable or as profitable as our existing or historic business models.
Misalignment with public and consumer tastes and preferences for entertainment, travel and consumer products could negatively impact demand for our entertainment offerings and products and adversely affect the profitability of any of our businesses.
Our businesses create entertainment, travel and consumer products whose success depends substantially on consumer tastes and preferences that change in often unpredictable ways. The success of our businesses depends on our ability to consistently create compelling content, which may be distributed, among other ways, through broadcast, cable, internet or cellular technology, theme park attractions, hotels and other resort facilities and travel experiences and consumer products. Such distribution must meet the changing preferences of the broad consumer market and respond to competition from an expanding array of choices facilitated by technological developments in the delivery of content. The success of our theme parks, resorts, cruise ships and experiences, as well as our theatrical releases, depends on demand for public or out-of-home
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entertainment experiences. Demand for certain of our out-of-home entertainment experiences, such as theater-going to watch movies, has not returned to pre-pandemic levels, and COVID-19 may continue to impact consumer tastes and preferences. In addition, many of our businesses increasingly depend on acceptance of our offerings and products by consumers outside the U.S. The success of our businesses therefore depends on our ability to successfully predict and adapt to changing consumer tastes and preferences outside as well as inside the U.S. Moreover, we must often invest substantial amounts in content production and acquisition, acquisition of sports rights, theme park attractions, cruise ships or hotels and other facilities or customer facing platforms before we know the extent to which these products will earn consumer acceptance, and these products may be introduced into a significantly different market or economic or social climate from the one we anticipated at the time of the investment decisions. If our entertainment offerings and products (including our content offerings, which have been impacted by COVID-19 and may in the future be impacted by COVID-19 developments or other health outbreaks or pandemics) as well as our methods to make our offerings and products available to consumers, do not achieve sufficient consumer acceptance, our revenue may decline, decline further or fail to grow to the extent we anticipate when making investment decisions and thereby further adversely affect the profitability of one or more of our businesses. Further, consumers’ perceptions of our position on matters of public interest, including our efforts to achieve certain of our environmental and social goals, often differ widely and present risks to our reputation and brands. Consumer tastes and preferences impact, among other items, revenue from advertising sales (which are based in part on ratings for the programs in which advertisements air), affiliate fees, subscription fees, theatrical film receipts, the license of rights to other distributors, theme park admissions, hotel room charges and merchandise, food and beverage sales, sales of licensed consumer products or sales of our other consumer products and services.
The success of our businesses is highly dependent on the existence and maintenance of intellectual property rights in the entertainment products and services we create.
The value to us of our IP is dependent on the scope and duration of our rights as defined by applicable laws in the U.S. and abroad and the manner in which those laws are construed. If those laws are drafted or interpreted in ways that limit the extent or duration of our rights, or if existing laws are changed, our ability to generate revenue from our IP may decrease, or the cost of obtaining and maintaining rights may increase. The terms of some copyrights for IP related to some of our products and services have expired and other copyrights will expire in the future. For example, in the United States and countries that look to the United States copyright term when shorter than their own, the copyright term for early works such as the short film Steamboat Willie (1928), and the specific early versions of characters depicted in those works, expires at the end of the 95th calendar year after the date the copyright was originally secured in the United States. Revenues generated from this intellectual property could be negatively impacted.
The unauthorized use of our IP may increase the cost of protecting rights in our IP or reduce our revenues. The convergence of computing, communication and entertainment devices, increased broadband internet speed and penetration, increased availability and speed of mobile data transmission and increasingly sophisticated attempts to obtain unauthorized access to data systems have made the unauthorized digital copying and distribution of our films, television productions and other creative works easier and faster and protection and enforcement of IP rights more challenging. The unauthorized distribution and access to entertainment content generally continues to be a significant challenge for IP rights holders. Inadequate laws or weak enforcement mechanisms to protect entertainment industry IP in one country can adversely affect the results of the Company’s operations worldwide, despite the Company’s efforts to protect its IP rights. COVID-19 and distribution innovation in response to COVID-19 has increased opportunities to access content in unauthorized ways. Additionally, negative economic conditions coupled with a shift in government priorities could lead to less enforcement. These developments require us to devote substantial resources to protecting our IP against unlicensed use and present the risk of increased losses of revenue as a result of unlicensed distribution of our content and other commercial misuses of our IP.
With respect to IP developed by the Company and rights acquired by the Company from others, the Company is subject to the risk of challenges to our copyright, trademark and patent rights by third parties. Successful challenges to our rights in IP may result in increased costs for obtaining rights or the loss of the opportunity to earn revenue from or utilize the IP that is the subject of challenged rights. From time to time, the Company has been notified that it may be infringing certain IP rights of third parties. Technological changes in industries in which the Company operates and extensive patent coverage in those areas may increase the risk of such claims being brought and prevailing.
Protection of electronically stored data and other cybersecurity is costly, and if our data or systems are materially compromised in spite of this protection, we may incur additional costs, lost opportunities, damage to our reputation, disruption of service or theft of our assets.
We maintain information necessary to conduct our business, including confidential and proprietary information as well as personal information regarding our customers and employees, in digital form. We also use computer systems to deliver our products and services and operate our businesses. Data maintained in digital form is subject to the risk of unauthorized access, modification, exfiltration, destruction or denial of access and our computer systems are subject to cyberattacks that may result in disruptions in service. We use many third-party systems and software, which are also subject to supply chain and other
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cyberattacks. We develop and maintain an information security program to identify and mitigate cyber risks but the development and maintenance of this program is costly and requires ongoing monitoring and updating as technologies change and efforts to overcome security measures become more sophisticated. Accordingly, despite our efforts, the risk of unauthorized access, modification, exfiltration, destruction or denial of access with respect to data or systems and other cybersecurity attacks cannot be eliminated entirely, and the risks associated with a potentially material incident remain. In addition, we provide some confidential, proprietary and personal information to third parties in certain cases, which may also be compromised.
