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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from __________to__________

DOWdiamond-red-RGB_8-19.jpg

Commission
File Number
Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter,
Principal Office Address and Telephone Number
State of Incorporation or
Organization
I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.
001-38646Dow Inc.Delaware30-1128146
2211 H.H. Dow Way, Midland, MI 48674
989 636-1000
001-03433The Dow Chemical CompanyDelaware38-1285128
2211 H.H. Dow Way, Midland, MI 48674
989 636-1000
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
RegistrantTitle of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Dow Inc.Common Stock, par value $0.01 per shareDOWNew York Stock Exchange
The Dow Chemical Company0.500% Notes due March 15, 2027DOW/27New York Stock Exchange
The Dow Chemical Company1.125% Notes due March 15, 2032DOW/32New York Stock Exchange
The Dow Chemical Company1.875% Notes due March 15, 2040DOW/40New York Stock Exchange
The Dow Chemical Company4.625% Notes due October 1, 2044DOW/44New York Stock Exchange



Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Dow Inc.YesNo
The Dow Chemical CompanyYesNo

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
Dow Inc.YesNo
The Dow Chemical CompanyYesNo

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
Dow Inc.YesNo
The Dow Chemical CompanyYesNo


Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).
Dow Inc.YesNo
The Dow Chemical CompanyYesNo

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Dow Inc.Large accelerated filerAccelerated
filer
¨
Non-
accelerated filer
¨
Smaller reporting company
¨
Emerging growth company
¨
The Dow Chemical CompanyLarge accelerated filer¨Accelerated
filer
¨
Non-
accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
¨
Emerging growth company
¨

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Dow Inc.
The Dow Chemical Company

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Dow Inc.
The Dow Chemical Company

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.
Dow Inc.
The Dow Chemical Company
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant's executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).
Dow Inc.
The Dow Chemical Company

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).
Dow Inc.YesNo
The Dow Chemical CompanyYesNo

As of June 30, 2023, the aggregate market value of the common stock of Dow Inc. held by non-affiliates of Dow Inc. was approximately $37.4 billion based on the last reported closing price of $53.26 per share as reported on the New York Stock Exchange.
Dow Inc. had 702,293,433 shares of common stock, $0.01 par value, outstanding at December 31, 2023. The Dow Chemical Company had 100 shares of common stock, $0.01 par value, outstanding at December 31, 2023, all of which were held by the registrant’s parent, Dow Inc.
The Dow Chemical Company meets the conditions set forth in General Instruction I(1)(a) and (b) for Form 10-K and therefore is filing this form in the reduced disclosure format.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Dow Inc.: Portions of Dow Inc.'s Proxy Statement for the 2024 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated herein by reference in Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K to the extent stated herein. Such proxy statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days of Dow Inc.'s fiscal year ended December 31, 2023.

The Dow Chemical Company: None.


Dow Inc. and Subsidiaries
The Dow Chemical Company and Subsidiaries

ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023

TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE
Dow Inc. and Subsidiaries:
The Dow Chemical Company and Subsidiaries:
Dow Inc. and Subsidiaries and The Dow Chemical Company and Subsidiaries:
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Dow Inc. and Subsidiaries
The Dow Chemical Company and Subsidiaries
This Annual Report on Form 10-K is a combined report being filed by Dow Inc. and The Dow Chemical Company and its consolidated subsidiaries (“TDCC” and together with Dow Inc., “Dow” or the "Company"). This Annual Report on Form 10-K reflects the results of Dow and its consolidated subsidiaries. As a result of the parent/subsidiary relationship between Dow Inc. and TDCC, and considering that the financial statements and disclosures of each company are substantially similar, the companies are filing a combined report for this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The information reflected in this report is equally applicable to both Dow Inc. and TDCC, except where otherwise noted. Each of Dow Inc. and TDCC is filing information in this report on its own behalf and neither company makes any representation to the information relating to the other company.

CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
Certain statements in this report are “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the federal securities laws, including Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. Such statements often address expected future business and financial performance, financial condition, and other matters, and often contain words or phrases such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “opportunity,” “outlook,” “plan,” “project,” “seek,” “should,” “strategy,” "target," “will,” “will be,” “will continue,” “will likely result,” “would” and similar expressions, and variations or negatives of these words or phrases.

Forward-looking statements are based on current assumptions and expectations of future events that are subject to risks, uncertainties and other factors that are beyond Dow’s control, which may cause actual results to differ materially from those projected, anticipated or implied in the forward-looking statements and speak only as of the date the statements were made. These factors include, but are not limited to: sales of Dow’s products; Dow’s expenses, future revenues and profitability; any global and regional economic impacts of a pandemic or other public health-related risks and events on Dow’s business; any sanctions, export restrictions, supply chain disruptions or increased economic uncertainty related to the ongoing conflicts between Russia and Ukraine and in the Middle East; capital requirements and need for and availability of financing; unexpected barriers in the development of technology, including with respect to Dow's contemplated capital and operating projects; Dow's ability to realize its commitment to carbon neutrality on the contemplated timeframe, including the completion and success of its integrated ethylene cracker and derivatives facility in Alberta, Canada; size of the markets for Dow’s products and services and ability to compete in such markets; failure to develop and market new products and optimally manage product life cycles; the rate and degree of market acceptance of Dow’s products; significant litigation and environmental matters and related contingencies and unexpected expenses; the success of competing technologies that are or may become available; the ability to protect Dow’s intellectual property in the United States and abroad; developments related to contemplated restructuring activities and proposed divestitures or acquisitions such as workforce reduction, manufacturing facility and/or asset closure and related exit and disposal activities, and the benefits and costs associated with each of the foregoing; fluctuations in energy and raw material prices; management of process safety and product stewardship; changes in relationships with Dow’s significant customers and suppliers; changes in public sentiment and political leadership; increased concerns about plastics in the environment and lack of a circular economy for plastics at scale; changes in consumer preferences and demand; changes in laws and regulations, political conditions or industry development; global economic and capital markets conditions, such as inflation, market uncertainty, interest and currency exchange rates, and equity and commodity prices; business or supply disruptions; security threats, such as acts of sabotage, terrorism or war, including the ongoing conflicts between Russia and Ukraine and in the Middle East; weather events and natural disasters; disruptions in Dow’s information technology networks and systems, including the impact of cyberattacks; and risks related to Dow’s separation from DowDuPont Inc. such as Dow’s obligation to indemnify DuPont de Nemours, Inc. and/or Corteva, Inc. for certain liabilities.

Where, in any forward-looking statement, an expectation or belief as to future results or events is expressed, such expectation or belief is based on the current plans and expectations of management and expressed in good faith and believed to have a reasonable basis, but there can be no assurance that the expectation or belief will result or be achieved or accomplished. A detailed discussion of principal risks and uncertainties which may cause actual results and events to differ materially from such forward-looking statements is included in the section of this Annual Report on Form 10-K titled “Risk Factors.” These are not the only risks and uncertainties that Dow faces. There may be other risks and uncertainties that Dow is unable to identify at this time or that Dow does not currently expect to have a material impact on its business. If any of those risks or uncertainties develops into an actual event, it could have a material adverse effect on Dow’s business. Dow Inc. and TDCC assume no obligation to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statements whether because of new information, future events, or otherwise, except as required by securities and other applicable laws.
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Dow Inc. and Subsidiaries
The Dow Chemical Company and Subsidiaries
PART I

ITEM 1. BUSINESS
THE COMPANY
Dow Inc. was incorporated on August 30, 2018, under Delaware law, to serve as a holding company for The Dow Chemical Company and its consolidated subsidiaries ("TDCC" and together with Dow Inc., "Dow" or the "Company"). Dow Inc. operates all of its businesses through TDCC, a wholly owned subsidiary, which was incorporated in 1947 under Delaware law and is the successor to a Michigan corporation, of the same name, organized in 1897. The Company's principal executive offices are located at 2211 H.H. Dow Way, Midland, Michigan 48674.

Available Information
The Company's Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and Current Reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, are available free of charge at www.dow.com/investors, as soon as reasonably practicable after the reports are electronically filed or furnished with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC"). The SEC maintains a website that contains these reports as well as proxy statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically. The SEC's website is www.sec.gov. Dow's website and its content are not deemed incorporated by reference into this report.

Except as otherwise indicated by the context, the term "Union Carbide" means Union Carbide Corporation and the term "Dow Silicones" means Dow Silicones Corporation, both wholly owned subsidiaries of the Company.

ABOUT DOW
Dow is one of the world’s leading materials science companies, serving customers in high-growth markets such as packaging, infrastructure, mobility and consumer applications. The Company's global breadth, asset integration and scale, focused innovation, leading business positions and commitment to sustainability enables the Company to achieve profitable growth and help deliver a sustainable future. Dow operates manufacturing sites in 31 countries and employs approximately 35,900 people. In 2023, Dow delivered sales of approximately $45 billion. Learn more about Dow's ambition to be the most innovative, customer-centric, inclusive and sustainable materials science company in the world by visiting www.dow.com.

BUSINESS SEGMENTS AND PRODUCTS
The Company conducts its worldwide operations through six global businesses which are organized into the following operating segments: Packaging & Specialty Plastics, Industrial Intermediates & Infrastructure and Performance Materials & Coatings. Corporate contains the reconciliation between the totals for the operating segments and the Company's totals. The Company did not aggregate any operating segments when determining its reportable segments. See Part II, Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and Note 24 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information concerning the Company’s operating segments.

PACKAGING & SPECIALTY PLASTICS
The Packaging & Specialty Plastics operating segment consists of two highly integrated global businesses: Hydrocarbons & Energy and Packaging and Specialty Plastics. The segment employs the industry’s broadest polyolefin product portfolio, supported by the Company’s proprietary catalyst and manufacturing process technologies. These differentiators, plus collaboration at the customer’s design table, enable the segment to deliver more reliable, durable, higher-performing solutions designed for recyclability and enhanced plastics circularity and sustainability. The segment serves customers, brand owners and ultimately consumers in key markets including food and specialty packaging; industrial and consumer packaging; health and hygiene; caps, closures and pipe applications; consumer durables; mobility and transportation; and infrastructure.


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The Company’s unique advantages compared with its competitors include: extensive low-cost feedstock positions around the world; unparalleled scale, global footprint and market reach; world-class manufacturing sites in every geographic region; deep customer and brand owner understanding; portfolio of higher-value functional polymers, such as polyolefin elastomers, semiconductive and jacketing compound solutions and wire and cable insulation; and market-driven application development and technical support.

The segment remains agile by participating in the entire ethylene-to-polyethylene chain integration, enabling the Company to manage market swings with industry-leading feedstock and derivative flexibility, and therefore optimize returns while reducing long-term earnings volatility. The Company’s unrivaled value chain ownership is further strengthened by its Pack Studio locations in every geographic region, which help customers and brand owners deliver faster and more efficient packaging product commercialization through a global network of laboratories, technical experts and testing equipment.

Hydrocarbons & Energy
Hydrocarbons & Energy is a leading global producer of ethylene, a key chemical building block that the Company consumes primarily within the Packaging & Specialty Plastics segment. Ethylene is transferred to downstream derivative businesses at market-based prices, which are generally equivalent to prevailing market prices for large volume purchases. In addition to ethylene, the business is a leading producer of propylene and aromatics products that are used to manufacture materials consumers use every day. The business also produces and procures the power, steam and feedstocks used by the Company’s manufacturing sites.

Packaging and Specialty Plastics
Packaging and Specialty Plastics serves growing, high-value sectors using world-class technology, broad existing product lines, and a rich product pipeline that creates competitive advantages for the entire packaging value chain. The business is a recognized leader in the production, marketing and innovation of polyethylene. The business is also a leader in other ethylene derivatives, such as polyolefin elastomers, ethylene vinyl acetate and ethylene propylene diene monomer ("EPDM") rubber serving mobility and transportation, consumer, wire and cable and construction end-markets. Market growth is expected to be driven by major shifts in population demographics; improving socioeconomic status in emerging geographic regions; consumer and brand owner demand for increased functionality including sustainable offerings through lower-carbon and circular solutions; global efforts to reduce food waste; growth in telecommunications networks; global development of electrical transmission and distribution infrastructure; and renewable energy applications such as wind power and solar (photovoltaic).

