10-K 1 dkng-20231231.htm 10-K dkng-20231231
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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
ýANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
or
¨TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from ________ to ________.
Commission file number 001-41379 
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DRAFTKINGS INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Nevada87-2764212
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
222 Berkeley Street, 5th Floor
Boston, MA 02116
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
(617) 986-6744
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class Trading symbol Name of each exchange on which registered
Class A Common Stock, $0.0001 par value DKNG The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ý  No ¨
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
Yes ¨  No ý
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ý    No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Registration S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ý    No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerý Accelerated filer¨
Non-accelerated filer¨ Smaller reporting company¨
   Emerging growth company¨
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨



Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. ý

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant's executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).
Yes ¨    No ý
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2023, the last business day of the registrant's most recently completed second fiscal quarter, was $10.9 billion based upon the closing price reported for such date on the Nasdaq Global Select Market.
As of February 14, 2024, there were 473,619,528 shares of the registrant’s Class A common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, and 393,013,951 shares of the registrant’s Class B common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, outstanding.
Documents Incorporated by Reference:
Portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement for its 2024 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, or the Proxy Statement, to be filed within 120 days after the end of the fiscal year covered by this Annual Report on Form 10-K, are incorporated by reference in Part III. Except with respect to information specifically incorporated by reference in this Annual Report, the Proxy Statement shall not be deemed to be filed as part hereof.




TABLE OF CONTENTS
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Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
 
This Annual Report on Form 10-K (this “Annual Report”) contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the “safe harbor” provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 that reflect future plans, estimates, beliefs and expected performance. The forward-looking statements depend upon events, risks and uncertainties that may be outside of our control. The words “anticipate,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intends,” “may,” “might,” “plan,” “possible,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “will,” “would,” “forecast,” “propose,” and similar expressions or the negative of these words may identify forward-looking statements, but the absence of these words does not mean that a statement is not forward-looking. You are cautioned that our business and operations are subject to a variety of risks and uncertainties, many of which are beyond our control, and, consequently, our actual results may differ materially from those projected.
 
Factors that could cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, those identified below and those discussed in the section entitled “Risk Factors” included elsewhere in this Annual Report. Any statements contained herein that are not statements of historical fact may be forward-looking statements.

factors relating to our business, operations and financial performance, including:
our ability to effectively compete in the global entertainment and gaming industries;
our ability to successfully acquire and integrate new operations;
our ability to obtain and maintain licenses with gaming authorities;
our inability to recognize deferred tax assets and tax loss carryforwards;
market and global conditions and economic factors beyond our control, as well as the potential impact of general economic conditions, including inflation and rising interest rates, on our liquidity, operations and personnel;
significant competition and competitive pressures from other companies worldwide in the industries in which we operate;
our ability to raise financing in the future;
our success in retaining or recruiting officers, key employees or directors; and
litigation and the ability to adequately protect our intellectual property rights.

Due to the uncertain nature of these factors, management cannot assess the impact of each factor on the business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements.
 
Any forward-looking statement speaks only as of the date on which such statement is made, and we undertake no obligation to update any of these statements to reflect events or circumstances occurring after the date of this Annual Report, except as required by applicable law. New factors may emerge and it is not possible to predict all factors that may affect our business and prospects.
 
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PART I
 
On May 5, 2022 (the “GNOG Closing Date”), DraftKings Inc. (formerly New Duke Holdco, Inc.) consummated the acquisition of Golden Nugget Online Gaming, Inc., a Delaware corporation (together with its subsidiaries unless the context requires otherwise, “GNOG”), pursuant to a definitive agreement and plan of merger, dated August 9, 2021 (the “GNOG Merger Agreement”), in an all-stock transaction (the “GNOG Transaction”). In connection with the GNOG Transaction, DraftKings Inc. undertook a holding company reorganization whereby DraftKings Inc. became the going-forward public company and the direct parent company of both DraftKings Holdings Inc. (formerly DraftKings Inc.), a Nevada corporation (“Old DraftKings”), and GNOG. DraftKings Inc. is the registrant filing this Annual Report on Form 10-K as the successor registrant for Old DraftKings. Unless otherwise indicated or the context otherwise requires, the terms “DraftKings”, the “Company”, “we”, “us” and “our” refer to DraftKings Inc. (or, in respect of periods prior to the GNOG Closing Date, Old DraftKings), together with its consolidated subsidiaries.

Item 1. Business.
 
Overview
 
We are a digital sports entertainment and gaming company. We provide users with online sports betting (“Sportsbook”), online casino (“iGaming”) and daily fantasy sports (“DFS”) product offerings, as well as retail sportsbook, media and other consumer product offerings. We are also involved in the design and development of sports betting and casino gaming software for online and retail sportsbooks and iGaming operators.
 
Our mission is to make life more exciting by responsibly creating the world’s favorite real-money games and betting experiences. We accomplish this by creating an environment where our users can find enjoyment and fulfillment through Sportsbook, iGaming, and DFS, as well as media and other online consumer product offerings. We are also highly focused on our responsibility as a steward of this new era in real-money gaming. Our ethics guide our decision making, with respect to both the tradition and integrity of sports and our investments in regulatory compliance and consumer protection.

We continue to make deliberate and substantial investments in support of our mission and long-term growth. For example, we have invested in our product offerings and technology in order to continuously launch new product innovations; improve marketing, merchandising, and operational efficiency through data science; and deliver a great user experience. We also make significant investments in sales and marketing and incentives to grow and retain our paid user base, including personalized cross-product offers and promotions, and promote brand awareness to attract the “skin-in-the-game” sports fan. Together, these investments have enabled us to create a leading product built on scalable technology, while attracting a user base that has resulted in the rapid growth of our business.

Our priorities are to (a) continue to invest in our product offerings, (b) launch our product offerings in new jurisdictions, (c) create replicable and predictable state-level unit economics in sports betting and iGaming and (d) expand our consumer product offerings. When we launch Sportsbook and iGaming product offerings in a new jurisdiction, we invest heavily in user acquisition, retention and cross-selling until the new jurisdiction provides a critical mass of users engaged across our product offerings.

Our current technology is highly scalable with relatively minimal incremental spend required to launch our product offerings in new jurisdictions. We will continue to manage our fixed-cost base in conjunction with our market entry plans and focus our variable spend on marketing, user experience and support and regulatory compliance to become the product of choice for users and to maintain favorable relationships with regulators. We also expect to improve our profitability over time as our revenue and gross profit expand as states mature, and our variable marketing expenses and fixed costs stabilize or grow at a slower rate.
 
Our path to profitability on an annual basis is based on the acceleration of positive contribution profit growth driven by increased revenue and gross profit generation from ongoing efficient customer acquisition enabled by the transition from local to regional to national advertising, strong customer retention, improved monetization from frequency and higher hold percentage, as well as scale benefits from investments in our product offerings and technology and general and administrative functions. On a consolidated Adjusted EBITDA basis, we expect to achieve profitability on an annual basis when total contribution profit exceeds the fixed costs of our business, which depends, in part, on the percentage of the U.S. adult population that has access to our product offerings and the other factors summarized in the section entitled “Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements”.
 
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During the fiscal years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, we had revenue of $3,665.4 million, $2,240.5 million, and $1,296.0 million, respectively, average monthly unique payers (“MUPs”) of 2.7 million, 1.9 million, and 1.5 million, respectively, and average revenue per MUP (“ARPMUP”) of $113, $96, and $67, respectively. Refer to the section entitled “Key Performance Indicators” within Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations included herein for additional information regarding our MUPs and ARPMUP.
 
Our Product Offerings
 
Our revenues are predominantly generated through our three online gaming product offerings — Sportsbook, iGaming, and DFS. For Sportsbook and iGaming, we operate under both our DraftKings brand and our GNOG brand. We consider these three product offerings to be of a similar product class, and together they accounted for 96%, 94%, and 88% of DraftKings’ revenues for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively. DFS, which was our sole product offering until 2018, historically drove our results; however, since we launched Sportsbook and iGaming in 2018, states where Sportsbook and iGaming are operating have accounted for a rapidly growing proportion of our users, which has contributed, in part, to our revenue growth. In addition to our three online gaming product offerings, we also offer non fungible tokens (“NFTs”) on DraftKings Marketplace (“Marketplace”), NFT-based DFS-style contests, gaming software services, and advertising and sponsorship packages to targeted advertisers across our DFS product offering, free games, and media content.
 
Below is a description of each of our primary product offerings and services:

Online Gaming Product Offerings
 
Sportsbook - Sportsbook engages consumers in their sports viewing experience. Sports betting involves a user placing a bet by wagering money on an event at fixed odds (“proposition”) determined by DraftKings. In the event the user wins, DraftKings pays out the bet. Our Sportsbook revenue is generated by setting odds that are intended to provide a built-in theoretical margin for each proposition offered to our users. While the actual betting patterns of our users and outcomes of individual events may cause short-term volatility in our revenue and profitability, we believe we can deliver a stable and attractive betting win margin over the long term.
 
Revenue is realized by taking the settled handle for betting markets that have been resolved and subtracting the payouts for these betting markets such that the difference is our gross revenue, or “hold.”
 
iGaming - iGaming, or online casino, product offerings typically include the full suite of games available in land-based casinos, such as blackjack, roulette, baccarat and slot machines. For these product offerings, we function similarly to land-based casinos, generating revenue through hold, or gross winnings, as users play against the house. In iGaming, we believe there is typically lower volatility in hold percentage versus land-based casinos since the average return to a player for specific games is easier to predict in advance based on game rules and statistics.
 
Our iGaming product offering consists of a combination of games that we have built in-house and licensed content from suppliers such as International Gaming Technology, iForium, Light & Wonder Inc., Spin, and Evolution for live dealer services. The latter are subject to standard revenue-sharing agreements specific to each supplier, whereby the supplier receives a percentage of the gaming revenue generated from their respective casino games played utilizing our technology. In exchange, DraftKings receives a limited license to offer the games to users in jurisdictions where use is approved by regulatory authorities. Revenue generated through our self-developed major casino games such as blackjack results in decreased overall revenue share payments as a percent of revenue.

Daily Fantasy Sports - Since our launch, we have monetized our DFS product offering by facilitating peer-to-peer play, whereby contestants compete against each other for prize money. We provide contestants with technology that establishes DFS contests, scores the contests, distributes the prizes and performs other administrative activities to enable the “skin-in-the-game” sports fan experience. Our revenue from DFS consists of the difference between the entry fees collected and the amounts paid out to contestants as prizes in a period.

Other Consumer Product Offerings
 
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Retail Sportsbook - In addition to our online Sportsbook, we also maintain retail distribution in thirteen states, in which our retail revenue is subject to individual agreements with third parties that provide for a revenue share. Retail distribution leverages the foot traffic for existing casino and other properties to convert their customers to engage with our retail sportsbook while on the premises. Similar to our online Sportsbook, retail sportsbook revenue is realized by taking the settled handle for betting markets that have been resolved and subtracting the payouts for these betting markets such that the difference is our gross revenue, or “hold.”

Media, Advertising and Sponsorship - Our advertising packages range from standard ad placements and background ad placements to more high-touch integrations, such as sponsored DFS contest series or custom site takeovers. These are typically served and tracked by a range of advertising methods that have been built directly into our product offerings and feature partnerships with brand categories ranging from entertainment to food to automotive. Each advertising package is bespoke, and we offer each client a custom “menu” of advertising options, which include online media (such as display, video and audio advertisements and page and “skin” sponsorship takeovers), custom content, including branded video content, live events such as sponsored watch parties and sponsored free or paid games, including daily fantasy, pick’em and bracket games. Each advertising package has a different pricing model, with a variety of factors affecting the pricing of a particular package including, but not limited to, (i) the sport to which the package relates and (ii) the demand for, and supply of, the individual package components. Sponsorships and custom-built games and content typically have fixed fee pricing. Other packages, such as custom-branded video content or online advertisements, are sold with a guaranteed number of impressions, which are priced per a certain number of guaranteed impressions. Each time a consumer sees an advertisement while playing, watching, reading or listening to a piece of content or playing a game, an impression is counted.

DraftKings Marketplace - We launched DraftKings Marketplace during the third quarter of 2021. Marketplace is a NFT ecosystem designed for mainstream accessibility that offers curated initial NFT drops (“Primary Sales”) and allows owners of NFTs on Marketplace to list their NFTs for sale to other Marketplace customers (“Secondary Sales”). Once marked for sale with a chosen selling price, the NFT will appear on the Marketplace secondary market. Customers can browse all available NFTs within the secondary market and can opt to purchase based on the selling price. The revenue we earn on Primary Sales and Secondary Sales is based on a specific percentage of the gross value of each such sale. We also offer NFT-based DFS-style contests through our Reignmakers franchise.

Gaming Software Services

We supply business-to-business sports betting and iGaming services globally, primarily in Europe and the United States, for various gaming operators and government-run lotteries. Our gaming software services are primarily comprised of the operations of SBTech (Global) Limited (“SBTech”), which we acquired on April 23, 2020, with principal activities involving the design and development of sports betting and casino gaming software. Our services are delivered through our proprietary software, and our complementary service offerings include trading and risk management and support for reporting, customer management and regulatory reporting requirements. Our gaming software services generate revenue from operators by providing sports betting and integration to iGaming content directly to operators in exchange for a share of operators’ revenues.
 
Offsetting the revenues attributable to our Sportsbook, iGaming, DFS, and Marketplace product offerings is the portion of gross revenue that we allocate to new and existing user incentives and promotions, which are awarded as a result of game play or at our discretion, through loyalty programs, free plays, deposit bonuses, discounts, rebates or other rewards and incentives. These offsets can be redeemed across multiple product offerings and are generally used to acquire new users, reactivate prior users and increase monetization from active users; therefore, these offsets are not directly attributable to a specific product offering, but rather attributable at a customer level. We leverage our return-on-investment models that are based on gross profit paybacks, lifetime value, player segmentation and customer and revenue retention to determine appropriate promotional levels.
 
Seasonality
 
Our business experiences seasonality primarily based on the relative popularity of certain sports. Although sporting events occur throughout the year, our users are typically most active in the fourth quarter due to the overlapping calendars of the NFL and NBA seasons, which are the most popular sports on our Sportsbook product offering.
 
Our Technology and Product Development
 
In order to build the best real-money games and product offerings, we have invested in core disciplines across our technology, analytics and marketing, which have allowed us to rapidly innovate and bring new experiences to market while gaining a unique understanding of our users. The result has been leadership in our industry, fueled by a brand reputation and a depth of user trust that we believe has set us apart from our competitors.
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Our product offerings are comprised of varying levels of proprietary and third-party software. Our DraftKings-branded product offerings are bound together with a common account management and regulatory compliance service and can be accessed with the same account and wallet. Across our product offerings, we have endeavored to own the technology in-house for any critical component and to utilize a combination of technologies, including data science and machine learning, to optimize conversion and efficiency.
 
DraftKings’ core product offerings are built on top of integrated, proprietary account management technology. This technology provides our users with access to their account history across all DraftKings-branded product offerings and a uniform identity verification system, which is critical to enabling seamless navigation from our national DFS audience to our DraftKings-branded Sportsbook and iGaming product offerings and vice versa, as existing users need not manage a separate set of account credentials and payment methods for each product offering. Our users also enjoy a highly functional wallet which, in many cases, permits user funds to flow freely from product offering to product offering. The technology is certified to safely store user payment information, which reduces our dependency on any particular payment processor, provides redundancy and gives us the flexibility to route our payment volume to a processor of our choosing. In addition, our technology is built to be customizable to the specific regulations of individual jurisdictions.
 
Across our product offerings, we actively use data science and machine learning to help optimize conversion and monetization. Within our DFS product offering, data science algorithms are used to customize a contestant’s home screen based upon his or her past entry history. We build recommendations by identifying the type of contests that a contestant is most likely to enter, along with the entry fee and prize structure that he or she will find most appealing. In addition, contest-pacing algorithms identify contests that might present a financial exposure and increase the contests’ visibility within the product appropriately. Similarly, within our Sportsbook product offering, recommendation engines are used to present betting markets to users based upon their past play history and location. These services are also critical to our back-end infrastructure, as they drive key elements of our fraud and compliance program.
 
Marketing
 
User Acquisition and Retention - Our ability to effectively market is paramount to our operational success. Utilizing a blend of analytics and data science as our foundation, we leverage our marketing to acquire, retain and reactivate users while building a trusted consumer-facing brand. We use a variety of free and paid marketing channels, in combination with compelling offers and exciting games, to achieve our objectives. Furthermore, we optimize our marketing spend using data collected since the beginning of our operations, as well as additional data that we collect from vendors, partners and data providers. Our marketing spend is based on a return-on-investment model that considers a variety of factors, including the performance of different marketing channels, predicted lifetime value and behavior of users across various product offerings, the location of our users and our estimate of when enabling legislation and regulations for sports betting and iGaming may come to fruition.
 
Where paid marketing is concerned, we leverage a broad array of advertising channels, including television, radio, social media platforms such as Facebook, Instagram, X and Snapchat, affiliates and paid and organic search, and other digital channels such as mobile display. For Sportsbook and iGaming, these efforts are concentrated within the specific jurisdictions that have passed enabling legislation and regulations, and in which we operate or intend to operate (which vary on a per-offering basis). Our marketing expenditures tend to be highly seasonal, with most spend correlating with the start of a sports season and during its playoffs and championships.
 
In addition to traditional paid advertising channels, we cross-promote our product offerings to our existing user base through internal channels such as mobile push notifications, email and text messages, and external channels such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and Snapchat. Through those channels, we use a combination of content, contests and promotions to engage existing users. Additionally, we incentivize our users to refer new users through our “Refer-a-Friend” program, offering incentives such as free entries into tournaments or free bets if the referred user ultimately interacts with our product offerings.
 
League, Team, and Media Relationships - We engage in relationships with sports leagues, including the NFL, NBA, MLB, NHL, and UFC, and professional sports teams to improve our brand awareness, improve user retention and create unique collaborative integrations for our users.
 
We also engage in relationships with media partners including Amazon, which selected DraftKings as a sponsor and official pre-game odds provider for Thursday Night Football (“TNF”) on Prime Video in September 2022. Under the multi-year agreement, TNF on Prime Video will feature DraftKings integrations in its live pregame, including odds and
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additional sports betting insights, as well as other TNF-themed offerings. We also have established partnerships with media entities like Meadowlark Media and iHeartMedia as we seek to grow our audience of U.S. sports fans and potential users.
 
Distribution
 
We distribute our Sportsbook, iGaming, DFS and Marketplace product offerings through various channels, including traditional websites, direct app downloads and global direct-to-consumer digital platforms such as the Apple App Store and the Google Play store. These two digital platforms are the main distribution channels for our product offerings. Our DFS product offering is delivered as a free application through both the Apple App Store and Google Play Store and is also accessible via mobile and traditional websites. Our Sportsbook and iGaming product offerings are primarily distributed through the Apple App Store and a traditional website. We allow our Android Sportsbook and iGaming users to install our Sportsbook and iGaming product offerings through the Google Play Store and our website. We derive nearly all of our revenue through product offerings distributed via the Apple App Store, Google Play Store and via traditional websites. For all of our product offerings, neither Apple nor Google take any revenue share for distribution.
 
For our gaming software services, Sportsbook and iGaming product offerings and services are distributed online via the Apple App Store, Google Play Store and traditional websites by operators that have licensed such products and services directly from us, while retail product offerings and services are distributed primarily via self-service betting terminals and standalone computer terminals. Similarly, Apple and Google do not take any revenue share for distributing those product offerings and services.
 
Intellectual Property
 
Our business substantially relies on the creation, acquisition, use and protection of intellectual property. Some of this intellectual property is in the form of software code, patented technology and trade secrets that we use to develop and properly run our Sportsbook, iGaming, and DFS product offerings and related services. We also create intellectual property that includes proprietary sports betting, iGaming, and DFS-related technology and content, as well as proprietary data acquired from the use of those product offerings.
 
While most of the intellectual property we use is created by us, we have obtained rights to use the intellectual property of third parties through licenses and service agreements with those third parties. Although we believe these licenses are sufficient for the operation of the Company, these licenses typically limit our use of the third parties’ intellectual property to specific uses and for specific time periods.
 
We protect our intellectual property rights by relying on federal, state and common law rights, as well as contractual restrictions. We control access to our proprietary technology by entering into confidentiality and invention assignment agreements with our employees and contractors, and confidentiality agreements with third parties. We also engage in monitoring the activities of third parties with respect to potential infringing uses of our intellectual property by third parties.
 
We actively seek patent protection covering inventions originating from us and, from time to time, review opportunities to acquire patents to the extent we believe such patents may be useful or relevant to our business.
 
In addition to these contractual arrangements, we also rely on a combination of trade secret, copyright, trademark, trade dress, domain name and patents to protect our product offerings and other intellectual property. We typically own the copyright to the software code to our content, as well as trademarks under which our Sportsbook, iGaming, and DFS product offerings and related services are marketed. We pursue the registration of our domain names, trademarks, and service marks in the United States and in locations outside the United States. Our registered trademarks in the United States include “DraftKings,” and the names of certain of our services and applications, among others.
 
Competition
 
We operate in the global entertainment and gaming industries, primarily with our Sportsbook, iGaming, DFS, and Marketplace product offerings. Our users face a vast array of entertainment choices. Other forms of entertainment, such as television, movies, sporting events and in-person casinos, are more well established and may be perceived by our users to offer greater variety, affordability, interactivity and enjoyment. We compete with these and other forms of entertainment for the discretionary time and income of our users.
 
The specific industries in which we operate are characterized by dynamic customer demand and technological advances, and there is significant competition among online gaming and entertainment providers. A number of established, well-financed
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companies producing online gaming and/or interactive entertainment products and services compete with our product offerings, and other well-capitalized companies may introduce competitive services. There has also been consolidation among competitors in the entertainment and gaming industries and such consolidation and future consolidation could result in the formation of larger competitors with increased financial resources and altered cost structures, which may enable them to offer more competitive products, gain larger market share, expand their product offerings and broaden their geographic scope of operations.
 
Human Capital Resources

As a multinational technology company with over 4,400 employees located in six countries, our business success is driven by our highly skilled workforce. With our global technology and product team consisting of over 1,900 employees (which includes over 1,400 engineers), we are well positioned to deliver new, innovative and exciting products to our growing base of customers.

At DraftKings, we recognize that engaging and developing our employees is a key to our success and we rely on attracting and retaining our talent to deliver on DraftKings’ goal to be a leader in today’s fast-growing global entertainment and gaming industries. We routinely measure our employees’ level of engagement and satisfaction through a comprehensive annual engagement survey followed by quarterly pulse surveys. These surveys ensure we hear directly from our valuable employees on how we can better focus on the following areas: (i) alignment with DraftKings’ mission/vision and in-role clarity, (ii) manager effectiveness, (iii) growth opportunities, (iv) inclusion, equity and belonging, (v) work-life balance, (vi) rewards and recognition, (vii) enablement and (viii) overall satisfaction.

We have committed to and formalized employee development programs that support inclusion, equity and belonging, and promote creativity and innovation through various leadership and talent management programs. DraftKings’ talent training programs are designed to provide increased career and internal mobility for our employees, identify development opportunities, and proactively support succession planning.

We also offer our employees a holistic total rewards package with competitive compensation and premier health and welfare programs for employees and their dependents. In addition, most full-time employees receive an equity award upon hire and are also eligible for equity awards on a recurring basis to align compensation with long-term stockholder interests and to allow them to participate in the Company’s financial success. Our paid time off programs enable our workforce to enjoy personal time away from their job responsibilities.
 
Government Regulation

DraftKings is subject to various U.S. and foreign laws and regulations that affect our ability to operate our Sportsbook, iGaming, and DFS product offerings. These product offerings are generally subject to extensive and evolving regulations that could change based on political and social norms and that could be interpreted in ways that could negatively impact our business.

The gaming industry (inclusive of our Sportsbook and iGaming product offerings) is highly regulated and we must maintain licenses and pay gaming taxes or a percentage of revenue where required by the jurisdictions in which we operate in order to continue our operations. Our business is subject to extensive regulation under the laws, rules and regulations of the jurisdictions in which we operate. These laws, rules and regulations generally concern the responsibility, financial stability, integrity and character of the owners, managers and persons with material financial interests in the gaming operations along with the integrity and security of sports betting and iGaming product offerings. Violations of laws or regulations in one jurisdiction could result in disciplinary action in that and other jurisdictions.

Gaming laws are generally based upon declarations of public policy designed to protect gaming consumers and the viability and integrity of the gaming industry. Gaming laws also may be designed to protect and maximize state and local tax revenues, as well as to enhance economic development and tourism. To accomplish these public policy goals, gaming laws establish stringent procedures to ensure that participants in the gaming industry meet certain standards of character and responsibility.

Licensing and Suitability Determinations

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In order to operate in certain jurisdictions, we must obtain either a temporary or permanent license or determination of suitability from the responsible authorities. We seek to ensure that we obtain all necessary licenses and approvals to develop and put forth our product offerings in the jurisdictions in which we operate and where our users are located.

Gaming laws in certain jurisdictions require DraftKings Inc., and each of its subsidiaries engaged in gaming operations, certain of our directors, officers and employees, and in some cases, certain of our stockholders, to obtain licenses from gaming authorities. Such licenses typically require a determination that the applicant qualifies or is suitable to hold the license. When determining whether to grant such a license to an applicant, gaming authorities generally consider: (i) the financial stability, integrity and responsibility of the applicant (including verification of the applicant’s sources of funding); (ii) the quality and security of the applicant’s online real-money gaming platform, hardware and related software (including the platform’s ability to operate in compliance with local regulation, as applicable); (iii) the applicant’s history; (iv) the applicant’s ability to operate its gaming business in a socially responsible manner; and (v) in certain circumstances, the effect on competition.

Gaming authorities may, subject to certain administrative procedural requirements, (i) deny an application, or limit, condition, revoke or suspend any license issued by them; (ii) impose fines, either on a mandatory basis or as a consensual settlement of regulatory action; (iii) demand that named individuals or stockholders be disassociated from a gaming business; and (iv) in serious cases, liaise with local prosecutors to pursue legal action, which may result in civil or criminal penalties.

Events that may trigger revocation of such a gaming license or another form of sanction vary by jurisdiction. However, typical events include, among others: (i) conviction in any jurisdiction of certain persons with an interest in, or key personnel of, the licensee of an offense that is punishable by imprisonment or may otherwise cast doubt on such person’s integrity; (ii) failure without reasonable cause to comply with any material term or condition of the gaming license; (iii) declaration of, or otherwise engaging in, certain bankruptcy, insolvency, winding-up or discontinuance activities, or an order or application with respect to the same; (iv) obtaining the gaming license by a materially false or misleading representation or in some other improper way; (v) violation of applicable anti-money laundering or terrorist financing laws or regulations; (vi) failure to meet commitments to users; (vii) failure to pay in a timely manner all gaming or betting taxes or fees due; or (viii) determination by the gaming authority that there is another material and sufficient reason to revoke or impose another form of sanction upon the licensee.

Product-Specific Licensing

Sportsbook

As of February 13, 2024, 35 U.S. states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico have legalized some form of sports betting. Of those 37 legal jurisdictions, 32 have legalized online sports betting. Of those 32 jurisdictions, 31 are live, and DraftKings operates in 24 of them. As of February 13, 2024, we operate our online sports betting product offering via the DraftKings Sportsbook app in Arizona, Colorado, Connecticut, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia, Wyoming and Ontario, Canada pursuant to our licenses, temporary licenses, or executed vendor agreements granted by the gaming or lottery commission of such states, specifically, the Arizona Department of Gaming, State of Colorado Department of Revenue Division of Gaming, State of Connecticut Department of Consumer Protection, the Illinois Gaming Board, the Indiana Gaming Commission, the Iowa Racing and Gaming Commission, the Kansas Racing and Gaming Commission, the Louisiana Gaming Control Board, the Maine Gambling Control Unit, the Maryland Lottery and Gaming Control Agency, the Massachusetts Gaming Commission, the Michigan Gaming Control Board, the New Hampshire Lottery Commission, the New Jersey Division of Gaming Enforcement, the New York State Gaming Commission, the Ohio Casino Control Commission, the Oregon State Lottery, the Pennsylvania Gaming Control Board, the Tennessee Sports Wagering Council, the Vermont Department of Liquor and Lottery, the Virginia Lottery, the West Virginia Lottery Commission, and the Wyoming Gaming Commission. Additionally, DraftKings operates its online sports betting product offering in the Canadian province of Ontario pursuant to a registration approved by the Alcohol and Gaming Commission of Ontario.

In addition to our DraftKings-branded sports betting product offering, we operate our GNOG-branded online sports betting product offering via the GNOG Sportsbook app in Arizona and New Jersey pursuant to our licenses granted by the respective state’s gaming or lottery commission as described above.

We also operate retail sportsbooks in Arizona, Colorado, Connecticut, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Michigan, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New Jersey and Washington pursuant to state and/or tribal regulatory regimes.

On May 14, 2018, the U.S. Supreme Court issued an opinion determining that the Professional and Amateur Sports Protection Act (“PASPA”) was unconstitutional. PASPA prohibited certain states from “authorizing by law” any form of
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sports betting. In striking down PASPA, the U.S. Supreme Court opened the potential for state-by-state authorization of sports betting. Several states and territories, including Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Puerto Rico, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Tennessee, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, Washington, D.C., West Virginia, and Wyoming already have laws authorizing and regulating some form of sports betting online or in brick-and-mortar establishments. Sports betting in the United States is subject to additional laws, rules and regulations at the state level. See “Risk Factors — Risk Factors Relating to our Business and Industry — Our business is subject to a variety of U.S. and foreign laws, many of which are unsettled and still developing and which could subject us to claims or otherwise harm our business. Any change in existing regulations or their interpretation, or the regulatory climate applicable to our products and services, or changes in tax rules and regulations or interpretation thereof related to our products and services, could adversely impact our ability to operate our business as currently conducted or as we seek to operate in the future, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.”

iGaming

As of February 13, 2024, we operate our DraftKings-branded iGaming product offering in New Jersey pursuant to a transactional waiver granted by the New Jersey Division of Gaming Enforcement, in Connecticut pursuant to a license granted by the State of Connecticut Department of Consumer Protection, in Michigan pursuant to a license granted by the Michigan Gaming Control Board, in the Canadian Province of Ontario pursuant to a license granted by the Alcohol and Gaming Commission of Ontario, in Pennsylvania pursuant to a license granted by the Pennsylvania Gaming Control Board, and in West Virginia pursuant to a license granted by the West Virginia Lottery. In addition, we operate our GNOG-branded iGaming product offering in Michigan, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and West Virginia, subject to licenses or transactional waiver issued by the Michigan Gaming Control Board, the New Jersey Division of Gaming Enforcement, Pennsylvania Gaming Control Board and the West Virginia Lottery, respectively.

