10-Q 1 docn-20220331.htm 10-Q docn-20220331
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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-Q
(Mark One)  
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2022
OR
  TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from ______ to ______
 Commission File Number: 001-40252
DigitalOcean Holdings, Inc.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)
Delaware 45-5207470
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 (I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
101 6th Avenue
New York, New York 10013
(Address of principal executive offices and Zip Code)
(646) 827-4366
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading SymbolName of each exchange on which registered
Common stock, par value $0.000025 per shareDOCNThe New York Stock Exchange
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
  Emerging growth company
 If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
 Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ☐ No
As of April 28, 2022, there were 106,060,494 shares of the registrant’s common stock, with a par value of $0.000025 per share, outstanding.



TABLE OF CONTENTS
PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Page
Item 1.Financial Statements (unaudited)
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
PART II. OTHER INFORMATION
Item 1.
Item 1a.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Item 5.
Item 6.



SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains forward-looking statements about us and our industry that involve substantial risks and uncertainties. All statements other than statements of historical facts contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, including statements regarding our future results of operations or financial condition, business strategy and plans and objectives of management for future operations, are forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements because they contain words such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “contemplate,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “target,” “will” or “would” or the negative of these words or other similar terms or expressions. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements concerning the following:
our expectations regarding our revenue, expenses and other operating results;
our ability to achieve profitability on an annual basis and then sustain such profitability;
future investments in our business, our anticipated capital expenditures and our estimates regarding our capital requirements;
our ability to acquire new customers and successfully engage and expand usage of our existing customers;
the costs and success of our marketing efforts, and our ability to promote our brand;
our reliance on key personnel and our ability to identify, recruit and retain skilled personnel;
our ability to effectively manage our growth;
our ability to compete effectively with existing competitors and new market entrants; and
the growth rates of the markets in which we compete.
You should not rely on forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. We have based the forward-looking statements contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q primarily on our current expectations and projections about future events and trends that we believe may affect our business, financial condition and operating results. The outcome of the events described in these forward-looking statements is subject to risks, uncertainties and other factors described in the section titled “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, as well as Item 1A—Risk Factors in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021. Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risks and uncertainties emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict all risks and uncertainties that could have an impact on the forward-looking statements contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. The results, events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements may not be achieved or occur, and actual results, events or circumstances could differ materially from those described in the forward-looking statements.
In addition, statements that “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based on information available to us as of the date of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. And while we believe that information provides a reasonable basis for these statements, that information may be limited or incomplete. Our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain, and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely on these statements.
The forward-looking statements made in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q relate only to events as of the date on which the statements are made. We undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements made in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q or to reflect new information or the occurrence of unanticipated events, except as required by law. We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements, and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, joint ventures or investments.
We may announce material business and financial information to our investors using our investor relations website (https://investors.digitalocean.com/). We therefore encourage investors and others interested in our company to review the information that we make available on our website, in addition to following our filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission, webcasts, press releases and conference calls.



PART I - FINANCIAL INFORMATION
ITEM 1. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
DIGITALOCEAN HOLDINGS, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(in thousands, except share amounts)
(unaudited)
March 31, 2022December 31, 2021
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$464,836 $1,713,387 
Marketable securities1,090,370  
Accounts receivable, less allowance for doubtful accounts of $5,155 and $4,212, respectively
42,527 39,619 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets14,171 17,050 
Total current assets1,611,904 1,770,056 
Property and equipment, net259,385 249,643 
Restricted cash2,038 2,038 
Goodwill32,170 32,170 
Intangible assets, net46,453 42,915 
Deferred tax assets89 88 
Other assets4,789 4,085 
Total assets$1,956,828 $2,100,995 
Current liabilities:
Accounts payable16,329 12,657 
Accrued other expenses25,627 31,907 
Deferred revenue5,248 4,826 
Other current liabilities15,247 8,849 
Total current liabilities$62,451 $58,239 
Deferred tax liabilities421 421 
Long-term debt1,464,525 1,462,676 
Other long-term liabilities1,600 1,462 
Total liabilities$1,528,997 $1,522,798 
Commitments and Contingencies (Note 8)
Preferred stock ($0.000025 par value per share; 10,000,000 shares authorized; 0 shares issued and outstanding as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021)
$ $ 
Common stock ($0.000025 par value per share; 750,000,000 shares authorized; 107,956,057 and 109,175,863 issued; and 105,987,829 and 107,207,635 outstanding as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively)
2 2 
Treasury stock, at cost (1,968,228 shares at March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021)
(4,598)(4,598)
Additional paid-in capital639,388 769,705 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(2,300)(374)
Accumulated deficit(204,661)(186,538)
Total stockholders’ equity $427,831 $578,197 
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity $1,956,828 $2,100,995 
See accompanying notes to condensed consolidated financial statements
1

DIGITALOCEAN HOLDINGS, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(in thousands, except per share amounts)
(unaudited)
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20222021
Revenue$127,327 $93,661 
Cost of revenue46,757 39,544 
Gross profit80,570 54,117 
Operating expenses:
Research and development37,241 22,402 
Sales and marketing19,044 10,421 
General and administrative37,424 18,040 
Total operating expenses93,709 50,863 
(Loss) income from operations(13,139)3,254 
Other (income) expense:
Interest expense2,059 2,256 
Loss on extinguishment of debt407 3,435 
Other (income) expense, net(820)(94)
Other (income) expense1,646 5,597 
Loss before income taxes(14,785)(2,343)
Income tax expense3,338 996 
Net loss attributable to common stockholders$(18,123)$(3,339)
Net loss per share attributable to common stockholders, basic and diluted$(0.17)$(0.07)
Weighted-average shares used to compute net loss per share, basic and diluted106,980 49,432 
See accompanying notes to condensed consolidated financial statements
2

DIGITALOCEAN HOLDINGS, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE LOSS
(in thousands)
(unaudited)
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20222021
Net loss attributable to common stockholders$(18,123)$(3,339)
Other comprehensive loss:
Foreign currency translation adjustments, net of taxes(18)12 
Unrealized loss on available-for-sale marketable securities, net of taxes(1,908)
Comprehensive loss$(20,049)$(3,327)
See accompanying notes to condensed consolidated financial statements
3

DIGITALOCEAN HOLDINGS, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
(in thousands, except share amounts)
(unaudited)
Common StockTreasury StockAdditional Paid-In CapitalAccumulated Other Comprehen-sive LossAccumulated DeficitTotal
SharesAmountSharesAmount
Balance at December 31, 2021109,175,863 $2 (1,968,228)$(4,598)$769,705 $(374)$(186,538)$578,197 
Issuance of common stock under equity incentive plan, net of taxes withheld
1,357,665 — — — (6,709)— — (6,709)
Repurchase and retirement of common stock(2,577,471)— — — (150,000)— — (150,000)
Stock-based compensation— — — — 26,392 — — 26,392 
Other comprehensive loss— — — — — (1,926)— (1,926)
Net loss attributable to common stockholders
— — — — — — (18,123)(18,123)
Balance at March 31, 2022107,956,057 $2 (1,968,228)$(4,598)$639,388 $(2,300)$(204,661)$427,831 
Convertible Preferred StockCommon StockTreasury StockAdditional Paid-In CapitalAccumulated Other Comprehen-sive LossAccumulated DeficitTotal