If our information or cyber security systems or data are compromised in a material way, our ability to conduct our business may be impaired, we may lose profitable opportunities or the value of those opportunities may be diminished and, as described above, we may lose revenue as a result of unlicensed use of our intellectual property. If personal information of our customers or employees is misappropriated, our reputation with our customers and employees may be damaged resulting in loss of business or morale, and we may incur costs to remediate possible harm to our customers and employees or damages arising from litigation and/or to pay fines or take other action with respect to judicial or regulatory actions arising out of the incident. Insurance we obtain may not cover losses or damages associated with such attacks or events. Our systems and users and those of third parties with whom we engage are continually attacked, sometimes successfully.
A variety of uncontrollable events may reduce demand for or consumption of our products and services, impair our ability to provide our products and services or increase the cost or reduce the profitability of providing our products and services.
Demand for and consumption of our products and services, particularly our theme parks and resorts, is highly dependent on the general environment for travel and tourism. The environment for travel and tourism, as well as demand for and consumption of other entertainment products, can be significantly adversely affected in the U.S., globally or in specific regions as a result of a variety of factors beyond our control, including: health concerns (including as it has been by COVID-19 and could be by future health outbreaks and pandemics); adverse weather conditions arising from short-term weather patterns or long-term climate change, catastrophic events or natural disasters (such as excessive heat or rain, hurricanes, typhoons, floods, droughts, tsunamis and earthquakes); international, political or military developments (including social unrest); a decline in economic activity; and terrorist attacks. These events and others, such as fluctuations in travel and energy costs and computer virus attacks, intrusions or other widespread computing or telecommunications failures, may also damage our ability to provide our products and services or to obtain insurance coverage with respect to some of these events. An incident that affected our property directly would have a direct impact on our ability to provide goods and services and could have an extended effect of discouraging consumers from attending our facilities. Moreover, the costs of protecting against such incidents, including the costs of protecting against the spread of COVID-19, reduces the profitability of our operations.
For example, hurricanes, including Hurricane Ian in late September 2022, which caused Walt Disney World Resort parks in Florida to close for two days, have impacted the profitability of Walt Disney World Resort and may do so in the future. The Company has paused certain operations in certain regions and the profitability of certain operations has been impacted as a result of events in the corresponding regions.
In addition, we derive affiliate fees and royalties from the distribution of our programming, sales of our licensed goods and services by third parties, and the management of businesses operated under brands licensed from the Company, and we are therefore dependent on the successes of those third parties for that portion of our revenue. A wide variety of factors could influence the success of those third parties and if negative factors significantly impacted a sufficient number of those third parties, the profitability of one or more of our businesses could be adversely affected. In specific geographic markets, we have experienced delayed and/or partial payments from certain affiliate partners due to liquidity issues.
We obtain insurance against the risk of losses relating to some of these events, generally including certain physical damage to our property and resulting business interruption, certain injuries occurring on our property and some liabilities for alleged breach of legal responsibilities. When insurance is obtained it is subject to deductibles, exclusions, terms, conditions and limits of liability. The types and levels of coverage we obtain vary from time to time depending on our view of the likelihood of specific types and levels of loss in relation to the cost of obtaining coverage for such types and levels of loss and we may experience material losses not covered by our insurance. For example, many losses related to impacts of COVID-19 have not been covered by insurance available to us.
Changes in our business strategy or restructuring of our businesses has increased and may continue to increase our costs and has otherwise affected and may continue to affect the profitability of our businesses or the value of our assets.
As changes in our business environment occur we have adjusted, continue to adjust and may further adjust our business strategies to meet these changes and we may otherwise decide to further restructure our operations or particular businesses or assets. For example, in November 2022, we announced plans to reorganize DMED to advance our DTC strategies and rationalize costs; in fiscal 2022, we announced plans to introduce an ad-supported Disney+ service, new pricing model and price increases and cost realignment; in March 2021, we announced the closure of a substantial number of our Disney-branded
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retail stores; and we have announced exploration of a number of new types of businesses. In addition, with the recent change in leadership, there may be additional adjustments to our business strategies. Our new organization and strategies are, among other things, subject to execution risk and may not produce the anticipated benefits, such as supporting our growth strategies and enhancing shareholder value. For example, notwithstanding our announced plans to rationalize costs, the costs of our DTC strategy, and associated losses, may continue to grow or be reduced more slowly than anticipated, which may impact our distribution strategy across businesses/distribution platforms, the types of content we distribute through various businesses/distribution platforms, and the timing and sequencing of content windows. Our new organization and strategies could be less successful than our previous organizational structure and strategies. In addition, external events including changing technology, changing consumer purchasing patterns, acceptance of content offerings and changes in macroeconomic conditions may impair the value of our assets. When these changes or events occur, we have incurred and may continue to incur costs to change our business strategy and have needed and may in the future need to write-down the value of assets. For example, current conditions, including COVID-19 and our business decisions, have reduced the value of some of our assets. We have impaired goodwill and intangible assets at our International Channels businesses and impaired the value of certain of our retail store assets. We may write-down other assets as our strategy evolves to account for the current business environment. We also make investments in existing or new businesses, including investments in international expansion of our business and in new business lines. In recent years, such investments have included expansion and renovation of certain of our theme parks, expansion of our fleet of cruise ships, the acquisition of TFCF and investments related to DTC offerings. Some of these investments have returns that are negative or low, the ultimate business prospects of the businesses related to these investments are uncertain, these investments may impact the profitability of our other businesses, and these risks are exacerbated by COVID-19. In any of these events, our costs may increase, we may have significant charges associated with the write-down of assets or returns on new investments may be negative or lower than prior to the change in strategy or restructuring. Even if our strategies are effective in the long term, our new offerings will generally not be profitable in the short term, growth of our new offerings is unlikely to be even quarter over quarter and we may not expand into new markets as or when anticipated. Our ability to forecast for new businesses may be impacted by our lack of experience operating in those new businesses, speed with which the competitive landscape changes, volatility beyond our control (such as the events beyond our control noted above) and our ability to obtain or develop the content and rights on which our projections are based. Accordingly, we may not achieve our forecasted outcomes.