Generally, online gambling in the United States is only lawful when specifically permitted under applicable state law. At the federal level, several laws provide federal law enforcement with the authority to enforce and prosecute gambling operations conducted in violation of underlying state gambling laws. These enforcement laws include the Unlawful Internet Gambling Enforcement Act (the “UIGEA”), the Illegal Gambling Business Act and the Travel Act. No violation of the UIGEA, the Illegal Gambling Business Act or the Travel Act can be found absent a violation of an underlying state law or other federal law.

In addition, the Wire Act of 1961 (the “Wire Act”) provides that anyone engaged in the business of betting or wagering knowingly using a wire communication facility for the transmission in interstate or foreign commerce of bets or wagers or information assisting in the placing of bets or wagers on any sporting event or contest, or for the transmission of a wire communication which entitles the recipient to receive money or credit as a result of bets or wagers, or for information assisting in the placing of bets or wagers, may be fined or imprisoned, or both. However, the Wire Act notes that it shall not be construed to prevent the transmission in interstate or foreign commerce of information for use in news reporting of sporting events or contests, or for the transmission of information assisting in the placing of bets or wagers on a sporting event or contest from a state or foreign country where betting on that sporting event or contest is legal into a state or foreign country in which such betting is legal. Although there was previous litigation in the First Circuit as to whether the Wire Act applied beyond sports betting, on January 20, 2021, the United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit held, among other things, that the Wire Act’s prohibitions are limited to bets or wagers on sporting events or contests.

Daily Fantasy Sports

As of February 13, 2024, our DFS product offering is available in 44 U.S. states, the District of Columbia, certain provinces in Canada and the United Kingdom. In those states that currently require a license or registration for DFS operations, DraftKings has either obtained the appropriate license or registration or a provisional license from the relevant regulatory authority or is operating pursuant to a grandfathering clause that allows operation pending the availability of licensing applications and subsequent grant of a license. DraftKings also has a foreign DFS license in the United Kingdom. Various state laws and regulations govern our licenses, but generally such state laws and regulations define paid fantasy sports, establish the rules concerning the application and licensure procedures for gaming operators in the fantasy sports business and regulate practices for paid fantasy sports deemed to be detrimental to the public interest. As part of the licensing process, we must submit, in some jurisdictions, extensive materials on our operations, including our technology and data security, age verification of contestants, segregation of account funds and responsible gaming initiatives.

In the United States, our DFS licenses are generally granted for a predetermined period of time (typically ranging from one to four years) or require documents to be supplied on a regular basis in order to maintain our licenses.

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Outside the United States, we maintain a DFS license in the United Kingdom. In the United Kingdom, online gaming and sports betting is subject to the Gambling Act 2005 (the “GA2005”), as amended by the Gambling (Licensing and Advertising) Act 2014, and the regulations promulgated thereunder. Under the GA2005, entities wishing to offer online sports betting (which for purposes of GA2005 is defined to include DFS) and/or online casino services to persons located in the United Kingdom must first obtain a remote gambling operating license from the Gambling Commission. We hold a remote-pool-betting operating license authorizing us to offer our DFS product offering to residents of the United Kingdom. That license may be varied to add further product categories permitting, for example, fixed-odds-sports betting and online casinos. We also hold a gambling software operating license issued by the Gambling Commission, which authorizes us to develop the DFS software we use. Our British licenses are not limited by a term, subject to the payment of annual fees and compliance with license conditions.

Gaming Software

Our gaming software services, formerly the operations of SBTech, are licensed in various states in the United States and in the United Kingdom, Sweden, and Belgium. Additionally, our gaming software is certified in multiple regulated jurisdictions in accordance with local licenses held by operators utilizing our gaming software in these jurisdictions.

As of February 13, 2024, we supplied our SBTech gaming software to U.S operators in Arizona, Colorado, Connecticut, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia, and Wyoming, and we supplied retail sportsbook gaming software services in Arizona, Colorado, Connecticut, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Michigan, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New Jersey and Washington pursuant to state and/or tribal regulatory regimes.

Data Protection and Privacy

In addition to our licensing regime for our product offerings, we also take significant measures to protect users’ privacy and data. Our programs are described in further detail below.

Because we handle, collect, store, receive, transmit and otherwise process certain personal information of our users and employees, we are subject to U.S. federal and state laws and foreign laws related to the privacy and protection of such data, and we may also face particular privacy, data security and data protection risks in connection with requirements under the amended California Consumer Privacy Act and its implementing regulations, Virginia’s Consumer Data Protection Act, the General Data Protection Regulation of the European Union (EU) 2016/679 (the “GDPR”), and other data protection regulations. Any failure to comply with these rules may result in regulatory fines or penalties including orders that require us to change the way we process data. In the event of a data breach, we are also subject to breach notification laws in the jurisdictions in which we operate, including under the GDPR, and the risk of litigation and regulatory enforcement actions.

Any significant change to applicable laws, regulations, interpretations of laws or regulations, or market practices, regarding the use of personal data, or regarding the manner in which we seek to comply with applicable laws and regulations, could require us to make modifications to our product offerings, services, policies, procedures, notices, and business practices, including potentially material changes. Such changes could potentially have an adverse impact on our business.

Compliance

We have developed and implemented an internal compliance program to help ensure that we comply with legal and regulatory requirements imposed on us in connection with our Sportsbook, iGaming and DFS product offerings. Our compliance program focuses on, among other things, reducing and managing problematic gaming and providing tools to assist users in making educated choices related to gaming activities.

Our gaming software services have been built from the ground up to meet the needs of differing regulatory regimes, including configurable regulatory and responsible gaming controls such as responsible gaming tests, operator alerts on player behavior, deposit limits, betting limits, loss limits, timeout facilities, session limits, reality checks, balance thresholds and intended gaming amounts. These features allow the operators’ customers to control their gaming and play responsibly.

Responsible and Safer Gaming

We view the safety and welfare of our users as critical to our business and have made associated investments in our processes and systems. We are committed to industry-leading responsible gaming practices and seek to provide our users with the resources and services they need to play responsibly. Additionally, all of our employees take responsible gaming training with mandatory periodic refresher training, overseen by our compliance team.
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Available Information
 
Our Internet address is www.DraftKings.com. Our website and the information contained therein or linked thereto are not part of this Annual Report. We make available free of charge through our internet website our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, proxy statements, registration statements and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish them to the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). The SEC maintains a website that contains reports, proxy statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC. These materials may be obtained electronically by accessing the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov.
 
Item 1A. Risk Factors.
 
Our business is subject to numerous risks and uncertainties that you should be aware of in evaluating our business. If any such risks and uncertainties actually occur, our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. The risks described below are not the only risks that we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us, or that we currently deem to be immaterial, may also materially adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations. The risk factors described below should be read together with the other information set forth in this Annual Report, including our consolidated financial statements and the related notes, as well as in other documents that we file with the SEC.

Summary of Material Risk Factors

Our business is subject to a number of risks, which are discussed more fully below and include, but are not limited to, the following:

There is significant competition within the global entertainment and gaming industries and our existing and potential users may be attracted to competing forms of entertainment such as television, movies and sporting events, as well as other entertainment and gaming options on the Internet. If our product offerings do not continue to be popular, our business could be harmed.
Reductions in discretionary consumer spending could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Our projections are subject to significant risks, assumptions, estimates and uncertainties, including assumptions regarding future legislation and changes in regulations, both inside and outside of the United States. As a result, our projected revenues, market share, expenses and profitability may differ materially from our expectations.
The success, including win or hold rates, of existing or future sports betting and iGaming product offerings depends on a variety of factors, including sport outcomes, and is not completely controlled by us.
We rely on information technology and other systems and services, and any failures, errors, defects or disruptions in our systems or services could diminish our brand and reputation, subject us to liability, disrupt our business, affect our ability to scale our technical infrastructure and adversely affect our operating results and growth prospects. Our games and other software applications and systems, and the third-party platforms upon which they are made available could contain undetected errors.
Despite our security measures, our information technology and infrastructure are vulnerable to attacks by hackers or breaches due to employee error, malfeasance or other disruptions. Any such breach could compromise our networks and the information stored there could be accessed, publicly disclosed, lost or stolen, which could damage our reputation, cause a loss of confidence in our product offerings or services, or otherwise adversely affect our business.
We rely on strategic relationships with casinos, tribes and horse-tracks in order to be able to offer our Sportsbook and iGaming product offerings in certain jurisdictions. If we cannot establish and manage such relationships with such partners, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
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Our business model depends upon the continued compatibility between our apps and the major mobile operating systems and upon third-party platforms for the distribution of our product offerings. If Google Play or the Apple App Store prevents users from downloading our apps or augments the restrictions on advertising to our users, our ability to grow our revenue, profitability and prospects may be adversely affected.
We may invest in or acquire other businesses, and our business may suffer if we are unable to successfully integrate acquired businesses into our Company or otherwise manage the growth and complexity associated with multiple acquisitions.
Our business is subject to a variety of U.S. and foreign laws, many of which are unsettled and still developing and which could subject us to claims or otherwise harm our business. Any change in existing regulations or their interpretation, or the regulatory climate applicable to our product offerings and services, or changes in tax rules and regulations or interpretation thereof related to our product offerings and services, could adversely impact our ability to operate our business as currently conducted or as we seek to operate in the future, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Our growth prospects depend on the legal status of real-money gaming in various jurisdictions, predominantly within the United States, and legalization may not occur in as many jurisdictions as we expect, or may occur at a slower pace than we anticipate. Additionally, even if jurisdictions legalize real-money gaming, this may be accompanied by legislative or regulatory restrictions and/or taxes that make it impracticable or less attractive to operate in those jurisdictions, or the process of implementing regulations or securing the necessary licenses to operate in a particular jurisdiction may take longer than we anticipate, or existing laws or regulations may be changed or interpreted adversely, any of which could adversely affect our future results of operations and make it more difficult to meet our expectations for financial performance.
Our growth prospects and market potential will depend on our ability to obtain licenses to operate in a number of jurisdictions, and if we fail to obtain and subsequently maintain such licenses, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be impaired.
We have been, and continue to be, the subject of governmental investigations and inquiries with respect to the operation of our businesses, and we could be subject to future governmental investigations and inquiries, legal proceedings and enforcement actions. Any such investigation, inquiry, proceeding or action, could adversely affect our business.
Negative events or negative media coverage relating to, or a declining popularity of, sports betting, online sports betting, daily fantasy sports, or the underlying sports or athletes, or iGaming, or other negative coverage may adversely impact our ability to retain or attract users, which could have an adverse impact on our business.
Due to the nature of our business, we are subject to taxation in a number of jurisdictions and changes in, or new interpretations of, tax laws, tax rulings or their application by tax authorities could result in additional tax liabilities and could materially affect our financial condition and results of operations. We have been, and continue to be, subject to periodic audits and examinations by the Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”), as well as state and local taxing authorities, the results of which may materially impact our financial statements in the period in which the audit or examination occurs.
The trading price of our Class A common stock has been, and will likely continue to be, volatile and you could lose all or part of your investment.
Because we are a “controlled company” under The Nasdaq Stock Market listing standards, our stockholders may not have certain corporate governance protections that are available to stockholders of companies that are not controlled companies.
Our dual class structure has the effect of concentrating voting power with our Chief Executive Officer and Chairman, which limits an investor’s ability to influence the outcome of important transactions, including a change in control.

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The summary risk factors described above should be read together with the text of the full risk factors below and the other information set forth in this Annual Report, including our consolidated financial statements and the related notes, as well as in other documents that we file with the SEC. If any such risks and uncertainties actually occur or are further aggravated, our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. The risks summarized above or described in full below are not the only risks that we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us, or that we currently deem to be immaterial may also materially adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

Risk Factors Relating to Our Business and Industry

There is significant competition within the global entertainment and gaming industries and our existing and potential users may be attracted to competing forms of entertainment such as television, movies and sporting events, as well as other entertainment and gaming options on the Internet. If our product offerings do not continue to be popular, our business could be harmed.

We operate in the global entertainment and gaming industries with our Sportsbook, iGaming and DFS product offerings and our gaming software services. Our users face a vast array of entertainment choices. Other forms of entertainment, such as television, movies, sporting events and in-person casinos, are more well-established and may be perceived by our users to offer greater variety, affordability, interactivity and enjoyment. We compete with these other forms of entertainment for the discretionary time and income of our users. If we are unable to sustain sufficient interest in our Sportsbook, iGaming and DFS product offerings in comparison to other forms of entertainment, including new forms of entertainment, our business model may not continue to be viable.

The specific industries in which we operate are characterized by dynamic customer demand and technological advances, and there is significant competition among online gaming and entertainment providers. A number of established, well-financed companies producing online gaming and/or interactive entertainment products and services compete with our product offerings, and other well-capitalized companies may introduce competitive services. Such competitors may spend more money and time on developing and testing products and services, undertake more extensive marketing campaigns, adopt more aggressive pricing or promotional policies or otherwise develop more commercially successful products or services than ours, which could negatively impact our business. Our competitors may also develop products, features, or services that are similar to ours or that achieve greater market acceptance. Such competitors may also undertake more far-reaching and successful product development efforts or marketing campaigns, or may adopt more aggressive pricing policies. Furthermore, new competitors, whether licensed or not, may enter the gaming industry. There has also been considerable consolidation among competitors in the entertainment and gaming industries and such consolidation and future consolidation could result in the formation of larger competitors with increased financial resources and altered cost structures, which may enable them to offer more competitive products, gain a larger market share, expand product offerings and broaden their geographic scope of operations. If we are not able to maintain or improve our market share, or if our product offerings do not continue to be popular, our business could suffer.

Economic downturns and political and market conditions beyond our control could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our financial performance is subject to global and U.S. economic conditions and their impact on levels of spending by users and advertisers. Economic recessions have had, and may continue to have, far reaching adverse consequences across many industries, including the global entertainment and gaming industries, which may adversely affect our business and financial condition.

The global and U.S. economies experienced tepid growth immediately following the global financial crisis in 2008 – 2009 and more recently experienced a period of increased volatility during the global COVID-19 pandemic. Ongoing or intensifying economic weakness, including recessions, economic slowdowns, uncertainties in the global financial markets and other adverse economic conditions, including inflation, changes in monetary policy and increased interest rates, or other changes in economic and political conditions may result in a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects.

In addition, changes in general market, economic and political conditions in domestic and foreign economies or financial markets, including fluctuation in stock markets resulting from, among other things, trends in the economy as a whole may
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reduce users’ disposable income and advertisers’ budgets. Any one of these changes could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects.

Certain of our operations are in non-U.S. jurisdictions and are subject to the economic, political, regulatory, and other risks of international operations.

We conduct business in numerous countries that carry high levels of currency, political, compliance and economic risk. For example, we have offices in Ukraine and Israel, and the military conflict between Russia and Ukraine and the evolving conflict in Israel and Gaza and any business interruptions or other spillover effects from such conflicts could adversely affect our operations. Operations in non-U.S. jurisdictions can present many risks, including volatility in gross domestic product and rates of economic growth, financial and governmental instability, cultural differences (such as employment and business practices) and the imposition of exchange and capital controls.

Instability and uncertainties arising from the global geopolitical environment and the evolving international and domestic political, regulatory, and economic landscape, including the potential for changes in global trade policies, including sanctions and trade barriers, and trends such as populism, economic nationalism and negative sentiment toward multinational companies, as well as the cost of compliance with increasingly complex and often conflicting regulations worldwide, can impair our flexibility in modifying our product offerings, marketing, hiring or other strategies for growing our businesses, as well as our ability to improve productivity and maintain acceptable operating margins.

The United States and other countries may implement actions, including trade actions, tariffs, export controls, and sanctions, against other countries or localities, which along with any retaliatory measures could increase costs, adversely affect our operations, or adversely affect our ability to meet contractual and financial obligations. For example, in response to the conflict between Russia and Ukraine, the U.S. government and other governments have imposed a series of sanctions against certain Russian government, government-related, and other entities and individuals, together with enhanced export controls on certain products and financial and economic sanctions on certain industry sectors and parties in Russia. The governments of other jurisdictions in which we operate, such as the European Union and Canada, have also implemented additional sanctions or other restrictive measures. Additionally, it is possible that the Russia-Ukraine conflict or the evolving conflict in Israel and Gaza may escalate or expand, and the scope, extent and duration of the military action, current or future sanctions and resulting market and geopolitical disruptions could be significant. While to date sanctions and export controls have not had a material impact on our business, it is possible that these measures, as well as any countervailing responses from Russia, could adversely affect us and/or our supply chain, business partners or customers.

While these factors and their impact are difficult to predict, any one or more of them could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, results of operations, financial condition or liquidity.

Reductions in discretionary consumer spending could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Our business is particularly sensitive to reductions from time to time in discretionary consumer spending. Demand for entertainment and leisure activities, including gaming, can be affected by changes in the economy and consumer tastes, both of which are difficult to predict and beyond our control. Unfavorable changes in general economic conditions, including recessions, economic slowdowns, sustained high levels of unemployment, and rising prices or the perception by consumers of weak or weakening economic conditions, may reduce our users’ disposable income or result in fewer individuals engaging in entertainment and leisure activities, such as sports betting, online gaming or daily fantasy sports. As a result, we cannot ensure that the demand for our product offerings will remain consistent. Adverse developments affecting economies throughout the world, and particularly in the United States, including a general tightening of availability of credit, decreased liquidity in certain financial markets, inflation, increased interest rates, foreign exchange fluctuations, increased energy costs, acts of war or terrorism, transportation disruptions, natural disasters, declining consumer confidence, sustained high levels of unemployment or significant declines in stock markets, as well as concerns regarding pandemics, epidemics and the spread of contagious diseases, could lead to a reduction in discretionary spending on leisure activities, such as our Sportsbook, iGaming and DFS product offerings.

We may experience fluctuations in our operating results, which could make our future results difficult to predict and could cause our operating results to fall below expectations.

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Our financial results have fluctuated in the past, and we expect our financial results to fluctuate from quarter to quarter in the future. These fluctuations may be due to a variety of factors, some of which are outside of our control and may not fully reflect the underlying performance of our business.

Our financial results in any given quarter may be influenced by numerous factors, many of which we are unable to predict or are outside of our control, including the impact of seasonality and our betting results, and the other risks and uncertainties set forth herein. In particular, our Sportsbook and DFS operations have significant exposure to, and may be materially impacted by, sporting events and seasons, which can result in short-term volatility in betting win margins and user engagement, thus impacting revenues. While we have been able to forecast revenues from our DFS business with greater precision than for newer product offerings, we cannot provide assurances that consumers will engage with our DFS product offering on a consistent basis. Consumer engagement with our Sportsbook, iGaming and DFS product offerings may decline or fluctuate as a result of a number of factors, including the popularity of the underlying sports, the user’s level of satisfaction with our product offerings, our ability to improve and innovate, our ability to adapt our product offerings, outages and disruptions of online services, the availability of live sporting events, the services offered by our competitors, our marketing and advertising efforts or declines in consumer activity generally as a result of economic downturns, among others. Any decline or fluctuation in the recurring portion of our business may have a negative impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects.

In our iGaming product offering, operator losses are limited per stake to a maximum payout. When looking at bets across a period of time, however, these losses can potentially be significant. Our quarterly financial results may also fluctuate based on whether we pay any jackpots to our iGaming users during the relevant quarter. As part of our iGaming product offering, we offer progressive jackpot games. Each time a progressive jackpot game is played, a portion of the amount wagered by the user is contributed to the jackpot for that specific game or group of games. Once a jackpot is won, the progressive jackpot is reset with a predetermined base amount. While we maintain a reserve for these progressive jackpots, the cost of the progressive jackpot payout would be a cash outflow for our business in the period in which it is won with a potentially significant adverse effect on our financial condition and cash flows. Because winning a progressive jackpot is underpinned by a random mechanism, we cannot predict with certainty when any such jackpot will be won. In addition, we do not insure against random outcomes or jackpot wins.

Our projections are subject to significant risks, assumptions, estimates and uncertainties, including assumptions regarding future legislation and changes in regulations, both inside and outside of the United States. As a result, our projected revenues, market share, expenses and profitability may differ materially from our expectations.

We operate in rapidly changing and competitive industries and our projections are subject to the risks and assumptions made by management with respect to our industries. Operating results are difficult to forecast because they generally depend on our assessment of the timing of adoption of future legislation and regulations by different jurisdictions, which are uncertain. Furthermore, if we invest in the development of new products or distribution channels that do not achieve significant commercial success, whether because of competition or otherwise, we may not recover the often substantial “up front” costs of developing and marketing those products and distribution channels or recover the opportunity cost of diverting management and financial resources away from other product offerings or distribution channels.

Additionally, as described above, our business may be affected by reductions in consumer spending from time to time as a result of a number of factors that may be difficult to predict. This may result in decreased revenue levels, and we may be unable to adopt measures in a timely manner to compensate for any unexpected shortfall in revenue. This inability could cause our operating results in a given quarter to be higher or lower than expected. If actual results differ from our estimates, analysts may react negatively and our stock price could be materially impacted. You should not rely upon our historical financial results as indicators of our future financial performance, and our financial results and stock price may be volatile.

We have a history of losses and we may continue to incur losses in the future.

Since we were incorporated in 2011, we have experienced net losses and negative cash flows from operations. We experienced net losses in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) of $802.1 million and $1,378.0 million in the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. We may continue to experience losses in the future, and we cannot assure you that we will achieve profitability. We may continue to incur significant losses in future periods. We expect our operating expenses to increase in the future as we expand our operations. If our revenue does not grow at a greater rate than our expenses, we will not be able to achieve or maintain profitability. We may incur significant losses in the future for many reasons, including those described in the other risks and uncertainties described in this Annual Report. Additionally, we may encounter unforeseen expenses, operating delays, or other
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unknown factors that may result in losses in future periods. If our expenses exceed our revenue, our business may be negatively impacted, and we may never achieve or maintain profitability.

Our results of operations may fluctuate due to seasonality and other factors and, therefore, our periodic operating results will not be guarantees of future performance.

Our Sportsbook and DFS operations fluctuate due to seasonal trends and other factors. A majority of our current Sportsbook and DFS handle and entry fees are and will continue to be generated from bets placed on, or contests relating to, the NFL and the NBA. As such, our historical revenues generally have been highest in the fourth quarter primarily due to the overlapping time frame of the NFL and NBA seasons. In addition, the NFL and NBA have their own respective off-seasons, which may cause decreases in our revenues during such periods. In addition, we believe that significant sporting events such as the playoffs and championship games tend to impact, among other things, revenues from operations, key metrics and customer activity, and, as such, our revenues may be impacted when those games occur. Our revenues have been, and in the future may be, affected by the scheduling of major sporting events that do not occur annually, such as the World Cup, or the cancellation or postponement of sporting events, such as the postponement of the 2020 Summer Olympic Games that took place in Summer 2021 due to the global COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, certain individuals or teams advancing or failing to advance and their scores and other results within specific tournaments, games or events may impact our financial performance.

The success, including win or hold rates, of existing or future sports betting and iGaming product offerings depends on a variety of factors and is not completely controlled by us.

The sports betting and iGaming industries are characterized by an element of chance. Accordingly, we employ theoretical win rates to estimate what a certain type of sports bet or iGame, on average, will win or lose in the long run. Net win is impacted by variations in the hold percentage (the ratio of net win to total amount wagered), or actual outcome, on our iGames and sports bets we offer to our users. We use hold percentage as an indicator of an iGame’s or sports bet’s performance against its expected outcome. Although each iGame or sports bet generally performs within a defined statistical range of outcomes, actual outcomes may vary for any given period. In addition to the element of chance, win rates (hold percentages) may also (depending on the game involved) be affected by the spread of limits and factors that are beyond our control, such as a user’s experience and behavior, the mix of games played, the financial resources of users, the volume of bets placed and the amount of time spent engaging with our product offerings. As a result of the variability in these factors, the actual win rates on our iGames and sports bets may differ from the theoretical win rates we have estimated and could result in the winnings of our users exceeding those anticipated. The variability of win rates (hold rates) also has the potential to negatively impact our financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

Our success also depends in part on our ability to anticipate and satisfy user preferences in a timely manner. As we operate in a dynamic environment characterized by rapidly changing industry and legal standards, our product offerings will be subject to changing consumer preferences that cannot be predicted with certainty. We need to continually introduce new product offerings and identify future product offerings that complement our existing technology, respond to our users’ needs and improve and enhance our existing technology to maintain or increase our user engagement and growth of our business. We may not be able to compete effectively unless our product offering selection keeps up with trends in the digital sports entertainment and gaming industries in which we compete, or trends in new gaming product offerings.

We use artificial intelligence, machine learning, data science and similar technologies in our business, and challenges with properly managing such technologies could result in reputational harm, competitive harm, and legal liability, and adversely affect our results of operations.

We use artificial intelligence, machine learning, data science and similar technologies (collectively, “AI”) in our technology and infrastructure, which may become more important in our operations over time. Our competitors or other third parties may incorporate AI in a similar or different manner, and may do so more quickly or more successfully than us, which could impair our ability to compete effectively and adversely affect our results of operations. Additionally, if the content, analyses, materials or recommendations that AI produces or assists in producing are, or are alleged to be, infringing or otherwise violating of others’ rights (including intellectual property rights), or illegal, we may be subject to legal liability or our business, financial condition, and results of operations may otherwise be adversely affected. In addition, the use of AI may result in violations of applicable data security or data privacy laws, or in cybersecurity incidents that implicate the personal data of end customers, employees or other third parties. Any such violation or cybersecurity incidents related to our use of AI could result in legal liability or otherwise adversely affect our reputation and results of operations. If our use of AI becomes controversial, we may experience brand or reputational harm or competitive harm. The rapid evolution of AI, including with respect to compliance with existing and potential government regulation of AI, may require significant resources, including to develop, test and maintain platforms, offerings, services, and features to help us implement AI in accordance with applicable law, and to minimize other adverse effect on our results of operations.
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We rely on information technology and other systems and services, and any failures, errors, defects or disruptions in our systems or services could diminish our brand and reputation, subject us to liability, disrupt our business, affect our ability to scale our technical infrastructure and adversely affect our operating results and growth prospects. Our games and other software applications and systems, and the third-party platforms upon which they are made available, could contain undetected errors.

Our technology infrastructure is critical to the performance of our product offerings and to user satisfaction. We devote significant resources to network and data security to protect our systems and data. However, our systems may not be adequately designed with the necessary reliability and redundancy to avoid performance delays or outages that could be harmful to our business. We cannot assure you that the measures we take to prevent or hinder cybersecurity incidents; protect our systems, data and user information; prevent outages, data or information loss and fraud; and prevent or detect security breaches, including a disaster recovery strategy for server and equipment failure and back-office systems and the use of third parties for certain cybersecurity services, will provide absolute security. We have experienced, and we may in the future experience, website disruptions, outages and other performance problems due to a variety of factors, including infrastructure changes, human or software errors and capacity constraints. Such disruptions have not had a material impact on us; however, future disruptions from unauthorized access to, fraudulent manipulation of, or tampering with our computer systems and technological infrastructure, or those of third parties, could result in a wide range of negative outcomes, each of which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Additionally, our product offerings from time to time contain errors, bugs, flaws or corrupted data, and these defects have in certain instances only become apparent after their launch. If a particular product offering is unavailable when users attempt to access it or navigation through our product offerings is slower than they expect, users may be unable to place their bets or submit their line-ups in a timely manner and may be less likely to return to our product offerings as often, if at all. Furthermore, programming errors, defects and data corruption could disrupt our operations, adversely affect the experience of our users, harm our reputation, cause our users to stop utilizing our product offerings, divert our resources and delay market acceptance of our product offerings, any of which could result in legal liability to us or harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

If our user base and engagement continue to grow, and the amount and types of product offerings continue to grow and evolve, we will need an increasing amount of technical infrastructure, including network capacity and computing power, to continue to satisfy our users’ needs. Such infrastructure expansion may be complex, and unanticipated delays in completing these projects or availability of components may lead to increased project costs, operational inefficiencies, or interruptions in the delivery or degradation of the quality of our product offerings. In addition, there may be issues related to this infrastructure that are not identified during the testing phases of design and implementation, which may only become evident after we have started to fully use the underlying equipment or software, that could further degrade the user experience or increase our costs. As such, we could fail to continue to effectively scale and grow our technical infrastructure to accommodate increased demands. In addition, our business may be subject to interruptions, delays or failures resulting from adverse weather conditions, other natural disasters, power loss, terrorism, cybersecurity incidents, public health emergencies or other catastrophic events.

We believe that if our users have a negative experience with our product offerings, or if our brand or reputation is negatively affected, users may be less inclined to continue or resume utilizing our product offerings or to recommend our product offerings to other potential users. As such, a failure or significant interruption in our service could harm our reputation, business and operating results.

Despite our security measures, our information technology and infrastructure are vulnerable to attacks by hackers or breaches due to employee error, malfeasance or other disruptions. Any such breach could compromise our networks and the information stored there could be accessed, publicly disclosed, lost or stolen, which could damage our reputation, cause a loss of confidence in our product offerings or services, or otherwise adversely affect our business.

