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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 20-F

 

(Mark One)

 

REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(B) OR 12(G) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

OR

 

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(D) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the fiscal year ended June 30, 2022

 

OR

 

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(D) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

OR

 

SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(D) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

Date of event requiring this shell company report

 

For the transition period from             to              

 

Commission file number 001-38304

 

Dogness (International) Corporation

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

 

British Virgin Islands

(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

 

Tongsha Industrial Estate, East District

Dongguan, Guangdong 523217

People’s Republic of China

(Address of principal executive offices)

 

Dr. Yunhao Chen, Chief Financial Officer

Telephone: +1 214 463 6268

yunhaochen@dogness.com

Tongsha Industrial Estate, East District

Dongguan, Guangdong 523217

People’s Republic of China

 

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class   Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Shares, $0.002 par value per share   NASDAQ Global Market

 

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

 

Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act: None

 

Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report: 20,555,814 Class A Common Shares (not including 490,000 Class A Common Shares underlying options granted to management and a consultant, of which 483,341 options have vested as of the date of this report) and 9,069,000 Class B Common Shares.

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.

 

☐ Yes ☒ No

 

If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

 

☐ Yes ☒ No

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.

 

Yes ☐ No

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).

 

Yes ☐ No

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company. See definition of “large accelerated filer, “accelerated filer,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer ☐   Accelerated filer ☐   Non-accelerated filer
        Emerging growth company

 

If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

 

† The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.

 

Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:

 

U.S. GAAP  

International Financial Reporting Standards as issued

by the International Accounting Standards Board ☐

  Other ☐

 

If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow.

 

☐ Item 17 ☐ Item 18

 

If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934).

 

☐ Yes ☒ No

 

(APPLICABLE ONLY TO ISSUERS INVOLVED IN BANKRUPTCY PROCEEDINGS DURING THE PAST FIVE YEARS)

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed all documents and reports required to be filed by Sections 12, 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 subsequent to the distribution of securities under a plan confirmed by a court.

 

☐ Yes ☐ No

 

 

 

 
 

 

Table of Contents

 

Part I 1
Item 1. Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers 1
Item 2. Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable 1
Item 3. Key Information 1
Item 4. Information on the Company 47
Item 4A. Unresolved Staff Comments 66
Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects 66
Item 6. Directors, Senior Management and Employees 92
Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions 113
Item 8. Financial Information 117
Item 9. The Offer and Listing 118
Item 10. Additional Information 118
Item 11. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk 125
Item 12. Description of Securities Other than Equity Securities 126
Part II 126
Item 13. Defaults, Dividend Arrearages and Delinquencies 126
Item 14. Material Modifications to the Rights of Securities Holders and Use of Proceeds 126
Item 15. Controls and Procedures 126
Item 16. [Reserved] 127
Item 16A. Audit Committee Financial Expert 127
Item 16B. Code of Ethics 127
Item 16C. Principal Accountant Fees and Services 127
Item 16D. Exemptions from the Listing Standards for Audit Committees 128
Item 16E. Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers 128
Item 16F. Change in Registrant’s Certifying Accountant 128
Item 16G. Corporate Governance 128
Item 16H. Mine Safety Disclosure 129
Part III. 130
Item 17. Financial Statements 130
Item 18. Financial Statements 130
Item 19. Exhibits 130

 

 
 

 

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

Statements in this annual report with respect to the Company’s current plans, estimates, strategies and beliefs and other statements that are not historical facts are forward-looking statements about the future performance of the Company. Forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, those statements using words such as “believe,” “expect,” “plans,” “strategy,” “prospects,” “forecast,” “estimate,” “project,” “anticipate,” “aim,” “intend,” “seek,” “may,” “might,” “could” or “should,” and words of similar meaning in connection with a discussion of future operations, financial performance, events or conditions. From time to time, oral or written forward-looking statements may also be included in other materials released to the public. These statements are based on management’s assumptions, judgments and beliefs in light of the information currently available to it. The Company cautions investors that a number of important risks and uncertainties could cause actual results to differ materially from those discussed in the forward-looking statements, including but not limited to, our ability to continue as a going concern, product and service demand and acceptance, changes in technology, economic conditions, the impact of competition and pricing, government regulation, and other risks contained in reports filed by the company with the Securities and Exchange Commission. Therefore, investors should not place undue reliance on such forward-looking statements. Actual results may differ significantly from those set forth in the forward-looking statements.

 

All such forward-looking statements, whether written or oral, and whether made by or on behalf of the company, are expressly qualified by the cautionary statements and any other cautionary statements which may accompany the forward-looking statements. In addition, the company disclaims any obligation to update any forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date hereof.

 

 
 

 

Part I

 

Item 1. Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers

 

Not applicable for annual reports on Form 20-F.

 

Item 2. Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable

 

Not applicable for annual reports on Form 20-F.

 

Item 3. Key Information

 

A. Selected Financial Data

 

In the table below, we provide you with historical selected financial data for the fiscal years ended June 30, 2022, 2021, and 2020. This information is derived from our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this annual report. Historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for any future period. When you read this historical selected financial data, it is important that you read it along with the historical financial statements and related notes and “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” included elsewhere in this annual report. Our audited consolidated financial statements are prepared and presented in accordance with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in the United States of America, or U.S. GAAP.

 

   For Fiscal   For Fiscal   For Fiscal 
   Year Ended   Year Ended   Year Ended 
   June 30,   June 30,   June 30, 
   2022   2021   2020 
   US$   US$   US$ 
   (audited)   (audited)   (audited) 
Statement of operation data:               
Revenues  $27,095,197   $24,320,121   $19,171,358 
Gross profit   10,139,065    9,155,213    2,391,370 
Operating expenses   10,065,009    7,297,420    11,106,837 
Income (loss) from operations   74,056    1,857,793   (8,715,467)
Other income   164,208    82,695    343,079 
Income taxes benefit (expense)   (2,777,868)   641,460    164,537 
Net income (loss)  $3,016,132   $1,299,028   $(8,536,925)
Earnings (loss) per share, basic and diluted  $0.10   $0.05   $(0.33)
                
Weighted average Ordinary Shares outstanding (basic)   33,711,659    27,499,367    25,913,631 

 

Balance sheet data:

 

   As of June 30, 
   2022   2021   2020   2019   2018 
Current assets  $23,354,676   $14,266,131   $11,627,458   $25,922,624   $46,344,652 
Total assets   100,796,722    93,845,408    63,551,261    69,023,927    69,708,205 
Current liabilities   6,485,021    21,262,335    10,769,734    8,072,423    8,968,673 
Total liabilities   12,320,746    28,943,003    12,043,333    8,072,423    8,968,673 
Total equity  $88,475,976   $64,902,405   $51,507,928   $60,951,504   $60,739,532 

 

Exchange Rate Information

 

Our financial information is presented in U.S. dollars. The financial position and results of the operations of HK Dogness, HK Jiasheng, Dongguan Dogness, Dongguan Jiasheng, Meijia and Intelligence Guangzhou are determined using the Chinese Renminbi (“RMB”), the local currency, as the functional currency. Dogness Japan uses Japanese Yen as the functional currency (the shares held in Dogness Japan were sold on November 28, 2020 during the fiscal year ended June 30, 2021), while Dogness Overseas and Dogness Group use U.S Dollar as their functional currency.

 

The results of operations and the consolidated statements of cash flows denominated in foreign currencies are translated at the average rate of exchange during the reporting period. Assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies at the balance sheet date are translated at the applicable rates of exchange in effect at that date. The equity denominated in the functional currency is translated at the historical rate of exchange at the time of capital contribution. Because cash flows are translated based on the average translation rate, amounts related to assets and liabilities reported on the consolidated statements of cash flows will not necessarily agree with changes in the corresponding balances on the consolidated balance sheets. Translation adjustments arising from the use of different exchange rates from period to period are included as a separate component of accumulated other comprehensive income included in consolidated statements of changes in equity. Gains and losses from foreign currency transactions are included in the consolidated statement of income and comprehensive income.

 

1
 

 

The relevant exchange rates are listed below:

 

   June 30, 2022  June 30, 2021  June 30, 2020
Year-end spot rate  US$1=RMB6.6981  US$1=RMB 6.4566  US$1=JPY 111.1  US$1=RMB 7.0721  US$1=JPY 107.5
Average rate  US$1=RMB6.4554  US$1=RMB 6.6221  US$1=JPY 106.6  US$1=RMB 7.0323  US$1=JPY 107.5

 

We make no representation that any RMB or U.S. dollar amounts could have been, or could be, converted into U.S. dollars or RMB, as the case may be, at any particular rate, or at all. The PRC government imposes control over its foreign currency reserves in part through direct regulation of the conversion of RMB into foreign exchange and through restrictions on foreign trade. We do not currently engage in currency hedging transactions.

 

The following table sets forth information concerning exchange rates between the RMB and the U.S. dollar for the periods indicated.

 

    Midpoint of Buy and Sell Prices for U.S. Dollar per RMB  
Period   Period-End     Average     High     Low  
2014     6.1484       6.1458       6.2080       6.0881  
2015     6.4917       6.2288       6.4917       6.0933  
2016     6.9448       6.6441       7.0672       6.4494  
2017     6.5074       6.7578       6.9535       6.4686  
2018     6.8776       6.6163       7.1786       6.6822  
2019     6.9618       6.9081       7.1786       6.6822  
2020     6.5250       6.9042       7.1681       6.5208  
2021     6.3839       6.4668       6.5716       6.3674  
2022 (through September 30, 2022)     7.1000       6.6000       7.2000       6.3100  

  

As of September 30, 2022, the exchange rate is RMB 7.12 to $1.00.

 

B. Capitalization and Indebtedness

 

Not applicable for annual reports on Form 20-F.

 

C. Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds

 

Not applicable for annual reports on Form 20-F.

 

D. Risk Factors

 

Before you decide to purchase our Class A Common Shares, you should understand the high degree of risk involved. You should consider carefully the following risks and other information in this report, including our consolidated financial statements and related notes. If any of the following risks actually occur, our business, financial condition and operating results could be adversely affected. As a result, the trading price of our Class A Common Shares could decline, perhaps significantly.

 

Please also read carefully the section below entitled “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”

 

2
 

 

Risks Related to Our Business

 

We face risks related to health epidemics that could impact our sales and operating results.

 

Our business could be adversely affected by the effects of a widespread outbreak of contagious disease, including the recent outbreak of respiratory illness caused by a novel coronavirus first identified in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. Any outbreak of contagious diseases, and other adverse public health developments, particularly in China, could have a material and adverse effect on the business operations of us and our Subsidiaries. These could include disruptions or restrictions on our ability to resume the general shipping agency services, as well as temporary closures of our facilities and ports or the facilities of our customers and third-party service providers. Any disruption or delay of our customers or third-party service providers would likely impact our operating results and the ability of the Company to continue as a going concern. In addition, a significant outbreak of contagious diseases in the human population could result in a widespread health crisis that could adversely affect the economies and financial markets of China and many other countries, resulting in an economic downturn that could affect demand for our services and significantly impact our operating results.

 

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has had a significant impact on our operations since January 2020 and could materially adversely affect our business and financial results for the remaining months of the 2020 calendar year.

 

Our ability to manufacture and/or sell our products may be impaired by damage or disruption to our manufacturing, warehousing or distribution capabilities, or to the capabilities of our suppliers, logistics service providers or distributors as a result of the impact from the COVID-19. This damage or disruption could result from events or factors that are impossible to predict or are beyond our control, such as raw material scarcity, pandemics, government shutdowns, disruptions in logistics, supplier capacity constraints, adverse weather conditions, natural disasters, fire, terrorism or other events.

 

The COVID-19 pandemic, which has spread rapidly across the globe, resulted in adverse economic conditions and business disruptions. In reaction to this outbreak, governments worldwide have imposed varying degrees of preventative and protective actions, such as temporary travel bans, forced business closures, and stay-at-home orders, all in an effort to reduce the spread of the virus. Since this outbreak, business activities in China and many other countries including U.S. have been disrupted by a series of emergency quarantine measures taken by the government. The Chinese government has employed measures including city lockdowns, quarantines, travel restrictions, suspension of business activities and school closures. Due to difficulties resulting from the COVID-19 outbreak, including, but not limited to, the temporary closure of the factory and operations beginning in early February until late March 2020, limited support from the employees, delayed access to raw material supplies and inability to deliver products to customers on a timely basis, our business was negatively impacted. While the spread of the disease has gradually returned under control in China, COVID-19 could still adversely affect the business operation our PRC Subsidiaries and Hong Kong Subsidiaries and our financial results in the future. As a result, there is a possibility that the Company’s revenues and operating cash flows may be significantly lower than expected for fiscal year 2022.

 

We and our Subsidiaries may incur liability for unpaid taxes, including interest and penalties.

 

In the normal course of business, we and our Subsidiaries may be subject to challenges from various PRC taxing authorities regarding the amounts of taxes due. PRC taxing authorities may take the position that we or our Subsidiaries owe more taxes than it has paid. We recorded tax liabilities of $1.6 million, $4.4 million and $2.8 million as of June 30, 2022, 2021, and 2020, respectively, for the possible underpayment of income and business taxes. It is possible that the tax liability of for past taxes may be higher than those amounts, if the PRC authorities determine that penalties are applicable or that the correct amount has not been paid. Although the Company’s management believes it may be able to negotiate with local PRC taxing authorities a reduction to any amounts that such authorities may believe are due and a reduction to any interest or penalties thereon, we have no guarantee that we will be able to negotiate such a reduction. To the extent we are able to negotiate such amounts, national-level taxing authorities may take the position that localities are without power to reduce such liabilities, and such PRC taxing authorities may attempt to collect unpaid taxes, interest and penalties in amounts greatly exceeding management’s estimates.

 

3
 

 

If our largest customers reduce their orders with us, such revenues would be very difficult to replace.

 

Although we have also sold our products through distributors and trading companies, some of our largest customers are Petco and Pet Valu, which are by far the largest pet specialty chains in North America. Petco has around 1600 stores in the US and Pet Valu has around 600 stores in Canada. There is not another brick-and-mortar customer that presents the opportunity that these customers present to us. As a result, if we were to lose these accounts or if these customers purchased less of our products in the future, it would be difficult to replace those lost revenues.

 

Our smart products have only recently entered distribution.

 

While we are optimistic that our smart products such as collars, harnesses, feeders and robots will be important products for our company in the future, we only recently begun to sell them and thus do not know whether they will prove popular with consumers. We have exhibited these products at expos in multiple countries and have begun to receive orders, but our revenues for all smart products was approximately 13.5 million, $7.8 million, and $4.3 million during the years ended June 30, 2022, 2021, and 2020, respectively. As a result, we do not have an accurate gauge of how well accepted they will be by consumers. If consumers do not appreciate our smart products, we may not sell enough products to grow our market share in this new industry.

 

Our smart products are not as well-known as those of our competitors.

 

There are a variety of competitors providing smart collars, smart feeders and smart treaters for dogs and cats that are more well-known than our products. We are aware of more than a dozen competitors to our smart products, some of which have been on the market for several years. Because smart collars are still a relatively new industry, we do not believe that there is a single leader. Nevertheless, we face competition from more well-known products like the Whistle GPS Pet Tracker and Tractive, as well as products from more well-established, better capitalized companies in the United States such as Garmin, which produces varieties of dog training and tracking devices. Similarly, companies such as PetSafe, Petzi, Petcube, Arf Pets, and Furbo market food and treat dispensers with functionalities that in some cases are similar to our products. If we are unable to achieve recognition for our technology or if consumers opt to use products from companies they recognize more than our company, our smart collar and harness products may not be well accepted.

 

Our smart collars and harnesses are currently between generations.

 

We debuted our C2 and H2 smart collars and harnesses in 2016. These products were designed to operate over 2G telephone technology. While this platform was sufficient to meet the needs of the products, 2G speeds lag far behind currently available 4G and now 5G technology. As a result, our C2 and H2 products have thus far obtained a very limited customer base. For this reason, we have been researching and developing our next generation of smart collars and harnesses to operate with today’s higher internet speeds in mind. We are close to the roll out of the C6 which relies on 4G network and C5 and C5 mini which rely on NB network. Before we are able to bring these products to market fully, we anticipate that our sales of smart collars and harnesses, along with subscriptions for ongoing cellular services for those products, will be nominal. If and when we are able to introduce our next generation of smart collars and harnesses, we are unable to predict the extent to which consumers will be drawn to such new products.

 

4
 

 

Our smart collars rely on third-party cellular telephone companies and application developers for functionality.

 

One of the features of our smart collars is the ability to communicate between the owner’s cell phone and the collar, even when the two are too far away to communicate directly. We achieve this by having a SIM card in the smart collar so that, so long as the collar has a cell phone signal, it will communicate with the telephone. We cooperate with cell phone companies in our target markets to provide cellular service to these SIM cards. If this cooperation were to end or if the cellular service we receive is not reliable or more expensive than we anticipate, the market for our products could be harmed.

 

In addition, the Dogness smartphone App on which our smart collars rely are still under development and test by a company, Dogness Network Technology Co., Ltd (“Dogness Network”), in which we have a minority interest. Our company owns 10% of Dogness Network. Dogness Network plans to derive its revenues from subscriptions for services provided through the Dogness smartphone App in the near future, and we will purchase such products from Dogness Network and resell to our customers. We may benefit only by virtue of our 10% interest in Dogness Network. In fiscal year 2021, subscription revenues were approximately $1.8 million from about 68,100 users. If Dogness Network were to stop supporting the application or impair its functionality, our smart collars and harnesses could become unusable or have decreased value to end users.

 

To the extent we were unable to cooperate with such third parties in the future, we would need to locate and cooperate with other service providers, and we cannot guarantee that we would be able to do so under terms that are satisfactory to us, if at all.

 

Our software platform may not interface with applications consumers want to be integrated.

 

In the connected home, consumers are increasingly aware of the interconnection among applications and devices, such as speakers that can turn on lights or adjust the temperature. Some customers purchase products based on how they will interact with other services and products that the customers already use. If we are unable to anticipate and accommodate these desires, customers may choose other products that do interact with their preferred services. Although we may incorporate such functionality in future generations of our products, not all of our current products integrate into Apple’s, Google’s or Amazon’s smart home platforms. Our Dogness CAM feeder, App feeder, and App mini feeder work with Amazon Alexa.

 

We are also dependent on third party application stores that may prevent us from timely updating our current products or uploading new products. In addition, our products interoperate with servers, mobile devices and software applications predominantly through the use of protocols, many of which are created and maintained by third parties. We therefore depend on the interoperability of our products with such third-party services, mobile devices and mobile operating systems, as well as cloud-enabled hardware, software, networking, browsers, database technologies and protocols that we do not control. Any changes in such technologies that degrade the functionality of our products or give preferential treatment to competitive services could adversely affect adoption and usage of our platform. Also, we may not be successful in developing or maintaining relationships with key participants in the mobile industry or in developing products that operate effectively with a range of operating systems, networks, devices, browsers, protocols and standards. In addition, we may face different fraud, security and regulatory risks from transactions sent from mobile devices than we do from personal computers. If we are unable to effectively anticipate and manage these risks, or if it is difficult for our customers to access and use our platform, our business, results of operations and financial condition may be harmed.

 

5
 

 

Price increases in raw materials and sourced products could harm the Company’s financial results.

 

Our primary raw materials are plastic, leather, nylon, polyester, chemical fiber blended fabric, metal, GPPS and HIPS, most of which are extracted from crude oil. These raw materials are subject to price volatility and inflationary pressures. Our success is dependent, in part, on our continued ability to reduce our exposure to increases in those costs through a variety of programs, including sales price adjustments based on adjustments in such raw material costs, while maintaining and improving margins and market share. We also rely on third-party manufacturers as a source for a minor portion of components for our products. These manufacturers are also subject to price volatility and labor cost and other inflationary pressures, which may, in turn, result in an increase in the amount we pay for sourced products. Raw material and sourced product price increases may more than offset our productivity gains and price increases and may adversely impact our financial results.

 

Our plan to vertically integrate our production may not provide the benefits we foresee.

 

Over the last several years, we have increasingly produced our products in-house. We have made this strategic decision because of our belief that it will facilitate our control over the costs of components in our products. The price of components is extremely important where the per-unit sales price is as low as it is in our industry. Thus, we believe it is important to control costs as much as possible.

 

That being said, when we produce components in-house that we previously purchased from a third-party supplier, we may not benefit from the economies of scale that a dedicated third-party supplier could see. Moreover, we invest in infrastructure for such production, such as buying machines and leasing additional facility space; in the event new technology is developed to produce components of our products more cheaply than we can with our existing infrastructure, we could find that our operating results are negatively impacted, compared with what we would see if we were purchasing from third parties. In such case, our products could be more expensive than those of our competitors that purchase from third-party suppliers, which could make our products less attractive to customers.

 

Our reliance on third party logistics providers may put us at risk of service failures for our customers.

 

We rely on third parties to ship our products from China to our customers. We compete based on price, quality and reliability, so a failure to deliver our products on time to our large customers could harm our reputation. To the extent we are unable to meet their demand for products or do not deliver products on time, we stand a substantial risk of losing key accounts. Because we rely on third parties for logistics services, we may be unable to avoid supply chain failures, even if we are able to meet our manufacturing obligations to customers.

 

6
 

 

If we fail to protect our intellectual property rights, it could harm our business and competitive position.

 

We rely on a combination of patent, trademark, domain name and trade secret laws and non-disclosure agreements and other methods to protect our intellectual property rights. Our PRC subsidiaries own 116 patents and 188 trademarks in China and 85 patents and 47 trademarks outside China, all of which have been properly registered with regulatory agencies such as the State Intellectual Property Office and Trademark Office of China’s State Administration for Industry and Commerce (“SAIC”). This intellectual property has allowed our products to earn market share in the pet products industry.

 

The process of seeking patent protection can be lengthy and expensive, our patent applications may fail to result in patents being issued, and our existing and future patents may be insufficient to provide us with meaningful protection or commercial advantage. Our patents and patent applications may also be challenged, invalidated or circumvented.

 

We also rely on trade secret rights to protect our business through non-disclosure provisions in employment agreements with employees. If our employees breach their non-disclosure obligations, we may not have adequate remedies in China, and our trade secrets may become known to our competitors.

 

In accordance with Chinese intellectual property laws and regulations, we will have to renew our trademarks once the terms expire. However, patents are not renewable. Some of our patents, particularly utility mode and design patents, have only 10 years of protection and will end in the near future. Once these patents expire, our products may lose some market share if they are copied by our competitors. Then, our business revenue might suffer some loss as well.

 

Implementation of PRC intellectual property-related laws has historically been lacking, primarily because of ambiguities in the PRC laws and enforcement difficulties. Accordingly, intellectual property rights and confidentiality protections in China may not be as effective as in the United States or other western countries. Furthermore, policing unauthorized use of proprietary technology is difficult and expensive, and we may need to resort to litigation to enforce or defend patents issued to us or to determine the enforceability, scope and validity of our proprietary rights or those of others. Such litigation and an adverse determination in any such litigation, if any, could result in substantial costs and diversion of resources and management attention, which could harm our business and competitive position.

 

Our Chinese patents and registered marks may not be protected outside of China due to territorial limitations on enforceability.

 

In general, patent and trademark rights have territorial limitations in law and are valid only within the countries in which they are registered.

 

At present, Chinese enterprises may register their trademarks overseas through two methods. One is to file an application for trademark registration in each single country or region in which protection is desired, while the other is to apply via the Madrid system for international trademark registration. By the second way, under the provisions of the Madrid Agreement concerning the International Registration of Marks (the “Madrid Agreement”) or the Protocol Relating to the Madrid Agreement concerning the International Registration of Marks (the “Madrid Protocol”), applicants may designate their marks in one or more member countries via the Madrid system for international registration.

 

As of the date of the filing, we have registered 188 trademarks in China. We have also registered our key trademarks in Japan, Australia, Korea, Hong Kong, Taiwan and the United States.

 

7
 

 

Similar with trademarks, Chinese enterprises may also register their patents overseas through two methods. One is to file an application for patent registration in each single country or region, and the other is to file international application with the China Intellectual Property Office or the International Bureau of World Intellectual Property Organization under the Patent Cooperation Treaty. However, such international application may relate to invention or utility model patents, but does not include industrial design patents.

 

Currently, most of our patents and trademarks are registered in China. If we do not register them in other jurisdictions, they may not be protected outside of China. As a result, our business and competitive position could be harmed.

 

We may be exposed to intellectual property infringement and other claims by third parties which, if successful, could disrupt our business and have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

 

Our success depends, in large part, on our ability to use and develop our technology and know-how without infringing third party intellectual property rights. If we sell our branded products internationally, and as litigation becomes more common in China, we face a higher risk of being the subject of claims for intellectual property infringement, invalidity or indemnification relating to other parties’ proprietary rights. Our current or potential competitors, many of which have substantial resources and have made substantial investments in competing technologies, may have or may obtain patents that will prevent, limit or interfere with our ability to make, use or sell our branded products in either China or other countries, including the United States and other countries in Asia. The validity and scope of claims relating to patents in our industry involve complex scientific, legal and factual questions and analysis and, as a result, may be highly uncertain. In addition, the defense of intellectual property suits, including patent infringement suits, and related legal and administrative proceedings can be both costly and time consuming and may significantly divert the efforts and resources of our technical and management personnel. Furthermore, an adverse determination in any such litigation or proceedings to which we may become a party could cause us to:

 

  pay damage awards;
  seek licenses from third parties;
  pay ongoing royalties;
  redesign our branded products; or
  be restricted by injunctions,

 

each of which could effectively prevent us from pursuing some or all of our business and result in our customers or potential customers deferring or limiting their purchase or use of our products, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

 

Outstanding bank loans may reduce our available funds.

 

As of June 30, 2022, we had approximately $6.9 million in outstanding bank loans, with expected repayment of approximately $2.0 million in one year, $3.2 million in two years and $1.7 million in three to seven years. The loans are guaranteed by the fixed assets of the Company’s subsidiaries and are also personally guaranteed by our Chief Executive Officer and certain of his family members. While we believe we have sufficient capital resources to repay these bank loans with support from Mr. Silong Chen, our Chief Executive Officer, there can be no guarantee that we will be able to pay all amounts when due or to refinance the amounts on terms that are acceptable to us or at all. If we are unable to make our payments when due or to refinance such amounts, our property could be foreclosed and our business could be negatively affected.

 

8
 

 

While we do not believe they will impact our liquidity, the terms of the debt agreements impose significant operating and financial restrictions on us. These restrictions could also have a negative impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations by significantly limiting or prohibiting us from engaging in certain transactions, including but not limited to: incurring or guaranteeing additional indebtedness; transferring or selling assets currently held by us; and transferring ownership interests in certain of our subsidiaries. The failure to comply with any of these covenants could cause a default under our other debt agreements. Any of these defaults, if not waived, could result in the acceleration of all of our debt, in which case the debt would become immediately due and payable. If this occurs, we may not be able to repay our debt or borrow sufficient funds to refinance it on favorable terms, if any.

 

If the village cooperative from which we rent our factory in Dongguan fails to provide ownership certificates or construction approvals on demand, our ability to use our facilities may be impaired.

 

Our PRC Subsidiaries lease our production facility from Dongguan Dongcheng District Tongsha Huanggongkeng Co-op (“Huanggongkeng”). We understand that, as is not uncommon in our area, Huanggongkeng did not obtain prior government approval before constructing the facilities and thus may be unable to provide evidence of government approval. If the local authority were to request proof of such approval, operations at our facility could be interrupted until Huanggongkeng was able to provide evidence of such approvals. If Huanggongkeng were unable to rectify this issue, we could find our operations halted indefinitely.

 

If the value of our property decreases, we may not be able to refinance our current debt.

 

All of our current debt is secured by either mortgages on real and other business property or guarantees by some of our shareholders. If the value of our real property decreases, we may find that banks are unwilling to loan money to us secured by our business property. A drop in property value could also prevent us from being able to refinance that loan when it becomes due on acceptable terms or at all.

 

We may require additional financing in the future and our operations could be curtailed if we are unable to obtain required additional financing when needed.