Increased competitive pressures may reduce our revenues or increase our costs.
We face substantial competition in each of our businesses from alternative providers of the products and services we offer and from other forms of entertainment, lodging, tourism and recreational activities. This includes, among other types, competition for human resources, content and other resources we require in operating our business. For example:
Our programming and production operations compete to obtain creative, performing and business talent, sports and other programming, story properties, advertiser support and market share with other studio operators, television networks, SVOD providers and other new sources of broadband delivered content.
Our television networks and stations and DTC offerings compete for the sale of advertising time with other television and SVOD services, as well as with newspapers, magazines, billboards and radio stations. In addition, we increasingly face competition for advertising sales from internet and mobile delivered content, which offer advertising delivery technologies that are more targeted than can be achieved through traditional means.
Our television networks compete for carriage of their programming with other programming providers.
Our theme parks and resorts compete for guests with all other forms of entertainment, lodging, tourism and recreation activities.
Our content sales/licensing operations compete for customers with all other forms of entertainment.
Our consumer products business competes with other licensors and creators of IP.
Our DTC businesses compete for customers with an increasing number of competitors’ DTC offerings, all other forms of media and all other forms of entertainment, as well as for technology, creative, performing and business talent and for content.
Competition in each of these areas may further increase as a result of technological developments and changes in market structure, including consolidation of suppliers of resources and distribution channels. Increased competition may increase the cost of programming and other products and divert consumers from our creative or other products, or to other products or other forms of entertainment, which could reduce our revenue or increase our marketing costs.
Competition for the acquisition of resources can further increase the cost of producing our products and services, deprive us of talent necessary to produce high quality creative material or increase the cost of compensation for our employees. Such competition may also reduce, or limit growth in, prices for our products and services, including advertising rates and subscription fees at our media networks and DTC offerings, parks and resorts admissions and room rates and prices for consumer products from which we derive license revenues.
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Our results may be adversely affected if long-term programming or carriage contracts are not renewed on sufficiently favorable terms.
We enter into long-term contracts for both the acquisition and the distribution of media programming and products, including contracts for the acquisition of programming rights for sporting events and other programs, and contracts for the distribution of our programming to content distributors. As these contracts expire, we must renew or renegotiate the contracts, and if we are unable to renew them on acceptable terms, we may lose programming rights or distribution rights. As a result, our portfolio of programming rights and the distributors of our programming have changed and may continue to change over time. Even if these contracts are renewed, the cost of obtaining certain programming rights has increased and may continue to increase (or increase at faster rates than our historical experience) and programming distributors, facing pressures resulting from increased subscription fees and alternative distribution challenges, have demanded and may continue to demand terms (including pricing and the breadth of distribution) that reduce our revenue from distribution of programs (or increase revenue at slower rates than our historical experience). Moreover, our ability to renew these contracts on favorable terms may be affected by a number of factors, such as consolidation in the market for program distribution, the entrance of new participants in the market for distribution of content on digital platforms and the impacts of COVID-19. With respect to the acquisition of programming rights, particularly sports programming rights, the impact of these long-term contracts on our results over the term of the contracts depends on a number of factors, including the strength of advertising markets, subscription levels and rates for programming, effectiveness of marketing efforts and the size of viewer audiences. There can be no assurance that revenues from programming based on these rights will exceed the cost of the rights plus the other costs of producing and distributing the programming.
Changes in regulations applicable to our businesses may impair the profitability of our businesses.
Our broadcast networks and television stations are highly regulated, and each of our other businesses is subject to a variety of U.S. and overseas regulations. Some of these regulations include:
U.S. FCC regulation of our television and radio networks, our national programming networks and our owned television stations. See Item 1 — Business — Disney Media and Entertainment Distribution, Federal Regulation.
Federal, state and foreign privacy and data protection laws and regulations.
Regulation of the safety and supply chain of consumer products and theme park operations, including potential regulation regarding the sourcing, importation and the sale of goods.
Environmental protection regulations.
U.S. and international anti-corruption laws, sanction programs and trade restrictions, restrictions on the manner in which content is currently licensed and distributed, ownership restrictions, currency exchange controls or film or television content requirements, investment obligations or quotas.
Domestic and international labor laws, tax laws or currency controls.
New laws and regulations, as well as changes in any of these current laws and regulations or regulator activities in any of these areas, or others, may require us to spend additional amounts to comply with the regulations, or may restrict our ability to offer products and services in ways that are profitable, and create an increasingly unpredictable regulatory landscape. For example, in 2019 India implemented regulation and tariffs impacting certain bundling of channels; in 2022 the U.S. and other countries implemented a series of sanctions against Russia in response to events in Russia and Ukraine; U.S. agencies have enhanced trade restrictions and legislation is currently under consideration that would prohibit importation of goods from certain regions; U.S. state governments have become more active in passing legislation targeted at specific sectors and companies; and in many countries/regions around the world (including but not limited to the EU) regulators are requiring us to broadcast on our linear (or display on our DTC streaming services) programming produced in specific countries as well as invest specified amounts of our revenues in local content productions.
Public health and other regional, national, state and local regulations and policies are impacting our ability to operate our businesses at all or in accordance with historic practice. In addition to the government requirements that have impacted most of our businesses as a result of COVID-19, government requirements may continue to be extended and new government requirements may be imposed to address COVID-19 or future health outbreaks or pandemics.
Our operations outside the U.S. may be adversely affected by the operation of laws in those jurisdictions.
