Company Quick10K Filing
Quick10K
DTE Energy
Closing Price ($) Shares Out (MM) Market Cap ($MM)
$117.75 182 $21,420
10-K 2018-12-31 Annual: 2018-12-31
10-Q 2018-09-30 Quarter: 2018-09-30
10-Q 2018-06-30 Quarter: 2018-06-30
10-Q 2018-03-31 Quarter: 2018-03-31
10-K 2017-12-31 Annual: 2017-12-31
10-Q 2017-09-30 Quarter: 2017-09-30
10-Q 2017-06-30 Quarter: 2017-06-30
10-Q 2017-03-31 Quarter: 2017-03-31
10-K 2016-12-31 Annual: 2016-12-31
10-Q 2016-09-30 Quarter: 2016-09-30
10-Q 2016-06-30 Quarter: 2016-06-30
10-Q 2016-03-31 Quarter: 2016-03-31
10-K 2015-12-31 Annual: 2015-12-31
8-K 2019-02-07 Earnings, Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2019-02-04 Officers
8-K 2018-12-12 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-12-04 Officers
8-K 2018-11-09 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-10-31 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-10-24 Earnings, Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-10-02 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-09-18 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-09-16 Officers
8-K 2018-09-14 Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2018-09-05 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-08-28 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-08-15 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-08-01 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-07-25 Earnings, Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-07-06 Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2018-06-22 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-06-08 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-05-31 Officers, Exhibits
8-K 2018-05-14 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-05-04 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-05-03 Shareholder Vote
8-K 2018-04-19 Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2018-04-09 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-04-02 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-03-19 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-03-09 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-02-27 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-01-10 Regulation FD, Exhibits
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DTE 2018-12-31
Part I
Item 1A. Risk Factors
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Part II
Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters, and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Item 6. Selected Financial Data
Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Note 1 - Organization and Basis of Presentation
Note 2 - Significant Accounting Policies
Note 3 - New Accounting Pronouncements
Note 4 - Revenue
Note 5 - Goodwill
Note 6 - Property, Plant, and Equipment
Note 7 - Jointly-Owned Utility Plant
Note 8 - Asset Retirement Obligations
Note 9 - Regulatory Matters
Note 10 - Income Taxes
Note 11 - Earnings per Share
Note 12 - Fair Value
Note 13 - Financial and Other Derivative Instruments
Note 14 - Long-Term Debt
Note 15 - Preferred and Preference Securities
Note 16 - Short-Term Credit Arrangements and Borrowings
Note 17 - Capital and Operating Leases
Note 18 - Commitments and Contingencies
Note 19 - Nuclear Operations
Note 20 - Retirement Benefits and Trusteed Assets
Note 21 - Stock-Based Compensation
Note 22 - Segment and Related Information
Note 23 - Related Party Transactions
Note 24 - Supplementary Quarterly Financial Information (Unaudited)
Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
Item 9A. Controls and Procedures
Item 9B. Other Information
Part III
Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers, and Corporate Governance
Item 11. Executive Compensation
Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
Item 14. Principal Accountant Fees and Services
Part IV
Item 15. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules
Item 16. Form 10-K Summary
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DTE Energy Earnings 2018-12-31

DTE 10K Annual Report

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow

10-K 1 dteenergy2018123110k.htm DTE ENERGY FORM 10-K Document


 
UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
______________________________________________
FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2018
Commission File Number
 
Registrants, State of Incorporation, Address, and Telephone Number
 
I.R.S. Employer Identification No.
1-11607
 
DTE Energy Company
(a Michigan corporation)
One Energy Plaza
Detroit, Michigan 48226-1279
313-235-4000
 
38-3217752
 
 
 
 
 
1-2198
 
DTE Electric Company
(a Michigan corporation)
One Energy Plaza
Detroit, Michigan 48226-1279
313-235-4000
 
38-0478650
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Registrant
 
Title of Each Class
 
Name of Exchange on which Registered
DTE Energy Company (DTE Energy)
 
Common stock, without par value
 
New York Stock Exchange
 
 
 