 

We may need to obtain additional debt or equity financing to fund future capital expenditures and initiatives. Additional debt financing may include conditions that would restrict our freedom to operate our business, such as conditions that:

 

● limit our ability to pay dividends or require us to seek consent for the payment of dividends;

● increase our vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions;

● require us to dedicate a portion of our cash flow from operations to payments on our debt, thereby reducing the availability of our cash flow to fund capital expenditures, working capital and other general corporate purposes; and

● limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and our industry.

 

9
 

 

We cannot guarantee that we will be able to obtain any additional financing on terms that are acceptable to us, or at all.

 

The loss of any of our key customers could reduce our revenues and our profitability.

 

Our key customers are principally retail pet specialty stores and mass merchandisers. For the year ended June 30, 2022, sales to our four largest customers accounted for 23.4%, 6.7%, 6.7% and 5.7% of our total revenue. For the year ended June 30, 2021, sales to our three largest customers amounted in the aggregate to approximately 32.0%, 9.1% and 6.9% of our total revenue. For the year ended June 30, 2020, sales to our three largest customers amounted in the aggregate to approximately 27.6%, 6.5% and 4.4% of our total revenue. There can be no assurance that we will maintain or improve the relationships with these customers, or that we will be able to continue to supply these customers at current levels or at all. Any failure to pay by these customers could have a material negative effect on our company’s business. In addition, having a relatively small number of customers may cause our quarterly results to be inconsistent, depending upon when these customers pay for outstanding invoices. During the years ended June 30, 2022, 2021 and 2020, we had one, one and one customer that accounted for 10% or more of our revenues.

 

Our bank accounts are not fully insured or protected against loss.

 

We maintain our cash with various banks and trust companies located in mainland China. Our cash accounts in the PRC are not insured or otherwise protected. Should any bank or trust company holding our cash deposits become insolvent, or if we are otherwise unable to withdraw funds, we would lose the cash on deposit with that particular bank or trust company.

 

We are substantially dependent upon our senior management and key research and development personnel.

 

We are highly dependent on our senior management to manage our business and operations and our key research and development personnel for the development of new products and the enhancement of our existing products and technologies. In particular, we rely substantially on our Chief Executive Officer, Mr. Silong Chen.

 

While we provide the legally required personal insurance for the benefit of our employees, we do not maintain key person life insurance on any of our senior management or key personnel. The loss of any one of them would have a material adverse effect on our business and operations. Competition for senior management and our other key personnel is intense, and the pool of suitable candidates is limited. We may be unable to quickly locate a suitable replacement for any senior management or key personnel that we lose. In addition, if any member of our senior management or key personnel joins a competitor or forms a competing company, they may compete with us for customers, business partners and other key professionals and staff members of our company. Although each of our senior management and key personnel has signed a confidentiality and non-competition agreement in connection with his employment with us, we cannot assure you that we will be able to successfully enforce these provisions in the event of a dispute between us and any member of our senior management or key personnel.

 

In our efforts to develop new products, we compete for qualified personnel with technology companies and research institutions. Although we have our own research and development team, we also rely heavily on our cooperation with another software development company, which has been helping us develop our high-tech products. This relationship has become an important part of our company’s business development. If this relationship becomes unstable or is terminated in the future, we may be unable to meet our business and financial goals.

 

10
 

 

Failure to manage our growth could strain our management, operational and other resources, which could materially and adversely affect our business and prospects.

 

Our growth strategy includes increasing market penetration of our existing products, developing new products and increasing the number and size of customers we serve. Pursuing these strategies has resulted in, and will continue to result in, substantial demands on management resources. In particular, the management of our growth will require, among other things:

 

  continued enhancement of our research and development capabilities;
  stringent cost controls and sufficient liquidity;
  strengthening of financial and management controls;
  increased marketing, sales and support activities; and
  hiring and training of new personnel.

 

If we are not able to manage our growth successfully, our business and prospects would be materially and adversely affected.

 

Because we rely on Hong Kong entities to fulfill orders from many of our customers, we may be exposed to claims of value-added tax underreporting.

 

Many of our international customers order our products by placing an order with our Hong Kong Subsidiaries. Our Hong Kong Subsidiaries then procure the products from our PRC Subsidiaries. When these products are sold from our PRC Subsidiaries to our Hong Kong Subsidiaries, the price paid is set at what we believe to be a fair value. Further, we have informed the applicable tax bureaus of the pricing of products. Nevertheless, the tax bureau in the future may claim that we have engaged in transfer pricing to avoid payment of value-added tax (“VAT”) because the price our Hong Kong Subsidiary charges to the customer may be higher than the price our PRC Subsidiaries charge to our Hong Kong Subsidiaries. Under PRC law, the VAT is refundable on export, so we believe there is limited risk in the event that we were called upon to pay VAT on such transfers from China to Hong Kong, but a failure to report proper VAT payable could expose us to penalties and interest for failing to pay it on time.

 

We may be subject to penalties under relevant PRC laws and regulations due to failure to make full social security and housing fund contributions for some of our employees.

 

In the past, contributions by some of our PRC Subsidiaries for some of their employees to the social security and housing funds may not have been in compliance with relevant PRC regulations. Pursuant to the Regulation on the Administration of Housing Accumulation Funds, as amended in 2002, the relevant housing fund authority may order an enterprise to pay outstanding contributions within a prescribed time limit. Pursuant to the PRC Social Insurance Law promulgated in 2010, the social security authority may order an enterprise to pay the outstanding contributions within a prescribed time limit, and may impose penalties if there is a failure to do so. To the extent the relevant authorities determine we have underpaid, some of our PRC Subsidiaries may be required to pay outstanding contributions and penalties to the extent they did not make full contributions to the social security housing funds.

 

11
 

 

Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure and Operation

 

Our dual class structure concentrate a majority of voting power in our Chief Executive Officer, who is the only owner of our Class B Common Shares.

 

Our Class B Common Shares have three votes per share, and our Class A Common Shares have one vote per share. Our directors, executive officers, and their affiliates, hold in the aggregate approximately 57.0% of the voting power of our capital stock as of June 30, 2021. Because of the three-to-one voting ratio between our Class B and Class A Common Shares, the holder of our Class B Common Shares collectively control a majority of the combined voting power of our Common Shares and therefore is able to control all matters submitted to our shareholders for approval. The sole owner of such Class B Common Shares is our Chief Executive Officer, Mr. Silong Chen, who owns 9,069,000 Class B Common Shares through Fine victory holding company Limited. This concentrated control may limit or preclude your ability to influence corporate matters for the foreseeable future, including the election of directors, amendments of our organizational documents, and any merger, consolidation, sale of all or substantially all of our assets, or other major corporate transaction requiring shareholder approval. In addition, this may prevent or discourage unsolicited acquisition proposals or offers for our capital stock that you may feel are in your best interest as one of our shareholders.

 

Future transfers by holders of Class B Common Shares will generally result in those shares converting to Class A Common Shares, subject to limited exceptions, such as certain transfers effected for estate planning purposes. The conversion of Class B Common Shares to Class A Common Shares will have the effect, over time, of increasing the relative voting power of those holders of Class B Common Shares who retain their shares in the long term.

 

The obligation to disclose information publicly may put us at a disadvantage to competitors that are private companies.

 

As a publicly listed company in the United States, we are required to file periodic reports with the Securities and Exchange Commission upon the occurrence of matters that are material to our company and shareholders. In some cases, we will need to disclose material agreements or results of financial operations that we would not be required to disclose if we were a private company. Our competitors may have access to this information, which would otherwise be confidential. This may give them advantages in competing with our company. Similarly, as a U.S.-listed public company, we will be governed by U.S. laws that our non-publicly traded competitors are not required to follow. To the extent compliance with U.S. laws increases our expenses or decreases our competitiveness against such companies, our public listing could affect our results of operations.

 

We are a “foreign private issuer,” and our disclosure obligations differ from those of U.S. domestic reporting companies. As a result, we may not provide you the same information as U.S. domestic reporting companies or we may provide information at different times, which may make it more difficult for you to evaluate our performance and prospects.

 

We are a foreign private issuer and, as a result, we are not subject to the same requirements as U.S. domestic issuers. Under the Exchange Act, we will be subject to reporting obligations that, to some extent, are more lenient and less frequent than those of U.S. domestic reporting companies. For example, we are not required to issue quarterly reports or proxy statements. We are not required to disclose detailed individual executive compensation information. Furthermore, our directors and executive officers will not be required to report equity holdings under Section 16 of the Exchange Act and will not be subject to the insider short-swing profit disclosure and recovery regime.

 

12
 

 

As a foreign private issuer, we are exempt from the requirements of Regulation FD (Fair Disclosure) which, generally, are meant to ensure that select groups of investors are not privy to specific information about an issuer before other investors. However, we are still subject to the anti-fraud and anti-manipulation rules of the SEC, such as Rule 10b-5 under the Exchange Act. Since many of the disclosure obligations imposed on us as a foreign private issuer differ from those imposed on U.S. domestic reporting companies, you should not expect to receive the same information about us and at the same time as the information provided by U.S. domestic reporting companies.

 

As a foreign private issuer, we are permitted to rely on exemptions from certain Nasdaq corporate governance standards applicable to U.S. issuers, including the requirement that a majority of an issuer’s directors consist of independent directors. If we opt to rely on such exemptions in the future, such decision might afford less protection to holders of our Class A Common Shares.

 

Section 5605(b)(1) of the Nasdaq Listing Rules requires listed companies to have, among other things, a majority of its board members to be independent, and Section 5605(d) and 5605(e) require listed companies to have independent director oversight of executive compensation and nomination of directors. As a foreign private issuer, however, we are permitted to follow home country practice in lieu of the above requirements. Our Board of Directors could make such a decision to depart from such requirements by ordinary resolution.

 

The corporate governance practice in our home country, the British Virgin Islands, does not require a majority of our board to consist of independent directors or the implementation of a nominating and corporate governance committee. Since a majority of our board of directors would not consist of independent directors if we relied on the foreign private issuer exemption, fewer board members would be exercising independent judgment and the level of board oversight on the management of our company might decrease as a result. In addition, we could opt to follow British Virgin Islands law instead of the Nasdaq requirements that mandate that we obtain shareholder approval for certain dilutive events, such as an issuance that will result in a change of control, certain transactions other than a public offering involving issuances of 20% or greater interests in the company and certain acquisitions of the shares or assets of another company. For a description of the material corporate governance differences between the Nasdaq requirements and British Virgin Islands law, see “Description of Share Capital — Differences in Corporate Law”.

 

An insufficient amount of insurance could expose us to significant costs and business disruption.

 

While we have purchased insurance, including export transportation, product liability and account receivable insurance, to cover certain assets and property of our business, the amounts and scope of coverage could leave our business inadequately protected from loss. For example, our subsidiaries do not have coverage of business interruption insurance. If we were to incur substantial losses or liabilities due to fire, explosions, floods, other natural disasters or accidents or business interruption, our results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

 

13
 

 

Our failure to obtain prior approval of the China Securities Regulatory Commission (“CSRC”) for the listing and trading of our Class A Common Shares on a foreign stock exchange could delay this offering or could have a material adverse effect upon our business, operating results, reputation and trading price of our Class A Common Shares.

 

On August 8, 2006, six Chinese regulatory agencies, including the MOFCOM, jointly issued the M&A Rules, which became effective on September 8, 2006 and amended on June 22, 2009. The M&A Rules contains provisions that require that an offshore SPV formed for listing purposes and controlled directly or indirectly by Chinese companies or individuals shall obtain the approval of the CSRC prior to the listing and trading of such SPV’s securities on an overseas stock exchange. On September 21, 2006, the CSRC published procedures specifying documents and materials required to be submitted to it by an SPV seeking CSRC approval of overseas listings. However, the application of the M&A Rule remains unclear with no consensus currently existing among leading Chinese law firms regarding the scope and applicability of the CSRC approval requirement. We have not chosen to voluntarily request approval under the M&A Rules. Based on the understanding of the current PRC law, rules and regulations, we believe that the CSRC’s approval may not be required for the listing and trading of our common shares on Nasdaq in the context of this offering, given that Dogness was not established by a merger with or an acquisition of any PRC domestic companies as defined under the M&A Rules.

 

If the CSRC requires that we obtain its approval prior to the completion of this offering, the offering will be delayed until we obtain CSRC approval, which may take several months. There is also the possibility that we may not be able to obtain such approval. If prior CSRC approval was required, we may face regulatory actions or other sanctions from the CSRC or other Chinese regulatory authorities. These authorities may impose fines and penalties upon our operations in China, limit our operating privileges in China, delay or restrict the repatriation of the proceeds from this offering into China, or take other actions that could have a material adverse effect upon our business, financial condition, results of operations, reputation and prospects, as well as the trading price of our Class A Common Shares. The CSRC or other Chinese regulatory agencies may also take actions requiring us, or making it advisable for us, to terminate this offering prior to closing.

 

Risks Related to Ownership of Our Class A Common Shares

 

We are an “emerging growth company,” and we cannot be certain whether the reduced reporting requirements applicable to emerging growth companies will make our Class A Common Shares less attractive to investors.

 

We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act, or the JOBS Act. For as long as we continue to be an emerging growth company, we may take advantage of exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies, including not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and shareholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. We could be an emerging growth company for up to five years, although we could lose that status sooner if our revenues reach $1.07 billion, if we issue $1.07 billion or more in non-convertible debt in a three year period, or if the market value of our Class A Common Shares held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of any December 31 before that time, in which case we would no longer be an emerging growth company as of the following June 30. We cannot predict if investors will find our Class A Common Shares less attractive because we may rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our Class A Common Shares less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our Class A Common Shares and our share price may be more volatile. Under the JOBS Act, emerging growth companies can also delay adopting new or revised accounting standards until such time as those standards apply to private companies.

 

14
 

 

Because we have elected to use the extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards for an “emerging growth company” our financial statements may not be comparable to companies that comply with these accounting standards as of the public company effective dates.

 

We have elected to use the extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards under Section 107(b) of the JOBS Act. This election allows us to delay the adoption of new or revised accounting standards that have different effective dates for public and private companies until those standards apply to private companies. As a result of this election, our financial statements may not be comparable to companies that comply with these accounting standards as of the public company effective dates. Consequently, our financial statements may not be comparable to companies that comply with public company effective dates. Because our financial statements may not be comparable to companies that comply with public company effective dates, investors may have difficulty evaluating or comparing our business, performance or prospects in comparison to other public companies, which may have a negative impact on the value and liquidity of our Class A Common Shares. We cannot predict if investors will find our Class A Common Shares less attractive because we plan to rely on this exemption. If some investors find our Class A Common Shares less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our Class A Common Shares and our share price may be more volatile.

 

If we are unable to implement and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting in the future, investors may lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports and the market price of our Class A Common Shares may decline.

 

Prior to our initial public offering in 2017, we were a private company with limited accounting personnel and other resources with which to address our internal controls and procedures. Our independent registered public accounting firm has not conducted an audit of our internal control over financial reporting. However, in preparing our consolidated financial statements in connection with this annual report, we and our independent registered public accounting firm identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting, as defined in the standards established by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board of the United States, or PCAOB, and other control deficiencies. One material weakness identified relates to (i) a lack of full-time accounting and financial reporting personnel with appropriate knowledge of U.S. GAAP and SEC reporting and compliance requirements; (ii) a lack of an effective review process by management, which led to material audit adjustments for the year ended June 30, 2020 and (iii) lack of risk assessment in accordance with the requirement of COSO 2013 framework. Following the identification of the material weaknesses and control deficiencies, we have taken and plan to continue to take remedial measures, including (i) engaging a Chief Financial Officer who holds a Ph.D in accounting and a CPA license in the United States and hiring external financial consultants with experience in U.S. GAAP and SEC reporting obligations (ii) hiring more qualified accounting personnel with relevant U.S. GAAP and SEC reporting experience and qualifications to strengthen the financial reporting function and to set up a financial and system control framework; (iii) implementing regular and continuous U.S. GAAP accounting and financial reporting training programs for our accounting and financial reporting personnel; (iv) setting up an internal audit function as well as engaging an external consulting firm to assist us with assessment of Sarbanes-Oxley compliance requirements and improvement of overall internal control;. However, the implementation of these measures may not fully address the material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting. Our failure to correct the material weaknesses or our failure to discover and address any other material weaknesses or control deficiencies could result in inaccuracies in our financial statements and could also impair our ability to comply with applicable financial reporting requirements and related regulatory filings on a timely basis. Moreover, ineffective internal control over financial reporting significantly hinders our ability to prevent fraud.

 

15
 

 

As a public company, we will be required to maintain internal control over financial reporting and to report any material weaknesses in such internal control. In addition, we are required to furnish a report by management on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. As of the date hereof, management has concluded that such controls are ineffective.

 

In addition, our independent registered public accounting firm will be required to attest to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting beginning with our annual report on Form 20-F following the date on which we are no longer an “emerging growth company,” which may be up to five full years following the date of our initial public offering. If we identify material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting, if we are unable to comply with the requirements of Section 404 in a timely manner or assert that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, or if our independent registered public accounting firm is unable to express an opinion as to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting when required, investors may lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports and the market price of our Class A Common Shares could be negatively affected, and we could become subject to investigations by the stock exchange on which our securities are listed, the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, or other regulatory authorities, which could require additional financial and management resources.

 

Recent joint statement by the SEC and PCAOB, proposed rule changes submitted by Nasdaq, and an act passed by the US Senate all call for additional and more stringent criteria to be applied to emerging market companies upon assessing the qualification of their auditors, especially the non-U.S. auditors who are not inspected by the PCAOB. These developments could add uncertainties to our offering.

 

In May 2013, the PCAOB announced that it had entered into a Memorandum of Understanding on Enforcement Cooperation with the CSRC, and the PRC Ministry of Finance, which establishes a cooperative framework between the parties for the production and exchange of audit documents relevant to investigations undertaken by the PCAOB, the CSRC or the PRC Ministry of Finance in the United States and the PRC, respectively. The PCAOB continues to be in discussions with the CSRC, and the PRC Ministry of Finance to permit joint inspections in the PRC of audit firms that are registered with PCAOB and audit Chinese companies that trade on U.S. exchanges.

 

On December 7, 2018, the SEC and the PCAOB issued a joint statement highlighting continued challenges faced by the U.S. regulators in their oversight of financial statement audits of U.S.-listed companies with significant operations in China. The joint statement reflects a heightened interest in an issue that has vexed U.S. regulators in recent years.

 

On April 21, 2020, SEC Chairman Jay Clayton and PCAOB Chairman William D. Duhnke III, along with other senior SEC staff, released a joint statement highlighting the risks associated with investing in companies based in or have substantial operations in emerging markets including China. The joint statement emphasized the risks associated with lack of access for the PCAOB to inspect auditors and audit work papers in China and higher risks of fraud in emerging markets.

 

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On June 4, 2020, the U.S. President issued a memorandum ordering the President’s Working Group on Financial Markets, or the PWG, to submit a report to the President within 60 days of the memorandum that includes recommendations for actions that can be taken by the executive branch and by the SEC or PCAOB on Chinese companies listed on U.S. stock exchanges and their audit firms, in an effort to protect investors in the U.S.

 

On August 6, 2020, the PWG released a report recommending that the SEC take steps to implement the five recommendations outlined in the report. In particular, to address companies from jurisdictions that do not provide the PCAOB with sufficient access to fulfill its statutory mandate, or NCJs, the PWG recommends enhanced listing standards on U.S. stock exchanges. This would require, as a condition to initial and continued exchange listing, PCAOB access to work papers of the principal audit firm for the audit of the listed company. Companies unable to satisfy this standard as a result of governmental restrictions on access to audit work papers and practices in NCJs may satisfy this standard by providing a co-audit from an audit firm with comparable resources and experience where the PCAOB determines it has sufficient access to audit work papers and practices to conduct an appropriate inspection of the co-audit firm. There is currently no legal process under which such a co-audit may be performed in China. The report permits the new listing standards to provide for a transition period until January 1, 2022 for listed companies, but would apply immediately to new listings once the necessary rulemakings and/or standard-setting are effective. The measures in the PWG Report are presumably subject to the standard SEC rulemaking process before becoming effective. On August 10, 2020, the SEC announced that SEC Chairman had directed the SEC staff to prepare proposals in response to the PWG Report, and that the SEC was soliciting public comments and information with respect to these proposals. After we are listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market, if we fail to meet the new listing standards before the deadline specified thereunder due to factors beyond our control, we could face possible de-listing from the NASDAQ Capital Market, deregistration from the SEC and/or other risks, which may materially and adversely affect, or effectively terminate, our Class A Common Shares trading in the United States.

 

On March 24, 2021, the SEC announced that it had adopted interim final amendments to implement congressionally mandated submission and disclosure requirements of the Act. The interim final amendments will apply to registrants that the SEC identifies as having filed an annual report on Forms 10-K, 20-F, 40-F or N-CSR with an audit report issued by a registered public accounting firm that is located in a foreign jurisdiction and that the PCAOB has determined it is unable to inspect or investigate completely because of a position taken by an authority in that jurisdiction. The SEC will implement a process for identifying such a registrant and any such identified registrant will be required to submit documentation to the SEC establishing that it is not owned or controlled by a governmental entity in that foreign jurisdiction, and will also require disclosure in the registrant’s annual report regarding the audit arrangements of, and governmental influence on, such a registrant.

 

Furthermore, the HFCA Act, which requires that the PCAOB be permitted to inspect the issuer’s public accounting firm within three years, may result in the delisting of our Company in the future if the PCAOB is unable to inspect our accounting firm at such future time.

 

In addition, on June 22, 2021, the U.S. Senate passed the Accelerating Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act (“AHFCAA”), which, if signed into law, would amend the HFCA Act and require the SEC to prohibit an issuer’s securities from trading on any U.S. stock exchanges if its auditor is not subject to PCAOB inspections for two consecutive years instead of three consecutive years.

 

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On November 5, 2021, the SEC approved the PCAOB’s Rule 6100, Board Determinations Under the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act. Rule 6100 provides a framework for the PCAOB to use when determining, as contemplated under the HFCA Act, whether it is unable to inspect or investigate completely registered public accounting firms located in a foreign jurisdiction because of a position taken by one or more authorities in that jurisdiction. On December 16, 2021, the PCAOB issued a Determination Report which found that the PCAOB is unable to inspect or investigate completely registered public accounting firms headquartered in: (1) mainland China, and (2) Hong Kong. The lack of access to the PCAOB inspection in China prevents the PCAOB from fully evaluating audits and quality control procedures of the auditors based in China. As a result, the investors may be deprived of the benefits of such PCAOB inspections. The inability of the PCAOB to conduct inspections of auditors in China makes it more difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of these accounting firms’ audit procedures or quality control procedures as compared to auditors outside of China that are subject to the PCAOB inspections, which could cause existing and potential investors in our stock to lose confidence in our audit procedures and reported financial information and the quality of our financial statements.

 

Our auditor, the independent registered public accounting firm that issues the audit report included elsewhere in this prospectus, as an auditor of companies that are traded publicly in the United States and a firm registered with the PCAOB, is subject to laws in the United States pursuant to which the PCAOB conducts regular inspections to assess its compliance with the applicable professional standards. Our auditor, Audit Alliance LLP, is located in Singapore, and is subject to inspection by the PCAOB on a regular basis. In the event that, in the future, either there is any regulatory change or step taken by PRC regulators that does not permit Audit Alliance LLP to provide audit documentations located in China or Hong Kong to the PCAOB for inspection or investigation, or the PACOB expands the scope of the determinations so that our PRC operating entities will be subject to the HFCA Act, as the same may be amended, you may be deprived of the benefits of such inspection which could result in limitation or restriction to our access to the U.S. capital markets and trading of our securities, including “over-the-counter” trading, may be prohibited, under the HFCA Act. The recent developments would add uncertainties to our offering and we cannot assure you whether the national securities exchange we apply to for listing or regulatory authorities would apply additional and more stringent criteria to us after considering the effectiveness of our auditor’s audit procedures and quality control procedures, adequacy of personnel and training, or sufficiency of resources, geographic reach, or experience as it relates to our audit.

 

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The Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act all call for additional and more stringent criteria to be applied to emerging market companies upon assessing the qualification of their auditors, especially the non-U.S. auditors who are not inspected by the PCAOB. These developments could add uncertainties to our offering.

 

On May 20, 2020, the U.S. Senate passed the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act (“HFCA Act”) requiring a foreign company to certify it is not owned or controlled by a foreign government if the PCAOB is unable to audit specified reports because the company uses a foreign auditor not subject to PCAOB inspection. If the PCAOB is unable to inspect the company’s auditors for three consecutive years, the issuer’s securities are prohibited to trade on a national exchange. On December 2, 2020, the U.S. House of Representatives approved the HFCA Act. On December 18, 2020, the HFCA Act was signed into law. On March 24, 2021, the SEC adopted interim final rules relating to the implementation of certain disclosure and documentation requirements of the HFCA Act. A company will be required to comply with these rules if the SEC identifies it as having a “non-inspection” year under a process to be subsequently established by the SEC. The SEC is assessing how to implement other requirements of the HFCA Act, including the listing and trading prohibition requirements described above. Furthermore, on June 22, 2021, the U.S. Senate passed the AHFCAA, which, if signed into law, would amend the HFCA Act and require the SEC to prohibit an issuer’s securities from trading on any U.S. stock exchanges if its auditor is not subject to PCAOB inspections for two consecutive years instead of three consecutive years. On September 22, 2021, the PCAOB adopted a final rule implementing the HFCAA, which provides a framework for the PCAOB to use when determining, as contemplated under the HFCA Act, whether the PCAOB is unable to inspect or investigate completely registered public accounting firms located in a foreign jurisdiction because of a position taken by one or more authorities in that jurisdiction. Furthermore, on June 22, 2021, the U.S. Senate passed the AHFCAA, which, if signed into law, would amend the HFCA Act and require the SEC to prohibit an issuer’s securities from trading on any U.S. stock exchanges if its auditor is not subject to PCAOB inspections for two consecutive years instead of three consecutive years. On December 16, 2021, the PCAOB issued a Determination Report which found that the PCAOB is unable to inspect or investigate completely registered public accounting firms headquartered in: (1) mainland China, and (2) Hong Kong.

 

Our auditor, the independent registered public accounting firm that issues the audit report included elsewhere in this prospectus, as an auditor of companies that are traded publicly in the United States and a firm registered with the PCAOB, is subject to laws in the United States pursuant to which the PCAOB conducts regular inspections to assess its compliance with the applicable professional standards. Our auditor, Audit Alliance LLP, is located in Singapore, and is subject to inspection by the PCAOB on a regular basis. The recent developments would add uncertainties to our offering and we cannot assure you whether the national securities exchange we apply to for listing or regulatory authorities would apply additional and more stringent criteria to us after considering the effectiveness of our auditor’s audit procedures and quality control procedures, adequacy of personnel and training, or sufficiency of resources, geographic reach, or experience as it relates to our audit. Furthermore, the HFCA Act, which requires that the PCAOB be permitted to inspect the issuer’s public accounting firm within three years, may result in the delisting of our Company in the future if the PCAOB is unable to inspect our accounting firm at such future time.

 

Our management team has limited experience in managing a U.S. public company and complying with laws applicable to such company, the failure of which may adversely affect our business, financial conditions and results of operations.

 

Our current management team has limited experience in managing a U.S. publicly traded company, interacting with public company investors and complying with the increasingly complex laws pertaining to U.S. public companies. Prior to the completion of our initial public offering, we mainly operated our businesses as a private company in the PRC. As a result of our IPO, our company became subject to significant regulatory oversight and reporting obligations under the federal securities laws and the scrutiny of securities analysts and investors, and our management currently has no experience in complying with such laws, regulations and obligations. Our management team may not successfully or efficiently manage our transition to becoming a U.S. public company. These new obligations and constituents will require significant attention from our senior management and could divert their attention away from the day-to-day management of our business, which could adversely affect our business, financial conditions and results of operations.

 

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The requirements of being a public company may strain our resources and divert management’s attention.