Our operations in non-U.S. jurisdictions are in many cases subject to the laws of the jurisdictions in which they operate rather than, or in addition to, U.S. law. Our risks of operating internationally have increased following the completion of the TFCF acquisition, which increased the importance of international operations to our future operations, growth and prospects. Laws in some jurisdictions differ in significant respects from those in the U.S. These differences can affect our ability to react to changes in our business, and our rights or ability to enforce rights may be different than would be expected under U.S. law. Moreover, enforcement of laws in some international jurisdictions can be inconsistent and unpredictable, which can affect both our ability to enforce our rights and to undertake activities that we believe are beneficial to our business. In addition, the business and political climate in some jurisdictions may encourage corruption, which could reduce our ability to compete
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successfully in those jurisdictions while remaining in compliance with local laws or U.S. anti-corruption laws applicable to our businesses. As a result, our ability to generate revenue and our expenses in non-U.S. jurisdictions may differ from what would be expected if U.S. law alone governed these operations.
Environmental, social and governance matters and any related reporting obligations may impact our businesses.
U.S. and international regulators, investors and other stakeholders are increasingly focused on environmental, social, and governance (ESG) matters. For example, new domestic and international laws and regulations relating to ESG matters, including human capital, diversity, sustainability, climate change and cybersecurity, are under consideration or being adopted, which may include specific, target-driven disclosure requirements or obligations. Our response will require additional investments and implementation of new practices and reporting processes, all entailing additional compliance risk. In addition, we have announced a number of ESG initiatives and goals, which will require ongoing investment, and there is no assurance that we will achieve any of these goals or that our initiatives will achieve their intended outcomes. Consumers’ perceptions of our efforts to achieve these goals often differ widely and present risks to our reputation and brands. In addition, our ability to implement some initiatives or achieve some goals is dependent on external factors. For example, our ability to meet certain sustainability goals or initiatives may depend in part on third-party collaboration, mitigation innovations and/or the availability of economically feasible solutions at scale.
Damage to our reputation or brands may negatively impact our Company across businesses and regions.
Our reputation and globally recognizable brands are integral to the success of our businesses. Because our brands engage consumers across our businesses, damage to our reputation or brands in one business may have an impact on our other businesses. Because some of our brands are globally recognized, brand damage may not be locally contained. Maintenance of the reputation of our Company and brands depends on many factors including the quality of our offerings, maintenance of trust with our customers and our ability to successfully innovate. In addition, we may pursue brand or product integration combining previously separate brands or products targeting different audiences under one brand or pursue other business initiatives inconsistent with one or more of our brands, and there is no assurance that these initiatives will be accepted by our customers and not adversely impact one or more of our brands. Significant negative claims or publicity regarding the Company or its operations, products, management, employees, practices, business partners, business decisions, social responsibility and culture may materially damage our brands or reputation, even if such claims are untrue. Damage to our reputation or brands could impact our sales, business opportunities, profitability, recruiting and valuation of our securities.
Various risks may impact the success of our DTC business.
We may not successfully execute on our DTC strategy. The success of our DTC strategy and profitability of our DTC businesses will be impacted by the success of our efforts to reorganize DMED to advance our DTC strategies, drive subscriber additions and retention based on the attractiveness of our content, manage churn in reaction to price increases, achieve the desired financial impact of the Disney+ ad supported service, pricing model and price increases, our ability to execute on cost realignment and the effects of our determinations with regard to distribution for our creative content across windows. The initial costs of marketing campaigns are generally recognized in the DMED business/distribution platform of initial exploitation, and allocation of programming and production costs is driven by distribution of the relevant content across windows. Accordingly, our distribution determinations impact the costs of each business/distribution channel, including DTC. An increasing number of competitors have entered DTC businesses. Consumers may not be willing to pay for an expanding set of DTC streaming services at increasing prices, potentially exacerbated by an economic downturn. In addition, economic downturns negatively impact the purchase of and price for advertising on our DTC streaming services. We face competition for creative talent and may not be successful in recruiting and retaining talent, or may face increased costs to do so. Our content may not successfully attract and retain subscribers in the quantities that we expect. Our content is subject to cost pressures and may cost more than we expect. We may not successfully manage our costs to meet our profitability goals. Government regulation, including revised foreign content and ownership regulations, may impact the implementation of our DTC business plans. The highly competitive environment in which we operate puts pricing pressure on our DTC offerings and may require us to lower our prices or not take price increases to attract or retain customers or experience higher churn rates. These and other risks may impact the profitability and success of our DTC businesses.
Potential credit ratings actions, increases in interest rates, or volatility in the U.S. and global financial markets could impede access to, or increase the cost of, financing our operations and investments.
Our borrowing costs have been, and can be affected by short- and long-term debt ratings assigned by independent ratings agencies that are based, in part, on the Company’s performance as measured by credit metrics such as leverage and interest coverage ratios. As a result of the financial impact of COVID-19 on our businesses, Standard and Poor’s downgraded our long-term debt ratings by two notches to BBB+ and downgraded our short-term debt ratings by one notch to A-2. Fitch downgraded our long- and short-term credit ratings by one notch to A- and F2, respectively. As of October 1, 2022 Moody’s Investors Service’s long- and short-term debt ratings for the Company were A2 and P-1 (Stable), respectively, Standard and Poor’s long- and short-term debt ratings for the Company were BBB+ and A-2 (Positive), respectively, and Fitch’s long- and short-term debt ratings for the Company were A- and F2 (Stable), respectively. These ratings actions have increased, and any potential future
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downgrades could further increase, our cost of borrowing and/or make it more difficult for us to obtain financing on acceptable terms.
In addition, increases in interest rates have increased our cost of borrowing and volatility in U.S. and global financial markets could impact our access to, or further increase the cost of, financing. Past disruptions in the U.S. and global credit and equity markets made it more difficult for many businesses to obtain financing on acceptable terms. These conditions tended to increase the cost of borrowing and if they recur, our cost of borrowing could increase and it may be more difficult to obtain financing for our operations or investments.
Labor disputes may disrupt our operations and adversely affect the profitability of any of our businesses.
