ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 18 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the Fiscal Year Ended
December 31, 2019
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from to
Commission file number 001-38142
DELEK US HOLDINGS, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
7102 Commerce Way
(Address of principal executive offices)
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
(Former name, former address and former fiscal year, if changed since last report)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.01
New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes☑ No ☐
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ☐No☑
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes☑ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (Section 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes☑ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes ☐ No ☑
The aggregate market value of the common stock held by non-affiliates as of June 30, 2019 was approximately $3,646,155,246, based upon the closing sale price of the registrant's common stock on the New York Stock Exchange on that date. For purposes of this calculation only, all directors and officers subject to Section 16(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 are deemed to be affiliates.
At February 21, 2020, there were 73,414,200 shares of the registrant's common stock, $.01 par value, outstanding (excluding securities held by, or for the account of, the Company or its subsidiaries).
Documents incorporated by reference
Portions of the registrant's definitive Proxy Statement to be delivered to stockholders in connection with the 2020 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, which will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after December 31, 2019, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Delek US Holdings, Inc. is a registrant pursuant to the Securities Act of 1933 and is listed on the New York Stock Exchange ("NYSE") under the ticker symbol "DK." Effective July 1, 2017 (the "Effective Time"), we acquired the outstanding common stock of Alon USA Energy, Inc. ("Alon") (the "Delek/Alon Merger", as further discussed in Note 3 of the consolidated financial statements included in Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, of this Annual Report on Form 10-K), resulting in a new post-combination consolidated registrant renamed as Delek US Holdings, Inc. (“New Delek”), with Alon and the previous Delek US Holdings, Inc. (“Old Delek”) surviving as wholly-owned subsidiaries. New Delek is the successor issuer to Old Delek and Alon pursuant to Rule 12g-3(c) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the "Exchange Act").
Unless otherwise noted or the context requires otherwise, the disclosures and financial information included in this report for the periods prior to July 1, 2017 reflect that of Old Delek, and the disclosures and financial information included in this report for the periods beginning July 1, 2017 reflect that of New Delek. The terms "we," "our," "us," "Delek" and the "Company" are used in this report to refer to Old Delek and its consolidated subsidiaries for the periods prior to July 1, 2017, and New Delek and its consolidated subsidiaries for the periods on or after July 1, 2017, unless otherwise noted. Our business consists of three operating segments: refining, logistics and retail.
As of December 31, 2019, we owned a 61.4% limited partner interest in Delek Logistics Partners, LP ("Delek Logistics"), a publicly-traded master limited partnership that we formed in April 2012, and a 94.6% interest in Delek Logistics GP, LLC ("Logistics GP"), which owns the entire 2.0% general partner interest in Delek Logistics. By virtue of the Delek/Alon Merger, we acquired an 81.6% limited partner interest in Alon USA Partners, LP (the "Alon Partnership"), then a publicly-traded limited partnership, as well as 100% interest in Alon USA Partners GP, LLC (the “Alon General Partner”). The Alon General Partner owns 100% of the general partner interest in the Alon Partnership, which is a non-economic interest. On February 7, 2018, we acquired the remaining outstanding units in the Alon Partnership.
Statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, other than purely historical information, including statements regarding our plans, strategies, objectives, beliefs, expectations and intentions are forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements generally are identified by the words "may," "will," "should," "could," "would," "predicts," "intends," "believes," "expects," "plans," "scheduled," "goal," "anticipates," "estimates" and similar expressions. Forward-looking statements are based on current expectations and assumptions that are subject to risks and uncertainties, including those discussed below and in Item 1A, Risk Factors, which may cause actual results to differ materially from the forward-looking statements. See also "Forward-Looking Statements" included in Item 7, Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
See the “Glossary of Terms” beginning on page 4 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for definitions of certain business and industry terms used herein.
Our Internet website address is www.DelekUS.com. Information contained on our website is not part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Our reports, proxy and information statements, and any amendments to such documents are filed electronically with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) and are available on our Internet website in the “Investor Relations” section, free of charge, as soon as reasonably practicable after we file or furnish such material to the SEC. We also post our Governance Guidelines, Code of Business Conduct & Ethics and the charters of our Board of Directors’ committees in the “Corporate Governance” section of our website, accessible by navigating to the “About Us” section on our Internet website. We will provide any of these documents to any stockholder that makes a written request to the Secretary, Delek US Holdings, Inc., 7102 Commerce Way, Brentwood, Tennessee 37027.
Glossary of Terms
Glossary of Terms
The following are definitions of certain industry terms used in this Annual Report on Form 10-K:
Alkylation Unit- A refinery unit utilizing an acid catalyst to combine smaller hydrocarbon molecules to form larger molecules in the gasoline boiling range to produce a high octane gasoline blendstock, which is referred to as alkylate.
Barrel - A unit of volumetric measurement equivalent to 42 U.S. gallons.
Biodiesel - A renewable fuel produced from vegetable oils or animal fats that can be blended with petroleum-derived diesel to produce biodiesel blends for use in diesel engines. Pure biodiesel is referred to as B100, whereas blends of biodiesel are referenced by how much biodiesel is in the blend (e.g., a B5 blend contains five volume percent biodiesel and 95 volume percent ULSD).
Blendstocks- Various products or intermediate streams that are combined with other components of similar type and distillation range to produce finished gasoline, diesel fuel or other refined products. Blendstocks may include natural gasoline, hydrotreated Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit gasoline, alkylate, ethanol, reformate, butane, diesel, biodiesel, kerosene, light cycle oil or slurry, among others.
Bpd/bpd - Barrels per calendar day.
Brent Crude (Brent) - A light, sweet crude oil, though not as light as WTI. Brent is the leading global price benchmark for Atlantic basin crude oil.
CBOB - Motor gasoline blending components intended for blending with oxygenates, such as ethanol, to produce finished conventional motor gasoline.
CERCLA - Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act.
Colonial Pipeline - A pipeline owned and operated by the Colonial Pipeline Company that originates near Houston, Texas and terminates near New York, New York, connecting the U.S. refinery region of the Gulf Coast with customers throughout the southern and eastern United States.
Complexity Index- A measure of secondary conversion capacity of a refinery relative to its primary distillation capacity used to quantify and rank the complexity of various refineries. Generally, more complex refineries have a higher index number.
Contribution margin - Net revenues less costs of materials and other and operating expenses, excluding depreciation and amortization.
Crack spread - The crack spread is a measure of the difference between market prices for crude oil and refined products and is commonly used proxy within the industry to estimate or identify trends in refining margins.
Crude Distillation Capacity, Nameplate Capacity or Production Capacity - The maximum sustainable capacity for a refinery or process unit for a given feedstock quality and severity level, measured in barrels per day.
Cushing - Cushing, Oklahoma.
Delayed Coking Unit (Coker) - A refinery unit that processes ("cracks") heavy oils, such as the bottom cuts of crude oil from the crude or vacuum units, to produce blendstocks for light transportation fuels or feedstocks for other units and petroleum coke.
Direct operating expenses - Operating expenses attributed to the respective segment.
EISA - Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007.
Enterprise Pipeline System - A major product pipeline transport system that reaches from the Gulf Coast into the northeastern United States.
EPA - The Environmental Protection Agency.
Ethanol - An oxygenated blendstock that is blended with sub-grade (CBOB) or conventional gasoline to produce a finished gasoline.
E-10 - A 90% gasoline-10% ethanol blend.
E-15- An 85% gasoline-15% ethanol blend.
E-85- A blend of gasoline and 70%-85% ethanol.
Feedstocks - Crude oil and petroleum products used as inputs in refining processes.
Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit or FCC Unit- A refinery unit that uses fluidized catalyst at high temperatures to crack large hydrocarbon molecules into smaller, higher-valued molecules (LPG, gasoline, LCO, etc.).
Gulf Coast 2-1-1 crack spread - A crack spread, expressed in dollars per barrel, reflecting the approximate gross margin resulting from processing, or "cracking", one barrel of crude oil into one-half barrel of gasoline and one-half barrel of high sulfur diesel, utilizing the market prices of LLS crude oil, Gulf Coast Pipeline conventional gasoline and Gulf Coast Pipeline No. 2 Heating Oil.
Glossary of Terms
Gulf Coast 3-2-1 crack spread - A crack spread, expressed in dollars per barrel, reflecting the approximate gross margin resulting from processing, or "cracking", one barrel of crude oil into two-thirds barrel of gasoline and one-third barrel of ultra-low sulfur diesel, utilizing the market prices of WTI crude oil, Gulf Coast Pipeline conventional gasoline and Gulf Coast Pipeline ultra-low sulfur diesel.
Gulf Coast 5-3-2 crack spread - A crack spread, expressed in dollars per barrel, reflecting the approximate gross margin resulting from processing, or "cracking", one barrel of crude oil into three-fifths barrel of gasoline and two-fifths barrel of high sulfur diesel, utilizing the market prices of WTI crude oil, Gulf Coast Pipeline CBOB and Gulf Coast Pipeline No. 2 Heating Oil.
Gulf Coast Pipeline CBOB - A grade of gasoline blendstock that must be blended with 10% biofuels in order to be marketed as Regular Unleaded at retail locations.
Gulf Coast Pipeline No. 2 Heating Oil - A petroleum distillate that can be used as either a diesel fuel or a fuel oil. This is the standard by which other Gulf Coast distillate products (such as ultra-low sulfur diesel) are priced.
Gulf Coast Region - Commonly referred to as PADD III, includes the states of Texas, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and New Mexico.
HLS- Heavy Louisiana Sweet crude oil; typical API gravity of 33° and sulfur content of 0.35%.
Hydrotreating Unit - A refinery unit that removes sulfur and other contaminants from hydrocarbons at high temperatures and moderate to high pressure in the presence of catalysts and hydrogen. When used to process fuels, this unit reduces the sulfur dioxide emissions from these fuels.
Isomerization Unit -A refinery unit altering the arrangement of a molecule in the presence of a catalyst and hydrogen to produce a more valuable molecule, typically used to increase the octane of gasoline blendstocks.
Jobbers- Retail stations owned by third parties that sell products purchased from or through us.
Light/Medium/Heavy Crude Oil - Terms used to describe the relative densities of crude oil, normally represented by their API gravities. Light crude oils (those having relatively high API gravities) may be refined into a greater number of valuable products and are typically more expensive than a heavier crude oil.
LLS- Louisiana Light Sweet crude oil; typical API gravity of 38° and sulfur content of 0.34%.
LPG- Liquefied petroleum gas.
LSR - Light straight run naphtha.
Mid-Continent Region - Commonly referred to as PADD II, includes the states of North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Wisconsin, Illinois, Michigan, Indiana, Ohio, Kentucky and Tennessee.
Midland - Midland, Texas.
MMBTU - One Million British Thermal Units.
MSCF/d - Abbreviation for a thousand standard cubic feet per day, a common measure for volume of natural gas.
Naphtha - A hydrocarbon fraction that is used as a gasoline blending component, a feedstock for reforming and as a petrochemical feedstock.
New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) - A commodities futures exchange.
NGL- Natural gas liquids.
OSHA - The Occupational Safety and Health Administration.
Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD)- Any of five regions in the United States as set forth by the Department of Energy and used throughout the oil industry for geographic reference. Our refineries operate in PADD III, commonly referred to as the Gulf Coast Region.
Petroleum Coke- A coal-like substance produced as a byproduct during the Delayed Coking refining process.
Per barrel of sales - Calculated by dividing the applicable income statement line item (operating margin or operating expenses) by the total barrels sold during the period.
PPB - Parts per billion.
PPM - Parts per million.
RCRA - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.