 

As a public company, we are subject to the reporting requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the Dodd-Frank Act, the listing requirements of the securities exchange on which we list, and other applicable securities rules and regulations. Despite recent reforms made possible by the JOBS Act, compliance with these rules and regulations will nonetheless increase our legal and financial compliance costs, make some activities more difficult, time-consuming or costly and increase demand on our systems and resources, particularly after we are no longer an “emerging growth company.” The Exchange Act requires, among other things, that we file annual and current reports with respect to our business and operating results. In addition, as long as we are listed on the Nasdaq Global Market, we are also required to file semi-annual financial statements.

 

We expect these new rules and regulations to increase our legal, accounting and financial compliance costs and to make certain corporate activities more time-consuming and costly. In addition, we will incur additional costs associated with our public company reporting requirements. While it is impossible to determine the amounts of such expenses in advance, we expect that we will incur expenses of between $500,000 and $1 million per year that we did not experience prior to commencement of our initial public offering.

 

As a result of disclosure of information in filings required of a public company, our business and financial condition will become more visible, which we believe may result in threatened or actual litigation, including by competitors and other third parties. If such claims are successful, our business and operating results could be harmed, and even if the claims do not result in litigation or are resolved in our favor, these claims, and the time and resources necessary to resolve them, could divert the resources of our management and adversely affect our business, brand and reputation and results of operations.

 

We also expect that being a public company and these rules and regulations will make it more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance, and we may be required to accept reduced coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain coverage. These factors could also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified members of our board of directors, particularly to serve on our audit committee and compensation committee, and qualified executive officers.

 

The market price of our Class A Common Shares may be volatile or may decline regardless of our operating performance.

 

If you purchase our Class A Common Shares, you may not be able to resell those shares at or above your purchase price. The market price of our Class A Common Shares may fluctuate significantly in response to numerous factors, many of which are beyond our control, including:

 

● actual or anticipated fluctuations in our revenue and other operating results;

● the financial projections we may provide to the public, any changes in these projections or our failure to meet these projections;

● actions of securities analysts who initiate or maintain coverage of us, changes in financial estimates by any securities analysts who follow our company, or our failure to meet these estimates or the expectations of investors;

● announcements by us or our competitors of significant products or features, technical innovations, acquisitions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures, or capital commitments;

 

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● price and volume fluctuations in the overall stock market, including as a result of trends in the economy as a whole;

● lawsuits threatened or filed against us; and

● other events or factors, including those resulting from war or incidents of terrorism, or responses to these events.

 

In addition, the stock markets have experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have affected and continue to affect the market prices of equity securities of many companies. Stock prices of many companies have fluctuated in a manner unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of those companies. In the past, stockholders have filed securities class action litigation following periods of market volatility. If we were to become involved in securities litigation, it could subject us to substantial costs, divert resources and the attention of management from our business, and adversely affect our business.

 

We do not intend to pay dividends for the foreseeable future.

 

We currently intend to retain any future earnings to finance the operation and expansion of our business, and we do not expect to declare or pay any dividends in the foreseeable future. As a result, you may only receive a return on your investment in our Class A Common Shares if the market price of our Class A Common Shares increases.

 

There may not be an active, liquid trading market for our Class A Common Shares.

 

Prior to our initial public offering, there was no public market for our Class A Common Shares. An active trading market for our Class A Common Shares may not be sustained. You may not be able to sell your shares at the market price, if at all, if trading in our shares is not active. The initial public offering price was determined by negotiations between us and the underwriters based upon a number of factors which are described in the “Plan of Distribution” section. The initial public offering price may not be indicative of prices that will prevail in the trading market.

 

We are subject to liability risks stemming from our foreign status, which could make it more difficult for investors to sue or enforce judgments against our company.

 

Most of our operations and assets are located in the PRC. In addition, most of our executive officers and directors are non-residents of the U.S., and much of the assets of such persons are located outside the U.S. As a result, it could be difficult for investors to effect service of process in the U.S., or to enforce a judgment obtained in the U.S. against us or any of these persons.

 

In addition, British Virgin Islands companies may not have standing to initiate a shareholder derivative action in a federal court of the United States. The circumstances in which any such action may be brought, and the procedures and defenses that may be available in respect to any such action, may result in the rights of shareholders of a British Virgin Islands company being more limited than those of shareholders of a company organized in the United States. Accordingly, shareholders may have fewer alternatives available to them if they believe that corporate wrongdoing has occurred.

 

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Any final and conclusive monetary judgment obtained against a BVI company in the courts of a federal court of the United States (the “Foreign Court”) for a definite sum, may be treated by the courts of the British Virgin Islands as a cause of action in itself so that no retrial of the issues would be necessary provided that in respect of the judgment of the Foreign Court: (i) the Foreign Court issuing the judgment had jurisdiction in the matter and a BVI company either submitted to such jurisdiction or was resident or carrying on business within such jurisdiction and was duly served with process; (ii) the judgment given by the Foreign Court was not in respect of penalties, taxes, fines or similar fiscal or revenue obligations of the BVI company; (iii) in obtaining judgment there was no fraud on the part of the person in whose favour judgment was given or on the part of the Foreign Court; (iv) recognition or enforcement of the judgment in the British Virgin Islands would not be contrary to public policy and (v) the proceedings pursuant to which judgment was obtained were not contrary to natural justice.

 

Lastly, under the law of the British Virgin Islands, there is little statutory law for the protection of minority shareholders. The principal protection under statutory law is that shareholders may bring an action to enforce the constituent documents of the corporation, our Memorandum and Articles of Association. Shareholders are entitled to have the affairs of the company conducted in accordance with the general law and the Articles and Memorandum.

 

There are common law rights for the protection of shareholders that may be invoked, largely dependent on English company law, since the common law of the British Virgin Islands for business companies is limited. Under the general rule pursuant to English company law known as the rule in Foss v. Harbottle, a court will generally refuse to interfere with the management of a company at the insistence of a minority of its shareholders who express dissatisfaction with the conduct of the company’s affairs by the majority or the board of directors. However, every shareholder is entitled to have the affairs of the company conducted properly according to law and the constituent documents of the corporation. As such, if those who control the company have persistently disregarded the requirements of company law or the provisions of the company’s Memorandum and Articles of Association, then the courts will grant relief. Generally, the areas in which the courts will intervene are the following: (1) an act complained of which is outside the scope of the authorized business or is illegal or not capable of ratification by the majority; (2) acts that constitute fraud on the minority where the wrongdoers control the company; (3) acts that infringe on the personal rights of the shareholders, such as the right to vote; and (4) where the company has not complied with provisions requiring approval of a special or extraordinary majority of shareholders, which are more limited than the rights afforded minority shareholders under the laws of many states in the United States.

 

Our board of directors may decline to register transfers of Class A Common Shares in certain circumstances.

 

Our board of directors may, in its sole discretion, decline to register any transfer of any Class A Common Share which is not fully paid up or on which we have a lien. Our directors may also decline to register any transfer of any share unless (i) the instrument of transfer is lodged with us, accompanied by the certificate for the shares to which it relates and such other evidence as our board of directors may reasonably require to show the right of the transferor to make the transfer; (ii) the instrument of transfer is in respect of only one class of shares; (iii) the instrument of transfer is properly stamped, if required; (iv) in the case of a transfer to joint holders, the number of joint holders to whom the share is to be transferred does not exceed four; (v) the shares conceded are free of any lien in favor of us; or (vi) a fee of such maximum sum as Nasdaq may determine to be payable, or such lesser sum as our board of directors may from time to time require, is paid to us in respect thereof.

 

If our directors refuse to register a transfer they shall send to each of the transferor and the transferee notice of such refusal. The registration of transfers may, on 14 days’ notice being given by advertisement in such one or more newspapers or by electronic means, be suspended and the register closed at such times and for such periods as our board of directors may from time to time determine, provided, however, that the registration of transfers shall not be suspended nor the register closed for more than 30 days in any year.

 

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You may be unable to present proposals before general meetings not called by shareholders.

 

British Virgin Islands law provides shareholders with only limited rights to requisition a general meeting and does not provide shareholders with any right to put any proposal before a general meeting. However, these rights may be provided in a company’s articles of association. Our Articles of Association allow our shareholders holding shares representing in aggregate not less than 30% of our voting rights in issue, to requisition a meeting of our shareholders, in which case our directors are obliged to call such meeting and to put the resolutions so requisitioned to a vote at such meeting.

 

Although our Articles of Association do not provide our shareholders with any right to put any proposals before a general meetings not called by such shareholders, any shareholder may submit a proposal to our Board of Directors for consideration of inclusion in a proxy statement. Advance notice of at least seven (7) calendar days is required for the convening of our shareholders’ meeting . A quorum required for a meeting of shareholders consists of at least one shareholder present in person or by proxy, representing not less than one-half of the total issued voting power of each class of shares entitled to vote as a class. In the event we do not have quorum at the time set for the meeting, we are required to adjourn the meeting until the following week, at which time quorum will be satisfied if shares representing at least one-third of the total issued voting power of our company are present in person or by proxy.

 

Risks Related to Doing Business in China 

 

Adverse changes in political, economic and other policies of the Chinese government could have a material adverse effect on the overall economic growth of China, which could materially and adversely affect the growth of our business and our competitive position.

 

The majority of our business operations are conducted in China. Accordingly, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects are affected significantly by economic, political and legal developments in China. China’s economy differs from the economies of most developed countries in many respects, including with respect to the amount of government involvement, level of development, growth rate, control of foreign exchange, and allocation of resources. The PRC government exercises significant control over China’s economic growth through strategical allocation of resources, controlling the payment of foreign currency-denominated obligations, setting monetary policy, and providing preferential treatment to particular industries or companies. While the Chinese economy has experienced significant growth in the past decades, growth has been uneven, both geographically and among various sectors of the economy. The growth of the Chinese economy may not continue at a rate experienced in the past, and the impact of COVID-19 on the Chinese economy may continue. Any prolonged slowdown in the Chinese economy may reduce the demand for our services and materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations. Furthermore, any adverse change in the economic conditions in China, in policies of the PRC government or in laws and regulations in China could have a material adverse effect on the overall economic growth of China and market demand for our outsourcing services. Such developments could adversely affect our businesses, lead to reduction in demand for our services and adversely affect our competitive position.

 

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Uncertainties with respect to the PRC legal system could have a material adverse effect on us.

 

The PRC legal system is based on written statutes. Prior court decisions may be cited for reference but have limited precedential value. We conduct our business primarily through our subsidiaries established in China.

 

These subsidiaries are generally subject to laws and regulations applicable to foreign investment in China. However, since these laws and regulations are relatively new and the PRC legal system continues to rapidly evolve, the interpretations of many laws, regulations and rules are not always uniform and enforcement of these laws, regulations and rules involves uncertainties, which may limit legal protections available to us. Recently, the General Office of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the General Office of the State Council jointly issued the “Opinions on Severely Cracking Down on Illegal Securities Activities According to Law,” or the Opinions, which was made available to the public on July 6, 2021. The Opinions emphasized the need to strengthen the administration over illegal securities activities, and the need to strengthen the supervision over overseas listings by Chinese companies. Effective measures, such as promoting the construction of relevant regulatory systems will be taken to deal with the risks and incidents of China-concept overseas listed companies, and cybersecurity and data privacy protection requirements, etc. The Opinions and any related implementing rules to be enacted may subject us to compliance requirement in the future. In addition, some regulatory requirements issued by certain PRC government authorities may not be consistently applied by other government authorities (including local government authorities), thus making strict compliance with all regulatory requirements impractical, or in some circumstances impossible. For example, we may have to resort to administrative and court proceedings to enforce the legal protection that we enjoy either by law or contract. However, since PRC administrative and court authorities have discretion in interpreting and implementing statutory and contractual terms, it may be more difficult to predict the outcome of administrative and court proceedings and the level of legal protection we enjoy than in more developed legal systems. These uncertainties may impede our ability to enforce the contracts we have entered into with our business partners, customers and suppliers. In addition, such uncertainties, including any inability to enforce our contracts, together with any development or interpretation of PRC law that is adverse to us, could materially and adversely affect our business and operations. Furthermore, intellectual property rights and confidentiality protections in China may not be as effective as in the United States or other more developed countries. We cannot predict the effect of future developments in the PRC legal system, including the promulgation of new laws, changes to existing laws or the interpretation or enforcement thereof, or the preemption of local regulations by national laws. These uncertainties could limit the legal protections available to us and other foreign investors, including you. In addition, any litigation in China may be protracted and result in substantial costs and diversion of our resources and management attention.

 

China’s economic, political and social conditions, as well as changes in any government policies, laws and regulations may be quick with little advance notice and, could have a material adverse effect on our business and the value of our Class A Common Shares.

 

Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects are subject, to a significant extent, to economic, political and legal developments in China. For example, as a result of recent proposed changes in the cybersecurity regulations in China that would require certain Chinese technology firms to undergo a cybersecurity review before being allowed to list on foreign exchanges, this may have a material adverse effect on our business and the value of our Class A Ordinary Share.

 

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China’s economy differs from the economies of most developed countries in many respects, including the amount of government involvement, level of development, growth rate, control of foreign exchange and allocation of resources. While the PRC economy has experienced significant growth in the past two to three decades, growth has been uneven, both geographically and among various sectors of the economy. Demand for target services and products depends, in large part, on economic conditions in China. Any slowdown in China’s economic growth may cause our potential customers to delay or cancel their plans to purchase our services and products, which in turn could reduce our net revenues.

 

Although China’s economy has been transitioning from a planned economy to a more market oriented economy since the late 1970s, the PRC government continues to play a significant role in regulating industry development by imposing industrial policies. The PRC government also exercises significant control over China’s economic growth through allocating resources, controlling the incurrence and payment of foreign currency-denominated obligations, setting monetary policy and providing preferential treatment to particular industries or companies. Changes in any of these policies, laws and regulations may be quick with little advance notice and could adversely affect the economy in China and could have a material adverse effect on our business and the value of our Class A Common Shares.

 

The PRC government has implemented various measures to encourage foreign investment and sustainable economic growth and to guide the allocation of financial and other resources. However, we cannot assure you that the PRC government will not repeal or alter these measures or introduce new measures that will have a negative effect on us, or more specifically, we cannot assure you that the PRC government will not initiate possible governmental actions or scrutiny to us, which could substantially affect our operation and the value of our Common Shares may depreciate quickly. China’s social and political conditions may change and become unstable. Any sudden changes to China’s political system or the occurrence of widespread social unrest could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

 

The Chinese government exerts substantial influence over the manner in which we must conduct our business activities and may intervene or influence our operations at any time, which could result in a material change in our operations and the value of our Class A Common Shares.

 

The Chinese government has exercised and continues to exercise substantial control over virtually every sector of the Chinese economy through regulation and state ownership. Our ability to operate in China may be harmed by changes in its laws and regulations, including those relating to securities regulation, data protection, cybersecurity and mergers and acquisitions and other matters. The central or local governments of these jurisdictions may impose new, stricter regulations or interpretations of existing regulations that would require additional expenditures and efforts on our part to ensure our compliance with such regulations or interpretations.

 

Government actions in the future could significantly affect economic conditions in China or particular regions thereof, and could require us to materially change our operating activities or divest ourselves of any interests we hold in Chinese assets. Our business may be subject to various government and regulatory interference in the provinces in which we operate. We may incur increased costs necessary to comply with existing and newly adopted laws and regulations or penalties for any failure to comply. Our operations could be adversely affected, directly or indirectly, by existing or future laws and regulations relating to our business or industry.

 

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Given recent statements by the Chinese government indicating an intent to exert more oversight and control over offerings that are conducted overseas and/or foreign investment in China-based issuers, any such action could significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors and cause the value of such securities to significantly decline or become worthless.

 

Among other things, China’s M&A Rules and the Anti-Monopoly Law established additional procedures and requirements that could make merger and acquisition activities by foreign investors more time-consuming and complex. Such regulation requires, among other things, that State Administration for Market Regulation (SAMR) be notified in advance of any change-of-control transaction in which a foreign investor acquires control of a PRC domestic enterprise or a foreign company with substantial PRC operations, if certain thresholds are triggered. Moreover, the Anti-Monopoly Law requires that transactions which involve the national security, the examination on the national security shall also be conducted according to the relevant provisions of the State. In addition, PRC Measures for the Security Review of Foreign Investment which became effective in January 2021 require acquisitions by foreign investors of PRC companies engaged in military-related or certain other industries that are crucial to national security be subject to security review before consummation of any such acquisition. We may pursue potential strategic acquisitions in China that are complementary to our business and operations. Complying with the requirements of these regulations to complete such transactions could be time-consuming, and any required approval processes, including obtaining approval or clearance from the MOFCOM, may delay or inhibit our ability to complete such transactions, which could affect our ability to expand our business or maintain our market share.

 

Recently, the General Office of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the General Office of the State Council jointly issued the Opinions on Severely Cracking Down on Illegal Securities Activities According to Law, or the Opinions, which was made available to the public on July 6, 2021. The Opinions emphasized the need to strengthen the administration over illegal securities activities, and the need to strengthen the supervision over overseas listings by Chinese companies. Effective measures, such as promoting the construction of relevant regulatory systems, will be taken to deal with the risks and incidents of China-concept overseas listed companies. As of the date of this prospectus, we have not received any inquiry, notice, warning, or sanctions from PRC government authorities in connection with the Opinions.

 

On June 10, 2021, the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress of China, or the SCNPC, promulgated the PRC Data Security Law, which took effect in September 2021. The PRC Data Security Law imposes data security and privacy obligations on entities and individuals carrying out data activities, and introduces a data classification and hierarchical protection system based on the importance of data in economic and social development, and the degree of harm it will cause to national security, public interests, or legitimate rights and interests of individuals or organizations when such data is tampered with, destroyed, leaked, illegally acquired or used. The PRC Data Security Law also provides for a national security review procedure for data activities that may affect national security and imposes export restrictions on certain data an information.

 

In early July 2021, regulatory authorities in China launched cybersecurity investigations with regard to several China-based companies that are listed in the United States. The Chinese cybersecurity regulator announced on July 2 that it had begun an investigation of Didi Global Inc. (NYSE: DIDI) and two days later ordered that the company’s app be removed from smartphone app stores. On July 5, 2021, the Chinese cybersecurity regulator launched the same investigation on two other Internet platforms, China’s Full Truck Alliance of Full Truck Alliance Co. Ltd. (NYSE: YMM) and Boss of KANZHUN LIMITED (Nasdaq: BZ). On July 24, 2021, the General Office of the Communist Party of China Central Committee and the General Office of the State Council jointly released the Guidelines for Further Easing the Burden of Excessive Homework and Off-campus Tutoring for Students at the Stage of Compulsory Education, pursuant to which foreign investment in such firms via mergers and acquisitions, franchise development, and variable interest entities are banned from this sector.

 

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On November 14, 2021, the CAC released the Regulations on the Network Data Security Management (Draft for Comments), or the Data Security Management Regulations Draft, to solicit public opinion and comments. Pursuant to the Data Security Management Regulations Draft, data processor holding more than one million users/users’ individual information shall be subject to cybersecurity review before listing abroad. Data processing activities refers to activities such as the collection, retention, use, processing, transmission, provision, disclosure, or deletion of data. According to the latest amended Cybersecurity Review Measures, which was promulgated on December 28, 2021, and will become effective on February 15, 2022 and replace the Cybersecurity Review Measures promulgated on April 13, 2020, an online platform operator holding more than one million users/users’ individual information shall be subject to cybersecurity review before listing abroad. Since the Cybersecurity Review Measures is new, the implementation and interpretation thereof is not yet clear. As of the date of this prospectus, we have not been informed by any PRC governmental authority of any requirement that we file for approval for this offering.

 

On August 17, 2021, the State Council promulgated the Regulations on the Protection of the Security of Critical Information Infrastructure, or the Regulations, which took effect on September 1, 2021. The Regulations supplement and specify the provisions on the security of critical information infrastructure as stated in the Cybersecurity Review Measures. The Regulations provide, among others, that protection department of certain industry or sector shall notify the operator of the critical information infrastructure in time after the identification of certain critical information infrastructure.

 

On August 20, 2021, the SCNPC promulgated the Personal Information Protection Law of the PRC, or the Personal Information Protection Law, which took effect in November 2021. As the first systematic and comprehensive law specifically for the protection of personal information in the PRC, the Personal Information Protection Law provides, among others, that (i) an individual’s consent shall be obtained to use sensitive personal information, such as biometric characteristics and individual location tracking, (ii) personal information operators using sensitive personal information shall notify individuals of the necessity of such use and impact on the individual’s rights, and (iii) where personal information operators reject an individual’s request to exercise his or her rights, the individual may file a lawsuit with a People’s Court. Given that the above mentioned newly promulgated laws, regulations and policies were recently promulgated or issued, and have not yet taken effect (as applicable), their interpretation, application and enforcement are subject to substantial uncertainties. See “Risk Factor — We may be liable for improper use or appropriation of personal information provided by our customers” and “Risk Factors — Our failure to obtain prior approval of the China Securities Regulatory Commission (“CSRC”) for the listing and trading of our Class A Common Shares on a foreign stock exchange could delay this offering or could have a material adverse effect upon our business, operating results, reputation and trading price of our Class A Common Shares.

 

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Draft rules for China-based companies seeking for securities offerings in foreign stock markets was released by the CSRC for public consultation. While such rules have not yet come into effect, the Chinese government may exert more oversight and control over overseas public offerings conducted by China-based issuers, which could significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer our Class A Common Shares to investors and could cause the value of our Class A Common Shares to significantly decline or become worthless.

 

On December 24, 2021, CSRC and relevant departments of the State Council published the Draft Rules Regarding Overseas Listings, which aim to regulate overseas securities offerings and listings by China-based companies, are available for public consultation. The Draft Rules Regarding Overseas Listing aim to lay out the filing regulation arrangement for both direct and indirect overseas listing and clarify the determination criteria for indirect overseas listing in overseas markers.

 

The Draft Rules Regarding Overseas Listing, among other things, stipulate that, after making initial applications with overseas stock markets for initial public offerings or listings, all China-based companies shall file with CSRC within three working days, and make filings for certain matters, including follow-on offerings, after their initial public offerings or listings. The required filing materials with the CSRC include (without limitation): (i) record-filing reports and related undertakings, (ii) compliance certificates, filing or approval documents from the primary regulator of the applicants’ businesses (if applicable), (iii) security assessment opinions issued by related departments (if applicable), (iv) PRC legal opinions, and (v) prospectus. In addition, overseas offerings and listings may be prohibited for such China-based companies when any of the following applies: (1) if the intended securities offerings and listings are specifically prohibited by the laws, regulations or provision of the PRC; (2) if the intended securities offerings and listings may constitute a threat to, or endanger national security as reviewed and determined by competent authorities under the State Council in accordance with laws; (3) if there are material ownership disputes over applicants’ equity interests, major assets, core technologies, etc.; (4) if, in the past three years, applicants’ domestic enterprises, controlling shareholders or de facto controllers have committed corruption, bribery, embezzlement, misappropriation of property, or other criminal offenses disruptive to the order of the socialist market economy, or are currently under judicial investigation for suspicion of criminal offenses, or are under investigation for suspicion of major violations; (5) if, in the past three years, any directors, supervisors, or senior executives of applicants have been subject to administrative punishments for severe violations, or are currently under judicial investigation for suspicion of criminal offenses, or are under investigation for suspicion of major violations; (6) other circumstances as prescribed by the State Council. The Draft Administrative Provisions stipulate that a fine between RMB 1 million and RMB 10 million may be imposed if an applicant fails to fulfill the filing requirements with the CSRC or conducts an overseas offering or listing in violation of the Draft Rules Regarding Overseas Listings, and in cases of severe violations, a parallel order to suspend relevant businesses or halt operations for rectification may be issued, and relevant business permits or operational license revoked.

 

As of the date of this prospectus, the Draft Rules Regarding Overseas Listings have not been promulgated, and neither we nor any of our PRC Subsidiaries have been required to obtain permission from, or make filings with, CSRC or any Chinese governmental agencies for any of our U.S. offerings. The Draft Rules Regarding Overseas Listings, if enacted, however, may subject us to additional compliance requirements in the future, and though we believe that none of six situations that would clearly prohibit overseas listing and offering apply to us, we cannot assure you that we will be able to receive clearance of such filing requirements in a timely manner, or at all. If CSRC or any Chinese governmental agencies requires that we obtain its approval prior to the completion of this offering, the offering will be delayed until we have obtained such approval, which may take several months. There is also the possibility that we may not be able to obtain or maintain such approval or that we inadvertently concluded that such approval was not required. If prior governmental agencies approval was required while we inadvertently concluded that such approval was not required or if applicable laws and regulations or the interpretation of such were modified to require us to obtain such approval in the future, we may face regulatory actions or other sanctions from CSRC or other Chinese governmental agencies. These authorities may impose fines and penalties upon our operations in China, limit our operating privileges in China, delay or restrict the repatriation of the proceeds from this offering into China, or take other actions that could have a material adverse effect upon our business, financial condition, results of operations, reputation and prospects, as well as the trading price of our Class A Common Shares. CSRC or other Chinese governmental agencies may also take actions requiring us, or making it advisable for us, to terminate this offering prior to closing. Any failure of us to fully comply with new regulatory requirements may significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer the Class A Common Shares, cause significant disruption to our business operations, severely damage our reputation, materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations, and cause the Class A Common Shares to significantly decline in value or become worthless.

 

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The holding company may be subject to approval or other requirement from PRC authorities in connection with this offering, and, if required, we cannot assure you that we will be able to obtain such approval or satisfy such requirement. If we failed to obtain such approval or satisfy such requirement, we may not be able to continue listing on U.S. exchange, continue to offer securities to investors, or materially affect the interest of the investors and the value of our Class A Common Shares may decrease or become worthless.

 

As of the date of this prospectus, we or our Subsidiaries have not received any requirement to obtain permission or approval from CSRC or Cyberspace Administration of China. However, recently, the General Office of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the General Office of the State Council jointly issued the “Opinions on Severely Cracking Down on Illegal Securities Activities According to Law,” or the Opinions, which was made available to the public on July 6, 2021. The Opinions emphasized the need to strengthen the administration over illegal securities activities, and the need to strengthen the supervision over overseas listings by Chinese companies. Effective measures, such as promoting the construction of relevant regulatory systems will be taken to deal with the risks and incidents of China-concept overseas listed companies, and cybersecurity and data privacy protection requirements and similar matters. The Opinions and any related implementing rules to be enacted may subject us to compliance requirement in the future.

 

Given the current regulatory environment in the PRC, we are still subject to the uncertainty of interpretation and enforcement of the rules and regulations in the PRC, which can change quickly with little advance notice, and any future actions of the PRC authorities. It is uncertain when and whether the Company will be required to obtain permission from the PRC government to list on U.S. exchanges (including retroactively), and even if such permission is obtained, whether it will be denied or rescinded. As a result, our operations could be adversely affected, directly or indirectly, by existing or future laws and regulations relating to our business or industry.

 

PRC laws and regulations governing our current business operations are sometimes vague and uncertain and any changes in such laws and regulations may impair our ability to operate profitably.

 

There are substantial uncertainties regarding the interpretation and application of PRC laws and regulations including, but not limited to, the laws and regulations governing our business and the enforcement and performance of our arrangements with customers in certain circumstances. The laws and regulations are sometimes vague and may be subject to future changes, and their official interpretation and enforcement may involve substantial uncertainty. The effectiveness and interpretation of newly enacted laws or regulations, including amendments to existing laws and regulations, may be delayed, and our business may be affected if we rely on laws and regulations which are subsequently adopted or interpreted in a manner different from our understanding of these laws and regulations. New laws and regulations that affect existing and proposed future businesses may also be applied retroactively. We cannot predict what effect the interpretation of existing or new PRC laws or regulations may have on our business.

 

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The PRC legal system is a civil law system based on written statutes. Unlike the common law system, prior court decisions under the civil law system may be cited for reference but have limited precedential value. Since these laws and regulations are relatively new and the PRC legal system continues to rapidly evolve, the interpretations of many laws, regulations and rules are not always uniform and the enforcement of these laws, regulations and rules involves uncertainties.