A significant number of employees in various parts of our businesses, including employees of our theme parks and writers, directors, actors, and production personnel for our productions are covered by collective bargaining agreements. In addition, some of our employees outside the U.S. are represented by works councils, trade unions or other employee associations. Further, the employees of licensees who manufacture and retailers who sell our consumer products, and employees of providers of programming content (such as sports leagues) may be covered by labor agreements with their employers. In general, a labor dispute involving our employees or the employees of our licensees or retailers who sell our consumer products or providers of programming content may disrupt our operations and reduce our revenues. Resolution of disputes or negotiation of rate increases may increase our costs.
The seasonality of certain of our businesses and timing of certain of our product offerings could exacerbate negative impacts on our operations.
Each of our businesses is normally subject to seasonal variations and variations in connection with the timing of our product offerings, including as follows:
Revenues at DPEP fluctuate with changes in theme park attendance and resort occupancy resulting from the seasonal nature of vacation travel and leisure activities and seasonal consumer purchasing behavior, which generally results in increased revenues during the Company’s first and fourth fiscal quarters. Peak attendance and resort occupancy generally occur during the summer months when school vacations occur and during early winter and spring holiday periods. In addition, licensing revenues fluctuate with the timing and performance of our theatrical releases and cable programming broadcasts, many of which have been delayed, canceled or modified.
Revenues from television networks and stations are subject to seasonal advertising patterns and changes in viewership levels. In general, advertising revenues are somewhat higher during the fall and somewhat lower during the summer months.
Revenues from content sales/licensing fluctuate due to the timing of content releases across various distribution markets. Release dates and methods are determined by a number of factors, including, among others, competition, the timing of vacation and holiday periods and impacts of COVID-19 to various distribution markets.
DTC revenues fluctuate based on changes in the number of subscribers and subscriber fee or revenue mix; viewership levels on our digital platforms; and the demand for sports and film and television content. Each of these may depend on the availability of content, which varies from time to time throughout the year based on, among other things, sports seasons, content production schedules and league shut downs. Because our DTC business is relatively new, we have limited data on which to base our understanding of DTC seasonality.
Accordingly, negative impacts on our business occurring during a time of typical high seasonal demand such as our park closures due to COVID-19 restrictions or hurricane damage during the summer travel season or other high seasons, could have a disproportionate effect on the results of that business for the year.
Costs of employee health, welfare and pension benefits, including postretirement medical benefits for some employees and retirees, may reduce our profitability.
With approximately 220,000 employees, our profitability is substantially affected by costs of our health, welfare and pension benefits, including the costs of medical benefits for current employees and the costs of postretirement medical benefits for some current employees and retirees. We may experience significant increases in these costs as a result of macroeconomic factors, which are beyond our control, including increases in the cost of health care. Impacts of COVID-19 or future health outbreaks and pandemics may lead to an increase in the cost of medical insurance and expenses. In addition, changes in investment returns and discount rates used to calculate pension and postretirement medical expense and related assets and liabilities can be volatile and may have an unfavorable impact on our costs in some years. These macroeconomic factors as well as a decline in the fair value of pension and postretirement medical plan assets may put upward pressure on the cost of providing pension and postretirement medical benefits and may increase future funding requirements. There can be no assurance that we will succeed in limiting cost increases, and continued upward pressure could reduce the profitability of our businesses.
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ACQUISITION RISKS
Our consolidated indebtedness increased substantially following completion of the TFCF acquisition and further increased as a result of the impacts of COVID-19. This increased level of indebtedness could adversely affect us, including by decreasing our business flexibility.
As a result of the TFCF acquisition in fiscal 2019, the Company’s net indebtedness increased substantially. The increased indebtedness could have the effect of, among other things, reducing our financial flexibility and reducing our flexibility to respond to changing business and economic conditions, such as those presented by COVID-19, among others. Increased levels of indebtedness could also reduce funds available for investments, capital expenditures, share repurchases and dividends, and other activities and may create competitive disadvantages for us relative to other companies with lower debt levels. Our leverage ratios have increased as the result of COVID-19’s impact on financial performance, which caused certain of the credit ratings agencies to downgrade their assessment of our credit ratings, and are expected to remain elevated at least in the near term. Our debt ratings may be further downgraded, which may negatively impact our cost of borrowings.
The TFCF acquisition and integration and Hulu put/call may result in additional costs and expenses.
We have incurred and may continue to incur significant costs, expenses and fees for professional services and other transaction and financing costs in connection with the TFCF acquisition and integration and the Hulu put/call agreement with NBCU. We may also incur accounting and other costs that were not anticipated at the time of the TFCF acquisition, including costs for which we have established reserves or which may lead to reserves in the future. Such costs, including the Company’s obligations under the Hulu put/call agreement with NBCU, could negatively impact the Company’s free cash flow and result in the Company incurring additional indebtedness.
GENERAL RISKS
The price of our common stock has been, and may continue to be, volatile.
The price of our common stock has experienced substantial volatility and may continue to be volatile. Various factors have impacted, and may continue to impact, the price of our common stock, including, among others, changes in management; variations in our operating results; variations between our actual results and expectations of securities analysts; changes in our estimates, guidance or business plans; changes in financial estimates and recommendations by securities analysts; the activities, operating results or stock price of our competitors or other industry participants in the industries in which we operate; the announcement or completion of significant transactions by us or a competitor; events affecting the stock market generally; and the economic and political conditions in the U.S. and internationally, as well as other factors described in this Item 1A. Some of these factors may adversely impact the price of our common stock, regardless of our operating performance. Further, volatility in the price of our common stock may negatively impact one or more of our businesses, including by increasing cash compensation or stock awards for our employees who participate in our stock incentive programs or limiting our financing options for acquisitions and other business expansion.
The Company’s amended and restated bylaws provide to the fullest extent permitted by law that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the exclusive forum for certain legal actions between the Company and its stockholders, which could increase costs to bring a claim, discourage claims or limit the ability of the Company’s stockholders to bring a claim in a judicial forum viewed by the stockholders as more favorable for disputes with the Company or the Company’s directors, officers or other employees.