The secure maintenance and transmission of user information is a critical element of our operations. Our information technology and other systems that maintain and transmit user information, or those of service providers, business partners or employee information have in the past been, and in the future may be, compromised by a malicious third-party penetration of our network security, or that of a third-party service provider or business partner, or impacted by intentional or unintentional actions or inaction by our employees, or those of a third-party service provider or business partner. As a result, our users’ information and funds may be lost, disclosed, accessed or taken without our users’ consent. We have experienced cybersecurity incidents, attempts to breach our systems and other similar incidents in the past. For example, we have been and expect that we will continue to be subject to attempts to gain unauthorized access to or through our information systems or those we develop
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for our customers, whether by our employees or third parties, including cyber-attacks by computer programmers and hackers who may develop and deploy viruses, worms or other malicious software programs. To date, these attacks have not had a material impact on our operations or financial results, but we cannot provide assurance that they will not have a material impact in the future.

We rely on encryption and authentication technology licensed from third parties in an effort to securely transmit confidential and sensitive information, including credit card numbers. Advances in computer capabilities, new technological discoveries or other developments may result in the whole or partial failure of this technology to protect transaction data or other confidential and sensitive information from being breached or compromised. In addition, websites are often attacked through compromised credentials, including those obtained through phishing and credential stuffing. Our security measures, and those of our third-party service providers, may not detect or prevent all attempts to breach our systems, denial-of-service attacks, viruses, malicious software, break-ins, phishing attacks, social engineering, security breaches or other attacks and similar disruptions that may jeopardize the security of information stored in or transmitted by our websites, networks and systems or that we or such third parties otherwise maintain, including payment card systems, which may subject us to fines or higher transaction fees or limit or terminate our access to certain payment methods. We and such third parties may not anticipate or prevent all types of attacks until after they have already been launched. For example, beginning in November 2022, DraftKings was the target of potential credential stuffing attacks, in which it appears that one or more bad actors may have obtained login credentials from a non-DraftKings source and used the credentials to access certain DraftKings players' accounts. Further, techniques used to obtain unauthorized access to or sabotage systems change frequently and may not be known until launched against us or our third-party service providers.

In addition, cybersecurity incidents can also occur as a result of non-technical issues, including intentional or inadvertent breaches by our employees or by third parties. These risks may increase over time as the complexity and number of technical systems and applications we use also increases. Breaches of our security measures or those of our third-party service providers or cybersecurity incidents have in the past been, and in the future could, result in unauthorized access to our sites, networks and systems; unauthorized access to and misappropriation of user information, including users’ personally identifiable information, or other confidential or proprietary information of ourselves or third parties; viruses, worms, spyware or other malware being served from our sites, networks or systems; deletion or modification of content or the display of unauthorized content on our sites; interruption, disruption or malfunction of operations; costs relating to breach remediation, deployment of additional personnel and protection technologies, response to governmental investigations and media inquiries and coverage; engagement of third-party experts and consultants; litigation, regulatory action and other potential liabilities. In the past, we have experienced social engineering, phishing, malware and similar attacks and threats of denial-of-service attacks, none of which to date has been material to our business; however, such attacks could in the future have a material adverse effect on our operations. If any of these breaches of security should occur and be material, our reputation and brand could be damaged, our business may suffer, we could be required to expend significant capital and other resources to alleviate problems caused by such breaches, and we could be exposed to a risk of loss, litigation or regulatory action and possible liability. We cannot guarantee that recovery protocols and backup systems will be sufficient to prevent data loss. Actual or anticipated attacks may cause us to incur increasing costs, including costs to deploy additional personnel and protection technologies, train employees and engage third-party experts and consultants. While we maintain cybersecurity insurance coverage that we believe is adequate for our business, such coverage may not cover all potential costs and expenses associated with cybersecurity incidents that may occur in the future.

In addition, any party who is able to illicitly obtain a user’s password could access the user’s transaction data or personal information, resulting in the perception that our systems are insecure. Any compromise or breach of our security measures, or those of our third-party service providers, could violate applicable privacy, data protection, data security, network and information systems security and other laws and cause significant legal and financial exposure, adverse publicity and a loss of confidence in our security measures, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. We continue to devote significant resources to protect against cybersecurity incidents or we may need to in the future to address problems caused by breaches, including notifying affected users and responding to any resulting litigation, which in turn, diverts resources from the growth and expansion of our business.

We rely on Amazon Web Services to deliver our product offerings to users, and any disruption of or interference with our use of Amazon Web Services could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We host certain of our product offerings and support our operations using Amazon Web Services (“AWS”), a third-party provider of cloud infrastructure services, along with other service providers. We do not, and will not, have control over the operations of the facilities or infrastructure of the third-party service providers that we use. Such third parties’ facilities are vulnerable to damage or interruption from natural disasters, cybersecurity incidents, terrorist attacks, power outages and similar
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events or acts of misconduct. Our technology’s continuing and uninterrupted performance is critical to our success. We have experienced, and we expect that in the future we will experience, interruptions, delays and outages in service and availability from these third-party service providers from time to time due to a variety of factors, including infrastructure changes, human or software errors, website hosting disruptions, cybersecurity incidents and capacity constraints. In addition, any changes in these third parties’ service levels may adversely affect our ability to meet the requirements of our users. Since our technology’s continuing and uninterrupted performance is critical to our success, sustained or repeated system failures would reduce the attractiveness of our product offerings. It may become increasingly difficult to maintain and improve our performance, especially during peak usage times, as we expand and the usage of our product offerings increases. Any negative publicity arising from these disruptions could harm our reputation and brand and may adversely affect the usage of our product offerings.

Our commercial agreement with AWS will remain in effect until terminated by AWS or us. AWS may only terminate the agreement for convenience after complying with the contractual prior notice requirement of two years. AWS may also terminate the agreement for cause upon a breach of the agreement or for failure to pay amounts due, in each case, subject to AWS providing prior written notice and a 30-day cure period. In the event that our agreement with AWS is terminated or we add additional cloud infrastructure service providers, we may experience significant costs or downtime in connection with the transfer to, or the addition of, new cloud infrastructure service providers. Although alternative providers could host our product offerings on a substantially similar basis to AWS, transitioning the cloud infrastructure currently hosted by AWS to alternative providers could potentially be disruptive and we could incur significant one-time costs.

Any of the above circumstances or events may harm our reputation and brand, reduce the availability or usage of our technology, lead to a significant loss of revenue, increase our costs and impair our ability to attract new users, any of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We rely on third-party providers to validate the identity and identify the location of our users, and if such providers fail to perform adequately or provide accurate information or we do not maintain business relationships with them, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

There is no guarantee that the third-party geolocation and identity verification systems that we rely on will perform adequately, or be effective. We rely on our geolocation and identity verification systems to ensure we are in compliance with certain applicable laws and regulations, and any service disruption to those systems would prohibit us from operating our product offerings, and would adversely affect our business. Additionally, incorrect or misleading geolocation and identity verification data with respect to current or potential users received from third-party service providers may result in us inadvertently allowing access to our product offerings to individuals who should not be permitted to access them, or otherwise inadvertently deny access to individuals who should be able to access our product offerings, in each case based on inaccurate identity or geographic location determination. Our third-party geolocation services provider relies on its ability to obtain information necessary to determine geolocation from mobile devices, operating systems, and other sources. Changes, disruptions or temporary or permanent failure to access such sources by our third-party services providers may result in their inability to accurately determine the location of our users. Moreover, our inability to maintain our existing contracts with third-party services providers, or to replace them with equivalent third parties, may result in our inability to access geolocation and identity verification data necessary for our day-to-day operations. If any of these risks materializes, we may be subject to disciplinary action, fines or lawsuits, and our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

Our technology contains third-party open source software components, and failure to comply with the terms of the underlying open source software licenses could restrict our ability to provide our product offerings.

Our technology contains software modules licensed to us by third-party authors under “open source” licenses. Use and distribution of open source software may entail greater risks than use of third-party commercial software, as open source licensors generally do not provide support, warranties, indemnification or other contractual protections regarding infringement claims or the quality of the source code. In addition, the public availability of such software may make it easier for others to compromise our technology.

Some open source licenses contain requirements that we make available source code for modifications or derivative works we create based upon the type of open source software we use, or grant other licenses to our intellectual property. If we combine our proprietary software with open source software in a certain manner, we could, under certain open source licenses, be required to release the source code of our proprietary software to the public. This would allow our competitors to create similar product offerings with lower development effort and time and ultimately could result in a loss of our competitive advantages. Alternatively, to avoid the public release of the affected portions of our source code, we could be required to expend substantial time and resources to re-engineer some or all of our software.
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Although we monitor our use of open source software to avoid subjecting our technology to conditions we do not intend, there is a risk that these licenses could be construed in a way that could impose unanticipated conditions or restrictions on our ability to provide or distribute our technology. From time to time, there have been claims challenging the ownership of open source software against companies that incorporate open source software into their solutions. As a result, we could be subject to lawsuits by parties claiming ownership of what we believe to be open source software. Moreover, we cannot assure you that our processes for controlling our use of open source software in our technology will be effective. If we are held to have breached or failed to fully comply with all the terms and conditions of an open source software license, we could face infringement or other liability, or be required to seek costly licenses from third parties to continue providing our product offerings on terms that are not economically feasible, to re-engineer our technology, to discontinue or delay the provision of our product offerings if re-engineering could not be accomplished on a timely basis or to make generally available, in source code form, our proprietary code, any of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We rely on third-party payment processors to process deposits and withdrawals made by our users, and if we cannot manage our relationships with such third parties and other payment-related risks, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

We rely on a limited number of third-party payment processors to process deposits and withdrawals made by our users. If any of our third-party payment processors terminates its relationship with us or refuses to renew its agreement with us on commercially reasonable terms, we would need to find an alternate payment processor, and may not be able to secure similar terms or replace such payment processor in an acceptable time frame. Further, the software and services provided by our third-party payment processors may not meet our expectations, contain errors or vulnerabilities, be compromised or experience outages. Any of these risks could cause us to lose our ability to accept online payments or other payment transactions, make timely payments to our users or access funds or credit in such payment processors or systems, any of which could make our technology less trustworthy and convenient, adversely affect our ability to attract and retain our users and negatively impact our working capital position.

Nearly all of our payments are made by credit card, debit card or through other third-party payment services, which subjects us to certain regulations and the risk of fraud. We may in the future offer new payment options to users that may be subject to additional regulations and risks. We are also subject to a number of other laws and regulations relating to the payments we accept from our users, including with respect to money laundering, money transfers, privacy and information security. If we fail to comply with applicable rules and regulations, we may be subject to civil or criminal penalties, fines and/or higher transaction fees and may lose our ability to accept online payments or other payment card transactions, which could make our product offerings less convenient and attractive to our users. If any of these events were to occur, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

For example, if we are deemed to be a money transmitter as defined by applicable regulations, we could be subject to certain laws, rules and regulations enforced by multiple authorities and governing bodies in the United States and numerous state and local agencies who may define money transmitter differently. For example, certain states may have a more expansive view of who qualifies as a money transmitter. Additionally, outside of the United States, we could be subject to additional laws, rules and regulations related to the provision of payments and financial services, and if we expand into new jurisdictions, the foreign regulations and regulators governing our business that we are subject to will expand as well. If we are found to be a money transmitter under any applicable regulation and we are not in compliance with such regulations, we may be subject to fines or other penalties in one or more jurisdictions levied by federal or state or local regulators, including state Attorneys General, as well as those levied by foreign regulators. In addition to fines, penalties for failing to comply with applicable rules and regulations could include criminal and civil proceedings, forfeiture of significant assets or other enforcement actions. We could also be required to make changes to our business practices or compliance programs as a result of regulatory scrutiny.

Additionally, our payment processors require us to comply with payment card network operating rules, which are set and interpreted by the payment card networks. The payment card networks could adopt new operating rules or interpret or reinterpret existing rules in ways that might prohibit us from providing certain product offerings to some users, be costly to implement or difficult to follow. We have agreed to reimburse our payment processors for fines they are assessed by payment card networks if we or our users violate these rules. Any of the foregoing risks could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We rely on third-party sports data providers for real-time and accurate data for sporting events, and if such third parties do not perform adequately or terminate their relationships with us, our costs may increase and our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
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We rely on third-party sports data providers such as SportRadar and BetGenius to obtain accurate information regarding schedules, results, performance and outcomes of sporting events. We rely on this data to determine when and how bets are settled and how contestants rank in their DFS contests. We have experienced, and may continue to experience, errors in these data feeds, which may result in us incorrectly settling bets or ranking contestants in their DFS contests. If we cannot adequately resolve the issue with our users, our users may have a negative experience with our product offerings, our brand or reputation may be negatively affected and our users may be less inclined to continue or resume utilizing our product offerings or recommend our product offerings to other potential users. As such, a failure or significant interruption in our data feed service may harm our reputation, business and operating results.

Furthermore, if any of our sports data partners terminates its relationship with us or refuses to renew its agreement with us on commercially reasonable terms, we would need to find an alternate provider, and may not be able to secure similar terms or replace such providers in an acceptable time frame, or at all. Any of these risks could increase our costs and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Further, any negative publicity related to any of our third-party partners, including any publicity related to regulatory concerns, could adversely affect our reputation and brand, and could potentially lead to increased regulatory or litigation exposure.

We rely on other third-party service providers and if such third parties do not perform adequately or terminate their relationships with us, our costs may increase and our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

Our success depends in part on our relationships with other third-party service providers. For example, we rely on third parties for content delivery, load balancing and protection against distributed denial-of-service attacks. If those providers do not perform adequately, our users may experience issues or interruptions with their product offering experiences. Furthermore, if any of our partners terminates its relationship with us or refuses to renew its agreement with us on commercially reasonable terms, we would need to find an alternate provider, and may not be able to secure similar terms or replace such providers in an acceptable time frame, or at all. We also rely on other software and services supplied by third parties, such as communications and internal software, and our business may be adversely affected to the extent such software and services do not meet our expectations, contain errors or vulnerabilities, are compromised or experience outages. Any of these risks could increase our costs and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Further, any negative publicity related to any of our third-party partners, including any publicity related to regulatory concerns, could adversely affect our reputation and brand, and could potentially lead to increased regulatory or litigation exposure.

We incorporate technology from third parties into our product offerings. We cannot be certain that our licensors are not infringing the intellectual property rights of others or that the suppliers and licensors have sufficient rights to the technology in all jurisdictions in which we may operate. Some of our license agreements may be terminated by our licensors for convenience. If we are unable to obtain or maintain rights to any of this technology because of intellectual property infringement claims brought by third parties against our suppliers and licensors or against us, or if we are unable to continue to obtain the technology or enter into new agreements on commercially reasonable terms, our ability to develop our product offerings containing that technology could be severely limited and our business could be harmed.

Additionally, if we are unable to obtain necessary technology from third parties, we may be forced to acquire or develop alternate technology, which may require significant time and effort and may be of lower quality or performance standards. This would limit and delay our ability to provide new or competitive product offerings and increase our costs. If alternate technology cannot be obtained or developed, we may not be able to offer certain functionality as part of our product offerings, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

If we fail to detect fraud or theft, including by our users and employees, our reputation may suffer which could harm our brand and reputation and negatively impact our business, financial condition and results of operations and can subject us to investigations and litigation.

We have in the past incurred, and may in the future incur, losses from various types of financial fraud, including use of stolen or fraudulent credit card data, claims of unauthorized payments by a user and attempted payments by users with insufficient funds. Bad actors use increasingly sophisticated methods to engage in illegal activities involving personal information, such as unauthorized use of another person’s identity, account information or payment information and unauthorized acquisition or use of credit or debit card details, bank account information and mobile phone numbers and
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accounts. Under current credit card practices, we may be liable for use of funds on our products with fraudulent credit card data, even if the associated financial institution approved the credit card transaction.

Acts of fraud may involve various tactics, including collusion. Successful exploitation of our systems could have negative effects on our product offerings, services and user experience and could harm our reputation. Failure to discover such acts or schemes in a timely manner could result in harm to our operations. In addition, negative publicity related to such schemes could have an adverse effect on our reputation, potentially causing a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. In the event of the occurrence of any such issues with our existing technology or product offerings, substantial engineering and marketing resources and management attention may be diverted from other projects to correct these issues, which may delay other projects and the achievement of our strategic objectives.

In addition, any misappropriation of, or access to, users’ or other proprietary information or other breach of our information security could result in legal claims or legal proceedings, including regulatory investigations and actions, or liability for failure to comply with privacy and information security laws, including for failure to protect personal information or for misusing personal information, which could disrupt our operations, force us to modify our business practices, damage our reputation and expose us to claims from our users, regulators, employees and other persons, any of which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. For example, beginning in November 2022, DraftKings was the target of potential credential stuffing attacks, in which it appears that one or more bad actors may have obtained login credentials from a non-DraftKings source and used the credentials to access certain DraftKings players' accounts.

Despite measures we have taken to detect and reduce the occurrence of fraudulent or other malicious activity on our platform, we cannot guarantee that any of our measures will be effective or will scale efficiently with our business. Our failure to adequately detect or prevent fraudulent transactions could harm our reputation or brand, result in litigation or regulatory action and lead to expenses that could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

If Internet and other technology-based service providers experience service interruptions, our ability to conduct our business may be impaired and our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

A substantial portion of our network infrastructure is provided by third parties, including Internet service providers and other technology-based service providers. See “—We rely on Amazon Web Services to deliver our product offerings to users and any disruption of or interference with our use of Amazon Web Services could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.” We require technology-based service providers to implement cyber-attack-resilient systems and processes. However, if Internet service providers experience service interruptions, including because of cybersecurity incidents, or due to an event causing an unusually high volume of Internet use, communications over the Internet may be interrupted and impair our ability to conduct our business. Internet service providers and other technology-based service providers may in the future roll out upgraded or new mobile or other telecommunications services, such as 5G or 6G services, which may not be successful and thus may impact the ability of our users to access our product offerings in a timely fashion or at all. In addition, our ability to process e-commerce transactions depends on bank processing and credit card systems. To prepare for system problems, we continuously seek to strengthen and enhance our current facilities and the capabilities of our system infrastructure and support. Nevertheless, there can be no assurance that the Internet infrastructure or our own network systems will continue to be able to meet the demand placed on us by the continued growth of the Internet, the overall online gaming industry and our users. Any difficulties these providers face, including the potential of certain network traffic receiving priority over other traffic (i.e., lack of net neutrality), may adversely affect our business, and we exercise little control over these providers, which increases our vulnerability to problems with the services they provide. Any system failure as a result of reliance on third parties, such as network, software or hardware failure, including as a result of cybersecurity incidents, which causes a loss of our users’ property or personal information or a delay or interruption in our online services and product offerings and e-commerce services, including our ability to handle existing or increased traffic, could result in a loss of anticipated revenue, interruptions to our product offerings, cause us to incur significant legal, remediation and notification costs, degrade the customer experience and cause users to lose confidence in our product offerings, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We rely on strategic relationships with casinos, tribes and horse-tracks in order to be able to offer our Sportsbook and iGaming product offerings in certain jurisdictions. If we cannot establish and manage such relationships with such partners, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

Under the sports betting and iGaming laws of certain states, online Sportsbook and iGaming are limited to a finite number of retail operators, such as casinos, tribes or tracks, who own a “skin” or “skins” under that state’s law. A “skin” is a legally-authorized license from a state to offer online Sportsbook or iGaming services provided by such a retail operator. The “skin”
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provides a market access opportunity for mobile operators to operate in the jurisdiction pending licensure and other required approvals by the state’s regulator. The entities that control those “skins,” and the numbers of “skins” available, are typically determined by a state’s law authorizing sports betting or iGaming. In most of the jurisdictions in which we offer Sportsbook and iGaming, we currently rely on a casino, tribe or track in order to get a “skin.” These “skins” are what allow us to gain access to jurisdictions where online operators are required to have a retail relationship. If we cannot establish, renew or manage such relationships, those relationships could terminate and we would not be allowed to operate in those jurisdictions until we enter into new ones. As a result, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

Our growth depends, in part, on the success of our strategic relationships with third parties. Overreliance on certain third parties, or our inability to extend existing relationships or agree to new relationships, may cause unanticipated costs for us and impact our financial performance in the future.

We rely on relationships with sports leagues and teams, professional athletes and athlete organizations, advertisers, casinos and other third parties in order to attract users to our product offerings. These relationships along with providers of online services, search engines, social media, directories and other websites and e-commerce businesses direct consumers to our product offerings. In addition, many of the parties with whom we have advertising arrangements provide advertising services to other companies, including other fantasy sports and gaming product offerings with whom we compete. While we believe there are other third parties that could drive users to our product offerings, adding or transitioning to them may disrupt our business and increase our costs. In the event that any of our existing relationships or our future relationships fails to provide services to us in accordance with the terms of our arrangement, or at all, and we are not able to find suitable alternatives, this could impact our ability to attract consumers cost effectively and harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Our growth prospects may suffer if we are unable to develop successful product offerings or if we fail to pursue additional product offerings. In addition, if we fail to make the right investment decisions in our product offerings and technology, we may not attract and retain key users and our revenue and results of operations may decline.

We were founded in 2011 with a singular focus on the DFS industry and initially focused our efforts on growing our DFS product offering. In 2018, we expanded our product offerings to include our Sportsbook and iGaming product offerings. In 2021, we expanded our media offering and launched DraftKings Marketplace. We have rapidly expanded and we anticipate expanding further as new product offerings mature and as we pursue our growth strategies.

The industries in which we operate are subject to rapid and frequent changes in standards, technologies, products and services, as well as in customer demands and expectations and regulations. We must continuously make decisions regarding in which product offerings and technology we should invest to meet customer demand in compliance with evolving industry standards and regulatory requirements and must continually introduce and successfully market new and innovative technologies, product offerings and enhancements to remain competitive and effectively stimulate customer demand, acceptance and engagement. Our ability to engage, retain, and increase our user base and to increase our revenue will depend heavily on our ability to successfully create new product offerings, both independently and together with third parties. We may introduce significant changes to our existing technology and product offerings or develop and introduce new and unproven products and services, with which we have little or no prior development or operating experience. The process of developing new product offerings and systems is inherently complex and uncertain, and new product offerings may not be well received by users, even if well-reviewed and of high quality. If we are unable to develop technology and product offerings that address users’ needs or enhance and improve our existing technology and product offerings in a timely manner, that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Although we intend to continue investing in our research and development efforts, if new or enhanced product offerings fail to engage our users or partners, we may fail to attract or retain users or to generate sufficient revenue, operating margin, or other value to justify our investments, any of which may seriously harm our business. In addition, management may not properly ascertain or assess the risks of new initiatives, and subsequent events may alter the risks that were evaluated at the time we decided to execute any new initiative. Developing and creating additional product offerings can also divert management’s attention from other business issues and opportunities. Even if our new product offerings attain market acceptance, those new product offerings have in certain cases cannibalized, and in the future could continue to cannibalize, the market share of our existing product offerings or share of our users’ wallets in a manner that may negatively impact our business. For example, we have historically observed that revenue from our DFS product offering tends to decline in a state following the launch of our Sportsbook product offering in that state. Furthermore, such expansion of our business increases the complexity of our business and places an additional burden on our management, operations, technical systems and financial resources and we may not recover the often-substantial up-front costs of developing and marketing new product offerings, or recover the opportunity cost of diverting management and financial resources away from other product offerings. In the event of continued growth of our
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operations, product offerings or in the number of third-party relationships, we may not have adequate resources, operationally, technologically or otherwise to support such growth and the quality of our technology, product offerings or our relationships with third parties could suffer. In addition, failure to effectively identify, pursue and execute new business initiatives, or to efficiently adapt our processes and infrastructure to meet the needs of our innovations, may adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Any new product offerings may also require our users to utilize new skills to use our product offerings. This could create a lag in adoption of new product offerings and new user additions related to any new product offerings. To date, new product offerings and enhancements of our existing technology have not materially hindered our user growth or engagement, but that may be the result of a large portion of our user base being in a younger demographic and more willing to invest the time to learn to use our product offerings most effectively. To the extent that future users, including those in older demographics, are less willing to invest the time to learn to use our product offerings, and if we are unable to make our product offerings easy to learn to use, our user growth or engagement could be affected, and our business could be harmed. We may develop new product offerings that increase user engagement and costs without increasing revenue.

Additionally, we may make bad or unprofitable decisions regarding these investments. If new or existing competitors offer more attractive product offerings, we may lose users or users may decrease their spending on our product offerings. New customer demands, superior competitive product offerings, new industry standards or changes in the regulatory environment could render our existing product offerings unattractive, unmarketable or obsolete and require us to make substantial unanticipated changes to our technology or business model. Our failure to adapt to a rapidly changing market or evolving customer demands could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Our growth will depend on our ability to attract and retain users, and the loss of our users, failure to attract new users in a cost-effective manner, or failure to effectively manage our growth could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Our ability to achieve growth in revenue in the future will depend, in large part, upon our ability to attract new users to our product offerings, retain existing users of our product offerings and reactivate users in a cost-effective manner. Achieving growth in our community of users may require us to increasingly engage in sophisticated and costly sales and marketing efforts, which may not have a favorable return on investment. We have used and expect to continue to use a variety of free and paid marketing channels, in combination with compelling offers and exciting games to achieve our objectives. For paid marketing, we leverage a broad array of advertising channels, including television, radio, social media platforms, such as Facebook, Instagram, Twitter and Snap, affiliates and paid and organic search, and other digital channels, such as mobile display. If the search engines on which we rely modify their algorithms, change their terms around gaming, or if the prices at which we may purchase listings increase, then our costs could increase, and fewer users may click through to our website. If links to our website are not displayed prominently in online search results, if fewer users click through to our website, if our other digital marketing campaigns are not effective, or if the costs of attracting users with any of our current methods significantly increase, then our ability to efficiently attract new users could be reduced, our revenue could decline and our business, financial condition and results of operations could be harmed.

In addition, our ability to increase the number of users of our product offerings will depend on continued user adoption of Sportsbook, iGaming and DFS. Growth in the gaming industry and the level of demand for and market acceptance of our product offerings will be subject to a high degree of uncertainty. We cannot assure you that consumer adoption of our product offerings will continue or exceed current growth rates, or that the industry will achieve more widespread acceptance.

Additionally, as technological or regulatory standards change and we modify our product offerings to comply with those standards, we may need users to take certain actions to continue playing, such as performing age verification checks or accepting new terms and conditions. Users may stop using our product offerings at any time, including if the quality of the user experience, including our support capabilities in the event of a problem, does not meet their expectations or keep pace with the quality of the customer experience generally offered by competitive product offerings.

Our core values of focusing on our users first and acting for the long term may conflict with the short-term interests of our business.

One of our operating principles is to put our users first, which we believe is essential to our success and serves the best, long-term interests of the Company and our stakeholders. Therefore, we have made in the past, and we may make in the future,
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certain investments or changes in strategy that we think will benefit our users, even if our decision negatively impacts our operating results in the short term.

Our business model depends upon the continued compatibility between our apps and the major mobile operating systems and upon third-party platforms for the distribution of our product offerings. If Google Play or the Apple App Store prevents users from downloading our apps or augments the restrictions on advertising to our users, our ability to grow our revenue, profitability and prospects may be adversely affected.

The substantial majority of our users access our Sportsbook, iGaming and DFS product offerings primarily on mobile devices, and we believe that this will continue to be increasingly important to our long-term success. Our business model depends upon the continued compatibility between our apps and the major mobile operating systems. Third parties with whom we do not have any formal relationships control the design of mobile devices and operating systems. These parties frequently introduce new devices, and from time to time they may introduce new operating systems or modify existing ones. Network carriers may also impact the ability to download apps or access specified content on mobile devices.

In addition, we rely upon third-party platforms for distribution of our product offerings. Our DFS product offering is delivered as a free application through both the Apple App Store and the Google Play Store and is also accessible via mobile and traditional websites. Our Sportsbook and iGaming product offerings are primarily distributed through the Apple App Store and a traditional website. The Google Play Store and Apple App Store are global application distribution platforms and the main distribution channels for our apps. As such, the promotion, distribution and operation of our apps are subject to the respective distribution platforms’ standard terms and policies for application developers, which are broad and subject to frequent changes and interpretation. Furthermore, the distribution platforms may not enforce their standard terms and policies for application developers consistently and uniformly across all applications and with all publishers.

There is no guarantee that popular mobile devices will start or continue to support or feature our product offerings, or that mobile device users will continue to use our product offerings rather than competing product offerings. We are dependent on the interoperability of our technology with popular mobile operating systems, technologies, networks and standards that we do not control, such as the Android and iOS operating systems, and any changes, bugs, technical or regulatory issues in such systems, our relationships with mobile manufacturers and carriers, or in their terms of service or policies that degrade our product offerings' functionality, reduce or eliminate our ability to distribute our product offerings, give preferential treatment to competitive product offerings, limit our ability to deliver high quality product offerings, or impose fees or other charges related to delivering our product offerings, could adversely affect our product offering usage and monetization on mobile devices.

Moreover, our Sportsbook and DFS product offerings require high-bandwidth data capabilities in order to place time-sensitive bets. If the growth of high-bandwidth capabilities, particularly for mobile devices, is slower than we expect, our user growth, retention, and engagement may be seriously harmed. Additionally, to deliver high-quality content over mobile cellular networks, our product offerings must work well with a range of mobile technologies, systems, networks, regulations, and standards that we do not control. In particular, any future changes to the iOS or Android operating systems may impact the accessibility, speed, functionality, and other performance aspects of our product offerings, which issues are likely to occur in the future from time to time. In addition, the adoption of any laws or regulations that adversely affect the growth, popularity, or use of the Internet, including laws governing Internet neutrality, could decrease the demand for our product offerings and increase our cost of doing business. Specifically, any laws that would allow mobile providers in the United States to impede access to content, or otherwise discriminate against content providers like us, such as providing for faster or better access to our competitors, over their data networks, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Furthermore, we may not successfully cultivate relationships with key industry participants or develop product offerings that operate effectively with these technologies, systems, networks, regulations, or standards. If it becomes more difficult for our users to access and use our product offerings on their mobile devices, if our users choose not to access or use our product offerings on their mobile devices, or if our users choose to use mobile product offerings that do not offer access to our product offerings, our user growth, retention, and engagement could be seriously harmed.