SharesAmountSharesAmountSharesAmount
Balance at December 31, 202045,472,229 $173,074 45,299,339 $1 (1,968,228)$(4,598)$99,783 $(245)$(167,035)$(72,094)
Issuance of common stock under equity incentive plan, net of taxes withheld— — 1,033,806 — — — 3,740 — — 3,740 
Stock-based compensation— — — — — — 6,685 — — 6,685 
Issuance of common stock in connection with initial public offering, net of underwriting discounts and issuance costs— — 16,500,000 1 — — 723,125 — — 723,126 
Conversion of convertible preferred stock to common stock in connection with initial public offering(45,472,229)(173,074)45,472,229 — — — 173,074 — — 173,074 
Conversion of redeemable preferred stock warrants to common stock warrants— — — — — — 13,906 — — 13,906 
Other comprehensive loss— — — — — — — 12 — 12 
Net loss attributable to common stockholders— — — — — — — — (3,339)(3,339)
Balance at March 31, 2021 $ 108,305,374 $2 (1,968,228)$(4,598)$1,020,313 $(233)$(170,374)$845,110 

See accompanying notes to condensed consolidated financial statements
4

DIGITALOCEAN HOLDINGS, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(in thousands)
Three Months Ended March 31,
20222021
Operating activities
Net loss attributable to common stockholders$(18,123)$(3,339)
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash provided by operating activities:
Depreciation and amortization23,933 20,951 
Stock-based compensation25,981 6,624 
Bad debt expense4,023 1,607 
Loss on extinguishment of debt407 3,435 
Net accretion of discounts and amortization on available-for-sale securities(117) 
Non-cash interest expense1,959 205 
Revaluation of warrants (556)
Other623 (335)
Changes in operating assets and liabilities, net of acquisition:
Accounts receivable(6,931)(3,749)
Prepaid expenses and other current assets2,878 2,554 
Accounts payable and accrued expenses(10,535)(7,413)
Deferred revenue422 48 
Other assets and liabilities5,763 (241)
Net cash provided by operating activities30,283 19,791 
Investing activities
Capital expenditures - property and equipment(22,976)(22,398)
Capital expenditures - internal-use software development(2,276)(1,370)
Cash paid for asset acquisition(4,000) 
Purchase of available-for-sale securities(1,091,279) 
Purchased interest on available-for-sale securities(1,530) 
Proceeds from interest on available-for-sale securities649  
Proceeds from sale of equipment457 81 
Net cash used in investing activities(1,120,955)(23,687)
Financing activities
Repayment of notes payable (33,213)
Repayment of term loan (166,814)
Repayment of borrowings under revolving credit facility (63,200)
Payment of debt issuance costs(921) 
Proceeds related to the issuance of common stock under equity incentive plan5,426 3,740 
Employee payroll taxes paid related to net settlement of equity awards(12,384) 
Proceeds from initial public offering, net of underwriting discounts and commissions and other offering costs 723,125 
Repurchase and retirement of common stock(150,000) 
Net cash (used in) provided by financing activities(157,879)463,638 
(Decrease) increase in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash(1,248,551)459,742 
See accompanying notes to condensed consolidated financial statements
5

DIGITALOCEAN HOLDINGS, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(in thousands)
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash - beginning of period1,715,425 102,537 
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash - end of period$466,874 $562,279 
Supplemental disclosures of cash flow information:
Cash paid for interest$92 $2,000 
Cash paid for taxes (net of refunds)1,003 463 
Non-cash investing and financing activities:
Capitalized stock-based compensation$411 $62 
Property and equipment received but not yet paid, included in Accounts payable and Accrued other expenses20,846 18,473 
Costs related to initial public offering included in accounts payable and accrued liabilities 428 
Debt issuance costs included in accounts payable and accrued liabilities297  
See accompanying notes to condensed consolidated financial statements
6

DIGITALOCEAN HOLDINGS, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(in thousands, except share and per share amounts)

Note 1. Nature of the Business and Organization
DigitalOcean Holdings, Inc. and its subsidiaries (collectively, the “Company”, “we”, “our”, “us”) is a leading cloud computing platform offering on-demand infrastructure and platform tools for developers, start-ups and small-to-medium size businesses. The Company was founded with the guiding principle that the transformative benefits of the cloud should be easy to leverage, broadly accessible, reliable and affordable. The Company’s platform simplifies cloud computing, enabling its customers to rapidly accelerate innovation and increase their productivity and agility. The Company offers mission-critical infrastructure solutions across compute, storage and networking, and also enables developers to extend the native capabilities of the Company’s cloud with fully managed application, container and database offerings.
The Company has adopted a holding company structure and the primary operations are performed globally through our wholly-owned operating subsidiaries.
Note 2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation and Principles of Consolidation
The accompanying unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) and include accounts of the Company and all wholly-owned subsidiaries. All intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. In the opinion of management, the condensed consolidated financial statements reflect all adjustments, which include normal recurring adjustments, necessary for a fair statement of the Company’s financial position as of March 31, 2022, results of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, cash flows for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, and stockholders' equity for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of these condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make, on an ongoing basis, estimates, judgments and assumptions that affect the amounts reported and disclosed in the condensed consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Such estimates include, but are not limited to, those related to revenue recognition and allowance for doubtful accounts, useful lives and realizability of long-lived assets, capitalized internal-use software development costs, accounting for stock-based compensation, valuation allowances against deferred tax assets, fair value of marketable securities, the fair value and useful lives of tangible and intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed resulting from business combinations. Management bases its estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions which management believes to be reasonable, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities.
Restricted Cash
Restricted cash includes deposits in financial institutions related to letters of credit used to secure lease agreements. The following table reconciles cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash per the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows:
March 31,
20222021
Cash and cash equivalents$464,836 $560,053 
Restricted cash2,038 2,226 
Total cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash$466,874 $562,279 
Marketable Securities
The Company’s marketable securities consist of commercial paper, U.S. treasury securities and commercial debt securities. The Company determines the appropriate classification of its marketable securities at the time of purchase and reevaluates such designation at each balance sheet date. The Company has classified and accounted for its marketable securities as available-for-sale securities as the Company may sell these securities at any time for use in its current operations or for other purposes, even prior to maturity. As a result, the Company classifies its marketable securities within Current assets on the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets.
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Available-for-sale securities are recorded at fair value each reporting period. Premiums and discounts are amortized or accreted over the life of the related available-for-sale security as an adjustment to yield using the effective interest method. Interest income is recognized when earned. Unrealized gains and losses on these marketable securities are presented net of tax and reported as a separate component of Accumulated other comprehensive loss until realized. Realized gains and losses are determined based on the specific identification method and are reported in Other (income) expense, net in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations.
The Company periodically evaluates its marketable securities to assess whether an investment’s fair value is less than its amortized cost basis and if the decline in the fair value is attributable to a credit loss. Declines in fair value judged to be related to credit loss are reported in Other (income) expense, net in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
Accounts receivable primarily represents revenue recognized that was not invoiced at the balance sheet date and is primarily billed and collected in the following month. Trade accounts receivable are carried at the original invoiced amount less an estimated allowance for doubtful accounts based on the probability of future collection. Management determines the adequacy of the allowance based on historical loss patterns, the number of days that customer invoices are past due and an evaluation of the potential risk of loss associated with specific accounts. When management becomes aware of circumstances that may further decrease the likelihood of collection, it records a specific allowance against amounts due, which reduces the receivable to the amount that management reasonably believes will be collected. The Company records changes in the estimate to the allowance for doubtful accounts through bad debt expense and reverses the allowance after the potential for recovery is considered remote.