Refining margin, refined product margin - Refining margin or refined product margin is measured as the difference between net refining revenues and total refining cost of materials and other and is used as a metric to assess a refinery's product margins against market crack spread trends.
Glossary of Terms
Reforming Unit - A refinery unit that uses high temperature, moderate pressure and catalyst to create petrochemical feedstocks, high octane gasoline blendstocks and hydrogen.
Renewable Fuels Standard 2 (RFS-2)- An EPA regulation promulgated pursuant to the EISA, which requires most refineries to blend increasing amounts of renewable fuels (including biodiesel and ethanol) with refined products.
Renewable Identification Number (RIN) - A renewable fuel credit used to satisfy requirements for blending renewable fuels under RFS-2.
Roofing flux - An asphalt-like product used to make roofing shingles for the housing industry.
Straight run - Product produced off of the crude or vacuum unit and not further processed.
Sweet/Sour crude oil - Terms used to describe the relative sulfur content of crude oil. Sweet crude oil is relatively low in sulfur content; sour crude oil is relatively high in sulfur content. Sweet crude oil requires less processing to remove sulfur and is typically more expensive than sour crude oil.
Throughput - The quantity of crude oil and feedstocks processed through a refinery or a refinery unit.
Turnaround- A periodic shutdown of refinery process units to perform routine maintenance to restore the operation of the equipment to its former level of performance. Turnaround activities normally include cleaning, inspection, refurbishment, and repair and replacement of equipment and piping. It is also common to use turnaround periods to change catalysts or to implement capital project improvements.
Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD)- Diesel fuel produced with a lower sulfur content (15 ppm) to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions. ULSD is the only diesel fuel that may be used for on-road and most other applications in the U.S.
UST- Underground storage tank.
Vacuum Distillation Unit- A refinery unit that distills heavy crude oils under deep vacuum to allow their separation without coking.
West Texas Intermediate Crude Oil (WTI) - A light, sweet crude oil characterized by an API gravity between 38° and 44° and a sulfur content of less than 0.4 wt% that is used as a benchmark for other crude oil.
West Texas Sour Crude Oil (WTS) - A sour crude oil, characterized by an API gravity between 30° and 33° and a sulfur content of approximately 1.28 wt% that is used as a benchmark for other sour crude.
Business and Properties
ITEMS 1 and 2. BUSINESS and PROPERTIES
We are an integrated downstream energy business focused on petroleum refining (the "Refining" segment), the transportation, storage and wholesale distribution of crude oil, intermediate and refined products (the "Logistics" segment) and convenience store retailing (the "Retail" segment). Delek US Holdings, Inc., a Delaware corporation formed in 2016 (a successor to the original Delek US Holdings, Inc. which was a Delaware corporation originally formed in 2001), operates through its consolidated subsidiaries, which include Delek US Energy, Inc. (and its subsidiaries) ("Delek Energy") and Alon USA Energy, Inc. ("Alon" as previously defined) (and its subsidiaries).
The following map outlines the geography of our integrated downstream energy structure as of December 31, 2019:
302,000 barrels per day ("bpd") total capacity:
252 stores as of December 31, 2019
Approximately 1,640 miles of pipeline (1)
Southwest U.S. locations
El Dorado, AR
11.4 million barrels of storage capacity
Primary source of fuel is Big Spring, TX refinery
Big Spring, TX
Crude oil pipeline joint ventures:
Krotz Springs, LA
Red River Pipeline Company LLC ("Red River")
WTI primary crude oil supply - 260,000 bpd
Caddo Pipeline LLC ("CP LLC")
Biodiesel facilities with 40 million gallons total annual capacity:
Andeavor Logistics RIO Pipeline LLC ("Andeavor Logistics")
West Texas wholesale:
Sale of refined products through terminals
New Albany, MS
Includes approximately 240 miles of leased capacity.
Business and Properties
The principal activities of our Refining, Logistics and Retail segments are described below:
crude oil and other feedstocks
transportation motor fuels, including various grades of gasoline, diesel fuel and aviation fuel, asphalt and other petroleum-based products
Nameplate Capacity (bpd):
Primary Refinery Operations (and bpd capacity):
Tyler, Texas refinery (the "Tyler refinery")
El Dorado, Arkansas refinery (the "El Dorado refinery")
Big Spring, Texas refinery (the "Big Spring refinery")
Krotz Springs, Louisiana refinery (the "Krotz Springs refinery")
Other Refinery Operations/Assets:
approximately 40 million gallons of annual biodiesel production capacity across three facilities located in Crossett, Arkansas, Cleburne, Texas and New Albany, Mississippi
Bakersfield, California refinery assets
Primary Distribution Channels:
majority of production is distributed through a refined products terminal located at the refinery that is owned and operated by our logistics segment to supply the local market in the east Texas area
El Dorado refinery
majority of production is shipped into the Enterprise Pipeline System and our logistics segment's El Dorado Pipeline system to supply a combination of pipeline bulk sales and wholesale rack sales at terminal locations along the pipeline in Louisiana, Arkansas, Tennessee, Missouri and Indiana
Big Spring refinery
signification portion of production is distributed across the refinery truck terminal into local markets and by pipeline through various terminals to supply Delek or Alon branded retail sites focused on Central and West Texas, Oklahoma, New Mexico and Arizona
Krotz Springs refinery
majority of production is distributed through pipeline and barge bulk sales and wholesale rack sales at terminals located on the Colonial Pipeline system in the southeastern United States
owns and operates crude oil and refined products logistics and marketing assets for the use in providing logistics and marketing services to customers; the primary customer is Delek and inter-company revenues and costs are eliminated in consolidation
Fee-Based Revenue Sources:
gathering, transporting and storing crude oil and for marketing, distributing, transporting and storing intermediate and refined products in select regions of the southeastern United States and West Texas for both our refining segment and third parties
Other Revenue Sources:
sales of wholesale products in the West Texas market
Owned or Leased Pipeline Capacities (in approximate miles):
Crude oil transportation pipelines
Refined product pipelines
Crude oil gathering system (1)
Other Logistics Assets/Facilities:
Gathering system crude oil capacity, intermediate and refined products storage tanks
9.9 million barrels of active shell capacity
Other storage tanks
various other storage tanks located at our terminals
operates ten light product distribution terminals located in Tennessee, Texas, Oklahoma and Arkansas
Joint venture investments
strategic investments in pipelines/pipeline systems servicing various areas including the Permian Basin
(1)In addition to the 700-mile crude oil gathering system, our logistics segment is also managing construction of the approximately 250-mile gathering system in the Permian Basin connecting to our Big Spring, Texas terminal and will operate the gathering system as it is completed. As of December 31, 2019, approximately 177 miles of the gathering system were completed and operational. See further discussion in our 'Recent Strategic Developments' section below.
Business and Properties
Number of Stores at December 31, 2019 (owned and leased):
Geographic Areas Served:
Central and West Texas and New Mexico
Delek (under "DK") and Alon branding on certain locations which will continue to increase as we re-brand existing 7-Eleven locations (1)
Fuel Offerings at Retail Locations:
various grades of gasoline and diesel under the DK or Alon brand name, primarily sourced by our Big Spring refinery
Merchandise Offerings at Convenience Store Retail Locations:
food products, food service, tobacco products, non-alcoholic and alcoholic beverages, general merchandise as well as money orders
(1)In November 2018, we terminated a license agreement with 7-Eleven, Inc. and must remove all 7-Eleven branding on a store-by-store basis by December 31, 2021. Merchandise at our convenience store sites will continue to be sold under the 7-Eleven brand name until 7-Eleven branding is removed at each convenience store site. As of December 31, 2019, we had removed the 7-Eleven brand name at 57 of our store locations.
Significant Acquisition and Dispositions
Historically, we have grown through acquisitions in all of our segments. Our business strategy has been focused on growing our integrated business model that allows us to participate in all phases of the downstream production process, from transporting crude oil to our refineries for processing into refined products to selling fuel to customers. This growth may come from acquisitions as well as investments in our existing businesses, as we continue to broaden our existing geographic presence and integrated business model. Our strategy also includes evaluating certain under-performing and non-core business lines and assets and divesting of those when doing so helps us achieve our strategic objectives.
Effective July 1, 2017, we acquired all of the outstanding stock of Alon (the "Delek/Alon Merger"). See further discussion in Note 3 of our consolidated financial statements included in Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The Delek/Alon Merger continues to have a significant impact on our revenue and profitability as well as earnings per share, our net asset position, our purchasing position in the marketplace, our footprint in the refining industry, especially in the Gulf Coast Region and Permian Basin, and our ability to secure financing.
Below is a tabular summary of our significant acquisitions over the last five years, including the Delek/Alon Merger:
Purchased 48% of the outstanding common stock of Alon.
Alon Israel Oil Company, Ltd.
Purchased the remaining approximately 53% ownership in Alon that Delek did not already own, in an all-stock transaction.
Shareholders of Alon USA Energy, Inc.
Purchased the remaining 18.4% ownership in the Alon Partnership that Delek did not already own, in an all-equity transaction.
LP unit holders of Alon USA Partners, LP
Acquired a 33% membership interest in Red River Pipeline Joint Venture.
Plains Pipeline, L.P.
Acquired a 15% membership interest in Wink to Webster ("WWP"), Joint Venture.
Wink to Webster Pipeline LLC
Includes amounts paid through the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, excluding transaction costs. Excludes future commitments on the WWP Joint Venture, where total capital investments are expected to be $340 million to $380 million by the time construction of the pipeline is completed.
Business and Properties
California Discontinued Entities
During the third quarter 2017, we committed to a plan to sell certain assets associated with our Paramount and Long Beach, California refineries and Alon's California renewable fuels facility, which were originally acquired as part of the Delek/Alon Merger.
On March 16, 2018, Delek sold to World Energy, LLC ("World Energy") (i) all of Delek’s membership interests in the California renewable fuels facility ("AltAir") (ii) certain refining assets and other related assets located in Paramount, California and (iii) certain associated tank farm and pipeline assets and other related assets located in California. The sale involved initial proceeds due at closing, a subsequent working capital settlement as well as contingent proceeds for Delek's pro rata portion of any biodiesel tax credits ("BTC") relating to AltAir activities in 2018 earned through the sale date in connection with the re-enactment of the 2018 BTC that occurred in December 2019, and other final adjustments on retained contingent liabilities. After the resolution of contingencies in 2019, total proceeds were $93.3 million and we recognized a $33.3 million loss on the sale (pre-tax), $41.4 million (pre-tax) of which we recognized in 2018. See further discussion in Note 8 of our consolidated financial statements included in Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, of this Annual Report on Form 10-K).
The transaction to dispose of certain assets and liabilities associated with our Long Beach, California refinery to Bridge Point Long Beach, LLC closed July 17, 2018 resulting in initial cash proceeds of approximately $14.5 million, net of expenses, and resulting in a gain on sale of discontinued operations of approximately $1.4 million during the third quarter of 2018. In 2019, we settled remaining contingencies resulting in a gain on sale of discontinued operations of approximately $1.9 million net of tax. See further discussion in Note 8 of our consolidated financial statements included in Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
On May 21, 2018, we sold certain assets and operations of four asphalt terminals located in Bakersfield, Mojave and Elk Grove, California and Phoenix, Arizona, as well as our 50% equity interest in the Paramount-Nevada Asphalt Company, LLC joint venture that operated an asphalt terminal located in Fernley, Nevada, to an affiliate of Andeavor (prior to its acquisition by Marathon Petroleum). As a result of this transaction, we received net proceeds of approximately $110.8 million, inclusive of the $75.0 million base proceeds as well as certain preliminary working capital adjustments. See further discussion in Note 8 of our consolidated financial statements included in Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Recent Strategic Developments
Since the Delek/Alon Merger, we have focused efforts on developing a 250-mile gathering system in the Permian Basin with existing connectivity to our Big Spring, Texas refinery as well as a third party pipeline system accessing Colorado City and future direct connectivity to Midland. This gathering system provides Delek with access to crude directly from wellheads which we expect to provide improvement in refining performance and cost structure while also providing a foundation for building a new midstream income source. As of December 31, 2019, approximately 177 miles of the gathering system were completed and operational.