 
 
DTE Energy
 
2012 Series C 5.25% Junior Subordinated Debentures due 2062
 
New York Stock Exchange
 
 
 
 
 
DTE Energy
 
2016 Series B 5.375% Junior Subordinated Debentures due 2076
 
New York Stock Exchange
 
 
 
 
 
DTE Energy
 
2016 Series F 6.00% Junior Subordinated Debentures due 2076
 
New York Stock Exchange
 
 
 
 
 
DTE Energy
 
2017 Series E 5.25% Junior Subordinated Debentures due 2077
 
New York Stock Exchange
 
 
 
 
 
DTE Energy
 
6.50% Corporate Units
 
New York Stock Exchange
 
 
 
 
 
DTE Electric Company (DTE Electric)
 
None
 
None
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
DTE Energy
None
DTE Electric
None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
DTE Energy
Yes x No o
DTE Electric
Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
DTE Energy
Yes o No x
DTE Electric
Yes o No x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
DTE Energy
Yes x No o
DTE Electric
Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).
DTE Energy
Yes x No o
DTE Electric
Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of the registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.
DTE Energy
x
DTE Electric
x




Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
DTE Energy
Large accelerated filer x
Accelerated filer o
Non-accelerated filer o
Smaller reporting company o
Emerging growth company o
 
 
 
 
 
 
DTE Electric
Large accelerated filer o
Accelerated filer o
Non-accelerated filer x
Smaller reporting company o
Emerging growth company o
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).
DTE Energy
Yes o No x
DTE Electric
Yes o No x
On June 29, 2018, the aggregate market value of DTE Energy's voting and non voting common equity held by non-affiliates was approximately $18.5 billion (based on the New York Stock Exchange closing price on such date).
Number of shares of Common Stock outstanding at January 25, 2019:
Registrant
 
Description
 
Shares
DTE Energy
 
Common Stock, without par value
 
181,923,685

 
 
 
 
 
DTE Electric
 
Common Stock, $10 par value, directly-owned by DTE Energy
 
138,632,324

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Certain information in DTE Energy's definitive Proxy Statement for its 2019 Annual Meeting of Common Shareholders to be held May 9, 2019, which will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Regulation 14A, not later than 120 days after the end of the registrant’s fiscal year covered by this report on Form 10-K, is incorporated herein by reference to Part III (Items 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14) of this Form 10-K.
This combined Form 10-K is filed separately by two registrants: DTE Energy and DTE Electric. Information contained herein relating to any individual registrant is filed by such registrant solely on its own behalf. DTE Electric makes no representation as to information relating exclusively to DTE Energy.
DTE Electric, a wholly-owned subsidiary of DTE Energy, meets the conditions set forth in General Instructions I(1)(a) and (b) of Form 10-K and is therefore filing this form with the reduced disclosure format specified in General Instruction I(2) of Form 10-K.
 




TABLE OF CONTENTS

 
 
Page
 
 
 
 




DEFINITIONS

AFUDC
 
Allowance for Funds Used During Construction
 
 
 
AGS
 
Appalachia Gathering System is a midstream natural gas asset located in Pennsylvania and West Virginia. DTE Energy purchased 100% of AGS in October 2016, and this asset is part of DTE Energy's Gas Storage and Pipelines segment.
 
 
 
AMV
 
Applicable Market Value
 
 
 
ANPR
 
Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking
 
 
 
ARO
 
Asset Retirement Obligation
 
 
 
ASU
 
Accounting Standards Update issued by the FASB
 
 
 
CCR
 
Coal Combustion Residuals
 
 
 
CFTC
 
U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission
 
 
 
CON
 
Certificate of Necessity
 
 
 
DOE
 
U.S. Department of Energy
 
 
 
DTE Electric
 
DTE Electric Company (a direct wholly-owned subsidiary of DTE Energy) and subsidiary companies
 
 
 
DTE Energy
 
DTE Energy Company, directly or indirectly the parent of DTE Electric, DTE Gas, and numerous non-utility subsidiaries
 
 
 
DTE Gas
 
DTE Gas Company (an indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of DTE Energy) and subsidiary companies
 
 
 
EGU
 
Electric Generating Unit
 
 
 
ELG
 
Effluent Limitations Guidelines
 
 
 
EPA
 
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
 
 
 
Equity units
 
DTE Energy's 2016 equity units issued in October 2016, which were used to finance the October 1, 2016 Gas Storage and Pipelines acquisition.
 