The following table presents the changes in our allowance for doubtful accounts for the period presented:
Amount
Balance as of December 31, 2021$4,212 
Bad debt expense, net of recoveries4,023 
Write-offs(3,080)
Balance as of March 31, 2022$5,155 
Deferred Revenue
Deferred revenue was $5,248 and $4,826 as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively. Revenue recognized during the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021 was $1,735 and $1,725, respectively, which was included in each deferred revenue balance at the beginning of each respective period.
Asset Acquisition
The Company applies the principles provided in ASC 805, Business Combinations ("ASC 805") to determine whether a transaction involves an asset or a business. If it is determined an acquisition is an asset acquisition, the purchase consideration (which will include certain transaction costs) is allocated to the acquired assets and liabilities based on their relative fair values.
In March 2022, the Company acquired the assets of the CSS Tricks website (“CSS Tricks”) from Midwest Coast Studios LLC for total purchase consideration of $4,000. The intangible assets will be amortized over 3 to 5 years.
Segment Information
The Company’s chief operating decision maker, the chief executive officer, reviews discrete financial information presented on a consolidated basis for purposes of regularly making operating decisions, allocation of resources, and assessing financial performance. Accordingly, the Company has one operating and reporting segment.
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Geographical Information
Revenue, as determined based on the billing address of the Company’s customers, was as follows:
Three Months Ended March 31,
20222021
North America38 %38 %
Europe29 29 
Asia23 23 
Other10 10 
Total100 %100 %
Revenue derived from customers in the United States was 31% of total revenue for the periods ended March 31, 2022 and 2021.
No country outside of the United States had revenue greater than 10% of total consolidated revenue in any period presented.
Property and equipment located in the United States was 50% as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively, with the remainder of net assets residing in international locations, primarily in the Netherlands, Singapore and Germany.
Concentration of Credit Risk
The amounts reflected in the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets for cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash, and trade accounts receivable are exposed to concentrations of credit risk. Although the Company maintains cash and cash equivalents with multiple financial institutions, the deposits, at times, may exceed federally insured limits. The Company believes that the financial institutions that hold its cash and cash equivalents are financially sound and, accordingly, minimal credit risk exists with respect to these balances.
The Company’s customer base consists of a significant number of geographically dispersed customers. No customer represented 10% or more of accounts receivable, net as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021. Additionally, no customer accounted for 10% or more of total revenue during the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021.
Sublease
Lease termination costs consist of expenses related to future rent payments for which the Company no longer intends to receive any economic benefit. A sublease liability is recorded when the Company ceases to use leased space, which is included as Other current liabilities and Other noncurrent liabilities on the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. Lease termination costs are calculated as the present value of lease payments, net of expected sublease income, and the loss on disposition of assets. The sublease loss is included in General and administrative on the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements – Pending Adoption
The following effective dates represent the requirements for private companies which the Company has elected as an emerging growth company.
In February 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standard Update (“ASU”) 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842), and additional changes, modifications, clarifications, or interpretations related to this guidance thereafter (“ASU 2016-02”). ASU 2016-02 requires a reporting entity to recognize right-of-use assets and lease liabilities on the balance sheet for operating leases to increase transparency and comparability. ASU 2016-02 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022 with early adoption permitted. The Company expects to elect the package of transition practical expedients, which allows it to carry forward its historical assessment of (1) whether contracts are or contain leases, (2) lease classification, and (3) initial direct costs. In addition, the Company expects to elect the practical expedient that allows lessees the option to account for lease and non-lease components together as a single component for all classes of underlying assets.
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The Company has made substantial progress in executing its implementation plan. It is in the process of revising its controls and processes to address the lease standard and has substantially completed the implementation and data input for the lease accounting software tool that it will use post-adoption. ASU 2016-02 also requires expanded disclosure regarding the amounts, timing and uncertainties of cash flows related to a company’s lease portfolio. The Company is evaluating these disclosure requirements and is incorporating the collection of relevant data into its existing financial reporting processes. While the Company expects the adoption of this standard to result in an increase to the reported assets and liabilities, the Company is currently evaluating the impact of adoption on the condensed consolidated financial statements.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, with subsequent amendments, Financial Instruments – Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments (“ASU 2016-13”). ASU 2016-13 requires immediate recognition of management’s estimates of current expected credit losses. ASU 2016-13 is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2022, and interim periods within annual periods beginning after December 15, 2023, with early adoption permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of adoption on the condensed consolidated financial statements.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements – Adopted
In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-12, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes (“ASU 2019-12”). ASU 2019-12 eliminates certain exceptions in FASB Topic 740: Income Taxes (“ASC 740”) related to the approach for intra-period tax allocation, the methodology for calculating income taxes in an interim period, and the recognition of deferred tax liabilities for outside basis differences. It also clarifies and simplifies other aspects of the accounting for income taxes. ASU 2019-12 is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2021, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022, with early adoption permitted. The Company adopted the new standard and there was an immaterial impact to the condensed consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
Note 3. Marketable Securities
The following is a summary of available-for-sale marketable securities, excluding those securities classified within cash and cash equivalents, on the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets as of March 31, 2022. The Company did not hold any available-for-sale marketable securities as of December 31, 2021.
March 31, 2022
Amortized
Cost
Gross Unrealized GainsGross Unrealized LossesFair
Value
U.S. treasury securities$720,546 $ $(1,231)$719,315 
Corporate debt securities35,145  (70)35,075 
Commercial paper336,582 1 (603)335,980 
Total Marketable securities$1,092,273 $1 $(1,904)$1,090,370 
As of March 31, 2022, all of the Company’s available-for-sale short-term investments were due within one year.
The Company does not believe that any unrealized losses are attributable to credit-related factors based on its evaluation of available evidence. To determine whether a decline in value is related to credit loss, the Company evaluates, among other factors: the extent to which the fair value is less than the amortized cost basis, changes to the rating of the security by a rating agency and any adverse conditions specifically related to an issuer of a security or its industry. Unrealized gains and losses on marketable securities are presented net of tax.
Note 4. Fair Value Measurements
The fair value of our financial assets measured on a recurring basis is as follows:
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March 31, 2022
Level ILevel IITotal
Cash and cash equivalents:
Cash$376,909 $ $376,909 
Money market funds7,967  7,967 
Commercial paper 79,96079,960 
Total Cash and cash equivalents$384,876 $79,960 $464,836 
Marketable securities:
U.S. treasury securities$719,315 $ $719,315 
Corporate debt securities 35,07535,075 
Commercial paper 335,980335,980 
Total Marketable securities$719,315 $371,055 $1,090,370 
December 31, 2021
Level ILevel IITotal
Cash and cash equivalents:
Cash$1,093,425 $ $1,093,425 
Commercial paper 269,945 269,945 
Certificate of deposits 350,017 350,017 
Total Cash and cash equivalents$1,093,425 $619,962 $1,713,387 
The Company classifies its highly liquid money market funds and U.S. treasury securities within Level 1 of the fair value hierarchy because they are valued based on quoted market prices in active markets. The Company classifies its commercial paper, corporate debt securities and certificates of deposit within Level 2 because they are valued using inputs other than quoted prices that are directly or indirectly observable in the market, including readily available pricing sources for the identical underlying security which may not be actively traded. The Company had no level 3 financial assets as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021.
Financial Instruments Not Recorded at Fair Value on a Recurring Basis
The Company reports financial instruments at fair value, with the exception of the 0% Convertible Senior Notes due December 1, 2026 (“Convertible Notes”). Financial instruments that are not recorded at fair value on a recurring basis are measured at fair value on a quarterly basis for disclosure purposes. The carrying values and estimated fair values of financial instruments not recorded at fair value are as follows:
March 31, 2022December 31, 2021
Carrying ValueFair ValueCarrying ValueFair Value
Convertible Notes$1,464,525 $1,197,825 $1,462,676 $1,462,676 
The carrying value of the Convertible Notes as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021 was net of unamortized debt issuance costs of $35,475 and $37,324, respectively.