Additionally, in 2019, we made strategic midstream investments in pipeline joint ventures. In May 2019, Delek Logistics, acquired a 33% membership interest in Red River Pipeline Company LLC (the "Red River Pipeline Joint Venture") with Plains Pipeline, L.P. (“Plains”). The Red River Pipeline Joint Venture is proceeding with an expansion project to increase the capacity of the pipeline from 150,000 barrels per day to 235,000 barrels per day. Additionally, in July 2019, we acquired a 15% ownership interest in Wink to Webster Pipeline LLC (the "WWP Joint Venture"). The WWP Joint Venture intends to construct and operate a crude oil pipeline system from Wink, Texas to Webster, Texas along with certain pipelines from Webster, Texas to other destinations in the Texas Gulf Coast area that are expected to span approximately 650 miles at completion (expected to be completed by 2022).
Retail Optimization and Rebranding
In our retail segment, we are actively implementing strategic initiatives to reduce our reliance on external brands and to optimize the performance of our portfolio of stores. We have rolled out our own branding initiatives which we will optimize in our current geographic areas as well as emerging markets. As a part of these efforts, we elected to terminate the 7-Eleven licensing agreement (as discussed above) with the intention to re-brand these stores with our own brand to capitalize on and build our brand recognition in the applicable regions. Additionally, we sold 15 under-performing or non-strategic store locations during 2018 and 30 stores during 2019. While the proceeds and resultant gains on sale of such related assets were not significant to our financial results, removing these stores from our portfolio enables us to better focus our retail management and operational efforts on individual store performance, strategic optimization and growth opportunities which may include not only rebranding but possibly also expansion initiatives.
Other Strategic Developments
In addition to those described above, we entered into several other strategic transactions in order to improve our financial position or enhance shareholder value. See further discussion regarding our specific Strategic Goals and Recent Developments in the 'Executive Summary and Strategic Overview' section located in Item 7, Management's Discussion and Analysis, of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Business and Properties
Information About Our Segments
Delek operates in three reportable operating segments: the refining segment, the logistics segment and the retail segment, which are discussed below. Additional segment and financial information is contained in our segment results included in Item 7, Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, and in Note 4, Segment Data, of our consolidated financial statements included in Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
We own and operate four independent refineries located in Tyler, Texas, El Dorado, Arkansas, Big Spring, Texas and Krotz Springs, Louisiana, currently representing a combined 302,000 bpd of crude throughput capacity. Our refining system produces a variety of petroleum-based products used in transportation and industrial markets, which are sold to a wide range of customers located principally in inland, domestic markets and which comply with current Environmental Protection Agency ("EPA") clean fuels standards. All four of these refineries are located in the U.S. Gulf Coast ("Gulf Coast") Region (PADD III), which is one of the five Petroleum Administration for Defense District ("PADD") regional zones established by the U.S. Department of Energy where refined products are produced and sold. Refined product prices generally differ among each of the five PADDs.
Our refining segment also includes three biodiesel facilities we own and operate that are engaged in the production of biodiesel fuels and related activities, located in Crossett, Arkansas, Cleburne, Texas and New Albany, Mississippi.
Refining System Feedstock Purchases
We purchase more crude oil than our refineries process, generally through a combination of long-term acreage dedication agreements and short-term crude oil purchase agreements. This provides us with the opportunity to optimize the supply cost to the refineries while also maximizing the value of the volumes purchased directly from oil producers. The majority of the crude oil we purchase is sourced from inland domestic sources, primarily in areas of Texas, Arkansas, and Louisiana, although we can also purchase crude delivered via rail from other regions, including Oklahoma and Canada. Existing agreements with third-party pipelines and Delek Logistics allow us to deliver approximately 205,000 barrels per day of crude oil from West Texas directly to our refineries. Typically, approximately 260,000 barrels per day of the crude oil we deliver to our four operating refineries is priced as a differential to the price of West Texas Intermediate (“WTI”) crude oil. In most cases, the differential is established in the month prior to the month in which the crude oil is delivered to the refineries for processing.
Refining System Production Slate
Our refining system processes a combination of light sweet and medium sour crude oil, which, when refined, results in a product mix consisting principally of higher-value transportation fuels such as gasoline, distillate and jet fuel. A lesser portion of our overall production consists of residual products, including paving asphalt, roofing flux and other products with industrial applications.
Refined Product Sales and Distribution
Our refineries sell products on a wholesale and branded basis to inter-company and third-party customers located in Texas, Oklahoma, New Mexico, Arizona, Arkansas, Tennessee and the Ohio River Valley, including Gulf Coast markets and areas along the Enterprise Pipeline System and the Colonial Pipeline System, through terminals and exchanges.
Refining Segment Seasonality
Demand for gasoline and asphalt products is generally higher during the summer months than during the winter months due to seasonal increases in motor vehicle traffic and road and home construction. Varying vapor pressure requirements between the summer and winter months also tighten summer gasoline supply. As a result, the operating results of our refining segment are generally lower for the first and fourth quarters of the calendar year.
Refining Segment Competition
The refining industry is highly competitive and includes fully integrated national and multinational oil companies engaged in many segments of the petroleum business, including exploration, production, transportation, refining, marketing and retail fuel and convenience stores, along with independent refiners. Our principal competitors are petroleum refiners in the Mid-Continent and Gulf Coast Regions, in addition to wholesale distributors operating in these markets.
The principal competitive factors affecting our refinery operations are crude oil and other feedstock costs, the differential in price between various grades of crude oil, refinery product margins, refinery reliability and efficiency, refinery product mix, and distribution and transportation costs.
Business and Properties
Our Tyler refinery has a nameplate crude throughput capacity of 75,000 bpd. The refinery site consists of approximately 600 contiguous acres of land that we own in Tyler, Texas and adjacent areas, of which the main plant and associated tank farms adjacent to the refinery sit on approximately 100 acres.
The Tyler refinery is designed to process mainly light, sweet crude oil, which is typically a higher quality of crude than heavier sour crude. The Tyler refinery has access to crude oil pipeline systems that allow us access to east Texas, West Texas and, to a limited extent, Gulf of Mexico and foreign crude oil. Most of the crude supplied to the Tyler refinery is delivered by third-party pipelines and through pipelines owned by our logistics segment.
The charts below set forth information concerning crude oil received based on purchases at the Tyler refinery for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017:
Major processes at our Tyler refinery include crude distillation, vacuum distillation, naphtha reforming, naphtha and diesel hydrotreating, fluid catalytic cracking, alkylation, and delayed coking. The Tyler refinery has a Complexity Index of 8.7.
Business and Properties
The chart below sets forth information concerning the throughput at the Tyler refinery:
The Tyler refinery primarily produces two grades of gasoline (E10 premium 93 and E10 regular 87), as well as aviation gasoline. Diesel and jet fuel products produced at the Tyler refinery include military specification jet fuel, commercial jet fuel and ultra-low sulfur diesel. The Tyler refinery offers both E-10 and biodiesel blended products. In addition to higher-value gasoline and distillate fuels, the Tyler refinery produces small quantities of propane, refinery grade propylene and butanes, petroleum coke, slurry oil, sulfur and other blendstocks. The Tyler refinery produces both low-sulfur gasoline and ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel, both on-road and off-road, pursuant to the current EPA clean fuels standards.
The chart below sets forth information concerning the Tyler refinery's production slate:
The Tyler refinery is currently the only major distributor of a full range of refined petroleum products within a radius of approximately 100 miles of its location. The vast majority of our transportation fuels and other products produced at the Tyler refinery are sold directly from a refined products terminal owned by Delek Logistics and located at the refinery. We believe this allows our customers to benefit from lower transportation costs compared to alternative sources. Our customers include major oil companies, independent refiners and marketers, jobbers, distributors in the U.S. and Mexico, utility and transportation companies, the U.S. government and independent retail fuel operators.
Taking into account the Tyler refinery's crude and refined product slate, as well as the refinery's location near the Gulf Coast Region, we apply the Gulf Coast 5-3-2 crack spread to calculate the approximate refined product margin resulting from processing one barrel of crude oil into three-fifths barrel of gasoline and two-fifths barrel of high sulfur diesel.
Business and Properties
El Dorado Refinery
Our El Dorado refinery has a nameplate crude throughput capacity of 80,000 bpd. The refinery site consists of approximately 460 acres of land that we own in El Dorado, Arkansas, of which the main plant and associated tank farms adjacent to the refinery sit on approximately 335 acres. The El Dorado refinery is the largest refinery in Arkansas, and represents more than 90% of state-wide refining capacity.
The El Dorado refinery is designed mainly to process a wide variety of crude oil, ranging from light sweet to heavy sour. The refinery receives crude by several delivery points, including from local sources as well as other third-party pipelines that connect directly into Delek Logistics' El Dorado Pipeline System, which runs from Magnolia, Arkansas, to the El Dorado refinery (the "El Dorado Pipeline System"), and rail at third-party terminals.
We also purchase crude oil for the El Dorado refinery from inland sources in east and West Texas, as well as in south Arkansas and north Louisiana through a crude oil gathering system owned and operated by Delek Logistics (the "SALA Gathering System").
The charts below set forth information concerning crude oil received at the El Dorado refinery for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017:
Major processes at our El Dorado refinery include crude distillation, vacuum distillation, naphtha isomerization and reforming, naphtha and diesel hydrotreating, gas oil hydrotreating, fluid catalytic cracking and alkylation. The El Dorado refinery has a Complexity Index of 10.2.
Business and Properties
The chart below sets forth information concerning the throughput at the El Dorado refinery:
The El Dorado refinery produces a wide range of refined products, from multiple grades (E-10 premium 93 and E-10 regular 87) of gasoline and ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels, liquefied petroleum gas ("LPG"), refinery grade propylene and a variety of asphalt products, including paving grade asphalt and roofing flux. The El Dorado refinery offers both E-10 and biodiesel blended products. The El Dorado refinery produces both low-sulfur gasoline and ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel, both on-road and off-road, pursuant to the current EPA clean fuels standards.
The chart below sets forth information concerning the El Dorado refinery's production slate:
Products manufactured at the El Dorado refinery are sold to wholesalers and retailers through spot sales, commercial sales contracts and exchange agreements in markets in Arkansas, Memphis, Tennessee and north into the Ohio River Valley region as well as in Mexico. The El Dorado refinery connection via the logistics segment to the Enterprise Pipeline System is a key means of product distribution for the refinery, because it provides access to third-party terminals in multiple Mid-Continent markets located adjacent to the system, including Shreveport, Louisiana, North Little Rock, Arkansas, Memphis, Tennessee, and Cape Girardeau, Missouri. The El Dorado refinery also supplies products to these markets through product exchanges on the Colonial Pipeline.
The crude oil and product slate flexibility of the El Dorado refinery allows us to take advantage of changes in the crude oil and product markets; therefore, we anticipate that the quantities and varieties of crude oil processed and products manufactured at the El Dorado refinery will continue to vary.While there is variability in the crude slate and the product output at the El Dorado refinery, we compare our per barrel refined product margin to the Gulf Coast 5-3-2 crack spread because we believe it to be the most closely aligned benchmark.