In addition, if any of the third-party platforms used for distribution of our product offerings were to limit or disable advertising on their platforms, either because of technological constraints or because the owners of these distribution platforms wished to impair our ability to serve ads on them, our ability to generate revenue could be harmed. Also, technologies have been, and may continue to be, developed by companies, such as Apple and Google, that, among other things, block or limit the display of our advertisements and some or all third-party cookies on mobile and desktop devices, limit cross-site and cross-device attribution, prevent measurement outside a narrowly-defined attribution window and prevent advertisement re-targeting
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and optimization. These developments could require us to make changes to how we collect information on, and track the actions of, our users and impact our marketing activities. While these changes have not had a material adverse impact on our business to date, they could materially impact the way we do business in the future, and if we or our advertising partners are unable to quickly and effectively adjust to new changes, there could be an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects.

We may require additional capital to support our growth plans, and such capital may not be available on terms acceptable to us, if at all. This could hamper our growth and adversely affect our business.

We intend to make significant investments to support our business growth and may require additional funds to respond to business challenges, including the need to develop new product offerings and features or enhance our existing product offerings and features, improve our operating infrastructure or acquire complementary businesses, personnel and technologies. Accordingly, we may need to engage in equity or debt financings to secure additional funds, which may involve increased funding costs due to rising interest rates. Our ability to obtain additional capital, if and when required, will depend on our business plans, investor demand, our operating performance, capital markets conditions and other factors. If we raise additional funds by issuing equity, equity-linked or debt securities, those securities may have rights, preferences or privileges senior to the rights of our currently issued and outstanding equity or debt, and our existing stockholders may experience dilution. If we are unable to obtain additional capital when required, or on satisfactory terms, our ability to continue to support our business growth or to respond to business opportunities, challenges or unforeseen circumstances could be adversely affected, and our business may be harmed.

We may invest in or acquire other businesses, and our business may suffer if we are unable to successfully integrate acquired businesses into our Company or otherwise manage the growth associated with multiple acquisitions.

As part of our business strategy, we have made, and may continue to make, acquisitions as opportunities arise to add new or complementary businesses, products, brands or technologies. In some cases, the costs of such acquisitions may be substantial, including as a result of professional fees, financing costs and due diligence efforts. There is no assurance that the time and resources expended on pursuing a particular acquisition will result in a completed transaction, or that any completed transaction will ultimately be successful. In addition, the assumptions we use to evaluate acquisition opportunities may not prove to be accurate, and intended benefits may not be realized. Our due diligence investigations may fail to identify all of the issues, liabilities or other challenges associated with an acquired business, which could result in increased risk of unanticipated or unknown issues or liabilities, including with respect to privacy, competition and other regulatory matters, and our mitigation strategies for such risks that are identified may not be effective. Further, we may be unable to identify suitable acquisition or strategic investment opportunities, or may be unable to obtain any required financing or regulatory approvals, and therefore may be unable to complete such acquisitions or strategic investments on favorable terms, if at all. We may decide to pursue acquisitions with which our investors may not agree, and we cannot assure investors that any acquisition or investment will be successful or otherwise provide a favorable return on investment. In addition, acquisitions and the integration thereof, such as the GNOG Transaction, require significant time and resources and place significant demands on our management, as well as on our operational and financial infrastructure. In addition, if we fail to successfully complete transactions or integrate new teams, or integrate the products and technologies associated with these acquisitions into our Company, our business could be materially harmed. Acquisitions have, and may continue to, expose us to operational challenges and risks, including:

the ability to profitably manage acquired businesses or successfully integrate the acquired businesses’ operations, personnel, financial reporting, accounting and internal controls, technologies and products into our business;
increased indebtedness and the expense of integrating acquired businesses, including significant administrative, operational, economic, geographic or cultural challenges in managing and integrating the expanded or combined operations;
entry into jurisdictions or acquisition of products or technologies with which we have limited or no prior experience, and the potential of increased competition with new or existing competitors as a result of such acquisitions;
management challenges involved in maintaining geographically dispersed operations with different business cultures and compensation structures;
diversion of management’s attention and the over-extension of our operating infrastructure and our management systems, information technology systems, and internal controls and procedures, which may be inadequate to support growth;
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the ability to fund our capital needs and any cash flow shortages that may occur if anticipated revenue is not realized or is delayed, whether by general economic or market conditions, or unforeseen internal difficulties; and
the ability to retain or hire qualified personnel required for expanded operations.

Our acquisition strategy may not succeed if we are unable to remain attractive to target companies or expeditiously complete transactions. Issuing shares of our Class A common stock to fund an acquisition would cause economic dilution to our existing stockholders. If we develop a reputation for being a difficult acquirer or having an unfavorable work environment, or target companies view our Class A common stock unfavorably, we may be unable to consummate key acquisition transactions essential to our corporate strategy and our business may be seriously harmed.

Acquisitions may also disrupt our ongoing business, divert our resources and require significant management attention that would otherwise be available for ongoing development of our current business. In addition, we may be required to make additional capital investments or undertake remediation efforts to ensure the success of our acquisitions, which may reduce the benefits of such acquisitions. We also may be required to use a substantial amount of our cash or issue debt or equity securities to complete an acquisition, which could deplete our cash reserves and/or dilute our existing stockholders.

In addition, there has been, and we expect there will continue to be, significant competition within the gaming industry for acquisitions of businesses, technologies and assets. As such, even if we are able to identify an acquisition that we would like to pursue, the target may be acquired by another strategic buyer or we may otherwise not be able to complete the acquisition on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. Moreover, in addition to our failure to realize the anticipated benefits of any acquisition, including our revenues or return on investment assumptions, we may be exposed to unknown liabilities or impairment charges as a result of acquisitions we do complete.

We are party to pending litigation in various jurisdictions and with various plaintiffs, and we may be subject to future litigation in the operation of our business. An adverse outcome in one or more proceedings could adversely affect our business.

In the past we have been party to, and we may in the future increasingly face the risk of, claims, lawsuits, and other proceedings involving competition and antitrust, intellectual property, privacy, consumer protection, accessibility claims, securities, tax, labor and employment, commercial disputes, services and other matters. See “Business — Legal Proceedings.” Litigation to defend us against claims by third parties, or to enforce any rights that we may have against third parties, may be necessary, which could result in substantial costs and diversion of our resources, causing a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Any litigation to which we are a party may result in an onerous or unfavorable judgment that may not be reversed upon appeal, or in payments of substantial monetary damages or fines, the posting of bonds requiring significant collateral, letters of credit or similar instruments, or we may decide to settle lawsuits on similarly unfavorable terms. These proceedings could also result in reputational harm, criminal sanctions, consent decrees or orders preventing us from offering certain product offerings or requiring a change in our business practices in costly ways or requiring development of non-infringing or otherwise altered products or technologies. Litigation and other claims and regulatory proceedings against us could result in unexpected disciplinary actions, expenses and liabilities, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

DraftKings Marketplace facilitates the purchase and sale of nonfungible tokens (NFTs). The Company is defending litigation claiming Marketplace NFTs are “securities” under federal and state securities laws. While the Company believes that Marketplace NFTs are not securities, the final determination by the court in which the litigation is pending, another court, or by the SEC or another state or foreign regulatory authority is subject to uncertainty and if determined or re-interpreted in the future to be a security, we may be subject to damages in litigation, regulatory scrutiny, investigations, fines, and other penalties.

In developing, launching and operating DraftKings Marketplace, the Company analyzed whether the NFTs created for, offered, sold, or traded on, DraftKings Marketplace would be deemed “securities” under applicable law. The Company believes that such NFTs are not securities under the U.S. federal securities laws based, among other things, on the statutory definition of a security under the U.S. federal securities laws, Supreme Court decisions applying the definition of security, other judicial decisions applying the definition of a security, and factors articulated in public communications by representatives of the SEC, no-action letters, and enforcement actions.
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The Company is defending litigation filed in March 2023 in federal district court in Massachusetts alleging, among other things, that Marketplace NFTs are securities that were required to be, but were not, registered with the SEC in accordance with federal and Massachusetts law, and that Marketplace is a securities exchange that is not registered as required by federal and Massachusetts law. In addition, in July 2023, the Company received a subpoena from the Securities Division of the Office of the Secretary of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts seeking documents and requesting answers to interrogatories concerning, among other things, DraftKings Marketplace and Marketplace NFTs, and related matters. Our belief that Marketplace NFTs are not securities is a risk-based assessment and not a legal standard nor is it binding on any regulatory authority or court and, notwithstanding our conclusions, we could be subject to legal or regulatory action in the event a court, the SEC or a state or foreign regulatory authority were to determine that a particular NFT offered, sold, or traded on DraftKings Marketplace is a “security” under applicable law.

The legal test for determining whether a particular digital asset, such as Marketplace NFTs, is a security is a complex and fact-driven analysis and the SEC generally does not provide advance guidance or confirmation on the status of any particular digital asset as a security.

The classification of a digital asset as a security may have wide-ranging implications. For example, a security may generally only be offered or sold in the United States pursuant to a registration statement filed with the SEC or in a transaction that is exempt from registration; persons that effect transactions in assets that are securities in the United States may be subject to registration with the SEC as a “broker” or “dealer;” platforms that bring together purchasers and sellers to trade digital assets that are securities in the United States are generally subject to registration as securities exchanges, or must qualify for an exemption; persons facilitating clearing and settlement of securities may be subject to registration with the SEC as a clearing agency; and foreign jurisdictions may have similar licensing, registration, and qualification requirements.

If the court in which the litigation is pending, another court, the SEC or another state or foreign regulatory authority makes a final determination that Marketplace NFTs are securities under applicable law, we could be subject to, among other things, damages in litigation, regulatory scrutiny, investigations, sanctions, civil monetary penalties, injunctions, fines, reputational harm and other penalties, which could negatively impact our business, operating results, and financial condition.

Our business is subject to a variety of U.S. and foreign laws, many of which are unsettled and still developing and which could subject us to claims or otherwise harm our business. Any change in existing regulations or their interpretation, or the regulatory climate applicable to our product offerings and services, or changes in tax rules and regulations or interpretation thereof related to our product offerings and services, could adversely impact our ability to operate our business as currently conducted or as we seek to operate in the future, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

We are generally subject to laws and regulations relating to fantasy sports, sports betting and iGaming in the jurisdictions in which we conduct our business or in some circumstances, in those jurisdictions in which we offer our services or those are available, as well as the general laws and regulations that apply to all e-commerce businesses, such as those related to privacy and personal information, tax and consumer protection. These laws and regulations vary from one jurisdiction to another and future legislative and regulatory action, court decisions or other governmental action, which may be affected by, among other things, political pressures, attitudes and climates, as well as personal biases, may have a material impact on our operations and financial results. In particular, some jurisdictions have introduced legislation or regulations attempting to restrict or prohibit online sport betting and online gaming, while others have taken the position that online sports betting and online gaming should be licensed and regulated and have adopted or are in the process of considering enabling legislation and regulations. Additionally, some jurisdictions in which we may operate could presently be unregulated or partially regulated and therefore more susceptible to the enactment or change of laws and regulations.

We offer our DFS product offering in 24 U.S. states that have adopted legislation permitting online fantasy sports. In those states that currently require a license or registration, we have either obtained the appropriate license or registration, have obtained a provisional license, or are operating pursuant to a grandfathering clause that allows operation pending the availability of licensing applications and subsequent grant of a license. We also operate DFS in the United Kingdom pursuant to a license issued by the United Kingdom Gambling Commission.

We also operate our DFS product offering in 20 U.S. states, Washington D.C., and certain provinces in Canada that, in each case, do not have fantasy sports-specific laws or regulations. In those jurisdictions, our business has been, and in the future may be, subject to future legislative and regulatory action, court decisions or other governmental action that could alter or
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eliminate our ability to operate. For example, in certain states in which we operate, including Texas and Florida, the applicable office of the Attorney General has issued an adverse legal opinion regarding DFS and other fantasy sports. In the event that one of those Attorneys General decides to take action on the opinion from their office, we may have to withdraw our paid DFS operations from such state, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

In May 2018, the U.S. Supreme Court struck down PASPA as unconstitutional. This decision has the effect of lifting federal restrictions on sports betting and thus allowing states to determine the legality of sports betting for themselves. Since the repeal of PASPA, several states (and Washington D.C.) have legalized online sports betting. To the extent new real money gaming or sports betting jurisdictions are established or expanded, we cannot guarantee that we will be successful in entering such new jurisdictions or expanding our business or user base in line with the growth of existing jurisdictions. If we are unable to effectively develop and operate directly or indirectly within these new jurisdictions or if our competitors are able to successfully enter jurisdictions that we cannot access or where we face other restrictions, there could be a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition. Our failure to obtain or maintain the necessary regulatory approvals in jurisdictions, whether individually or collectively, would have a material adverse effect on our business. See “Business — Government Regulation.” To expand into new jurisdictions, we may need to be licensed and obtain approvals of our product offerings. This is a time-consuming process that can be costly. Any delays in obtaining or difficulty in maintaining regulatory approvals needed for expansion within existing jurisdictions or into new jurisdictions can negatively affect our opportunities for growth, including the growth of our customer base, or delay our ability to recognize revenue from our product offerings in any such jurisdictions.

Future legislative and regulatory action, and court decisions or other governmental action, may have a material impact on our operations and financial results. Governmental authorities could view us as having violated local laws, despite our efforts to obtain all applicable licenses or approvals. There is also a risk that civil and criminal proceedings, including class actions, brought by or on behalf of prosecutors or public entities or incumbent monopoly providers, or private individuals, could be initiated against us, Internet service providers, credit card and other payment processors, advertisers and others involved in the offering of Sportsbook, iGaming and DFS product offerings. Such potential proceedings could involve substantial litigation expense, penalties, fines, seizure of assets, injunctions or other restrictions being imposed upon us or our licensees or other business partners, while diverting the attention of key executives. Such proceedings could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects, as well as impact our reputation.

There can be no assurance that legally enforceable legislation will not be proposed and passed in jurisdictions relevant or potentially relevant to our business to prohibit, legislate or regulate various aspects of Sportsbook, iGaming and DFS product offerings (or that existing laws or regulations in those jurisdictions will not be changed or interpreted negatively). Compliance with any such legislation may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations, either as a result of our determination that a jurisdiction should be blocked, or because a local license or approval may be costly for us or our business partners to obtain and/or such licenses or approvals may contain other commercially undesirable conditions.

Our income tax expense is computed based on tax rates at the time of the respective financial period. Our future effective tax rates, financial condition and results from operations could be unfavorably affected by changes in the tax rates in jurisdictions where our income is earned, by changes in the tax rules and regulations or the interpretation of tax rules and regulations in the jurisdictions in which we do business or by changes in the valuation of our deferred tax assets. For example, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development has been working on a Base Erosion and Profit Shifting Project and released an implementation package in December 2023 which provides a coordinated system to ensure that multinational enterprises pay a global minimum tax. The guidelines and proposals may change aspects of the existing framework under which our tax obligations are determined in many of the countries where we do business. Similarly, the European Commission and several countries have issued proposals that would change aspects of the current tax framework under which we are taxed. These proposals include changes to the existing income tax framework, possibilities of a global minimum tax, and proposals to change or impose new types of non-income taxes, including taxes based on a percentage of revenue.

Compliance with data privacy and security laws and regulations could require us to incur significant expenses and failure to comply with such laws and regulations could carry penalties and potential criminal sanctions, as well as risk of litigation.

In the context of our European Union ("EU") operations, we may be subject to specific compliance obligations under the General Data Protection Regulation (EU) 2016/679 (the “GDPR”) and associated laws and regulations in different EU Member States in which we operate. In addition, portions of our business established outside the EU may be required to comply with the requirements of the GDPR and associated EU legislation with respect to the offering of products or services to, or the
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monitoring of, individuals in the EU. We may also be subject to the local privacy and data protection laws of the EU Member States in which we offer products or services. Failure to comply with these EU data protection and privacy laws can carry penalties and potential criminal sanctions, as well as the risk of litigation. In addition, Directive 2002/58/EC (as amended by Directive 2009/136/EC) (together, the “e-Privacy Directive”) governs, among other things, the use of cookies and the sending of electronic direct marketing within the EU and, as such, will apply to our marketing activities within the EU. Following Brexit, the UK has adopted its own data protection and direct marketing laws (the “UK data protection laws”) which are currently based on the corresponding EU legislation. Our UK-facing operations may therefore be subject to specific compliance obligations under the UK data protection laws.

In our efforts to comply with the GDPR, the e-Privacy Directive and the UK data protection laws, we rely on positions and interpretations of the law that have yet to be fully tested before the relevant courts and regulators. While the UK data protection laws are currently similar to the corresponding EU laws, it is possible that those laws will diverge in the future; to the extent that those laws do diverge, then that may increase the costs of maintaining regulatory compliance. There is also a risk that it may become more difficult to make cross-border transfers of personal data, as a result of diverging data protection regimes in the territories where our customers are located and the territories where our operations are based. If a regulator or court of competent jurisdiction determined that one or more of our compliance efforts does not satisfy the applicable requirements of the GDPR or the e-Privacy Directive, or the UK data protection laws, or if any party brought a claim in this regard, there could be potential governmental or regulatory investigations, enforcement actions, regulatory fines, compliance orders, litigation or public statements against us by consumer advocacy groups or others, and that could cause customers to lose trust in us and damage our reputation. Likewise, a change in guidance could be costly and have an adverse effect on our business.

We may also face similar compliance risks in connection with requirements under North American privacy and data protection laws, including the California Consumer Privacy Act and its implementing regulations, Virginia’s Consumer Data Protection Act and certain other privacy and data protections laws enacted by other jurisdictions from time to time. Non-compliance with such requirements may result in civil penalties and orders that require us to change the way we process data. In the event of a data breach, we are also subject to breach notification laws in the jurisdictions in which we operate and the risk of litigation and regulatory enforcement actions.

Our growth prospects depend on the legal status of real-money gaming in various jurisdictions, predominantly within the United States, and legalization may not occur in as many jurisdictions as we expect, or may occur at a slower pace than we anticipate. Additionally, even if jurisdictions legalize real money gaming, this may be accompanied by legislative or regulatory restrictions and/or taxes that make it impracticable or less attractive to operate in those jurisdictions, or the process of implementing regulations or securing the necessary licenses to operate in a particular jurisdiction may take longer than we anticipate, or existing laws or regulations may be changed or interpreted adversely, any of which could adversely affect our future results of operations and make it more difficult to meet our expectations for financial performance.

A number of states have legalized, or are currently considering legalizing, real money online sports betting and iGaming, and our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects are significantly dependent upon such legalization. Our business plan is partially based upon the legalization of real money online sports betting and iGaming for a specific percentage of the U.S. population on a yearly basis and such rate of legalization may not occur as we have anticipated. Additionally, if a large number of additional jurisdictions or the federal government enact real money sports betting or iGaming legislation and we are unable to obtain, or are otherwise delayed in obtaining, the necessary licenses to operate online sports betting or iGaming websites in such jurisdictions, our future growth in online sports betting and iGaming could be materially impaired. Furthermore, for those jurisdictions that have enacted real-money sports betting or iGaming laws or regulations, such laws and regulations could be amended or interpreted adversely, which could impose additional restrictions or costs that could have an adverse effect on our business.

As we enter into new jurisdictions, the relevant jurisdiction may legalize real money sports betting and iGaming in a manner that is unfavorable to us. As a result, we may encounter unexpected legal, regulatory and political challenges, which could result in an unforeseen adverse impact on planned revenues or costs associated with the new opportunity. For example, certain states require us to have a relationship with a retail operator in order to offer our online Sportsbook product offering, which tends to increase our costs of revenue. States that have established state-run monopolies may limit opportunities for private sector participants like us. States also impose substantial tax rates on online sports betting and iGaming revenue in addition to, in the case of online sports betting, the federal excise tax of 25 basis points on the amount of each wager. As most state product taxes apply to various measures of modified gross profit, tax rates, whether federal- or state-based, that are higher than we expect will make it more costly and less desirable for us to launch in a given jurisdiction, while tax increases in any of our existing jurisdictions may adversely impact our profitability.

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Therefore, even in cases in which a jurisdiction licenses and regulates Sportsbook, iGaming or DFS, the licensing and regulatory regimes can vary considerably in terms of their business-friendliness and at times may be intended to provide incumbent operators with advantages over new licensees. Therefore, certain “liberalized” regulatory regimes are considerably more commercially attractive than others.

Failure to comply with regulatory requirements in a particular jurisdiction, or the failure to successfully obtain a license or permit applied for in a particular jurisdiction, could impact our ability to comply with licensing and regulatory requirements in other jurisdictions, or could cause the rejection of license applications or cancellation of existing licenses in other jurisdictions, or could cause financial institutions, online and mobile platforms, advertisers and distributors to stop providing services to us which we rely upon to receive payments from, or distribute amounts to, our users, or otherwise to deliver and promote our product offerings and services.

Compliance with the various regulations applicable to fantasy sports and real money sports betting and iGaming is costly and time-consuming. Regulatory authorities at the non-U.S. and U.S. federal, state and local levels have broad powers with respect to the regulation and licensing of fantasy sports and real money gaming operations and may revoke, suspend, condition or limit our fantasy sports or real money gaming licenses, impose substantial fines on us and take other actions, any one of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. These laws and regulations are dynamic and subject to potentially differing interpretations, and various legislative and regulatory bodies may expand current laws or regulations or enact new laws and regulations regarding these matters. We endeavor to comply with all applicable laws and regulations relating to our business. It is possible, however, that these requirements may be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent from one jurisdiction to another and may conflict with other rules. Non-compliance with any such law or regulations could expose us to claims, proceedings, litigation and investigations by private parties and regulatory authorities, as well as substantial fines and negative publicity, each of which may materially and adversely affect our business.

Any fantasy sports or real money gaming license could be revoked, suspended or conditioned at any time. The loss of a license in one jurisdiction could trigger the loss of a license or affect our eligibility for such a license in another jurisdiction, and any of such losses, or potential for such loss, could cause us to cease offering some or all of our product offerings in the impacted jurisdictions. We may be unable to obtain or maintain all necessary registrations, licenses, permits or approvals, and could incur fines or experience delays related to the licensing process, which could adversely affect our operations. Our delay or failure to obtain or maintain licenses in any jurisdiction may prevent us from distributing our product offerings, increasing our customer base and/or generating revenues. We cannot assure you that we will be able to obtain and maintain the licenses and related approvals necessary to conduct our Sportsbook, iGaming and DFS operations. Any failure to maintain or renew our existing licenses, registrations, permits or approvals could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Our growth prospects and market potential will depend on our ability to obtain licenses to operate in a number of jurisdictions, and if we fail to obtain and subsequently maintain such licenses, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be impaired.

Our ability to grow our business will depend on our ability to obtain and maintain licenses to offer our product offerings in a large number of jurisdictions or in heavily populated jurisdictions. Regulated gaming license applications and audits frequently involve an in-depth suitability review of the applicant’s business and operations and associated individuals including certain officers, directors, key employees and significant stockholders. These applications and audits take substantial time to prepare, submit, and complete, often requiring the production of multiple years’ worth of business and personal financial records and disclosures which take considerable time to compile, followed by the regulator’s investigatory process which may take months or even years to complete. If we fail to obtain and maintain licenses in large jurisdictions or in a greater number of mid-market jurisdictions, this may prevent us from expanding the footprint of our product offerings, increasing our user base and/or generating revenues. We cannot be certain that we will be able to obtain and maintain licenses and related approvals necessary to conduct our Sportsbook, iGaming and DFS operations in a timely manner or at all. Any failure to obtain and maintain licenses, registrations, permits or approvals could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We have been, and continue to be, the subject of governmental investigations and inquiries with respect to the operation of our businesses, and we could be subject to future governmental investigations and inquiries, legal proceedings and enforcement actions. Any such investigation, inquiry, proceeding or action, could adversely affect our business.

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We have received formal and informal inquiries from time to time, from government authorities and regulators, including tax authorities and gaming regulators, regarding compliance with laws and other matters, and we may receive such inquiries in the future, particularly as we grow and expand our operations. Violation of existing or future regulations, regulatory orders or consent decrees could subject us to substantial monetary fines and other penalties that could negatively affect our financial condition and results of operations. In addition, it is possible that future orders issued by, or inquiries or enforcement actions initiated by, government or regulatory authorities could cause us to incur substantial costs, expose us to unanticipated liability or penalties, or require us to change our business practices in a manner materially adverse to our business.

Participation in the sports betting industry exposes us to trading, liability management and pricing risk. We may experience lower than expected profitability and potentially significant losses as a result of a failure to determine accurately the odds in relation to any particular event and/or any failure of our sports risk management processes due to a variety of factors beyond our control.

Our fixed-odds betting product offerings involve betting where winnings are paid on the basis of the stake placed and the odds quoted. Odds are determined with the objective of providing an average return to the bookmaker over a large number of events and therefore, over the long term, our gross win percentage has remained fairly constant. However, there can be significant variation in gross win percentage event-by-event and day-by-day. We have systems and controls that seek to reduce the risk of daily losses occurring on a gross-win basis, but there can be no assurance that these will be effective in reducing our exposure, and consequently our exposure to this risk in the future. As a result, in the short term, there is less certainty of generating a positive gross win, and we have from time to time experienced, and may in the future experience, significant losses with respect to individual events or betting outcomes, in particular if large individual bets are placed on an event or betting outcome or series of events or betting outcomes. Odds compilers and risk managers are capable of human error, thus even allowing for the fact that a number of betting products are subject to capped pay-outs, significant volatility can occur. In addition, it is possible that there may be such a high volume of trading during any particular period that even automated systems would be unable to address and mitigate all risks. Any significant losses on a gross-win basis could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. In addition, if a jurisdiction where we hold or wish to apply for a license imposes a high turnover tax for betting (as opposed to a gross-win tax), this would also impact profitability, particularly with high value/low margin bets, and likewise have a material adverse effect on our business.

Palpable (obvious) errors in Sportsbook odds making may occasionally occur in the normal course of business, sometimes for large liabilities. While it is a worldwide standard business practice to void bets associated with palpable errors or to correct the odds, there is no guarantee regulators will approve voiding palpable errors in every case.

Our Sportsbook offers a huge spectrum of betting markets across dozens of sports, and the odds are set through a combination of algorithmic and manual odds making. Bet acceptance is also a combination of automatic and manual acceptance. In some cases, the odds offered on our Sportsbook constitute an obvious error. Examples of such errors are inverted lines between teams, or odds that are significantly different from the true odds of the outcome in a way that all reasonable persons would agree is an error. It is generally commonplace worldwide for operators to void bets associated with such palpable errors, and, in most mature jurisdictions, these bets can be voided without regulatory approval at operator discretion. In the U.S., it is unclear long term if state-by-state regulators will consistently approve the voiding of bets or re-setting odds to correct odds on such bets. In some cases, we require regulatory approval to void palpable errors ahead of time. If regulators were to not allow voiding of bets associated with large obvious errors in odds making, we could be subject to covering significant liabilities.

We follow the industry practice of restricting and managing betting limits at the individual customer level based on individual customer profiles and risk level to the enterprise; however, there is no guarantee that jurisdictions will allow operators such as us to limit on the individual customer level.

It is customary for sports betting operators to manage customer betting limits at the individual level to manage enterprise risk levels. We believe this practice is beneficial overall, because if it were not possible, betting options would be restricted globally and limits available to customers would be much lower to insulate overall risk due to the existence of a small segment of highly sophisticated syndicates and algorithmic bettors, or bettors looking to take advantage of errors and omissions on our platforms. We believe virtually all operators balance taking reasonable action from all customers against the risk of individual customers significantly harming business viability. We cannot assure you that all state legislation and regulators will always allow operators to execute limits at the individual customer level, or at their sole discretion.

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Negative events or negative media coverage relating to, or a declining popularity of, sports betting, online sports betting, daily fantasy sports, or the underlying sports or athletes, or iGaming in particular, or other negative coverage may adversely impact our ability to retain or attract users, which could have an adverse impact on our business.

Public opinion can significantly influence our business. Unfavorable publicity regarding us, for example, our product changes, product quality, litigation, or regulatory activity, or regarding the actions of third parties with whom we have relationships or the underlying sports (including declining popularity of the sports or athletes) could seriously harm our reputation. In addition, a negative shift in the perception of sports betting and iGaming by the public or by politicians, lobbyists or others could affect future legislation of sports betting and iGaming, which could cause jurisdictions to abandon proposals to legalize sports betting and iGaming, thereby limiting the number of jurisdictions in which we are permitted to operate. Furthermore, illegal betting activity by athletes could result in negative publicity for our industry and could harm our brand reputation. Negative public perception could also lead to new restrictions on, or the prohibition of, iGaming or sports betting in jurisdictions in which we currently operate. Such negative publicity could also adversely affect the size, demographics, engagement and loyalty of our customer base and result in decreased revenue or slower user growth rates, which could seriously harm our business.

We may have difficulty accessing the service of banks, credit card issuers and payment processing service providers, which may make it difficult to offer our product offerings and services.

Although financial institutions and payment processors are permitted to provide services to us and others in our industry, banks, credit card issuers and payment processing service providers may be hesitant to offer banking and payment processing services to real money gaming and fantasy sports businesses. Consequently, those businesses involved in our industry, including our own, may encounter difficulties in establishing and maintaining banking and payment processing relationships with a full scope of services and generating market rate interest. If we are unable to maintain our bank accounts or our users are unable to use their credit cards, bank accounts or e-wallets to make deposits and withdrawals from our product offerings, it would make it difficult for us to operate our business, increase our operating costs, and pose additional operational, logistical and security challenges which could result in an inability to implement our business plan.

The requirements of being a public company may strain our resources and divert management’s attention, and additional legal, accounting and compliance expenses may be greater than we anticipate.

We became a public company following the consummation of the transactions contemplated by the Business Combination Agreement dated December 22, 2019, as amended on April 7, 2020 (the “DEAC Business Combination”), with Diamond Eagle Acquisition Corp. (“DEAC”), and as such, we have incurred, and will continue to incur, significant legal, accounting and other expenses that DraftKings and SBTech did not incur as private companies. We are subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, and we are required to comply with the applicable requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (“Sarbanes-Oxley”) and the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, as well as the rules and regulations subsequently implemented by the SEC and the listing standards of The Nasdaq Stock Market, including changes in corporate governance practices and the establishment and maintenance of effective disclosure and financial controls. Compliance with these rules and regulations can be burdensome, and our management and other personnel are required to devote a substantial amount of time to these compliance initiatives.