The total fair value of the Convertible Notes was determined based on the closing trading price as of the last day of trading for the period. The Company considers the fair value to be a Level 2 valuation due to the limited trading activity.
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Note 5. Balance Sheet Details
Property and equipment, net
Property and equipment, net consisted of the following:
March 31, 2022December 31, 2021
Computers and equipment$515,557 $487,484 
Furniture and fixtures1,511 1,511 
Leasehold improvements6,820 6,820 
Internal-use software70,889 68,321 
Property and equipment, gross$594,777 $564,136 
Less: accumulated amortization $(52,413)$(49,268)
Less: accumulated depreciation(282,979)(265,225)
Property and equipment, net $259,385 $249,643 
Depreciation expense on property and equipment for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021 was $20,326 and $17,219, respectively.
The Company capitalized costs related to the development of computer software for internal use of $2,687 and $1,432 for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively, which is included in internal-use software costs within Property and equipment, net. Amortization expense related to internal-use software for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021 was $3,145 and $3,657, respectively.
During the three months ended March 31, 2022, the Company recorded an impairment loss of $120 related to software that is no longer being used. There was no such impairment loss recorded for the three months ended March 31, 2021. This impairment loss is included in Cost of revenue and Research and development on the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Note 6. Debt
Credit Facility
In February and March 2020, the Company entered into and subsequently amended a second amended and restated credit agreement with KeyBank National Association as administrative agent. In November 2021, the Company further amended such credit agreement to revise certain covenants that restricted the incurrence of indebtedness to permit the issuance of the convertible notes discussed below. In March 2022, the Company entered into a third amended and restated credit agreement (the “Credit Facility”) to, among other modifications, (i) remove the term loan component of the existing credit facility, which had been previously repaid in full; (ii) increase the maximum borrowing limit of the revolving credit facility from $150,000 to $250,000; (iii) extend the maturity date; (iv) replace the existing maximum total net leverage ratio financial covenant with a maximum senior secured net leverage ratio financial covenant; (v) eliminate the financial covenant requirement of maintaining a minimum debt service coverage ratio; (vi) reduce the interest rates applicable to any principal amounts outstanding on the revolving credit facility as well as the annual commitment fee for unused amounts on the revolving credit facility; and (vii) replace the benchmark reference rate for U.S. Dollar loans from LIBOR to the forward-looking term rate based on the secured overnight financing rate plus a customary adjustment (“Adjusted Term SOFR”).
At March 31, 2022, the Company had available borrowing capacity of $250,000 on the Credit Facility. The Credit Facility will mature on the earlier of (a) March 29, 2027 and (b) 90 days before the maturity date applicable to any outstanding convertible notes issued by the Company in an aggregate principal amount equal to or greater than $100 million.
The Credit Facility is secured by a first-priority security interest in substantially all of the assets of the Company. The Credit Facility contains certain financial and operational covenants, including a maximum senior secured net leverage ratio financial covenant of 3.50x. As of March 31, 2022, the Company was in compliance with all covenants under the Credit Facility.

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The per annum interest rate applicable to any principal amounts outstanding under the Credit Facility for U.S. Dollar loans will be equal to (i) Adjusted Term SOFR plus (ii) an applicable margin varying from 1.25% to 2.00%, subject to a pricing grid based on the senior secured net leverage ratio. The Credit Facility provides for an annual commitment fee varying from 0.20% to 0.30%, also subject to a pricing grid based on the senior secured net leverage ratio, applied to the average daily unused amount of the revolving credit facility. The Company incurred commitment fees on the unused balance of the Credit Facility of $95 and $67 for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively.
In connection with the Credit Facility, the Company incurred $1,218 of additional debt issuance costs which, together with $662 of the then unamortized financing fees, will be amortized over the remaining term of the facility. The Company recognized a loss on extinguishment of debt of $407 for the three months ended March 31, 2022. The loss on extinguishment of debt represent a non-cash adjustment to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities within the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows.
Amortization of deferred financing fees for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021 was $92 and $1,973, respectively.
Convertible Notes
In November 2021, the Company issued $1,500,000 aggregate principal amount of Convertible Notes in a private offering, including the exercise in full of the over-allotment option granted to the initial purchasers of $200,000. The Convertible Notes are senior unsecured obligations of the Company and do not bear regular interest, and the principal amount of the Convertible Notes does not accrete. The Convertible Notes will mature on December 1, 2026 unless earlier converted, redeemed, or repurchased. The net proceeds from this offering were $1,461,795, after deducting underwriting fees, expenses and commissions. Amortization of deferred financing fees for the three months ended March 31, 2022 was $1,868.
Each $1,000 of principal of the Convertible Notes will initially be convertible into 5.6018 shares of the Company’s common stock, which is equivalent to an initial conversion price of approximately $178.51 per share, subject to adjustment as set forth in the indenture governing the Convertible Notes. Holders of these Convertible Notes may convert their Convertible Notes at their option at any time prior to the close of the business day immediately preceding June 1, 2026, only under the following circumstances:
1.during any calendar quarter commencing after the calendar quarter ending on March 31, 2022, if the last reported sale price of the Company’s common stock exceeds 130% of the conversion price for each of at least 20 trading days (whether or not consecutive) during a period of 30 consecutive trading days ending on, and including, the last trading day of the immediately preceding calendar quarter on each applicable trading day;
2.during the five business day period after any ten consecutive trading day period (such ten consecutive trading day period, the “measurement period”) in which the trading price of the Convertible Notes for each trading day of the measurement period was less than 98% of the product of the last reported sale price per share of the common stock on such trading day and the conversion rate on such trading day;
3.if the Company calls such Convertible Notes for redemption, at any time prior to the close of business on the business day immediately preceding the redemption date;
4.upon the occurrence of specified corporate events or distributions on the common stock.
On or after June 1, 2026 until the close of business on the scheduled trading day immediately preceding the maturity date, holders may convert all or any portion of their Convertible Notes at the option of the holder regardless of the foregoing circumstances.
Upon conversion of the Convertible Notes, the Company will pay or deliver, as the case may be, cash, shares of common stock or a combination of cash and shares of common stock, at the Company’s election. It is the Company's current intent to settle the principal amount of the Convertible Notes with common stock.
The Company may redeem for cash all or any portion of the Convertible Notes, at its option, on or after December 2, 2024 and on or before the 25th scheduled trading day immediately before the maturity date, if the last reported sale price per share of the Company’s common stock exceeds 130% of the conversion price then in effect on each of at least 20 trading days (whether or not consecutive) during the 30 consecutive trading days ending on, and including, the trading day immediately preceding the date on which the Company provides a notice of redemption at a redemption
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price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the Convertible Notes to be redeemed, plus any accrued and unpaid special interest and additional interest, if any, to, but excluding, the redemption date.
Upon the occurrence of a fundamental change (as defined in the indenture governing the Convertible Notes), subject to certain conditions, holders may require the Company to repurchase all or a portion of the Convertible Notes for cash at a price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the Convertible Notes to be repurchased, plus any accrued and unpaid special interest and additional interest, if any, to, but excluding, the fundamental change repurchase date.