Business and Properties
Big Spring Refinery
Our Big Spring refinery has a nameplate crude throughput capacity of 73,000 bpd and is located on 1,306 acres of land that we own in the Permian Basin in West Texas. The main plant and associated tank farms adjacent to the refinery sit on approximately 330 acres. It is the closest refinery to Midland, Texas ("Midland"), which allows us to efficiently source West Texas Sour ("WTS") and WTI Midland crude. Additionally, the Big Spring refinery has the ability to source locally-trucked crude as well as crude locally gathered from our own developing gathering system, which enables us to better control quality and eliminate the cost of transporting the crude supply from Midland.
The Big Spring refinery is designed to process a variety of crude, ranging from light sweet to medium sour, with the flexibility to convert its production to one or the other based on market pricing conditions. Our Big Spring refinery receives WTS and WTI crude by truck from local gathering systems and regional common carrier pipelines. Other feedstocks, including butane, isobutane and asphalt blending components, are delivered by truck and railcar. A majority of the natural gas we use to run the refinery is delivered by a pipeline in which we own a majority interest.
The charts below set forth information concerning crude oil received at the Big Spring refinery for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and the six months ended December 31, 2017 (the period since the Delek/Alon Merger):
Major processes at our Big Spring refinery include crude distillation, vacuum distillation, naphtha reforming, naphtha and diesel hydrotreating, aromatic extraction, propane de-asphalting, fluid catalytic cracking, and alkylation. The Big Spring refinery has a Complexity Index of 10.5.
Business and Properties
The chart below sets forth information concerning the throughput at the Big Spring refinery for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and the six months ended December 31, 2017 (the period since the Delek/Alon Merger):
The Big Spring refinery primarily produces two grades of gasoline (E10 premium 91 and E10 regular 87). Diesel and jet fuel products produced at the Big Spring refinery include military specification jet fuel, commercial jet fuel and ultra-low sulfur diesel. We also produce propane, propylene, certain aromatics, specialty solvents and benzene for use as petrochemical feedstocks, and asphalt along with other by-products such as sulfur and carbon black oil. The Big Spring refinery produces both low-sulfur gasoline and ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel, both on-road and off-road, pursuant to current EPA clean fuels standards, and certain boutique fuels supplied to the El Paso, Texas, and Phoenix, Arizona, markets.
The chart below sets forth information concerning the Big Spring refinery's production slate for the year ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and the six months ended December 31, 2017 (the period since the Delek/Alon Merger):
Our Big Spring refinery sells products in both the wholesale rack and bulk markets. We sell motor fuels under both the Alon brand and on an unbranded basis through various terminals to supply numerous locations, including the convenience stores in Delek's retail segment. We sell transportation fuel production in excess of our branded and unbranded marketing needs through bulk sales and exchange channels entered into with various oil companies and trading companies which are transported through a product pipeline network or truck deliveries, depending on location, and through terminals located in Texas (Abilene, Wichita Falls, El Paso), Arizona (Tucson, Phoenix), and New Mexico (Albuquerque, Moriarty).
For our Big Spring refinery, we compare our per barrel refined product margin to the Gulf Coast 3-2-1 crack spread, which is the approximate refined product margin resulting from processing one barrel of crude oil into two-thirds barrel of gasoline and one-third barrel of ultra low sulfur diesel. Our Big Spring refinery is capable of processing substantial volumes of both sour crude oil or sweet crude oil, which we optimize based on price differentials. We measure the cost advantage of refining sour crude oil by calculating the difference between the price of WTI Cushing crude oil and the price of WTS, a medium, sour crude oil, taking into account differences in production yield. We refer to this differential as the WTI Cushing/WTS, or sweet/sour, spread. A widening of the sweet/sour spread can favorably influence the operating margin for our Big Spring refinery. The WTI Cushing less WTI Midland spread represents the differential between the average per barrel price of WTI Cushing crude oil and the average per barrel price of WTI Midland crude oil.
Business and Properties
Krotz Springs Refinery
Our Krotz Springs refinery has a nameplate crude throughput capacity of 74,000 bpd, and is located on 381 acres of land that we own on the Atchafalaya River in central Louisiana. The main plant and associated tank farms adjacent to the refinery sit on approximately 250 acres. This location provides access to crude from barge, pipeline, railcar and truck. This combination of logistics assets provides us with diversified access to locally-sourced, domestic and foreign crude.
The Krotz Springs refinery is designed mainly to process light sweet crude oil. We are capable of receiving WTI Midland, Louisiana Light Sweet (“LLS”), Heavy Louisiana Sweet (“HLS”) and foreign crude from the EMPCo Northline System (the "Northline System") and the Crimson Pipeline. The Northline System delivers LLS, HLS and foreign crude oil from the St. James, Louisiana, crude oil terminalling complex. The Crimson Pipeline connects the Krotz Spring refinery to the Baton Rouge, Louisiana area. Additionally, the Krotz Springs refinery has the ability to receive crude oil sourced from West Texas. WTI crude oil is transported through the Energy Transfer Amdel pipeline to the Nederland terminal located near the Gulf Coast and from there is transported to the Krotz Springs refinery by barge via the Intracoastal Canal and the Atchafalaya River. The Energy Transfer Amdel pipeline agreement will terminate at the end of February 2020. The Krotz Springs refinery also receives approximately 20% of its crude by barge and truck from inland Louisiana and Mississippi and other locations.
The charts below set forth information concerning crude oil received at the Krotz Springs refinery for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and the six months ended December 31, 2017 (the period since the Delek/Alon Merger):
Business and Properties
Major processes at the Krotz Springs refinery include crude distillation, vacuum distillation, naphtha hydrotreating, naphtha isomerization and reforming, and gas oil/residual catalytic cracking to minimize low quality black oil production and to produce higher light product yields. The Krotz Springs refinery has a Complexity Index of 8.8. Additionally, in April 2019, the Krotz Springs refinery completed construction of an alkylation unit with anticipated 6,000-bpd capacity that is designed to combine isobutane and butylene into alkylate and enable multiple grades of gasoline to be produced, including premium octane gasoline.
The chart below sets forth information concerning the throughput at the Krotz Springs refinery for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and the six months ended December 31, 2017 (the period since the Delek/Alon Merger):
The Krotz Springs refinery produces CBOB 84 grade gasoline as well as high sulfur diesel, light cycle oil, jet fuel, petrochemical feedstocks, LPG and slurry oil. The Krotz Springs refinery produces low-sulfur gasoline, pursuant to the current EPA clean fuels standards.
The chart below sets forth information concerning the Krotz Springs refinery's production slate for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and the six months ended December 31, 2017 (the period since the Delek/Alon Merger):
The Krotz Springs refinery markets transportation fuel substantially through bulk sales and exchange channels. These bulk sales and exchange arrangements are entered into with various oil companies and trading companies and are transported to markets on the Mississippi River and the Atchafalaya River as well as to the Colonial Pipeline.
For our Krotz Springs refinery, we compare our per barrel refined product margin to the Gulf Coast 2-1-1 high sulfur diesel crack spread, which is the approximate refined product margin calculated assuming that one barrel of LLS crude oil is converted into one-half barrel of Gulf Coast conventional gasoline and one-half barrel of Gulf Coast high sulfur diesel. The Krotz Springs refinery has the capability to process substantial volumes of sweet crude oil to produce a high percentage of refined light products.
Business and Properties
Our logistics segment consists of Delek Logistics, a publicly-traded master limited partnership, and its subsidiaries. Our consolidated financial statements include its consolidated financial results. As of December 31, 2019, we owned a 61.4% limited partner interest in Delek Logistics, and a 94.6% interest in Delek Logistics GP, which owns both the entire 2.0% general partner interest in Delek Logistics and all of the incentive distribution rights. Delek Logistics is a variable interest entity as defined under United States generally accepted accounting principles ("GAAP"). Intercompany transactions with Delek Logistics and its subsidiaries are eliminated in our consolidated financial statements.
Our logistics segment generates revenue and contribution margin, which we define as net sales less cost of materials and other and operating expenses, by charging fees for gathering, transporting, offloading and storing crude oil; for storing intermediate products and feedstocks; for distributing, transporting and storing refined products; and for wholesale marketing. A substantial majority of the logistics segment's existing assets are both integral to and dependent on the successful operation of our refining segment's assets, as the logistics segment gathers, transports and stores crude oil, and markets, distributes, transports and stores refined products in select regions of the southeastern United States and east Texas primarily in support of the Tyler and El Dorado refineries, and in Central and West Texas and New Mexico, primarily in support of the Big Spring refinery. In addition to intercompany services, the logistics segment also provides crude oil, intermediate and refined products transportation services for, and terminalling and marketing services to, third parties primarily in Texas, New Mexico, Tennessee and Arkansas.
The following provides an overview of our logistics segment assets and operations:
Business and Properties
The logistics segment network includes the following locations/properties:
Pipelines (owned or leased)
Storage Tanks Locations
Louisiana and Arkansas
SALA Gathering System
El Dorado Pipeline System
Magnolia Pipeline System
North Little Rock
Paline Pipeline System
McMurrey Pipeline System
North Little Rock
Tyler-Big Sandy Product Pipeline
Greenville-Mount Pleasant Pipeline
Big Spring Pipeline (and adjacent pipelines)
All of the above properties/assets are located on real property owned by Delek and its subsidiaries. Additionally, all of the pipeline systems set forth above run across fee owned land, leased land, easements and rights-of-way. The logistics segment also owns a fleet of trucks and trailers used to transport crude oil, asphalt and other hydrocarbon products.
Logistics Segment - Wholesale Marketing and Terminalling
The logistics segment's wholesale marketing and terminalling business provides wholesale marketing and terminalling services to the refining segment and to independent third parties from whom it receives fees for marketing, transporting, storing and terminalling refined products and to whom it wholesale markets refined products. It generates revenue by (i) providing marketing services for the refined products output of the Tyler and Big Spring refineries, (ii) engaging in wholesale activity at owned terminals in Abilene and San Angelo, Texas, as well as at terminals owned by third parties in Texas, whereby it purchases light products for sale and exchange to third parties, and (iii) providing terminalling services to independent third parties and the refining segment. Three terminals, located in El Dorado, Arkansas, Memphis, Tennessee and North Little Rock, Arkansas, throughput refined product produced at the El Dorado refinery. Three terminals, located in Tyler, Big Sandy and Mount Pleasant Texas, throughput refined product produced at the Tyler refinery.
Logistics Segment - Pipelines and Transportation
The logistics segment's pipelines and transportation business owns or leases capacity on approximately 400 miles of operable crude oil transportation pipelines, approximately 450 miles of refined product pipelines, an approximately 700-mile crude oil gathering system and associated crude oil storage tanks with an aggregate of approximately 9.9 million barrels of active shell capacity. These assets are primarily divided into the following operating systems:
the El Dorado Pipeline System, which transports crude oil to, and refined products from the El Dorado Pipeline System;
the SALA Gathering System, which gathers and transports crude oil production in southern Arkansas and northern Louisiana, primarily for the El Dorado refinery;
the Paline Pipeline System, which primarily transports crude oil from Longview, Texas to third-party facilities in Nederland, Texas;
the East Texas Crude Logistics System, which currently transports a portion of the crude oil delivered to the Tyler refinery (the "East Texas Crude Logistics System");
the Tyler-Big Sandy Product Pipeline, which is a pipeline between the Tyler refinery and the Big Sandy Terminal;
the Tyler Tanks;
the El Dorado Tanks;
the Greenville-Mount Pleasant Pipeline and Greenville Storage Facility;
the North Little Rock Tanks;
the El Dorado Rail Offloading Racks;
the Tyler Crude Tank;
the Talco Crude Pipeline;
the Memphis Pipeline;
the Big Spring Pipeline;
Big Spring Truck Unloading Station; and
Big Spring Tanks
In addition to these operating systems, the logistics segment owns or leases approximately 123 tractors and 174 trailers used to haul primarily crude oil and other products for related and third parties.