Details on Packaging & Specialty Plastics' 2023 net sales, by business and geographic region, are as follows:

3891 3895
* Europe, Middle East, Africa and India ("EMEAI")


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Products
Major applications/market segments and products are listed below by business:

BusinessApplications/Market SegmentsMajor ProductsKey Raw MaterialsKey Competitors
Hydrocarbons & EnergyPurchaser of feedstocks; production of cost competitive hydrocarbon monomers utilized by Dow's derivative businesses; and energy, principally for use in Dow’s global operationsEthylene, propylene, benzene, butadiene, octene, aromatics co-products, power, steam, other utilitiesButane, condensate, ethane, naphtha, natural gas, propaneChevron Phillips Chemical, ExxonMobil, INEOS, LyondellBasell, SABIC, Shell, Sinopec
Packaging and Specialty PlasticsAdhesives; automotive; caps, closures and pipe applications; construction; cosmetics; electrical transmission and distribution; food and supply chain packaging; footwear; health and hygiene; housewares; industrial specialty applications using polyolefin elastomers, ethylene copolymers, and EPDM; irrigation pipe; mobility; photovoltaic encapsulants; sporting goods; telecommunications infrastructure; toys and infant productsAcrylics, bio-based plasticizers, copolymer, elastomers, ethylene copolymer resins, EPDM, ethylene vinyl acetate ("EVA"), methacrylic acid copolymer resins, polyethylene ("PE"), high-density polyethylene ("HDPE"), low-density polyethylene ("LDPE"), linear low-density polyethylene ("LLDPE"), polyolefin plastomers, resin additives and modifiers, semiconductive and jacketing compound solutions and wire and cable insulationAliphatic solvent, butene, ethylene, hexene, octene, propyleneBorealis, ExxonMobil, INEOS, Lanxess, LyondellBasell, Nova, SABIC

Joint Ventures:
This segment includes a portion of the Company's share of the results of the following joint ventures:
EQUATE Petrochemical Company K.S.C.C. (“EQUATE”) - a Kuwait-based company that manufactures ethylene, polyethylene and ethylene glycol, and manufactures and markets monoethylene glycol, diethylene glycol and polyethylene terephthalate resins; owned 42.5 percent by the Company.
The Kuwait Olefins Company K.S.C.C. (“TKOC”) - a Kuwait-based company that manufactures ethylene and ethylene glycol; owned 42.5 percent by the Company.
Map Ta Phut Olefins Company Limited (“Map Ta Phut”) - a Thailand-based company that manufactures propylene and ethylene; the Company has an effective ownership of 32.77 percent (of which 20.27 percent is owned directly by the Company and aligned with the Industrial Intermediates & Infrastructure segment and 12.5 percent is owned indirectly through the Company’s equity interest in Siam Polyethylene Company Limited, an entity that is part of The SCGC-Dow Group and aligned with the Packaging & Specialty Plastics segment).
Sadara Chemical Company ("Sadara") - a Saudi Arabian company that manufactures chlorine, ethylene, propylene and aromatics for internal consumption and manufactures and sells polyethylene, ethylene oxide and propylene oxide derivative products, and isocyanates; owned 35 percent by the Company. The Company is responsible for marketing a majority of Sadara products outside of the Middle East zone through the Company’s established sales channels. As part of this arrangement, the Company purchases and sells Sadara products for a marketing fee. In 2021, Dow and the Saudi Arabian Oil Company agreed to and began transitioning the marketing rights and responsibilities for Sadara’s finished products to levels more consistent with each partner’s equity ownership, which is being implemented through 2026. This transition will not impact equity earnings but is expected to reduce the Company's sales of Sadara products over the five year period.
This segment also includes the Company's share of the results of the following joint ventures:
The Kuwait Styrene Company K.S.C.C. - a Kuwait-based company that manufactures styrene monomer; owned 42.5 percent by the Company.
The SCGC-Dow Group - a group of Thailand-based companies (consisting of Siam Polyethylene Company Limited; Siam Polystyrene Company Limited; Siam Styrene Monomer Company Limited; and Siam Synthetic Latex Company Limited) that manufactures polyethylene, polystyrene, styrene, latex and specialty elastomers; owned 50 percent by the Company.





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Current and Future Investments
The Company has announced investments that are being progressed over the next several years and are expected to enhance competitiveness. These include:
Construction of the world's first net-zero Scope 1 and 2 CO2 equivalent ("CO2e") emissions integrated ethylene and derivatives complex in Alberta, Canada. This project is expected to deliver 2 million metric tons of organic growth in attractive, high-end markets while decarbonizing 20% of Dow's global ethylene capacity.
Construction of a world-scale polyethylene unit on the U.S. Gulf Coast based on Dow’s proprietary process technologies, to meet consumer-driven demand in specialty packaging, health and hygiene, and industrial and consumer packaging applications.
Ongoing collaboration with Mura Technology (“Mura”) to help solve the global plastics waste issue and advance circularity via circular feedstocks, which are converted into recycled plastics. Mura plans to construct a new facility at Dow's Böhlen site in Germany, the latest in a series of planned facilities across the United States and Europe to rapidly scale advanced recycling of plastics, and the first expected to be based at a Dow site.
Plans to construct a clean hydrogen plant in Europe where by-products from core production processes would be converted into hydrogen and CO2. The hydrogen plant would allow Dow's Terneuzen manufacturing site to reduce CO2e emissions by approximately 1.4 million metric tons per year. Project completion and deployment is expected to occur after 2030.
The Company's ambition includes becoming the most sustainable materials science company, with a strategy to advance the well-being of humanity by helping lead the transition to a sustainable planet and society. This includes lowering energy and greenhouse gas emissions and further enabling a shift to a circular economy for plastics by focusing on resource efficiency and integrating recycled content and renewable feedstocks into its production processes. As part of that strategy, Dow announced the following investments that have been completed or are still being progressed in 2023:
In 2022, Dow commissioned the retrofit of its first UNIFINITYTM Fluidized Catalytic Dehydrogenation ("FCDh") technology for cost-advantaged propylene and in 2023 has been optimizing operations of this new technology. The FCDh unit, located at one of Dow's mixed-feed crackers in Plaquemine, Louisiana, will ultimately enable production of approximately 150,000 metric tons of additional on-purpose propylene at full run-rate. The breakthrough propylene manufacturing technology, which Dow will license through Univation Technologies, LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company, can reduce capital outlay by up to 25 percent while lowering energy usage and CO2e emissions by up to 20 percent. This project was originally announced in 2019.
Dow previously signed an agreement with French recycling company Valoregen to contribute to building the largest single hybrid recycling site in France, to be owned and operated by Valoregen. The project's 15,000 metric ton mechanical recycling line reached mechanical completion in the fourth quarter of 2023 and the advanced recycling line is expected to start-up in the first half of 2024. This will mark an important step in bringing together mechanical recycling (which processes certain plastic waste into secondary products) and newer, advanced recycling processes (which breaks down mixed, hard-to-recycle plastics into their original naphtha-like liquid form to manufacture new virgin-like polymers). Dow will be the main recipient of Valoregen’s post-consumer resins ("PCR"), which it will use to develop new plastic products marketed under Dow’s REVOLOOP product range. It will also support the development of Valoregen's recycling technology capabilities.
The first Mura plant in the UK commenced commissioning of its 20,000 metric tons advanced recycling facility in the fourth quarter of 2023 and plans to produce feedstocks in the first half of 2024. Dow will be the main recipient of the product produced at this site.
Dow announced a joint development agreement with X-energy, a nuclear energy innovation company which will help Dow advance its greenhouse gas emissions reduction goals through the development and deployment of X-energy's advanced small modular nuclear technology at an industrial site in North America. In 2023, Dow selected its Seadrift Operations manufacturing site in Texas for its proposed advanced small modular reactor ("SMR") nuclear project. The project will be focused on providing the Seadrift site with safe, reliable, zero emissions power and steam as existing energy and steam assets near their end-of-life.
Continued collaboration with Hanseatic Energy Hub GmbH ("HEH") as a minority stakeholder and is working with HEH's current members to advance Germany's capabilities to import supplies of liquified natural gas, bio-liquified natural gas and synthetic natural gas through the construction of an import terminal. The HEH consortium is planning to build, own, and operate an import terminal for liquified gases on Dow's Stade, Germany industrial park. The zero emission terminal will be co-located with Dow's facilities in Stade. Dow is
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making land available for the construction of the terminal as well as infrastructure services, off-gas heat, site services and mutual harbor use rights.
Dow and privately-held New Energy Blue have reached a long-term supply agreement to produce bio-based ethylene from renewable agricultural residues. This is the first agreement in North America to generate plastic sourced materials from corn stover (stalks and leaves), and is the Company's first agreement in North America to utilize agriculture residues for plastic production. Under the terms of the deal, Dow will support the design of New Energy Freedom, a new facility in Iowa that is expected to process corn stover and produce commercial quantities of second-generation ethanol and clean lignin, with nearly half of the ethanol to be turned into bio-based ethylene feedstock reducing CO2e emissions from plastic production, and using it in recyclable applications across transportation, footwear, and packaging.
Dow and Reciclar S.A. joined forces to build an efficient model for plastic recycling in Argentina that will produce more than 6,500 tons of post-consumer plastic resin. This collaboration agreement with Reciclar S.A. will last three years and aims to improve the capacity of Reciclar S.A. to process waste on a larger scale and produce high-quality post-consumer plastic materials under the REVOLOOPTM brand.
Dow has signed several renewable and cleaner power agreements which are expected to reduce Scope 2 emissions by more than 600,000 metric tons of CO2e per year.

INDUSTRIAL INTERMEDIATES & INFRASTRUCTURE
The Industrial Intermediates & Infrastructure operating segment consists of two customer-centric global businesses - Industrial Solutions and Polyurethanes & Construction Chemicals - that develop important intermediate chemicals that are essential to manufacturing processes, as well as downstream, customized materials and formulations that use advanced development technologies. These businesses primarily produce and market ethylene oxide and propylene oxide derivatives that are aligned to market segments as diverse as appliances, coatings, furniture and bedding, construction, mobility and automotive, electronics, surfactants for cleaning and sanitization, infrastructure and oil and gas. The businesses' global scale and reach, world-class technology, research and development capabilities and materials science expertise enable the Company to be a premier solutions provider offering customers value-added sustainable solutions to enhance comfort, energy efficiency, product effectiveness and durability.

Industrial Solutions
Industrial Solutions provides a broad portfolio of solutions that enable and improve the manufacture of consumer and industrial goods and services. The business’ solutions minimize friction and heat in mechanical processes; manage the oil and water interface; deliver ingredients for maximum effectiveness; facilitate dissolvability; enable product identification; decarbonize oil and gas products; reduce energy and water use in textiles; and provide the foundational building blocks for the development of chemical technologies. The business supports manufacturers across a large variety of end-markets, notably coatings, detergents and cleaners, crop protection, pharmaceuticals, electronics, oil and gas, inks and textiles. The business is a leading producer of purified ethylene oxide, ethyleneamines and ethanolamines.

Polyurethanes & Construction Chemicals
Polyurethanes & Construction Chemicals consists of three businesses: Polyurethanes, Chlor-Alkali & Vinyl (“CAV”) and Construction Chemicals. The Polyurethanes business is the world’s largest producer of propylene oxide, propylene glycol and polyether polyols, and a leading producer of aromatic isocyanates and fully formulated polyurethane systems for rigid, semi-rigid and flexible foams, as well as coatings, adhesives, sealants, elastomers and composites that serve energy efficiency, consumer comfort, industrial and enhanced mobility market sectors. The CAV business provides chlorine and caustic soda supply and markets caustic soda, a valuable co-product of the chlor-alkali manufacturing process, and ethylene dichloride and vinyl chloride monomer. The CAV business' assets are predominantly in Western Europe and Latin America and largely produce materials for internal consumption. The Construction Chemicals business provides cellulose ethers, redispersible latex powders, and acrylic emulsions used as key building blocks for differentiated building and construction materials across many market segments and applications ranging from roofing and flooring to gypsum-, cement-, concrete- and dispersion-based building materials. Both Polyurethanes and Construction Chemicals deliver sustainable products aligned toward green building markets yielding reduced environmental impacts and lower product intensity compared to traditional offerings.