 

In 1979, the PRC government began to promulgate a comprehensive system of laws and regulations governing economic matters in general. The overall effect of legislation over the past three decades has significantly enhanced the protections afforded to various forms of foreign investments in China. However, China has not developed a fully integrated legal system, and recently enacted laws and regulations may not sufficiently cover all aspects of economic activities in China. In particular, the interpretation and enforcement of these laws and regulations involve uncertainties. Since PRC administrative and court authorities have significant discretion in interpreting and implementing statutory provisions and contractual terms, it may be difficult to evaluate the outcome of administrative and court proceedings and the level of legal protection we enjoy. These uncertainties may affect our judgment on the relevance of legal requirements and our ability to enforce our contractual rights or tort claims. In addition, the regulatory uncertainties may be exploited through unmerited or frivolous legal actions or threats in attempts to extract payments or benefits from us.

 

Furthermore, the PRC legal system is based in part on government policies and internal rules, some of which are not published on a timely basis or at all and may have retroactive effect. As a result, we may not be aware of our violation of any of these policies and rules until sometime after the violation. In addition, any administrative and court proceedings in China may be protracted, resulting in substantial costs and diversion of resources and management attention.

 

From time to time, we may have to resort to administrative and court proceedings to enforce our legal rights. However, since PRC administrative and court authorities have significant discretion in interpreting and implementing statutory and contractual terms, it may be more difficult to evaluate the outcome of administrative and court proceedings and the level of legal protection we enjoy than in more developed legal systems. Furthermore, the PRC legal system is based in part on government policies and internal rules (some of which are not published in a timely manner or at all) that may have retroactive effect. As a result, we may not be aware of our violation of these policies and rules until sometime after the violation. Such uncertainties, including uncertainty over the scope and effect of our contractual, property (including intellectual property) and procedural rights, and any failure to respond to changes in the regulatory environment in China could materially and adversely affect our business and impede our ability to continue our operations.

 

Recently, the General Office of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the General Office of the State Council jointly issued the “Opinions on Severely Cracking Down on Illegal Securities Activities According to Law,” or the Opinions, which was made available to the public on July 6, 2021. The Opinions emphasized the need to strengthen the administration over illegal securities activities, and the need to strengthen the supervision over overseas listings by Chinese companies. Effective measures, such as promoting the construction of relevant regulatory systems will be taken to deal with the risks and incidents of China-concept overseas listed companies, and cybersecurity and data privacy protection requirements and similar matters. The Opinions and any related implementing rules to be enacted may subject us to compliance requirement in the future.

 

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Regulation and censorship of information distribution over the Internet in China may adversely affect our business, and we may be liable for information displayed on, retrieved from or linked to our website.

 

China has enacted laws and regulations governing Internet access and the distribution of products, services, news, information, audio-video programs and other content through the Internet. The PRC government has prohibited the distribution of information through the Internet that it deems to be in violation of PRC laws and regulations. If any of the content on our online platform is deemed to violate any content restrictions by the PRC government, we would not be able to continue to display such content and could become subject to penalties, including confiscation of income, fines, suspension of business and revocation of required licenses, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. We may also be subject to potential liability for any unlawful actions of our customers or customers of our website or for content we distribute that is deemed inappropriate. It may be difficult to determine the type of content that may result in liability to us, and if we are found to be liable, we may be prevented from operating our website in China.

 

China Securities Regulatory Commission and other Chinese government agencies may exert more oversight and control over offerings that are conducted overseas and foreign investment in China-based issuers, especially those in the technology filed. Additional compliance procedures may be required in connection with this offering, and, if required, we cannot predict whether we will be able to obtain such approval. If we are required to obtain PRC governmental permissions to commence the sale of the securities, we will not commence the offering until we obtain such permissions. As a result, we face uncertainty about future actions by the PRC government that could significantly affect our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors and cause the value of our securities to significantly decline or be worthless.

 

On July 6, 2021, the General Office of the Communist Party of China Central Committee and the General Office of the State Council jointly issued a document to crack down on illegal activities in the securities market and promote the high-quality development of the capital market, which, among other things, requires the relevant governmental authorities to strengthen cross-border oversight of law-enforcement and judicial cooperation, to enhance supervision over China-based companies listed overseas, and to establish and improve the system of extraterritorial application of the PRC securities laws. Since this document is relatively new, uncertainties still exist in relation to how soon legislative or administrative regulation making bodies will respond and what existing or new laws or regulations or detailed implementations and interpretations will be modified or promulgated, if any, and the potential impact such modified or new laws and regulations will have on our future business, results of operations, and the value of our securities.

 

Further, Chinese government continues to exert more oversight and control over Chinese technology firms. On July 2, 2021, Chinese cybersecurity regulator announced, that it had begun an investigation of Didi Global Inc. (NYSE: DIDI) and two days later ordered that the company’s application be removed from smartphone application stores. On July 5, 2021, the Chinese cybersecurity regulator launched the same investigation on two other Internet platforms, China’s Full Truck Alliance of Full Truck Alliance Co. Ltd. (NYSE: YMM) and Boss of KANZHUN LIMITED (Nasdaq: BZ).

 

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Therefore, China Securities Regulatory Commission and other Chinese government agencies may exert more oversight and control over offerings that are conducted overseas and foreign investment in China-based issuers, especially those in the technology filed. As of the date of this prospectus, we have not received any requirement to obtain approval of CSRC to list on U.S. exchanges. Further, however, given the current regulatory environment in the PRC, we are still subject to the uncertainty of interpretation and enforcement of the rules and regulations in the PRC, which can change quickly with little advance notice, and any future actions of the PRC authorities, additional compliance procedures may be required in connection with this offering and our business operations. If such compliance procedures were required in the future in connection with this offering and our business operations, and, if required, we cannot predict whether we will be able to obtain such approval. If we are unable to obtain such permission we may be forced to abandon this offering. As a result, we face uncertainty about future actions by the PRC government that could significantly affect our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors and cause the value of our Class A Common Shares to significantly decline or be worthless.

 

We may be subject to PRC laws relating to the use, sharing, retention, security and transfer of confidential and private information, such as personal information and other data. These laws continue to develop, and the PRC government may adopt other rules and restrictions in the future. Non-compliance could result in penalties or other significant legal liabilities.

 

The Cybersecurity Law, which was adopted by the National People’s Congress on November 7, 2016 and came into force on June 1, 2017, and the Cybersecurity Review Measures, or the “Review Measures,” which were promulgated on April 13, 2020, amended on December 28, 2021 and will become effective on February 15, 2022, provide that personal information and important data collected and generated by a critical information infrastructure operator in the course of its operations in China must be stored in China, and if a critical information infrastructure operator purchases internet products and services that affect or may affect national security, it should be subject to cybersecurity review by the CAC. In addition, a cybersecurity review is required where critical information infrastructure operators, or the “CIIOs,” purchase network-related products and services, which products and services affect or may affect national security. Due to the lack of further interpretations, the exact scope of what constitute a “CIIO” remains unclear. Further, the PRC government authorities may have wide discretion in the interpretation and enforcement of these laws. In addition, Review Measures stipulates that an online platform operator holding more than one million users/users’ individual information shall be subject to cybersecurity review before listing abroad. Cybersecurity Review Measures does not provide a definition of “online platform operator”, therefore, we cannot assure you that we will not be deemed as an “online platform operator”. As of the date of this prospectus, we have not received any notice from any authorities identifying us as a CIIO or requiring us to undertake a cybersecurity review by the CAC. Further, as of the date of this prospectus, we have not been subject to any penalties, fines, suspensions, investigations from any competent authorities for violation of the regulations or policies that have been issued by the CAC. On June 10, 2021, the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress promulgated the Data Security Law which took effect on September 1, 2021. The Data Security Law requires that data shall not be collected by theft or other illegal means, and it also provides that a data classification and hierarchical protection system shall be established. The data classification and hierarchical protection system protects data according to its importance in economic and social development, and the damages it may cause to national security, public interests, or the legitimate rights and interests of individuals and organizations if the data is falsified, damaged, disclosed, illegally obtained or illegally used, which protection system is expected to be built by the state for data security in the near future. On November 14, 2021, CAC published the Regulations on the Network Data Security Management (Draft for Comments), or the Data Security Management Regulations Draft to solicit public opinion and comments. Under the Data Security Management Regulations Draft, which provides that an overseas initial public offering to be conducted by a data processor processing the personal information of more than one million individuals shall apply for a cybersecurity review. Data processor means an individual or organization that independently makes decisions on the purpose and manner of processing in data processing activities, and data processing activities refers to activities such as the collection, retention, use, processing, transmission, provision, disclosure, or deletion of data. We may be deemed as a data processor under the Data Security Management Regulations Draft. However, the Data Security Management Regulations Draft has not been formally adopted. It is uncertain when the final regulation will be issued and take effect, how it will be enacted, interpreted or implemented, and whether it will affect us. There remains uncertainty as to how the Review Measures and the Data Security Management Regulations Draft will be interpreted or implemented and whether the PRC regulatory agencies, including the CAC, may adopt new laws, regulations, rules, or detailed implementation and interpretation related to the Review Measures and the Data Security Regulations Draft. If any such new laws, regulations, rules, or implementation and interpretation come into effect, we expect to take all reasonable measures and actions to comply. We cannot assure you that PRC regulatory agencies, including the CAC, would take the same view as we do, and there is no assurance that we can fully or timely comply with such laws should they be deemed applicable to our operations. Any cybersecurity review could also result in negative publicity with respect to our Company and diversion of our managerial and financial resources. There is no certainty as to how such review or prescribed actions would impact our operations and we cannot guarantee that any clearance can be obtained or any actions that may be required for our listing on the Nasdaq capital market and the offering as well can be taken in a timely manner, or at all.

 

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In addition, according to the Personal Information Protection Law, where the purpose of the activity is to provide a product or service to that natural person located within China, such activity shall comply with the Personal Information Protection Law. Further, the Data Security Law provides that where any data handling activity carried out outside of the territory of China harms the national security, public interests, or the legitimate rights and interests of citizens or organizations of China, legal liability shall be investigated in accordance with such law. However, the Personal Information Protection Law and the Data Security Law are relatively new, there remains uncertainty as to how the laws will be interpreted or implemented and whether the PRC regulatory agencies, including the CAC, may adopt new laws, regulations, rules, or detailed implementation and interpretation related to the two laws.

 

The regulatory requirements with respect to cybersecurity and data privacy are constantly evolving and can be subject to varying interpretations, and significant changes, resulting in uncertainties about the scope of our responsibilities in that regard. Failure to comply with the cybersecurity and data privacy requirements in a timely manner, or at all, may subject us to government enforcement actions and investigations, fines, penalties, suspension, or disruption of our operations, among other things.

 

We may be liable for improper use or appropriation of personal information provided by our customers.

 

Our business can potentially involve collecting and retaining certain internal and customer data. We also maintain information about various aspects of our operations as well as regarding our employees. The integrity and protection of our customer, employee and company data is critical to our business. Our customers and employees expect that we will adequately protect their personal information. We are required by applicable laws to keep strictly confidential the personal information that we collect, and to take adequate security measures to safeguard such information.

 

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The PRC Criminal Law, as amended by its Amendment 7 (effective on February 28, 2009) and Amendment 9 (effective on November 1, 2015), prohibits institutions, companies, and their employees from selling or otherwise illegally disclosing a citizen’s personal information obtained in performing duties or providing services or obtaining such information through theft or other illegal ways. On November 7, 2016, the SCNPC issued the Cyber Security Law of the PRC, or Cyber Security Law, which became effective on June 1, 2017. Pursuant to the Cyber Security Law, network operators must not, without users’ consent, collect their personal information, and may only collect users’ personal information necessary to provide their services. Providers are also obliged to provide security maintenance for their products and services and shall comply with provisions regarding the protection of personal information as stipulated under the relevant laws and regulations.

 

The Civil Code of the PRC (issued by the PRC National People’s Congress on May 28, 2020 and effective from January 1, 2021) provides legal basis for privacy and personal information infringement claims under the Chinese civil laws. PRC regulators, including the CAC, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, or MIIT, and the Ministry of Public Security, have been increasingly focused on regulation in data security and data protection.

 

The PRC regulatory requirements regarding cybersecurity are evolving. For instance, various regulatory bodies in China, including the CAC, the Ministry of Public Security and the State Administration for Market Regulation, or the SAMR (formerly known as State Administration for Industry and Commerce, or the SAIC), have enforced data privacy and protection laws and regulations with varying and evolving standards and interpretations. In April 2020, the Chinese government promulgated Cybersecurity Review Measures, which came into effect on June 1, 2020, was amended on December 28, 2021, and will become effective on February 15, 2022. According to the Cybersecurity Review Measures, (i) operators of critical information infrastructure must pass a cybersecurity review when purchasing network products and services which do or may affect national security; (ii) online platform operators who are engaged in data processing are also subject to the regulatory scope; (iii) the CSRC is included as one of the regulatory authorities for purposes of jointly establishing the state cybersecurity review working mechanism; (iv) online platform operators holding more than one million users/users’ individual information and seeking a listing outside China shall file for cybersecurity review; (v) the risks of core data, material data or large amounts of personal information being stolen, leaked, destroyed, damaged, illegally used or illegally transmitted to overseas parties and the risks of critical information infrastructure, core data, material data or large amounts of personal information being influenced, controlled or used maliciously shall be collectively taken into consideration during the cybersecurity review process.

 

Certain internet platforms in China have been reportedly subject to heightened regulatory scrutiny in relation to cybersecurity matters. As of the date of this prospectus, we have not been informed by any PRC governmental authority of any requirement that we file for a cybersecurity review. However, if we are deemed to be a critical information infrastructure operator or a company that is engaged in data processing and holds personal information of more than one million users, we could be subject to PRC cybersecurity review.

 

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As of the date hereof, we are of the view that we are in compliance with the applicable PRC laws and regulations governing the data privacy and personal information in all material respects, including the data privacy and personal information requirements of the Cyberspace Administration of China, and we have not received any complaints from any third party, or been investigated or punished by any PRC competent authority in relation to data privacy and personal information protection. However, as there remains significant uncertainty in the interpretation and enforcement of relevant PRC cybersecurity laws and regulations, we could be subject to cybersecurity review, and if so, we may not be able to pass such review in relation to this offering. In addition, we could become subject to enhanced cybersecurity review or investigations launched by PRC regulators in the future. Any failure or delay in the completion of the cybersecurity review procedures or any other non-compliance with the related laws and regulations may result in fines or other penalties, including suspension of business, website closure, removal of our app from the relevant app stores, and revocation of prerequisite licenses, as well as reputational damage or legal proceedings or actions against us, which may have material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

 

On June 10, 2021, the SCNPC promulgated the PRC Data Security Law, which took effect in September 2021. The PRC Data Security Law imposes data security and privacy obligations on entities and individuals carrying out data activities, and introduces a data classification and hierarchical protection system based on the importance of data in economic and social development, and the degree of harm it will cause to national security, public interests, or legitimate rights and interests of individuals or organizations when such data is tampered with, destroyed, leaked, illegally acquired or used. The PRC Data Security Law also provides for a national security review procedure for data activities that may affect national security and imposes export restrictions on certain data an information.

 

As uncertainties remain regarding the interpretation and implementation of these laws and regulations, we cannot assure you that we will comply with such regulations in all respects and we may be ordered to rectify or terminate any actions that are deemed illegal by regulatory authorities. We may also become subject to fines and/or other sanctions which may have material adverse effect on our business, operations and financial condition.

 

While we take various measures to comply with all applicable data privacy and protection laws and regulations, our current security measures and those of our third-party service providers may not always be adequate for the protection of our customer, employee or company data. We may be a target for computer hackers, foreign governments or cyber terrorists in the future.

 

Unauthorized access to our proprietary internal and customer data may be obtained through break-ins, sabotage, breach of our secure network by an unauthorized party, computer viruses, computer denial-of-service attacks, employee theft or misuse, breach of the security of the networks of our third-party service providers, or other misconduct. Because the techniques used by computer programmers who may attempt to penetrate and sabotage our proprietary internal and customer data change frequently and may not be recognized until launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques.

 

Unauthorized access to our proprietary internal and customer data may also be obtained through inadequate use of security controls. Any of such incidents may harm our reputation and adversely affect our business and results of operations. In addition, we may be subject to negative publicity about our security and privacy policies, systems, or measurements. Any failure to prevent or mitigate security breaches, cyber-attacks or other unauthorized access to our systems or disclosure of our customers’ data, including their personal information, could result in loss or misuse of such data, interruptions to our service system, diminished customer experience, loss of customer confidence and trust, impairment of our technology infrastructure, and harm our reputation and business, resulting in significant legal and financial exposure and potential lawsuits.

 

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We must remit the offering proceeds to China before they may be used to benefit our business in China, the process of which may be time-consuming, and we cannot assure that we can finish all necessary governmental registration processes in a timely manner.

 

The proceeds of this offering may be sent back to the PRC, and the process for sending such proceeds back to the PRC may be time-consuming after the closing of this offering. We may be unable to use these proceeds to grow our business until our PRC subsidiaries receive such proceeds in the PRC. Any transfer of funds by us to our PRC subsidiaries, either as a shareholder loan or as an increase in registered capital, are subject to approval by or registration or filing with relevant governmental authorities in China. Any foreign loans procured by our PRC subsidiaries is required to be registered with China’s State Administration of Foreign Exchange (“SAFE”) or its local branches or satisfy relevant requirements, and our PRC subsidiaries may not procure loans which exceed the difference between their respective total project investment amount and registered capital or 2 times (which may be varied year by year due to the change of PRC’s national macro-control policy) of the net worth of our PRC subsidiary. According to the relevant PRC regulations on foreign-invested enterprises in China, capital contributions to our PRC subsidiaries are subject to the approval of or filing with State Administration for Market Regulation in its local branches, the Ministry of Commerce in its local branches and registration with a local bank authorized by SAFE.

 

To remit the proceeds of the offering, we must take the steps legally required under the PRC laws, for example, we will open a special foreign exchange account for capital account transactions, remit the offering proceeds into such special foreign exchange account and apply for settlement of the foreign exchange. The timing of the process is difficult to estimate because the efficiencies of different SAFE branches can vary materially.

 

In light of the various requirements imposed by PRC regulations on loans to, and direct investment in, PRC entities by offshore holding companies, we cannot assure you that we will be able to complete the necessary government registrations or obtain the necessary government approvals on a timely basis, if at all, with respect to future loans by us to our PRC subsidiary or with respect to future capital contributions by us to our PRC subsidiary. If we fail to complete such registrations or obtain such approvals, our ability to use the proceeds from this offering and to capitalize or otherwise fund our PRC operations may be negatively affected, which could materially and adversely affect our liquidity, our ability to fund and expand our business and our Common Shares.

 

U.S. regulators’ ability to conduct investigations or enforce rules in China is limited.

 

The majority of our operations conducted outside of the U.S. As a result, it may not be possible for the U.S. regulators to conduct investigations or inspections, or to effect service of process within the U.S. or elsewhere outside China on us, our subsidiaries, officers, directors and shareholders, and others, including with respect to matters arising under U.S. federal or state securities laws. China does not have treaties providing for reciprocal recognition and enforcement of judgments of courts with the U.S. and many other countries. As a result, recognition and enforcement in China of these judgments in relation to any matter, including U.S. securities laws and the laws of the Cayman Islands, may be difficult or impossible.

 

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You may experience difficulties in effecting service of legal process, enforcing foreign judgments or bringing original actions in China against us or Hong Kong or other foreign laws, and the ability of U.S. authorities to bring actions in China may also be limited.

 

We are an exempted company with limited liability incorporated under the laws of the British Virgin Island, we conduct a significant portion of our operations in China and the majority of our assets are located in China. In addition, all of our directors, officers or senior management other than Yunhao Chen, are located in China. As a result, it may be more difficult for our Shareholders to enforce liabilities and enforce judgments on those individuals. Our PRC legal counsel has advised us that China does not have treaties providing for the reciprocal recognition and enforcement of judgments of courts with the Cayman Islands and many other countries and regions. Therefore, recognition and enforcement in China of judgments of a court in any of these non-PRC jurisdictions in relation to any matter not subject to a binding arbitration provision may be difficult or impossible.

 

On July 14, 2006, Hong Kong and the PRC entered into the Arrangement on Reciprocal Recognition and Enforcement of Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters by the Courts of the PRC and of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Pursuant to Choice of Court Agreements Between Parties Concerned, or the 2006 Arrangement, pursuant to which a party with a final court judgment rendered by a Hong Kong court requiring payment of money in a civil and commercial case pursuant to a choice of court agreement in writing may apply for recognition and enforcement of the judgment in the PRC. Similarly, a party with a final judgment rendered by a PRC court requiring payment of money in a civil and commercial case pursuant to a choice of court agreement in writing may apply for recognition and enforcement of the judgment in Hong Kong. A choice of court agreement in writing is defined as any agreement in writing entered into between parties after the effective date of the 2006 Arrangement in which a Hong Kong court or a PRC court is expressly designated as the court having sole jurisdiction for the dispute. Therefore, it is not possible to enforce a judgment rendered by a Hong Kong court in the PRC if the parties in dispute have not agreed to enter into a choice of court agreement in writing. The 2006 Arrangement became effective on August 1, 2008.

 

Subsequently on January 18, 2019, Hong Kong and the PRC entered into the Arrangement on Reciprocal Recognition and Enforcement of Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters between the Courts of the Mainland and of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, or the Arrangement, pursuant to which, among other things, the scope of application was widened to cover both monetary and non-monetary judgments in most civil and commercial matters, including effective judgments on civil compensation in criminal cases. In addition, the requirement of a choice of court agreement in writing has been removed. It is no longer necessary for parties to agree to enter into a choice of court agreement in writing, as long as it can be shown that there is a connection between the dispute and the requesting place, such as place of the defendant’s residence, place of the defendant’s business or place of performance of the contract or tort. The 2019 Arrangement shall apply to judgments in civil and commercial matters made on or after its effective date by the courts of both sides. The 2006 Arrangement shall be terminated on the same day when the 2019 Arrangement comes into effect. If a “written choice of court agreement” has been signed by parties according to the 2006 Arrangement prior to the effective date of the 2019 Arrangement, the 2006 Arrangement shall still apply. Although the 2019 Arrangement has been signed, its effective date has yet to be announced. Therefore, there are still uncertainties about the outcomes and effectiveness of enforcement or recognition of judgments under the 2019 Arrangement.

 

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Furthermore, shareholder claims that are common in the U.S., including securities law class actions and fraud claims, generally are difficult to pursue as a matter of law or practicality in China. For example, in China, there are significant legal and other obstacles to obtaining information needed for shareholder investigations or litigation outside China or otherwise with respect to foreign entities. Although the local authorities in China may establish a regulatory cooperation mechanism with the securities regulatory authorities of another country or region to implement cross-border supervision and administration, such regulatory cooperation with the securities regulatory authorities in the U.S. have not been efficient in the absence of mutual and practical cooperation mechanism. According to Article 177 of the PRC Securities Law which became effective in March 2020, no overseas securities regulator is allowed to directly conduct investigation or evidence collection activities within the territory of the PRC. Accordingly, without the consent of the competent PRC securities regulators and relevant authorities, no organization or individual may provide the documents and materials relating to securities business activities to overseas parties.

 

We face uncertainty regarding the PRC tax reporting obligations and consequences for certain indirect transfers of the stock of our operating company.

 

Pursuant to the Notice on Strengthening Administration of Enterprise Income Tax for Share Transfers by Non-PRC Resident Enterprises issued by the PRC State Administration of Taxation (“SAT”) on December 10, 2009, or Circular 698, where a foreign investor transfers the equity interests of a PRC resident enterprise indirectly by way of the sale of equity interests of an overseas holding company, or an Indirect Transfer, and such overseas holding company is located in a tax jurisdiction that: (i) has an effective tax rate less than 12.5% or (ii) does not tax foreign income of its residents, the foreign investor should report such Indirect Transfer to the competent tax authority of the PRC resident enterprise.

 

On February 3, 2015, the SAT issued the Announcement of the State Administration of Taxation on Several Issues Concerning the Enterprise Income Tax on Indirect Property Transfer by Non-Resident Enterprises, or SAT Bulletin 7. SAT Bulletin 7 supersedes the rules with respect to the Indirect Transfer under SAT Circular 698. SAT Bulletin 7 has introduced a new tax regime that is significantly different from the previous one under SAT Circular 698. SAT Bulletin 7 extends the PRC’s tax jurisdiction to not only Indirect Transfers set forth under SAT Circular 698 but also transactions involving transfer of other taxable assets through offshore transfer of a foreign intermediate holding company. In addition, SAT Bulletin 7 provides clearer criteria than SAT Circular 698 for assessment of reasonable commercial purposes and has introduced safe harbors for internal group restructurings and the purchase and sale of equity through a public securities market. SAT Bulletin 7 also brings challenges to both foreign transferor and transferee (or other person who is obligated to pay for the transfer) of taxable assets. Where a non-resident enterprise transfers taxable assets indirectly by disposing of the equity interests of an overseas holding company, which is an Indirect Transfer, the non-resident enterprise, being the transferor, or the transferee, or the PRC entity that directly owns the taxable assets, may report such Indirect Transfer to the relevant tax authority. Using a “substance over form” principle, the PRC tax authority may disregard the existence of the overseas holding company if it lacks a reasonable commercial purpose and was established for the purpose of reducing, avoiding or deferring PRC tax. As a result, gains derived from such Indirect Transfer may be subject to PRC enterprise income tax, and the transferee or other person who is obligated to pay for the transfer is obligated to withhold the applicable taxes, currently at a rate of 10% for the transfer of equity interests in a PRC resident enterprise. Both the transferor and the transferee may be subject to penalties under PRC tax laws if the transferee fails to withhold the taxes and the transferor fails to pay the taxes.

 

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On October 17, 2017, the SAT issued the Announcement of the State Administration of Taxation on Matters Concerning Withholding of Income Tax of Non-resident Enterprises at Source, or SAT Bulletin 37, which, among others, repealed the SAT Circular 698 on December 1, 2017. SAT Bulletin 37 further details and clarifies the tax withholding methods in respect of income of non-resident enterprises under SAT Circular 698. And certain rules stipulated in SAT Bulletin 7 are replaced by SAT Bulletin 37. Where the non-resident enterprise fails to declare the tax payable pursuant to Article 39 of the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law, the tax authority may order it to pay the tax due within required time limits, and the non-resident enterprise shall declare and pay the tax payable within such time limits specified by the tax authority; however, if the non-resident enterprise voluntarily declares and pays the tax payable before the tax authority orders it to do so within required time limits, it shall be deemed that such enterprise has paid the tax in time.

 

We face uncertainties as to the reporting and other implications of certain past and future transactions where PRC taxable assets are involved, such as offshore restructuring. Our company may be subject to filing obligations or taxed if our company is transferor in such transactions, and may be subject to withholding obligations if our company is transferee in such transactions, under SAT Bulletin 7 and SAT Bulletin 37. For transfer of shares in our company by investors who are non-PRC resident enterprises, our PRC subsidiary may be requested to assist in the filing under SAT Bulletin 7 and SAT Bulletin 37. As a result, we may be required to expend valuable resources to comply with SAT Bulletin 7 and SAT Bulletin 37 or to request the relevant transferors from whom we purchase taxable assets to comply with these circulars, or to establish that our company should not be taxed under these circulars, which may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

 

PRC regulations relating to the establishment of offshore special purpose companies by PRC residents may subject our PRC resident shareholders to personal liability and limit our ability to acquire PRC companies or to inject capital into our PRC subsidiary, limit our PRC subsidiary ability to distribute profits to us, or otherwise materially and adversely affect us.