Note 7. Operating Leases
The Company leases data center facilities and office space under generally non-cancelable operating lease agreements, which expire at various dates through 2027. Facility leases generally include renewal options and may include escalating rental payment provisions. Additionally, the leases may require us to pay a portion of the related operating expenses. Rent expense related to these operating leases for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021 was $12,409, and $11,990, respectively.
In March 2022, the Company entered into a separate sublease agreement related to its New York office space. As defined within the lease and sublease agreements, the Company remains primarily liable to the landlord for the performance of all obligations in the event that the sublessee does not perform its obligations under the lease. As a result of the sublease arrangement, future minimum rental commitments under operating leases will be offset by sublease amounts to be paid by the sublessee. The Company recognized a loss on the sublease of $788 for the three months ended March 31, 2022. The total of minimum sublease amounts to be received in the future under non-cancelable subleases is $3,184 as of March 31, 2022.
Future minimum rental payments under operating lease agreements, which included renewals and modifications as of March 31, 2022, were as follows:
2022 (nine months remaining)$36,432 
202339,509 
202440,166 
202511,553 
20268,610 
Thereafter2,435 
Total minimum operating lease payments$138,705 
Note 8. Commitments and Contingencies
Purchase Commitments
As of March 31, 2022, the Company had long-term commitments for bandwidth usage with various networks and internet service providers and entered into purchase orders with various vendors. The Company’s purchase commitments have not materially changed since December 31, 2021.
Letters of Credit
In conjunction with the execution of certain office space operating leases, letters of credit in the aggregate amount of $2,038 were issued and outstanding as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021. No draws have been made under such letters of credit. These funds are included as Restricted cash on the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets as they are related to long-term operating leases and are included in beginning and ending Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows. Certain of the letters of credit can be reduced on an annual basis until the end of 2022, at which point the deposit required will similarly reduce to meet minimum threshold requirements.
Legal Proceedings
The Company may be involved in various legal proceedings and litigation arising in the ordinary course of business. While it is not feasible to predict or determine the ultimate disposition of any such litigation matters, the Company believes that any such legal proceedings will not have a material adverse effect on its condensed consolidated financial position, results of operations, or liquidity.
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Note 9. Stockholders’ Equity
Common Stock
The Company’s amended and restated certificate of incorporation authorizes the issuance of common and preferred stock. Holders of common stock are entitled to one vote per share.
As of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, the Company was authorized to issue 750,000,000 shares of common stock with a par value of $0.000025 per share.
Preferred Stock
In connection with the IPO, the Company's amended and restated certificate of incorporation became effective, which authorized the issuance of 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock with a par value of $0.000025 per share with rights and preferences, including voting rights, designated from time to time by the Company's Board of Directors. No shares of preferred stock were issued or outstanding as of March 31, 2022 or December 31, 2021.
Share Buyback Program
On February 23, 2022, the Company's Board of Directors approved the repurchase of up to an aggregate of $300,000 of the Company’s common stock (the “Program”). Pursuant to the Program, repurchases of the Company's common stock will be made at prevailing market prices through open market purchases or in negotiated transactions off the market. The Program is authorized throughout fiscal year 2022; however, the Company is not obligated to acquire any particular amount of common stock and the Program may be extended, modified, suspended or discontinued at any time at the Company’s discretion.
During the three months ended March 31, 2022 and since the commencement of the Program, the Company repurchased and retired 2,577,471 shares of common stock at an average price of $58.20 per share for an aggregate purchase price of $150,000. All purchased shares were retired and are reflected as a reduction of Common stock for the par value of shares, with the excess applied to Additional paid-in capital. As of March 31, 2022, the dollar value of shares that remained available to be purchased by the Company under the Program was $150,000.
Treasury Stock
The Company records treasury stock at the cost to acquire shares and is included as a component of Stockholders’ equity. At March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, the Company had 1,968,228 shares of treasury stock which were carried at its cost basis of $4,598 on the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets.
Note 10. Stock-Based Compensation
Equity Incentive Plan
In March 2021, the Company’s Board of Directors adopted, and the stockholders approved, the 2021 Equity Incentive Plan. The 2021 Equity Incentive Plan is a successor to and continuation of the 2013 Stock Plan. The 2021 Equity Incentive Plan became effective on the date of the IPO with no further grants being made under the 2013 Stock Plan, however, awards outstanding under our 2013 Stock Plan will continue to be governed by their existing terms. The 2021 Equity Incentive Plan provides for the grant of incentive stock options, nonstatutory stock options, stock appreciation rights, restricted stock awards, restricted stock units awards (“RSUs”), performance awards, and other awards to employees, directors, and consultants up to an aggregate of 36,290,381 shares of common stock as of March 31, 2022. Shares issued pursuant to the exercise of these awards are transferable by the holder.
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Stock Options
Stock options granted have a maximum term of ten years from the grant date, are exercisable upon vesting and vest over a period of four years. Stock option activity for the three months ended March 31, 2022 was as follows:
Number of Options OutstandingWeighted-Average Exercise PriceWeighted-Average Remaining Life in YearsAggregate Intrinsic Value
Outstanding at January 1, 202212,434,159 $7.19 7.64$909,494 
Exercised(997,561)5.44 
Forfeited or cancelled(201,916)6.75 
Outstanding at March 31, 202211,234,682 7.35 7.39567,373 
Vested and exercisable at March 31, 20226,097,743 6.11 7.01315,509 
Vested and unvested expected to vest at March 31, 20229,889,941 $7.01 7.31$502,800 
The aggregate intrinsic value represents the difference between the fair value of common stock and the exercise price of outstanding in-the-money options. The aggregate intrinsic value of exercised options for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021 was $54,392 and $39,650, respectively.
No options were granted during the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021. The aggregate estimated fair value of stock options granted to participants that vested during the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021 was $4,698 and $4,998, respectively.
As of March 31, 2022, there was $25,853 of unrecognized stock-based compensation expense related to outstanding stock options granted that is expected to be recognized over a weighted-average period of 2.23 years.
RSUs
RSUs granted vest over four years. RSU activity for the three months ended March 31, 2022 was as follows:
SharesWeighted-Average Fair Value
Unvested balance at January 1, 20223,334,137 $45.74 
Granted1,119,024 52.39 
Vested(454,639)42.83 
Forfeited or cancelled(60,762)45.26 
Unvested balance at March 31, 20223,937,760 47.97 
Vested and expected to vest at March 31, 20222,437,477 $47.96 
As of March 31, 2022, there was $105,405 of unrecognized stock-based compensation expense related to outstanding RSUs granted that is expected to be recognized over a weighted-average period of 3.27 years.
PRSUs
The Company issued performance-based restricted stock units (“PRSUs”) which will vest based on the achievement of each award’s established performance targets. PRSU activity for the three months ended March 31, 2022 was as follows:
SharesWeighted-Average Fair Value
Unvested balance at January 1, 2022578,949 $48.04 
Granted436,387 60.72 
Vested(103,059)41.24 
Forfeited or cancelled(30,497)41.24 
Adjusted by performance factor(89,769)41.24 
Unvested balance at March 31, 2022792,011 $56.94 
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At the end of each reporting period, the Company will adjust compensation expense for the PRSUs based on its best estimate of attainment of the below specified performance metrics. The cumulative effect on current and prior periods of a change in the estimated number of PRSUs that are expected to be earned during the performance period will be recognized as an adjustment to earnings in the period of the revision.
Compensation cost in connection with the probable number of shares that will vest will be recognized using the accelerated attribution method. As of March 31, 2022, the Company determined that it was probable that the LTIP PRSUs and the other PRSU awards would vest, resulting in $14,606 of unrecognized stock-based compensation that is expected to be recognized over a weighted-average period of 1.5 years.