Business and Properties
The logistics segment owns a portion of three joint ventures (accounted for as equity method investments) that have logistics assets, which serve third parties and the refining segment. These assets include the following:
Joint venture operates a 109-mile crude oil pipeline with a capacity of 120,000 bpd, that originates in north Loving County, Texas near the Texas-New Mexico border and terminates in Midland, Texas ("RIO Pipeline")
Joint venture operates an 80-mile crude oil pipeline with a capacity of 80,000 bpd that originates in Longview, Texas, with destinations in the Shreveport, Louisiana area ("Caddo Pipeline")
Joint venture operates a 16-inch crude oil pipeline between Cushing, Oklahoma and Longview, Texas with current capacity of 150,000 bpd and planned expansion to 235,000 bpd in 2020 ("Red River Pipeline")
Logistics Segment Supply Agreement
During the year ended December 31, 2017, Delek Logistics purchased petroleum products from Noble Petro, Inc. ("Noble Petro") pursuant to the terms of a supply contract with Noble Petro. Delek Logistics then marketed these petroleum products to third parties. As of January 1, 2018, these regular sales of product by Noble Petro concluded, as the supply contract expired in December 2017. Following expiration of the contract with Noble Petro, Delek Logistics purchased products from Delek and third parties at our Abilene and San Angelo terminals. To facilitate these purchases, Delek Logistics constructed a pipeline into our Abilene Terminal to receive product from the pipeline owned by Holly Energy Partners, L.P. (NYSE: HEP) through which Delek shipped product that was produced at the Big Spring Refinery. Delek Logistics is currently constructing a connection to a Magellan Midstream Partners, L.P. ("Magellan") pipeline that will allow Magellan to supply our Abilene and San Angelo terminals with product transported from the Gulf Coast. Delek Logistics also has active connections to the Magellan Orion Pipeline that enable us to ship product to our terminals and to acquire product from other shippers. Products purchased from Delek are generally based on daily market prices at the time of purchase limiting exposure to fluctuating prices. Products purchased from third parties are generally based on market prices at the time of purchase requiring price hedging risk management activities between the time of purchase and sale. Existing price risk hedging programs have been adjusted to correspond to the volume of product purchased from third parties.
Logistics Segment Operating Agreements With Delek
Delek Logistics has a number of long-term, fee-based commercial agreements with Delek and its subsidiaries that, among other things, establish fees for certain administrative and operational services provided by Delek and its subsidiaries to Delek Logistics, provide certain indemnification obligations and establish terms for fee-based commercial agreements for Delek Logistics to provide certain pipeline transportation, terminal throughput, finished product marketing and storage services to Delek. Most of these agreements have an initial term ranging from five to ten years, which may be extended for various renewal terms at the option of Delek. The current terms for agreements effective in November 2012 extend through March 2024. In the case of the marketing agreement with Delek, the initial term has been extended through 2026. Each of these agreements requires Delek or a Delek subsidiary to pay for certain minimum volume commitments or certain minimum storage capacities. Delek Logistics also entered into an agreement to manage the construction of the 250-mile gathering system in the Permian Basin connecting to our Big Spring, Texas terminal and to operate the gathering system as it is completed. That agreement extends through December 2022.
Logistics Segment Customers
In addition to certain of our subsidiaries, our logistics segment has various types of customers, including major oil companies, independent refiners and marketers, jobbers, distributors, utility and transportation companies and independent retail fuel operators.
Logistics Segment Seasonality
The volume and throughput of crude oil and refined products transported through our pipelines and sold through our terminals and to third parties is directly affected by the level of supply and demand for all of such products in the markets served directly or indirectly by our assets. Supply and demand for such products fluctuates during the calendar year. Demand for gasoline, for example, is generally higher during the summer months than during the winter months due to seasonal increases in motor vehicle traffic. Varying vapor pressure requirements between the summer and winter months also tighten summer gasoline supply. In addition, our refining segment often performs planned maintenance during the winter, when demand for their products is lower. Accordingly, these factors can diminish the demand for crude oil or finished products by our customers, and therefore limit our volumes or throughput during these periods, and we expect that our operating results will generally be lower during the first and fourth quarters of the calendar year.
Business and Properties
Logistics Segment Competition
Our logistics segment faces competition for the transportation of crude oil from other pipeline owners whose pipelines (i) may have a location advantage over our pipelines, (ii) may be able to transport more desirable crude oil to third parties, (iii) may be able to transport crude oil or finished product at a lower tariff, or (iv) may be able to store more crude oil or finished product. In addition, the wholesale marketing and terminalling business in general is also very competitive. Our owned refined product terminals, as well as the other third-party terminals we use to sell refined products, compete with other independent terminal operators as well as integrated oil companies on the basis of terminal location, price, versatility and services provided. The costs associated with transporting products from a loading terminal to end users limit the geographic size of the market that can be competitively served by any terminal.
Logistics Segment Activity
The following table summarizes our activity in the wholesale marketing and terminalling portion of our logistics segment:
Wholesale Marketing and Terminalling
Year Ended December 31,
Operating Information: Throughputs (average bpd)
West Texas marketing
East Texas marketing
Big Spring marketing(2)
Consists of terminalling throughputs at our Tyler, Big Sandy and Mount Pleasant, Texas, El Dorado and North Little Rock, Arkansas and Memphis and Nashville, Tennessee terminals.
Throughputs for the year ended December 31, 2018 are for the 306 days we marketed certain finished products produced at or sold from the Big Spring Refinery following the execution of the Big Spring Marketing Agreement, effective March 1, 2018.
The following table summarizes our most significant activity in the pipelines and transportation portion of our logistics segment:
Pipelines and Transportation
Year Ended December 31,
Operating Information: Throughputs (average bpd)
Lion Pipeline System:
Crude pipelines (non-gathered)
Refined products pipelines to Enterprise Pipelines Systems
SALA Gathering System
East Texas Crude Logistics System
Business and Properties
As a result of the Delek/Alon Merger on July 1, 2017 (and subsequent retail activities), Delek's retail segment includes the operations of owned and leased convenience store sites as described below:
Retail Segment Properties/Locations
Number of Merchandise and Fuel Stores (owned and leased) (1)
Number of Leased Locations (1)
Minimum Lease Payments Due 2020 (in millions) (1)
Various grades of gasoline and diesel under the DK or Alon brand names
Food service, tobacco products, non-alcoholic and alcoholic beverages, general merchandise as well as money orders to the public
Convenience Store Branding (2)
Delek (under "DK") and Alon branding on certain locations which will continue to increase as we re-brand existing 7-Eleven locations
Central and West Texas and New Mexico
(1) As of December 31, 2019.
In November 2018, we terminated a license agreement with 7-Eleven, Inc. and must remove all 7-Eleven branding on a store-by-store basis by December 31, 2021. See further discussion below.
We believe that we have established strong market presence in the major retail markets in which we operate. Our retail strategy employs localized marketing tactics that account for the unique demographic characteristics of each region that we serve. We introduce customized product offerings and promotional strategies to address the unique tastes and preferences of our customers on a market-by-market basis. Furthermore, we are actively implementing strategic initiatives to optimize our performance across our retail stores and reduce our reliance on external brand recognition, while developing and optimizing the use of our own brands and evaluating retail opportunities in current and emerging geographic and strategic markets. As a result of these efforts, in November 2018, we terminated a license agreement with 7-Eleven, Inc. and the terms of such termination require the removal of all 7-Eleven branding on a store-by-store basis by December 31, 2021. Merchandise sales at our convenience store sites will continue to be sold under the 7-Eleven brand name until 7-Eleven branding is removed pursuant to the termination. As of December 31, 2019, we had removed the 7-Eleven brand name at 57 of our store locations. Additionally, we closed 15 under-performing or non-strategic store locations during 2018 and 30 stores during 2019.
For the year ended December 31, 2019 fuel revenues were 62.6% of total net sales for our retail segment.
The following table highlights certain information regarding our fuel operations for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and the six months ended December 31, 2017 (the period since the Delek/Alon Merger):
Year Ended December 31, 2019
Year ended December 31, 2018
Period from July 1, 2017 through December 31, 2017
Number of fuel stores (end of period)
Average number of fuel stores (during period)
Total fuel revenue (in thousands)
Retail fuel revenues (thousands of gallons)
Average retail gallons per store (based on average number of stores) (thousands of gallons)
Retail fuel margin ($ per gallon)
Substantially all of the motor fuel sold through our retail segment is supplied by our Big Spring refinery, which is transferred to the retail segment at prices substantially determined by reference to recent published commodity pricing information.
Business and Properties
For the year ended December 31, 2019, our merchandise revenues were 37.4% of total net sales for our retail segment.
The following table highlights certain information regarding our merchandise operations for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and the six months ended December 31, 2017 (the period since the Delek/Alon Merger):
Year Ended December 31, 2019
Year ended December 31, 2018
Period from July 1, 2017 through December 31, 2017
Number of merchandise stores (end of period)
Average number of merchandise stores (during period)
Merchandise margin percentage
Total merchandise revenues (in thousands)
Average merchandise sales per store (in thousands)
Retail Segment Seasonality
Demand for gasoline and convenience merchandise is generally higher during the summer months than during the winter months due to seasonal increases in motor vehicle traffic. As a result, the operating results of our retail segment are generally lower for the first quarter of the calendar year. Weather conditions in our operating area also have a significant effect on our operating results. Customers are more likely to purchase higher profit margin items at our retail fuel and convenience stores, such as fast foods, fountain drinks and other beverages, as well as additional gasoline, during the spring and summer months.
Retail Segment Competition
The retail fuel and convenience store business is highly competitive. We compete on a store-by-store basis with other independent convenience store chains, independent owner-operators, major petroleum companies, supermarkets, drug stores, discount stores, club stores, mass merchants, fast food operations and other retail outlets. Major competitive factors affecting us include location, ease of access, pricing, timely deliveries, product and service selections, customer service, fuel brands, store appearance, cleanliness and safety. We believe we are able to compete effectively in the markets in which we operate because our geographic concentration allows us to improve buying power with our vendors. Our retail segment strategy centers on operating a high concentration of sites in a similar geographic region to promote operational efficiencies. Finally, we believe that leveraging the integration between our retail and refining segments provides advantageous fuel supply to our retail stores. Our major retail competitors include Chevron, Murphy USA, Sunoco LP (Stripes® brand), Alimentation Couche-Tard Inc. (Circle K® brand and CST brand), Marathon Petroleum and various other independent operators.
In 2019, we continued our efforts to improve several areas of information technology ("IT"), including infrastructure, security and enterprise software systems. Much of the effort was dictated by merger and acquisition activity. We also worked to improve our business continuity to reduce both Recovery Time Objectives and Recovery Point Objectives. In addition, significant steps were made to consolidate and move toward a consistent, scalable IT reference architecture. We have continued to enhance our cybersecurity posture within both of our IT and Operating Technology and Control Network environments. These efforts, coupled with actions to reduce the number and complexity of systems, are expected to enable growth, maximize our IT investment, and improve our overall security posture. Also in 2019, we began development of an Enterprise Information Management and Master Data Governance vision, intended to increase the efficiency, security, and effectiveness of our data use as a company. Additionally, we continued to leverage our retail experience to improve data assurance and compliance with Payment Card Industry requirements, while adding new functionality to support enhanced store performance reporting and use of advanced retail technologies. Finally, we continued to consistently evaluate and improve the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of our information and technology assets.