 

In July 2014, SAFE has promulgated the Circular on Relevant Issues Concerning Foreign Exchange Control on Domestic Residents’ Offshore Investment and Financing and Roundtrip Investment Through Special Purpose Vehicles, or SAFE Circular 37, to replace the Notice on Relevant Issues Concerning Foreign Exchange Administration for Domestic Residents’ Financing and Roundtrip Investment Through Offshore Special Purpose Vehicles, or SAFE Circular 75, which ceased to be effective upon the promulgation of SAFE Circular 37. SAFE Circular 37 requires PRC residents (including PRC individuals and PRC corporate entities as well as foreign individuals that are deemed as PRC residents for foreign exchange administration purpose) to register with SAFE or its local branches in connection with their direct or indirect offshore investment activities. SAFE Circular 37 further requires amendment to the SAFE registrations in the event of any changes with respect to the basic information of the offshore special purpose vehicle, such as change of a PRC individual shareholder, name and operation term, or any significant changes with respect to the offshore special purpose vehicle, such as increase or decrease of capital contribution, share transfer or exchange, or mergers or divisions. SAFE Circular 37 is applicable to our shareholders who are PRC residents and may be applicable to any offshore acquisitions that we make in the future.

 

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If any PRC shareholder who makes direct or indirect investments in offshore special purpose vehicles, or SPV, fails to make the required registration or to update the previously filed registration, the subsidiaries of such SPV in China may be prohibited from distributing its profits or the proceeds from any capital reduction, share transfer or liquidation to the SPV, and the SPV may also be prohibited from making additional capital contribution into its subsidiary in China. On February 28, 2015, the SAFE promulgated a Notice on Further Simplifying and Improving Foreign Exchange Administration Policy on Direct Investment, or SAFE Notice 13, which became effective on June 1, 2015. Under SAFE Notice 13, applications for foreign exchange registration of inbound foreign direct investment and outbound overseas direct investment, including those required under the SAFE Circular 37, will be filed with qualified banks instead of the SAFE. The qualified banks will directly examine the applications and accept registrations under the supervision of the SAFE.

 

Of our current shareholders, five pre-IPO shareholders are individual Chinese residents to whom Notice 37 applies. The remaining pre-IPO shareholders are enterprises and Hong Kong residents, to whom Notice 37 does not apply; provided, however, that to the extent the shareholders of such enterprises are themselves Chinese residents, Notice 37 would apply to such individuals. As of the date hereof, none of the shareholders who are Chinese residents who hold such shares directly or through a Hong Kong enterprise has submitted registration under Notice 37. Although such individuals have promised to complete registration at the time they pay the company’s capital contribution prior to completion of this offering, there can be no assurance such registration will be completed in a timely manner. We have requested PRC residents whom we know hold direct or indirect interests in our company to make the necessary applications, filings and amendments as required under Notice 37 and other related rules. However, we cannot assure you that the registration will be duly and timely completed with the local SAFE branch or qualified banks. In addition, we may not be informed of the identities of all of the PRC residents holding direct or indirect interests in our company. As a result, we cannot assure you that all of our shareholders or beneficial owners who are PRC residents or entities have complied with, and will in the future make or obtain any applicable registrations or approvals required by, SAFE regulations. Failure by such shareholders or beneficial owners to comply with SAFE regulations, or failure by us to amend the foreign exchange registrations of our PRC subsidiary, could subject us to fines or legal sanctions, restrict our overseas or cross-border investment activities, limit our subsidiaries’ ability to make distributions or pay dividends or affect our ownership structure, which could adversely affect our business and prospects.

 

Furthermore, as the interpretation and implementation of these foreign exchange regulations has been constantly evolving, it is unclear how these regulations, and any future regulation concerning offshore or cross-border transactions, will be interpreted, amended and implemented by the relevant governmental authorities. For example, we may be subject to a more stringent review and approval process with respect to our foreign exchange activities, such as remittance of dividends and foreign-currency-denominated borrowings, which may adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. In addition, if we decide to acquire a PRC domestic company, we cannot assure you that we or the owners of such company, as the case may be, will be able to obtain the necessary approvals or complete the necessary filings and registrations required by the foreign exchange regulations. This may restrict our ability to implement our acquisition strategy and could adversely affect our business and prospects.

 

We may rely on dividends and other distributions on equity paid by our subsidiaries, including those based in the PRC, for our cash and financing requirements we may have, and any limitation on the ability of our PRC subsidiaries to make payments to us could have a material and adverse effect on our ability to conduct our business.

 

As a holding company, we rely principally on dividends and other distributions on equity from our subsidiaries, including those based in China, for our cash requirements, including for services of any debt we may incur.

 

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Our PRC Subsidiaries’ ability to distribute dividends is based upon their distributable earnings. Current PRC regulations permit our PRC Subsidiaries to pay dividends to their respective shareholders only out of their accumulated profits, if any, determined in accordance with PRC accounting standards and regulations. In addition, each of our PRC Subsidiaries, as a Foreign Invested Enterprise, or FIE, is required to draw 10% of its after-tax profits each year, if any, to fund a common reserve, and it may stop drawing its after-tax profits if the aggregate balance of the common reserve has already accounted for over 50 percent of its registered capital. These reserves are not distributable as cash dividends. In addition, if our PRC Subsidiaries incur debt on their own behalf in the future, the instruments governing the debt may restrict their ability to pay dividends or make other payments to us. Any limitation on the ability of our PRC Subsidiaries to distribute dividends or other payments to their respective shareholders could materially and adversely limit our ability to grow, make investments or acquisitions that could be beneficial to our business, pay dividends or otherwise fund and conduct our business. Currently, we have installed cash management policies or procedures in place that dictate how funds are transferred, under an umbrella of corporate policies and financial reporting policies. Even though our policies do not specifically address the limitations, as discussed above, on the amount of funds the Company can transfer out of China, if we decide to transfer cash out of China in the future, all relevant transfers will be conducted in compliance with such limitations. As of the date of this prospectus, none of the PRC Subsidiaries has made any dividends or distributions to Dogness.

 

PRC regulation of loans and direct investment by offshore holding companies to PRC entities may delay or prevent us from using the proceeds of this Offering to make loans or additional capital contributions to our PRC subsidiary, which could materially and adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business.

 

We are an offshore holding company conducting our operations in China through our subsidiaries established in China and Hong Kong. We may make loans to our PRC subsidiaries subject to the approval from governmental authorities and limitation of amount, or we may make additional capital contributions to our wholly foreign-owned subsidiaries in China.

 

Any loans to our wholly foreign-owned subsidiaries in China, which are treated as foreign-invested enterprises under PRC law, are subject to PRC regulations and foreign exchange loan registrations. For example, loans by us to our wholly foreign-owned subsidiaries in China to finance their activities must be registered with the local counterpart of SAFE. In addition, a foreign invested enterprise shall use its capital pursuant to the principle of authenticity and self-use within its business scope. The capital of a foreign invested enterprise shall not be used for the following purposes: (i) directly or indirectly used for payment beyond the business scope of the enterprises or the payment prohibited by relevant laws and regulations; (ii) directly or indirectly used for investment in securities or investments other than banks’ principal-secured products unless otherwise provided by relevant laws and regulations; (iii) the granting of loans to non-affiliated enterprises, except where it is expressly permitted in the business license; and (iv) paying the expenses related to the purchase of real estate that is not for self-use (except for the foreign-invested real estate enterprises).

 

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SAFE promulgated the Notice of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange on Reforming the Administration of Foreign Exchange Settlement of Capital of Foreign-invested Enterprises, or SAFE Circular 19, effective June 2015, in replacement of the Circular on the Relevant Operating Issues Concerning the Improvement of the Administration of the Payment and Settlement of Foreign Currency Capital of Foreign-Invested Enterprises, the Notice from the State Administration of Foreign Exchange on Relevant Issues Concerning Strengthening the Administration of Foreign Exchange Businesses, and the Circular on Further Clarification and Regulation of the Issues Concerning the Administration of Certain Capital Account Foreign Exchange Businesses. According to SAFE Circular 19, the flow and use of the RMB capital converted from foreign currency-denominated registered capital of a foreign-invested company is regulated such that RMB capital may not be used for the issuance of RMB entrusted loans, the repayment of inter-enterprise loans or the repayment of banks loans that have been transferred to a third party. Although SAFE Circular 19 allows RMB capital converted from foreign currency-denominated registered capital of a foreign-invested enterprise to be used for equity investments within China, it also reiterates the principle that RMB converted from the foreign currency-denominated capital of a foreign-invested company may not be directly or indirectly used for purposes beyond its business scope. SAFE promulgated the Notice of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange on Reforming and Standardizing the Foreign Exchange Settlement Management Policy of Capital Account, or SAFE Circular 16, effective on June 9, 2016, which reiterates some of the rules set forth in SAFE Circular 19, but changes the prohibition against using RMB capital converted from foreign currency-denominated registered capital of a foreign-invested company to issue RMB entrusted loans to a prohibition against using such capital to issue loans to non-associated enterprises. Violations of SAFE Circular 19 and SAFE Circular 16 could result in administrative penalties. SAFE Circular 19 and SAFE Circular 16 may significantly limit our ability to transfer any foreign currency we hold, including the net proceeds from this offering, to our PRC subsidiaries, which may adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business in China. On October 23, 2019, the SAFE promulgated the Notice of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange on Further Promoting the Convenience of Cross-border Trade and Investment, or the SAFE Circular 28, which, among other things, allows all foreign-invested companies to use Renminbi converted from foreign currency-denominated capital for equity investments in China, as long as the equity investment is genuine, does not violate applicable laws, and complies with the negative list on foreign investment. However, since the SAFE Circular 28 is newly promulgated, it is unclear how SAFE and competent banks will carry this out in practice.

 

In light of the various requirements imposed by PRC regulations on loans to and direct investment in PRC entities by offshore holding companies, we cannot assure you that we will be able to complete the necessary government registrations or obtain the necessary government approvals on a timely basis, if at all, with respect to future loans to our PRC subsidiaries or future capital contributions by us to our wholly foreign-owned subsidiaries in China. As a result, uncertainties exist as to our ability to provide prompt financial support to our PRC subsidiaries when needed. If we fail to complete such registrations or obtain such approvals, our ability to use the proceeds we expect to receive from this offering and to capitalize or otherwise fund our PRC operations may be negatively affected, which could materially and adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business.

 

Governmental control of currency conversion may limit our ability to use our revenues effectively and the ability of our PRC subsidiaries to obtain financing.

 

The PRC government imposes control on the convertibility of the RMB into foreign currencies and, in certain cases, the remittance of currency out of China. We receive a majority of our revenues in Renminbi, which currently is not a freely convertible currency. Restrictions on currency conversion imposed by the PRC government may limit our ability to use revenues generated in Renminbi to fund our expenditures denominated in foreign currencies or our business activities outside China. Under China’s existing foreign exchange regulations, Renminbi may be freely converted into foreign currency for payments relating to current account transactions, which include among other things dividend payments and payments for the import of goods and services, by complying with certain procedural requirements. Our PRC subsidiaries are able to pay dividends in foreign currencies to us without prior approval from SAFE, by complying with certain procedural requirements. Our PRC subsidiaries may also retain foreign currency in their respective current account bank accounts for use in payment of international current account transactions. However, we cannot assure you that the PRC government will not at its discretion take measures in the future to restrict access to foreign currencies for current account transactions.

 

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Conversion of Renminbi into foreign currencies, and of foreign currencies into Renminbi, for payments relating to capital account transactions, which principally includes investments and loans, generally requires the approval of SAFE and other relevant PRC governmental authorities. Restrictions on the convertibility of the Renminbi for capital account transactions could affect the ability of our PRC subsidiaries to make investments overseas or to obtain foreign currency through debt or equity financing, including by means of loans or capital contributions from us. We cannot assure you that the registration process will not delay or prevent our conversion of Renminbi for use outside of China.

 

We may be classified as a “resident enterprise” for PRC enterprise income tax purposes; such classification could result in unfavorable tax consequences to us and our non-PRC shareholders.

 

The Enterprise Income Tax Law provides that enterprises established outside of China whose “de facto management bodies” are located in China are considered PRC tax resident enterprises and will generally be subject to the uniform 25% PRC enterprise income tax rate on their global income. In 2009, the SAT issued the Circular of the State Administration of Taxation on Issues Concerning the Identification of Chinese-Controlled Overseas Registered Enterprises as Resident Enterprises in Accordance with the Actual Standards of Organizational Management, known as SAT Circular 82, which was partially amended by Announcement on Issues concerning the Determination of Resident Enterprises Based on the Standards of Actual Management Institutions issued by SAT on January 29, 2014, and further partially amended by Decision on Issuing the Lists of Invalid and Abolished Tax Departmental Rules and Taxation Normative Documents issued by SAT on December 29, 2017. SAT Circular 82, as amended, provides certain specific criteria for determining whether the “de facto management body” of a Chinese-controlled offshore-incorporated enterprise is located in China, which include all of the following conditions: (i) the location where senior management members responsible for an enterprise’s daily operations discharge their duties; (ii) the location where financial and human resource decisions are made or approved by organizations or persons; (iii) the location where the major assets and corporate documents are kept; and (iv) the location where more than half (inclusive) of all directors with voting rights or senior management have their habitual residence. SAT Circular 82 further clarifies that the identification of the “de facto management body” must follow the substance over form principle. In addition, SAT issued SAT Bulletin 45 on July 27, 2011, effective from September 1, 2011 and partially amended on April 17, 2015, June 28, 2016, and June 15, 2018, respectively, providing more guidance on the implementation of SAT Circular 82. SAT Bulletin 45 clarifies matters including resident status determination, post-determination administration and competent tax authorities. Although both SAT Circular 82 and SAT Bulletin 45 only apply to offshore enterprises controlled by PRC enterprises or PRC enterprise groups, not those controlled by PRC individuals or foreign individuals, the determining criteria set forth in SAT Circular 82 and SAT Bulletin 45 may reflect SAT’s general position on how the “de facto management body” test should be applied in determining the tax resident status of offshore enterprises, regardless of whether they are controlled by PRC enterprises or PRC enterprise groups or by PRC or foreign individuals.

 

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Currently, there are no detailed rules or precedents governing the procedures and specific criteria for determining de facto management bodies which are applicable to our company or our overseas subsidiaries. We do not believe that Dogness meets all of the conditions required for PRC resident enterprise. The Company is a company incorporated outside the PRC. As a holding company, its key assets are its ownership interests in its subsidiaries, and its key assets are located, and its records (including the resolutions of its board of directors and the resolutions of its shareholders) are maintained, outside the PRC. For the same reasons, we believe our other entities outside of China are not PRC resident enterprises either. However, the tax resident status of an enterprise is subject to determination by the PRC tax authorities and uncertainties remain with respect to the interpretation of the term “de facto management body.” There can be no assurance that the PRC government will ultimately take a view that is consistent with ours.

 

However, if the PRC tax authorities determine that Dogness is a PRC resident enterprise for enterprise income tax purposes, we may be required to withhold a 10% withholding tax from dividends we pay to our shareholders that are non-resident enterprises. Such 10% tax rate could be reduced by applicable tax treaties or similar arrangements between China and the jurisdiction of our shareholders. For example, for shareholders eligible for the benefits of the tax treaty between China and Hong Kong, the tax rate is reduced to 5% for dividends if relevant conditions are met. In addition, non-resident enterprise shareholders may be subject to a 10% PRC tax on gains realized on the sale or other disposition of Common Shares, if such income is treated as sourced from within the PRC. It is unclear whether our non-PRC individual shareholders would be subject to any PRC tax on dividends or gains obtained by such non-PRC individual shareholders in the event we are determined to be a PRC resident enterprise. If any PRC tax were to apply to such dividends or gains, it would generally apply at a rate of 20% unless a reduced rate is available under an applicable tax treaty. However, it is also unclear whether non-PRC shareholders of the Company would be able to claim the benefits of any tax treaties between their country of tax residence and the PRC in the event that the Company is treated as a PRC resident enterprise.

 

Provided that our British Virgin Islands holding company, Dogness, is not deemed to be a PRC resident enterprise, our shareholders who are not PRC residents will not be subject to PRC income tax on dividends distributed by us or gains realized from the sale or other disposition of our shares. However, under Circular 7, where a non-resident enterprise conducts an “indirect transfer” by transferring taxable assets, including, in particular, equity interests in a PRC resident enterprise, indirectly by disposing of the equity interests of an overseas holding company, the non-resident enterprise, being the transferor, or the transferee or the PRC entity which directly owned such taxable assets may report to the relevant tax authority such indirect transfer. Using a “substance over form” principle, the PRC tax authority may disregard the existence of the overseas holding company if it lacks a reasonable commercial purpose and was established for the purpose of reducing, avoiding or deferring PRC tax. As a result, gains derived from such indirect transfer may be subject to PRC enterprise income tax, and the transferee would be obligated to withhold the applicable taxes, currently at a rate of 10% for the transfer of equity interests in a PRC resident enterprise. We and our non-PRC resident investors may be at risk of being required to file a return and being taxed under Circular 7, and we may be required to expend valuable resources to comply with Bulletin 37, or to establish that we should not be taxed under Circular 7 and Bulletin 37.

 

In addition to the uncertainty in how the new resident enterprise classification could apply, it is also possible that the rules may change in the future, possibly with retroactive effect. If we are required under the Enterprise Income Tax law to withhold PRC income tax on our dividends payable to our foreign shareholders, or if you are required to pay PRC income tax on the transfer of our shares under the circumstances mentioned above, the value of your investment in our shares may be materially and adversely affected. These rates may be reduced by an applicable tax treaty, but it is unclear whether, if we are considered a PRC resident enterprise, holders of our shares would be able to claim the benefit of income tax treaties or agreements entered into between China and other countries or areas. Any such tax may reduce the returns on your investment in our shares.

 

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Any failure to comply with PRC regulations regarding the registration requirements for employee stock incentive plans may subject the PRC plan participants or us to fines and other legal or administrative sanctions.

 

In February 2012, SAFE promulgated the Notices on Issues Concerning the Foreign Exchange Administration for Domestic Individuals Participating in Stock Incentive Plans of Overseas Publicly-Listed Companies, replacing earlier rules promulgated in March 2007. Pursuant to these rules, PRC citizens and non-PRC citizens who reside in China for a continuous period of not less than one year who participate in any stock incentive plan of an overseas publicly listed company, subject to a few exceptions, are required to register with SAFE through a domestic qualified agent, which could be the PRC subsidiary of such overseas-listed company, and complete certain other procedures. In addition, an overseas-entrusted institution must be retained to handle matters in connection with the exercise or sale of stock options and the purchase or sale of shares and interests. We and our executive officers and other employees who are PRC citizens or who have resided in the PRC for a continuous period of not less than one year and who are granted options or other awards under our equity incentive plan will be subject to these regulations when our company becomes an overseas listed company upon the completion of this offering. Failure to complete the SAFE registrations may subject them to fines and legal sanctions and may also limit our ability to contribute additional capital into our PRC subsidiary and limit our PRC subsidiary’ ability to distribute dividends to us. We also face regulatory uncertainties that could restrict our ability to adopt additional incentive plans for our directors, executive officers and employees under PRC law. .”

 

In addition, SAT has issued certain circulars concerning employee share options and restricted shares. Under these circulars, our employees working in China who exercise share options or are granted restricted shares will be subject to PRC individual income tax. Our PRC subsidiaries have obligations to file documents related to employee share options or restricted shares with relevant tax authorities and to withhold individual income taxes of those employees who exercise their share options. If our employees fail to pay or we fail to withhold their income taxes according to relevant laws and regulations, we may face sanctions imposed by the tax authorities or other PRC government authorities.

 

Failure to make adequate contributions to various mandatory social security plans as required by PRC regulations may subject us to penalties.

 

Under the PRC Social Insurance Law and the Administrative Measures on Housing fund, We are required to participate in various government sponsored employee benefit plans, including certain social insurance, housing funds and other welfare-oriented payment obligations, and contribute to the plans in amounts equal to certain percentages of salaries, including bonuses and allowances, of our employees up to a maximum amount specified by the local government from time to time at locations where we operate our businesses. The requirement of employee benefit plans has not been implemented consistently by the local governments in China given the different levels of economic development in different locations. If the local governments deem our contribution to be not sufficient, we may be subject to late contribution fees or fines in relation to any underpaid employee benefits, our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.

 

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Currently, certain of our affiliated entities are making contributions to the plans based on the basic salary of our employees which may not be adequate in strict compliance with the relevant regulations. As of the prospectus date, the accumulated impact in this regard was immaterial to our financial condition and results of operations. We have not received any order or notice from the local authorities nor any claims or complaints from our current and former employees regarding our current practice in this regard. As the interpretation of implementation of labor-related laws and regulations are still involving, we cannot assure you that our practice in this regard will not be violate any labor-related laws and regulations regarding including those relating to the obligations to make social insurance payments and contribute to the housing funds and other welfare-oriented payments. If we deemed to have violated relevant labor laws and regulations, we could be required to provide additional compensation to our employees and subject to penalties, and our business, financial condition and results of operations will be adversely affected.

 

Enforcement of stricter labor laws and regulations may increase our labor costs as a result.

 

China’s overall economy and the average wage have increased in recent years and are expected to continue to grow. The average wage level for our employees has also increased in recent years. We expect that our labor costs, including wages and employee benefits, will continue to increase. Unless we are able to pass on these increased labor costs to our customers who pay for our services, our profitability and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected. The PRC Labor Contract Law and its implementing rules impose requirements concerning contracts entered into between an employer and its employees and establishes time limits for probationary periods and for how long an employee can be placed in a fixed-term labor contract. We cannot assure you that our employment policies and practices do not, or will not, violate the Labor Contract Law or its implementing rules and that we will not be subject to related penalties, fines or legal fees. If we are subject to large penalties or fees related to the Labor Contract Law or its implementing rules, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected In addition, according to the Labor Contract Law and its implementing rules, if we intend to enforce the non-compete provision with an employee in a labor contract or non-competition agreement, we have to compensate the employee on a monthly basis during the term of the restriction period after the termination or ending of the labor contract, which may cause extra expenses to us. Furthermore, the Labor Contract Law and its implementation rules require certain terminations to be based upon seniority rather than merit, which significantly affects the cost of reducing workforce for employers. In the event we decide to significantly change or decrease our workforce in the PRC, the Labor Contract Law could adversely affect our ability to enact such changes in a manner that is most advantageous to our circumstances or in a timely and cost effective manner, thus our results of operations could be adversely affected.

 

If the chops of our PRC subsidiaries are not kept safely, are stolen or are used by unauthorized persons or for unauthorized purposes, the corporate governance of these entities could be severely and adversely compromised.

 

In China, a company chop or seal serves as the legal representation of the company towards third parties even when unaccompanied by a signature. Each legally registered company in China is required to maintain a company chop, which must be registered with the local Public Security Bureau. In addition to this mandatory company chop, companies may have several other chops which can be used for specific purposes. The chops of our PRC subsidiaries are generally held securely by personnel designated or approved by us in accordance with our internal control procedures. To the extent those chops are not kept safely, are stolen or are used by unauthorized persons or for unauthorized purposes, the corporate governance of these entities could be severely and adversely compromised and those corporate entities may be bound to abide by the terms of any documents so chopped, even if they were chopped by an individual who lacked the requisite power and authority to do so. In addition, if the chops are misused by unauthorized persons, we could experience disruption to our normal business operations. We may have to take corporate or legal action, which could involve significant time and resources to resolve while distracting management from our operations.

 

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Item 4. Information on the Company

 

A. History and Development of the Company

 

Dogness (International) Corporation (“Dogness”) was incorporated as a British Virgin Islands company limited by shares under the BVI Business Companies Act(As Revised), on July 11, 2016. Dogness has an indefinite term. Dogness was established to operate principally as a holding company. Dogness and its subsidiaries (collectively the “Company”) are principally engaged in the design and manufacture of pet products, including leashes and smart products, and lanyards in the People’s Republic of China (“PRC” or “China”). Most products are exported to the U.S. and Europe and sold to pet stores, including major pet store chains. The share capital of Dogness was US$200,000, divided into 100,000,000 Common Shares of par value US$0.002 each. In connection with the incorporation of Dogness, 15,000,000 Common Shares were issued to Silong Chen, Dogness’ founder and Chief Executive Officer.

 

Mr. Silong Chen, the founding shareholder of the Company, sold 5,931,000 of his Common Shares to a total of nine (9) unrelated private investors for aggregated proceeds of  $18,843,000, at a weighted average price of  $3.18 per share. After the sale, Mr. Silong Chen, the founding shareholder of the Company owned 60.46% equity interest of the Company.

 

After such Common Shares were sold, the shareholders unanimously agreed to establish two classes of Common Shares: (a) 90,931,000 authorized Class A Common shares, of which 16,844,631 Class A Common Shares are issued and outstanding, (b) 9,069,000 authorized Class B Common Shares, all of which are issued and outstanding. Mr. Chen, through Fine victory holding company Limited, is the only holder of Class B Common Shares.

 

Dogness (Hongkong) Pet’s Products Co., Limited (“HK Dogness”) was incorporated in Hong Kong on March 10, 2009 as a private company limited by shares. In a private company limited by shares — which is the most common way to establish a limited company in Hong Kong — the liability of members is limited by the articles of association to the amount unpaid on the shares held by such members. By comparison, in a company limited by guarantee, no share capital is required and member liability is limited by the articles of association to the amount that the members respectively undertake to contribute in the event the company is wound up; this type of limited company is more common for non-profit organizations.

 

HK Dogness was established to operate principally as a trading company. The share capital of HK Dogness is HK$10,000, divided into 10,000 shares of HK$1.00 each. In connection with the formation of HK Dogness, all 10,000 shares were issued to Silong Chen, Dogness’ founder and Chief Executive Officer. On August 15, 2016, Silong Chen transferred his shares in HK Dogness to a third party who held on Mr. Chen’s behalf in preparation for the subsequent transfer to Dogness; however, Silong Chen continued to control such shares. After such interim transfer, the shares in HK Dogness were transferred to Dogness on January 9, 2017.

 

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Jiasheng Enterprise (Hongkong) Co., Limited (“HK Jiasheng”) was incorporated in Hong Kong on July 12, 2007 as a private company limited by shares. HK Jiasheng was established to operate principally as a trading company. The share capital of HK Jiasheng is HK$10,000, divided into 10,000 shares of HK$1.00 each. In connection with the formation of HK Jiasheng, all 10,000 shares were issued to Silong Chen, Dogness’ founder and Chief Executive Officer.

 

Dogness Intelligent Technology (Dongguan) Co., Ltd. (“Dongguan Dogness”) was incorporated in China on October 26, 2016. Dongguan Dogness was established to operate principally as a holding company. Dongguan Dogness has RMB 10 million in registered capital. In connection with the formation of Dongguan Dogness, Silong Chen, Dogness’ founder and Chief Executive Officer, became the sole shareholder of Dongguan Dogness.

 

Dongguan Jiasheng Enterprise Co., Ltd. (“Dongguan Jiasheng”) was incorporated in China on May 15, 2009. Dongguan Jiasheng was established to develop and manufacture pet leash and lanyard products. Dongguan Jiasheng has RMB 10,000,000 in registered capital. In connection with the formation of Dongguan Jiasheng, Silong Chen, Dogness’ founder and Chief Executive Officer, became the sole shareholder of Dongguan Dogness.

 

The reorganization of the legal structure was completed on January 9, 2017. The reorganization involved the incorporation of Dogness, a BVI holding company, and Dongguan Dogness, a PRC holding company; and the transfer of HK Dogness, HK Jiasheng, and Dongguan Jiasheng (collectively, the “Transferred Entities”) from the Controlling Shareholder to Dogness and Dongguan Dogness. Prior to the reorganization, the Transferred Entities’ equity interests were 100% controlled by the Controlling Shareholder.

 

On November 24, 2016, the Controlling Shareholder transferred his 100% ownership interest in Dongguan Jiasheng to Dongguan Dogness, which is 100% owned by HK Dogness and considered a wholly foreign-owned entity (“WFOE”) in PRC. On January 9, 2017, the Controlling Shareholder transferred his 100% equity interests in HK Dogness and HK Jiasheng to Dogness. After the reorganization, Dogness owns 100% equity interests of subsidiaries listed above.

 

In January 2018, the Company formed a Delaware limited liability company, Dogness Group LLC (“Dogness Group”), with its operation focusing primarily on product sales in the U.S. In February 2018, Dogness Overseas Ltd (“Dogness Overseas”) was established in the British Virgin Islands as a holding company, which owns all of the interests in Dogness Group. All of the equity of Dogness Overseas is owned by Dogness (International) Corporation.