LTIP PRSUs
The Company grants LTIP PRSUs to certain executives of the Company during the first fiscal quarter. A percentage of the LTIP PRSUs will become eligible to vest based on the Company’s financial performance level at the end of each fiscal year. The financial performance level is determined as the percentage equal to the sum of the revenue growth percentage and profitability percentage.
The number of LTIP PRSUs received will depend on the achievement of financial metrics relative to the approved performance targets. Depending on the actual financial metrics achieved relative to the target financial metrics throughout the defined performance period of the award, the number of LTIP PRSUs that vest could range from 0% to 200% of the target amount, and are subject to the Board of Director’s approval of the level of achievement against the approved performance targets.
Assuming the minimum performance target is achieved, one-third of the aggregate number of the LTIP PRSUs shall vest on the later of (i) March 1 or (ii) two trading days following the public release of the Company’s financial results, and the remainder shall vest in eight equal quarterly installments subject, in each case, to the individual’s continuous service through the applicable vesting.
On February 24, 2022, the financial performance of the LTIP PRSUs granted in 2021 was determined to be achieved at 155% of the target amount. This resulted in a performance factor reduction of 89,769 shares from the original maximum shares achievable of 398,949. On March 1, 2022, 103,059 shares vested. With respect to the LTIP award granted in 2021, as of March 31, 2022, there were 30,497 shares that had been forfeited and the remaining 175,624 shares will vest quarterly through March 1, 2024.
On March 1, 2022, the Company granted an LTIP PRSU award with a maximum shares achievable of 436,387, subject to the above actual financial metrics achieved relative to the target financial metrics for fiscal year 2022.
Other PRSUs
In addition to the above awards, certain other PRSUs have been awarded subject to other various performance measures including the achievement of revenue targets and product launches.
MRSUs
On July 27, 2021, the Company’s Board of Directors granted a market-based restricted stock unit (“MRSU”) award for 3,000,000 shares of the Company’s common stock to the Company’s Chief Executive Officer, Yancey Spruill, which will vest upon the satisfaction of certain service conditions and the achievement of certain Company stock price goals, as described below.
The MRSU, which is estimated to have a grant date fair value of approximately $75,300 derived by using a discrete model based on multiple stock price-paths developed through the use of a Monte Carlo simulation, is divided into five tranches that will be earned based on the achievement of stock price goals, measured based on the average of the Company’s closing stock price over a consecutive ninety (90) trading day period during the performance period as set forth in the table below.
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TrancheCompany Stock Price TargetNumber of Eligible MRSUs
1$93.50475,000
2$140.00575,000
3$187.00650,000
4$233.50650,000
5$280.50650,000
To the extent earned based on the stock price targets set forth above, the MRSU will vest over a seven-year period beginning on the date of grant in annual amounts equal to 14%, 14%, 14%, 14%, 14%, 15% and 15%, respectively, on each anniversary of the date of grant.
MRSU activity for the three months ended March 31, 2022 was as follows:
SharesWeighted-Average Fair Value
Unvested balance at January 1, 20223,000,000 $25.12 
Granted  
Unvested balance at March 31, 20223,000,000 $25.12 
As of March 31, 2022, there was $63,540 of unrecognized stock-based compensation related to the MRSUs granted that is expected to be recognized over a weighted-average period of 4.17 years.
ESPP
In March 2021, the Company’s Board of Directors adopted, and the stockholders approved, the 2021 Employee Stock Purchase Plan (“ESPP”). The ESPP provides for the grant of up to an aggregate of 3,272,076 shares of common stock as of March 31, 2022.
The initial offering period commenced on the IPO date and consists of two purchase periods, the first of which had a purchase date of November 19, 2021 and the second and final purchase period will have a purchase date of May 20, 2022. After the end of the initial offering period, a new offering will automatically begin on the date that immediately follows the conclusion of the preceding offering. Eligible employees enroll in the offering period at the start of each purchase period, whereby they may purchase a number of shares at a price per share equal to 85% of the lesser of (1) the stock price at the employee’s first participation in the offering period or (2) the fair market value of the Company’s common stock on the purchase date.
There were 117,996 shares purchased by employees during the year ended December 31, 2021, net of shares withheld for taxes. As of March 31, 2022, 3,154,080 shares of common stock remain available for issuance under the ESPP.
The Company recorded stock-based compensation under this plan of $1,361 for the three months ended March 31, 2022. No stock-based compensation was recorded for the three months ended March 31, 2021. As of March 31, 2022, $4,230 has been withheld on behalf of employees.
Restricted Shares
In connection with our acquisition of Nimbella, we issued 200,204 shares of restricted stock for $63.11 per share for a total value of $12,635 to the founders of Nimbella. These shares vest equally on March 1, 2023 and September 1, 2024 and are expensed on a straight line basis over 36 months. The restricted stock is subject to forfeiture and dependent upon each founder’s continuous service on the vesting date. Total stock-based compensation for the three months ended March 31, 2022 was $1,053. No stock compensation was recorded for the three months ended March 31, 2021. As of March 31, 2022, there was $10,191 of unrecognized stock-based compensation related to outstanding restricted shares granted that is expected to be recognized over a weighted-average period of 2.45 years.
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Stock-Based Compensation
Stock-based compensation was included in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations as follows:
Three Months Ended March 31,
20222021
Cost of revenue$432 $196 
Research and development9,720 2,636 
Sales and marketing3,346 1,137 
General and administrative12,483 2,655 
Total$25,981 $6,624 
Note 11. Net Loss per Share Attributable to Common Stockholders
The following table presents the calculation of basic and diluted net loss per share:
Three Months Ended March 31,
20222021
Numerator:
Net loss attributable to common stockholders$(18,123)$(3,339)
Denominator:
Weighted average shares, in thousands, used to compute net loss per share, basic and diluted106,980 49,432 
Net loss per share attributable to common stockholders, basic and diluted$(0.17)$(0.07)
Potentially dilutive securities that were not included in the diluted per share calculations because they would be anti-dilutive were as follows:
March 31,
20222021
Warrants 308,632 
Stock Options11,234,682 15,712,369 
RSUs3,937,760 2,063,088 
PRSUs792,011  
MRSU3,000,000  
ESPP125,524  
Convertible Notes8,402,700  
Total27,492,677 18,084,089 
Note 12. Income Taxes
The computation of the provision for or benefit from income taxes for interim periods is determined by applying the estimated annual effective tax rate to year-to-date income (loss) before tax and adjusting for discrete tax items recorded in the period, if any.
For the three months ended March 31, 2022, the Company recorded a tax expense of $3,338. The effective tax rate for the three months ended March 31, 2022 was (22.6)%. The effective tax rate differs from the statutory rate primarily as a result of not recognizing deferred tax assets for U.S. losses due to a full valuation allowance against the U.S. deferred tax assets, and excess tax benefits from stock-based compensation.
For the three months ended March 31, 2021, the Company recorded a tax expense of $996. The effective tax rate for the three months ended March 31, 2021 was (42.5)%. The effective tax rate differs from the statutory rate primarily as a result of not recognizing deferred tax assets for U.S. losses due to a full valuation allowance against the U.S. deferred tax assets, and excess tax benefits from stock-based compensation.
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The provision for income taxes consists primarily of income taxes related to international jurisdictions in which the Company conducts business. Based on the available supporting evidence, including the amount and timing of future taxable income, the Company has concluded that it is more likely than not that a significant portion of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. As such, the Company maintains a full valuation allowance on its U.S. deferred tax assets.