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Details on Industrial Intermediates & Infrastructures' 2023 net sales, by business and geographic region, are as follows:

3690 3694

Products
Major applications/market segments and products are listed below by business:

BusinessApplications/Market SegmentsMajor ProductsKey Raw MaterialsKey Competitors
Industrial SolutionsBroad range of products for specialty applications, including pharmaceuticals, agriculture crop protection offerings, aircraft deicing, solvents for coatings, heat transfer fluids for concentrated solar power, construction, solvents for electronics processing, food preservation, fuel markers, industrial and institutional cleaning, infrastructure applications, lubricant additives, paper, transportation and utilities; products for energy markets including exploration, production, transmission, refining, mining and gas processing to optimize supply, improve efficiencies and manage emissions
Butyl glycol ethers, VERSENE Chelants, UCAR Deicing Fluids, ethanolamines, ethylene oxide ("EO"), ethyleneamines, UCON Fluids, DOWANOLglycol ethers, DOWTHERM Heat Transfer Fluids, higher glycols, isopropanolamines, low-VOC solvents, methoxypolyethylene glycol, methyl isobutyl, polyalkylene glycol, CARBOWAX SENTRY Polyethylene Glycol, TERGITOL, TRITON and ECOFAST Pure Surfactants, demulsifiers, drilling and completion fluids, heat transfer fluids, rheology modifiers, scale inhibitors, shale inhibitors, specialty amine solvents, surfactants, water clarifiers, frothing separating agents
Ammonia, butene, ethylene, phenol, propyleneBASF, Eastman, Hexion, Huntsman, INEOS, LyondellBasell, SABIC, Sasol, Shell
Polyurethanes & Construction ChemicalsAircraft deicing fluids; alumina, pulp and paper; appliances; automotive; bedding; building and construction; flooring; footwear; heat transfer fluids; hydraulic fluids; infrastructure; mobility; packaging; textiles and transportation; construction; caulks and sealants; cement-based tile adhesives; concrete solutions; elastomeric roof coatings; industrial non-wovens; plasters and renders; roof tiles and siding; sport grounds and tape joint compounds
Aniline, caustic soda, ethylene dichloride ("EDC"), methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (“MDI”), polyether polyols, propylene glycol ("PG"), propylene oxide ("PO"), polyurethane systems, toluene diisocyanate (“TDI”), vinyl chloride monomer ("VCM"), AQUASET Acrylic Thermosetting Resins, DOW Latex Powder, RHOPLEX and PRIMAL Acrylic Emulsion Polymers, WALOCEL Cellulose Ethers

Aniline, benzene, carbon monoxide, caustic soda, cell effluent, cellulose, chlorine, electric power, ethylene, hydrogen peroxide, propylene, styreneArkema, Ashland, BASF, Covestro, Eastman, Huntsman, Wanhua

Joint Ventures
This segment includes a portion of the Company's share of the results of EQUATE, TKOC, Map Ta Phut and Sadara.

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Current and Future Investments
The Company expects to make investments over the next several years to enhance competitiveness in its Polyurethanes & Construction Chemicals and Industrial Solutions businesses. The investments will include alkoxylation capacity expansions and finishing capabilities; investments to support growth in polyurethane systems; and efficiency improvements around the world.

In 2023, the Company benefited from the completion of an integrated MDI distillation and prepolymers facility along the U.S. Gulf Coast to increase distillation capabilities by 30 percent versus prior levels, which is expected to improve integrated margins for the portfolio. Also, in the past year, the Company further progressed and scaled key projects aligned to longer-term sustainability goals across the world leading propylene glycol franchise including propylene glycol RDC (lower carbon) featuring DECARBIATM bio-based technology from second generation bio-based raw material, and propylene glycol CIR (circular) featuring RENUVATM recycled content from post-consumer waste streams.

In 2023, the Industrial Solutions business completed investments on the U.S. Gulf Coast and in Europe to expand capacity of specialty amines and alkoxylation chemistries to serve fast growing energy transition, pharmaceutical, home care, cleaning, and agriculture end-markets.

In 2023, the Company progressed the following:
Successful startup and operation of hydrogen to peroxide to propylene glycol pilot plant with Evonik at its site in Hanau, Germany. In contrast to the traditional process, where propylene is used to make propylene oxide, which is converted to propylene glycol through hydrolysis, the pilot plant will leverage the HYPROSYN® process, which uses a novel catalytic system to generate propylene glycol directly from propylene and hydrogen peroxide. The integration of all key reaction stages in a single reactor eliminates the need of additional investments in propylene oxide capacity and lowers capital requirements. The process also enables a reduced environmental footprint.
Expansion of propylene glycol capacity at its existing joint venture facility in Map Ta Phut, Thailand by 80,000 tons per year – bringing total capacity to 250,000 tons per year. The additional capacity will support customer growth across Asia Pacific and India and is expected to come online in 2024.
Expansion of alkoxylation capacity in the United States and Europe. These investments build on previously announced capacity expansions, increasing the Company's global alkoxylation capacity by 70 percent versus the 2020 baseline, collectively. The additional capacity is needed to support increasing demand across a wide range of fast-growing end-markets where the Company is delivering 10 percent to 15 percent annual growth rates, from home and personal care to industrial and institutional cleaning solutions and pharmaceuticals. The investments are backed by supply agreements with customers, including leading consumer brands, and are expected to come online in the United States and Europe in 2024 and 2025, respectively.
Dow and Orion Chemicals Orgaform together with Eco-mobilier, H&S Anlagentechnik and The Vita Group have inaugurated a pioneering mattress recycling plant as part of the RENUVAprogram. This is a major step forward for the recovery and recycling of polyurethane foam and a significant advancement to close the loop for end-of-life mattresses. At full capacity, the plant will process up to 200,000 mattresses per year to address growing mattress waste.
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PERFORMANCE MATERIALS & COATINGS
The Performance Materials & Coatings operating segment includes industry-leading franchises that deliver a wide array of solutions into consumer, infrastructure and mobility end-markets. The segment consists of two global businesses: Coatings & Performance Monomers and Consumer Solutions. These businesses primarily utilize the Company's acrylics-, cellulosics- and silicone-based technology platforms to serve the needs of the architectural and industrial coatings; home care and personal care; consumer and electronics; mobility and transportation; industrial and chemical processing; and building and infrastructure end-markets. Both businesses employ materials science capabilities, global reach and unique products and technology combining chemistry platforms to deliver differentiated, market-driven and sustainable innovations to customers.

Coatings & Performance Monomers
Coatings & Performance Monomers consists of two businesses: Coating Materials and Performance Monomers. The Coating Materials business makes critical ingredients and additives that help advance the performance of paints and coatings. The business offers innovative and sustainable products to accelerate paint and coatings performance across diverse market segments, including architectural paints and coatings, as well as industrial coatings applications used in maintenance and protective industries, wood, metal packaging, traffic markings, thermal paper and leather. These products enhance coatings by improving hiding and coverage characteristics, enhancing durability against nature and the elements, lowering or eliminating volatile organic compounds (“VOC”) content, reducing maintenance and improving ease of application. The Performance Monomers business manufactures acrylics-based building blocks needed for the production of coatings, textiles, adhesives and home and personal care products.

Consumer Solutions
Consumer Solutions consists of two businesses: Performance Silicones & Specialty Materials and Silicone Feedstocks & Intermediates. The Performance Silicones & Specialty Materials business delivers an unmatched portfolio of performance-enhancing materials to meet the diverse needs of customers in fast-growing markets, including building and infrastructure; consumer and electronics; industrial and chemical processing; mobility and transportation; home care; and personal care. It focuses resources on delivering valuable differentiation via market-driven innovations and sustainable solutions, which address lower-carbon footprint and circularity goals while enabling continued growth. The Silicone Feedstocks & Intermediates business focuses on maximizing productivity and optimizing margins by leveraging Dow’s scale and global reach. It is charged with producing silicon metal, siloxanes and intermediates, which are key materials to manufacture differentiated downstream silicone products.

Details on Performance Materials & Coatings' 2023 net sales, by business and geographic region, are as follows:

3058 3062

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Products
Major applications/market segments and products are listed below by business:

BusinessApplications/Market SegmentsMajor ProductsKey Raw MaterialsKey Competitors
Coatings & Performance MonomersAcrylic binders for architectural paints and coatings, industrial coatings and paper; adhesives; dispersants; impact modifiers; inks and paints; opacifiers and surfactants for both architectural and industrial applications; plastics additives; processing aids; protective and functional coatings; rheology modifiers
ACOUSTICRYL Liquid-Applied Sound Damping Technology; acrylates; ACRYSOL Rheology Modifiers; AVANSE Acrylic Binders; EVOQUE Pre-Composite Polymer; foam cell promoters; FORMASHIELD Acrylic Binder; high-quality impact modifiers; MAINCOTE Acrylic Epoxy Hybrid; methacrylates; processing aids; RHOPLEX Acrylic Resin; TAMOL Dispersants; FASTRACK Road Marking Resins; vinyl acetate monomers; weatherable acrylic capstock compounds for thermoplastic and thermosetting materials
Acetic acid, acetone, acrylic acid, ammonia, butanol, butyl acrylate, methanol, methyl methacrylate, propylene, styreneArkema, BASF, Celanese, Evonik, LyondellBasell, Wacker Chemie
Consumer SolutionsPersonal care and home care; mobility and transportation; building and infrastructure; consumer and electronics; industrial and chemical processing
Adhesives and sealants; antifoams and surfactants; coatings and controlled release; coupling agents and crosslinkers; fluids, emulsions and dispersions; formulating and processing aids; granulation and binders; oils; polymers and emollients; opacifiers; reagents; resins, gels and powders; rheology modifiers; rubber; solubility enhancers; aerospace composites; surfactants and solvents; encapsulants for solar photovoltaic applications; ACUSOL Prime 1 Polymer; AMPLIFYSi PE 1000 Polymer System; bio-based, readily biodegradable SunSpheres BIO SPF Booster; DOWSIL Silicone Products; SILASTIC™ Silicone Elastomers; SYL-OFF™ Silicone Release Coatings
Methanol, platinum, silica, silicon metal Elkem, Momentive, Shin-Etsu, Wacker Chemie

Current and Future Investments
In 2023, several key growth capital projects around the globe were brought online to meet customer needs in fast-growing markets. These include:

Debottlenecking of silicone key intermediates enabling downstream growth globally across multiple end-markets, such as building and infrastructure, mobility and transportation, and consumer and electronics.
Capacity expansions in EMEAI to meet demand growth for sustainable silicone solutions in the personal care industry.
Capacity expansions in Asia Pacific to meet growing demand for mobility and transportation end-markets.
Incremental capacity expansion in the United States to accelerate growth in targeted applications within consumer and electronics as well as the building and infrastructure end-markets.

The Company continues to make incremental investments in lower-capital, higher-return projects in the silicones and coatings franchises to further enhance competitiveness. The investments aim to expand manufacturing capacity and increase product mix offerings of silicone intermediates and high-performance silicones to accelerate the downstream business growth. By leveraging global scale and a broad innovation portfolio, the Company is well-positioned to deliver differentiated solutions and sustainable materials in key end-markets, including building and infrastructure, electronics, industrial, mobility, and home and personal care.

CORPORATE
Corporate includes certain enterprise and governance activities (including insurance operations, environmental operations, etc.); non-business aligned joint ventures; non-business aligned litigation expenses; and discontinued or non-aligned businesses.

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RAW MATERIALS
The Company operates in an integrated manufacturing environment. Basic raw materials are processed through many stages to produce a number of products that are sold as finished goods at various points in those processes. The major raw material stream that feeds the production of the Company's finished goods is hydrocarbon-based raw materials. The Company purchases hydrocarbon-based raw materials including ethane, propane, butane, naphtha and condensate as feedstocks. These raw materials are used in the production of both saleable products and energy. The Company also purchases and sells certain monomers, primarily ethylene and propylene, to balance internal production and internal consumption. The Company purchases natural gas, primarily to generate electricity, and purchases electric power to supplement internal generation. In addition, the Company produces a portion of its electricity needs in Louisiana and Texas; Alberta, Canada; The Netherlands; the United Kingdom; and Germany.

The Company's primary source of these raw materials are natural gas liquids ("NGLs"), which are derived from natural gas and crude oil production, and naphtha, which is produced during the processing and refining of crude oil. Given recent advancements in shale gas, shale oil and conventional drilling techniques, the Company expects these raw materials to be in abundant supply. The Company's suppliers of these raw materials include regional, international and national oil and gas companies.

The Company purchases raw materials on both short- and long-term contracts. The Company had adequate supplies of raw materials in 2023 and expects to continue to have adequate supplies of raw materials in 2024.

INDUSTRY SEGMENTS AND GEOGRAPHIC REGION RESULTS
See Note 24 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for information regarding net sales, Operating EBIT and total assets by segment, as well as net sales and long-lived assets by geographic region.

SIGNIFICANT CUSTOMERS AND PRODUCTS
All products and services are marketed primarily through the Company’s sales force, although in some instances more emphasis is placed on sales through distributors. In 2023, no significant portion of the Company's sales was dependent upon a single customer.