Failure to maintain adequate financial, information technology and management processes and controls could result in material weaknesses and lead to errors in our financial reporting, which could adversely affect our business as a public company.

As a public company, we are required to maintain internal control over financial reporting and to report any material weaknesses in such internal controls. Section 404 of Sarbanes-Oxley requires that we evaluate and determine the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. It also requires our independent registered public accounting firm to attest to our evaluation of our internal control over financial reporting with our Annual Report. Although our management has determined, and our independent registered public accounting firm has attested, that our internal control over financial reporting was effective as of December 31, 2023, we cannot assure you that we or our independent registered public accounting firm will not identify a material weakness in our internal controls in the future. Maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting is necessary for us to produce reliable financial reports and is important in helping to prevent financial fraud.

Our current controls and any new controls that we develop may become inadequate because of poor design and changes in our business, including increased complexity resulting from any expansion. Any failure to implement and maintain effective
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internal control over financial reporting could adversely affect the results of assessments by our independent registered public accounting firm and their attestation reports.

If we are unable to certify the effectiveness of our internal controls, or if our internal controls have a material weakness, we may not detect errors in a timely fashion, our consolidated financial statements could be misstated, we could be subject to regulatory scrutiny and a loss of confidence by stakeholders, which could harm our business and adversely affect the market price of our common stock. Failure to comply with Section 404 of Sarbanes-Oxley could potentially subject us to sanctions or investigations by the SEC, FINRA or other regulatory authorities, as well as increase the risk of liability arising from litigation based on securities law.

Continued growth and success will depend on the performance of our current and future employees, including certain key employees. Recruitment and retention of these individuals is vital to growing our business and meeting our business plans. The loss of any of our key executives or other key employees could harm our business.

We depend on a limited number of key personnel to manage and operate our business, including DraftKings’ co-founders, our Chief Financial Officer and our Chief Legal Officer. The leadership of these key personnel has been, and we expect will continue to be, a critical element of our success. The departure, death or disability of any one of our executive officers or other extended or permanent loss of any of their services, or any negative market or industry perception with respect to any of them or their loss, could have a material adverse effect on our business. We are not protected by key man or similar life insurance covering executive officers or members of senior management.

In addition, certain of our other employees have made significant contributions to our growth and success. We believe our success and our ability to compete and grow will depend in large part on the efforts and talents of our employees and on our ability to retain highly skilled personnel. There is significant competition for these types of personnel, and we compete with other potential employers for the services of our employees. As a result, we may not succeed in retaining our executives and other key employees. Employees, particularly analysts and engineers, are in high demand, and we devote significant resources to identifying, hiring, training, successfully integrating and retaining these employees. In addition, experienced personnel in the technology industry are in high demand. We cannot provide assurance that we will be able to attract or retain such highly qualified personnel in the future. In addition, the loss of employees or the inability to hire additional skilled employees as necessary could result in significant disruptions to our business, and the integration of replacement personnel could be time-consuming and expensive and cause additional disruptions to our business. If we do not succeed in attracting, hiring, and integrating qualified personnel, or retaining and motivating existing personnel, we may be unable to grow effectively and our business could be seriously harmed.

All of our named executive officers are employees-at-will. The unexpected loss of services of one or more of these key employees could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

In some jurisdictions our key executives, certain employees or other individuals related to the business are, and will continue to be, subject to licensing or compliance requirements. Failure by such individuals to obtain the necessary licenses or comply with individual regulatory obligations could cause the business to be non-compliant with its obligations, or imperil its ability to obtain or maintain licenses necessary for the conduct of the business. In some cases, the remedy to such situation may require the removal of a key executive or employee and the mandatory redemption or transfer of such person’s equity securities.

As part of obtaining real money gaming licenses, the responsible gaming authority will generally determine suitability of certain directors, officers and employees and, in some instances, significant stockholders. The criteria used by gaming authorities to make determinations as to who requires a finding of suitability or the suitability of an applicant to conduct gaming operations varies among jurisdictions, but generally requires extensive and detailed application disclosures followed by a thorough investigation. If any gaming authority with jurisdiction over our business were to find an applicable officer, director, employee or significant stockholder of ours unsuitable for licensing or unsuitable to continue having a relationship with us, we would be required to sever our relationship with that person or entity. Furthermore, such gaming authorities may require us to terminate the employment of any person who refuses to file required applications. Either result could have a material adverse effect on our business, operations and prospects.

In addition, our amended and restated articles of incorporation provide that any of our common stock or other equity securities owned or controlled by any stockholder whom our board of directors determines in good faith (following consultation with reputable outside gaming regulatory counsel), pursuant to a resolution adopted by the unanimous affirmative vote of all of
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the disinterested members of our board of directors, is an unsuitable person, will be subject to mandatory sale and transfer to either us or one or more third-party transferees.

Additionally, a gaming regulatory body may refuse to issue or renew a gaming license or restrict or condition the same, based on our present activities or the past activities of DraftKings, SBTech or GNOG, or the past or present activities of their or our current or former directors, officers, employees, stockholders or third parties with whom we have relationships, which could adversely affect our operations or financial condition. If additional gaming regulations are adopted in a jurisdiction in which we operate, such regulations could impose restrictions or costs that could have a significant adverse effect on us. From time to time, various proposals are introduced in the legislatures of some of the jurisdictions in which we have existing or planned operations that, if enacted, could adversely affect our directors, officers, key employees, or other aspects of our operations. To date, we have obtained all governmental licenses, findings of suitability, registrations, permits and approvals necessary for our operations as currently conducted. However, we can give no assurance that any additional licenses, permits and approvals that may be required will be given or that existing ones will be renewed or will not be revoked. Renewal of licenses, permits and approvals are subject to, among other things, continued satisfaction of suitability requirements of our directors, officers, key employees and stockholders. Any failure to renew or maintain our licenses or to receive new licenses when necessary would have a material adverse effect on us.

Due to the nature of our business, we are subject to taxation in a number of jurisdictions and changes in, or new interpretations of, tax laws, tax rulings or their application by tax authorities could result in additional tax liabilities and could materially affect our financial condition and results of operations. We have been, and continue to be, subject to periodic audits and examinations by the IRS, as well as state and local taxing authorities, the results of which may materially impact our financial statements in the period in which the audit or examination occurs.

Our tax obligations are varied and include U.S. federal, state and local taxes and international taxes due to the nature of our business. The tax laws that are applicable to our business are subject to interpretation, and significant judgment is required in determining our worldwide provision for income taxes. In the course of our business, there are many transactions and calculations where the ultimate tax determination is uncertain. For example, compliance with the 2017 United States Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “TCJA”) required the collection of information not regularly produced within our Company, the use of estimates in our consolidated financial statements, and the exercise of significant judgment in accounting for its provisions.

As of December 31, 2023, 25 countries in Europe, the Middle East, Africa, and Asia-Pacific have enacted various aspects of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development’s Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (“BEPS”) 2.0 Pillar Two global minimum tax (GMT). In 24 of those countries, the GMT is effective beginning in 2024. Based on currently enacted law, the impact of GMT on our 2024 results is not expected to be material.

The gaming industry also represents a significant source of tax revenue to the jurisdictions in which we operate. Gaming companies and business-to-business providers in the gaming industry (directly and/or indirectly by way of their commercial relationships with operators) are currently subject to significant taxes and fees in addition to normal corporate income taxes, and such taxes and fees are subject to increase at any time. From time to time, various legislators and other government officials have proposed and adopted changes in tax laws, or in the administration or interpretation of such laws, affecting the gaming industry. In addition, worsening of economic conditions and the large number of jurisdictions with significant current or projected budget deficits could intensify the efforts of governments to raise revenues through increases in gaming taxes and/or other taxes. It is not possible to determine with certainty the likelihood of changes in tax laws or in the administration or interpretation or enforcement of such laws. Any material increase, or the adoption of additional taxes or fees, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Additionally, tax authorities may impose indirect taxes on Internet-related commercial activity based on existing statutes and regulations which, in some cases, were established prior to the advent of the Internet. Tax authorities may interpret laws originally enacted for mature industries and apply it to newer industries, such as the online sports betting and iGaming industries. The application of such laws may be inconsistent from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. Our in-jurisdiction activities may vary from period to period which could result in differences in nexus from period to period.

We have been, and continue to be, subject to periodic review and audit by domestic and foreign tax authorities. Tax authorities may disagree with certain positions that we or our predecessors have taken or that we will take, and any adverse outcome of such a review or audit could have a negative effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Although we believe that our tax provisions, positions and estimates are reasonable and appropriate, tax authorities may disagree with certain positions we have taken. In addition, economic and political pressures to increase tax revenue in various jurisdictions may make resolving tax disputes favorably more difficult. We are currently under IRS audit for prior tax years, with the primary unresolved issues relating to excise taxation of fantasy sports contests and informational reporting and
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withholding. The final resolution of that audit, and other audits or litigation, may differ from the amounts recorded in our consolidated financial statements included herein and may materially affect our consolidated financial statements in the period or periods in which that determination is made.

Failure to protect or enforce our intellectual property rights or the costs involved in such enforcement could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We rely on trademark, copyright, patent, trade secret, and domain-name-protection laws to protect our proprietary rights. In the United States and internationally, we have filed various applications to protect aspects of our intellectual property, and currently hold a number of issued patents and registered trademarks in multiple jurisdictions. In the future we may acquire additional patents or patent portfolios or trademarks, which could require significant cash expenditures. However, third parties may knowingly or unknowingly infringe our proprietary rights, third parties may challenge proprietary rights held by us, and pending and future trademark and patent applications may not be approved. In addition, effective intellectual property protection may not be available in every country in which we operate or intend to operate our business. In any of these cases, we may be required to expend significant time and expense to prevent infringement or to enforce our rights. There can be no assurance that others will not offer products or services that are substantially similar to ours and compete with our business.

Circumstances outside our control could pose a threat to our intellectual property rights. For example, effective intellectual property protection may not be available in all jurisdictions in which our Sportsbook, DFS and iGaming product offerings are accessible. Also, the efforts we have taken to protect our proprietary rights may not be sufficient or effective. Any significant impairment of our intellectual property rights could harm our business or our ability to compete. Also, protecting our intellectual property rights is costly and time-consuming. Any unauthorized disclosure or use of our intellectual property could make it more expensive to do business, thereby harming our operating results. Furthermore, if we are unable to protect our proprietary rights or prevent unauthorized use or appropriation by third parties, the value of our brand and other intangible assets may be diminished, and competitors may be able to more effectively mimic our product offerings and services. Any of these events could have a material adverse impact on our business.

We rely on licenses to use the intellectual property rights of third parties which are incorporated into our product offerings and services. Failure to renew or expand existing licenses may require us to modify, limit or discontinue certain product offerings, which could materially affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We rely on products, technologies and intellectual property that we license from third parties for use in our product offerings and our gaming software services. Substantially all of our product offerings and services use intellectual property licensed from third parties. The future success of our business depends, in part, on our ability to obtain, retain and/or expand licenses for popular technologies and games in a competitive market. We cannot assure you that these third-party licenses, or support for such licensed products and technologies, will continue to be available to us on commercially reasonable terms, if at all. In the event that we cannot renew and/or expand existing licenses, we may be required to discontinue or limit our use of the product offerings that include or incorporate the licensed intellectual property.

Some of our license agreements contain minimum guaranteed royalty payments to the third party. If we are unable to generate sufficient revenue to offset the minimum guaranteed royalty payments, it could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, cash flows and financial condition. Our license agreements generally allow for assignment in the event of a strategic transaction but contain some limited termination rights post-assignment. Certain of our license agreements grant the licensor rights to audit our use of their intellectual property. Disputes with licensors over uses or terms could result in the payment of additional royalties or penalties by us, cancellation or non-renewal of the underlying license or litigation.

The regulatory review process and licensing requirements also may preclude us from using technologies owned or developed by third parties if those parties are unwilling to subject themselves to regulatory review or do not meet regulatory requirements. Certain gaming authorities require gaming manufacturers to obtain approval before engaging in certain transactions, such as acquisitions, mergers, reorganizations, financings, stock offerings and share repurchases. Obtaining such approvals can be costly and time consuming, and we cannot assure you that such approvals will be granted or obtained on acceptable terms, or at all, or that the approval process will not result in delays or disruptions to our strategic objectives.

Our insurance may not provide adequate levels of coverage against claims.

We maintain insurance that we believe is customary for businesses of our size and type. However, there are types of losses we may incur that cannot be insured against or that we believe are not economically reasonable to insure. Moreover, any loss
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incurred could exceed policy limits and policy payments made to us may not be made on a timely basis. Such losses could adversely affect our business prospects, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

We may incur successor liabilities due to conduct arising prior to the completion of the DEAC Business Combination.

We may be subject to certain liabilities of DK Crown Holdings Inc. (formerly DraftKings Inc.), a Delaware corporation (“DK DE”), and SBTech. For example, DK DE and SBTech at times may each become subject to litigation claims in the operation of its business, including, but not limited to, with respect to employee matters and contract matters. From time to time, we may also face intellectual property infringement, misappropriation, or invalidity/non-infringement claims from third parties, and some of these claims may lead to litigation. We may initiate claims to assert or defend their own intellectual property against third parties. Any litigation may be expensive and time-consuming and could divert management’s attention from its business and negatively affect its operating results or financial condition. The outcome of any litigation cannot be guaranteed, and adverse outcomes can affect us negatively.

We currently are, and in the future may be, the subject of inquiry and investigation by governmental authorities, which could in turn lead to fines, as the regulatory landscape of sports betting and iGaming changes.

Our non-U.S. operations expose us to certain foreign currency transaction and translation risks. As a result, changes in the valuation of the U.S. dollar in relation to other currencies could have positive or negative effects on our profit and financial position.

Our non-U.S. operations expose us to foreign currency transaction and translation risks. Currency transaction risk occurs in conjunction with purchases and sales of products and services that are made in currencies other than the local currency of the subsidiary involved, for example if the parent company pays, or transfers U.S. dollars to a subsidiary in order to fund its expenses in local currencies. Currency translation risks occurs when the income statement and balance sheet of a foreign subsidiary is converted into currencies other than the local currency of the company involved, for example when the results of these subsidiaries are consolidated in the results of a parent company with a different reporting currency. As a result, our non-U.S. operations historically have been, and will continue to be, exposed to currency transaction risk relating to adverse movements in foreign currency exchange rates, which may adversely impact our financial positions and results of operations.

Our functional currency is the U.S. dollar, and as a result, we will be subject to foreign currency fluctuation due to operations by subsidiaries in non-U.S. jurisdictions, including our SBTech operations and the offering of our Sportsbook and iGaming product offerings in Ontario, Canada, and the fact that certain of our revenues, operating expenses and assets and liabilities are non-U.S. dollar denominated. For example, an increase in the value of non-U.S. dollar currencies against the U.S. dollar could increase costs for delivery of products and services and also increase cost of local operating expenses and procurement of materials or services that we must purchase in foreign currencies by increasing labor and other costs that are denominated in such local currencies. These risks related to exchange rate fluctuations may increase in future periods in the event that our non-U.S. operations expand. In 2023 and 2022, our exposure to foreign currency transaction and translation risks were not material. While we do not otherwise hedge our foreign exchange exposure, we may consider doing so in the future.

Foreign currency exchange rate volatility, as well as the cost of any hedging arrangements entered into in the future, may negatively affect our financial position and results of operations, and may adversely impact the comparability of results between periods.

Risk Factors Relating to our Indebtedness

We have substantial debt outstanding and may incur additional debt.

As of December 31, 2023, our total long-term debt was approximately $1,253.8 million, net of issuance costs. Our debt levels could have significant consequences, including:

making it more difficult to satisfy our obligations;
a dilutive effect on our outstanding equity capital or future earnings;
increasing our vulnerability to general adverse economic conditions;
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requiring us to devote a substantial portion of our cash to make payments on our debt, thereby reducing the amount of cash available for other purposes. As a result, we would have limited financial and operating flexibility in responding to changing economic and competitive conditions;
limiting our ability to raise additional debt because it may be more difficult for us to obtain debt financing on attractive terms; and
placing us at a disadvantage compared to our competitors that are less leveraged.

In addition, we may incur substantial additional debt in the future. The terms of the indenture governing our zero-coupon convertible senior notes in an aggregate principal amount of $1,265.0 million, which includes proceeds from the full exercise of the over-allotment option (collectively, the “Convertible Notes”), and the loan and security agreement with Pacific Western Bank and Citizens Bank, as lenders, which provides the Company with a revolving line of credit of up to $125.0 million, permit us to incur additional debt, subject to certain limitations set forth therein. If new debt is incurred in addition to our current debt levels, the foregoing risks may be augmented.

The conditional conversion features of the Convertible Notes, if triggered, may adversely affect our financial condition and operating results.

In the event the conditional conversion features of the Convertible Notes are triggered, holders of the Convertible Notes will be entitled to convert the Convertible Notes at any time during specified periods at their option. If one or more holders elect to convert their Convertible Notes, unless we elect to satisfy our conversion obligation by delivering solely shares of our Class A common stock, we would be required to make cash payments to satisfy all or a portion of our conversion obligation based on the conversion rate, which could adversely affect our liquidity. In addition, even if holders do not elect to convert their Convertible Notes, we could be required under applicable accounting rules to reclassify all or a portion of the outstanding principal of the Convertible Notes as a current rather than long-term liability, which could result in a material reduction of our net working capital.

The Capped Call Transactions may affect the value of the Convertible Notes and our Class A common stock.

In connection with the issuance of the Convertible Notes, we entered into privately negotiated capped call transactions (the “Capped Call Transactions”) with certain counterparties (the “Hedge Counterparties”). The Capped Call Transactions are expected to reduce the potential dilution to the holders of our Class A common stock and/or offset potential cash payments we are required to make in excess of the principal amount upon conversion of the Convertible Notes. In connection with establishing its initial hedge of a Capped Call Transaction, the applicable Hedge Counterparty and/or its affiliates may have purchased shares of our Class A common stock and/or entered into various derivative transactions with respect to our Class A common stock concurrently with or shortly after the pricing of the Convertible Notes.

This activity may increase (or reduce the size of any decrease in) the market price of our Class A common stock or the Convertible Notes at that time. In addition, each Hedge Counterparty or an affiliate thereof may modify its hedge position by entering into or unwinding various derivatives with respect to our Class A common stock and/or purchasing or selling our Class A common stock or other securities of ours in secondary market transactions prior to the maturity of the Convertible Notes (and are likely to do so during any observation period related to a conversion of Convertible Notes). Any of these activities could cause or prevent an increase or decline in the market price of our Class A common stock or the Convertible Notes. In addition, if the Capped Call Transactions fail to become effective, each Hedge Counterparty may unwind its hedge position with respect to our Class A common stock, which could adversely affect trading in and the value of our Class A common stock and the value of the Convertible Notes.

We are subject to counterparty risk with respect to the Capped Call Transactions.

The Hedge Counterparties to the Capped Call Transactions are financial institutions, and we will be subject to the risk that the Hedge Counterparties may default or otherwise fail to perform, or may exercise certain rights to terminate, their obligations under the Capped Call Transactions. Our exposure to the credit risk of the Hedge Counterparties under the Capped Call Transactions will not be secured by any collateral. In the past, economic conditions have resulted in the actual or perceived failure or financial difficulties of a number of financial institutions, including the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc. and various of its affiliates. If a Hedge Counterparty becomes subject to insolvency proceedings, we will be an unsecured creditor in those proceedings with a claim equal to our exposure at that time under our transactions with them. Our exposure
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will depend on many factors. Generally, the increase in our exposure will be correlated to the increase in the market price and in the volatility of our Class A common stock. In addition, as a result of a default by any counterparty to the Capped Call Transactions, we may suffer more dilution than we currently anticipate with respect to our Class A common stock. We can provide no assurances as to the financial stability or viability of any counterparty under the Capped Call Transactions.

Risk Factors Relating to Our Common Stock

The trading price of our Class A common stock has been, and will likely continue to be, volatile and you could lose all or part of your investment.

The trading price of our Class A common stock has been, and will likely continue to be, volatile and subject to wide fluctuations in response to various factors, some of which are beyond our control. Any of the factors listed below could have a material adverse effect on your investment in our Class A common stock, and our Class A common stock may trade at prices significantly below the price you paid for them. In such circumstances, the trading price of our securities may not recover and may experience a further decline.

Factors affecting the trading price of our Class A common stock may include:
actual or anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly financial results or the quarterly financial results of companies perceived to be similar to us;
changes in the market’s expectations about our operating results;
success of competitors;
lack of adjacent competitors;
our operating results failing to meet the expectation of securities analysts or investors in a particular period;
changes in financial estimates and recommendations by securities analysts concerning DraftKings or the industries in which we operate in general;
operating and stock price performance of other companies that investors deem comparable to us;
our ability to market new and enhanced product offerings and services on a timely basis;
changes in laws and regulations affecting our business;
commencement of, or involvement in, litigation involving us;
changes in our capital structure, such as future issuances of securities or the incurrence of additional debt;
the volume of shares of our Class A common stock available for public sale;
any major change in our board of directors or management;
sales of substantial amounts of our Class A common stock by our directors, executive officers or significant stockholders or the perception that such sales could occur; and
general economic and political conditions such as recessions, inflation, rising interest rates, fuel prices, international currency fluctuations and acts of war or terrorism.

Broad market and industry factors may materially harm the market price of our Class A common stock irrespective of our operating performance. The stock market in general, and securities traded on Nasdaq in particular, have experienced price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of the affected companies. The trading prices and valuations of these stocks, and of our Class A common stock, may not be predictable. A loss of investor confidence in the market for the stocks of other companies which investors perceive to be similar to us could depress our stock price regardless of our business, prospects, financial conditions or results of operations. A decline in the market price of our Class A common stock also could adversely affect our ability to issue additional securities and our ability to obtain additional financing in the future.

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Sales of substantial amounts of Class A common stock in the public market, or the perception that such sales may occur, could cause the market price for our Class A common stock to decline.

The sale of shares of our Class A common stock in the public market, or the perception that such sales could occur, could harm the prevailing market price of shares of our Class A common stock. These sales, or the possibility that these sales may occur, also might make it more difficult for us to sell equity securities in the future at a time and at a price that we deem appropriate.

There were a total of 472.7 million shares of our Class A common stock outstanding as of December 31, 2023. In addition, we have reserved shares of Class A common stock for issuance under the DraftKings Inc. 2020 Incentive Plan (the “Incentive Plan”) and under the DraftKings Employee Stock Purchase Plan (the “ESPP”). Additionally, each of our Incentive Plan and ESPP currently provide for an automatic increase in the number of shares that will be reserved for issuance. Any shares of Class A common stock that we issue under our Incentive Plan, ESPP or other equity incentive plans that we may adopt in the future would dilute the percentage ownership held by holders of Class A common stock.

In connection with the DEAC Business Combination, the GNOG Transaction, and equity offerings by the Company, we, our executive officers and directors and selling stockholders entered into agreements restricting their ability to sell their shares of Class A common stock. As restrictions on resale end or if these stockholders exercise their sale, exchange or registration rights and sell shares or are perceived by the market as intending to sell shares, the market price of our shares of Class A common stock could drop significantly. These factors could also make it more difficult for us to raise additional funds through future offerings of our shares of Class A common stock or other securities.

In the future, we may also issue securities in connection with investments, acquisitions or capital raising activities. In particular, the number of shares of our Class A common stock issued in connection with an investment or acquisition, or to raise additional equity capital, could constitute a material portion of our then-outstanding shares of our Class A common stock. Any such issuance of additional securities in the future may result in additional dilution to you or may adversely impact the price of our Class A common stock.

We may be required to take write-downs or write-offs, restructuring and impairment or other charges that could have a significant negative effect on our financial condition, results of operations and stock price, which could cause you to lose some or all of your investment.

We may be forced to write-down or write-off assets, restructure our operations, or incur impairment or other charges that could result in losses. Even though these charges may be non-cash items and not have an immediate impact on our liquidity, the fact that we report charges of this nature could contribute to negative market perceptions about us or our securities. In addition, charges of this nature may cause us to violate net worth or other covenants to which we may be subject. Accordingly, a stockholder could suffer a reduction in the value of their shares of Class A common stock.

The coverage of our business or our Class A common stock by securities or industry analysts or the absence thereof could adversely affect our securities and trading volume.

The trading market for our Class A common stock is influenced in part by the research and other reports that industry or securities analysts publish about us or our business or industry from time to time. We do not control these analysts, or the content and opinions included in their reports. Analysts who publish information about our securities may have had relatively little experience with our Company given our limited history as a public company, which could affect their ability to accurately forecast our results and make it more likely that we fail to meet their estimates. If analysts do cover us and one or more of them downgrade our securities, or if they issue other unfavorable commentary about us or our industry or inaccurate research, our stock price would likely decline. Furthermore, if one or more of these analysts cease coverage or fail to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets. Any of the foregoing would likely cause our stock price and trading volume to decline.

Because we are a “controlled company” under The Nasdaq Stock Market listing standards, our stockholders may not have certain corporate governance protections that are available to stockholders of companies that are not controlled companies.

So long as more than 50% of the voting power for the election of directors of DraftKings Inc. is held by an individual, a group or another company, we will qualify as a “controlled company” under The Nasdaq Stock Market listing requirements. Mr. Robins controls a majority of the voting power of our outstanding capital stock. As a result, we are a “controlled company”
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under The Nasdaq Stock Market listing standards and are not subject to the requirements that would otherwise require us to have: (i) a majority of independent directors; (ii) a nominating committee comprised solely of independent directors; (iii) compensation of our executive officers determined by a majority of the independent directors or a compensation committee comprised solely of independent directors; and (iv) director nominees selected, or recommended for the Board’s selection, either by a majority of the independent directors or a nominating committee comprised solely of independent directors.

Mr. Robins may have his interest in DraftKings diluted due to future equity issuances or his own actions in selling shares of Class A common stock, in each case, which could result in a loss of the “controlled company” exemption under The Nasdaq Stock Market listing rules. We would then be required to comply with those provisions of The Nasdaq Stock Market listing requirements.

Our dual class structure has the effect of concentrating voting power with our Chief Executive Officer and Chairman, which limits an investor’s ability to influence the outcome of important transactions, including a change in control.

Shares of our Class B common stock are entitled to 10 votes per share, while shares of our Class A common stock are entitled to one vote per share. Mr. Robins, our Chief Executive Officer and Chairman, holds all of the issued and outstanding shares of our Class B common stock. Accordingly, Mr. Robins holds approximately 89% of the voting power of our capital stock and will be able to control matters submitted to our stockholders for approval, including the election of directors, amendments of our organizational documents and any merger, consolidation, sale of all or substantially all of our assets or other major corporate transactions. Mr. Robins may have interests that differ from yours and may vote in a way with which you disagree, and which may be adverse to your interests. This concentrated control may have the effect of delaying, preventing or deterring a change in control of DraftKings, could deprive our stockholders of an opportunity to receive a premium for their capital stock as part of a sale of DraftKings, and might ultimately affect the market price of shares of our Class A common stock.

Our dual class structure may affect the trading price of our Class A common stock.

Our dual class structure may result in volatility in the market price of our Class A common stock whether due to adverse publicity or reaction from institutional or other investors or proxy advisory firms. For example, certain index providers have announced restrictions on including companies with multiple-class share structures in certain of their indices. In July 2017, FTSE Russell and S&P Dow Jones announced that they would cease to allow most newly public companies with dual or multi-class capital structures to be included in their indices. Beginning in 2017, MSCI, a leading stock index provider, opened public consultations on their treatment of no-vote and multi-class structures and temporarily barred new multi-class listings from certain of its indices; however, in October 2018, MSCI announced its decision to include equity securities “with unequal voting structures” in its indices and to launch a new index that specifically includes voting rights in its eligibility criteria. In 2023, S&P Dow Jones updated the share class eligibility rule to allow companies with multiple share class structures to be included in the S&P Composite 1500 Index and its component indices including the S&P 500. After this rule change by S&P Dow Jones, the Russell 2000 has, and other indices may have, limitations on inclusion based on multiple share class structures. Under the announced policies, our dual class capital structure would make us ineligible for inclusion in certain indices, and as a result, mutual funds, exchange-traded funds and other investment vehicles that attempt to passively track those indices will not be investing in our stock. These policies are still fairly new and it is as of yet unclear what effect, if any, they will have on the valuations of publicly traded companies excluded from the indices, but it is possible that they may depress these valuations compared to those of other similar companies that are included. Because of our dual class structure, we have been and will likely continue to be excluded from certain of these indexes and we cannot assure you that other stock indexes will not take similar actions. Given the sustained flow of investment funds into passive strategies that seek to track certain indexes, exclusion from stock indexes would likely preclude investment by many of these funds and could make shares of our Class A common stock less attractive to other investors. As a result, the market price of shares of our Class A common stock could be adversely affected.

Nevada law and provisions of our amended and restated articles of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws could make a takeover proposal more difficult.

Our organizational documents are governed by Nevada law. Certain provisions of Nevada law and of our amended and restated articles of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws could discourage, delay, defer or prevent a merger, tender offer, proxy contest or other change of control transaction that a stockholder might consider in its best interest, including those attempts that might result in a premium over the market price for the shares of Class A common stock held by our stockholders. These provisions provide for, among other things:

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the ability of our board of directors to issue one or more series of preferred stock;
stockholder action by written consent only until the first time when Mr. Robins ceases to beneficially own a majority of the voting power of our capital stock;
certain limitations on convening special stockholder meetings;
advance notice for nominations of directors by stockholders and for stockholders to include matters to be considered at our annual meetings;
amendment of certain provisions of the organizational documents only by the affirmative vote of (i) a majority of the voting power of our capital stock so long as Mr. Robins beneficially owns shares representing a majority of the voting power of our capital stock and (ii) at least two-thirds of the voting power of the capital stock from and after the time that Mr. Robins ceases to beneficially own shares representing a majority of the voting power of our voting stock; and
a dual class common stock structure, which provides Mr. Robins with the ability to control the outcome of matters requiring stockholder approval, even though Mr. Robins owns less than a majority of the outstanding shares of our capital stock.