 
 
FASB
 
Financial Accounting Standards Board
 
 
 
FERC
 
Federal Energy Regulatory Commission
 
 
 
FOV
 
Finding of Violation
 
 
 
FTRs
 
Financial Transmission Rights are financial instruments that entitle the holder to receive payments related to costs incurred for congestion on the transmission grid.
 
 
 
GCR
 
A Gas Cost Recovery mechanism authorized by the MPSC that allows DTE Gas to recover through rates its natural gas costs.
 
 
 
GHGs
 
Greenhouse gases
 
 
 
Green Bonds
 
A financing option to fund projects that have a positive environmental impact based upon a specified set of criteria. The proceeds are required to be used for eligible green expenditures.
 
 
 
IRM
 
Infrastructure Recovery Mechanism
 
 
 
IRS
 
Internal Revenue Service
 
 
 
ISO
 
Independent System Operator
 
 
 
LIBOR
 
London Inter-Bank Offered Rates
 
 
 
LLC
 
DTE Energy Corporate Services, LLC, a subsidiary of DTE Energy
 
 
 
MDEQ
 
Michigan Department of Environmental Quality
 
 
 
MGP
 
Manufactured Gas Plant
 
 
 
MISO
 
Midcontinent Independent System Operator, Inc.
 
 
 

1



DEFINITIONS

MPSC
 
Michigan Public Service Commission
 
 
 
MTM
 
Mark-to-market
 
 
 
NAV
 
Net Asset Value
 
 
 
NEIL
 
Nuclear Electric Insurance Limited
 
 
 
NEXUS
 
NEXUS Gas Transmission, LLC, a joint venture in which DTE Energy owns a 50% partnership interest.
 
 
 
Non-utility
 
An entity that is not a public utility. Its conditions of service, prices of goods and services, and other operating related matters are not directly regulated by the MPSC.
 
 
 
NOV
 
Notice of Violation
 
 
 
NOX
 
Nitrogen Oxides
 
 
 
NRC
 
U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission
 
 
 
PG&E
 
Pacific Gas and Electric Corporation
 
 
 
PLD
 
City of Detroit's Public Lighting Department
 
 
 
Production tax credits
 
Tax credits as authorized under Sections 45K and 45 of the Internal Revenue Code that are designed to stimulate investment in and development of alternate fuel sources. The amount of a production tax credit can vary each year as determined by the IRS.
 
 
 
PSCR
 
A Power Supply Cost Recovery mechanism authorized by the MPSC that allows DTE Electric to recover through rates its fuel, fuel-related, and purchased power costs.
 
 
 
RDM
 
A Revenue Decoupling Mechanism authorized by the MPSC that is designed to minimize the impact on revenues of changes in average customer usage.
 
 
 
REC
 
Renewable Energy Credit
 
 
 
REF
 
Reduced Emissions Fuel
 
 
 
Registrants
 
DTE Energy and DTE Electric
 
 
 
Retail access
 
Michigan legislation provided customers the option of access to alternative suppliers for electricity and natural gas.
 
 
 
RNG
 
Renewable Natural Gas
 
 
 
RSN
 
Remarketable Senior Notes
 
 
 
RTO
 
Regional Transmission Organization
 
 
 
SEC
 
Securities and Exchange Commission
 
 
 
SGG
 
Stonewall Gas Gathering is a midstream natural gas asset located in West Virginia. DTE Energy purchased 55% of SGG in October 2016, and this asset is part of DTE Energy's Gas Storage and Pipelines segment.
 
 
 
Shenango
 
Shenango Incorporated is a coke battery plant located in Pittsburgh, PA, that was closed in January 2016 and is included in the Power and Industrial Projects segment.
 