Governmental Regulation and Environmental Matters
Rate Regulation of Petroleum Pipelines
The rates and terms and conditions of service on certain of our pipelines are subject to regulation by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ("FERC"), under the Interstate Commerce Act (the “ICA”), and by the state regulatory commissions in the states in which we transport crude oil, intermediate and refined products. Certain of our pipeline systems are subject to such regulation and have filed tariffs with the appropriate authorities. We also comply with the reporting requirements for these pipelines. Some of our other pipeline systems have received a waiver from application of the FERC's tariff requirements, but comply with other applicable regulatory requirements
The FERC regulates interstate transportation under the ICA, the Energy Policy Act of 1992 and the rules and regulations promulgated under those laws. The ICA, and its implementing regulations, require that tariff rates for interstate service on oil pipelines, including pipelines that transport crude oil, intermediate and refined products in interstate commerce (collectively referred to as “petroleum pipelines”), be just and reasonable and non-discriminatory, and that such rates and terms and conditions of service be filed with the FERC. Under the ICA, shippers may challenge new or existing rates or services. The FERC is authorized to suspend the effectiveness of a challenged rate for up to seven months, though rates are typically not suspended for the maximum allowable period. Our tariff rates are typically contractually subject to increase or decrease on July 1 of each year, by the amount of any change in various inflation-based indices, including the FERC oil pipeline index, the consumer price index and the producer price index; provided, however, that in no event will the fees be adjusted below the amount initially set forth in the applicable agreement.
Environmental Health and Safety
We are subject to extensive federal, state and local environmental and safety laws and regulations enforced by various agencies, including the EPA, the United States Department of Transportation (the "DOT"), and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration ("OSHA"), as well as numerous state, regional and local environmental, safety and pipeline agencies.
These laws and regulations govern the discharge of materials into the environment, waste management practices, pollution prevention measures and the composition of the fuels we produce, as well as the safe operation of our plants, pipelines and trucks, and the safety of our workers and the public. Numerous permits or other authorizations are required under these laws and regulations for the operation of our refineries, renewable fuel facilities, terminals, pipelines, underground storage tanks ("USTs"), trucks, rail cars and related operations, and may be subject to revocation, modification and renewal.
These laws and permits raise potential exposure to future claims and lawsuits involving environmental and safety matters, which could include soil and water contamination, air pollution, personal injury and property damage allegedly caused by substances which we manufactured, handled, used, released or disposed of, transported, or that relate to pre-existing conditions for which we have assumed responsibility. We believe that our current operations are in substantial compliance with existing environmental and safety requirements. However, there have been and will continue to be ongoing discussions about environmental and safety matters between us and federal and state authorities, including notices of violations, citations and other enforcement actions, some of which have resulted, or may result in, changes to operating procedures and in capital expenditures. While it is often difficult to quantify future environmental or safety related expenditures, we anticipate that continuing capital investments and changes in operating procedures will be required for the foreseeable future to comply with existing and new requirements, as well as evolving interpretations and more strict enforcement of existing laws and regulations. We anticipate that compliance with environmental, health and safety regulations will require us to spend approximately $64.5 million and $52.4 million in capital costs in 2020 and 2021, respectively. These estimates do not include amounts related to capital investments that management has deemed to be strategic investments. These amounts could materially change as a result of governmental and regulatory actions.
We generate wastes that may be subject to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ("RCRA") and comparable state and local requirements. The EPA and various state agencies have limited the approved methods of managing, transporting, recycling and disposal of hazardous and certain non-hazardous wastes. Our refineries are large quantity generators of hazardous waste and require hazardous waste permits issued by the EPA or state agencies. Our other facilities, such as terminals and renewable fuel plants, generate lesser quantities of hazardous wastes.
Business and Properties
The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, also known as Superfund, imposes liability, without regard to fault or the legality of the original conduct, on certain classes of persons who are considered to be responsible for the release of a hazardous substance into the environment. Analogous state laws impose similar responsibilities and liabilities on responsible parties. In the course of our ordinary operations, our various businesses generate waste, some of which falls within the statutory definition of a hazardous substance and some of which may have been disposed of at sites that may require future cleanup under Superfund. At this time, our El Dorado refinery has been named as a minor potentially responsible party at one Superfund site, for which we believe future costs will not be material.
As of December 31, 2019, we have recorded an environmental liability of approximately $146.1 million, primarily related to the estimated probable costs of remediating, or otherwise addressing, certain environmental issues of a non-capital nature at the Tyler, El Dorado, Big Spring, Krotz Springs and California refineries as well as terminals, some of which we no longer own. This liability includes estimated costs for ongoing investigation and remediation efforts, which were already being performed by the former operators of the refineries and terminals prior to our acquisition of those facilities, for known contamination of soil and groundwater, as well as estimated costs for additional issues which have been identified subsequent to the acquisitions.
Approximately $8.2 million of the total liability is expected to be expended over the next 12 months, with most of the balance expended by 2032, although some costs may extend up to 30 years. In the future, we could be required to extend the expected remediation period or undertake additional investigations of our refineries, pipelines and terminal facilities, which could result in additional remediation liabilities.
Our operations are subject to certain requirements of the Federal Clean Air Act (“CAA”), as well as related state and local laws and regulations governing air emission. Certain CAA regulatory programs applicable to our refineries, terminals and other operations require capital expenditures for the installation of air pollution control devices, operational procedures to minimize emissions and monitoring and reporting of emissions. A consent decree was entered in the United States District Court for the Northern District of Texas in June 2019 resolving alleged historical violations of the CAA at our Big Spring refinery. In addition to a civil penalty of $0.5 million that we paid in June 2019, the Company will be required to expend capital for pollution control equipment that may be significant over the next 10 years.
In 2015, EPA finalized reductions in the National Ambient Air Quality Standard ("NAAQS") for ozone, from 75 ppb to 70 ppb. Our Tyler refinery is located in an area that had the potential to be reclassified as non-attainment with the new standard. However, this area has not been classified as non-attainment with the new standard, so we do not anticipate an impact at our Tyler refinery. If air quality near our facilities worsens in the future, it is possible that these area(s) could be reclassified as non-attainment for the new ozone standard which could require Delek to install additional air pollution control equipment for ozone forming emissions in the future. Additionally, the new standard could change the formulation of gasoline we make for use in some areas. We do not believe such capital expenditures, or the changes in our operation, will result in a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
On December 1, 2015, the EPA published final rules under the Risk and Technology Review provisions of the Clean Air Act to further regulate refinery air emissions through additional New Source Performance Standard ("NSPS") and Maximum Achievable Control Technology requirements (the “Refinery Sector Rules”). Subsequent amendments and clarifications to the rule have been published by the EPA. Refineries have up to three years from the effective date of the final rule to come into compliance with certain requirements of the rule, while other aspects of the rule require compliance to be achieved at an earlier date. Additionally, the new rules will require changes to the way we operate, shut-down, start-up and maintain some process units. These rules also require that we monitor property line benzene concentrations beginning in January 2018 and provide the results to the EPA quarterly, which will make the results available to the public beginning in 2019. Even though the concentrations are not expected to exceed regulatory or health-based standards, the availability of such data may increase the likelihood of lawsuits against our refineries by the local public or organized public interest groups. We have obtained 1-year compliance extensions to certain provisions of the rule. These rules require capital expenditures for additional controls at our refineries’ relief systems, flares, tanks, other sources at our refineries, and a coker located at the Tyler refinery. Most of the capital cost needed to comply with these new rules has already been spent. We do not anticipate that any additional capital costs or future operating costs will be material, and do not believe compliance will affect our production capacities or have a material adverse effect upon our business, financial condition or results of operations. We expect to meet all deadlines (as extended) for compliance.
On December 19, 2019, the EPA finalized the renewable fuel obligation for 2020 at 11.56%. The required ethanol volumes exceed the 10% ethanol “blendwall”, requiring increased usage of higher ethanol blends such as E15 and E85. We are unable to blend sufficient quantities of ethanol and biodiesel to meet our renewable fuel obligations and have to purchase RINs, primarily for our El Dorado and Krotz Springs refineries. In early 2017, the EPA granted hardship waiver petitions for the El Dorado and Krotz Springs refineries exempting them from the requirements of the renewable fuel standard ("RIN Waivers") for the 2016 calendar year. In March 2018, the El Dorado and Krotz Springs refineries both received approval from the EPA for RIN Waivers for the 2017 calendar year. During the first quarter 2019, the Tyler and Big Spring refineries received RIN Waivers for the 2017 calendar year, which had an immaterial impact on our results of operations. During the third quarter of 2019, the Tyler, El Dorado and Krotz Springs refineries received approval from the EPA for RIN Waivers for the 2018 calendar year.
The EPA issued final rules for gasoline formulation that required the reduction of annual average benzene content by July 1, 2012. In the past, it has been necessary for us to purchase credits to fully comply with these content requirements for the Tyler refinery. However, with the addition of the Big Spring and Krotz Springs refineries, we believe we will self-generate most, if not all, credits that are required.
The EPA finalized Tier 3 gasoline sulfur standards in March 2014. The final Tier 3 rule required a reduction in annual average gasoline sulfur content from 30 ppm to 10 ppm while retaining the maximum per-gallon sulfur content of 80 ppm. Refineries were required to comply with the 10 ppm
Business and Properties
sulfur standard by January 1, 2017, but the final rule provided a three-year waiver period, to January 1, 2020, for small volume refineries that processed less than 75,000 barrels per day of crude oil in 2012. In April 2016, EPA issued a revised rule requiring small volume refineries that increase their annual average crude oil processing above the 75,000 barrel per day level to comply with the Tier 3 requirements within 30 months from the time that processing level was exceeded. We have not exceeded the 75,000 barrel per day crude oil processing level at any of our refineries during this period, and all of our refineries met the criteria for the waiver for its full duration. We have spent $12.0 million through the end of 2019 in order to comply with the Tier 3 regulations by January 1, 2020. Compliance is not expected to have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, or results of operations.
Our operations are also subject to the Federal Clean Water Act (“CWA”), the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (“OPA-90”) and comparable state and local requirements. The CWA, and similar laws, prohibit any discharge into surface waters, ground waters, injection wells and publicly-owned treatment works, except as allowed by pre-treatment permits and National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (“NPDES”) permits issued by federal, state and local governmental agencies. The OPA-90 prohibits the discharge of oil into "Waters of the U.S." and requires that affected facilities have plans in place to respond to spills and other discharges. The CWA also regulates filling or discharges to wetlands and other "Waters of the U.S." In 2015, the EPA, in conjunction with the Army Corps of Engineers, issued a final rule expanding the definition of “Waters of the U.S.” The rule, which was subject to litigation, and judicial stays, was repealed in December 2019 and the EPA and the Army Corps of Engineers have published a proposed rule containing an alternative definition of “Waters of the U.S.” that is intended to increase predictability and consistency and generally adopts a narrower definition than the 2015 rule. However, legal challenges continue and the ultimate resolution is uncertain at this time. To the extent a final rule expands the scope of the CWA’s jurisdiction, we could face increased operating costs or other impediments that could alter the way we conduct our business, which could in turn have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In recent years, various legislative and regulatory measures to address climate change and greenhouse gas ("GHG") emissions (including carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxides) have been discussed or implemented. They include proposed and enacted federal regulation and state actions to develop statewide, regional or nationwide programs designed to control and reduce GHG emissions from fixed sources, such as our refineries, power plants and oil and gas production operations, as well as mobile transportation sources and fuels. EPA rules require us to report GHG emissions from our refinery operations and use of fuel products produced at our refineries on an annual basis. While the cost of compliance with the reporting rule is not material, data gathered under the rule may be used in the future to support additional regulation of GHG. Moreover, the EPA directly regulates GHG emissions from refineries and other major sources through the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (“PSD”) and Federal Operating Permit programs and may require Best Available Control Technology (“BACT”) for GHG emissions above a certain threshold if emissions of other pollutants would otherwise require PSD permitting.
The Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration ("PHMSA") of the DOT regulates the design, construction, testing, operation, maintenance, reporting and emergency response of crude oil, petroleum product and other hazardous liquids pipelines and other facilities, including certain tank facilities used in the transportation of such liquids. These requirements are complex, subject to change and, in certain cases, can be costly to comply with. We believe our operations are in substantial compliance with these regulations, but we cannot be certain that substantial expenditures will not be required to remain in compliance. Moreover, certain of these rules are difficult to insure adequately, and we cannot assure that we will have adequate insurance to address costs and damages from any noncompliance.
The United States Pipeline Safety, Regulatory Certainty and Job Creation Act of 2011 (“Pipeline Safety Act”), finalized in January 2012, increased the maximum civil penalties for certain violations from $100,000 to $200,000 per violation per day and from a total cap of $1 million to $2 million. A number of the provisions of the Pipeline Safety Act have the potential to cause owners and operators of pipeline facilities to incur significant capital expenditures and/or operating costs. In January 2017, PHMSA finalized a new regulation that imposes additional responsibilities concerning the operation, maintenance, and inspection of hazardous liquid pipelines; the reporting of pipeline incidents; reference standards for in-line pipeline inspection and the direct assessment of stress corrosion cracking; and other requirements. Additional potential new regulations of pipelines have been proposed by PHMSA and we are monitoring these developments to the extent applicable to our operations. The DOT has issued guidelines with respect to securing regulated facilities such as our bulk terminals against terrorist attack. We have instituted security measures and procedures in accordance with such guidelines to enhance the protection of certain of our facilities. We cannot provide any assurance that these security measures would fully protect our facilities from an attack.
The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration of the DOT regulates safety standards and monitors drivers and equipment of commercial motor carrier fleets. Such standards include vehicle and maintenance inspection requirements, limitations on the number of hours drivers may operate vehicles and financial responsibility requirements. We believe that the operations of our fleet of crude oil and finished products truck transports are substantially in compliance with these regulations and safety requirements.
We have experienced several crude oil releases from pipelines owned by our logistics segment, including, but not limited to, a release at Magnolia Station in March 2013 (the "Magnolia Release"), a release near Fouke, Arkansas in April 2015 and a release near Woodville, Texas in January 2016. On November 8, 2019, a consent decree (the "Magnolia Consent Decree") was entered in the United States District Court for the Western District of Arkansas to settle a civil action filed by the DOJ and the State of Arkansas against two of Delek Logistics’ wholly-owned subsidiaries related to the Magnolia Release. Under the Magnolia Consent Decree, final payments were made to the State of Arkansas in the amount of $0.6 million and to the DOJ in the amount of $1.7 million, which amounts include interest.
On October 3, 2019, a release of diesel fuel involving one of our pipelines occurred near Sulphur Springs, Texas (the "Sulphur Springs Release"). Cleanup operations and site maintenance and remediation on this release have been substantially completed and costs related to the release
Business and Properties
totaled $7.1 million as of December 31, 2019. Ground water wells for monitoring activities are expected to be installed in February 2020. We expect the monitoring period will last for at least a year. As of the date of this filing, we have not received notification that any legal action with respect to fines and penalties will be pursued by the regulatory agencies.
We fund our business operations through cash generated from our operating activities, borrowings under our debt facilities and periodic issuances of equity and debt securities. For additional information, see Item 7, Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
As of December 31, 2019, we had approximately 3,814 employees, of whom 1,299 were employed in our refining segment, 197 were employed by Delek for the benefit of our logistics segment, 1,707 were employed in our retail segment and 587 were employed at our corporate office. Approximately 3,600 of our employees are employed on a full-time basis. Approximately, 550 of our employees are covered by collective bargaining agreements having various expiration dates between 2021 and 2022. We consider our relations with our employees to be satisfactory. See further discussion in Note 22 of our consolidated financial statements included in Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
We lease our corporate headquarters at 7102 Commerce Way, Brentwood, Tennessee. The lease is for 54,000 square feet of office space. The lease term expires in May 2022.
Liens and Encumbrances
The majority of the assets described in this Form 10-K are pledged and encumbered under certain of our debt facilities. See Note 11 of the consolidated financial statements included in Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information.
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
We are subject to numerous known and unknown risks, many of which are presented below and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. You should carefully consider each of the following risks and all of the other information contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K in evaluating us and our common stock. Any of the risk factors described below, or additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us, or that we currently deem immaterial, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations. The headings provided in this Item 1A are for convenience and reference purposes only and shall not limit or otherwise affect the extent or interpretation of the risk factors.
Risks Relating to Our Industries
A substantial or extended decline in refining margins would reduce our operating results and cash flows and could materially and adversely impact our future rate of growth and the carrying value of our assets.
Our earnings, cash flow and profitability from our refining operations are substantially determined by the difference between the market price of refined products and the market price of crude oil, which often move independently of each other and are referred to as the crack spread, refining margin or refined products margin. Refining margins historically have been volatile, and we believe they will continue to be volatile. Although we monitor our refinery operating margins and seek to optimize results by adjusting throughput volumes, throughput types and product slates, there are inherent limitations on our ability to offset the effects of adverse market conditions.
Many of the factors influencing changes in crack spreads and refining margins are beyond our control. These factors include:
changes in global and local economic conditions, e.g., as a result of the recent outbreak of the novel coronavirus;
domestic and foreign supply and demand for crude oil and refined products;
the level of foreign and domestic production of crude oil and refined petroleum products;
increased regulation of feedstock production activities, such as hydraulic fracturing;
infrastructure limitations that restrict, or events that disrupt, the distribution of crude oil, other feedstocks and refined petroleum products;
excess or overbuilt infrastructure;
an increase or decrease of infrastructure limitations (or the perception that such an increase or decrease could occur) on the distribution of crude oil, other feedstocks or refined products;
investor speculation in commodities;
worldwide political conditions, particularly in significant oil producing regions such as the Middle East, Africa, the former Soviet Union and South America;
the ability or inability of the members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries to maintain oil price and production controls;
pricing and other actions taken by competitors that impact the market;
the level of crude oil, other feedstocks and refined petroleum products imported into and exported out of the United States;
excess capacity and utilization rates of refineries worldwide;
development and marketing of alternative and competing fuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel;
changes in fuel specifications required by environmental and other laws, particularly with respect to oxygenates and sulfur content;
local factors, including market conditions, adverse weather conditions and the level of operations of other refineries and pipelines in our markets;
volatility in the costs of natural gas and electricity used by our refineries;
accidents, interruptions in transportation, inclement weather or other events, including cyber-attacks, that can cause unscheduled shutdowns or otherwise adversely affect our refineries or the supply and delivery of crude oil from third parties; and
United States government regulations.
Some of these factors can vary by region and may change quickly, adding to market volatility, while others may have longer-term effects. The long-term effects of these and other factors on prices for crude oil, refinery feedstocks and refined products could be substantial.
The crude oil we purchase, and the refined products we sell, are commodities whose prices are mainly determined by market forces beyond our control. While an increase or decrease in the price of crude oil will often result in a corresponding increase or decrease in the wholesale price of refined products, a change in the price of one commodity does not always result in a corresponding change in the other. A substantial or prolonged increase in crude oil prices without a corresponding increase in refined product prices, or a substantial or prolonged decrease in refined product prices without a corresponding decrease in crude oil prices, could also have a significant negative effect on our results of operations and cash flows. This is especially true for non-transportation refined products, such as asphalt, butane, coke, sulfur, propane and slurry, whose prices are less likely to correlate to fluctuations in the price of crude oil, all of which we produce at our refineries.
Also, the price for a significant portion of the crude oil processed at our refineries is based upon the WTI benchmark for such oil rather than the Brent benchmark. While the prices for WTI and Brent historically correlate to one another, elevated supply of WTI-priced crude oil in the Mid-Continent region has caused WTI prices to fall significantly below Brent prices at different points in time in recent years. During the years ended December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2019, this daily differential ranged from highs of $11.37 and $10.99, respectively, to lows of $1.37 and $3.53, respectively. Our ability to purchase and process favorably priced crude oil has allowed us to achieve higher net income and cash flow in recent years; however, we cannot assure that these favorable conditions will continue. A substantial or prolonged narrowing in (or inversion to) the price differential between the WTI and Brent benchmarks for any reason, including, without limitation, increased crude oil distribution capacity from the Permian Basin, crude oil exports from the United States or actual or perceived reductions in Mid-Continent crude oil inventories, could negatively impact our earnings and cash flows, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, because the premium or discount we pay for a portion of the crude oil processed at our refineries is established based upon this differential during the month prior to the month in which the crude oil is processed, rapid decreases in the differential may negatively affect our results of operations and cash flows.
Additionally, governmental and regulatory actions, including continued resolutions by the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries to restrict crude oil production levels and executive actions by the current U.S. presidential administration to advance certain energy infrastructure projects may continue to impact crude oil prices and crude oil differentials. Any increase in crude oil prices or unfavorable movements in crude oil differentials due to such actions or changing regulatory environment may negatively impact our ability to acquire crude oil at economical prices and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We operate in a highly regulated industry and increased costs of compliance with, or liability for violation of, existing or future laws, regulations and other requirements could significantly increase our costs of doing business, thereby adversely affecting our profitability.
Our industry is subject to extensive laws, regulations, permits and other requirements including, but not limited to, those relating to the environment, fuel composition, safety, transportation, pipeline tariffs, employment, labor, immigration, minimum wages, overtime pay, health care benefits, working conditions, public accessibility, retail fuel pricing, the sale of alcohol and tobacco and other requirements. These permits, laws and regulations are enforced by federal agencies including the EPA, DOT, PHMSA, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration ("FMCSA"), Federal Railroad Administration ("FRA"), OSHA, National Labor Relations Board ("NLRB"), Equal Employment Opportunity Commission ("EEOC"), Federal Trade Commission ("FTC") and the FERC, and numerous other state and federal agencies. We anticipate that compliance with environmental, health and safety regulations could require us to spend significant amounts in capital costs during the next five years. These estimates do not include amounts related to capital investments that management has deemed to be strategic investments. These amounts could materially change as a result of governmental and regulatory actions.
Various permits, licenses, registrations and other authorizations are required under these laws for the operation of our refineries, biodiesel facilities, terminals, pipelines, retail locations and related operations, and these permits are subject to renewal and modification that may require operational changes involving significant costs. If key permits cannot be renewed or are revoked, the ability to continue operation of the affected facilities could be threatened.
Ongoing compliance with, or violation of, laws, regulations and other requirements could also have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. We face potential exposure to future claims and lawsuits involving environmental matters, including, but not limited to, soil, groundwater and waterway contamination, air pollution, personal injury and property damage allegedly caused by substances we manufactured, handled, used, released or disposed. We are, and have been, the subject of various state, federal and private proceedings relating to environmental regulations, conditions and inquiries.
In addition, new legal requirements, new interpretations of existing legal requirements, increased legislative activity and governmental enforcement and other developments could require us to make additional unforeseen expenditures. Companies in the petroleum industry, such as us, are often the target of activist and regulatory activity regarding pricing, safety, environmental compliance, derivatives trading and other business practices, which could result in price controls, fines, increased taxes or other actions affecting the conduct of our business. The specific impact of laws and regulations or other actions may vary depending on a number of factors, including the age and location of operating facilities, marketing areas, crude oil and feedstock sources and production processes.