PATENTS, LICENSES AND TRADEMARKS
The Company continually applies for and obtains U.S. and foreign patents and has a substantial number of pending patent applications throughout the world. At December 31, 2023, the Company owned approximately 3,900 active U.S. patents and 25,000 active foreign patents as follows:

Remaining Life of Patents Owned at Dec 31, 2023United StatesRest of World
Within 5 years600 3,700 
6 to 10 years1,300 8,000 
11 to 15 years1,600 11,600 
16 to 20 years400 1,700 
Total3,900 25,000 

The Company’s primary purpose in obtaining patents is to protect the results of its research for use in operations and licensing. The Company is party to a substantial number of patent licenses, including intellectual property cross-license agreements and other technology agreements, and also has a substantial number of trademarks and trademark registrations in the United States and in other countries, including the “Dow in Diamond” trademark. Although the Company considers that its patents, licenses and trademarks in the aggregate constitute a valuable asset, it does not regard its business as being materially dependent on any single or group of related patents, licenses or trademarks.
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PRINCIPAL PARTLY OWNED COMPANIES
The Company’s principal nonconsolidated affiliates at December 31, 2023, including direct and indirect ownership interest for each, are listed below:

Principal Nonconsolidated AffiliateCountryOwnership InterestBusiness Description
EQUATE Petrochemical Company K.S.C.C. Kuwait42.50 %Manufactures ethylene, polyethylene and ethylene glycol, and manufactures and markets monoethylene glycol, diethylene glycol and polyethylene terephthalate resins
The Kuwait Olefins Company K.S.C.C. Kuwait42.50 %Manufactures ethylene and ethylene glycol
The Kuwait Styrene Company K.S.C.C.Kuwait42.50 %Manufactures styrene monomer
Map Ta Phut Olefins Company Limited 1
Thailand32.77 %Manufactures propylene and ethylene
Sadara Chemical Company 2
Saudi Arabia35.00 %Manufactures chlorine, ethylene, propylene and aromatics for internal consumption and manufactures and sells polyethylene, ethylene oxide and propylene oxide derivative products, and isocyanates
The SCGC-Dow Group:
Siam Polyethylene Company LimitedThailand50.00 %Manufactures polyethylene
Siam Polystyrene Company LimitedThailand50.00 %Manufactures polystyrene
Siam Styrene Monomer Company LimitedThailand50.00 %Manufactures styrene
Siam Synthetic Latex Company LimitedThailand50.00 %Manufactures latex and specialty elastomers
1.The Company's effective ownership of Map Ta Phut is 32.77 percent, of which the Company directly owns 20.27 percent and indirectly owns 12.50 percent through its equity interest in Siam Polyethylene Company Limited.
2.The Company is responsible for marketing the majority of Sadara products outside of the Middle East zone through the Company's established sales channels. Under this arrangement, the Company purchases and sells Sadara products for a marketing fee. In March 2021, Dow and the Saudi Arabian Oil Company agreed to transition the marketing rights and responsibilities for Sadara’s finished products to levels more consistent with each partner’s equity ownership. This transition began in July 2021 and is being implemented through 2026.

See Note 10 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information regarding nonconsolidated affiliates.

SUSTAINABILITY STRATEGY
Dow believes a sustainable future is attainable, but only if everyone comes together to drive forward science- and technology-based solutions to address global challenges. Dow is collaborating across value chains and using its materials science to scale business solutions and deliver transformational change that leads to a more circular, lower-carbon, more resource-efficient society and a healthier planet. By constantly innovating and improving how the Company sources, designs, manufactures and delivers material solutions, Dow is helping its customers make a positive contribution to society and the environment, while opening new paths for business growth.

Dow’s sustainability efforts are focused on three areas that are critical to the Company’s business and where Dow believes it can use its science, global reach and partnerships to make a positive impact. These focus areas guide Dow’s business decisions and sustainability framework.

Climate Protection – Dow is committed to protecting the planet by combating climate change, including contributing to lower CO2e emissions and conserving and restoring natural resources, such as native habitats and freshwater, within its operations and value chains.

Circular Economy – Dow is taking a leading role in driving a more circular economy by designing for circularity, building new business models for circular materials, and partnering in an industrial ecosystem to end plastic pollution.

Safer Materials – Dow is innovating new materials that offer more favorable health and environmental profiles over their life cycles than incumbent solutions.

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To accelerate the Company's sustainability commitments, Dow has implemented and continues to expand on its multi-decade targets intended to put the Company on a path to achieve carbon neutrality and reduce plastic waste, which include the following:
By 2030, Dow will reduce its net annual Scope 1 and 2 CO2e emissions by 5 million metric tons compared with its 2020 baseline, representing a 15 percent reduction from 2020 and a 30 percent reduction in greenhouse gas emissions since 2005.
By 2030, Dow will transform plastic waste and other forms of alternative feedstock to commercialize 3 million metric tons of circular and renewable solutions annually. To do this, Dow is expanding its efforts to build industrial ecosystems to collect, reuse or recycle plastic waste and address waste management gaps. Dow is also working to close the loop by helping its customers design for recyclability and increasing its use of feedstocks from recycled and renewable sources.
By 2050, Dow intends to be carbon neutral (Scope 1+2+3, as defined by the Greenhouse Gas Protocol Corporate Accounting and Reporting Standard, plus product benefits).

The Company's progress in achieving these targets is reviewed regularly by management and with the Environment, Health, Safety & Technology Committee of the Dow Inc. Board of Directors ("Board").

Additional discussion of matters pertaining to the environment, including actions related to the Company's sustainability strategy, is included in Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors; Part II, Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations; and Notes 1 and 14 to the Consolidated Financial Statements. In addition, detailed information on the Company's performance regarding environmental matters and goals, including the Company's annual INtersections Report, is accessible through the Science & Sustainability webpage at www.dow.com/sustainability. Dow's website and its content are not deemed incorporated by reference into this report.

HUMAN CAPITAL
Dow’s ambition – to be the most innovative, customer-centric, inclusive and sustainable materials science company in the world – starts with people. Dow employees create innovative and sustainable materials science solutions to advance the world. Every answer starts with asking the right questions, which is why the diverse, dedicated Dow team collaborates with customers and other stakeholders to find solutions to the world's toughest challenges. The Company's values of Respect for People, Integrity and Protecting Our Planet are fundamental beliefs that are ingrained in each action taken, can never be compromised and are the foundation of the Company's Code of Conduct.

The Company is dedicated to employee health and safety and is invested in fostering a culture of inclusion and continuous learning while supporting its employees through its Total Rewards plans and programs to ensure all Dow employees are respected, valued and encouraged to make their fullest contribution.

Safety, Employee Health and Well-Being
A commitment to safety and employee health is ingrained in Dow’s culture and central to how the Dow team works. Dow uses a comprehensive, integrated operating discipline management system that includes policies, requirements, best practices and procedures associated with health and safety. In 2023, the Company achieved an Occupational Safety and Health Administration Total Recordable Injury and Illness Rate of 0.18, based upon the number of incidents per 200,000 work hours for employees and contractors globally. This measure, along with a consistent set of globally applied, as well as locally defined, leading indicators of safety performance, are cornerstones of Dow's worker protection program. The Company maintains a robust, globally tracked near-miss program for situations that did not result in an injury, but could have been high consequence had circumstances been slightly different. This data is reviewed regularly by management and the Environment, Health, Safety & Technology Committee of the Board, is visible to all employees and is built into digital dashboards that include actual injury information for every Dow location around the world.


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As part of the Company’s total worker health strategy, employees have access to occupational health services at no cost through on-site, Company-managed clinics at its manufacturing locations or an offsite provider overseen by Dow Occupational Health. In addition to access for occupational health needs, the Company also has a comprehensive well-being strategy, which is framed across four dimensions – physical, mental, community and financial well-being – for an approach that is holistic, global, employee centered and outcome-driven. Key ambitions across the four dimensions focus on elements such as workplace stress, psychological safety, resiliency, workload, healthy eating and activities, and social community and inclusion opportunities.

Dow maintains active Crisis Management Teams at the corporate level and in each region where the Company operates to ensure appropriate plans are in place in the event of natural disasters or other emergencies.

Inclusion, Diversity & Equity
At Dow, inclusion, diversity and equity (“ID&E”) is a business imperative evidenced by inclusion serving as a core pillar of the Company's ambition statement. A strategic and intentional focus on ID&E not only enhances the employee experience and satisfaction, but it also supports innovation, customer experience and understanding of the communities the Company serves. In 2023, Dow advanced to #7 in the DiversityInc Top 50 Companies for Diversity and for the third year in a row was named to the Fortune 100 Best Companies to Work For® list. These are significant accomplishments that represent only two of the many awards the Company received related to its efforts in ID&E.

Dow's strategic ID&E efforts are directed by its Chief Inclusion Officer and Office of Inclusion, which supports implementation throughout Dow’s businesses, functions and regions. Three Inclusion Councils drive the ID&E strategy from the top of the Company down and across the enterprise:
The President’s Inclusion Council defines and supports Dow's ID&E strategy from the top.
A Senior Leaders’ Inclusion Council influences change through senior and mid-level business, geographic and functional leaders.
A Joint Inclusion Council collaborates to drive maximum employee engagement through Employee Resource Group (“ERG”) leadership.

Dow’s 10 ERGs are representative of the Company’s diverse workforce and help foster an inclusive workplace. Dow’s ERGs are organized around historically underrepresented groups including women, people of color, LGBTQ+ individuals, people with disabilities and veterans, as well as groups both for professionals who are new to the Company and those who are 50 years or older. Senior leaders serve as executive sponsors for each ERG. In addition, Dow has a Paid Time Off Policy which provides employees time off to volunteer and engage in ERG activities. In 2023, 61 percent of Dow’s workforce and 98 percent of Dow people leaders participated in at least one ERG.

Inclusion and diversity metrics, including ERG participation, global representation of women and U.S. ethnic minority representation in the United States, are published internally on a quarterly basis, are embedded in the same scorecard where Dow’s financial and safety results are measured and are directly connected to leaders’ annual performance and compensation. This data is reviewed regularly by management and with the Compensation and Leadership Development Committee of the Board.

Global pay disparity studies have been conducted at Dow for over 20 years to assess fair treatment between genders and between U.S. ethnic minorities and non-minorities and to ensure Dow’s pay practices are being implemented as intended. As part of Dow’s ID&E efforts, the Company will continue to conduct annual pay gap studies and actively engage with an external partner to further develop and continue to apply best practices.

Total Rewards
To achieve Dow’s ambition to be the most innovative, customer-centric, inclusive and sustainable materials science company in the world, the Company invests in its people, who are at the heart of the Company, through its Total Rewards plans and programs. The Total Rewards plans and programs are structured to attract, retain and motivate Dow’s employees. Dow’s Total Rewards are designed to support all aspects of its employees – their compensation, future, health, life and career. The Company is committed to aligning its strategy and culture with the needs of its employees and optimizing the investment Dow makes in Total Rewards.


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As a global company with a diverse team, Dow aims to ensure employees have access to resources that allow them to meet their unique needs. That is why Dow has established three guiding principles that define its Total Rewards strategy: 1) ensuring programs are market competitive, while leading peer companies in equitable and inclusive offerings; 2) providing employees with offerings that align with their preferences; and 3) offering programs that promote fulfilling career and life experiences. Dow adapts its programs for geography-specific requirements, as well as cultural standards and expectations.

Employee Engagement, Learning and Development
Throughout an employee’s career, the Company supports development through a blend of learning approaches including in-person and virtual trainings, digital learning platforms, on-the-job training and a series of leadership development programs. Annually, all employees have the opportunity to provide feedback on employee experience and offer insights into how to improve Dow’s working culture through a global employee opinion survey. A key component of the survey is an opportunity for employees to provide feedback on the effectiveness of their direct leader. In 2023, 72 percent of employees responded to the annual survey. The feedback received through this annual survey and additional quarterly checkpoint surveys is used to drive actions to improve the overall Dow experience for employees across the Company, as well as to support continuous improvement in leader effectiveness.

At December 31, 2023, the Company permanently employed approximately 35,900 people on a full-time basis.

8388 8390
8394
*U.S. ethnic minorities include employees who self-identify as American Indian or Alaskan Native, Asian, Black or African American, Hispanic or Latino, Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander, or two or more races. Employees who self-identify as White are considered U.S. Non-Minority.

Additional information regarding Dow’s human capital measures can be found in the Company's annual INtersections Report, as well as Dow's U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Report (EEO-1), accessible through the Inclusion and Diversity webpage at www.dow.com/diversity. Dow’s website and its content are not deemed incorporated by reference into this report.