 

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On March 16, 2018, the Dongguan Dogness entered into a share purchase agreement to acquire 100% of the equity interests in Zhangzhou Meijia Metal Product Co., Ltd (“Meijia”) from its original shareholder, Long Kai (Shenzhen) Industrial Co., Ltd (“Longkai”), for a total cash consideration of approximately $11.0 million (or RMB 71.0 million). After the acquisition, Mejia became Dongguan Dogness’ wholly-owned subsidiary. The acquisition of Meijia enabled the Company to build its own facility instead of leasing manufacturing facilities and to expand its production capacity sustainably to meet increased customer demand. Meijia plant has reached its fully production capacity as of June 30, 2021.

 

On July 6, 2018, a new entity called Dogness Intelligence Technology Co., Ltd. (“Intelligence Guangzhou”), was incorporated under the laws of the People’s Republic of China in Guangzhou City, Guangdong Province, China with a total registered capital of RMB 80 million (approximately $12.4 million). One of the Company’s subsidiaries, Dongguan Jiasheng, owns 58% of Intelligence, which means that Dongguan Jiasheng will need to contribute RMB 46,400,000 (approximately $6.8 million) of capital to this new entity. As of the date of this report, Dongguan Jiasheng has not yet made the payment of the registered capital. Intelligence Guangzhou will be the research and manufacturing facility for the Company’s fast growing intelligent pet products. On August 10, 2022, the Board approved to sell the Company’s 58% ownership interest in Dogness Intelligence Technology Co., Ltd. to a third party for a price of $0.

 

Dogness Pet Culture (Dongguan) Co., Ltd. (“Dogness Culture”) was incorporated on December 14, 2018 with registered capital of RMB 10 million (approximately $1.5 million). The capital was not paid and there were no active business operations. On January 15, 2020, the Company’s subsidiary, Dongguan Dogness, entered into an agreement with one of the original shareholders of Dogness Culture, who is related to Mr. Silong Chen, the Chief Executive Officer, to acquire 51.2% ownership interest of Dogness Culture for a nominal fee. Dongguan Dogness thereafter contributed cash consideration of RMB 5.12 million (approximately $0.79 million) on April 16, 2020 along with other shareholders’ capital contributions of RMB 4.88 million (approximately $0.67 million). Dogness Culture is focusing on developing and expanding pet food market in China in the near future.

 

On February 5, 2019, in order to expand into the Japanese market and expedite the development of new smart pet products, Dogness Japan Co. Ltd. (“Dogness Japan”) was incorporated in Japan. The Company invested $142,000 for 51% ownership interest in Dogness Japan, with the remaining 49% owned by an unrelated individual. Due to the negative impact of COVID-19 and because no material revenue was generated since its inception, on November 28, 2020, the Board approved to the sale of the Company’s 51% ownership interest to the remaining shareholder of Dogness Japan.

 

At the completion of these transactions, (i) Dogness holds 100% of the equity of each of Dogness Overseas, HK Jiasheng and HK Dogness; (ii) Dogness Overseas owns 100% of the equity of Dogness Group; (iii) HK Dogness holds 100% of the equity of Dongguan Dogness; (iv) Dongguan Dogness holds 100% of the equity of Dongguan Jiasheng, Meijia and 51.2% of the equity of Dogness Culture; and (v) Dongguan Jiasheng owns 58% of the equity of Intelligence and. By virtue of these ownership relationships, Dogness is the parent, directly or indirectly, of each of Meijia, HK Jiasheng, HK Dogness, Dongguan Dogness, Dogness Culture, Dogness Group, and Dongguan Jiasheng, and such entities’ financial results are consolidated with those of Dogness; provided that only 58% of the equity of Intelligence Guangzhou and 51.2% of the equity of Dogness Culture are so consolidated.

 

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B. Business Overview

 

Overview

 

Technology can bring pets and their caregivers closer together. At Dogness we combine our research and development expertise with customer feedback to make products that improve pets’ lives. We create and manufacture fun, useful and high-quality products for everyone to experience. We believe that high technology pet products must be accessible and reliable to capture pet lovers’ imagination and to enhance their pets’ lives.

 

Dogness has been making the highest quality collars, harnesses, and traditional and retractable leashes since 2003, featuring stylish design and rugged engineering. Beginning with smart collars and harnesses in 2016, based on the belief that internet-connected products could improve the lives of pets and their caregivers, Dogness developed a suite of smart products, moving past these first products into smart feeders, fountains, treat dispensers and robots to interact with pets.

 

Dogness focuses on connected pet care, to link pets and pet caregivers and ultimately to integrate the “Smart Pet Ecosystem” into a single cohesive platform that integrates smart technology into pets’ lives. The Smart Pet Ecosystem has four major areas: smart pet technology, pet care, leashes and collars, and pet health and wellness.

 

Smart Pet Technology

 

Through a single platform, the Dogness mobile app, the Company’s smart products allow pet owners to remotely see, hear, speak, feed, play, and interact with their pets in different ways. We accomplish all of this with a tool the owner likely already has, a smart phone. The Dogness app is available for both Android and iOS and communicates with the smart product anywhere the phone and smart product both have Wi-Fi or cellular service. If your dog will listen to you from across the room, you can tell her to roll over from around the world.

 

Dogness Smart Wearables: Our smart wearable collars and harnesses feature integrated electronics, which allows us to pair high quality collars with a lightweight smart component and LED lights. We have focused on the important details for dog owners, allowing owners to locate their pets, direct their pets’ movements, communicate with their dogs, provide tailored instantaneous feedback to problem barking and keep track of exercise and other biodata.

 

Dogness Smart iPet Robot: Pet owners will be able to see their pets through a camera, hear their pets through a built-in microphone, interact with their pets by feeding them treats, and play with their pets through an interactive laser pointer. Pet owners have full control over the 360-degree mobility of the robot through the Dogness app and can securely take and save pictures and videos of their dogs.

 

Dogness Mini Treat Robot: Space-conscious pet owners can see their pets through a stationary tilting camera that securely records photo and video, hear their pets through a built-in microphone, interact with their pets by feeding them treats, and play with them through an interactive laser pointer.

 

Dogness Smart CAM Feeder: Pet owners can now ensure that their pets are well-fed and on-schedule. Able to hold around 6.5 pounds of dry food, the smart feeder helps pet owners ensure the health of their pets, even when away from home. Pet owners can see their pets’ eating habits night and day through a built-in camera with night vision and call their pets to the feeder through a voice recording that can be programmed to be played at meal times.

 

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Dogness Wide-view CAM Feeder: In addition to the original Smart CAM Feeder, this 2022 version of CAM feeder holds around 4 pounds of dry food. The camera is updated and wide-angled so that the pet owner can see not only their pets and the room, but the bowl and the food in it.

 

Dogness Cube App Feeder and Programmable Feeder: This 2022 version of the App Feeder and Programmable Feeder holds about 4 pounds of dry food. The food container is semi-transparent which enables the pet owners to check on the food level without opening the container.

 

Dogness Smart Fountain: The smart fountain ensures that pets stay hydrated with a source of clean filtered water from a patented filtering technology. Additional features include an oxygenating, free-falling, recirculating water stream for optimal freshness, the ability to increase or decrease the flow of water, a replaceable carbon water filter and a nano filter to maintain water freshness, a submersible pump for quiet operation, dishwasher-safe material, and an easily assembled and disassembled design.

 

Dogness App Fountain: This brand new App fountain is newly developed with App controlling the water level, UV sterilization, lights and

 

Dogness Wireless Sensor Fountain: This brand new wireless fountain is USB rechargeable and operates with sensors. It does not use the long cable that’s common on traditional fountains and makes the fountain portable.

 

Dogness Smart Fountain Mini and Smart Fountain Plus: In addition to our Smart Fountain, we have developed the Smart Fountain Mini (1L capacity) and Smart Fountain Plus (3.2L capacity) for additional options for pet owners. The Smart Fountain Mini enables our products to be used in smaller spaces, while the Smart Fountain Plus ensures an even larger reservoir for pets. Both fountains maintain a constant flow of water, so pets can drink water that is as fresh as from the faucet. The Smart Fountains have a three-stage filtering system, which ensures the water flowing out is filtered, fresh and clean.

 

Dogness Smart CAM Treater: Allows pet owners to see their pets night and day through a 160-degree full HD camera with night vision, hear their pets through a built-in microphone, interact with their pets by speaking to them through a built-in speaker, and play with their pets by tossing them treats.

 

Dogness App Feeder and App Feeder Mini: Pet owners can ensure that their pets are well-fed and on-schedule. Able to hold around 6.5 pounds of dry food, the App feeder enables pet owners to set up their pet’s feeding schedule from the App via their mobile phone, even when away from home. App Feeder Mini holds around 2.0 pounds of dry food and is suitable for cats and small dogs.

 

Dogness Smart Vacuumed Pet Food Storage Containers: Dogness proprietary vacuum food storage container was designed to use an intelligent, constant pressure vacuum locking method, which significantly upgrades and modernizes conventional food storage, by completely isolating mildew and moisture in the air, keeping pet food fresh and crispy for longer, and bringing a higher quality to pets’ healthy lives.

 

Dogness C6 GPS Tracker “Discover”: Pet owners can have peace of mind knowing where their pets are anytime when they open the GPS Tracker App on their mobile phones. The Trackers are 4G compatible and allow the owners to keep track of the location of their pets. They can also set up virtual fences and the GPS Tracker App will alert the pet parents if their pets are beyond the fences. The Trackers also monitor and provide the pets’ activity level statistics.

 

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Dogness C5 and C5 mini Trackers: These smaller versions of the trackers have similar features of C6 but uses NB instead of 4G. It features longer battery time with smaller size and weight.

 

Pet Care

 

Our pet care products currently focus on high quality pet shampoos. We launched these shampoo products in August 2018.

 

We have two lines of shampoos, which are focused on and tailored to Chinese online and offline consumption. Our One on One Service line is focused on consumer purchasers and consists of dog and cat shampoo products that feature natural plant and amino acid composition. In addition to universal-purpose products, we have also developed seven breed-tailored shampoo products for golden retrievers, poodles, huskies, bulldogs, border collies and corgis. Our Professional Bathing & Spa line is focused on professional purchasers, like dog and cat groomers. These products consist of bathing products, hair conditioners and essential oil products.

 

Leashes and Collars

 

Traditional Product Lines: We produce collars, harnesses and leashes in seven main series (Classic, Elegance, Luxury, LED, Holiday, Special Function, and Cat series). Given the choices available to customers, we currently manufacture between 500 and 600 traditional products and can add additional options to meet customer preferences. Our traditional product lines use leather, nylon, Teflon-coated fabrics and other materials to suit consumer preferences. Not only do we produce these products; we also design fabric patterns and invent improved components such as a comfort curved buckle for collars and locking closing mechanism for leashes.

 

Retractable Leashes: In addition to our newest smart products, we have devoted significant effort to designing and manufacturing some of the finest retractable leashes available. Retractable leashes balance freedom for the dog with control for the owner. If used well, a retractable leash promotes good communication between the two, as the dog has exactly as much room to roam as the owner permits, and this amount can be adjusted to suit the environment and circumstances. Dogness also offers an updated retractable leash to enhance the pet walking experience. The new leash allows pet owners to attach Dogness accessories to their retractable leashes, which currently include an LED light for better visibility in low light settings; a convenience box to store items such as doggie bags, treats, or keys; and a Bluetooth speaker to listen to music or answer calls.

 

Other Products: In addition to collars, leashes and harnesses, we also produce lanyards for use by humans and ornaments that attach to collars. As to the lanyards, we produce such lanyards using our fabric weaving machines. Because we have our production in-house, we can design lanyards that match a customer’s need, in terms of color, size, quantity and pattern. Our hanging ornament series uses high-quality electroplating techniques to create fashionable accents for pet collars. We make a variety of patterns in bright and vibrant colors, as well as custom bells for cat collars.

 

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Upcoming New Products

 

Dogness expects to launch additional products, including convenient indoor pet toilets, air purifiers, and other products.

 

Pet Health and Wellness

 

One of our new research areas is pet-focused health and wellness products. One of our subsidiaries is currently serving as a distributor of a few premium pet food brands from overseas. While we do not currently offer our own branded products for sale in this category, we are currently developing supplements and nutrition products in consultation with veterinarians and pharmacists and anticipate introducing these products in the future.

 

Operations

 

Dogness has marketing and sales networks all over the world and has businesses in Dallas, Dongguan, Hong Kong and Zhangzhou. Senior management, R&D and production, marketing, customer service and finance operate from Dogness’ headquarters in Dongguan, Guangdong Province, which also serves as the manufacturing base for smart products and dog leashes. Dogness Group LLC in Dallas, Texas, USA serves as the sales and service center for all international markets. The company’s factory in Zhangzhou, Fujian serves as a material production base, responsible for sample dyeing, ribbon dyeing and electroplating. One of Dogness’ competitive advantages comes from integrating the whole industrial chain, including retraction ropes, textiles, printing and dyeing, mold development, and hardware and plastics. In addition, Dogness’ subsidiary in the United States has R&D and design centers for pet smart products, forming a complete supply chain system with manufacturing bases in China. We benefit from vertically integrated manufacturing operations, which allow us to design, machine and assemble the vast majority of our products in house, so we can easily incorporate improvements in design.

 

Market Background

 

Our company’s primary market is mainland China, with approximately 46.3%, 56.3%, and 51.0% of our products being sold in China in fiscal 2022, 2021, and 2020, respectively.

 

In terms of export sales, our company’s primary market is the United States, with approximately 29.6%, 24.7%, and 25.7% % of our products being sold in America in fiscal 2022, 2021, and 2020, respectively. The United States has one of the highest pet ownership rates in the world. According to National Pet Owner’s Survey (2020-2021) conducted by the American Pet Products Association (APPA), in the United States, almost 90.5 million households have a pet and over the last 30 years, pet ownership has gone from 56.0% to 70.0% of all households.1

 

Pet owners in the United States have increasingly seen their pets as extended members of the family. Accordingly, spending on pets has increased steadily over the last decade. According to the APPA, in 2021 alone, $123.6 billion was spent on pets in the U.S, a 1.19% increase from the previous year.2 An average U.S. pet owner will spend $1,480 a year on their dog and $902 on their cat.3

 

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We sell the majority of our products through specialty pet store chain retailers and mass market retailers. Although there are more than 13,000 pet stores in the United States, the vast majority of pet stores are small operations, but a significant proportion of sales come from the top few specialty retail chains, Petco and Pet Valu. Mass retailers like Target and Wal-Mart also play a key role in pet supply sales, including in particular staples like pet food. These retailers have courted pet owners with the offer of one-stop-shopping, as compared with making a special trip to a pet store.

 

Finally, pet owners have increasingly turned to internet sites to purchase pet supplies. In addition to selling our products to many of the largest specialty and mass retailers in the U.S., we are exploring opportunities to drive online sales as well.

 

Competitive Strengths

 

We believe we have the following competitive strengths. Some of our competitors may have these or other competitive strengths.

 

Advanced technology. We have developed and made use of 201 patents in producing premium pet products.

Strong research and development. We have leveraged our cooperation with and/or investments in Dogness Network Technology Co., Ltd (“Dogness Network”), Nanjing Rootaya Intelligence Technology Co., Ltd. (“Nanjing Rootaya”), Linsun Smart Technology Co., Ltd (“Linsun”) and our own in-house research and development efforts to design high tech pet products for our customers. Dogness Network, in which we have a 10% ownership interest, develops the smartphone apps that power our connected products, including our feeders, treaters, robots and others. Nanjing Rootayahas designed some of our pet toys and innovative water and food bowl. Linsun, in which we have a 13% ownership interest, helped create our smart feeders and treaters. Our subsidiary Dongguan Jiasheng is responsible for the technology underlying our other smart products and innovation and improvement in traditional products.

 

 

1 American Pet Products Association, Pet Industry Market Size, Trends & Ownership Statistics (2021). https://www.mordorintelligence.com/industry-reports/pet-service-market

2 American Pet Products Association, Pet Industry Market Size, Trends & Ownership Statistics (2021). https://www.mordorintelligence.com/industry-reports/pet-service-market

3 Finmasters, How Much Do Americans Spend On Their Pets? https://finmasters.com/pet-spending-statistics/

 

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Vertically integrated production. We are increasingly manufacturing as much of our products internally and reducing reliance on third party vendors. This allows us to control costs and ensure quality.

Economies of scale. We are pleased to provide products to a variety of customers and to fill large orders for a number of those customers. These large orders allow us to increase our efficiency, reduce costs and deliver high quality products quickly and to our customers’ exacting demands.

Strong reputation in pet products industry. Our customer list is filled with sophisticated, multinational purchasers of pet

 

Research and Development

 

Our R&D team has 15 dedicated employees who are focused on product development and design. Quality control has 8 employees and is an important aspect of the teams’ work and ensuring quality at every stage of the process has been a key driver in maintaining and developing brand value for our Company.

 

Beginning in 2016, we have been researching and testing new, more ecologically friendly materials, which we hope to use in place of PVC in certain plastic applications.

 

As a result of these efforts, we became certified as a National High-Tech Enterprise by the State Intellectual Property Office in March 2015, and we renewed this certification in 2021. This certification entitles us to favorable tax rates of 15%, rather than the unified rate of 25% we would pay if we were not certified.

 

Our research and development expenses were $917,227 in fiscal 2022, $540,613 in fiscal 2021, and $1,528,062 in fiscal 2020, representing 3.4 %, 2.2%, and 8.0% of our total revenues for 2022, 2021, and 2020, respectively. We expect our R&D expenses to increase, as we continue to conduct research and development activities, especially seeking to increase the use of environmentally-friendly materials, and develop more new products to meet customer demands.

 

Intellectual Property

 

We use a combination of trade secret, copyright, trademark, patent and other rights to protect our intellectual property and our brand. As of September 25, 2022, we have completed registration of 116 patents with the China State Intellectual Property Office. In addition, we have registered 21 patents in Germany, 26 in Japan, 20 in the United States, 8 in Canada, 3 in Australia, and 8 in the European Union. As of the date of this report, we have successfully obtained 201 patents (including 116 in China), which includes 27 invention patents, 61 utility patents, and 113 appearance patents.

 

We have completed registration of 188 trademarks, with the Trademark Office of the State Administration for Industry & Commerce of the PRC. In addition, we have registered our key trademark for Dogness in Japan, Australia, Korea, Hong Kong, Taiwan and the United States. We have registered all of our patents and trademarks under Dongguan Jiasheng, Dongguan Dogness, Dogness Culture, Dogness Group, and HK Dogness. Our trademarks will expire at various dates through November 12, 2030.

 

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Our key brands and logos are below:

 

 

Our website is located at www.dogness.com.

 

REGULATIONS

 

We are subject to a variety of PRC and foreign laws, rules and regulations across a number of aspects of our business. This section summarizes the principal PRC laws, rules and regulations relevant to our business and operations. Areas in which we are subject to laws, rules and regulations outside of the PRC include intellectual property, competition, taxation, anti-money laundering and anti-corruption. While there have been relatively few changes in applicable laws and regulations in recent years, law enforcement and regulatory agencies such as SAFE have been tightening up their implementation. Some of the practices that were not following governmental procedure or requirements, which many companies and individual persons had taken before but not been investigated or punished, are now under the close watch of agencies and even been punished.

 

Laws and Regulations in China Regarding Manufacturing, Producing, and Processing

 

Laws regulating pet products manufacturing, producing, and processing cover a broad range of subjects, particularly in the area of occupational safety and health. We must comply with all levels of laws and regulations relating to matters such as safe working conditions, manufacturing practices, environmental protection and discharging hazard control. Specifically, the major laws that apply to our PRC subsidiaries are as follows:

 

● Company Law (amended in 2014), governing, among other matters, company registration, existence and business operation;

● Contract Law (1999), governing business practices with all other market participants;

● Labor Contract Law (amended in 2013), governing the relationship between company as an employer and its employees;

● Product Quality Law (amended in 2009), governing the relationship between company as a products provider and consumers in the market.

 

We believe we are in compliance with these laws and related regulations in all material respects. So far, our business does not belong to special type of industry that requires operation license from government so that we do not need to get special license or approval for our business operation. However, unanticipated changes in existing regulatory requirements or adoption of new requirements may force us to incur more cost to maintain the licenses and failure to do so could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

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Regulation on Product Liability

 

China’s Product Quality Law was published in 1993 and amended in 2000 and 2009. Under this law, producers and vendors of defective products may incur liability for losses and injuries caused by such products. There are only three conditions by which producers or vendors can have immunity from the defective product liability: 1) the defective products never be put into the market; 2) the defects do not exist when the products are put into the market; 3) the exam techniques and skills are not able to find out the defects when the products be put into the market. So far, our products quality is in conformity with the national requirements and we have passed the regulatory agency’s examination and also successfully obtained the certificate of ISO 9001:2015 system.

 

In addition to Product Quality Law, there are also other Chinese laws that apply to the product liability. Under the Civil Laws of the PRC, which became effective on January 1, 1987 and were amended on August 27, 2009, manufacturers or retailers of defective products that cause property damage or physical injury to any person will be subject to civil liability. The Law on the Protection of the Rights and Interests of Consumers (as amended in 2009), which was enacted to protect the legitimate rights and interests of end-users and consumers and to strengthen the supervision and control of the quality of products. Although we are highly confident with our product quality, some defective product may not be detected in time by us and accidently put into the market. If so, our defective products cause any personal injuries or damage to assets, our customers have the right to claim compensation from us.

 

Also, the PRC Tort Law has been effective from July 1, 2010. Under this law, a customer who suffers injury from a defective product can claim damages from either the manufacturer or vendor of the defective device. Pursuant to the PRC Tort Law, where a personal injury is caused by a tort, the tortfeasor shall compensate the victim for the reasonable costs and expenses for treatment and rehabilitation, as well as death compensation and funeral costs and expenses if it causes the death of the victim. There is no cap on monetary damages the plaintiffs may seek under the PRC Tort Law.

 

Regulation on Foreign Exchange Control

 

The principal regulations governing foreign currency exchange in China are the PRC Foreign Exchange Administration Regulations, or the Foreign Exchange Administration Regulations, most recently amended on August 5, 2008. Under the Foreign Exchange Administration Regulations, Renminbi is generally freely convertible for payments of current account items, such as trade and service-related foreign exchange transactions, interest and dividend payments, but not freely convertible for capital account items, such as direct investment, loan or investment in securities outside China, unless prior approval of State Administration of Foreign Exchange, or the SAFE, or its local office has been obtained.

 

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The Circular on Reforming the Management Approach regarding the Foreign Exchange Capital Settlement of Foreign-invested Enterprise, or SAFE Circular 19, which was promulgated by the SAFE on March 30, 2015 and was most recently amended on December 30, 2019, allows foreign-invested enterprises, or FIEs, to settle their foreign exchange capital at their discretion. The Renminbi converted from the foreign exchange capital will be kept in a designated account and if a FIE needs to make further payment from such account, it still needs to provide supporting documents and proceed with the review process with the banks. Furthermore, SAFE Circular19 stipulates that the use of capital by FIEs shall follow the principles of authenticity and self-use within the business scope of enterprises. The capital of a FIE and capital in Renminbi obtained by the FIEs from foreign exchange settlement shall not be used for the following purposes: (i) directly or indirectly used for payments beyond the business scope of the enterprises or payments as prohibited by relevant laws and regulations; (ii) directly or indirectly used for investment in securities unless otherwise provided by the relevant laws and regulations; (iii) directly or indirectly used for granting entrust loans in Renminbi (unless permitted by the scope of business), repaying inter-enterprise borrowings (including advances by the third-party) or repaying the bank loans in Renminbi that have been sub-lent to third parties; or (iv) directly or indirectly used for expenses related to the purchase of real estate not for self-use (except for the foreign-invested real estate enterprises).

 

The Circular on Reforming and Regulating Policies on the Control over Foreign Exchange Settlement of Capital Accounts, or SAFE Circular 16, which was promulgated by the SAFE and became effective on June 9, 2016, provides an integrated standard for conversion of foreign exchange under capital account items (including but not limited to foreign currency capital and foreign debts) on a self-discretionary basis which applies to all enterprises registered in China. SAFE Circular 16 reiterates the principle that Renminbi converted from foreign currency-denominated capital of a company may not be directly or indirectly used for purposes beyond its business scope or prohibited by PRC Laws, while such converted Renminbi shall not be provided as loans to its non-affiliated entities.

 

The Circular on Further Promoting Cross-border Trade and Investment Facilitation, which was promulgated on October 23, 2019 by the SAFE and became effective on the same date, further cancels restrictions on the domestic equity investment by non-investment-oriented foreign-funded enterprises with their capital funds and provides that non-investment-oriented foreign-funded enterprises are allowed to make domestic equity investment with their capital funds in accordance with the law on the premise that the existing special administrative measures (negative list) for foreign investment access are not violated and the projects invested thereby in China are true and compliant.

 

On December 30, 2019, the MOFCOM and the SAMR, jointly promulgated the Measures for Information Reporting on Foreign Investment, which became effective on January 1, 2020. Pursuant to these measures, where a foreign investor carries out investment activities in China directly or indirectly, the foreign investor or the foreign-invested enterprise shall submit the investment information to the competent commerce department.

 

Pursuant to the Circular on Further Simplifying and Improving the Foreign Currency Management Policy on Direct Investment, or the SAFE Circular No. 13, became effective on June 1, 2015 and was amended on December 31, 2019, and other laws and regulations relating to foreign exchange, when setting up a new foreign invested enterprise, the foreign invested enterprise shall register with the bank located at its registered place after obtaining the business license, and if there is any change in capital or other changes relating to the basic information of the foreign-invested enterprise, including without limitation any increase in its registered capital or total investment, the foreign invested enterprise must register such changes with the bank located at its registered place after obtaining the approval from or completing the filing with competent authorities. Pursuant to the relevant foreign exchange laws and regulations, the above-mentioned foreign exchange registration with the banks will typically take less than four weeks upon the acceptance of the registration application.

 

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Regulation on Foreign Exchange Registration of Offshore Investment by PRC Residents

 

In October of 2005, SAFE promulgated a Notification known as “Notification 75”, in which SAFE requires PRC residents to register their direct establishment or indirect control of an offshore entity (referred to in Notice 37 as “special purpose vehicle.”), where such offshore entity are established for the purpose of overseas financing, provided that PRC residents contribute their legally owned assets or equity into such entity. In July of 2014, this Notification was replaced by Notification 37, “Notification on Relevant Issues Concerning Foreign Exchange Control on Domestic Residents’ Offshore Investment and Financing and Returning Investment through Special Purpose Vehicles”, which expanded SAFE oversight scope to include overseas investment registration as well. Meanwhile, Notification 37 also covers more areas such as PRC residents paying capital contribution with overseas assets or equity. Furthermore, Notification 37 requires amendment to the registration where any significant changes with respect to the special purpose vehicle capitalization or structure of the PRC resident itself (such as capital increase, capital reduction, share transfer or exchange, merger or spin off). Our shareholders including natural persons or legal persons/institutes have been in compliance with such registration.

 

Regulation on Dividend Distributions

 

Our PRC subsidiaries, Dongguan Dogness and Dongguan Jiasheng, are wholly foreign-owned enterprises under the PRC law. The principal regulations governing the distribution of dividends paid by wholly foreign-owned enterprises include: Corporate Law (1993) as amended in 2005, 2013, and 2018; The Wholly Foreign-Owned Enterprise Law (1986), as amended in 2000; The Wholly Foreign-Owned Enterprise Law Implementation Regulations (1990), as amended in 2001 and 2014; and the Enterprise Income Tax Law (2007) and its Implementation Regulations (2007).

 

Under these regulations, wholly foreign-owned and joint venture enterprises in China may pay dividends only out of their accumulated profits, if any, as determined in accordance with PRC accounting standards and regulations. In addition, an enterprise in China is required to set aside at least 10% of its after-tax profit based on PRC accounting standards each year to its general reserves until its cumulative total reserve funds reaches 50% of its registered capital. Our Company’s reserve fund has not yet reached this level. The board of directors of a wholly foreign-owned enterprise has the discretion to allocate a portion of its after-tax profits to its employee welfare and bonus funds. These reserve funds, however, may not be distributed as cash dividends.