These anti-takeover provisions as well as certain provisions of Nevada law could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire DraftKings, even if the third party’s offer may be considered beneficial by many of our stockholders. As a result, our stockholders may be limited in their ability to obtain a premium for their shares of Class A common stock. If prospective takeovers are not consummated for any reason, we may experience negative reactions from the financial markets, including negative impacts on the price of our Class A common stock. These provisions could also discourage proxy contests and make it more difficult for our stockholders to elect directors of their choosing and to cause us to take other corporate actions.

Our amended and restated articles of incorporation designate the Eighth Judicial District Court of Clark County, Nevada as the exclusive forum for certain types of actions and proceedings that may be initiated by our stockholders, which could limit stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers, employees or agents.

Our amended and restated articles of incorporation require that, to the fullest extent permitted by law, and unless we otherwise consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Eighth Judicial District Court of Clark County, Nevada (or if the Eighth Judicial District Court of Clark County, Nevada does not have jurisdiction, any other state district court located in the State of Nevada, and if no state district court in the State of Nevada has jurisdiction, any federal court located in the State of Nevada), will be the exclusive forum for each of the following:

any action or proceeding brought in the name or right of DraftKings or on its behalf;
any action asserting a claim for breach of any fiduciary duty owed by any director, officer, employee or agent of DraftKings to DraftKings or its stockholders;
any action asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of NRS Chapters 78 or 92A, our amended and restated articles of incorporation or our amended and restated bylaws;
any action to interpret, apply, enforce or determine the validity of our amended and restated articles of incorporation or our amended and restated bylaws; or
any action asserting a claim governed by the internal affairs doctrine.

The exclusive forum provision provides federal courts located in the State of Nevada as the forum for suits brought to enforce any duty or liability for which Section 27 of the Exchange Act establishes exclusive jurisdiction with the federal courts, or any other claim for which the federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction. In addition, Section 22 of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), provides that federal and state courts have concurrent jurisdiction over lawsuits brought under the Securities Act or the rules and regulations thereunder. To the extent the exclusive forum provision restricts the courts in which claims arising under the Securities Act may be brought, there is uncertainty as to whether a court would enforce such a provision. We note that investors cannot waive compliance with the federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder. Although we believe this provision will benefit DraftKings by providing increased consistency in the application of
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Nevada law in the types of lawsuits to which it applies, the provision may have the effect of discouraging lawsuits against our directors and officers.

 
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments.
 
None.
 
Item 1C. Cybersecurity

The Company maintains a governance structure to address cybersecurity risk, which involves a dedicated Security Operations Team (the “Security Operations Team”), an executive security steering committee (the “Executive Security Steering Committee”), and the Compliance and Risk Committee of the Board and the Board.

The Company’s Security Operations Team, led by our Chief Information Security Officer, is responsible for identifying, assessing, mitigating, and reporting on material cybersecurity risks to the Company’s Executive Security Steering Committee. The Company’s Chief Information Security Officer holds high-level licenses and certifications relating to information security, including a Certified Information Security Manager from the Information Systems Audit and Control Association and a Certified Information Systems Security Professional and a Certified Cloud Security Professional from the International Information Security System Security Certification Consortium. The Company’s Executive Security Steering Committee, chaired by the Company’s Chief Information Security Officer and comprised of various cross-functional members of senior management, drives awareness and alignment across broad stakeholder groups for cybersecurity governance and risk management and reporting. The Executive Security Steering Committee receives quarterly reports from the Company’s Chief Information Security Officer. The Compliance and Risk Committee receives regular reports from the Company’s Chief Information Security Officer. The Compliance and Risk Committee periodically reports to the Board.

The Company maintains an operational Incident Response Plan (“IRP”) that defines how the Company handles cyber incidents, including escalation, reporting and remediation procedures. The IRP is reviewed annually both internally and by third parties during regular audits. In addition, the Company retains a preferred partner with expertise in cyber risks and incidents to advise on cybersecurity related matters. The Company’s preferred partner is also part of the Company’s IRP procedures and provides independent analysis and advice during cybersecurity investigations. The Company also maintains a Security Awareness Program, which is designed, implemented, and maintained by the Company’s Chief Information Security Officer. The Company’s Security Awareness Program includes training that reinforces the Company’s information technology risk and security management policies, standards and practices, as well as the expectation that employees comply with these policies. The Security Awareness Program engages personnel through training on how to identify potential cybersecurity risks and protect the Company’s resources and information, as well as how to respond to unauthorized access to or use of Company information. The Security Awareness Program training is mandatory for all employees globally at least annually, and it is supplemented by Company-wide assessment initiatives, including periodic testing. The Company provides specialized security training for certain employee roles, such as application developers.

The Company conducts periodic tests to assess the Company’s processes and procedures and the threat landscape, which are designed with the goal of implementing and maintaining a robust cybersecurity program. Where appropriate, the Company takes additional and ongoing steps intended to strengthen the Company’s cybersecurity capabilities and mitigate the risk of a breach or incident. The Company’s security program and IT-related controls are regularly examined by internal auditors, external auditors and various regulators. For example, each year, the Company conducts various third-party audits, including SOC 2 Type2, PCI DSS, ISO 27001. The Company also engages third-party consultants for incident responses. These third-party consultants report directly to the Chief Information Security Officer and, depending on the nature of the incident, report directly to the Executive Security Steering Committee on various topics including, effects of the incident and recommendations on how to strengthen the Company’s cybersecurity capabilities and mitigate the risk of a breach or incident. In addition to assessing the Company’s cybersecurity preparedness, the Company also considers and evaluates cybersecurity risks associated with its use of third-party service providers. The Company maintains a vendor onboarding program, pursuant to which the Company regularly reviews third-party hosted applications and, when available, requests its vendors to provide SOC2 and/or ISO 27001 certificates. The Company’s assessment of risks associated with use of third-party providers is part of the Company’s overall cybersecurity risk management program.

Although we have designed our cybersecurity program and governance procedures above to mitigate cybersecurity risks, we face unknown cybersecurity risks, threats and attacks. To date, these risks, threats or attacks have not had a material impact on our operations, business strategy or financial results, but we cannot provide assurance that they will not have a material impact in the future. See the section entitled “Risk Factors” included elsewhere in this Annual Report for further information. We continuously work to enhance our cybersecurity risk management program.

Item 2. Properties.
 
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As of December 31, 2023, we had approximately 350,000 square feet of leased office space. Our corporate headquarters is located in Boston, Massachusetts and consists of approximately 125,000 square feet under a lease that expires in 2029, subject to our option to extend the term for two successive terms of five years each, or our right to early termination. Our lease and our rights under this lease are subordinated under a lien of mortgage. In addition to our corporate headquarters, we lease properties in several other cities in the United States, as well as in Ireland, Bulgaria, Ukraine, Israel and the United Kingdom. We use our corporate headquarters and our other facilities primarily for our management, technology, product design, sales and marketing, finance, legal, human resources, general administrative and information technology teams.
 
We believe that our current facilities are adequate to meet our needs for the immediate future and that suitable additional space will be available to accommodate any expansion of our operations as needed.
 
Item 3. Legal Proceedings.
 
We are involved in a number of legal proceedings (including those described below) concerning matters arising in connection with the conduct of our business activities. These proceedings are at varying stages, and many of these proceedings seek an indeterminate amount of damages. We regularly evaluate the status of the legal proceedings in which we are involved to assess whether a loss is probable or there is a reasonable possibility that a loss or an additional loss may have been incurred and to determine if accruals are appropriate. If accruals are not appropriate, we further evaluate each legal proceeding to assess whether an estimate of the possible loss or range of possible loss can be made.

For certain cases described on the following pages, management is unable to provide a meaningful estimate of the possible loss or range of possible loss because, among other reasons, (i) the proceedings are in various stages; (ii) damages have not been sought; (iii) damages are unsupported and/or exaggerated; (iv) there is uncertainty as to the outcome of pending appeals or motions; (v) there are significant factual issues to be resolved; and/or (vi) there are novel legal issues or unsettled legal theories to be presented or a large number of parties involved. For these cases, however, management does not believe, based on currently available information, that the outcomes of these proceedings will have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, though the outcomes could be material to our operating results for any particular period, depending, in part, upon the operating results for such period.

Attorney General of Texas

On January 19, 2016, the Texas Attorney General issued an opinion letter that “odds are favorable that a court would conclude that participation in paid daily fantasy sports leagues constitutes illegal gambling” under Texas law. In response to the opinion letter, we sued the Texas Attorney General on March 4, 2016 in Dallas County, Texas.

The lawsuit makes five claims: (1) a claim for a declaratory judgment that daily fantasy sports contests do not violate Texas law; (2) a claim of denial of due process under the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments to the U.S. Constitution; (3) a claim of denial of due course of law under Article I of the Texas Constitution; (4) a claim of denial of equal protection under the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution; and (5) a claim of denial of equal rights under Article I of the Texas Constitution. We are also seeking reimbursement of our costs and attorneys’ fees.

On May 2, 2016, the Texas Attorney General filed a motion to transfer venue to Travis County, Texas. On April 16, 2018, the parties filed a notice of agreed non-suit without prejudice, and we re-filed our lawsuit against the Texas Attorney General in Travis County. On April 17, 2018, the Dallas County court granted the parties’ agreed non-suit without prejudice, thereby dismissing the Dallas County lawsuit without prejudice.

On May 24, 2018, the Texas Attorney General answered the complaint filed in Travis County, Texas.

FanDuel filed a petition in intervention on August 24, 2018, seeking essentially the same relief as the Company seeks. The Court entered an updated scheduling order setting the case for a non-jury trial on April 20, 2021. The parties subsequently filed an agreed motion to extend the scheduling order seeking, among other things, to change the non-jury trial date to January 27, 2025.

We intend to vigorously pursue our claims. In the event a court ultimately determines that daily fantasy sports contests violate Texas law, that determination could cause financial harm to us and loss of business in Texas.

We cannot predict with any degree of certainty the outcome of these matters or determine the extent of any potential liabilities.
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We do not believe, based on currently available information, that the outcome of this proceeding will have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, although the outcome could be material to our operating results for any particular period, depending, in part, upon the operating results for such period.

Interactive Games LLC

On June 14, 2019, Interactive Games LLC (“IG”) filed suit against us in the U.S. District Court for the District of Delaware. In the Complaint, IG alleges that our DFS product offering infringes two patents: U.S. Patent No. 8,956,231 (the “231 Patent”), which is entitled “Multi-process communication regarding gaming information”, and U.S. Patent No. 8,974,302 (the “302 Patent”), which is entitled “Multi-process communication regarding gaming information.” That same Complaint alleges that our Sportsbook product offering infringes two additional patents: U.S. Patent No. 8,616,967 (the “967 Patent”), which is entitled “System and method for convenience gaming” and U.S. Patent No. 9,430,901 (the “901 Patent”), which is entitled “System and method for wireless gaming with location determination.” All four of these patents are collectively referred to as the “IG Patents.”

In response to the complaint, we filed a motion to dismiss the complaint under 35 U.S.C. Section 101, asserting the IG Patents are directed to non-patentable subject matter. The Court has not yet ruled on that motion, as the judge previously stayed the District Court litigation pending resolution of the inter partes reviews and dismissed the motion to dismiss (without ruling on the merits), but granted leave to refile such motion with updated briefing if the stay is lifted.

On June 17, 2020, we filed petitions for inter partes review with the Patent Trial and Appeal Board (the “PTAB”) challenging the validity of each of the IG Patents. The PTAB instituted review for the ‘901 Patent, the ‘231 Patent, and the ‘967 Patent but denied institution for the ‘302 Patent. On February 5, 2021, we filed a request for rehearing regarding the decision on the ‘302 Patent, which was denied by the PTAB on March 2, 2021. On October 13, 2021, the PTAB heard oral argument on the ’901 Patent, the ’231 Patent, and the ’967 Patent. On January 4, 2022, the PTAB issued a final written decision finding all challenged claims of the ’901 Patent, the ’231 Patent, and the ’967 Patent unpatentable. On March 8, 2022, IG appealed the final written decisions for all three instituted inter partes reviews. On April 19, 2022, IG moved to voluntarily dismiss the appeal for the inter partes review related to the ’901 Patent, which was granted on April 20, 2022. On July 15, 2022, IG filed its opening briefs in the appeals of the inter partes reviews for the ’231 Patent and ’967 Patent. On October 5, 2022, we filed our responsive briefs in the appeals of the IPRs related to the ’231 Patent and ’967 Patent. On November 23, 2022, IG filed its reply briefs in the appeals of the IPRs related to the ’231 Patent and ’967 Patent. Oral argument for both appeals was held on June 7, 2023. On June 9, 2023, the Federal Circuit affirmed the PTAB’s decisions for the IPRs related to both the ’231 Patent and ’967 Patent.

The ’302 Patent is currently subject to an ex parte reexamination proceeding at the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (U.S. Patent Application No. 90/015,151) (the “’302 Reexam”). On October 31, 2023, a final office action was issued in the ’302 Reexam, rejecting and objecting to certain claims in the ’302 Patent.

The District Court litigation remains stayed pending resolution of both: (1) all appeals from the inter partes reviews, and (2) the '302 Reexam and any subsequent appeals therefrom.

We intend to vigorously defend this case. In the event that a court ultimately determines that we are infringing the asserted patents, we may be subject to substantial damages, which may include treble damages and/or an injunction that could require us to modify certain features that we currently offer.

We cannot predict with any degree of certainty the outcome of this matter or determine the extent of any potential liabilities. We also cannot provide an estimate of the possible loss or range of loss. Any adverse outcome in this matter could expose the Company to substantial damages or penalties that may have a material adverse impact on the Company’s operations and cash flows.

Despite the potential for significant damages, we do not believe, based on currently available information, that the outcome of this proceeding will have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, although the outcome could be material to our operating results for any particular period, depending, in part, upon the operating results for such period.

Winview Inc.

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On July 7, 2021, Winview Inc., a Delaware corporation (“Winview”) filed suit against the Company in the U.S. District Court for the District of New Jersey. In the complaint, Winview alleges that the Company infringes two patents: U.S. Patent No. 9,878,243 (“the ’243 Patent”), entitled “Methodology for Equalizing Systemic Latencies in Television Reception in Connection with Games of Skill Played in Connection with Live Television Programming”, and U.S. Patent No. 10,721,543 (“the ’543 Patent”), entitled “Method of and System for Managing Client Resources and Assets for Activities on Computing Devices”. The allegations based on the ’243 Patent are directed to Sportsbook, and the allegations based on the ‘543 Patent are directed to both Sportsbook and DFS.

On July 28, 2021, Winview filed an amended complaint, in which it alleges that the Company infringes two additional patents: U.S. Patent No. 9,993,730 (“the ’730 Patent”), entitled ”Methodology for Equalizing Systemic Latencies in Television Reception in Connection with Games of Skill Played in Connection with Live Television Programming”, and U.S. Patent No. 10,806,988 (“the ’988 Patent”), entitled “Method Of and System For Conducting Multiple Contests of Skill with a Single Performance”. The allegations based on the ’730 Patent are directed at Sportsbook, and the allegations based on the ’988 Patent are directed at DFS.

On October 4, 2021, we filed a motion to dismiss Winview’s direct infringement claims for the ’543 Patent and the ’730 Patent, as well as its claims for willful, induced, and contributory infringement for all four asserted patents. On October 29, 2021, the parties filed a stipulation that allowed Winview to file a second amended complaint on or before November 15, 2021, which the court signed and ordered on November 1, 2021.

On November 15, 2021, Winview filed a second amended complaint (the “SAC”), adding as defendants DK Crown Holdings Inc. and Crown Gaming Inc., a Delaware corporation, which are wholly-owned subsidiaries of the Company. The SAC, among other allegations, repeats the allegations of the first amended complaint that the defendants infringe the ’243 Patent, the ’543 Patent, the ’730 Patent, and the ’988 Patent. On December 15, 2021, the Company filed its motion to dismiss the SAC, again arguing that Winview failed to state a claim for direct infringement of the ’543 Patent and the ’730 Patent, and for willful, induced, and contributory infringement for all four asserted patents. Winview filed its memorandum in opposition to the motion to dismiss on January 24, 2022, and the Company filed its reply brief to Winview’s opposition on January 31, 2022.

On August 3, 2022, we filed a petition for inter partes review with the PTAB challenging the validity of the ‘243 Patent. On September 20, 2022, the court entered an order staying the pending motion to dismiss and staying all discovery pending final resolution of the petition for inter partes review through a final written decision. On January 31, 2023, the PTAB granted institution of the inter partes review, and it is expected to issue a final written decision by January 31, 2024. On February 15, 2023, the District Court administratively terminated the lawsuit pending the PTAB’s final written decision. On January 29, 2024, the PTAB issued final written decisions in the IPRs, finding unpatentable all challenged claims of the ’243, ’543, and ’730 Patents.

We intend to vigorously defend this case. In the event that a court ultimately determines that we are infringing the asserted patents, we may be subject to substantial damages, which may include treble damages and/or an injunction that could require us to modify certain features that we currently offer.

We cannot predict with any degree of certainty the outcome of this matter or determine the extent of any potential liabilities. We also cannot provide an estimate of the possible loss or range of loss. Any adverse outcome in this matter could expose the Company to substantial damages or penalties that may have a material adverse impact on the Company’s operations and cash flows.

Despite the potential for significant damages, we do not believe, based on currently available information, that the outcome of this proceeding will have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, although the outcome could be material to our operating results for any particular period, depending, in part, upon the operating results for such period.

Securities Matters Arising From the Hindenburg Report and Related Matters

Beginning on July 9, 2021, the Company received subpoenas from the SEC seeking documents concerning, among other things, certain of the allegations concerning SBTech that were contained in a report published about the Company on June 15, 2021 by Hindenburg Research, as well as the Company’s adherence to and disclosures regarding its compliance policies and procedures, and related matters. The Company intends to comply with the related requests and is cooperating with the SEC’s ongoing inquiry.

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We cannot predict with any degree of certainty the outcome of the SEC matter or determine the extent of any potential liabilities. We also cannot provide an estimate of the possible loss or range of loss. Any adverse outcome in the SEC matter could expose the Company to substantial damages or penalties that may have a material adverse impact on the Company’s operations and cash flows.

Despite the potential for significant damages, we do not believe, based on currently available information, that the outcome of the SEC matter will have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, although the outcome could be material to our operating results for any particular period, depending, in part, upon the operating results for such period.

Matters Related to the GNOG Transaction

On August 12, 2022, a putative class action was filed in Nevada state District Court in Clark County against Golden Nugget Online Gaming, Inc. (“GNOG Inc.”), the Company and one of its officers and two affiliates, as well as former officers or directors and the former controlling stockholder of GNOG Inc. and Jefferies LLC. The lawsuit asserts claims on behalf of a putative class of former minority stockholders of GNOG Inc. alleging that certain former officers and directors of GNOG Inc. and its former controlling stockholder (Tilman Fertitta and/or Fertitta Entertainment, Inc.) breached their fiduciary duties to minority stockholders of GNOG Inc. in connection with the GNOG Transaction, and the other defendants aided and abetted the alleged breaches of fiduciary duty. On November 1, 2022, defendants filed motions to dismiss the action on the procedural grounds of improper forum and lack of personal jurisdiction over certain defendants or, in the alternative, to stay the action pending resolution of parallel proceedings in the Delaware Court of Chancery. On May 24, 2023, the court (i) granted the motions to dismiss for improper forum with respect to GNOG Inc. and its former officers and directors other than Mr. Fertitta, as well as Jefferies LLC, (ii) denied the motions to dismiss for improper forum with respect to the Company and its officer and two affiliates, as well as Mr. Fertitta and Fertitta Entertainment, Inc., and (iii) granted the non-dismissed defendants’ alternative request to stay the action for at least nine months pending resolution of parallel proceedings in the Delaware Court of Chancery. On June 29, 2023, the plaintiff filed a motion for reconsideration of the court’s order insofar as it found certain claims subject to a Delaware forum requirement. On July 27, 2023, defendants filed oppositions to the plaintiff’s motion for reconsideration, and certain defendants filed countermotions for certification of final judgment as to the claims that the court previously dismissed pursuant to its May 24, 2023 order. On October 1, 2023, the court entered an order (1) denying the motion for reconsideration and (2) granting the motion for certification of final judgment as to the defendants whose claims against them previously were dismissed. On January 18, 2024, the court entered a stipulated order extending the stay until resolution of the parallel proceedings in Delaware Chancery Court.

On September 9, 2022, two similar putative class actions were filed in the Delaware Court of Chancery against former directors of GNOG Inc. and its former controlling stockholder, one of which also names the Company and Jefferies Financial Group, Inc. as defendants. These pending actions in Delaware assert substantially similar claims on behalf of a putative class of former minority stockholders of GNOG Inc. alleging that certain former officers and directors of GNOG Inc. and its former controlling stockholder (Tilman Fertitta) breached their fiduciary duties to minority stockholders of GNOG Inc. in connection with the GNOG Transaction, and one of the actions also alleges that the Company and Jefferies Financial Group, Inc. aided and abetted the alleged breaches of fiduciary duty. On October 12, 2022, the Delaware Court of Chancery consolidated these two actions under the caption In re Golden Nugget Online Gaming, Inc. Stockholders Litigation. On October 29, 2022, the court appointed co-lead plaintiffs in the consolidated action. On November 3, 2022, co-lead plaintiffs designated an operative complaint in the consolidated action. On January 13, 2023, defendants filed a motion seeking dismissal of the action. On June 8, 2023, the court denied defendants’ motion to dismiss. At a mediation held on January 24, 2024, the parties reached an agreement in principle to settle the Delaware action, subject to negotiation and execution of mutually agreeable definitive documentation and the performance and satisfaction of the terms and conditions set forth thereof.

The Company intends to vigorously defend against the Nevada action. The Company cannot predict with any degree of certainty the outcome the Nevada action or determine the extent of any potential liabilities. The Company also cannot provide an estimate of the possible loss or range of loss of the Nevada action. Any adverse outcome in the Nevada action could expose the Company to substantial damages or penalties that may have a material adverse impact on the Company’s operations and cash flows.

Despite the potential for significant damages, the Company does not believe, based on currently available information, that the outcome of the Nevada action will have a material adverse effect on the Company's financial condition, although the outcome could be material to the Company's operating results for any particular period, depending, in part, upon the operating results for such period.

AG 18, LLC d/b/a/ Arrow Gaming
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On August 19, 2021, AG 18, LLC d/b/a/ Arrow Gaming (“Arrow Gaming”) filed a complaint against the Company in the United States District Court for the District of New Jersey alleging that the Company's DFS and Casino product offerings infringe four patents. On October 12, 2021, Arrow Gaming filed an amended complaint to add one additional patent. The following U.S. Patents are asserted against one or both of the Company's DFS and Casino product offerings in the amended complaint: (1) U.S. Patent No. 9,613,498, entitled “Systems and Methods For Peer-to-Peer Gaming”; (2) U.S. Patent No. 9,978,205, entitled “Location Based Restrictions on Networked Gaming”; (3) U.S. Patent No. 10,497,220 entitled “Location Based Restrictions on Networked Gaming”; (4) U.S. Patent No. 10,614,657 entitled “Location Based Restrictions on Networked Gaming”; and (5) U.S. Patent No. 11,024,131 entitled “Location Based Restrictions on Networked Gaming” (collectively, the “Arrow Gaming Patents”).

On November 9, 2021, we filed a motion to dismiss plaintiff’s complaint. On November 10, 2021, we answered the complaint and filed counterclaims (the “Counterclaims”). In the Counterclaims we seek, among other things, a declaratory judgment that the Arrow Gaming Patents are invalid. On December 1, 2021, Arrow Gaming answered our Counterclaims. On December 20, 2021, Arrow Gaming filed a second amended complaint adding new allegations with respect to the alleged willful infringement.

On January 21, 2022, the Company filed a motion to dismiss plaintiff’s second amended complaint. On February 22, 2022, plaintiff filed its opposition to the Company's motion to dismiss plaintiff’s second amended complaint, and on March 25, 2022, the Company filed its reply thereto. On March 7, 2022, the Company filed a motion to disqualify plaintiff’s counsel. On March 21, 2022, plaintiff filed its opposition to the Company's motion to disqualify plaintiff’s counsel, and on March 28, 2022, the Company filed its reply thereto. On September 21, 2022, the Company's motion to dismiss was administratively terminated, pending the outcome of the disqualification motion. On October 4, 2022, the presiding Magistrate Judge denied the Company's motion to disqualify plaintiff’s counsel. On October 21, 2022, the Company filed a renewed motion to dismiss plaintiff’s complaint. On November 4, 2022, Arrow Gaming filed an opposition to the renewed motion to dismiss. On November 14, 2022, the Company filed its reply in support of the motion to dismiss. On November 4, 2022, the Company filed a motion to stay the case pending resolution of the below-referenced petitions for inter partes review. On November 23, 2022 Arrow Gaming filed an opposition to the motion to stay. On December 2, 2022, the Company filed a reply in support of the motion to stay.

Between August 22, 2022 and August 30, 2022, the Company filed petitions for inter partes review with the PTAB challenging the validity of each of the Arrow Gaming Patents. On March 14, 2023, the PTAB granted institution of all inter partes review petitions, and it is expected to issue final written decisions by March 14, 2024. On June 7, 2023, Arrow Gaming filed its responses to the petitions. On September 6, 2023, DraftKings filed its replies in support of the petitions. Oral argument occurred on December 13, 2023 and we are awaiting the final decision.

On April 3, 2023, the District Court administratively terminated the lawsuit pending the PTAB's final written decisions.

We intend to vigorously defend this case. In the event that a court ultimately determines that we are infringing the asserted patents, we may be subject to substantial damages, which may include treble damages and/or an injunction that could require us to modify certain features that we currently offer.

We cannot predict with any degree of certainty the outcome of this matter or determine the extent of any potential liabilities. We also cannot provide an estimate of the possible loss or range of loss. Any adverse outcome in this matter could expose the Company to substantial damages or penalties that may have a material adverse impact on the Company’s operations and cash flows.

Despite the potential for significant damages, we do not believe, based on currently available information, that the outcome of this proceeding will have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, although the outcome could be material to our operating results for any particular period, depending, in part, upon the operating results for such period.

Beteiro, LLC

On November 22, 2021, Beteiro, LLC (“Beteiro”) filed a complaint against the Company in the United States District Court for the District of New Jersey alleging that the Company’s Sportsbook and Casino product offerings infringe four patents. The following U.S. Patents are asserted against the Company’s Sportsbook and Casino products in the complaint: U.S. Patent No. 9,965,920, entitled “Apparatus and Method for Facilitating Gaming Activity and/or Gambling Activity”; U.S. Patent No. 10,043,341, entitled “Apparatus and Method for Facilitating Gaming Activity and/or Gambling Activity”; U.S. Patent No.
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10,147,266, entitled “Apparatus and Method for Facilitating Gaming Activity and/or Gambling Activity”; and U.S. Patent No. 10,255,755, entitled “Apparatus and Method for Facilitating Gaming Activity and/or Gambling Activity” (collectively, the “Beteiro Patents”).

The Company filed its motion to dismiss plaintiff’s complaint on February 9, 2022. On April 7, 2022, Plaintiff filed its opposition to the Company's motion to dismiss, and on April 25, 2022, the Company filed its reply thereto. On September 7, 2022, the Company's motion to dismiss the complaint was granted. On September 22, 2022, Beteiro filed its notice to appeal the ruling on the motion to dismiss. On October 5, 2022, Beteiro filed a motion for reconsideration of the ruling on the motion to dismiss at the District Court, which was denied by the District Court on November 2, 2022. On March 9, 2023, Beteiro filed its opening appellate brief. DraftKings’ responsive brief was filed on June 9, 2023. Beteiro’s reply brief was filed on July 1, 2023.

On October 28, 2022, the Company filed petitions for inter partes review with the PTAB challenging the validity of each of the Beteiro Patents. Between May 11, 2023 and May 12, 2023, the PTAB instituted review for all Beteiro Patents. The PTAB is expected to issue a final written decision for the IPRs by May 12, 2024.

We intend to vigorously defend this case. In the event that a court ultimately determines that we are infringing the asserted patents, we may be subject to substantial damages, which may include treble damages and/or an injunction that could require us to modify certain features that we currently offer.

We cannot predict with any degree of certainty the outcome of this matter or determine the extent of any potential liabilities. We also cannot provide an estimate of the possible loss or range of loss. Any adverse outcome in this matter could expose the Company to substantial damages or penalties that may have a material adverse impact on the Company’s operations and cash flows.

Despite the potential for significant damages, we do not believe, based on currently available information, that the outcome of this proceeding will have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, although the outcome could be material to our operating results for any particular period, depending, in part, upon the operating results for such period.

Diogenes Ltd. & Colossus (IOM) Ltd.

On December 1, 2021, Diogenes Ltd. & Colossus (IOM) Ltd. (“Colossus”), filed a complaint against the Company in the United States District Court for the District of Delaware alleging that the Company’s Sportsbook product offering infringes seven of its patents. The following U.S. Patents, each entitled “Wagering apparatus, methods and systems”, are asserted against the Company’s Sportsbook product offering in the complaint: U.S. Patent No. 8,721,439 (“the ’439 patent”); U.S. Patent No. 9,117,341 (“the ’341 patent”); U.S. Patent No. 9,275,516 (“the ’516 patent”); U.S. Patent No. 9,424,716 (“the ’716 patent”); U.S. Patent No. 9,704,338 (“the ’338 patent”); U.S. Patent No. 10,970,969 (“the ’969 patent”); and U.S. Patent No. 10,997,822 (“the ’822 patent”).

On January 24, 2022, the Company filed its motion to dismiss the original complaint. On February 7, 2022, Colossus filed an amended complaint (the “Amended Complaint”) to, among other things, assert one additional patent against the Company, U.S. Patent No. 11,200,779 (“the ’779 patent”). The patents asserted by Colossus are collectively referred to as the “Colossus Patents.”