For the three months ended March 31, 2022, uncertain tax positions recorded by the Company resulted in an expense of $83. For the three months ended March 31, 2021, uncertain tax positions recorded by the Company resulted in an expense of $68. To the extent the remaining uncertain tax positions are ultimately recognized, the Company’s effective tax rate may be impacted in future periods. The Company’s policy is to recognize interest and penalties related to uncertain tax positions in income tax expense.
ITEM 2. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and related notes appearing elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and our audited consolidated financial statements and the related notes and the discussion under the heading “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021, filed with the SEC on February 25, 2022. This discussion, particularly information with respect to our future results of operations or financial condition, business strategy, plans and objectives of management for future operations and the potential impact that the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic may have on our business, includes forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties as described under the heading “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.
Overview
DigitalOcean is a leading cloud computing platform offering on-demand infrastructure and platform tools for developers, start-ups and small and medium-sized businesses, or SMBs. We were founded with the guiding principle that the transformative benefits of the cloud should be easy to leverage, broadly accessible, reliable and affordable. Our platform simplifies cloud computing, enabling our customers to rapidly accelerate innovation and increase their productivity and agility. As of March 31, 2022, we had approximately 623,000 individual and business customers using our platform to build, deploy and scale software applications. Our users include software engineers, researchers, data scientists, system administrators, students and hobbyists. Our customers use our platform across numerous industry verticals and for a wide range of use cases, such as web and mobile applications, website hosting, e-commerce, media and gaming, personal web projects, and managed services, among many others. We believe that our focus on simplicity, community, open source and customer support are the four key differentiators of our business, driving a broad range of customers around the world to build their applications on our platform.
Improving the developer experience and increasing developer productivity are core to our mission. Our developer cloud platform was designed with simplicity in mind to ensure that software developers can spend less time managing their infrastructure and more time turning their ideas into innovative applications to grow their businesses. Simplicity guides how we design and enhance our easy-to-use-interface, the core capabilities we offer our customers and our approach to predictable and transparent pricing for our solutions. We offer mission-critical infrastructure solutions across compute, storage and networking, and we also enable developers to extend the native capabilities of our cloud with fully managed application, container and database offerings. In just minutes, developers can set up thousands of virtual machines, secure their projects, enable performance monitoring and scale up and down as needed. Our pricing is consumption-based and billed monthly in arrears, making it easy for our customers to track usage on an ongoing basis and optimize their deployments.
We generate revenue from the usage of our cloud computing platform by our customers, including but not limited to compute, storage and networking services. We recognize revenue based on the customer utilization of these resources. Our pricing is consumption-based and billed monthly in arrears, making it easy for our customers to track usage on an ongoing basis and optimize their deployments. The pricing for each of our products is available on our website.
We have historically generated almost all of our revenue from our efficient self-service customer acquisition model, which we complement with a targeted sales force focused on inside sales, outside sales and partnership opportunities to drive revenue growth. Our model enables customers to get started on our platform very quickly and without the need for assistance. We focus heavily on enabling a self-service, low-friction model that makes it easy for users to try, adopt and use our products. For the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, our sales and marketing expense
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was approximately 15% and 11% of our revenue, respectively. The efficiency of our go-to-market model and our focus on the needs of the individual and SMB markets have enabled us to drive organic growth and establish a truly global customer base across a broad range of industries.
We had approximately 623,000 customers as of March 31, 2022, up from approximately 585,000 as of March 31, 2021. We have a growing number of customers with higher spending levels and these larger customers are expanding their business with us at a faster rate than our overall customer base. We had approximately 102,000 customers paying more than $50 per month as of March 31, 2022, up from approximately 85,000 as of March 31, 2021. Total customer growth for the quarter ended March 31, 2022 was approximately 6% as compared to the quarter ended March 31, 2021, while customers paying more than $50 per month for the quarter ended March 31, 2022 grew 20% as compared to the quarter ended March 31, 2021.
Our customers are spread across over 185 countries and approximately two-thirds of our revenue has historically come from customers located outside the United States. For the three months ended March 31, 2022, 38% of our revenue was generated from North America, 29% from Europe, 23% from Asia and 10% from the rest of the world. Revenue from customers paying more than $50 per month as a percentage of total revenue grew from 80% in the quarter ended March 31, 2021 to 84% in the quarter ended March 31, 2022.
Our average revenue per customer, or ARPU, has increased significantly from $53.68 in the quarter ended March 31, 2021 to $68.90 in the quarter ended March 31, 2022. We had no material customer concentration as our top 25 customers made up approximately 11% and 10% of our revenue in the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. We have experienced strong and predictable growth in recent periods. Our annual run-rate revenue, or ARR, as of March 31, 2022 was $524 million, up from $388 million as of March 31, 2021. ARR as of the end of each month represents total revenue for that month multiplied by 12.
Impact of Russia-Ukraine Conflict
In February 2022, Russian military forces invaded Ukraine. In response, Ukrainian military personnel and civilians are actively resisting the invasion and a variety of responsive economic sanctions and export controls measures aimed at Russia, Belarus, and certain regions of Ukraine have been imposed by countries and governmental bodies around the world, including the United States and the European Union. These measures prohibit or restrict dealings with certain entities and individuals, including banks and financial institutions, in the target countries and territories.
We are committed to conducting our activities in compliance with applicable sanctions laws and regulations issued by countries in which we do business. We do not currently have employees or direct operations in Russia, Belarus or Ukraine, nor do we engage in activities with sanctioned parties; however, certain of our customers conduct business in these countries and regions. Recent sanction measures, including those targeting major Russian banks and financial institutions and the removal of certain Russian banks from the SWIFT messaging system, have impacted our ability to receive payments involving parties located in Russia. As of the three months ended March 31, 2022, aggregate revenue from our customers with business activities in Russia, Belarus and Ukraine was approximately 3.5% of our total revenue. As the situation continues to evolve, further sanctions actions may be forthcoming and could continue to impact the revenues received from certain customers.
The full impact of the conflict on our business operations and financial performance remains uncertain and will depend on future developments, including the severity and duration of the conflict and its impact on our customers and third-party providers, as well as regional and global economic conditions. We will continue to monitor and assess the situation and pursue prudent decisions for our team members, customers, and business.
For additional information, refer to Part II, Item 1A—Risk Factors of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.
Key Factors Affecting Our Performance
Increasing Importance of Cloud Computing and Developers
Our future success depends in large part on the continuing adoption of cloud computing, proliferation of cloud-native start-ups and SMBs and the increasing importance of developers, all of which are driving the adoption of our developer cloud platform. We believe our market opportunity is large and that these factors will continue to drive our growth. We plan to continue to invest significantly in scaling across many organizational functions in order to grow our operations both domestically and internationally to capitalize on these trends.
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Growing our Customer Base
We believe there is a substantial opportunity to further expand our customer base, and our future growth depends, in large part, on our ability to increase the number of customers using our cloud computing platform. We have historically attracted customers by offering a low-friction, self-service cloud platform combined with a highly-efficient self-service marketing model. We are investing in strategies that we believe will continue to drive new customer adoption, especially among SMB customers, such as implementing new marketing initiatives that further optimize our self-service revenue funnel and expanding our go-to market teams in select international locations. Our ability to attract new customers will depend on a number of factors, including our success in recruiting and expanding our sales and marketing organization and competitive dynamics in our target markets.