OTHER ACTIVITIES
The Company engages in property and casualty insurance and reinsurance primarily through its Liana Limited subsidiaries.
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EXECUTIVE OFFICERS OF THE REGISTRANT
Set forth below is information related to the Company's executive officers as of January 31, 2024:

Name, AgePresent Position with RegistrantYear Elected as Executive Officer of Dow Inc.Other Business Experience since January 1, 2019
Lisa Bryant, 48Chief Human Resources Officer2022
DOW INC.: Chief Human Resources Officer since November 2022.
TDCC: Chief Human Resources Officer since November 2022; Senior Global Human Resources Director for Finance, Legal, Public Affairs, and Government Affairs from May 2020 to November 2022; North America Human Resources Director from February 2019 to May 2020; Global Human Resources Director for Marketing & Sales from April 2017 to February 2019; Global Human Resources Director for Coatings, Monomers & Plastics Additives from March 2015 to February 2019.
Karen S. Carter, 53President, Packaging & Specialty Plastics2019
DOW INC.: President, Packaging & Specialty Plastics since November 2022; Chief Human Resources Officer and Chief Inclusion Officer from April 2019 to November 2022.
TDCC: President, Packaging & Specialty Plastics since November 2022; Chief Human Resources Officer from October 2018 to November 2022; Chief Inclusion Officer from July 2017 to November 2022.
Andrea L. Dominowski, 49Controller and Vice President of Controllers2024
DOW INC.: Controller and Vice President of Controllers effective February 1, 2024.
TDCC: Controller and Vice President of Controllers effective February 1, 2024. Global Business Director for Silicone Feedstocks & Intermediates from August 2020 to February 2024. Regional Finance Director for North America from January 2018 to August 2020.
Ronald C. Edmonds, 66Controller and Vice President of Controllers and Tax2019
DOW INC.: Controller and Vice President of Controllers and Tax from April 2019 to February 1, 2024.
TDCC: Controller and Vice President since November 2009; Vice President of Tax from January 2016 to February 1, 2024.
Jim Fitterling, 62Chair and Chief Executive Officer2018
DOW INC.: Chair since April 2020; Chief Executive Officer since August 2018.
TDCC: Chair since April 2020; Chief Executive Officer since July 2018.
Mauro Gregorio, 61President, Performance Materials & Coatings2020
DOW INC.: President, Performance Materials & Coatings since February 2020; Business President, Performance Materials & Coatings from April 2019 to February 2020.
TDCC: President, Performance Materials & Coatings since February 2020; Business President, Consumer Solutions from January 2016 to February 2020.
Jane M. Palmieri, 54President, Industrial Intermediates & Infrastructure2020
DOW INC.: President, Industrial Intermediates & Infrastructure since February 2020. Business President, Polyurethanes and Chlor-Alkali & Vinyl from April 2019 to February 2020.
TDCC: President, Industrial Intermediates & Infrastructure since February 2020; Business President, Polyurethanes and Chlor-Alkali & Vinyl from April 2018 to February 2020.
John M. Sampson, 63Senior Vice President, Operations, Manufacturing & Engineering2021
DOW INC.: Senior Vice President, Operations, Manufacturing & Engineering since October 2020.
OLIN CORPORATION: Executive Vice President, Business Operations from April 2019 to September 2020; Vice President, Business Operations from October 2015 to April 2019.
A. N. Sreeram, 56Senior Vice President of Research & Development and Chief Technology Officer2019
DOW INC.: Senior Vice President of Research & Development and Chief Technology Officer since April 2019.
TDCC: Chief Technology Officer since October 2015; Senior Vice President of Research & Development since August 2013.
Jeffrey L. Tate, 54Chief Financial Officer 2023
DOW INC.: Chief Financial Officer since November 2023.
LEGGETT & PLATT INCORPORATED: Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer from September 2019 to June 2023.
TDCC: Chief Financial Officer since November 2023. Vice President and Business Finance Director, Packaging & Specialty Plastics from August 2017 to August 2019.
Amy E. Wilson, 53General Counsel and Corporate Secretary2018
DOW INC.: General Counsel and Corporate Secretary since April 2019; Secretary from August 2018 to April 2019.
TDCC: General Counsel since October 2018; Corporate Secretary since February 2015.

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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
The factors described below represent the Company's principal risks.

CLIMATE CHANGE - RELATED RISKS
Climate Change: Climate change-related risks and uncertainties, legal or regulatory responses to climate change and failure to meet the Company’s climate change commitments could negatively impact the Company’s results of operations, financial condition and/or reputation.
The Company is subject to increasing climate-related risks and uncertainties, many of which are outside of its control. Climate change may result in more frequent and damaging severe weather and weather-related events, potential changes in precipitation patterns and extreme variability in weather patterns. These short- and long-term weather and weather-related events can disrupt the operations of the Company as well as those of its customers, partners and vendors due to damage to local infrastructure and other property damage limiting site access, and causing water scarcity and lack of access to high-quality water, among other factors. These risks and uncertainties may also directly or indirectly impact decisions to invest in the construction and/or renovation of new or existing manufacturing sites and other Company facilities and locations.

The transition to lower greenhouse gas emissions technology, the effects of carbon pricing and changes in public sentiment, regulations, taxes, public mandates or requirements and increases in climate-related lawsuits, insurance premiums and implementation of more robust disaster recovery and business continuity plans could increase costs to maintain or resume the Company’s operations or achieve its sustainability commitments in the expected timeframes, which would negatively impact the Company’s results of operations.

In 2020, the Company announced commitments to reduce its net annual Scope 1 and 2 CO2e emissions by an additional 5 million metric tons, or 15 percent compared with its 2020 baseline, by 2030 (the 2020 baseline represents a 15 percent reduction in greenhouse gas emissions since 2005) and its intention to be carbon neutral by 2050 (Scope 1+2+3, as defined by the Greenhouse Gas Protocol Corporate Accounting and Reporting Standard, plus product benefits). In November 2023, the Board approved the final investment decision to build the world's first net-zero Scope 1 and 2 CO2e emissions integrated ethylene cracker and derivatives facility in Alberta, Canada, a key element for the Company to achieve its 2030 greenhouse gas emissions reduction commitment.

The commitments reflect the Company's current plans and targets and are not guarantees that it will be able to achieve them. The execution and achievement of the Company's commitments within projected cost estimates and expected timeframes, including the success of the Company's integrated ethylene cracker and derivatives facility in Alberta, Canada, are subject to risks and uncertainties which include, but are not limited to: advancement, availability, development and affordability of technology necessary to achieve these commitments; unforeseen design, operational and technological difficulties; availability and cost of necessary materials and components; adapting products to customer preferences and customer acceptance of sustainable supply chain solutions; changes in public sentiment and political leadership; and the Company’s ability to comply with changing regulations, taxes, mandates or requirements related to greenhouse gas emissions or other climate-related matters, including prescriptive reporting of climate-related matters. In addition, standards for tracking and reporting on sustainability matters have not been harmonized, continue to evolve and may change over time, which could result in significant revisions to the Company's performance metrics, commitments or reported progress in achieving such commitments. Given the focus on sustainable investing, if the Company fails to meet its climate change commitments within the committed timeframe, coupled with its significant investments to meet those commitments, and adopt policies and practices to enhance sustainability, the Company’s reputation and its customer and other stakeholder relationships could be negatively impacted, reducing demand for the Company's products, and it may be more difficult for the Company to compete effectively or gain access to financing on acceptable terms when needed, which could negatively impact the Company’s financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

PANDEMIC - RELATED RISKS
Public Health Crisis: A public health crisis or global outbreak of disease could have a negative effect on the Company's manufacturing operations, supply chain and workforce, creating business disruptions that could have a substantial negative impact on the Company’s results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
A public health crisis, including a pandemic similar in nature to coronavirus disease 2019, could impact all geographic regions where Dow products are produced and sold. The global, regional and local spread of a public health crisis could result in, and in the past has resulted in, significant global mitigation measures, including government-directed quarantines, social distancing and shelter-in-place mandates, travel restrictions and/or bans,
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mask and vaccination mandates, restrictions on large gatherings and restricted access to certain corporate facilities and manufacturing sites. Business disruptions and market volatility resulting from a public health crisis could have a substantial negative impact on the Company’s results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. The adverse impact of a pandemic could include, and in the past has included, without limitation, fluctuations in the Company’s stock price due to market volatility; a decrease in demand for certain Company products; price declines; reduced profitability; supply chain disruptions impeding the Company’s ability to ship and/or receive product; temporary idling or permanent closure of select manufacturing facilities and/or manufacturing assets; asset impairment charges; interruptions or limitations to manufacturing operations imposed by local, state or federal governments; reduced market liquidity and increased borrowing costs; workforce absenteeism and distraction; labor shortages; customer credit concerns; increased cybersecurity risk and data accessibility disruptions due to remote working arrangements; workforce reductions and fluctuations in foreign currency markets. Additional risks may include, but are not limited to: shortages of key raw materials; potential impairment in the carrying value of goodwill; additional asset impairment charges; increased obligations related to the Company’s pension and other postretirement benefit plans; and tax valuation allowance; and may also have the effect of heightening many of the other risks described in this "Risk Factors" section.

MACROECONOMIC RISKS
Financial Commitments and Credit Markets: Market conditions could reduce the Company's flexibility to respond to changing business conditions or fund capital needs.
Adverse economic conditions, such as high interest rates, could reduce the Company’s flexibility to respond to changing business and economic conditions or to fund capital expenditures or working capital needs. The economic environment could result in a contraction in the availability of credit in the marketplace and reduce sources of liquidity for the Company. This could result in higher borrowing costs.

Global Economic Considerations: The Company operates in a global, competitive environment which gives rise to operating and market risk exposure.
The Company sells its broad range of products and services in a competitive, global environment, and competes worldwide for sales on the basis of product quality, price, technology and customer service. Increased levels of competition could result in lower prices or lower sales volume, which could have a negative impact on the Company’s results of operations. Sales of the Company's products are also subject to extensive federal, state, local and foreign laws and regulations; trade agreements; import and export controls; taxes; and duties and tariffs. The imposition of additional regulations, controls, taxes and duties and tariffs or changes to bilateral and regional trade agreements could result in lower sales volume, which could negatively impact the Company’s results of operations.

Economic conditions around the world, and in certain industries in which the Company does business, also impact sales price and volume and affect the efficacy of the Company's supply chain. For example, market uncertainty and an economic downturn driven by inflationary pressures have recently reduced demand for the Company's products, resulting in decreased sales volume. Adverse economic conditions also caused supply chain constraints. These factors have had a negative impact on the Company's results of operations. Additionally, political tensions; war, including the ongoing conflicts in the Middle East and between Russia and Ukraine with the related sanctions and export restrictions; terrorism; epidemics; pandemics; or political instability in the geographic regions or industries in which the Company sells its products could also reduce demand for the Company's products and result in decreased sales volume or supply chain disruptions, which could have a negative impact on the Company’s results of operations.

In February 2022, Russia invaded Ukraine resulting in the United States, Canada, the European Union and other countries imposing economic sanctions on Russia. Dow suspended purchases of feedstocks and energy from Russia and has significantly reduced its operations and product offerings in the country. Dow has also stopped all investments in Russia and is only supplying limited essential goods to Russia. These actions have not had and are not expected to have a material impact on the Company's financial condition or results of operations. However, the fluidity and continuation of the conflict may result in additional economic sanctions and other impacts which could have a negative impact on the Company’s financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. These include decreased sales; supply chain and logistics disruptions; volatility in foreign exchange rates and interest rates; inflationary pressures on and availability of raw materials and energy, most notably in Europe; and heightened cybersecurity threats. Further, the intensity and duration of the conflict in the Middle East and potential expansion of the hostilities in the region are difficult to predict and could disrupt the Company's supply chain operations, which could have a negative impact on the Company's results of operations.

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In addition, volatility and disruption of financial markets could limit customers’ ability to obtain adequate financing to maintain operations, which could result in a decrease in sales volume and have a negative impact on the Company’s results of operations. The Company’s global business operations also give rise to market risk exposure related to changes in inflation, foreign currency exchange rates, including the impact of foreign currency exchange rates resulting from highly inflationary economies such as Argentina, interest rates, commodity prices and other market factors such as equity prices. To manage such risks, the Company enters into hedging and other investment transactions, where deemed appropriate, pursuant to established guidelines and policies. If the Company fails to effectively manage such risks, it could have a negative impact on its results of operations.

Pension and Other Postretirement Benefits: Increased obligations and expenses related to the Company's defined benefit pension plans and other postretirement benefit plans could negatively impact its financial condition and results of operations.
While the Company has frozen its defined benefit plans and other postretirement benefit plans in the United States, the Company continues to sponsor these plans as well as defined benefit pension plans and other postretirement benefit plans in a number of other countries (together with U.S. plans, the “plans”). The assets of the Company's funded plans are primarily invested in fixed income securities, equity securities of U.S. and foreign issuers and alternative investments, including investments in real estate, private equity and absolute return strategies. Changes in the market value of plan assets, investment returns, discount rates, mortality rates and regulations may affect the funded status of the Company's plans and could cause volatility in the net periodic benefit cost, future funding requirements of the plans and the funded status of the plans. A significant increase in the Company's obligations or future funding requirements could have a negative impact on the Company's results of operations and cash flows for a particular period and on the Company's financial condition.