 
 
SO2
 
Sulfur Dioxide
 
 
 
TCJA
 
Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017
 
 
 
TCJA rate reduction liability
 
Beginning January 1, 2018, as a result of the change in the corporate tax rate, DTE Electric and DTE Gas have reduced revenue and recorded an offsetting regulatory liability.
 
 
 
Topic 606
 
FASB issued ASU No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, as amended
 
 
 
TRIA
 
Terrorism Risk Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of 2015
 
 
 

2



DEFINITIONS

TRM
 
A Transitional Reconciliation Mechanism authorized by the MPSC that allows DTE Electric to recover through rates the deferred net incremental revenue requirement associated with the transition of PLD customers to DTE Electric's distribution system.
 
 
 
VEBA
 
Voluntary Employees Beneficiary Association
 
 
 
VIE
 
Variable Interest Entity
Units of Measurement
 
 
Bcf
Billion cubic feet of natural gas
 
 
BTU
British thermal unit, heat value (energy content) of fuel
 
 
kWh
Kilowatthour of electricity
 
 
MDth/d
Million dekatherms per day
 
 
MMBtu
One million BTU
 
 
MW
Megawatt of electricity
 
 
MWh
Megawatthour of electricity


3
















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4


FILING FORMAT
This combined Form 10-K is separately filed by DTE Energy and DTE Electric. Information in this combined Form 10-K relating to each individual Registrant is filed by such Registrant on its own behalf. DTE Electric makes no representation regarding information relating to any other companies affiliated with DTE Energy other than its own subsidiaries. Neither DTE Energy, nor any of DTE Energy’s other subsidiaries (other than DTE Electric), has any obligation in respect of DTE Electric's debt securities, and holders of such debt securities should not consider the financial resources or results of operations of DTE Energy nor any of DTE Energy’s other subsidiaries (other than DTE Electric and its own subsidiaries (in relevant circumstances)) in making a decision with respect to DTE Electric's debt securities. Similarly, none of DTE Electric nor any other subsidiary of DTE Energy has any obligation in respect of debt securities of DTE Energy. This combined Form 10-K should be read in its entirety. No one section of this combined Form 10-K deals with all aspects of the subject matter of this combined Form 10-K.

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
Certain information presented herein includes "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 with respect to the financial condition, results of operations, and businesses of the Registrants. Words such as "anticipate," "believe," "expect," "may," "could," "projected," "aspiration," "plans," and "goals" signify forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future results and conditions, but rather are subject to numerous assumptions, risks, and uncertainties that may cause actual future results to be materially different from those contemplated, projected, estimated, or budgeted. Many factors may impact forward-looking statements of the Registrants including, but not limited to, the following:
impact of regulation by the EPA, the FERC, the MPSC, the NRC, and for DTE Energy, the CFTC, as well as other applicable governmental proceedings and regulations, including any associated impact on rate structures;
the amount and timing of cost recovery allowed as a result of regulatory proceedings, related appeals, or new legislation, including legislative amendments and retail access programs;
economic conditions and population changes in the Registrants' geographic area resulting in changes in demand, customer conservation, and thefts of electricity and, for DTE Energy, natural gas;
the operational failure of electric or gas distribution systems or infrastructure;
impact of volatility of prices in the oil and gas markets on DTE Energy's gas storage and pipelines operations;
impact of volatility in prices in the international steel markets on DTE Energy's power and industrial projects operations;
the risk of a major safety incident;
environmental issues, laws, regulations, and the increasing costs of remediation and compliance, including actual and potential new federal and state requirements;
the cost of protecting assets against, or damage due to, cyber incidents and terrorism;
health, safety, financial, environmental, and regulatory risks associated with ownership and operation of nuclear facilities;
volatility in the short-term natural gas storage markets impacting third-party storage revenues related to DTE Energy;
volatility in commodity markets, deviations in weather, and related risks impacting the results of DTE Energy's energy trading operations;
changes in the cost and availability of coal and other raw materials, purchased power, and natural gas;
advances in technology that produce power or reduce power consumption;
changes in the financial condition of significant customers and strategic partners;