The Company’s amended and restated bylaws provide to the fullest extent permitted by law that unless the Company consents in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the sole and exclusive forum for any (i) derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of the Company, (ii) any action or proceeding asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any current or former director, officer or stockholder of the Company to the Company or the Company’s stockholders, (iii) any action or proceeding asserting a claim arising pursuant to, or seeking to enforce any right, obligation or remedy under, any provision of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware (the “DGCL”), the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws (as each may be amended from time to time), (iv) any action or proceeding as to which the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware confers jurisdiction on the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware, (v) or any action or proceeding asserting a claim governed by the internal affairs doctrine. The choice of forum provision may increase costs to bring a claim, discourage claims or limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with the Company or the Company’s directors, officers or other employees, which may discourage such lawsuits against the Company or the Company’s directors, officers and other employees. Alternatively, if a court were to find the choice of forum provision contained in the Company’s amended and restated bylaws to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, the Company may incur additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions. The exclusive forum provision in the Company’s amended and restated bylaws will not preclude or contract the scope of exclusive federal or concurrent jurisdiction for actions brought under the federal securities laws including the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the respective rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.
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ITEM 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
The Company has received no written comments regarding its periodic or current reports from the staff of the SEC that were issued 180 days or more preceding the end of fiscal 2022 that remain unresolved.
ITEM 2. Properties
Our parks and resorts locations and other properties of the Company and its subsidiaries are described in Item 1 under the caption Disney Parks, Experiences and Products. Film and television library properties and television stations owned by the Company are described in Item 1 under the caption Disney Media and Entertainment Distribution.
The Company and its subsidiaries own and lease properties throughout the world. In addition to the properties noted above, the table below provides a brief description of other significant properties and the related business segment.
LocationProperty /
Approximate Size
UseBusiness Segment
Burbank, CA & surrounding cities(1)
Land (201 acres) & Buildings (4,695,000 ft2)
Owned Office/Production/Warehouse (includes 240,000 ft2 sublet to third-party tenants)
Corporate/DMED/DPEP
Burbank, CA & surrounding cities(1)
Buildings (1,821,000 ft2)
Leased Office/WarehouseCorporate/DMED/DPEP
Los Angeles, CA
Land (22 acres) & Buildings (600,000 ft2)
Owned Office/Production/Technical Warehouse Corporate/DMED
Los Angeles, CA
Buildings (3,051,000 ft2)
Leased Office/Production/Technical/TheaterCorporate/DMED/DPEP
New York, NY
Buildings (51,000 ft2)
Owned OfficeCorporate/DMED
New York, NY
Land (2 acres) & Buildings (2,186,000 ft2)
Leased Office/Production/Theater/Warehouse (includes 679,000 ft2 sublet to third-party tenants)
Corporate/DMED/DPEP
Bristol, CT
Land (117 acres) & Buildings (1,174,000 ft2)
Owned Office/Production/Technical DMED
Bristol, CT
Buildings (512,000 ft2)
Leased Office/Warehouse/Technical DMED
Emeryville, CA
Land (20 acres) & Buildings (430,000 ft2)
Owned Office/Production/TechnicalDMED
Emeryville, CA
Buildings (80,000 ft2)
Leased Office/StorageDMED
San Francisco, CA
Buildings (638,000 ft2)
Leased Office/Production/Technical/Theater (includes 47,000 ft2 sublet to third-party tenants)
Corporate/DMED
USA & CanadaLand and Buildings (Multiple sites and sizes)Owned and Leased Office/ Production/Transmitter/Theaters/WarehouseCorporate/DMED/DPEP
Europe, Asia, Australia & Latin America
Buildings (Multiple sites and sizes)Leased Office/Warehouse/Retail/ResidentialDMED/DPEP
(1)Surrounding cities include Glendale, CA, North Hollywood, CA and Sun Valley, CA
ITEM 3. Legal Proceedings
As disclosed in Note 14 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, the Company is engaged in certain legal matters, and the disclosure set forth in Note 14 relating to certain legal matters is incorporated herein by reference.
The Company, together with, in some instances, certain of its directors and officers, is a defendant in various other legal actions involving copyright, breach of contract and various other claims incident to the conduct of its businesses. Management does not expect the Company to suffer any material liability by reason of these actions.
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ITEM 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.
Information About Our Executive Officers
The executive officers of the Company are elected each year at the organizational meeting of the Board of Directors, which follows the annual meeting of the shareholders, and at other Board of Directors meetings, as appropriate. Each of the executive officers has been employed by the Company in the position or positions indicated in the list and pertinent notes below.
As of November 20, 2022, the following individuals have served as executive officers since the beginning of our last fiscal year:
NameAgeTitleExecutive
Officer Since
Robert A. Iger71
Chief Executive Officer(1)
11/20/2022
Robert A. Chapek63
Chief Executive Officer(2)
2020 - 11/20/2022
Christine M. McCarthy67
Senior Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer(3)
2005
Horacio E. Gutierrez57
Senior Executive Vice President and General Counsel(4)
2022
Paul J. Richardson57
Senior Executive Vice President and Chief Human Resources Officer(5)
2021
Kristina K. Schake52
Senior Executive Vice President and Chief Communications Officer(6)
2022
(1)Mr. Iger was appointed Chief Executive Officer effective November 20, 2022. He previously served as Executive Chairman of the Company from February 2020 through December 2021 and as Chief Executive Officer of the Company from September 2005 to February 2020.
(2)Mr. Chapek was appointed Chief Executive Officer effective February 24, 2020 and served as Chief Executive Officer until November 20, 2022. He served as Chairman of Disney Parks, Experiences and Products since the segment’s creation in 2018, and prior to that was the Chairman of Walt Disney Parks and Resorts from 2015.
(3)Ms. McCarthy was appointed Senior Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer effective June 30, 2015. She was previously Executive Vice President, Corporate Real Estate, Alliances and Treasurer of the Company from 2000 to 2015.