 

On March 16, 2007, the National People’s Congress enacted the Enterprise Income Tax Law, and on December 6, 2007, the State Council issued the Implementation Regulations on the Enterprise Income Tax Law, both of which became effective on January 1, 2008. Under this law and its implementation regulations, dividends payable by a foreign-invested enterprise in the PRC to its foreign investor who is a non-resident enterprise will be subject to a 10% (5% for Hong Kong residents) withholding tax, unless any such foreign investor’s jurisdiction of incorporation has a tax treaty with the PRC that provides for a lower withholding tax rate.

 

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M&A Rules and Regulation on Overseas Listings

 

On August 8, 2006, six PRC governmental agencies jointly promulgated the Regulations on Mergers and Acquisitions of Domestic Enterprises by Foreign Investors, or the M&A Rules, which became effective on September 8, 2006 and amended on June 22, 2009. The M&A Rules, among other things, requires that if an overseas company established or controlled by PRC companies or individuals, or PRC Citizens, intends to acquire equity interests or assets of any other PRC domestic company affiliated with the PRC Citizens, such acquisition must be submitted to the MOFCOM for approval. The M&A Rules also require offshore special purpose vehicles formed to pursue overseas listing of equity interests in PRC companies and controlled directly or indirectly by PRC companies or individuals to obtain the approval of the Chinese Securities Regulatory Commission, or the CSRC, prior to the listing and trading of such special purpose vehicle’s securities on any stock exchange overseas.

 

The Anti-Monopoly Law promulgated by the SCNPC on August 30, 2007 and effective on August 1, 2008 requires that transactions which are deemed concentrations and involve parties with specified turnover thresholds must be cleared by MOFCOM before they can be completed. In addition, on February 3, 2011, the General Office of the State Council promulgated a Notice on Establishing the Security Review System for Mergers and Acquisitions of Domestic Enterprises by Foreign Investors, or Circular 6, which officially established a security review system for mergers and acquisitions of domestic enterprises by foreign investors. Further, on August 25, 2011, MOFCOM promulgated the Regulations on Implementation of Security Review System for the Merger and Acquisition of Domestic Enterprises by Foreign Investors, or the MOFCOM Security Review Regulations, which became effective on September 1, 2011, to implement Circular 6. Under Circular 6, a security review is required for mergers and acquisitions by foreign investors having “national defense and security” concerns and mergers and acquisitions by which foreign investors may acquire the “de facto control” of domestic enterprises with “national security” concerns. Under the MOFCOM Security Review Regulations, MOFCOM will focus on the substance and actual impact of the transaction when deciding whether a specific merger or acquisition is subject to security review. If MOFCOM decides that a specific merger or acquisition is subject to security review, it will submit it to the Inter-Ministerial Panel, an authority established under the Circular 6 led by the NDRC, and MOFCOM under the leadership of the State Council, to carry out the security review. The regulations prohibit foreign investors from bypassing the security review by structuring transactions through trusts, indirect investments, leases, loans, control through contractual arrangements or offshore transactions. On February 7, 2021, the Anti-Monopoly Committee of the State Council promulgated the Anti-monopoly Guidelines for the Platform Economy Sector, or the Anti-monopoly Guideline, aiming to improve anti-monopoly administration on online platforms. The Anti-monopoly Guideline, operating as the compliance guidance under the existing PRC anti-monopoly regulatory regime for platform economy operators, specifically prohibits certain acts of the platform economy operators that may have the effect of eliminating or limiting market competition, such as concentration of undertakings.

 

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Foreign Investment Law

 

On March 15, 2019, the National People’s Congress, or the NPC, formally adopted the Foreign Investment Law, which became effective on January 1, 2020 and replaced the trio of laws regulating foreign investment in China, namely, the Sino-foreign Equity Joint Venture Enterprise Law, the Sino-foreign Cooperative Joint Venture Enterprise Law and the Wholly Foreign-invested Enterprise Law, together with their implementation rules and ancillary regulations. Meanwhile, the Regulations for the Implementation of the Foreign Investment Law was promulgated by the State Council on December 26, 2019 and came into effect as of January 1, 2020, which clarified and elaborated the relevant provisions of the Foreign Investment Law. The organization form, organization and activities of foreign-invested enterprises shall be governed, among others, by the Company Law of PRC and the Partnership Enterprise Law of PRC. Foreign-invested enterprises established before the implementation of the Foreign Investment Law may retain the original business organization and so on within five years after the implementation of this Law.

 

According to the Foreign Investment Law, foreign investments are entitled to pre-entry national treatment and are subject to negative list management system. The pre-entry national treatment means that the treatment given to foreign investors and their investments at the stage of investment access shall not be less favorable than that of domestic investors and their investments. The negative list management system means that the state implements special administrative measures for access of foreign investment in specific fields. Foreign investors shall not invest in any forbidden fields stipulated in the negative list and shall meet the conditions stipulated in the negative list before investing in any restricted fields. Foreign investors’ investment, earnings and other legitimate rights and interests within the territory of China shall be protected in accordance with the law, and all national policies on supporting the development of enterprises shall equally apply to foreign-invested enterprises.

 

Pursuant to the Provisional Administrative Measures on Establishment and Modifications (Filing) for Foreign Investment Enterprises promulgated by the MOFCOM, on October 8, 2016 and amended on July 30, 2017 and June 29, 2018, respectively, establishment and changes of foreign investment enterprises which are not subject to the approval under the special entry management measures shall be filed with the relevant commerce authorities. However, as the PRC Foreign Investment Law has taken effect, the MOFCOM and the State Administration for Market Regulation, or the SAMR, jointly promulgated the Foreign Investment Information Report Measures, or the Information Report Measures, on December 19, 2019, which has taken effect since January 1, 2020. According to the Information Report Measures, which repealed the Provisional Administrative Measures on Establishment and Modifications (Filing) for Foreign Investment Enterprises, foreign investors or foreign invested enterprises shall report their investment related information to the competent local counterpart of the MOFCOM through Enterprise Registration System and National Enterprise Credit Information Notification System.

 

Regulation on Foreign Debt

 

A loan made by a foreign entity as direct or indirect shareholder in a FIE is considered to be foreign debt in China and is regulated by various laws and regulations, including the Regulation of the People’s Republic of China on Foreign Exchange Administration, the Interim Provisions on the Management of Foreign Debts, the Statistical Monitoring of Foreign Debts Tentative Provisions, the Detailed Rules for the Implementation of Provisional Regulations on Statistics and Supervision of External Debt, and the Administrative Measures for Registration of Foreign Debts. Under these rules and regulations, a shareholder loan in the form of foreign debt made to a PRC entity does not require the prior approval of SAFE. However, such foreign debt must be registered with and recorded by SAFE or its local branches within fifteen (15) business days after entering into the foreign debt contract. Pursuant to these rules and regulations, the maximum amount of the aggregate of (i) the outstanding balance of foreign debts with a term not longer than one year, and (ii) the accumulated amount of foreign debts with a term longer than one year, of a FIE shall not exceed the difference between its registered total investment and its registered capital, or Total Investment and Registered Capital Balance.

 

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On January 12, 2017, the People’s Bank of China, or PBOC, promulgated the Notice of the People’s Bank of China on Matters concerning the Macro-Prudential Management of Full-Covered Cross-Border Financing, or PBOC Circular 9, which sets forth an upper limit for PRC entities, including FIEs and domestic enterprises, regarding their foreign debts. Pursuant to PBOC Circular 9, the outstanding cross-border financing of an enterprise (the outstanding balance drawn, here and below) shall be calculated using a risk-weighted approach, or Risk-Weighted Approach, and shall not exceed the specified upper limit, namely: risk-weighted outstanding cross-border financing ≤ the upper limit of risk-weighted outstanding cross-border financing. Risk-weighted outstanding cross-border financing = ∑ outstanding amount of RMB and foreign currency denominated cross- border financing * maturity risk conversion factor * type risk conversion factor +∑ outstanding foreign currency denominated cross-border financing * exchange rate risk conversion factor. Maturity risk conversion factor shall be 1 for medium- and long-term cross-border financing with a term of more than one year and 1.5 for short-term cross-border financing with a term of one year or less. Type risk conversion factor shall be 1 for on-balance-sheet financing and 1 for off-balance-sheet financing (contingent liabilities) for the time being. Exchange rate risk conversion factor shall be 0.5. The PBOC Circular 9 further provides that the upper limit of risk-weighted outstanding cross-border financing for enterprises, or Net Asset Limits, shall be 200% of its net assets. The PBOC Circular 9 does not supersede the Interim Provisions on the Management of Foreign Debts, but rather serves as a supplement to it. PBOC Circular 9 provided for a one-year transitional period, or the Transitional Period, from its promulgation date for FIEs, during which period FIEs could choose to calculate their maximum amount of foreign debt based on either (i) the Total Investment and Registered Capital Balance, or (ii) the Risk-Weighted Approach and the Net Asset Limits. Under the PBOC Circular 9, after the Transitional Period ends on January 11, 2018, the PBOC and SAFE will determine the cross-border financing administration mechanism for the foreign-invested enterprises after evaluating the overall implementation of PBOC Circular 9. In addition, according to PBOC Circular 9, a foreign loan must be filed with SAFE through the online filing system of SAFE after the loan agreement is signed and at least three business days prior to the borrower withdraws any amount from such foreign loan.

 

Employment Laws

 

In accordance with the PRC National Labor Law, which became effective in January 1995, and the PRC Labor Contract Law, which became effective in January 2008, as amended subsequently in December 2012, employers must enter into written labor contracts with full-time employees in order to establish an employment relationship. All employers must pay their employees at least with the local minimum wage standards. All employers are required to establish a work environment of safety and sanitation, strictly abide by state rules and standards, and provide employees with appropriate workplace safety training. In addition, employers are obliged to pay contributions to the social insurance plan and the housing fund plan for employees.

 

We have entered into employment agreements with all of our full-time employees. We have contributed to the basic and minimum social insurance plan. Due to a high employee turnover rate in our industry, however, it is difficult for us to comply fully with the law. Some of our employees have even request not to participate in the social insurance plan because they do not want us to make deduction on their salaries.

 

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While we believe we have made adequate provision of such outstanding amounts of contributions to such plans in our financial statements, any failure to make sufficient payments to such plans would be in violation of applicable PRC laws and regulations and, if we are found to be in violation of such laws and regulations, we could be required to make up the contributions for such plans as well as to pay late fees and fines.

 

PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law and Individual Income Tax Law

 

In 2007 China published Enterprise Income Tax Law (“EIT Law”) and its Implementation Rule, both of which came into effect since January 1, 2008. Under the EIT Law and its Rule, enterprises are classified as resident enterprises and non-resident enterprises. PRC resident enterprises typically pay an enterprise income tax at the rate of 25%. An enterprise established outside of the PRC with its “de facto management bodies” located within the PRC is considered a “resident enterprise,” meaning that it can be treated in a manner similar to a PRC domestic enterprise for enterprise income tax purposes. The Rule defines “de facto management body” as a managing body that in practice exercises “substantial and overall management and control over the production and operations, personnel, accounting, and properties” of the enterprise.

 

On the other hand, the State Administration of Taxation provides certain specific criteria for determining whether the “de facto management body” of a PRC-controlled offshore enterprise is located in China. Simply speaking, the criteria is more focused on substantive rather than format. Pursuant to its Circular 82 of 2009, the criteria to determine “de facto management body” include: (a) the senior management and core management departments in charge of its daily operations function have their presence mainly in the PRC; (b) its financial and human resources decisions are subject to determination or approval by persons or bodies in the PRC; (c) its major assets, accounting books, company seals, and minutes and files of its board and shareholders’ meetings are located or kept in the PRC; and (d) more than half of the enterprise’s directors or senior management with voting rights habitually reside in the PRC. Furthermore, the SAT published Bulletin 45 in September 2011, which provides more guidance on the implementation of the definition and provides for procedures and administration details on determining resident status and administration on post-determination matters.

 

However, the SAT Circular 82 and Bulletin 45 only apply to offshore enterprises controlled by PRC enterprises or PRC enterprise groups rather than those controlled by PRC individuals or foreign individuals. So far there is no further criteria passed yet and no applicable legal precedents either, therefore it remains unclear how the PRC tax authorities will determine the PRC tax resident treatment of a foreign company controlled by individuals. Under these existing criteria, it is possible that we will be classified as a PRC “resident enterprise” for PRC enterprise income tax purposes. If so, it would likely result in unfavorable tax consequences to our non-PRC shareholders and have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and the value of your investment.

 

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Regulations on Intellectual Property

 

China joined WTO in 2001 and signed the treaty of TRIPS (Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights), therefore China’s IP laws are very much close to TRIPS.

 

Trademarks

 

Trademarks are protected by the PRC Trademark Law adopted in 1982 and lastly amended in 2013 as well as the Implementation Regulation of the PRC Trademark Law adopted by the State Council in 2002 and amended in 2014. The Trademark Office under the State Administration for Industry and Commerce (“SAIC”) handles trademark registrations. Trademarks can be registered for a term of ten years and can be repeatedly extended for another ten-year term at the time of expiry. The PRC Trademark Law has adopted a “first-to-file” principle with respect to trademark registration. As of the date of this report, we have registered 181 trademarks (including 162 trademarks in China), all of which are fully owned and in use by us. According to Chinese Trademark Law, if anyone has a dispute the officially registered trademarks, he can file a petition to the review board of the Trademark Office, requesting a comprehensive review that may result in the revoking the registered trademarks. So far, we have not received any such kind of petition and we strongly believe there will not be such petition because our trademarks are firstly used as well as firstly registered by us.

 

Patents

 

Inventions, utility models, and designs with the features of novelty, inventiveness and practical applicability, are three kinds of patent defined and protected under China’s Patent Law. The State Intellectual Property Office is responsible for examining and approving patent applications. Once the application is approved, the applicants can have their patent under Chinese legal protection for a long term since its application date, which is 20 years for invention and ten years for utility models and designs. As of the date of this report, we have successfully obtained 135 patents (including 87 in China), which includes 15 invention patents, 50 utility patents, and 70 appearance patents.

 

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C. Organizational Structure

 

Below is a chart representing our current corporate structure:

 

 

 

Our registered office in the British Virgin Islands is at AMS Trustees Limited, Sea Meadow House, Blackburne Highway, P.O. Box 116, Road Town, Tortola, British Virgin Islands, telephone +1 (284) 494-3399.

 

D. Property, Plants and Equipment

 

There is no private land ownership in China. Individuals and entities are permitted to acquire land use rights for specific purposes. The land use rights to the property on which our facilities are situated are held by the parties from which we lease such property.

 

At our facility in Dongguan, our company leases the factory building, office building, guard booth, power room and dormitory from Dongguan Dongcheng District Tongsha Huanggongkeng Co-op, an unrelated third party. The total leased area spans 10,292 square meters. The lease commenced May 1, 2009 has been renewed twice; the current expiration date is April 30, 2027. We estimate that the productive capacity of our main factory is 8,500,000 pieces per year, and our current utilization rate is approximately 65%.

 

The registered office of Dogness Intelligent Technology (Dongguan) Co., LTD. is leased from Dongguan Jiasheng and consists of 500 square meters on the site of our facility in Dongguan.

 

On March 14, 2018, Dogness Group purchased an office building of 6,373 square feet for $1.37 million in Dallas, Texas, which serves as the office, quality control, testing area and drop shipment location for Dogness Group.

 

On March 16, 2018, the Company acquired all of the equity of Zhangzhou Meijia Metal Product Co., Ltd (“Meijia”). The Company paid total consideration of approximately $10.0 million in connection with the acquisition of equity of Meijia. Meijia owns the land use right to a land parcel of 19,144.54 square meters and a factory and office buildings of an aggregate of 18,912.38 square meters. Except for holding the land use right and the buildings, Meijia has no substantial business operations, nor has it had any production or sales activities since its inception. The Company plans to use this land use right and buildings as a production facility. The Company originally budgeted approximately RMB 110 million ($17.0 million) to develop the facility. The actual costs were adjusted based on additional work required for waterproofing, sewage pipeline and hazardous waste leakage prevention. As a result, total actual costs incurred as of June 30, 2021, amounted to RMB 118.5 million ($18.4 million). The Meijia plant started test operations in August 2019 and started normal production in December 2019 upon passing the final inspection conducted by the local government. The Meijia plant has reached its designed production capacity in June 2021.

 

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In July 2018, the Company entered a long-term lease that expires October 14, 2038 for 7,026 square meters of land and 5,000 square meters of buildings in Dongguan city. The Company plans to use this new property as a warehousing facility, given limited storage capacity at its other facilities. Lease expenses for this property were approximately $4.5 million, which amount was paid in full on October 9, 2018. The total budget is approximately RMB263.5 million ($39.3 million). As of June 30, 2022, the Company had completed this project and transferred all of the related CIP to fixed assets. As of June 30, 2022, the Company has made total payments of approximately RMB 261.5 million ($39.0 million) in connection to this project, which resulted in future minimum capital expenditure payments of approximately RMB 2.0 million ($0.3 million).

 

The Company’s subsidiary Dogness Culture also worked on a project to decorate a pet themed retail store. Total budget is RMB 2.2 million ($0.3 million). This project was fully completed during the year ended June 30, 2021. As of June 30, 2022, the Company has paid approximately RMB 2.1 million ($0.3 million) for the project.

 

Fixed assets at our properties consist of office equipment, buildings, structures, ancillary facilities, and equipment for production of metal, plastic and nylon components of leashes, collars and lanyards, including jacquard machines, injection modeling equipment, die casting machines, dying machines, and computerized sewing machines.

 

None of our property is affected by any environmental issues that may affect our use of the property.

 

Item 4A. Unresolved Staff Comments

 

None.

 

Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects

 

The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and related notes that appear in this report. In addition to historical consolidated financial information, the following discussion contains forward-looking statements that reflect our plans, estimates, and beliefs. Our actual results could differ materially from those discussed in the forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to these differences include those discussed below and elsewhere in this report, particularly in “Risk Factors.”

 

Overview of Company

 

Dogness (International) Corporation (“Dogness” or the “Company”), is a company limited by shares established under the laws of the British Virgin Islands (“BVI”) on July 11, 2016 as a holding company. The Company, through its subsidiaries, is primarily engaged in the design, manufacturing and sales of various types of pet leashes, pet collars, pet harnesses, intelligent pet products and retractable leashes with products being sold all over the world mainly through distributions by large retailers.

 

A reorganization of the legal structure was completed on January 9, 2017. Reorganization involved the incorporation of Dogness, a BVI holding company; and Dogness Intelligent Technology (Dongguan) Co., Ltd. (“Dongguan Dogness”), a holding company established under the laws of the People’s Republic of China (“PRC”); and the transfer of HK Dogness, HK Jiasheng and Dongguan Jiasheng Enterprise Co., Ltd. (“Dongguan Jiasheng”; collectively, the “Transferred Entities”) from the Controlling Shareholder to Dogness and Dongguan Dogness. Prior to the reorganization, the Transferred Entities’ equity interests were 100% controlled by our founder and Chief Executive Officer, Mr. Silong Chen (the “Controlling Shareholder”).

 

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On November 24, 2016, the Controlling Shareholder transferred his 100% ownership interest in Dongguan Jiasheng to Dongguan Dogness, which is 100% owned by HK Dogness and considered a wholly foreign-owned entity (“WFOE”) in PRC. On January 9, 2017, the Controlling Shareholder transferred his 100% equity interests in HK Dogness and HK Jiasheng to Dogness. After the reorganization, Dogness ultimately owns 100% of the equity interests of the entities mentioned above.

 

Dongguan Jiasheng Enterprise Co., Ltd. (“Dongguan Jiasheng”) was established on May 15, 2009 under the laws of the PRC, with registered capital of RMB 10 million (approximately $1.5 million) contributed by individual shareholder Mr. Silong Chen. Dongguan Jiasheng is the main operating entity and is engaged in the research and development, manufacturing and distribution of various types of gift suspenders, pet belts ribbon, lace, elastic belt, computer jacquard ribbon and high-grade textile lace.

 

Since the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiaries were effectively controlled by the same Controlling Shareholder before and after the reorganization, they are considered under common control. The above-mentioned transactions were accounted for as a recapitalization. The consolidation of the Company and its subsidiaries has been accounted for at historical cost and prepared on the basis as if the aforementioned transactions had become effective as of the beginning of the first period presented in the accompanying consolidated financial statements.

 

In January 2018, the Company formed a Delaware limited liability company, Dogness Group LLC, with its operation focusing primarily on promoting the Company’s pet products sales in the United States. In February 2018, Dogness Overseas Ltd, which is wholly owned by the Company, was established in the British Virgin Islands as a holding company. Dogness Overseas Ltd owns all of the interests in Dogness Group LLC.

 

On March 16, 2018 (the “Acquisition Date”), the Company entered into a share purchase agreement to acquire 100% of the equity interests in Zhangzhou Meijia Metal Product Co., Ltd (“Meijia”) from its original shareholder, Long Kai (Shenzhen) Industrial Co., Ltd (“Longkai”), for a total cash consideration of approximately $11.0 million (or RMB71.0 million). After the acquisition, Mejia became the Company’s wholly-owned subsidiary. Meijia owns the land use right to a land parcel of 19,144.54 square meters and a factory and office buildings of an aggregate of 18,912.38 square meters. This Acquisition enables the Company to build its own facility instead of leasing manufacturing facilities and expand its production capacity sustainably to meet increased customer demand. Total budgeted capital expenditure to bring Meijia manufacturing facility into use was originally estimated to be completed at a cost of RMB 110 million ($17.0 million). The actual costs have been adjusted based on additional works required for waterproofing, sewage pipeline and hazardous waste leakage prevention. Meijia plant has reached its designed production capacity by June 2021.

 

On July 6, 2018, Dogness Intelligence Technology Co., Ltd. (“Intelligence Guangzhou”) was incorporated under the laws of the People’s Republic of China in Guangzhou City, Guangdong Province, China with a total registered capital of RMB 80 million (approximately $11.9 million). One of the Company’s subsidiaries, Dongguan Jiasheng, owns 58% of Intelligence Guangzhou, with the remaining 42% of ownership interest owned by two unrelated entities. As of the date of this report, Dongguan Jiasheng has not made the capital contribution. Intelligence Guangzhou has had immaterial operation since its inception. On August 10, 2022, the Board approved to sell the Company’s 58% ownership interest in Dogness Intelligence Technology Co., Ltd. to a third party for a price of $0.

 

On February 5, 2019, in order to expand into the Japanese market and expedite the development of new smart pet products, the Company invested $142,000 for 51% ownership interest in Dogness Japan Co. Ltd. (“Dogness Japan”), with the remaining 49% ownership interest owned by an unrelated individual. Due to the negative impact of COVID-19 and because no material revenue was generated since its inception, on November 28, 2020, the Board approved to the sale of the Company’s 51% ownership interest to the remaining shareholder of Dogness Japan.

 

Dogness Pet Culture (Dongguan) Co., Ltd. (“Dogness Culture”) was incorporated on December 14, 2018 with registered capital of RMB 10 million (approximately $1.5 million). The capital was not paid and there were no active business operations. On January 15, 2020, the Company’s subsidiary, Dongguan Dogness, entered into an agreement with the original shareholder of Dogness Culture, who is related to Mr. Silong Chen, our Chief Executive Officer, to acquire 51.2% ownership interest of Dogness Culture for a nominal fee. The remaining equity interest of 48.8% was also transferred to other two third parties for a nominal fee. Dongguan Dogness thereafter contributed cash consideration of RMB 5.12 million (approximately $0.79 million) on April 16, 2020 along with other two shareholders’ capital contributions of RMB 4.88 million (approximately $0.76 million). Dogness Culture is focusing on developing and expanding pet food market in China.

 

67
 

 

In recent years, we have invested large amounts of funds, to establish an environmentally friendly ribbon dying process, computer jacquard department, screen printing department and thermal transfer printing department. The adoption of ISO 9001:2015 international quality system enables us to be more effective in the various production processes to guarantee product quality, and ensure stable and efficient production. We also have an in-house testing laboratory and frequently perform tests on all of our products to maintain a high level of quality in both materials and workmanship.

 

Our primary raw materials in production of our products are plastic, leather, nylon, polyester, chemical fiber blended fabric, metal, GPPS and HIPS, most of which are extracted from crude oil. Thus, our cost of raw material is highly impacted by fluctuations in the price of oil. Cost of revenues mainly includes costs of raw materials, costs of direct labor, utilities, depreciation expenses and other overhead.

 

Our major products include traditional pet products, intelligent pet products, and climbing hooks and others products, such as mouth covers and pet charms. During the year ended June 30, 2021, we started providing ribbon dyeing service for external customers, as well as pet grooming services. Revenues by product and service categories are summarized below:

 

    For the Years ended June 30,  
    2022     2021     2020  
Product and service category   Revenue    

% of total

Revenue

    Revenue    

% of total

Revenue

    Revenue    

% of

total

Revenue

 
                                     
Products                                                
Traditional pet products   $ 11,433,159       42.2 %   $ 14,331,492       58.9 %   $ 13,208,764       68.9 %
Intelligent pet products     13,492,076       49.8 %     7,801,070       32.1 %     4,328,918       22.6 %
Climbing hooks and others     1,761,341       6.5 %     1,340,686       5.5 %     1,633,676       8.5 %
Total revenue from product sales     26,686,576       98.5 %     23,473,248       96.5 %     19,171,358       100.0 %
                                                 
Service                                                
Dyeing service     342,561       1.3 %     817,145       3.4 %     -       - %
Other services     66,060       0.2 %     29,728       0.1 %     -       - %
Total revenue from service     408,621       1.5 %     846,873       3.5 %     -       - %
Total revenue   $ 27,095,197       100.0 %   $ 24,320,121       100.0 %   $ 19,171,358       100.0 %

 

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During the year ended June 30, 2022, our products were sold in 35 countries. Our major customers include, Anyi trading, Ruisheng, Petgo, Trendspark, PetSmart, Petco, Pet Value, Walmart, Target, IKEA, SimplyShe, Pets at Home, PETZL, and Petmate. With the fast-growing online shopping, we also sold our products via popular online shopping sites, including Amazon, Chewy, JD, Tmall and Taobao, and from live streaming sales platforms hosted by influencers. Export sales accounted for 53.7%, 43.7% and 49.0% of the total sales for the years ended June 30, 2022, 2021 and 2020, respectively, while China domestic sales accounted for 46.3%, 56.3% and 51.0% for the years ended June 30, 2022, 2021 and 2020, respectively. The breakdown of the sales by geographic areas is shown below

 

   

For the year ended

June 30, 2022

   

For the year ended

June 30, 2021

   

For the year ended

June 30, 2020

 
Geographic location   Revenue    

% of total

Revenue

    Revenue    

% of total

Revenue

    Revenue    

% of total

Revenue

 
                                     
Sales to international markets   $ 14,542,323       53.7 %   $ 10,627,253       43.7 %   $ 9,399,228       49.0 %
Sales in China domestic market     12,552,874       46.3 %     13,692,868       56.3 %     9,772,130       51.0 %
Total   $ 27,095,197       100.0 %   $ 24,320,121       100.0 %   $ 19,171,358       100.0 %

 

For the year ended June 30, 2022, the Company’s four largest customers accounted for 23.4%, 6.7%, 6.7% and 5.7% of the Company’s total revenue, respectively. For the year ended June 30, 2021, the Company’s three largest customers accounted for 32.0%, 9.1% and 6.9% of the Company’s total revenue, respectively. For the year ended June 30, 2020, the Company’s three largest customers accounted for 27.6%, 6.5% and 4.4% of the Company’s total revenue, respectively.

 

    For the years ended June 30,  
    2022     2021     2020  
    % of total revenue  
                   
Dongguan Anyi Trading Co., Ltd.     23.4 %     32.0 %     27.6 %
Petco     -       9.1 %     6.5 %
Shenzhen Wosibao Technology Co., Ltd     -       6.9 %     -  
Mid Ocean Brands B.V.     6.7 %     -       -  
Dogness Network Technology Co., Ltd     6.7 %     5.0 %     4.4 %
Dongguan Ruisheng Development Co., Ltd.    