Supply/Demand Balance: Earnings generated by the Company's products vary based in part on the balance of supply relative to demand within the industry.
The balance of supply relative to demand within the industry may be significantly impacted by the addition of new capacity, especially for basic commodities where capacity is generally added in large increments as world-scale facilities are built. This may result in excess capacity which can disrupt regional industry supply and demand balances, particularly in Europe, Middle East, Africa and India ("EMEAI") and Asia Pacific, resulting in downward pressure on prices and decreased operating rates, which could negatively impact the Company’s results of operations.

LEGAL AND REGULATORY RISKS
Environmental Compliance: The costs of complying with evolving regulatory requirements could negatively impact the Company's financial results. Actual or alleged violations of environmental laws or permit requirements could result in restrictions or prohibitions on plant operations, substantial civil or criminal sanctions, as well as the assessment of strict liability and/or joint and several liability.
The Company is subject to extensive federal, state, local and foreign laws, regulations, rules and ordinances relating to pollution, protection of the environment, climate change, greenhouse gas emissions, and the generation, storage, handling, transportation, treatment, disposal and remediation of hazardous substances and waste materials. In addition, the Company may have costs related to environmental remediation and restoration obligations associated with past and current sites as well as related to its past or current waste disposal practices or other hazardous materials handling. Although management will estimate and accrue liabilities for these obligations, it is reasonably possible that the Company’s ultimate cost with respect to these matters could be significantly higher, which could negatively impact the Company’s financial condition and results of operations. Costs and capital expenditures relating to environmental, health or safety matters are subject to evolving regulatory requirements and depend on the timing of the promulgation and enforcement of specific standards which impose the requirements. Moreover, changes in environmental regulations could inhibit or interrupt the Company’s operations, or require modifications to its facilities. Accordingly, environmental, health or safety regulatory matters could result in significant unanticipated costs or liabilities. For additional information, see Part II, Item 7. Other Matters, Environmental Matters in Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

Health and Safety: Increased concerns regarding the safe use of chemicals and plastics in commerce and their potential impact on the environment have resulted in more restrictive regulations and could lead to new regulations.
Concerns regarding the safe use of chemicals and plastics in commerce and their potential impact on health and the environment reflect a growing trend in societal demands for increasing levels of product safety and environmental protection. These concerns could manifest themselves in stockholder proposals, preferred purchasing, delays or failures in obtaining or retaining regulatory approvals, delayed product launches, lack of
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market acceptance and continued pressure for more stringent regulatory intervention and litigation. These concerns could also influence public perceptions, the viability or continued sales of certain of the Company's products, its reputation and the cost to comply with regulations. In addition, terrorist attacks and natural disasters have increased concerns about the security and safety of chemical production and distribution. These concerns could have a negative impact on the Company's results of operations.

Local, state, federal and foreign governments continue to propose new regulations related to the security of chemical plant locations and the transportation of hazardous chemicals, which could result in higher operating costs.

Litigation: The Company is party to a number of claims and lawsuits arising out of the normal course of business with respect to product liability, patent infringement, employment matters, governmental tax and regulation disputes, contract and commercial litigation, and other actions.
Certain of the claims and lawsuits facing the Company purport to be class actions and seek damages in very large amounts. All such claims are contested. With the exception of the possible effect of the asbestos-related liability of Union Carbide Corporation (“Union Carbide”) as described below, it is the opinion of the Company’s management that the possibility is remote that the aggregate of all such claims and lawsuits will have a material adverse impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.

Union Carbide is and has been involved in a large number of asbestos-related suits filed primarily in state courts during the past four decades. At December 31, 2023, Union Carbide's total asbestos-related liability, including future defense and processing costs, was $867 million ($947 million at December 31, 2022).

Plastic Waste: Increased concerns regarding plastic waste in the environment, resulting in the demand for substitute materials; brand owners selectively reducing their use of plastic products; a lack of plastic waste collection and recycling infrastructure and a failure to develop circular plastic materials or a circular economy for plastics; and/or the development of new or more restrictive regulations and rules related to plastic waste and related emissions could reduce demand for the Company’s plastic products and could negatively impact the Company’s financial results.
Plastics have faced increasing public scrutiny due to low recycling rates and the presence of plastic waste in the environment, including the world’s oceans and rivers, and pollution associated with the manufacture of plastics. Accordingly, regulators, manufacturers, brand owners and consumers are driving demand for materials made with recycled content, bio-based materials and materials made with low or zero carbon emission options, and local, state, federal and foreign governments are proposing and implementing regulations to address the global plastic waste challenge, including, but not limited to, extended producer responsibility fees, recycled content mandates, taxes on plastics at the national level and bans on non-essential items. Further, an intergovernmental negotiation committee is in the process of negotiating an international legally binding instrument to end plastic pollution.

Dow is one of the world’s largest plastics producers and sells plastic products that continue to enable increasing quality and standards of living and offer significant greenhouse gas reductions compared with alternative solutions. In order to both maintain the benefits of plastics, meet growing demand for circular and renewable plastics and advance efforts to end plastic pollution in the environment, the Company is partnering with other organizations to bring the waste back into the circular economy. The Company's Transform the Waste target (announced in October 2022) aims to transform plastic waste and other forms of waste to commercialize 3 million metric tons of circular and renewable solutions by 2030. Further, the Company has committed to reducing its net annual greenhouse gas emissions and intends to be carbon neutral by 2050 (Scope 1+2+3, as defined by the Greenhouse Gas Protocol Corporate Accounting and Reporting Standard, plus product benefits).

Without the expansion of proper waste collection and recycling infrastructure and the development of a circular economy for plastics at scale, along with increased pressure to reduce the use of plastics, the Company could experience reduced demand for its polyethylene products, which could negatively impact the Company’s financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

OPERATIONAL AND STRATEGIC RISKS
Company Strategy: Implementing certain elements of the Company's strategy could negatively impact its financial results.
The Company currently has manufacturing operations, sales and marketing activities, and joint ventures in emerging geographic regions. Activities in these geographic regions are accompanied by uncertainty and risks including: navigating different government regulatory environments; relationships with new, local partners; project
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funding commitments and guarantees; expropriation, military actions, war, terrorism and political instability; sabotage; uninsurable risks; suppliers not performing as expected resulting in increased risk of extended project timelines; and determining raw material supply and other details regarding product movement.

Additionally, disruptions to supply chains, distribution chains and/or public and private infrastructure and services, including those caused by industry capacity constraints, material availability, global logistics delays, and third party service and material providers; and constraints arising from, among other things, the transportation capacity of ocean shipping containers; global labor availability constraints; and/or disruptions to the Company's site operations caused by tenant and neighboring manufacturing operations, as well as the Company's ability to attract and retain a talented workforce, could materially and adversely impact the Company's business operations.

If the manufacturing operations, supply chains, sales and marketing activities are not reliable and/or the implementation of the Company's projects is not successful, it could adversely affect the Company’s financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.

Cybersecurity Threat: Disruption of the Company's information technology, data security, and other operating or third-party systems, including disruption of the ability to safely and reliably operate the Company's facilities; the risk of loss of the Company’s proprietary information including trade secrets, know-how or other sensitive business information; and the risk of loss or security of the private data of the Company, its customers and its employees could negatively impact the Company’s business strategy, results of operations, financial condition and reputation.
The Company relies on various information systems, including information systems operated by third-parties, to support safe, efficient and reliable business and operating processes and activities and to safeguard its proprietary information assets, including trade secrets, know-how and other sensitive, business critical information. These systems are critical to the Company's process to accurately report financial results for management and external reporting purposes and to ensure compliance with financial reporting, legal and tax requirements in the United States and around the world. These systems may also be used to collect and process sensitive customer and personal employee data the Company may be legally required to protect.

Increased global cybersecurity vulnerabilities, threats and more sophisticated and targeted cyberattacks continue to pose risks to the Company’s products, systems and networks, and the confidentiality, availability and integrity of the Company’s data. These vulnerabilities also expose the Company’s customers, suppliers and third-party service providers to loss. In addition, the Company is exposed to similar risks resulting from cyberattacks that are experienced by its suppliers and other vendors. As a result, cyberattacks, internal and external security breaches, and attacks and security breaches of third-party systems could disrupt the Company's operations, compromise Dow’s proprietary and confidential, business critical information, jeopardize the Company's ability to safeguard and maintain accurate data, including personal data, and harm the Company's reputation which could result in litigation, enforcement actions, including fines, penalties and disruption of the Company's right to operate in certain jurisdictions, and significant remediation costs. Additionally, the Company’s use of artificial intelligence software may create additional risks related to the unintentional disclosure of proprietary, confidential, personal or otherwise sensitive information.

While the Company has a comprehensive cybersecurity program that is continuously reviewed, maintained and upgraded, cyberattacks by nation-state organizations, crime organizations and other hackers have become increasingly sophisticated, and it is possible for such attacks to remain undetected for an extended period of time. Such attacks could have a material negative impact on the Company’s business strategy, results of operations, financial position and reputation. More information on the Company’s processes for assessing, identifying and managing material risks from cybersecurity threats, including management’s role and the Board's oversight of such processes, can be found in Item 1C. Cybersecurity.

Goodwill: An impairment of goodwill could negatively impact the Company’s financial results.
At least annually, the Company assesses goodwill for impairment. If testing indicates that goodwill is impaired, the carrying value is written down based on fair value with a charge against earnings. Where the Company utilizes a discounted cash flow methodology in determining fair value, continued weak demand for a specific product line or business could result in an impairment. Accordingly, any determination requiring the write-off of a significant portion of goodwill could negatively impact the Company's results of operations. See Note 11 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information regarding the Company's goodwill impairment testing.

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Operational Event: A significant operational event could negatively impact the Company's results of operations.
As a diversified chemical manufacturing company, the Company's operations at each site, including maintenance of its facilities, the transportation of supplies and products, cyberattacks, pandemics and other public health-related events or severe weather conditions and other natural phenomena (such as freezing, drought, hurricanes, earthquakes, tsunamis, floods, etc.) could result in an unplanned event that could be significant in scale and could negatively impact operations, neighbors or the public at large, which could have a negative impact on the Company's results of operations.

Major hurricanes and other weather-related events have caused significant disruption in the Company's operations on the U.S. Gulf Coast, logistics across the region, and the supply of certain raw materials, which had an adverse impact on volume and cost for some of its products. Due to the Company's substantial presence on the U.S. Gulf Coast, similar severe weather conditions or other natural phenomena in the future could negatively impact the Company's results of operations. Other non-weather-related unplanned events have also caused disruptions in the Company’s operations at various sites. While the Company has processes in place to minimize the risks and impacts of such events, such unplanned future events could negatively impact the Company’s results of operations.

Raw Materials: Availability of purchased feedstock and energy, and the volatility of these costs, impact Dow’s operating costs and add variability to earnings.
Purchased feedstock and energy costs account for a substantial portion of the Company’s total production costs and operating expenses. The Company purchases hydrocarbon raw materials including ethane, propane, butane, naphtha and condensate as feedstocks and purchases certain monomers, primarily ethylene and propylene, to supplement internal production, as well as other raw materials. The Company also purchases natural gas, primarily to generate electricity, electric power to supplement internal generation, and steam.

Feedstock and energy costs generally follow price trends in crude oil and natural gas, which are sometimes volatile. Power prices often follow general energy trends, and are additionally subject to short-term surfeits and shortages related to, for example, intermittent wind and solar generation, and power generation and transmission outages. While the Company uses its feedstock flexibility and financial and physical hedging programs to help mitigate feedstock cost increases, the Company is not always able to immediately raise selling prices. Ultimately, the ability to pass on underlying cost increases is dependent on market conditions. Conversely, when feedstock and energy costs decline, selling prices generally decline as well. As a result, volatility in these costs could impact the Company’s results of operations.

While the Company expects abundant and cost-advantaged supplies of natural gas liquids ("NGLs") in the United States to persist for the foreseeable future, if NGLs become significantly less advantaged than crude oil-based feedstocks, it could have a negative impact on the Company’s results of operations and future investments. Also, if the Company’s key suppliers of feedstock and energy are unable to provide the raw materials required for production, it could have a negative impact on the Company’s results of operations.


ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.


ITEM 1C. CYBERSECURITY
Risk Management and Strategy
The Company has processes in place to identify, assess and monitor material risks from cybersecurity threats, which are part of the Company’s overall enterprise risk management process and have been embedded in the Company’s operating procedures, internal controls and information systems.