(4)Mr. Gutierrez was appointed Senior Executive Vice President and General Counsel effective February 1, 2022. Prior to joining the Company, he served as Head of Global Affairs and Chief Legal Officer for Spotify Technology S.A. (Spotify) from November 2019 to January 2022, where he led a global, multi-disciplinary team of business, corporate communications and public affairs, government relations, licensing, operations and legal professionals responsible for the company’s work in areas including industry relations, content partnerships, public policy, and trust & safety. He was previously Spotify’s General Counsel - Vice President, Business & Legal Affairs from April 2016 to November 2019.
(5)Mr. Richardson was appointed Senior Executive Vice President and Chief Human Resources Officer effective July 1, 2021. He was previously Senior Vice President of Human Resources at ESPN from 2007.
(6)Ms. Schake was appointed Senior Executive Vice President and Chief Communications Officer effective June 29, 2022. Previously, she served as Executive Vice President, Global Communications from April 2022. Prior to joining the Company, she was appointed by the President of the United States as Counselor for Strategic Communications to the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, leading a nationwide public education campaign from March 2021 to December 2021. Prior to that, she served as Global Communications Director for Instagram, a subsidiary of Meta Platforms, Inc., from March 2017 to March 2019, where she oversaw the communications teams in North America, Latin America, Europe, and Asia.

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PART II
ITEM 5. Market for the Company’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
The Company’s common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol “DIS”.
The Company paid a dividend of $1.6 billion in fiscal year 2020 related to operations in the second half of fiscal 2019. The Company did not pay a dividend with respect to fiscal year 2020 nor fiscal year 2021 operations and has not declared or paid a dividend with respect to fiscal 2022 operations.
As of October 1, 2022, the approximate number of common shareholders of record was 793,000.
The following table provides information about Company purchases of equity securities that are registered by the Company pursuant to Section 12 of the Exchange Act during the quarter ended October 1, 2022:
Period
Total Number
of Shares
Purchased(1)
Weighted
Average Price
Paid per Share
Total Number 
of Shares 
Purchased
as Part of 
Publicly
Announced 
Plans or 
Programs
Maximum 
Number of 
Shares that 
May Yet Be 
Purchased
Under the
Plans or
Programs(2)
July 3, 2022 – July 31, 202230,343$100.81n/a
August 1, 2022 – August 31, 202222,440119.99n/a
September 1, 2022 – October 1, 202223,058107.38n/a
Total75,841108.48n/a
(1)75,841 shares were purchased on the open market to provide shares to participants in the Walt Disney Investment Plan. These purchases were not made pursuant to a publicly announced repurchase plan or program.
(2)Not applicable as the Company no longer has a stock repurchase plan or program.
ITEM 6. [Reserved]
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ITEM 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
CONSOLIDATED RESULTS
(in millions, except per share data)
 20222021% Change
Better
(Worse)
Revenues:
Services$74,200  $61,768  20  %
Products8,522  5,650  51  %
Total revenues82,722  67,418  23  %
Costs and expenses:
Cost of services (exclusive of depreciation and amortization)(48,962) (41,129) (19) %
Cost of products (exclusive of depreciation and amortization)(5,439) (4,002) (36) %
Selling, general, administrative and other(16,388) (13,517) (21) %
Depreciation and amortization(5,163) (5,111) (1) %
Total costs and expenses(75,952) (63,759) (19) %
Restructuring and impairment charges(237) (654) 64  %
Other income (expense), net(667) 201  nm
Interest expense, net(1,397) (1,406) 1  %
Equity in the income of investees, net816  761  7  %
Income from continuing operations before income taxes5,285  2,561  >100  %
Income taxes from continuing operations(1,732) (25) >(100) %
Net income from continuing operations3,553  2,536  40  %
Loss from discontinued operations, net of income tax benefit of $14 and $9, respectively(48) (29) (66) %
Net income3,505  2,507  40  %
Net income from continuing operations attributable to noncontrolling and redeemable noncontrolling interests(360) (512) 30  %
Net income attributable to Disney$3,145  $1,995  58  %
Earnings (loss) per share attributable to Disney:
Diluted(1)
Continuing operations$1.75  $1.11  58  %
Discontinued operations(0.03)(0.02) (50) %
$1.72   $1.09  58  %
Basic(1)
Continuing operations$1.75 $1.11  58  %
Discontinued operations(0.03)(0.02) (50) %
$1.73 $1.10  57  %
Weighted average number of common and common equivalent shares outstanding:
Diluted1,8271,828
Basic1,8221,816
(1)Total may not equal the sum of the column due to rounding.

31

Organization of Information
Management’s Discussion and Analysis provides a narrative on the Company’s financial performance and condition that should be read in conjunction with the accompanying financial statements. It includes the following sections:
Significant Developments
Consolidated Results and Non-Segment Items
Business Segment Results
Corporate and Unallocated Shared Expenses
Restructuring Activities
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Supplemental Guarantor Financial Information
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
In Item 7, we discuss fiscal 2022 and 2021 results and comparisons of fiscal 2022 results to fiscal 2021 results. Discussions of fiscal 2020 results and comparisons of fiscal 2021 results to fiscal 2020 results can be found in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in Part II, Item 7 of the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended October 2, 2021.
SIGNIFICANT DEVELOPMENTS
Leadership Change and Pending Restructuring
As previously announced, on November 20, 2022, Robert A. Iger returned to the Company as Chief Executive Officer (“CEO”) and a director. Mr. Iger previously spent more than four decades at the Company, including 15 years as CEO. In announcing Mr. Iger’s appointment, the Company noted he has agreed to serve as CEO for two years, with a mandate from the Company’s Board of Directors “to set the strategic direction for renewed growth and to work closely with the Board in developing a successor to lead the Company at the completion of his term.” Mr. Iger succeeded Robert A. Chapek, who had served as CEO since 2020.
As contemplated by the leadership change announcement, we anticipate that within the coming months Mr. Iger will initiate organizational and operating changes within the Company to address the Board’s goals. While the plans are in early stages, changes in our structure and operations, including within DMED (and including possibly our distribution approach and the businesses/distribution platforms selected for the initial distribution of content), can be expected. The restructuring and change in business strategy, once determined, could result in impairment charges.