-

    3.6 %     - %
Costco     5.7 %     -       -  

 

Market outlook

 

The Company’s operations will be further affected by the ongoing outbreak of COVID-19 which in March 2020, had been declared as a pandemic by the World Health Organization. Although the Company resumed its operations in late March 2020 and received and fulfilled increased customer sales orders in the second half of 2020, and the COVID-19 impact on the Company’s operating results and financial performance for the six months ended December 31, 2020 seems to be temporary, a resurgence could negatively affect the execution of customer contracts, the collection of customer payments, disruption of the Company’s supply chain and restriction of the Company’s sales to international market. The continued uncertainties associated with COVID 19 may cause the Company’s revenue and cash flows to underperform in the next 12 months. The extent of the future impact of COVID-19 is still highly uncertain and cannot be predicted as of the date the Company’s interim financial statements are released.

 

In addition, based on assessment of current market conditions, economic environment, customer demand and sales trend, we expect that the on-going trade dispute between China and the United States will continue to have an adverse effect on our business operations. As a result, our export sales may continue to experience uncertainties in the coming months.

 

To mitigate the impact from the COVID-19 and trade dispute, we repositioned our sales strategy to focus more on domestic sales and further diversify our product offerings to better meet the customers’ needs, such as offering ribbon dyeing service to external customers. Also, we expand our sales channels from traditional trading to utilize on-line shopping channels to gain access to more potential customers from domestic and international markets directly, especially to attract the younger generations who are more interested in our smart pet products. Meantime, we are initiating more cost saving measures to improve production efficiency and profit margin.

 

69
 

 

Our Growth Strategy

 

We are committed to enhancing profitability and cash flows through the following strategies:

 

Develop innovative products and services. We focus on developing and strengthening our brand identity and emphasizing our unique offerings for customers and promoting our strong value proposition. Through extensive and on-going customer research, we are gaining valuable insights into the wants and needs of our customers and we are developing solutions and communication strategies to address them. We continually seek opportunities to strengthen our merchandising capabilities, which allow us to provide a differentiated product assortment, including our exclusive smart pet specialty products and our proprietary brand offerings, to deliver innovative solutions and value to our customers. We believe developing innovative products will further differentiate us from our competitors, allow us to forge a strong relationship with our customers, build loyalty, enhance our market position, increase transaction size and enhance operating margins.

 

Mergers and Acquisitions. When capital permits, we intend to capitalize on the challenges that smaller companies are encountering in our industry by acquiring complementary companies at favorable prices. We believe that acquiring rather than building capacity is an option that may be more beneficial to us if replacement costs are higher than purchase prices. We continue to look into acquiring smaller pet product manufacturers in China as part of our expansion plans. Some of the companies we may seek to acquire are suppliers of the raw materials or components we purchase to manufacture our products to further expand and integrate the industrial chain. If we do acquire such companies, we will have greater control over our manufacturing cost. Our expansion strategy includes increasing our share in existing pet specialty products markets, penetrating new markets and achieving operating efficiencies and economies of scale in merchandising, distribution, information systems, procurement, and marketing, while providing a return on investment to our stockholders.

 

Supply Chain Efficiencies and Scale. We intend to streamline our supply chain process and leverage our economies of scale. We seek suppliers that will strategically partner with us to create long-term shareholder value. We also aim to scale our supply chain to accommodate growth, cut costs and improve efficiency and drive continuous improvement, mitigate supply chain risks, and develop innovative approaches to product development.

 

For the year ended June 30, 2022, our sales increased by 11.4% as compared to the fiscal year ended June 30, 2021. This indicates that we have repositioned our sales strategies to cope with the negative impact of US-China trade dispute and COVID-19, as well as the positive trend of online shopping and customer needs for smart pet products.

 

From a long-term perspective, we believe the above-mentioned strategic initiatives will still help our future sales growth. Through continuous endeavor for product innovation, better management our capital expenditure and leveraging costs, we expect that we could further improve our sales and product margins to produce profitability and return on investment for our stockholders in the near future.

 

70
 

 

Results of Operations

 

Comparison of Operation Results for the Years Ended June 30, 2022 and 2021

 

The following table summarizes the results of our operations for the years ended June 30, 2022 and 2021, respectively, and provides information regarding the dollar and percentage increase or (decrease) during such periods.

 

   

Year ended

June 30, 2022

   

Year ended

June 30, 2021

             
    Amount    

As %

of

Sales

    Amount    

As %

of

Sales

   

Amount

Increase

(Decrease)

   

Percentage

Increase

(Decrease)

 
                                     
Revenues   $ 27,095,197       100.0 %   $ 24,320,121       100.0 %   $ 2,775,076       11.4 %
Cost of revenues     16,956,132       62.6 %     15,164,908       62.4 %     1,791,224       11.8 %
Gross profit     10,139,065       37.4 %     9,155,213       37.6 %     983,852       10.7 %
Operating expenses                                                
Selling expenses     2,077,174       7.7 %     1,815,771       7.5 %     261,403       14.4 %
General and administrative expenses     6,742,687       24.9 %     4,941,036       20.3 %     1,801,651       36.5 %
R&D expense     917,227       3.4 %     540,613       2.2 %     376,614       69.7 %
Loss from disposal of fixed assets     327,921       1.2 %     -      

-

%     327,921       - %
Total operating expenses     10,065,009       37.1 %     7,297,420       30.0 %     2,767,589       37.9 %
(Loss) income from operations     74,056       0.3 %     1,857,793       7.6 %     (1,783,737 )     (96.0 )%
Other income (expenses)                                                
Interest income (expense), net     (370,108 )     (1.4 )%     (264,408 )     (1.1 )%     (105,700 )     40.0 %
Foreign exchange (loss) gain     246,211       0.9 %     (228,260 )     (0.9 )%     474,471       (207.9 )%
Other income     115,016       0.4 %     215,233       0.9 %     (100,217 )     (46.6 )%
Rental income from related parties, net     173,089       0.6 %     354,968       1.5 %     (181,879 )     (51.2 )%
Gain from disposition of a subsidiary     -       - %     5,162       0.0 %     (5,162 )     (100.0 )%
Total other income     164,208       0.6 %     82,695       0.3 %     81,513       98.6 %
Income (loss) before income taxes     238,264       0.9 %     1,940,488       8.0 %     (1,702,224 )     (87.7 )%
Income tax benefit (expense)     (2,777,868 )     (10.3 )%     641,460       2.6 %     (3,419,328 )     (533.1 )%
Net income   $ 3,016,132       11.1 %   $ 1,299,028       5.3 %   $ 1,717,104       132.2 %

 

Revenues. Revenues increased by approximately $2.8 million, or 11.4%, to approximately $27.1 million in fiscal 2022 from approximately $24.3 million in fiscal 2021. The increase in revenue was primarily attributable to the increased sales of our intelligent pet products which have much higher average selling price than our traditional pet products. The increase was mainly due to following reasons:

 

1) We continue to shift our focus and resources to produce and promote the sales of higher margin intelligent pet products. As a result, our sales volume for intelligent pet products increased by 14.1% for the year ended June 30, 2022 as compared to the year ended June 30, 2021

 

2) We continue to upgrade our production lines for traditional pet products to improve the productivity and lower the production costs. As a result, we are able to lower our selling price for traditional pet products, but still maintain desirable profit margins. Our sales strategy for traditional pet products successfully retained our customers, attracted new customers, and increased awareness for our intelligent pet products.

 

3) To mitigate the impact caused by COVID-19, we expanded our sales channels to more online shopping platforms, such as Amazon, Chewy, JD, Tmall and Taobao, as well as the live streaming sales platforms hosted by influencers. These ecommerce sales normally have higher profit margin than traditional sales channels.

 

Our average selling price increase in by 22.2% during the year ended June 30, 2022 as compared to the year ended June 30, 2021. The increase was largely due to increased sales of our intelligent pet products. Our sales of intelligent pet products account for approximately 49.8% of the total sales in fiscal 2022, as compared to approximately 32.1% in fiscal 2021.

 

71
 

 

Revenue by product and service type

 

The breakdown of our revenue by product type is as follows:

 

    For the Years ended June 30,  
    2022     2021              
Product and service category   Revenue    

% of total

Revenue

    Revenue    

% of total

Revenue

    Variance    

Variance

%

 
                                     
Products                                                
Traditional pet products     11,433,159       42.2 %     14,331,492       58.9 %     (2,898,333 )     (20.2 )%
Intelligent pet products     13,492,076       49.8 %     7,801,070       32.1 %     5,691,006       73.0 %
Climbing hooks and others     1,761,341       6.5 %     1,340,686       5.5 %     420,655       31.4 %
Total revenue from products   $ 26,686,576       98.5 %   $ 23,473,248       96.5 %   $ 3,213,328       13.7 %
                                                 
Service                                                
Dyeing service     342,561       1.3 %     817,145       3.4 %     (474,584 )     (58.1 )%
Other services     66,060       0.2 %     29,728       0.1 %     36,332       122.2 %
Total revenue from service     408,621       1.5 %     846,873       3.5 %     (438,252 )     (51.7 )%
Total     27,095,197       100.0 %     24,320,121       100.0 %     2,775,076       11.4 %

 

   

Total Revenue for years

ended June 30,

                            Average unit price     Price  
Products   2022     2021     Units sold in 2022     Units sold in 2021     Variance in Units sold     % of units variance     2022     2021     Difference  
Traditional pet products     11,433,159       14,331,492       10,813,092       12,064,685       (1,251,593 )     (10.4 )%     1.1       1.2       (0.1 )
Intelligent pet products     13,492,076       7,801,070       441,042       386,467       54,575       14.1 %     30.6       20.2       10.4  
Climbing hooks and others     1,761,341       1,340,686       1,040,551       828,070       212,481       25.7 %     1.7       1.6       0.1  
Total   $ 26,686,576     $ 23,473,248       12,294,685       13,279,222       (984,537 )     (7.4 )%   $ 2.2     $ 1.8     $ 0.4  

 

Traditional pet products

 

Revenue from traditional pet products decreased by approximately $2.9 million or 20.2% from approximately $14.3 million in fiscal 2021 to approximately $11.4 million in fiscal 2022. The decrease was mainly due to decrease of 10.4% in sales volume and decrease in average selling price of $0.1 per unit in fiscal 2022 compared to fiscal 2021.

 

Intelligent pet products

 

Revenue from intelligent pet products increased by approximately $5.7 million or 73.0%, from approximately $7.8 million in fiscal 2021 to approximately $13.5 million in fiscal 2022. The increase was driven by the increased average selling price of $10.4 per unit in fiscal 2022 due to more higher selling price intelligent pet products we made, and increase of 14.1% in sales volume during fiscal 2022 compared to fiscal 2021

 

We launched our intelligent pet products in March 2018, which include App-controlled pet feeders, pet water fountains, and smart pet toys. Comparing with other products, intelligent pet products typically have higher selling price. As part of our strategic changes, we have shifted our focus and resources from traditional pet products to new, smart, and high value innovative smart pet products. We have seen significant increase of sales during fiscal year 2022 and are expected the sales of intelligent pet products will continue to be one of the primary sources of revenue in the near future.

 

Climbing hooks

 

Revenue from climbing hooks increased by approximately $0.4 million from approximately $1.3 million in fiscal 2021 to approximately $1.8 million in fiscal 2022. The increase was mainly due to a 25.7% increase in sales volume, and a slight increase of the average selling price of $0.1 per unit for fiscal 2022 as compared to fiscal 2021. We expect the sales for the climbing hooks and gears will continue to increase after the pandemic due to the growth trend of participating the outdoors activities both domestically and globally.

 

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Dyeing service

 

During fiscal 2021, we started to provide ribbon dyeing service to customers. We utilize our manufacturing capability and color dyeing technology to provide dyeing solutions to customers and apply dyes or pigments on ribbons made of textile materials such as fibers, yarns and fabrics to achieve customer desired color fastness and quality. We recognize revenue at the point when dyeing solutions and related services are rendered, products after dyeing are delivered and accepted by the customers. We earned service fees of $342,561 and $817,145 in fiscal 2022 and 2021, respectively

 

Sales to related parties

 

During the year ended June 30, 2019, we acquired 10% of the ownership interest in Dogness Network Technology Co., Ltd (“Dogness Network”), for the purpose of working together to develop new products and new technologies in smart pet tech area.

 

The legal representative of Dogness Technology is Junqiang Chen, the relative of Mr. Silong Chen.

 

We sold certain intelligent pet products to Dogness Network and Dogness Technology, and accordingly reported related party sales of $2,212,579 and $1,207,686, which accounted for 8.2% and 5.0% of our total revenue in fiscal 2022 and 2021, respectively.

 

Cost of revenue associated with the sales to these two related parties amounted to $1,301,180 and $663,742 for the in fiscal 2022 and 2021, respectively.

 

Revenue by Geographic Area

 

The breakdown of our revenue by geographic areas is as follows:

 

    For the Years Ended June 30,  
    2022     2021              
Country and Region   Revenue    

% of

total

Revenue

    Revenue    

% of

total

Revenue

    Variance    

Variance

%

 
                                     
Mainland China   $ 12,552,874       46.3 %   $ 13,692,868       56.3 %     (1,139,994 )     (8.3 )%
United States     7,980,436       29.6 %     6,028,326       24.7 %     1,952,110       32.4 %
Europe     1,770,052       6.5 %     1,653,923       6.8 %     116,129       7.0 %
Japan and other Asian countries and regions     3,009,931       11.1 %     1,302,967       5.4 %     1,706,964       131.0 %
Australia     579,677       2.1 %     392,985       1.6 %     186,692       47.5 %
Canada     1,168,689       4.3 %     1,180,631       4.9 %     (11,942 )     (1.0 )%
Central and South America     33,538       0.1 %     68,421       0.3 %     (34,883 )     (51.0 )%
Total   $ 27,095,197       100 %   $ 24,320,121       100.0 %   $ 2,775,076       11.4 %

 

The breakdown of sales by product types in international markets is as follows:

 

International sales by product type

 

    For the Years ended June 30,  
    2022     2021     Change  
Product and service type   Revenue     % of total revenue     Revenue     % of total revenue     Amount     %  
                                     
Traditional pet products   $ 6,187,697       42.5 %   $ 6,742,503       63.4 %   $ (554,806 )     (8.2 )%
Intelligent pet products     7,538,259       51.9 %     3,173,393       29.9 %     4,364,866       137.5 %
Climbing hook     816,367       5.6 %     711,357       6.7 %     105,010       14.8 %
Total international sales   $ 14,542,323       100.0 %   $ 10,627,253       100.0 %   $ 3,915,070       36.8 %

 

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Our total sales in international markets increased by approximately $3.9 million or 36.8% from approximately $10.6 million in fiscal 2021 to approximately $14.5 million in fiscal year 2022. We have seen sharp increase of consumer demand in U.S., Japan and other Asian countries because of the stimulus plan and the strong recovery of the economy. Our sales to U.S. market increased by approximately $2.0 million or 32.4% to approximately $8.0 million in fiscal 2022 from approximately $6.0 million for the fiscal 2021. Our sales to Japan and other Asian countries and regions market increased by approximately $1.7 million or 131.0% to approximately $3.0 million for fiscal 2022 from approximately $1.3 million for fiscal 2021. However, due to the ongoing negative impact of the outbreak and spread of COVID-19 around the world, we still experienced weak market demand and received less sales orders from other international customers.

 

In terms of our international sales by product type and mix, sales of intelligent pet products and climbing hooks increased by 137.5% and 14.8%, respectively, in fiscal 2022 as compared to fiscal 2021. However, our sales of our traditional pet products decreased by 8.2%, in fiscal 2022 as compared to fiscal 2021.

 

In fiscal 2021, we have started working with large retail chains in the US and Canada for the distribution of smart pet products under our own brand rather than just serving as an OEM supplier. In addition, we started expanding our sales on online shopping platforms, such as Amazon and Chewy to access more potential customers in a safely and timely manner. We expect that the revenue to be generated from these efforts could mitigate, at least in part, offset the decreased OEM sales in the United States and Canada and the mitigate the impact of the COVID-19. We also expect that the newly developed intelligent pet products will continue become the leading revenue source for our international sales.

 

The breakdown of sales by product types in China’s domestic market is as follows:

 

Domestic sales by product type

 

    For the Years ended June 30,  
    2022     2021     Changes  
Product and service type   Revenue    

% of

total

revenue

    Revenue    

% of

total

revenue

    Amount     %  
                                     
Traditional pet products     5,245,462       41.8 %     7,588,989       55.4 %     (2,343,527 )     (30.9 )%
Intelligent pet products     5,953,817       47.5 %     4,627,677       33.8 %     1,326,140       28.7 %
Climbing hook     944,974       7.5 %     629,329       4.6 %     315,645       50.2 %
Dyeing services     342,561       2.7 %     817,145       6.0 %     (474,584 )     (58.1 )%
Other services     66,060       0.5 %     29,728       0.2 %     36,332       122.2 %
Total sales in China domestic market   $ 12,552,874       100.0 %   $ 13,692,868       100.0 %   $ (1,139,994 )     (8.3 )%

 

Our domestic sales decreased by approximately $1.1 million or 8.3% from approximately $13.7 million in fiscal 2021 to approximately $12.6 million in fiscal 2022. The decrease was mainly due to decreased revenue from traditional pet products.

 

With the booming of pet culture in China, more and more young consumers have become pet owners in Mainland China. There are growing demands for smart pet products, including App-controlled smart pet food feeders, pet water fountains, pet tracking devices and smart pet toys. In addition, the shopping channels are diversified due to the rapid change of technology and lifestyle. The younger generations are more tech savvy and more willing to purchase products from popular online shopping sites, including Amazon, Chewy, JD, Tmall and Taobao, and from live streaming sales platforms hosted by influencers. Therefore, during fiscal 2022, we increased our marketing activities and sales efforts in domestic market, especially on those online shopping sites and channels. As a result, our domestic sales of intelligent pet products increased approximately $1.3 million or 28.7% in fiscal 2022 as compared to fiscal 2021.

 

On the other hand, due to our strategic changes, we have shifted our focus and resource from traditional pet products to intelligent pet products, our domestic sales of traditional pet products decreased approximately $2.3 million or 30.9% in fiscal 2022 as compared to fiscal 2021.

 

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Cost of revenues

 

Cost of revenues decreased by approximately $1.8 million, or 11.8%, from approximately $15.2 million in fiscal 2021 to approximately $17.0 million in fiscal 2022. As a percentage of revenues, the cost of goods sold slightly increased by approximately 0.2 percentage points to 62.6% in fiscal 2022 from 62.4% in fiscal 2021. We expect to continue to upgrade our production lines for both traditional and intelligent pet products to improve the productivity and lower the production costs.

 

Gross profit

 

Our gross profit increased by approximately $1.0 million or 10.7%, to approximately $10.1 million in fiscal 2022 from approximately $9.2 million in fiscal 2021 primarily attributable to the increased sales volume of our intelligent pet products which have much higher gross profit than our traditional pet products. Overall gross profit margin was 37.4%, a decrease of 0.2 percentage points, as compared to 37.6% in fiscal 2021.

 

Gross profit by product and service type

 

The breakdown of gross profit by product types is as follows:

 

    For the Year ended June 30,
    2022     2021            
Product category   Gross profit     Gross profit %     Gross profit     Gross profit %     Variance in Gross profit    

Variance in Gross profit Pct.

Pt.

                                   
Traditional pet products   $ 3,670,566       32.1 %   $ 4,738,159       33.1 %   $ (1,067,593 )   (1.0) pct.
Intelligent pet products     5,909,099       43.8 %     3,997,768       51.2 %     1,911,331     (7.4) pct.
Climbing hook     535,758       30.4 %     423,143       31.6 %     112,615     (1.2) pct.
      10,115,423       37.9 %     9,159,070       39.0 %     956,353     (1.1) pct.
Service                                            
Dyeing service     (35,272 )     (10.3 )%     (23,957 )     (2.9 )%     (11,315 )   (7.4) pct.
Other services     58,914       89.2 %     20,100       67.6 %     38,814     (21.6) pct.
Total   $ 10,139,065       37.4 %   $ 9,155,213       37.6 %   $ 983,852     (0.2) pct.

 

Gross profit for traditional pet products decreased by approximately $1.1 million in fiscal 2022 as compared to fiscal 2021. Gross profit margin decreased by 1.0 percentage points from 33.1% in fiscal 2021 to 32.1% in fiscal 2022, mainly because we lowered the average selling price in fiscal 2022.

 

Gross profit for intelligent pet products increased by approximately $1.9 million from approximately $4.0 million in fiscal 2021 to approximately $5.9 million in fiscal 2022. Gross profit margin decreased by 7.4 percentage point from 51.2% in fiscal 2021 to 43.8% in fiscal 2022, mainly driven by increased average unit cost of intelligent pet products due to improved manufacturing process.

 

Gross profit for climbing hook increased by approximately $0.1 million from approximately $0.4 million in fiscal 2021 to $0.5 million in fiscal 2022, mainly driven by 25.7% increase in sales volume. Overall gross margin for climbing hook decreased by 1.2 percentage points from 31.6% in fiscal 2021 to 30.4% in fiscal 2022.

 

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Expenses

 

   Years ended June 30,         
  

2022

($)

  

2022

(%)

  

2021

($)

  

2021

(%)

  

Changes

($)

   Changes(%) 
Selling expenses   2,077,174    20.6%   1,815,771    24.9%   261,403    14.4%
General and administrative expenses   6,742,687    67.0%   4,941,036    67.7%   1,801,651    36.5%
Research and development expenses   917,227    9.1%   540,613    7.4%   376,614    69.7%
Loss from disposal of fixed assets   327,921    3.3    -    -%   327,921    -%
Total operating expenses   10,065,009    100%   7,297,420    100%   2,767,589    37.9%

 

Selling expenses. Selling expenses primarily included expenses incurred for participating in various trade shows to promote product sales, salary and sales commission expenses paid to the Company’s sales personnel, and shipping and delivery expenses. Selling expenses increased by $0.3 million, or 14.4% from approximately $1.8 million in fiscal 2021 to approximately $2.1 million in fiscal 2022. The increase in selling expense was primarily due to increased Amazon online sales promotion fee approximately $0.2 million, As a percentage of sales, our selling expenses were 7.7% and 7.5% of our total revenues in fiscal 2022 and 2021, respectively.

 

General and administrative expenses. Our general and administrative expenses primarily include employee salary, welfare and insurance expenses, depreciation and bad debt expenses as well as consulting expense. General and administrative expenses increased by approximately $1.8 million or 36.5% from approximately $4.9 million in fiscal 2021 to approximately $6.7 million in fiscal 2022. The increase was mainly due to increased professional consultant expense approximately $0.5 million, decoration and maintenance fee of approximately $0.5 million, increased depreciation and amortization expenses of $0.4 million. As a percentage of sales, our general and administrative expenses were 24.9% and 20.3% of our total revenues in fiscal 2022 and 2021, respectively.

 

Research and development expenses. Our research and development expenses increased by approximately $0.4 million or 69.7% from approximately $0.5 million in fiscal 2021 to $0.9 million in fiscal 2022. As a percentage of sales, our research and development expenses were 3.4% and 2.2% of our total revenues in fiscal 2022 and 2021, respectively. The increase was due to more research activities in fiscal 2022. We expect R&D expenses to continue to increase, as we continue to expand our research and development activities to increase the use of environmentally-friendly materials, and develop more new high-tech products to meet customer demands.

 

Disposition of fixed assets. We disposed some old fashioned or outdated molding machinery and equipment in fiscal 2022, which resulted in approximately $0.3 million loss from disposition of fixed assets in fiscal 2022.

 

Other income, net. Other income primarily included interest income or expenses, foreign exchange gain or loss, rental income from related parties, gain from disposition of a subsidiary and other income or expenses. In fiscal 2022, the Company had other income of approximately $0.2 million as compared to approximately $0.1 million in fiscal 2021. The increase was mainly attributable to an increase of approximately $0.5 million in foreign exchange gain in fiscal 2022 as compared to fiscal 2021, offset by less miscellaneous other income in fiscal 2022 as compared to fiscal 2021.

 

Income tax benefit (expense). Income tax benefit was approximately $2.8 million in fiscal 2022, compared to, income tax expense approximately $0.6 million in fiscal 2021. The decrease was mainly due to the reversal of accrued tax liabilities in the total amount of approximately $3.0 million relating to the tax liabilities accrued for the period from fiscal 2016 to fiscal 2018.

 

The Company may be subject to challenges from various PRC taxing authorities regarding the amounts of taxes due, although the Company’s management believes the Company has paid or accrued for all taxes owed by the Company. As of June 30, 2022 and 2021, the Company had accrued (before adjustment) total income tax liabilities of approximately $4.6 million and $4.3 million, respectively. According to PRC taxation regulation and administrative practice and procedures, the statute of limitation on tax authority’s audit or examination of previously filed tax returns expires three years from the date they were filed. The Company also obtained a written statement from the local tax authority that no additional taxes are due as of June 30, 2022. Based on these facts, the Company reversed the accrued tax liabilities in the total amount of approximately $3.0 million (or RMB20,424,826) relating to the tax liabilities accrued for the period from fiscal 2016 to fiscal 2018, resulting in the decrease of accrued income tax liabilities from approximately $4.6 million to approximately $1.5 million as of June 30, 2022. The Company continues to discuss with the local tax authority to try to settle the remaining tax liabilities as soon as practicable, mostly related to its unpaid income tax and business tax.

 

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Due to uncertainties associated with the status of examinations, including the protocols of finalizing audits by the relevant tax authorities, there is a high degree of uncertainty regarding the future cash outflows associated with the interest and penalties on these unpaid tax balances. The final outcome of this tax uncertainty is dependent upon various matters including tax examinations, interpretation of tax laws or expiration of status of limitation.

 

Net income. Net income was approximately $0.1 million in fiscal 2022, decrease by approximately $1.2 million from $1.3 million in fiscal 2021. The decreased net income was the result of increased s operating expenses as discussed above.

 

Other comprehensive income (loss). Foreign currency translation adjustments amounted to a loss of $3,203,448 and a gain of $4,879,315 in fiscal 2022 and 2021, respectively. The balance sheet amounts with the exception of equity at June 30, 2022 were translated at 6.6981 RMB to 1.00 USD as compared to 6.4566 RMB to 1.00 USD at June 30, 2021. The equity accounts were stated at their historical rate. The average translation rates applied to the income statements accounts for the years ended June 30, 2022 and 2021 were 6.4554 RMB to 1.00 USD and 6.6221 RMB to 1.00 USD, respectively. The change in the value of the RMB relative to the U.S. dollar may affect our financial results reported in the U.S, dollar terms without giving effect to any underlying change in our business or results of operation. The impact attributable to changes in revenue and expenses due to foreign currency translation are summarized as follows.

 

   Year ended
June 30, 2022
   Year ended
June 30, 2021
 
Impact on revenue  $979,555   $(628,136)
Impact on operating expenses  $363,874   $(188,476)
Impact on net income  $109,040   $(33,551)

 

For the year ended June 30, 2022, if using the RMB6.6981 to $1.00 (foreign exchange rate as of June 30, 2022), rather than the average exchange rate for the year ended June 30, 2022, to translate our revenue, operating expense and net income, our reported revenue, operation expense and net income would decrease by $979,555, $363,874 and negative $109,040, respectively.

 

For the year ended June 30, 2021, if using the RMB6.4566 to $1.00 (foreign exchange rate as of June 30, 2021), rather than the average exchange rate for the year ended June 30, 2021, to translate our revenue, operating expense and net income, our reported revenue, operation expense and net income would be increased by $628,316, $188,476 and $33,551, respectively.

 

Comparison of Operation Results for the Years Ended June 30, 2021 and 2020

 

The following table summarizes the results of our operations for the years ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively, and provides information regarding the dollar and percentage increase or (decrease) during such periods.

 

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   Year ended
June 30, 2021
   Year ended
June 30, 2020
         
   Amount   As %
of
Sales
   Amount   As %
of
Sales
   Amount
Increase
(Decrease)
   Percentage
Increase
(Decrease)
 
                         
Revenues  $24,320,121    100.0%  $19,171,358    100.0%  $5,148,763