Dow's comprehensive cybersecurity and information security framework includes risk assessment and mitigation through a threat intelligence-driven approach, application controls, and enhanced security with ransomware defense. The framework leverages International Organization for Standardizations 27001/27002 standards for general information technology controls, International Society of Automation/International Electrotechnical Commission standards for industrial automation, the National Institute of Standards and Technology Cyber Security
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Framework ("NIST CSF") for measuring overall readiness to respond to cyber threats, and Sarbanes-Oxley for assessment of internal controls.

Dow contracts with external firms to assess Dow’s cybersecurity controls relative to its peers using the NIST CSF. Dow also has a third-party risk management program that assesses risks from vendors and suppliers. In addition, the Company maintains business continuity and disaster recovery plans as well as a cybersecurity insurance policy.

Dow has established cybersecurity and information security awareness training programs. Formal training on topics relating to the Company’s cybersecurity, data privacy and information security policies and procedures is mandatory at least annually for all employees, contractors and third parties with access to the Company’s network. Training is administered and tracked through online learning modules. Training topics include how to escalate suspicious activities including phishing, viruses, spams, insider threats, suspect human behaviors or safety issues. Based on role and location, some employees receive additional in-depth training to provide more comprehensive knowledge on potential risks related to their individual job responsibilities. Training is supplemented through regular Company communications with frequent updates to educate on the latest adversary trends and social engineering techniques.

Additionally, Dow engages in cyber crisis response simulations to assess Dow’s ability to adapt to information and operational technology threats. Improper or illegitimate use of the Company’s information system resources or violation of the Company’s information security policies and procedures is subject to disciplinary action. Dow’s security posture is supported by a comprehensive defense-in-depth strategy that relies on layers of technology including Multi-Factor Authentication and principles of Zero Trust to ensure that access to information and communication is vetted and secure.

Dow also utilizes internal and external audits and assessments, vulnerability testing, governance processes over outsourced service providers, active risk management and benchmarking against peers in the industry to validate Dow’s security posture. The Company also engages external firms to measure Dow’s NIST CSF maturity level.

No risks from cybersecurity threats, including those resulting from any previous cybersecurity incidents, have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, the Company, including its business strategy, results of operations or financial condition.

Governance
Role of Management
Dow’s Information Systems organization led by Dow’s Chief Information and Digital Officer, is responsible for administration of the cybersecurity and information security framework and risk management, with oversight by the Audit Committee.

The Company’s Chief Information and Digital Officer has formal education in information technology and extensive experience working in and leading Dow’s information systems and technology function. The Chief Information and Digital Officer receives regular updates on cybersecurity matters, results of mitigation efforts and cybersecurity incident response and remediation.

The Company’s management responsible for developing and executing Dow’s cybersecurity policies is comprised of individuals with either formal education and degrees in information technology or cybersecurity, or with experience working in information technology and cybersecurity, including relevant industry experience in security related industries. Additionally, leaders in the Company’s information technology function receive periodic training and education on cybersecurity related topics. Certain leaders also obtain industry certifications, such as Certified Information Systems Security Professional or Certified Information Security Manager.

The Company’s Cyber Security Operations Center (“CSOC”) serves as the central point for all cybersecurity incidents and reporting, including incidents that directly target employees or Dow internal information systems and incidents originating from third parties. The CSOC provides end-to-end operations for purposes of monitoring, detecting, alerting and responding to cybersecurity incidents. The CSOC evaluates each incident in terms of its impact on the Company’s operations, ability to conduct business with customers and suppliers, brand reputation and health, safety or the environment, and the speed and degree to which the incident has been contained. The CSOC is also responsible for activating the containment and resolution efforts and third-party service providers are engaged where appropriate to support the Company through the resolution of the incident. The CSOC escalates incidents with significant impact and pervasiveness to the Company’s Corporate Crisis Management Team for
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further action. After initial identification, the CSOC monitors all cybersecurity incidents for changes in degree of impact or pervasiveness.

Role of the Board
Dow's Board recognizes the importance of cybersecurity in safeguarding the Company’s sensitive data. The Board is responsible for overseeing overall risk management for the Company, including review and approval of the enterprise risk management approach and processes implemented by management to identify, assess, manage and mitigate risk, at least annually. The Board has delegated responsibility for oversight of the Company’s cybersecurity and information security framework and risk management to the Audit Committee of the Board. The Audit Committee receives information and updates at least quarterly and actively engages with senior leaders, including the Chief Information and Digital Officer and Chief Information Security Officer, with respect to the effectiveness of the Company’s cybersecurity and information security framework, data privacy, and risk management. In addition, the Audit Committee receives reports summarizing threat detection and mitigation plans, audits of internal controls, training and certification, and other cyber priorities and initiatives, as well as timely updates from senior leaders on material incidents relating to information systems security, including cybersecurity incidents. The Audit Committee includes members with significant experience and/or expertise in technology or cybersecurity, including information systems.


ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
The Company's corporate headquarters are located in Midland, Michigan. The Company's manufacturing, processing, marketing and research and development facilities, as well as regional purchasing offices and distribution centers are located throughout the world. The Company has investments in property, plant and equipment related to global manufacturing operations. Collectively, the Company operates 98 manufacturing sites in 31 countries. The following table includes the major manufacturing sites by operating segment, including consolidated variable interest entities:
 
Major Manufacturing Sites by SegmentPackaging & Specialty PlasticsIndustrial Intermediates & InfrastructurePerformance Materials & Coatings
Location
Bahia Blanca, ArgentinaX  
Candeias, BrazilXX 
Canada:   
Fort Saskatchewan, AlbertaX  
Prentiss, AlbertaX  
Joffre, AlbertaX
Zhangjiagang, ChinaXXX
Germany:   
BoehlenXX
LeunaX  
SchkopauXX 
Stade X 
Terneuzen, The NetherlandsXX 
Tarragona, SpainXX 
Map Ta Phut, ThailandXX
Barry, United Kingdom  X
United States:   
Carrollton, Kentucky  X
Hahnville, LouisianaXXX
Plaquemine, LouisianaXX
Midland, Michigan  X
Deer Park, Texas XX
Freeport, TexasXXX
Orange, TexasX  
Seadrift, TexasXX 
Texas City, TexasXX
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Including the major manufacturing sites, the Company has manufacturing sites and holdings in all geographic regions as follows:
 
Manufacturing Sites by Region
Asia Pacific16 manufacturing sites in 10 countries
EMEAI 1
35 manufacturing sites in 15 countries
Latin America15 manufacturing sites in 4 countries
U.S. & Canada32 manufacturing sites in 2 countries
1.Europe, Middle East, Africa and India.

Properties of the Company include facilities which, in the opinion of management, are suitable and adequate for their use and will have sufficient capacity for the Company’s current needs and expected near-term growth. All of the Company’s plants are owned or leased, subject to certain easements of other persons which, in the opinion of management, do not substantially interfere with the continued use of such properties or materially affect their value. No title examination of the properties has been made for the purpose of this report. Additional information with respect to the Company's property, plant and equipment and leases is contained in Notes 9, 13 and 15 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.


ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
Asbestos-Related Matters of Union Carbide Corporation
Union Carbide Corporation (“Union Carbide”), a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company, is and has been involved in a large number of asbestos-related suits filed primarily in state courts during the past four decades. These suits principally allege personal injury resulting from exposure to asbestos-containing products and frequently seek both actual and punitive damages. The alleged claims primarily relate to products that Union Carbide sold in the past, alleged exposure to asbestos-containing products located on Union Carbide’s premises, and Union Carbide’s responsibility for asbestos suits filed against a former Union Carbide subsidiary, Amchem Products, Inc.

For additional information, see Part II, Item 7. Other Matters, Asbestos-Related Matters of Union Carbide Corporation in Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, and Notes 1 and 14 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

Environmental Proceedings
On May 17, 2021, the Company received a civil complaint from the State of Texas ("State") on behalf of the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, filed in the 250th District Court of Travis County, Texas. The suit alleges environmental violations at the Company's Freeport, Texas, site involving several air emissions events, which allegedly occurred at the site between 2016 and 2021. The State is seeking monetary and injunctive relief to prevent recurrence. Discussions between the Company and the Texas Office of the Attorney General are ongoing.

On December 16, 2022, the U.S. Department of Justice filed a complaint and proposed consent decree on behalf of the EPA relating to environmental contamination at the Lower Passaic River Study Area Superfund Site in New Jersey. The EPA filed an amended complaint and proposed consent decree on January 17, 2024. The proposed consent decree includes a requirement that 85 settling defendants, including the Company’s Essex Chemical Corporation subsidiary ("Essex"), make a collective payment of $150 million for the EPA’s past and anticipated future response costs, with Essex’s share of the group settlement costs being $1.15 million.

In June 2023, INEMA, the Bahia, Brazil, state environmental agency notified Dow Brasil Indústria e Comércio de Produtos Químicos Ltda of its intention to impose penalties relating to Dow’s historic brine mining operations on Matarandiba Island, which INEMA alleges have contributed to environmental issues at the location. Discussions between Dow and the relevant government agencies are ongoing.


ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.

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Dow Inc. and Subsidiaries
The Dow Chemical Company and Subsidiaries
PART II

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Dow Inc. is the direct parent company of The Dow Chemical Company and its consolidated subsidiaries, ("TDCC" and together with Dow Inc., "Dow" or the "Company"), owning all of the outstanding common shares of TDCC. The principal market for Dow Inc.'s common stock is the New York Stock Exchange, traded under the symbol “DOW.”

Dow Inc. has paid dividends on a quarterly basis and expects to continue to do so, subject to approval by the Dow Inc. Board of Directors ("Board"). Additional dividend information can be found in Note 16 to the Consolidated Financial Statements and Liquidity and Capital Resources in Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

At December 31, 2023, there were 64,818 stockholders of record.

See Part III, Item 11. Executive Compensation for information relating to shares authorized for issuance under Dow Inc.'s equity compensation plans.

The Company grants stock-based compensation to employees and non-employee directors under stock incentive plans, in the form of stock options, stock appreciation rights, performance stock units and restricted stock units. See Note 19 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
The following table provides information regarding purchases of Dow Inc. common stock by the Company during the three months ended December 31, 2023. The Company makes such purchases only during open windows subject to its insider trading policy.

Issuer Purchases of Equity SecuritiesTotal number of shares purchased as part of the Company's publicly announced share repurchase program
Approximate dollar value of shares that may yet be purchased under the Company's publicly announced share repurchase program 1
(In millions)
PeriodTotal number of shares purchasedAverage price paid per share
October 2023486,206 $48.06 486,206 $1,526 
November 20232,074,955 $48.98 2,074,955 $1,425 
December 2023— $— — $1,425 
Fourth quarter 20232,561,161 $48.81 2,561,161 $1,425 
1.On April 13, 2022, the Board approved a share repurchase program authorizing up to $3.0 billion for the repurchase of the Company's common stock, with no expiration date.

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ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
STATEMENT ON CURRENCY EXCHANGE RATES
The Company's global business operations give rise to market risk exposure related to changes in foreign currency exchange rates and international capital flows that may be affected by extensive regulations and controls, especially in developing or highly inflationary countries such as Argentina. In December 2023, the Argentina government devalued the Argentine peso, which resulted in pretax charges for foreign currency exchange losses and inventory valuation impacts of $177 million ($52 million related to Packaging & Specialty Plastics, $16 million related to Industrial Intermediates & Infrastructure and $109 million related to Corporate). The Company continues to monitor these situations and take appropriate actions as necessary to manage the financial impact pursuant to established guidelines and policies. If the Company is unable to manage certain exposures in a cost-effective manner it could have a significant negative impact on its future results of operations and cash flows. A detailed discussion of these and other principal risks and uncertainties, which may negatively impact the future results of the Company, are included in Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors.


ABOUT DOW
Dow is one of the world’s leading materials science companies, serving customers in high-growth markets such as packaging, infrastructure, mobility and consumer applications. The Company's global breadth, asset integration and scale, focused innovation, leading business positions and commitment to sustainability enables the Company to achieve profitable growth and help deliver a sustainable future. Dow operates manufacturing sites in 31 countries and employs approximately 35,900 people.

In 2023, the Company had annual sales of $45 billion, of which 37 percent were to customers in the U.S. & Canada; 33 percent were in Europe, Middle East, Africa and India ("EMEAI"); while the remaining 30 percent were to customers in Asia Pacific and Latin America.

In 2023, the Company and its consolidated subsidiaries did not operate in countries subject to U.S. economic sanctions and export controls as imposed by the U.S. State Department or in countries designated by the U.S. State Department as state sponsors of terrorism, including Cuba, Iran, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) and Syria. The Company has policies and procedures in place designed to ensure that it and its consolidated subsidiaries remain in compliance with applicable U.S. laws and regulations.

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OVERVIEW
The following is a summary of the results for the Company for the year ended December 31, 2023:

The Company reported net sales in 2023 of $45 billion, down 22 percent from $57 billion in 2022, with decreases across all geographic regions and operating segments, and driven by a decrease in local price of 16 percent and a volume decrease of 6 percent.