COVID-19 Pandemic
Since early 2020, the world has been, and continues to be, impacted by COVID-19 and its variants. COVID-19 and measures to prevent its spread have impacted our segments in a number of ways, most significantly at DPEP where our theme parks and resorts were closed and cruise ship sailings and guided tours were suspended. In addition, at DMED we delayed, or in some cases, shortened or cancelled theatrical releases and experienced disruptions in the production and availability of content. Operations have resumed at various points since May 2020, with certain theme park and resort operations and film and television productions resuming by the end of fiscal 2020 and throughout fiscal 2021. Although operations resumed, many of our businesses continue to experience impacts from COVID-19, such as incremental health and safety measures and related increased expenses, capacity restrictions and closures (including at some of our international parks and in theaters in certain markets), and disruption of content production activities.
The impact of COVID-19 related disruptions on our financial and operational results will be dictated by the currently unknowable duration and severity of COVID-19 and its variants, and among other things, governmental actions imposed in response to COVID-19 and individuals’ and companies’ risk tolerance regarding health matters going forward. We have incurred and will continue to incur additional costs to address government regulations and the safety of our employees, guests and talent.
Additionally, see Part I., Item 1A. Risk Factors - The adverse impact of COVID-19 on our businesses will continue for an unknown length of time and may continue to impact certain of our key sources of revenue.
CONSOLIDATED RESULTS AND NON-SEGMENT ITEMS
Revenues for fiscal 2022 increased 23%, or $15.3 billion, to $82.7 billion; net income attributable to Disney increased $1.2 billion, to income of $3.1 billion; and diluted earnings per share from continuing operations attributable to Disney increased to income of $1.75 compared to income of $1.11 in the prior year. The EPS increase was due to higher segment
32

operating results, partially offset by higher income tax expense in the current year compared to the prior year. Higher segment operating results reflecting growth at DPEP, partially offset by lower operating results at DMED.
Revenues
Service revenues for fiscal 2022 increased 20%, or $12.4 billion, to $74.2 billion, due to increased revenues at our theme parks and resorts, higher DTC subscription revenue and, to a lesser extent, higher theatrical distribution and advertising revenue. These increases were partially offset by a reduction in revenue for amounts to early terminate certain license agreements with a customer for film and television content, which was delivered in previous years, in order for the Company to use the content primarily on our DTC services (Content License Early Termination). The increase at theme parks and resorts was due to higher volumes, which generally reflected the impact of operating with capacity restrictions in the prior year as a result of COVID-19, and higher average per capita ticket revenue. The increase in DTC subscription revenue was due to subscriber growth and higher average rates.
Product revenues for fiscal 2022 increased 51%, or $2.9 billion, to $8.5 billion, due to higher sales volumes of merchandise, food and beverage at our theme parks and resorts.
Costs and expenses
Cost of services for fiscal 2022 increased 19%, or $7.8 billion, to $49.0 billion, due to higher programming and production costs, increased volumes at our theme parks and resorts and higher technical support costs at Direct-to-Consumer. The increase in programming and production costs was due to higher costs at Direct-to-Consumer, increased sports programming costs and an increase in production cost amortization due to theatrical revenue growth. These increases were partially offset by lower programming and production costs as a result of international channel closures.
Cost of products for fiscal 2022 increased 36%, or $1.4 billion, to $5.4 billion, due to higher merchandise, food and beverage sales at our theme parks and resorts.
Selling, general, administrative and other costs for fiscal 2022 increased 21%, or $2.9 billion, to $16.4 billion, primarily due to higher marketing costs at our DTC and, to a lesser extent, theatrical distribution and parks and experiences businesses.
Restructuring and Impairment Charges
Restructuring and impairment charges in fiscal 2022 were $0.2 billion primarily due to the impairment of an intangible and other assets related to our businesses in Russia. We may incur additional charges to exit these businesses, which are not anticipated to be material.
Restructuring and impairment charges in fiscal 2021 were $0.7 billion due to $0.4 billion of asset impairments and severance costs related to the shut-down of an animation studio and the closure of a substantial number of Disney-branded retail stores in North America and Europe and $0.3 billion of severance and other costs in connection with the integration of TFCF and workforce reductions at DPEP.
Other Income (expense), net
(in millions)20222021% Change
Better (Worse)
fuboTV gain$   $186   (100) %
German FTA gain   126   (100) %
DraftKings loss(663)  (111)  >(100) %
Other, net(4)  —   nm
Other income (expense), net$(667)  $201   nm
In fiscal 2022, the Company recognized a non-cash loss of $663 million from the adjustment of its investment in DraftKings Inc. (DraftKings) to fair value (DraftKings loss).
In fiscal 2021, the Company recognized a $186 million gain from the sale of our investment in fuboTV Inc. (fuboTV gain), a $126 million gain on the sale of our 50% interest in a German free-to-air (FTA) television network (German FTA gain) and a $111 million DraftKings loss.
33

Interest Expense, net
(in millions)20222021% Change
Better (Worse)
Interest expense$(1,549)  $(1,546)  —  %
Interest income, investment income and other152 140 9  %
Interest expense, net$(1,397)  $(1,406)  1  %
Interest expense was comparable to the prior year as higher average interest rates were offset by lower average debt balances.
The increase in interest income, investment income and other was due to a favorable comparison of pension and postretirement benefit costs, other than service cost, which was a net benefit in the current year and an expense in the prior year. This increase was partially offset by investment losses in the current year compared to investment gains in the prior year.
Equity in the Income of Investees
Equity in the income of investees increased $55 million to $816 million in the current year due to higher income from A+E Television Networks (A+E) and the comparison to investment impairments in the prior year.
Effective Income Tax Rate
20222021
Income from continuing operations before income taxes$5,285      $2,561     
Income tax expense on continuing operations1,732      25     
Effective income tax rate - continuing operations32.8%1.0%