The Company filed its motion to dismiss the Amended Complaint on February 22, 2022. On March 15, 2022, plaintiffs filed their opposition to the Company's motion to dismiss, and on March 29, 2022, the Company's filed its reply thereto. On March 25, 2022, a scheduling order was entered in which, among other things, trial was scheduled for January 13, 2025. On July 18, 2022, Magistrate Judge Burke issued a report and recommendation (the “Report and Recommendation”) that the motion to dismiss be granted-in-part and denied-in-part. The Company and Colossus each filed their objections to the Report and Recommendation on August 1, 2022. On August 26, 2022, District Court Judge Noreika overruled both parties’ respective objections and adopted the Report and Recommendation of Magistrate Judge Burke regarding the motion to dismiss. On December 27, 2022, the Company filed an Answer to the Amended Complaint, including certain affirmative defenses. On January 17, 2023, Colossus filed a motion to strike the affirmative defense of unenforceability from the Company’s Answer. On February 7, 2023, the Company filed an Amended Answer and Counterclaims to the Amended Complaint, and also filed a response to Colossus’ motion to strike. On February 28, 2023, Colossus filed another motion to strike DraftKings’ inequitable conduct affirmative defense and counterclaim. DraftKings filed its responsive brief on March 28, 2023. Colossus filed its reply brief on April 11, 2023. Magistrate Judge Burke held a hearing on Colossus’ motion on June 6, 2023 and subsequently issued a report and recommendation (the “Second Report and Recommendation”) that the motion be denied in part and granted in part.
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Colossus filed objections to the Second Report and Recommendation on June 21, 2023, and DraftKings filed its response to Colossus’ objections on July 5, 2023. On August 2, 2023, Judge Noreika overruled Colossus’ objections and adopted the Second Report and Recommendation.

Between November 29, 2022, and February 7, 2023, the Company filed petitions for inter partes review with the PTAB challenging the validity of the Colossus Patents. With respect to the seven patents remaining pending in the case, the PTAB granted institution of IPRs for each of the ’341 patent, ’969 patent, and the ’822 patent. The PTAB is expected to issue final written decisions for these three IPRs by June 22, 2024. The PTAB denied institution of IPR for each of the ’516 patent, ’716 patent, ’338 patent and the '779 patent. On September 11, 2023, the Company filed a request for Director review of the PTAB’s decision not to institute review in the IPR for the ’779 patent. On November 7, 2023, the Director of the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office delegated Director Review of the PTAB’s institution decision in the IPR for the ’779 Patent to the Delegated Review Panel to determine whether to grant rehearing.

On September 6, 2023, the parties stipulated to a stay of the district court litigation pending resolution of the instituted IPRs. The PTAB review of the ’341, ’969 and ’822 patents are ongoing at this time.

We intend to vigorously defend this case. In the event that a court ultimately determines that we are infringing the asserted patents, we may be subject to substantial damages, which may include treble damages and/or an injunction that could require us to modify certain features that we currently offer.

We cannot predict with any degree of certainty the outcome of this matter or determine the extent of any potential liabilities. We also cannot provide an estimate of the possible loss or range of loss. Any adverse outcome in this matter could expose the Company to substantial damages or penalties that may have a material adverse impact on the Company’s operations and cash flows.

Despite the potential for significant damages, we do not believe, based on currently available information, that the outcome of this proceeding will have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, although the outcome could be material to our operating results for any particular period, depending, in part, upon the operating results for such period.

Steiner

Nelson Steiner filed suit against the Company and FanDuel Inc. in Florida state court on November 9, 2015. The action was subsequently transferred to In Re: Daily Fantasy Sports Litigation (Multi-District Litigation) (the “MDL”), and Mr. Steiner’s action was consolidated into the MDL’s amended complaint, which, in February 2016, consolidated numerous actions (primarily purported class actions) filed against the Company, FanDuel, and other related parties in courts across the United States. By June 23, 2022, the MDL was resolved, except for Mr. Steiner’s action, and the court officially closed the MDL docket on July 8, 2022.

Mr. Steiner brings this action as a concerned citizen of the state of Florida alleging that, among other things, defendants’ daily fantasy sports contests are illegal gambling under the state laws of Florida and seeks disgorgement of “gambling losses” purportedly suffered by Florida citizens on behalf of the state. On June 23, 2022, the MDL court remanded Mr. Steiner’s action to the Circuit Court for Pinellas County, Florida. Plaintiff has not yet filed an amended pleading.

The Company intends to vigorously defend this suit. Any adverse outcome in this matter could subject the Company to substantial damages and it could be restricted from offering DFS contests in Florida. The Company cannot provide any assurance as to the outcome of this matter.

The Company cannot predict with any degree of certainty the outcome of the suit or determine the extent of any potential liability or damages. The Company also cannot provide an estimate of the possible loss or range of loss. Any adverse outcome in these matters could expose the Company to substantial damages or penalties that may have a material adverse impact on the Company’s operations and cash flows.

Despite the potential for significant damages, the Company does not believe, based on currently available information, that the outcome of this matter will have a material adverse effect on Company’s financial condition, although the outcome could be material to the Company’s operating results for any particular period, depending, in part, upon the operating results for such period.

Turley
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On January 9, 2023, Simpson G. Turley, individually and on behalf of all others similarly situated, filed a purported class action against the Company in the United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts. Plaintiff alleges, among other things, that he was a contestant in the Company’s daily fantasy showdown contest for the January 2, 2023, NFL game between the Cincinnati Bengals and the Buffalo Bills (the “Bengals-Bills Game”). The Bengals-Bills Game was postponed and eventually cancelled due to Damar Hamlin collapsing during the game. Plaintiff alleges that he was winning prizes in multiple showdown contests at the point in time that the Bengals-Bills Game was cancelled (with 5:58 remaining in the first quarter). Plaintiff alleges that, instead of paying out the prize money, the Company refunded entry fees to contestants that entered showdown or flash draft fantasy contests. On May 8, 2023, plaintiff Turley and a new plaintiff (Erik Ramos) filed a First Amended Class Action Complaint. On June 12, 2023, DraftKings filed a motion to dismiss the claims asserted by both plaintiffs or, in the alternative, strike the flash draft allegations. Plaintiffs filed an opposition on July 17, 2023. On August 3, 2023, Defendant filed its reply, and the motion remains pending. The plaintiffs assert claims for breach of contract, unfair and deceptive acts and practices, false advertising, and unjust enrichment. Among other things, plaintiffs seek statutory damages, monetary damages, punitive damages, attorney fees and interest.

The Company intends to vigorously defend this case. Any adverse outcome in this matter could subject the Company to substantial damages and /or require alterations to the Company’s business. The Company cannot provide any assurance as to the outcome of this matter.

The Company cannot predict with any degree of certainty the outcome of the suit or determine the extent of any potential liability or damages. The Company also cannot provide an estimate of the possible loss or range of loss. Any adverse outcome in this matter could expose the Company to substantial damages or penalties that may have a material adverse impact on the Company’s operations and cash flows.

Despite the potential for significant damages, the Company does not believe, based on currently available information, that the outcome of this matter will have a material adverse effect on Company’s financial condition, although the outcome could be material to the Company’s operating results for any particular period, depending, in part, upon the operating results for such period.

Securities Matters Related to DraftKings Marketplace

On March 9, 2023, a putative class action was filed in Massachusetts federal court by an alleged purchaser of non-fungible tokens (“NFTs”) on the DraftKings Marketplace (“DK Marketplace”). The complaint asserts claims for violations of federal and state securities laws against the Company and three of its officers on the grounds that, among other things, the NFTs that are sold and traded on the DK Marketplace allegedly constitute securities that were not registered with the SEC in accordance with federal and Massachusetts law, and that the DK Marketplace is a securities exchange that is not registered in accordance with federal and Massachusetts law. Based on these allegations, the plaintiff brings claims seeking rescissory damages and other relief on behalf of himself and a putative class of persons who purchased NFTs on the DK Marketplace between August 11, 2021 and the present. On June 27, 2023, the court entered an order authorizing the plaintiff to file an amended complaint by August 4, 2023. On September 25, 2023, defendants filed a motion seeking dismissal of this action. On November 10, 2023, plaintiff filed an opposition to the motion to dismiss. On December 11, 2023, defendants filed a reply memorandum in support of the motion to dismiss. The Court heard oral argument on the motion to dismiss on December 19, 2023, and took the matter under advisement. We intend to vigorously defend this case.

On July 17, 2023, the Company received a subpoena from the Securities Division of the Office of the Secretary of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts seeking documents and requesting answers to interrogatories concerning, among other things, DK Marketplace and NFTs that are sold on DK Marketplace, and related matters. We intend to comply with these requests.

Any adverse outcome in these matters could subject the Company to substantial damages and/or require alterations to the Company’s business. The Company cannot provide any assurance as to the outcome of these matters.

The Company cannot predict with any degree of certainty the outcome of these matters or determine the extent of any potential liability or damages. The Company also cannot provide an estimate of the possible loss or range of loss. Any adverse outcome in these matters could expose the Company to substantial damages, penalties and/or require alterations to the Company’s that may have a material adverse impact on the Company’s operations and cash flows.

Despite the potential for significant damages, the Company does not believe, based on currently available information, that the outcome of these matters will have a material adverse effect on Company’s financial condition, although the outcome could
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be material to the Company’s operating results for any particular period, depending, in part, upon the operating results for such period.

Shareholder Derivative Litigation Related to DraftKings Marketplace

On May 31, 2023, a putative shareholder derivative action was filed in Nevada state court by an alleged shareholder of the Company. The action asserts claims on behalf of the Company against certain senior officers and members of the Board of Directors of the Company for breach of fiduciary duty and unjust enrichment based primarily on allegations that the defendants caused or allowed the Company to disseminate misleading and inaccurate information to its shareholders in connection with NFTs that are sold and traded on the DK Marketplace. The action also alleges that certain individuals are liable for trading in Company stock at artificially inflated prices. The action seeks unspecified compensatory damages, changes to corporate governance and internal procedures, restitution, disgorgement, costs and attorney’s fees, and other unspecified relief. All proceedings in this action have been stayed by agreement of the parties pending resolution of the above-referenced motion to dismiss in the putative class action in Massachusetts federal court.

The Company cannot predict with any degree of certainty the outcome of this matter or determine the extent of any potential liabilities. The Company also cannot provide an estimate of the possible loss or range of loss. Because this action alleges claims on behalf of the Company and purports to seek a judgment in favor of the Company, the Company does not believe, based on currently available information, that the outcome of the proceedings will have a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition, although the outcome could be material to the Company’s operating results for any particular period, depending, in part, upon the operating results for such period.

Scanlon

On December 8, 2023, plaintiffs Melissa Scanlon and Shane Harris, individually and on behalf of others similarly situated, filed a purported Massachusetts class action lawsuit against DraftKings in Middlesex County Superior Court of Massachusetts. Among other things, Plaintiffs allege that the Company’s promotion that offered new customers an opportunity to earn up to 1,000 in site credits, and related advertisements, were: (1) unfair or deceptive practices in violation of Massachusetts General Laws (“M.G.L.”) c. 93A, §§ 2, 9; and (2) untrue and misleading advertising in violation of M.G.L. c. 266, § 91. The Plaintiffs are seeking, among other things, injunctive relief, actual damages, double or treble damages, and attorneys’ fees.

The Company intends to vigorously defend this case. Any adverse outcome in this matter could subject the Company to substantial damages and /or require alterations to the Company’s business. The Company cannot provide any assurance as to the outcome of this matter.

The Company cannot predict with any degree of certainty the outcome of the suit or determine the extent of any potential liability or damages. The Company also cannot provide an estimate of the possible loss or range of loss. Any adverse outcome in this matter could expose the Company to substantial damages or penalties that may have a material adverse impact on the Company’s operations and cash flows.

Despite the potential for significant damages, the Company does not believe, based on currently available information, that the outcome of this matter will have a material adverse effect on Company’s financial condition, although the outcome could be material to the Company’s operating results for any particular period, depending, in part, upon the operating results for such period.

Other

In addition to the above actions, we are subject to various other legal proceedings and claims that arise in the ordinary course of business. In our opinion, the amount of ultimate liability with respect to any of these actions is unlikely to materially affect our financial condition, results of operations or liquidity, though the outcomes could be material to our operating results for any particular period, depending, in part, upon the operating results for such period.
 
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures. 

Not applicable.
  
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PART II
 
Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.
 
Market Information
 
DraftKings’ Class A common stock trades on The Nasdaq Stock Market under the symbol “DKNG”. Prior to April 24, 2020 and before the completion of the business combination with SBTech (Global) Limited and Diamond Eagle Acquisition Corp, the Class A common stock of Diamond Eagle Acquisition Corp traded on The Nasdaq Stock Market under the ticker symbol “DEAC”.
 
Holders
 
As of February 13, 2024, there were 878 holders of record of our Class A common stock. In addition to holders of record of our Class A common stock, we believe there is a substantially greater number of “street name” holders or beneficial holders whose Class A common stock is held of record by banks, brokers and other financial institutions.
 
There is no public market for our Class B common stock and one holder of record of our Class B common stock as of February 13, 2024.
 
Dividend Policy
 
We have not paid any cash dividends on our Class A common stock to date. The payment of cash dividends is subject to the discretion of our board of directors and may be affected by various factors, including our future earnings, financial condition, capital requirements, share repurchase activity, current and future planned strategic growth initiatives, levels of indebtedness, and other considerations our board of directors deem relevant.

Securities Authorized for Issuance under Equity Compensation Plans

See Part III, Item 12 of this Annual Report for information about our equity compensation plans, which is incorporated by reference herein.
 
Stock Price Performance

Chart.jpg

The graph above compares the cumulative total stockholder return on our Class A common stock with the cumulative total return on the Standard & Poor’s (“S&P”) 500 Consumer Discretionary Index and the Nasdaq Composite Index. The graph assumes an initial investment of $100 in our Class A common stock at the market close on July 25, 2019, which was our initial trading day. Data for the S&P 500 Consumer Discretionary Index and the Nasdaq Composite Index assume reinvestment of dividends. Total return equals stock price appreciation plus reinvestment of dividends.

Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities; Use of Proceeds from Registered Offerings
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None.
 
Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers
 
None, other than the shares repurchased pursuant to net settlement by employees in satisfaction of income tax withholding obligations incurred through the vesting of stock awards.
 
Item 6. [Reserved]
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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
 
The following discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with other sections of this Annual Report, including “Item 1. Business” and the accompanying consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this Annual Report.

On May 5, 2022 (the “GNOG Closing Date”), DraftKings Inc. consummated its acquisition of Golden Nugget Online Gaming, Inc. (together with its subsidiaries unless the context requires otherwise, “GNOG”), pursuant to a definitive agreement and plan of merger, dated August 9, 2021 (the “GNOG Merger Agreement”), in an all-stock transaction (the “GNOG Transaction”). DraftKings’ consolidated financial statements exclude GNOG’s operations prior to the GNOG Closing Date, unless indicated otherwise. In connection with the GNOG Transaction, DraftKings Inc. became the going-forward public company and the direct parent company of both DraftKings Holdings Inc. (formerly DraftKings Inc.), a Nevada corporation (“Old DraftKings”), and GNOG, and DraftKings Inc. is the registrant filing this Annual Report as the successor registrant for Old DraftKings. Unless otherwise indicated, the terms “DraftKings,” the “Company,” “we,” “us,” or “our” refer to DraftKings Inc. (or, in respect of periods prior to the GNOG Closing Date, Old DraftKings), together with its consolidated subsidiaries.
 
Our Business
 
We are a digital sports entertainment and gaming company. We provide users with online sports betting (“Sportsbook”), online casino (“iGaming”) and daily fantasy sports (“DFS”) product offerings, as well as retail sportsbook, media and other consumer product offerings. We are also involved in the design and development of sports betting and casino gaming software for online and retail sportsbooks and iGaming operators. On May 5, 2022, we acquired GNOG in an all-stock transaction to enable us to leverage Golden Nugget’s established brand to broaden our reach into new customer segments and enhance the combined company’s iGaming product offering through our vertically-integrated technology stack and GNOG’s unique capabilities, including live dealer.

Our mission is to make life more exciting by responsibly creating the world’s favorite real-money games and betting experiences. We accomplish this by creating an environment where our users can find enjoyment and fulfillment through Sportsbook, iGaming and DFS, as well as media and other online consumer product offerings. We are also highly focused on our responsibility as a steward of this new era in real-money gaming. Our ethics guide our decision making, with respect to both the tradition and integrity of sports and our investments in regulatory compliance and consumer protection.
We continue to make deliberate and substantial investments in support of our mission and long-term growth. For example, we have invested in our products and technology in order to continuously launch new product innovations; improve marketing, merchandising, and operational efficiency through data science; and deliver a great user experience. We also make significant investments in sales and marketing and incentives to grow and retain our paid user base, including personalized cross-product offers and promotions, and promote brand awareness to attract the “skin-in-the-game” sports fan. Together, these investments have enabled us to create a leading product built on scalable technology, while attracting a user base that has resulted in the rapid growth of our business.
Our priorities are to (a) continue to invest in our product offerings, (b) launch our product offerings in new jurisdictions, (c) create replicable and predictable state-level unit economics in Sportsbook and iGaming and (d) expand our other consumer product offerings. When we launch our Sportsbook and iGaming product offerings in a new jurisdiction, we invest heavily in user acquisition, retention and cross-selling until the new jurisdiction provides a critical mass of users engaged across our product offerings.
Our current technology is highly scalable with relatively minimal incremental spend required to launch our product offerings in new jurisdictions. We will continue to manage our fixed-cost base in conjunction with our market entry plans and focus our variable spend on marketing, user experience and support and regulatory compliance to become the product of choice for users and maintain favorable relationships with regulators. We also expect to improve our profitability on an annual basis over time as our revenue and gross profit expand as states mature, and our variable marketing expenses and fixed costs stabilize or grow at a slower rate.
Our path to profitability on an annual basis is based on the acceleration of positive contribution profit growth driven by increased revenue and gross profit generation from ongoing efficient customer acquisition enabled by the transition from local to regional to national advertising, strong customer retention, improved monetization from frequency and higher hold percentage, as well as scale benefits from investments in our product and technology and general and administrative functions. On a consolidated Adjusted EBITDA basis, we expect to achieve profitability on an annual basis when total contribution profit
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exceeds the fixed costs of our business, which depends, in part, on the percentage of the U.S. adult population that has access to our product offerings and the other factors summarized in the section entitled “Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements”.

Financial Highlights and Trends
 
The following table sets forth a summary of our financial results for the periods indicated and is derived from our consolidated financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022, and 2021:
 
 Year Ended December 31,
(amounts in thousands)202320222021
Revenue$3,665,393 $2,240,461 $1,296,025 
Net Loss(802,142)(1,377,987)(1,523,195)
Adjusted EBITDA (1)
(151,035)(721,781)(676,133)
 
(1)Adjusted EBITDA is a non-GAAP financial measure. See “Non-GAAP Information” below for additional information about this measure and a reconciliation of this measure to the most directly comparable financial measure calculated in accordance with U.S. GAAP.

Revenue increased by $1,424.9 million in 2023, compared to 2022, primarily due to the strong performance of our Sportsbook and iGaming product offerings as a result of robust customer acquisition and retention, the successful launches of those product offerings in additional jurisdictions, and improved promotional reinvestment for Sportsbook and iGaming.

Key Performance Indicators
 
Monthly Unique Payers (“MUPs”). We define MUPs as the number of unique paid users per month who had one or more real-money, paid engagements across one or more of our Sportsbook, iGaming, DFS, or other consumer product offerings via our technology. For reported periods longer than one month, we average the MUPs for the months in the reported period. Although the number of unique paid users includes those users that have participated in a real-money, paid engagement using only promotional incentives (which has not been a material number of users to date), which are fungible with other funds deposited into their wallets on our technology, it does not include users who have made a deposit but have not yet had a real-money, paid engagement.

MUPs is a key indicator of the scale of our online gaming user base and awareness of our brand. We believe that year-over-year growth in MUPs is also generally indicative of the long-term revenue growth potential of our online gaming product offerings, although MUPs in individual periods may be less indicative of our longer-term expectations. We expect the number of MUPs to grow as we attract, retain and re-engage users in new and existing jurisdictions and expand our product offerings to appeal to a wider audience.

The chart below presents our average MUPs for 2021, 2022 and 2023:

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Average Revenue per MUP (“ARPMUP”). We define and calculate ARPMUP as the average monthly revenue, excluding revenue from gaming software services, for a reporting period, divided by the average number of MUPs for the same period. ARPMUP is a key indicator of our ability to drive usage and monetization of our product offerings.

The chart below presents our ARPMUP for 2021, 2022 and 2023:

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The increase in MUPs for 2023, compared to 2022, primarily reflects strong unique payer retention and acquisition across our Sportsbook and iGaming product offerings as well as the expansion of our Sportsbook and iGaming product offerings into new jurisdictions, partially offset by a decline in DFS MUPs.

ARPMUP increased in 2023 compared to 2022, primarily due to structural improvement in our Sportsbook hold rate and improved promotional reinvestment for Sportsbook and iGaming.
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Non-GAAP Information
 
This Annual Report includes Adjusted EBITDA, which is a non-GAAP financial measure that we use to supplement our results presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP. We believe Adjusted EBITDA is useful in evaluating our operating performance, similar to measures reported by our publicly-listed U.S. competitors, and regularly used by security analysts, institutional investors and other interested parties in analyzing operating performance and prospects. Adjusted EBITDA is not intended to be a substitute for any U.S. GAAP financial measure. As calculated, it may not be comparable to other similarly titled measures of performance of other companies in other industries or within the same industry.

We define and calculate Adjusted EBITDA as net loss before the impact of interest income or expense (net), income tax provision or benefit, and depreciation and amortization, and further adjusted for the following items: stock-based compensation; transaction-related costs; litigation, settlement and related costs; advocacy and other related legal expenses; gain or loss on remeasurement of warrant liabilities; and other non-recurring and non-operating costs or income, as described in the reconciliation below.

We include non-GAAP financial measures because they are used by management to evaluate our core operating performance and trends and to make decisions regarding the allocation of capital and new investments. Adjusted EBITDA excludes certain expenses that are required in accordance with U.S. GAAP because they are non-recurring items (for example, in the case of transaction-related costs and advocacy and other related legal expenses), non-cash expenditures (for example, in the case of depreciation and amortization, remeasurement of warrant liabilities and stock-based compensation), or non-operating items which are not related to our underlying business performance (for example, in the case of interest income and expense and litigation, settlement and related costs).
 
Adjusted EBITDA
 
The table below presents our net loss, which is the most directly comparable financial measure calculated in accordance with U.S. GAAP, reconciled to Adjusted EBITDA for the periods indicated:
 
 Year Ended December 31,
(amounts in thousands)20232022
2021
Net Loss$(802,142)$(1,377,987)$(1,523,195)
Adjusted for:
Depreciation and amortization (1)
201,920 169,252 121,138 
Interest (income) expense, net(55,739)(18,702)(1,957)
Income tax (benefit) provision 10,170 (67,866)8,269 
Stock-based compensation (2)
398,463 578,799 683,293 
Transaction-related costs (3)
3,060 17,315 25,316 
Litigation, settlement, and related costs (4)
34,500 7,010 10,392 
Advocacy and other related legal expenses (5)
— 16,558 40,415 
Loss (gain) on remeasurement of warrant liabilities57,543 (29,396)(30,065)
Other non-recurring, special project and non-operating (income) costs (6)
1,190 (16,764)(9,739)
Adjusted EBITDA$(151,035)$(721,781)$(676,133)

(1)The amounts include the amortization of acquired intangible assets of $117.3 million, $106.1 million, and $80.1 million for 2023, 2022, and 2021, respectively.
(2)Reflects stock-based compensation expenses resulting from the issuance of awards under incentive plans.
(3)Includes capital markets advisory, consulting, accounting and legal expenses related to evaluation, negotiation and integration costs incurred in connection with pending or completed transactions and offerings, including costs relating to the GNOG Transaction in 2022 and 2021.
(4)Primarily includes external legal costs related to litigation and litigation settlement costs deemed unrelated to our core business operations.
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(5)Reflects non-recurring and non-ordinary course costs relating to advocacy efforts and other legal expenses in jurisdictions where we do not operate certain product offerings and are actively seeking licensure, or similar approval, for those product offerings. This adjustment excludes (i) costs relating to advocacy efforts and other legal expenses in jurisdictions where we do not operate that are incurred in the ordinary course of business and (ii) costs relating to advocacy efforts and other legal expenses incurred in jurisdictions where related legislation has been passed and we currently operate. For 2022, those costs primarily related to our support of Proposition 27 in California. For 2021, those costs primarily related to our support of Proposition 27 in California and our support of the sports betting ballot initiative in Florida.
(6)Primarily includes the change in fair value of certain financial assets, as well as our equity method share of investee’s losses and other costs relating to non-recurring and non-operating items.

Due to the timing of the consummation of the GNOG Transaction, the above periods, to the extent applicable, exclude GNOG’s operations prior to the GNOG Closing Date of May 5, 2022. 

Key Factors Affecting Our Results
 
Our financial position and results of operations depend to a significant extent on the following factors:
 
Industry Opportunity and Competitive Landscape
 
We operate within the global entertainment and gaming industries, which are comprised of diverse product offerings that compete for consumers’ time and disposable income. Our short-to-medium term focus is on the North American regulated gaming industry, particularly the opportunity in online Sportsbook and iGaming. We believe our industry-leading product offerings, strong technology services, more than a decade of U.S. online and mobile gaming experience, established brand and vertically integrated solutions make us a partner of choice for state regulators, professional sports leagues and teams, gaming companies, and other sports entertainment and related businesses.
 
When we enter new jurisdictions, we face significant competition from other established competitors, some of which may have more experience in sports betting and iGaming and access to more resources. We believe our analytics and technology, and the lessons learned from our DFS operations and prior launches of our online Sportsbook and iGaming product offerings, will enable us to capture significant share in newly available jurisdictions.

In addition, our growth prospects may suffer if we are unable to develop successful product offerings or if we fail to pursue additional product offerings. Further, if we fail to make the right investment decisions in our product offerings, technology and services, we may not effectively attract and retain users and our revenue and results of operations may be negatively impacted.
 
Legalization, Regulation and Taxation
 
Our growth prospects depend on the legalization of online sports betting and iGaming in additional jurisdictions, predominantly within the United States. Our strategy is to expand our Sportsbook and iGaming product offerings into new jurisdictions as they are legalized and become accessible to the extent it is economically beneficial to do so. As of February 13, 2024, 35 U.S. states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico have legalized some form of sports betting. Of those 37 legal jurisdictions, 32 have legalized online sports betting. Of those 32 jurisdictions, 31 are live, and DraftKings operates in 24 of them. The U.S. jurisdictions with statutes legalizing iGaming are Connecticut, Delaware, Michigan, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island and West Virginia.
 
The process of securing the necessary licenses or partnerships to operate in each jurisdiction may take longer than we anticipate. In addition, legislative or regulatory restrictions and product taxes may make it less attractive or more difficult for us to operate in a particular jurisdiction. For example, certain jurisdictions require us to have a relationship with a retail operator for online Sportsbook access, which tends to increase our cost of revenue. States that have established state-run monopolies may limit opportunities for private sector participants like us. We nonetheless believe our proprietary gaming software positions us to become a partner of choice to power state-run sportsbooks.
 
States impose taxes on regulated offerings, the rates of which may vary substantially between states and product offerings. Sales taxes may also apply in certain jurisdictions. We are also subject to a federal excise tax of 25 basis points on the amount of each sportsbook bet.
 
Ability to Acquire, Retain and Monetize Users
 
We grow our business by attracting new paid users to our product offerings and increasing their level of engagement with our product offerings over time. To effectively attract and retain paid users and to re-engage former paid users, we invest in a
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variety of marketing channels in combination with personalized customer promotions, most of which can be used across all of our product offerings (such as free contest entries or bets or matching deposits). These investments and personalized promotions are intended to increase consumer awareness and drive engagement.

Managing Betting Risk
 
Sports betting and iGaming are characterized by an element of chance. Our revenue is impacted by variations in the hold percentage (the ratio of net win to total amount wagered) on bets placed on, or the actual outcome of, games or events on which users bet. Although our product offerings generally perform within a defined statistical range of outcomes, actual outcomes may vary for any given period, and a single large bet or the result of a significant sporting event can have a sizeable impact on our short-term financial performance. Our hold is also affected by factors that are beyond our control, such as a user’s experience and behavior, the mix of games played, the financial resources of users and the volume of bets placed. As a result of variability in these factors, actual hold rates on our product offerings may differ from the theoretical win rates we have estimated and could result in the winnings of our gaming users exceeding those anticipated. We seek to mitigate these risks through data science and analytics and rules built into our technology, as well as active management of our amounts at risk at a point in time, but we may not always be able to do so successfully, particularly over short periods, which can result in financial losses as well as revenue volatility.
 
Results of Operations
 
2023 Compared to 2022
 
The following table sets forth a summary of our consolidated results of operations for the years indicated, and the changes between periods. Due to the timing of the consummation of the GNOG Transaction, the below periods exclude GNOG’s operations prior to the GNOG Closing Date of May 5, 2022.
 
 Year ended December 31,  
(amounts in thousands, except percentages)20232022$ Change% Change
Revenue$3,665,393 $2,240,461 $1,424,932 63.6 %
Cost of revenue2,292,175 1,484,273 807,902 54.4 %
Sales and marketing1,200,718 1,185,977 14,741 1.2 %
Product and technology355,156 318,247 36,909 11.6 %
General and administrative606,569 763,720 (157,151)(20.6)%
Loss from operations(789,225)(1,511,756)722,531 47.8 %
Interest income (expense), net55,739 18,702 37,037 198.0 %
(Loss) gain on remeasurement of warrant liabilities(57,543)29,396 (86,939)(295.8)%
Other (loss) income, net(224)20,700 (20,924)(101.1)%
Loss before income tax (benefit) provision and loss from equity method investment(791,253)(1,442,958)651,705 45.2 %
Income tax (benefit) provision 10,170 (67,866)78,036 115.0 %
Loss (gain) from equity method investment719 2,895 (2,176)(75.2)%
Net Loss$(802,142)$(1,377,987)$575,845 41.8 %
 
Revenue. Revenue increased $1,424.9 million, or 63.6%, to $3,665.4 million in 2023, from $2,240.5 million in 2022. The increase was primarily attributable to our online gaming revenues, which increased $1,450.5 million, or 68.9%, to $3,557.2 million in 2023 primarily due to MUPs increasing by 39.5% as compared to 2022. The increase in MUPs was due to strong player retention and acquisition across our Sportsbook and iGaming product offerings, as well as the expansion of our Sportsbook and iGaming product offerings into new jurisdictions. Online gaming revenues also increased due to structural improvement in our Sportsbook hold rate and improved promotional reinvestment for our Sportsbook and iGaming product offerings, which contributed to ARPMUP growth of 17.7% compared to 2022.