Increasing Usage by Our Existing Customers
Our customer base of approximately 623,000 customers represents a significant opportunity for further consumption of our services. There are substantial opportunities to expand revenue within our large customer base through increased usage of our platform as our customers grow their businesses, adoption of additional product offerings and targeted sales initiatives focused on our larger customers. Our consumption-based pricing model makes it frictionless for customers to increase their usage of our platform as they require more compute and storage as they grow and scale. We have also expanded the breadth of our platform offerings and will continue to do so as we have experienced strong adoption of recently developed products. To accelerate this growth across our larger customers, we complement our self-service marketing model with internal go-to-market teams that are specifically focused on expanding our business with our larger customers. Our ability to increase the usage of our platform by existing customers will depend on a number of factors, including our customers’ satisfaction with our platform and product offerings, competition, pricing and overall changes in our customers’ spending levels.
Enhancing Our Platform and Product Offerings
We believe the market opportunity for serving developers, start-ups and SMBs is very large and goes far beyond providing the core IaaS services of compute, storage and networking. We have a history of, and will continue to invest significantly in, developing and delivering innovative products, features and functionality targeted at our core customer base. In addition, while we have not been focused on acquisition opportunities to drive our growth, we may pursue both strategic partnerships and acquisitions that we believe will be complementary to our business, accelerate customer acquisition, increase usage of our platform and/or expand our product offerings in our core markets. Our results of operations may fluctuate as we make these investments to drive usage and take advantage of our expansive market opportunity.
Key Business Metrics
We utilize the key metrics set forth below to help us evaluate our business and growth, identify trends, formulate financial projections and make strategic decisions. We are not aware of any uniform standards for calculating these key metrics, and other companies may not calculate similarly titled metrics in a consistent manner, which may hinder comparability.
Three Months Ended March 31,
20222021
Customers622,749 585,466 
Customers paying more than $50 per month102,426 85,154 
ARPU$68.90 $53.68 
ARR (in millions)$524 $388 
Net dollar retention rate117 %107 %
Customers
We believe that the number of customers is an important indicator of the growth of our business and future revenue opportunity. We define a customer at the end of any period as a person or entity who has incurred usage in the period and, as a result, has generated an invoice of greater than $0 for that period. We treat each customer that generates an invoice as a unique customer, and a single organization with multiple divisions, segments or subsidiaries may be counted as multiple customers if they separately signed up on our platform.
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The number and growth of our larger customers is of particular importance to us as these customers represent a significant majority of our revenue and revenue growth, and they are more representative of the SMB customers that grow on our platform and use multiple products. We define customers paying more than $50 per month as customers having generated an invoice of greater than $50 for that period.
ARPU
We believe that our average revenue per customer, which we refer to as ARPU, is a strong indication of our ability to land new customers with higher spending levels and expand usage of our platform by our existing customers. We calculate ARPU on a monthly basis as our total revenue in that period divided by the number of customers determined as of the last day of that period. For a quarterly or annual period, ARPU is determined as the weighted average monthly ARPU over such three or 12-month period.
ARR
Given the renewable nature of our business, we view annual run-rate revenue as an important indicator of our current progress towards meeting our revenue targets and projected growth rate going forward. We calculate ARR at a point in time by multiplying the latest monthly period’s revenue by 12.
Net Dollar Retention Rate
Our ability to maintain long-term revenue growth and achieve profitability is dependent on our ability to retain and grow revenue from our existing customers. We have a history of retaining customers for multiple years and in many cases increasing their spend with us over time. To help us measure our performance in this area, we monitor our net dollar retention rate. We calculate net dollar retention rate monthly by starting with the revenue from the cohort of all customers during the corresponding month 12 months prior, or the Prior Period Revenue. We then calculate the revenue from these same customers as of the current month, or the Current Period Revenue, including any expansion and net of any contraction or attrition from these customers over the last 12 months. The calculation also includes revenue from customers that generated revenue before, but not in, the corresponding month 12 months prior, but subsequently generated revenue in the current month and are therefore reflected in the Current Period Revenue. We include this group of re-engaged customers in this calculation because our customers frequently use our platform for projects that stop and start over time. We then divide the total Current Period Revenue by the total Prior Period Revenue to arrive at the net dollar retention rate for the relevant month. For a quarterly or annual period, the net dollar retention rate is determined as the average monthly net dollar retention rates over such three or 12-month period.
Components of Results of Operations
Revenue
We provide cloud computing services, including but not limited to compute, storage and networking, to our customers. We recognize revenue based on the customer utilization of these resources. Customer contracts are primarily month-to-month and do not include any minimum guaranteed quantities or fees. Fees are billed monthly, and payment is typically due upon invoicing. Revenue is recognized net of allowances for credits and any taxes collected from customers, which are subsequently remitted to governmental authorities. We may offer sales incentives in the form of promotional and referral credits and grant credits to encourage customers to use our services. These types of promotional and referral credits typically expire in two months or less if not used. For credits earned with a purchase, they are recorded as contract liabilities when earned and recognized at the earlier of redemption or expiration. The majority of credits are redeemed in the month they are earned.
Cost of Revenue
Cost of revenue consists primarily of fees related to operating in third-party co-location facilities, personnel expenses for those directly supporting our data centers and non-personnel costs, including amortization of capitalized internal-use software development costs and depreciation of our data center equipment. Third-party co-location facility costs include data center rental fees, power costs, maintenance fees, network and bandwidth. Personnel expenses include salaries, bonuses, benefits, and stock-based compensation.
We intend to continue to invest additional resources in our infrastructure to support our product portfolio and scalability of our customer base. The level, timing and relative investment in our infrastructure could affect our cost of revenue in the future.
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Operating Expenses
Research and Development Expenses
Research and development expenses consist primarily of personnel costs including salaries, bonuses, benefits and stock-based compensation. Research and development expenses also include amortization of capitalized internal-use software development costs for research and development activities, which are amortized over three years, and professional services, as well as costs related to our efforts to add new features to our existing offerings, develop new offerings, and ensure the security, performance, and reliability of our global cloud platform. We expect research and development expenses to increase in absolute dollars as we continue to invest in our platform and product offerings.
Sales and Marketing Expenses
Sales and marketing expenses consist primarily of personnel costs of our sales, marketing and customer support employees including salaries, bonuses, benefits and stock-based compensation. Sales and marketing expenses also include costs for marketing programs, advertising and professional service fees. We expect sales and marketing expenses to continue to increase in absolute dollars as we enhance our product offerings and implement new marketing strategies.
General and Administrative Expenses
General and administrative expenses consist primarily of personnel costs of our human resources, legal, finance, and other administrative functions including salaries, bonuses, benefits, and stock-based compensation. General and administrative expenses also include bad debt expense, software, payment processing fees, business insurance, depreciation and amortization expenses, rent and facilities costs, loss on sublease, and other administrative costs. We expect to incur significant additional legal, accounting and other expenses to support our operations as a public company, including costs associated with our compliance with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. We also expect general and administrative expenses to increase in absolute dollars as we continue to grow our business.
Other (Income) Expense
Other (income) expense consists primarily of interest expense on our existing credit facility and third-party equipment financing, loss on extinguishment of debt, accretion/amortization of premium/discounts of our available-for-sale investments, and gains or losses on foreign currency exchange.
Income Tax Expense
Income tax expense consists primarily of income taxes in certain foreign and state jurisdictions in which we conduct business. We maintain a full valuation allowance on our U.S. federal and state deferred tax assets as we have concluded that it is more likely than not that the deferred assets will not be realized.
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Results of Operations
The following table sets forth our results of operations for the periods presented:
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20222021
(in thousands)
Revenue$127,327 $93,661 
Cost of revenue(1)
46,757 39,544 
Gross profit80,570 54,117 
Operating expenses:
Research and development(1)
37,241