We generate wastes that may be subject to RCRA and comparable state and local requirements. The EPA and various state agencies have limited the approved methods of managing, transporting, recycling and disposal of hazardous and certain non-hazardous wastes. Our refineries are large quantity generators of hazardous waste and require hazardous waste permits issued by the EPA or state agencies. Additionally, certain of our other facilities, such as terminals and biodiesel plants, generate lesser quantities of hazardous wastes.
Under RCRA, the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act ("CERCLA") and other federal, state and local environmental laws, as the owner or operator of refineries, biodiesel plants, bulk terminals, pipelines, tank farms, rail cars, trucks and retail locations, we may be liable for the costs of removal or remediation of contamination at our existing or former locations, whether we knew of, or were responsible for, the presence of such contamination. We have incurred such liability in the past, and several of our current and former locations are the subject of ongoing remediation projects. The failure to timely report and properly remediate contamination may subject us to liability to third parties and may adversely affect our ability to sell or rent our property or to borrow money using our property as collateral. Additionally, persons who arrange for the disposal or treatment of hazardous substances also may be liable for the costs of removal or remediation of these substances at sites where they are located, regardless of whether the site is owned or operated by that person. We typically arrange for the treatment or disposal of hazardous
substances generated by our refining and other operations. Therefore, we may be liable for removal or remediation costs associated with releases of these substances at third party locations, as well as other related costs, including fines, penalties and damages resulting from injuries to persons, property and natural resources. Our El Dorado refinery is a minor potentially responsible party at a Superfund site, for which we expect our costs to be non-material. In the future, we may incur substantial expenditures for investigation or remediation of contamination that has not been discovered at our current or former locations or locations that we may acquire or at third party sites where hazardous substances from these locations have been treated or disposed.
Our operations are subject to certain requirements of the CAA, as well as related state and local laws and regulations governing air emissions. Certain CAA regulatory programs applicable to our refineries, terminals and other operations require capital expenditures for the installation of air pollution control devices, operational procedures to minimize emissions and monitoring and reporting of emissions. In 2012, the EPA announced an industry-wide enforcement initiative directed at flaring operations and performance at refineries and petrochemical plants and finalized revisions to NSPS Subpart Ja that primarily affects flares and process heaters. We completed capital and other projects at our refineries related to flare compliance with NSPS Ja in 2015 and 2016.
A consent decree was entered in the United States District Court for the Northern District of Texas in June 2019 resolving alleged historical violations of the CAA at our Big Spring refinery. In addition to a civil penalty of $0.5 million that we paid in June 2019, we will be required to expend capital for pollution control equipment that may be significant over the next 10 years. According to the EPA, approximately 95% of the nation's refining capacity has entered into "global" settlements under the EPA National Refinery Initiative. Our El Dorado and Tyler refineries entered into similar global settlements in 2002 and 2009. A similar consent decree covering the Krotz Springs refinery entered into in 2005 by a previous owner was terminated by the court in October 2017.
In 2015, the EPA finalized reductions in the NAAQS for ozone, from 75 ppb to 70 ppb. Our Tyler refinery is located near areas that have been reclassified as being in non-attainment with the new standard. However, the refinery area has not been classified as being in non-attainment with the new standard. If air quality near our facilities worsens in the future, it is possible that these area(s) could be reclassified as being in non-attainment for the new ozone standard which could require us to install additional air pollution control equipment for ozone forming emissions in the future. We do not believe such capital expenditures, or the changes in our operation, will result in a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
In late 2015, the EPA finalized additional rules regulating refinery air emissions from a variety of sources (such as cokers, flares, tanks and other process units) through additional NSPS and National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants and changing the way emissions from startup, shutdown and malfunction operations are regulated (the "Refinery Risk and Technology Review Rules" or “RTR”). The RTR rule also requires that we monitor property line benzene concentrations at our refineries, and report those concentrations quarterly to the EPA, which will make the results available to the public. Even though the concentrations are not expected to exceed regulatory or health-based standards, the availability of such data may increase the likelihood of lawsuits against our refineries by the local public or organized public interest groups. Delek has obtained 1-year compliance extensions to certain provisions of the rule. Most of the capital cost needed to comply with these new rules has already been spent. We do not anticipate that any additional capital costs or future operating costs will be material, and do not believe compliance will affect our production capacities or have a material adverse effect upon our business, financial condition or results of operations.
In addition to our operations, many of the fuel products we manufacture are subject to requirements of the CAA, as well as related state and local laws and regulations. The EPA has the authority, under the CAA, to modify the formulation of the refined transportation fuel products we manufacture, in order to limit the emissions associated with their final use. In 2007, the EPA issued final Mobile Source Air Toxic II rules for gasoline formulation that required the reduction of annual average benzene content by July 1, 2012. We have purchased credits in the past to comply with these content requirements for two of our refineries. Although credits have been readily available, there can be no assurance that such credits will continue to be available for purchase at reasonable prices, or at all, and we could have to implement capital projects in the future to reduce benzene levels.
In March 2014, the EPA issued final Tier 3 gasoline rules that require a reduction in annual average gasoline sulfur content from 30 ppm to 10 ppm by January 1, 2017 for "large refineries" and retains the current maximum per-gallon sulfur content limit of 80 ppm. In April 2016, the EPA finalized a change to the Tier 3 standard, requiring small volume refineries that increase their annual average crude processing rate above 75,000 bpd to meet the Tier 3 sulfur limits 30 months from that “disqualifying” date. Under the final rules, all of our refineries are considered “small refineries” and are exempt until January 1, 2020. We anticipate that our refineries will meet these new limits when they become effective and that capital spending at our refineries to achieve compliance by the effective date were $12.0 million through 2019. We do not anticipate that this rule change will affect our refineries.
Our operations are also subject to the CWA, the OPA-90 and comparable state and local requirements. The CWA, and similar laws, prohibit any discharge into surface waters, ground waters, injection wells and publicly-owned treatment works, except as allowed by pre-treatment permits and NPDES permits issued by federal, state and local governmental agencies. The OPA-90 prohibits the discharge of oil into "Waters of the U.S." and requires that affected facilities have plans in place to respond to spills and other discharges. The CWA also regulates filling or discharges to wetlands and other "Waters of the U.S." In 2015, the EPA, in conjunction with the Army Corps of Engineers, issued a final rule expanding the definition of “Waters of the U.S.” The rule, which was subject to litigation and judicial stays, was repealed in December 2019 and the EPA and the Army Corps of Engineers have published a proposed rule containing an alternative definition of “Waters of the U.S.” that is intended to increase predictability and consistency and generally adopts a narrower definition than the 2015 rule. However, legal challenges continue and the ultimate resolution is uncertain at this time. To the extent a final rule expands the scope of the CWA’s jurisdiction, we could face increased operating costs
or other impediments that could alter the way we conduct our business, which could in turn have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We are subject to regulation by the DOT and various state agencies in connection with our pipeline, trucking and rail transportation operations. These regulatory authorities exercise broad powers, governing activities such as the authorization to operate hazardous materials pipelines and engage in motor carrier operations. There are additional regulations specifically relating to the transportation industry, including integrity management of pipelines, testing and specification of equipment, product handling and labeling requirements and personnel qualifications. The transportation industry is subject to possible regulatory and legislative changes that may affect the economics of our business by requiring changes in operating practices or pipeline construction or by changing the demand for common or contract carrier services or the cost of providing trucking services. Possible changes include, among other things, increasingly stringent environmental regulations, increased frequency and stringency for testing and repairing pipelines, replacement of older pipelines, changes in the hours of service regulations that govern the amount of time a driver may drive in any specific period, on-board black box recorder devices or limits on vehicle weight and size and properties of the materials that can be shipped. Required changes to the specifications governing rail cars carrying crude oil will eliminate the most commonly used tank cars or require that such cars be upgraded. In January 2017, PHMSA announced they were considering limits on the volatility of crude oil that could be shipped by rail and other modes of transportation. These rules could limit the availability of tank cars to transport crude to our refineries and increase the cost of crude oil transported by rail or truck. In addition to the substantial remediation costs that could be caused by leaks or spills from our pipelines, regulators could prohibit our use of affected portions of the pipeline for extended periods, thereby interrupting the delivery of crude oil to, or the distribution of refined products from, our refineries.
In addition, the DOT has issued guidelines with respect to securing regulated facilities such as our bulk terminals against terrorist attack. We have instituted security measures and procedures in accordance with such guidelines to enhance the protection of certain of our facilities. We cannot provide any assurance that these security measures would fully protect our facilities from an attack.
Our operations are subject to various laws and regulations relating to occupational health and safety and process safety administered by OSHA, the EPA and various state equivalent agencies. We maintain safety, training, design standards, mechanical integrity and maintenance programs as part of our ongoing efforts to ensure compliance with applicable laws and regulations and to protect the safety of our workers and the public. More stringent laws or regulations or adverse changes in the interpretation of existing laws or regulations by government agencies could have an adverse effect on our financial position and the results of our operations and could require substantial expenditures for the installation and operation of systems and equipment.
Health and safety legislation and regulations change frequently. We cannot predict what additional health and safety legislation or regulations will be enacted or become effective in the future or how existing or future laws or regulations will be administered or interpreted with respect to our operations. Compliance with applicable health and safety laws and regulations has required, and continues to require, substantial expenditures. Future process safety rules could also mandate changes to the way we operate, the processes and chemicals we use and the materials from which our process units are constructed. Such regulations could have a significant negative effect on our operations and profitability. For example, in response to Executive Order 13650, Improving Chemical Facility Safety and Security, OSHA announced it intends to propose comprehensive changes to the process safety requirements, although they have not yet formally proposed any revisions. In January 2017, the EPA finalized changes to process safety requirements in its Risk Management Program rules that require evaluation of safer alternatives and technologies, expanded routine audits, independent third-party audits following certain process safety events and increased sharing of information with the public and emergency response organizations. In January 2017, OSHA announced changes to its National Emphasis Program, and specifically identified oil refineries as facilities for increased inspections. The changes also instruct inspectors to use data gathered from EPA Risk Management Plan inspections to identify refiners for additional Process Safety Management inspections.
Environmental regulations are becoming more stringent, and new environmental and safety laws and regulations are continuously being enacted or proposed. Compliance with any future legislation or regulation of our produced fuels, including renewable fuel or carbon content; GHG emissions; sulfur, benzene or other toxic content; vapor pressure; octane; or other fuel characteristics, may result in increased capital and operating costs and may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial conditions or results of operations. While it is impractical to predict the impact that potential regulatory and activist activity may have, such future activity may result in increased costs to operate and maintain our facilities, as well as increased capital outlays to improve our facilities. Such future activity could also adversely affect our ability to expand production, result in damaging publicity about us, or reduce demand for our products. Our need to incur costs associated with complying with any resulting new legal or regulatory requirements that are substantial and not adequately provided for, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our operating responsibility for bulk product terminals and refined product pipelines includes responsibility to ensure the quality and purity of the products loaded at our loading racks. If our quality control measures were to fail, we may have contaminated or off-specification products in pipelines and storage tanks or off-specification product could be sent to public gasoline stations. These types of incidents could result in product liability claims from our customers, as well as negative publicity. Product liability is a significant commercial risk. Substantial damage awards have been made in certain jurisdictions against manufacturers and resellers based upon claims for injuries caused by the use of or exposure to various products. There can be no assurance that product liability claims against us would not have a material adverse effect on our business or results of operations or our ability to maintain existing customers or retain new customers.
The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the "Dodd-Frank Act") is comprehensive financial reform legislation that, among other things, establishes comprehensive federal oversight and regulation of over-the-counter derivatives and many of the entities that participate