Cost of Revenue. Cost of revenue increased $807.9 million, or 54.4%, to $2,292.2 million in 2023, from $1,484.3 million in 2022. Our online gaming product offerings accounted for substantially all of this increase, reflecting growth in revenue from our expanded product and jurisdictional footprint, including the launch of our Sportsbook product offering in Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, and Ohio in 2023. In particular, the cost of revenue increase was primarily attributable to an increase in our variable expenses, such as product taxes and payment processing fees, which increased $516.1 million and
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$107.3 million, respectively. The remaining increase was primarily attributable to an increase in our variable platform costs and revenue share arrangements resulting from additional customer activity.

Cost of revenue as a percentage of revenue decreased by 3.7 percentage points to 62.5% in 2023 from 66.2% in 2022, reflecting, in part, structural improvement in our Sportsbook hold rate and improved promotional reinvestment for our Sportsbook and iGaming product offerings, partially offset by a change in revenue mix from our more mature DFS product offering to our Sportsbook and iGaming product offerings, which, in general, produce revenue at a higher cost per revenue dollar relative to our more mature DFS product offering.

Sales and Marketing. Sales and marketing expense increased $14.7 million, or 1.2%, to $1,200.7 million in 2023, from $1,186.0 million in 2022. The increase was primarily attributable to an increase of $19.5 million in advertising costs spent to acquire users, partially offset by a reduction in compensation expense.

Product and Technology. Product and technology expense increased $36.9 million, or 11.6%, to $355.2 million in 2023 from $318.2 million in 2022. The increase primarily reflects an increase of $35.1 million in compensation expense due to increases in our product operations and engineering headcount.

General and Administrative. General and administrative expense decreased $157.2 million, or 20.6%, to $606.6 million in 2023 from $763.7 million in 2022. This decrease was primarily driven by a decrease in stock-based compensation expense of $174.1 million, a reduction in transaction-related costs of $14.3 million and a reduction in advocacy expense of $16.6 million partially offset by an increase in non-core litigation costs of $27.5 million and in cash-based compensation expense due to an increase in headcount.

Gain on Remeasurement of Warrant Liabilities. We recorded a loss on remeasurement of warrant liabilities of $57.5 million in 2023, compared to a gain of $29.4 million in 2022 primarily due to changes in the underlying share price of our Class A common stock.

Other Income, net. Other income (loss), net was a loss of $0.2 million in 2023, as compared to income of $20.7 million in 2022. This decrease was primarily attributable to an increase in the fair value of certain financial assets recorded in 2022.

Income Tax (Benefit) Provision. We recorded an income tax provision of $10.2 million in 2023, as compared to an income tax benefit of $67.9 million in 2022. This change was primarily due to a discretely recorded income tax benefit of $70.1 million, which was attributable to non-recurring partial releases of the Company’s U.S. valuation allowance as a result of the GNOG purchase price allocation in 2022.

Net Loss. Net loss improved by $575.8 million to $802.1 million in 2023 from $1,378.0 million in 2022 for the reasons discussed above.

2022 Compared to 2021

A discussion of changes in our results of operations in 2022 compared to 2021 has been omitted from this Annual Report, but may be found in “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” of our Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022, filed with the SEC on February 17, 2023, which is available free of charge on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov and at www.DraftKings.com.
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Quarterly Performance Trend and Seasonality
 
Our user engagement and financial performance is seasonal in nature, as indicated by the following chart, which presents our average MUPs and ARPMUP for the last eight quarters, and the explanations that follow. 

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Our business experiences the effects of seasonality based on the relative popularity of certain sports. Although our technology supports contests and betting on sporting events throughout the year, the fourth quarter is when our users tend to be most engaged, primarily due to the overlapping time frame of the NFL and NBA seasons, which are the most popular sports amongst our users. As a result, we have historically generated higher revenues in our fourth quarter compared to other quarters. We anticipate that this trend will continue, though our mix of revenues in each quarter and our key performance indicators will also be impacted by the timing of new jurisdiction launches and the introduction of new product offerings.
 
In addition, revenue and key performance indicators for a given quarter or fiscal year may differ substantially due primarily to professional sports season scheduling, including the frequency of play. For example, during the NFL season, our user engagement and revenue is generally highest on Sundays. The number of Sundays in a fiscal reporting period may differ from quarter to quarter and year to year, resulting in revenue volatility between comparative periods. In contrast, the MLB season, which traditionally falls in our second and third quarters, is characterized by numerous, daily games throughout the season, which tends to result in higher DFS contestant engagement and more Sportsbook bets per paid user relative to the NFL season. Historically, MLB play has attracted a more dedicated but smaller user base to our product offerings. The timing of the MLB season in combination with these factors has tended to result in lower MUPs in our second quarter, but a higher ARPMUP.
 
The suspension, postponement, rescheduling, shortening and cancellation of major sports seasons and sporting events may materially impact our results of operations by, for example, reducing our customers’ use of, and spending on, our Sportsbook and DFS product offerings. However, our product offerings that do not rely on sports seasons and sporting events, such as iGaming, may partially offset such an adverse impact on revenue.
 
Liquidity and Capital Resources
 
We had $1.3 billion in cash and cash equivalents as of December 31, 2023 (excluding restricted cash and cash reserved for users, which we segregate on behalf of our paid users for all jurisdictions and product offerings). We believe our cash on hand is sufficient to meet our current working capital and capital expenditure requirements for a period of at least twelve months. We will continue to evaluate our long-term operating performance and cash needs and believe we are well positioned to continue to fund the operations of our business long-term.
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Our material cash requirements include the following contractual and other obligations.

Debt. In March 2021, we issued zero-coupon convertible senior notes in an aggregate principal amount of $1,265.0 million (the “Convertible Notes”). The Convertible Notes mature on March 15, 2028, subject to earlier conversion, redemption or repurchase. In connection with the pricing of the Convertible Notes and the exercise of the option to purchase additional Convertible Notes, we entered into privately negotiated capped call transactions (the “Capped Call Transactions”). The Capped Call Transactions are expected generally to reduce potential dilution to DraftKings Inc.’s Class A common stock upon any conversion of the Convertible Notes. The net cost of $124.0 million incurred to enter into the Capped Call Transactions was recorded as a reduction to additional paid-in capital on the Company’s consolidated balance sheet. As of December 31, 2023, the Convertible Notes, net of issuance costs, balance was $1,253.8 million.

Leases. We have lease arrangements for certain corporate office facilities, data centers and motor vehicles. As of December 31, 2023, the Company had lease commitments of $117.8 million, with $16.5 million payable within twelve months.

Other Purchase Obligations. We have certain non-cancelable contracts with vendors, licensors and others requiring us to make future cash payments. As of December 31, 2023, these purchase obligations were $1,404.6 million, with $467.6 million payable within twelve months.
 
Cash Flows
 
The following table summarizes our cash flows for the periods indicated. Due to the timing of the consummation of the GNOG Transaction, the below periods exclude GNOG’s operations prior to the GNOG Closing Date of May 5, 2022.
 
 Year ended December 31,
(in thousands)202320222021
Net cash (used in) operating activities$(1,751)$(625,519)$(419,508)
Net cash (used in) investing activities(90,360)(208,766)(195,022)
Net cash (used in) provided by financing activities(63,221)(16,732)1,138,813 
Effect of foreign exchange rates on cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash, and cash reserved for users— — 583 
Net (decrease) increase in cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash, and cash reserved for users(155,332)(851,017)524,866 
Cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash, and cash reserved for users at beginning of period1,778,825 2,629,842 2,104,976 
Cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash, and cash reserved for users at end of period$1,623,493 $1,778,825 $2,629,842 
 
2023 Compared to 2022

Operating Activities. Net cash used in operating activities in 2023 was $1.8 million, compared to $625.5 million in 2022, primarily reflecting an improvement in net loss, net of non-cash items, of $610.6 million for the reasons described above, slightly offset by changes in operating assets and liabilities.

Investing Activities. Net cash used in investing activities in 2023 decreased by $118.4 million to $90.4 million from $208.8 million in 2022, mainly reflecting $24.4 million of proceeds from the sale of marketable equity securities and other financial assets in 2023 and a reduction of $96.5 million from cash paid for acquisitions, net of cash acquired, related to the GNOG Transaction in 2022, partially offset by an increase in cash paid for internally developed software.

Financing Activities. Net cash used in financing activities in 2023 increased by $46.5 million to $63.2 million from $16.7 million in 2022, primarily reflecting an increase in purchases of treasury stock of $54.5 million related to the satisfaction of withholding taxes due upon the vesting of restricted stock units, offset by an increase in proceeds from the exercise of stock options.

2022 Compared to 2021

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A discussion of changes in cash flows in 2022 compared to 2021 has been omitted from this Annual Report, but may be found in “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” of our Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022, filed with the SEC on February 17, 2023, which is available free of charge on the SEC's website at www.sec.gov and at www.DraftKings.com.
  
Critical Accounting Estimates
 
Our consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“U.S. GAAP”). Preparation of the financial statements requires our management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that impact the reported amount of revenue and expenses, assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. We consider an accounting judgment, estimate or assumption to be critical when (a) the estimate or assumption is complex in nature or requires a high degree of judgment and (b) the use of different judgments, estimates and assumptions could have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements. Our significant accounting policies are described in Note 2 of the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report. Our critical accounting estimates are described below:
 
Loss Contingencies
 
Our loss contingencies, which are included within the “other long-term liabilities” caption on our consolidated balance sheets, are uncertain by nature and their estimation requires significant management judgment as to the probability of loss and estimation of the amount of loss. These contingencies include, but may not be limited to, litigation, regulatory investigations and proceedings and management’s evaluation of complex laws and regulations, including those relating to indirect taxes, and the extent to which they may apply to our business and industry. See Notes 7 and 15 to our consolidated financial statements for more information.

We regularly review our contingencies to determine whether the likelihood of loss is probable or reasonably possible and to assess whether a reasonable estimate of the loss can be made. Determination of whether a loss estimate can be made is a complex undertaking that considers the judgment of management, third-party research, the prospect of negotiation and interpretations by regulators and courts, among other information. When a loss is determined to be probable, as that term is defined under U.S. GAAP, and the amount of the loss can be reasonably estimated, an estimated contingent liability is recorded. We continually reevaluate our indirect tax and other positions for appropriateness.
 
Goodwill
 
Goodwill is tested for impairment at the reporting unit level, which is the same or one level below an operating segment. In accordance with ASC Topic 350 Intangibles - Goodwill and Other, our business is classified into one reporting unit. Prior to October 1, 2023, the Company had three reporting units to which goodwill was allocated. On October 1, 2023, the Company reassessed its reporting units and determined it operated as a single reporting unit. In accordance with ASC 350, because such reassessment redefined previously determined reporting units, all goodwill was reassigned to the consolidated reporting unit. We review and evaluate our goodwill and indefinite life intangible assets for potential impairment at a minimum annually, in the fourth quarter, or more frequently if circumstances indicate that impairment is possible.

In testing goodwill for impairment, we have the option to begin with a qualitative assessment, commonly referred to as “Step 0”, to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit containing goodwill is less than its carrying value. This qualitative assessment may include, but is not limited to, reviewing factors such as macroeconomic conditions, industry and market considerations, cost factors, entity-specific financial performance and other events, including changes in our management, strategy and primary user base. If we determine that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying value, we then perform a quantitative goodwill impairment analysis by comparing the carrying amount to the fair value of the reporting unit. In estimating the fair value of the reporting unit, we may use key assumptions such as revenue growth rates, gross margin, and estimated costs for future periods and well as peer group market valuation multiples and discount rates. If the carrying amount exceeds the fair value, goodwill will be written down to the fair value and recorded as impairment expense in the consolidated statements of operations. We perform our impairment testing annually and when circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of a reporting unit below its carrying value. We performed our annual impairment assessment of goodwill as of October 1, 2023, which included consideration of the change in reporting units, and concluded that goodwill was not impaired.
 
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Business Combinations
 
We account for business acquisitions in accordance with ASC Topic 805, Business Combinations (“ASC 805”). We measure the cost of an acquisition as the aggregate of the acquisition date fair values of the assets transferred and liabilities assumed and equity instruments issued. Transaction costs directly attributable to the acquisition are expensed as incurred. We record goodwill for the excess of (i) the total costs of acquisition, fair value of any non-controlling interests and acquisition date fair value of any previously held equity interest in the acquired business over (ii) the fair value of the identifiable net assets of the acquired business.
 
The acquisition method of accounting requires us to exercise judgment and make estimates and assumptions based on available information regarding the fair values of the elements of a business combination as of the date of acquisition, including the fair values of identifiable intangible assets, deferred tax asset valuation allowances, liabilities related to uncertain tax positions and contingencies. We must also refine these estimates over a one-year measurement period, to reflect any new information obtained about facts and circumstances that existed as of the acquisition date that, if known, would have affected the measurement of the amounts recognized as of that date. If we are required to retroactively adjust provisional amounts that we have recorded for the fair value of assets and liabilities in connection with an acquisition, these adjustments could materially impact our results of operations and financial position. Estimates and assumptions that we must make in estimating the fair value of future acquired technology, user lists and other identifiable intangible assets include future cash flows that we expect to generate from the acquired assets. If the subsequent actual results and updated projections of the underlying business activity change compared with the assumptions and projections used to develop these values, we could record impairment charges. In addition, we have estimated the economic lives of certain acquired assets and these lives are used to calculate depreciation and amortization expenses. If our estimates of the economic lives change, depreciation or amortization expenses could be accelerated or slowed, which could materially impact our results of operations.

On the GNOG Closing Date of May 5, 2022, we completed our acquisition of 100% of the equity interests of GNOG pursuant to the GNOG Merger Agreement. The GNOG Transaction was accounted for under ASC 805. In accordance with the acquisition method, we recorded the fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed. The allocation of the consideration to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed is based on various estimates.
Stock-based Compensation
 
Our historical and outstanding stock-based compensation awards, including the issuances of options and other stock awards under our equity compensation plans, have typically included service-based or performance-based vesting conditions. For awards with only service-based vesting conditions, we record compensation cost for these awards using the straight-line method less an assumed forfeiture rate. For awards with performance-based or market-based vesting conditions, we recognize compensation cost on a tranche-by-tranche basis (the accelerated attribution method), based on the probability of achieving the performance criteria.
 
Stock-based compensation expense is measured based on the grant-date fair value of the stock-based awards and is recognized over the requisite service period of the awards. Prior to the DEAC Business Combination, our management and board of directors considered various objectives and subjective factors to determine the fair value of DK DE's common stock as of each grant date, including the value determined by a third-party valuation firm. These factors included, among other things, financial performance, capital structure, forecasted operating results and market performance analyses of similar companies in our industry. Following the DEAC Business Combination, the fair value of our Class A common stock is determined based on the quoted market price. To estimate the fair value of stock option awards, the Black-Scholes model is used to determine the fair value of grants with market-based conditions. The Black-Scholes model requires management to make a number of key assumptions, including risk-free interest rate, expected term, and expected volatility. The risk-free interest rate is estimated using the rate of return on U.S. treasury notes with a life that approximates the expected term. The expected term assumption used in the Black-Scholes model represents the period of time that the options are expected to be outstanding and is estimated using the midpoint between the requisite service period and the contractual term of the option. Expected volatility is based on an average volatility for a representative sample of comparable public companies, including the Company’s own.
 
The assumptions underlying these valuations and management’s assessment of achieving the performance criteria represent management’s best estimates, which involve inherent uncertainties and the application of management judgment. As a result, if factors, probabilities, or expected outcomes change and our management uses significantly different assumptions or estimates, our stock-based compensation expense for future periods could be materially different.
 
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Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risks.
 
We are exposed to market risks in the ordinary course of our business. These risks primarily include interest rate risk, foreign currency risk and inflation risk as follows:
 
Interest Rate Risk
 
We had cash and cash equivalents totaling $1.3 billion and $1.3 billion at December 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively. Our cash and cash equivalents consist of highly liquid, unrestricted savings, checking and other bank accounts. The Company also utilizes money market funds and short-term deposits with original maturities of three months or less. The primary objectives of our investment activities are to preserve principal and provide liquidity without significantly increasing risk. Due to the relatively short-term nature of our portfolio, a hypothetical 100 basis point change in interest rates would not have a material effect on the fair value of our portfolio for the periods presented.
 
Foreign Currency Risk
 
The Company has exposure to changes in currency rates as a result of operations by subsidiaries in non-U.S jurisdictions. Revenue and income/loss generated by international operations will increase or decrease compared to prior periods as a result of changes in foreign currency exchange rates. The operations impacted by foreign currency risk are not significant relative to the U.S operations of the Company and, as a result, our exposure to foreign currency risk is not material. Currently, we do not otherwise hedge our foreign exchange exposure but may consider doing so in the future.

Inflation Risk
 
We do not believe that inflation has had a material effect on our business, financial condition, or results of operations. If our costs become subject to significant inflationary pressures, we may not be able to fully offset such higher costs through price increases. Our inability or failure to do so could harm our business, financial condition, and operating results.
 
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.
 
See financial statements included in Item 15 “Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules” of this Annual Report.
 
Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure.
 
None.
 
Item 9A. Controls and Procedures.
 
Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures
 
Under the supervision and with the participation of our management, including our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, we evaluated the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures (as that term is defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”)) as of December 31, 2023, which is the end of the period covered by this Annual Report. Based on this evaluation, our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer concluded that the Company’s disclosure controls and procedures were effective as of December 31, 2023 to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the Company in reports we file or submit under the Exchange Act is (i) recorded, processed, summarized, evaluated and reported, as applicable, within the time periods specified in the SEC’s rules and forms and (ii) accumulated and communicated to the Company’s management, including the Company’s Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosures.
 
Management’s Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting
 
The Company’s management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting (as defined in Rule 13a-15(f) under the Exchange Act). Management conducted an assessment of the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on the criteria set forth in Internal Control – Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (2013 framework). Internal control over financial reporting is a process to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of our financial reporting for external purposes in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Based on the Company’s assessment, management has concluded that its internal control over financial reporting was effective as of December 31, 2023 to provide reasonable assurance regarding the
67


reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Management has reviewed its assessment with the Audit Committee.

The Company’s independent registered public accounting firm, BDO USA, P.C., has issued an audit report on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting, which appears in Part II, Item 15 “Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules” of this Annual Report.
 
Changes in Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

There has been no change in our internal control over financial reporting (as defined in Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) under the Exchange Act), during the three months ended December 31, 2023 that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.

Limitations on Effectiveness of Controls and Procedures
 
Our disclosure controls and procedures are designed to provide reasonable assurance of achieving their objectives, as specified above. Our management recognizes that any control system, no matter how well designed and operated, is based upon certain judgments and assumptions and cannot provide absolute assurance that its objectives will be met. 
 
Item 9B. Other Information.
 
Rule 10b5-1 Trading Plans

Certain of our directors and executive officers have made, and may from time to time enter into trading plans or make elections to have shares sold or withheld to cover withholding taxes or pay the exercise price of options, which may be designed to satisfy the affirmative defense conditions of Rule 10b5-1 under the Exchange Act or may constitute non-Rule 10b5-1 trading arrangements (as defined in Item 408(c) of Regulation S-K).

During the fiscal quarter ended December 31, 2023, except as noted above, none of our directors or executive officers adopted or terminated any contract, instruction or written plan for the purchase or sale of Company securities that was designed to satisfy the affirmative defense conditions of Rule 10b5-1(c) or any non-Rule 10b5-1 trading arrangement.

Letter Agreements

On February 14, 2024, the Company entered into letter agreements with each of Messrs. Jason Robins, the Company’s Chief Executive Officer; Matthew Kalish, the Company’s President, DraftKings North America; and Paul Liberman, the Company’s President, Global Technology and Product, pursuant to which each executive officer agreed to a voluntary reduction in their respective base salaries to $1 for fiscal year 2024 (the “Base Salary Reductions”). The Base Salary Reductions do not modify any other rights under each of Messrs. Robins', Kalish's and Liberman's employment agreements that are determined by reference to such executive officer’s base salary (other than to the extent otherwise described in such letter agreements), and such provisions will continue to be applied based on the base salary rate in effect without giving effect to any Base Salary Reductions. Furthermore, the Base Salary Reductions are not intended to reduce any Company employee benefit provided to Messrs. Robins, Kalish and Liberman that is determined by reference to base salary, except that life and disability insurance will not be provided to Messrs. Robins, Kalish and Liberman during the applicable Base Salary Reduction period.

Item 9C. Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections
 
Not applicable.
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PART III
 
Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance.
 
The information required by this item will be included in our Proxy Statement for the 2024 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be filed with the SEC, within 120 days of the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023 (the “2024 Proxy Statement”), and is incorporated herein by reference.
 
Item 11. Executive Compensation.
 
The information required by this item will be included in our 2024 Proxy Statement, which is incorporated herein by reference.
 
Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters.
 
The information required by this item will be included in our 2024 Proxy Statement, which is incorporated herein by reference.
 
Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence.
 
The information required by this item will be included in our 2024 Proxy Statement, which is incorporated herein by reference.
 
Item 14. Principal Accountant Fees and Services.
 
The information required by this item will be included in our 2024 Proxy Statement, which is incorporated herein by reference.

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PART IV
 
Item 15. Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules.

(a) Documents filed as part of this report 
(a)(1) Financial Statements 
  
Audited Consolidated Financial Statements of DraftKings Inc. for the years ended December 31, 2023, December 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021: 
 
(2) Financial Statement Schedule
 
Financial statement schedules have been omitted because they are either not required or not applicable or the information is included in the consolidated financial statements or the notes thereto.
 
(3) Exhibits: The exhibits to this report are listed in the exhibit index below.
(3)(b) Description of Exhibits

70


REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

Stockholders and Board of Directors
DraftKings Inc.
Boston, Massachusetts

Opinion on the Consolidated Financial Statements

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of DraftKings Inc. (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive loss, changes in stockholders’ equity, and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2023, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the “consolidated financial statements”). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company at December 31, 2023 and 2022, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2023, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (“PCAOB”), the Company's internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control – Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (“COSO”) and our report dated February 16, 2024 expressed an unqualified opinion thereon.

Basis for Opinion

These consolidated financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s consolidated financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud.

Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

Critical Audit Matter

The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current period audit of the consolidated financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that: (1) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the consolidated financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of the critical audit matter does not alter in any way our opinion on the consolidated financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing separate opinions on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.

Assessment of the probability of achieving the vesting performance criteria of performance-based stock compensation plan awards

As described in Notes 2 and 11 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company issues stock options and other stock awards to employees with performance-based vesting conditions pursuant to its performance-based stock compensation plan (“PSP Awards”). The Company recognizes compensation cost for PSP Awards on a tranche-by-tranche basis (the accelerated attribution method), based on the probability of achieving the performance criteria. PSP Awards granted in 2023 and 2022 vest based on achievement of revenue and Adjusted EBITDA targets and have a range of payouts from 0% to 200%. For the year ended December 31, 2023, stock-based compensation expense attributable to all PSP Awards was $126.1 million.

We identified the assessment of the probability of achieving the performance-based vesting criteria and the related estimated payment of certain PSP Awards as a critical audit matter. The revenue and Adjusted EBITDA projections used in the probability assessment for certain PSP Awards require significant judgement due to the subjectivity of the revenue growth rates, Adjusted EBITDA margins and certain other assumptions used in the projections. Auditing these elements required especially challenging and subjective auditor judgment due to the nature and extent of effort required to address these matters.
71



The primary procedures we performed to address this critical audit matter included evaluating the reasonableness of the revenue growth rates, Adjusted EBITDA margins and certain other assumptions used in the projections by:

Comparing the Company’s revenue and Adjusted EBITDA projections for the current year to current year results.

Evaluating the consistency of the revenue growth rates and certain other assumptions with external industry data.

Comparing the forecasted growth in revenue, forecasted Adjusted EBITDA margins and certain other assumptions to
historical results.


/s/ BDO USA, P.C.

We have served as the Company's auditor since 2016.
Boston, Massachusetts
February 16, 2024











































72


REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

Stockholders and Board of Directors
DraftKings Inc.
Boston, Massachusetts

Opinion on Internal Control over Financial Reporting

We have audited DraftKings Inc.’s (the “Company’s”) internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control – Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (the “COSO criteria”). In our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023, based on the COSO criteria.

We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (“PCAOB”), the consolidated balance sheets of the Company as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive loss, changes in stockholders’ equity, and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2023, and the related notes and our report dated February 16, 2024 expressed an unqualified opinion thereon.

Basis for Opinion

The Company’s management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in the accompanying, “Item 9A, Management’s Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting”. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our audit. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audit of internal control over financial reporting in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audit included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our audit also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.

Definition and Limitations of Internal Control over Financial Reporting

A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

/s/ BDO USA, P.C.

Boston, Massachusetts
February 16, 2024
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DRAFTKINGS INC.

CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(Amounts in thousands, except par value)
 
December 31,
 20232022
Assets  
Current assets:  
Cash and cash equivalents$1,270,503 $1,309,172 
Restricted cash11,700  
Cash reserved for users341,290 469,653 
Receivables reserved for users301,770 160,083 
Accounts receivable47,539 51,097 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets98,565 94,836 
Total current assets2,071,367 2,084,841 
Property and equipment, net60,695 60,102 
Intangible assets, net690,620 776,934 
Goodwill886,373 886,373 
Operating lease right-of-use assets93,985 65,957 
Equity method investments10,280 10,080 
Deposits and other non-current assets131,546 155,865 
Total assets$3,944,866 $4,040,152 
Liabilities and Stockholders’ equity
Current liabilities:
Accounts payable and accrued expenses$639,599 $517,587 
Liabilities to users851,898 686,173 
Operating lease liabilities, current portion11,499 4,253 
Other current liabilities46,624 38,444 
Total current liabilities1,549,620 1,246,457 
Convertible notes, net of issuance costs1,253,760 1,251,103 
Non-current operating lease liabilities80,827 69,332 
Warrant liabilities63,568 10,680 
Long-term income tax liabilities72,810 69,858 
Other long-term liabilities83,975 70,029 
Total liabilities$3,104,560 $2,717,459 
Commitments and contingent liabilities (Notes 7 and 15)
Stockholders’ equity:  
Class A common stock, $0.0001 par value; 900,000 shares authorized as of December 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively; 484,598 and 459,265 shares issued and 472,697 and 450,575 outstanding at December 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively
$46 $45 
Class B common stock, $0.0001 par value; 900,000 shares authorized as of December 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022; 393,014 shares issued and outstanding at December 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022
39 39 
Treasury stock, at cost; 11,901 and 8,690 shares as of December 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively
(412,182)(332,133)
Additional paid-in capital7,149,858 6,750,055 
Accumulated deficit(5,933,943)(5,131,801)
Accumulated other comprehensive income36,488 36,488 
Total stockholders’ equity840,306 1,322,693 
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity$3,944,866 $4,040,152 
 
    
 
See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.
 
F-1


DRAFTKINGS INC.

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(Amounts in thousands, except per share amounts)
 
 Years ended December 31,
 202320222021
Revenue$3,665,393 $2,240,461 $1,296,025 
Cost of revenue2,292,175 1,484,273 794,162 
Sales and marketing1,200,718 1,185,977 981,500 
Product and technology355,156 318,247 253,655 
General and administrative606,569 763,720 828,325 
Loss from operations(789,225)(1,511,756)(1,561,617)
Other income (expense):
Interest income58,418 21,353 4,066 
Interest expense(2,679)(2,651)(2,109)
(Loss) gain on remeasurement of warrant liabilities(57,543)29,396 30,065 
Other (loss) gain, net(224)20,700 11,951 
Loss before income tax provision (benefit) and loss (income) from equity method investment(791,253)(1,442,958)(1,517,644)
Income tax (benefit) provision10,170 (67,866)8,269 
Loss (income) from equity method investment719 2,895 (2,718)
Net loss attributable to common stockholders$(802,142)$(1,377,987)$(1,523,195)
Loss per share attributable to common stockholders:
Basic and diluted$(1.73)$(3.16)$(3.78)
 
See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.
 
Due to the timing of the GNOG Transaction (as defined below), the above periods exclude the operations of GNOG (as defined below) prior to the closing date of May 5, 2022.
F-2


DRAFTKINGS INC.

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE LOSS
(Amounts in thousands)
 
 Year ended December 31,
 202320222021
Net loss attributable to common stockholders$(802,142)$(1,377,987)$(1,523,195)
Other comprehensive (loss) income
Foreign currency translation adjustments, net of nil tax
  (47,046)
Comprehensive loss$(802,142)$(1,377,987)$(1,570,241)
 
See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.

Due to the timing of the GNOG Transaction (as defined below), the above periods exclude the operations of GNOG (as defined below) prior to the closing date of May 5, 2022.
 
F-3


DRAFTKINGS INC.

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
(Amounts in thousands)

Class A Common StockClass B Common StockAdditional
Paid in Capital
Accumulated
Deficit
Accumulated Other
Comprehensive
Income
Treasury Stock AmountTotal Stockholders'
Equity
SharesAmountSharesAmount
Balances at December 31, 2022450,575 $45 393,014 $39 $6,750,055 $(5,131,801)$36,488 $(332,133)$1,322,693 
Exercise of stock options3,943 — — — 16,540 — — — 16,540 
Stock-based compensation expense— — — — 378,321 — — — 378,321 
Equity consideration issued for acquisitions— — — — — — — — — 
Exercise of warrants153 — — — 4,942 — — — 4,942 
Purchase of treasury stock(3,211)— — — — — — (80,049)(80,049)