Local price decreased 16 percent compared with 2022, with decreases in all operating segments and geographic regions, driven by slower global macroeconomic activity creating unfavorable supply and demand dynamics, industry supply additions and lower global energy and feedstocks costs. Local price decreased in Packaging & Specialty Plastics (down 16 percent), Industrial Intermediates & Infrastructure (down 14 percent) and Performance Materials & Coatings (down 15 percent).

Volume decreased 6 percent compared with 2022, with decreases in Packaging & Specialty Plastics (down 5 percent), Industrial Intermediates & Infrastructure (down 9 percent) and Performance Materials & Coatings (down 5 percent). Volume decreased in the U.S. & Canada (down 6 percent), EMEAI (down 9 percent), and Asia Pacific (down 4 percent), which was partially offset by an increase in Latin America (up 4 percent).

Currency impact on net sales was flat compared with 2022.

Restructuring and asset related charges - net were $528 million in 2023 primarily reflecting restructuring actions approved by the Board in January 2023. The restructuring charges consisted of severance and related benefit costs of $344 million and asset write-downs and write-offs of $191 million and were partially offset by other asset related credit adjustments of $7 million related to a prior restructuring program.

Equity in losses of nonconsolidated affiliates was $119 million in 2023, compared with earnings of $268 million in 2022, primarily due to declines at Sadara and the Kuwait joint ventures.

Sundry income (expense) - net for Dow Inc. and TDCC was expense of $280 million and $327 million, respectively, in 2023, compared with income of $727 million and $714 million, respectively, in 2022. Sundry income (expense) - net decreased primarily due to a non-cash settlement charge related to the Company's pension de-risking activities and higher foreign currency exchange losses, which included the impact of the December 2023 devaluation of the Argentine peso. Income from the successful and final resolution and recognition of a long-running patent infringement award was included in 2022.

Net income available for Dow Inc. and TDCC common stockholder(s) was $589 million and $556 million, respectively, in 2023, compared with $4,582 million and $4,583 million, respectively, in 2022. Earnings per share for Dow Inc. was $0.82 per share in 2023, compared with $6.28 per share in 2022.

In 2023, Dow Inc. declared and paid dividends to common stockholders of $2.80 per share ($1,972 million).

In 2023, Dow Inc. repurchased $625 million of the Company's common stock.

Other notable events and highlights from the year ended December 31, 2023 include:
On January 25, 2023, the Board approved restructuring actions ("2023 Restructuring Program") to achieve the Company's structural cost improvement initiatives in response to the continued economic impact from the global recessionary environment and to enhance its agility and long-term competitiveness across the economic cycle. This program included a global workforce cost reduction program, decreased turnaround spending and actions that rationalized the Company’s manufacturing assets, which included asset write-down and write-off charges and related contract termination fees.
On April 25, 2023, the Company announced that it had selected Linde as its industrial gas partner for the supply of circular hydrogen and nitrogen for its Fort Saskatchewan Path2Zero investment.
On May 11, 2023, Dow Inc. announced Seadrift, Texas, as the location of its small modular nuclear reactor project as part of a joint development agreement with X-energy.
On June 15, 2023, Fitch Ratings affirmed TDCC’s BBB+ long-term credit rating and announced a short-term credit rating upgrade to F1 from F2, and also revised its long-term outlook from positive to stable. On
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August 22, 2023, Standard and Poor's affirmed TDCC's BBB and A-2 rating, and revised its outlook from positive to stable. These credit agencies' decisions were made as part of their annual review process and reflect the Company's supportive financial policies and strong operating performance.
On June 19, 2023, Dow Inc. released its INtersections Progress Report, demonstrating how the Company's continued focus and actions align to its ambition and goal to deliver value growth; best-in-class performance; and innovative, sustainable solutions to address global challenges.
On July 14, 2023, an incident occurred that included an explosion and subsequent fire at Dow's Louisiana Operations Glycol-2 unit in Plaquemine, Louisiana. There were no injuries reported from the incident and it was limited to the Glycol-2 unit with minimal disruption to other site operations. The Company completed a root cause investigation and is executing a plan to restore operations. The Company's estimated impact on pretax earnings from the incident is $100 million per quarter. The Glycol-2 unit is expected to resume operations in the second quarter of 2024.
On October 24, 2023, the Company announced that Howard Ungerleider, President and Chief Financial Officer, had elected to retire in January 2024 after 33 years of service with Dow.
On October 24, 2023, the Company announced that Jeffrey L. Tate had been named Chief Financial Officer.
On November 28, 2023, the Company announced the Board declared Final Investment Decision on the Company's Fort Saskatchewan Path2Zero investment to build the world's first net-zero Scope 1 and 2 emissions integrated ethylene cracker and derivatives facility in Alberta, Canada.
On December 18, 2023, the Company announced that Ronald C. Edmonds, Controller and Vice President of Controllers and Tax, had elected to retire in July 2024, after 31 years of service with Dow.
On December 18, 2023, the Company announced that Andrea L. Dominowski had been named Controller and Vice President of Controllers effective February 1, 2024.
Dow was named on the Top 100 Global Innovators list for the 12th consecutive year.
Dow received a record-setting nine 2023 Edison Awards (five gold, three silver and one bronze), once again earning more awards than any other organization for the sixth consecutive year.
Dow was named to the JUST 100 list, placing 55th overall, an 11-place improvement from last year, and securing the top spot for Communities in the Chemicals sector.
Dow was named to Bloomberg’s 2022 Gender-Equality Index for the third consecutive year.
Dow earned a spot in the S&P Global Sustainability Yearbook, recognizing the Company as a top industry performer.
Dow was honored as a winner of a 2023 Artificial Intelligence Award for the development of technology that identifies and predicts corrosion failures in metal coatings.
Dow received five 2023 BIG Innovation Awards from the Business Intelligence Group, the most received in a single Business Intelligence Group Awards program by the Company.
Dow was recognized with a 2023 CIO 100 Award for its successful Smart Search tool, powered by CAS.
Dow was titled a Supplier Engagement Leader by CDP, a result of actions taken by the Company to address climate change.
Dow advanced to seventh place on the 2023 DiversityInc Top 50 Companies for Diversity list making it the sixth consecutive year on the list. Dow was also included on 15 of DiversityInc's Specialty Lists including: Top Companies for Executive Diversity Councils, Top Companies for People with Disabilities, Top Companies for Black Executives, Top Companies for Latino Executives, Top Companies for Executive Women, Top Companies for Employee Resource Groups and Top Companies for Environmental, Social and Governance.
Dow's EVOWASH Antifoam Agents and Readily Biodegradable Detergents and Dow's LuxSense Silicone Leather each received a SEAL (Sustainability, Environmental Achievement & Leadership) Sustainable Innovation Award. Dow's SYL-OFF EM-7920NF Emulsion Coating was a winner of the SEAL Sustainable Product Award.
Dow received five awards (Overall Winner, three golds, one silver) at the annual U.S Customer Experience Awards.
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For the seventh consecutive year, Dow received a top score on the Disability Equality Index, placing the Company among the Best Places to Work for Disability Inclusion for 2023.
Dow Technology won the 2023 ICIS Innovation Award which recognizes companies that are paving the way in product, process, and sustainability innovations across the chemicals industry.
Dow was named one of the 2023 PEOPLE® Companies that Care by Great Place to Work® and PEOPLE® for the fourth consecutive year.
Dow was honored by Great Place to Work® and Fortune as one of the World's Best Workplaces. Dow was also certified as a Great Place to Work® in 13 countries and ranked on 10 national Best Workplaces lists, including the Fortune 100 Best Companies to Work For® list in the United States for the third consecutive year.
Dow was named to the Dow Jones Sustainability World Index by S&P Dow Jones Indices, the world's leading index provider focused on providing essential sustainability intelligence.

In addition to the highlights above, the following events occurred subsequent to December 31, 2023:

On January 19, 2024, Moody's Investors Service affirmed TDCC's Baa1 and P-2 rating, and affirmed its outlook of stable.
On January 25, 2024, the Company published its Green Finance Framework and related Second Party Opinion on its website, to support the execution of its sustainability strategy.

RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
For comparison of results of operations for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, see Part II, Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations of the Company's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022, filed with the SEC on February 1, 2023.

Net Sales
The following tables summarize net sales and sales variances by operating segment and geographic region from the prior year:

Summary of Sales Results 
In millions20232022
Net sales$44,622 $56,902 

Sales Variances by Operating Segment and Geographic Region
20232022
Percentage change from prior yearLocal Price & Product MixCurrencyVolumeTotalLocal Price & Product MixCurrency
Volume
Total
Packaging & Specialty Plastics(16)%— %(5)%(21)%%(3)%— %%
Industrial Intermediates & Infrastructure(14)(1)(9)(24)11 (5)(7)(1)
Performance Materials & Coatings(15)(1)(5)(21)21 (4)(6)11 
Total(16)%— %(6)%(22)%11 %(4)%(3)%%
Total, excluding the Hydrocarbons & Energy business(15)%(1)%(4)%(20)%10 %(4)%(5)%%
U.S. & Canada(15)%— %(6)%(21)%%— %%%
EMEAI(17)— (9)(26)18 (9)(10)(1)
Asia Pacific(14)(2)(4)(20)(3)— 
Latin America(17)— (13)— 
Total(16)%— %(6)%(22)%11 %(4)%(3)%%

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2023 Versus 2022
The Company reported net sales of $44.6 billion in 2023, down 22 percent from $56.9 billion in 2022, with local price down 16 percent, volume down 6 percent, and currency flat. Net sales decreased by double digits in all operating segments and across all geographic regions, primarily driven by lower prices and demand due to slower global macroeconomic activity. Local price decreased in all operating segments and across all geographic regions driven by industry supply additions and lower global energy and feedstock costs. Local price decreased in Packaging & Specialty Plastics (down 16 percent), Industrial Intermediates & Infrastructure (down 14 percent) and Performance Materials & Coatings (down 15 percent). Volume decreased in all operating segments and geographic regions, except Latin America (up 4 percent). Volume decreased in Packaging & Specialty Plastics (down 5 percent), Industrial Intermediates & Infrastructure (down 9 percent) and Performance Materials & Coatings (down 5 percent). Excluding the Hydrocarbons & Energy business, sales decreased 20 percent.

Cost of Sales
Cost of sales ("COS") was $39.7 billion in 2023, compared with $48.3 billion in 2022. COS decreased in 2023 primarily due to lower raw material costs on lower volume, lower global energy and feedstock costs and the impact of structural cost improvements. COS as a percentage of net sales was 89.1 percent in 2023, compared with 84.9 percent in 2022.

Research and Development Expenses
Research and development ("R&D") expenses were $829 million in 2023, compared with $851 million in 2022. R&D expenses decreased in 2023 primarily due to the impact of structural cost improvements as well as lower performance-based compensation costs.

Selling, General and Administrative Expenses
Selling, general and administrative ("SG&A") expenses were $1,627 million in 2023, compared with $1,675 million in 2022. SG&A expenses decreased in 2023 primarily due to lower bad debt expense, the impact of structural cost improvements and lower performance-based compensation costs, which more than offset increases associated with the Company's restructuring implementation and efficiency actions and fringe benefit expenses tied to stock market changes.

Amortization of Intangibles
Amortization of intangibles was $324 million in 2023, compared with $336 million in 2022. Amortization of intangibles decreased primarily due to certain intangible assets becoming fully amortized. See Note 11 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information on intangible assets.

Restructuring and Asset Related Charges - Net
2023 Restructuring Program
On January 25, 2023, the Board approved restructuring actions to achieve the Company's structural cost improvement initiatives in response to the continued economic impact from the global recessionary environment and to enhance its agility and long-term competitiveness across the economic cycle. These actions are expected to be substantially complete by the end of 2024.

As a result of these actions, in 2023 the Company recorded pretax restructuring charges of $535 million, consisting of severance and related benefit costs of $344 million and asset write-downs and write-offs of $191 million. The restructuring charges by segment were as follows: $1 million in Packaging & Specialty Plastics, $50 million in Industrial Intermediates & Infrastructure, $49 million in Performance Materials & Coatings and $435 million in Corporate. These charges were partially offset by other asset related credit adjustments of $7 million in Corporate related to a prior restructuring program. See Note 4 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.

Equity in Earnings (Losses) of Nonconsolidated Affiliates
The Company’s share of equity in losses of nonconsolidated affiliates was $119 million in 2023, compared with earnings of $268 million in 2022, with lower equity earnings at all principal joint ventures and primarily due to margin compression at Sadara and the Kuwait joint ventures as a result of lower local prices and demand.