5



the potential for losses on investments, including nuclear decommissioning and benefit plan assets and the related increases in future expense and contributions;
access to capital markets and the results of other financing efforts which can be affected by credit agency ratings;
instability in capital markets which could impact availability of short and long-term financing;
the timing and extent of changes in interest rates;
the level of borrowings;
the potential for increased costs or delays in completion of significant capital projects;
changes in, and application of, federal, state, and local tax laws and their interpretations, including the Internal Revenue Code, regulations, rulings, court proceedings, and audits;
the effects of weather and other natural phenomena on operations and sales to customers, and purchases from suppliers;
unplanned outages;
employee relations and the impact of collective bargaining agreements;
the availability, cost, coverage, and terms of insurance and stability of insurance providers;
cost reduction efforts and the maximization of plant and distribution system performance;
the effects of competition;
changes in and application of accounting standards and financial reporting regulations;
changes in federal or state laws and their interpretation with respect to regulation, energy policy, and other business issues;
contract disputes, binding arbitration, litigation, and related appeals; and
the risks discussed in the Registrants' public filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission.
New factors emerge from time to time. The Registrants cannot predict what factors may arise or how such factors may cause results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statement. Any forward-looking statements speak only as of the date on which such statements are made. The Registrants undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statement to reflect events or circumstances after the date on which such statement is made or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events.


6



Part I
Items 1. and 2. Business and Properties
General
In 1995, DTE Energy incorporated in the State of Michigan. DTE Energy's utility operations consist primarily of DTE Electric and DTE Gas. DTE Energy also has three other segments that are engaged in a variety of energy-related businesses.
DTE Electric is a Michigan corporation organized in 1903 and is a wholly-owned subsidiary of DTE Energy. DTE Electric is a public utility engaged in the generation, purchase, distribution, and sale of electricity to approximately 2.2 million customers in southeastern Michigan.
DTE Gas is a Michigan corporation organized in 1898 and is a wholly-owned subsidiary of DTE Energy. DTE Gas is a public utility engaged in the purchase, storage, transportation, distribution, and sale of natural gas to approximately 1.3 million customers throughout Michigan and the sale of storage and transportation capacity.
DTE Energy's other businesses are involved in 1) natural gas pipelines, gathering, and storage; 2) power and industrial projects; and 3) energy marketing and trading operations.
DTE Electric and DTE Gas are regulated by the MPSC. Certain activities of DTE Electric and DTE Gas, as well as various other aspects of businesses under DTE Energy are regulated by the FERC. In addition, the Registrants are regulated by other federal and state regulatory agencies including the NRC, the EPA, the MDEQ, and for DTE Energy, the CFTC.
The Registrants' annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, proxy statements, and all amendments to such reports are available free of charge through the Investor Relations Reports and Filings page of DTE Energy's website: www.dteenergy.com, as soon as reasonably practicable after they are filed with or furnished to the SEC.
The DTE Energy Code of Ethics and Standards of Behavior, Board of Directors’ Mission and Guidelines, Board Committee Charters, and Categorical Standards for Director Independence are also posted on the DTE Energy website. The information on DTE Energy’s website is not part of this report or any other report that DTE Energy files with, or furnishes to, the SEC.
Additionally, the public may read and copy any materials the Registrants file electronically with the SEC at www.sec.gov.
Corporate Structure
DTE Energy sets strategic goals, allocates resources, and evaluates performance based on the following structure. For financial information by segment for the last three years, see Note 22 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of this Report, "Segment and Related Information."
Electric
The Electric segment consists principally of DTE Electric, which is engaged in the generation, purchase, distribution, and sale of electricity to approximately 2.2 million residential, commercial, and industrial customers in southeastern Michigan.
Gas
The Gas segment consists principally of DTE Gas, which is engaged in the purchase, storage, transportation, distribution, and sale of natural gas to approximately 1.3 million residential, commercial, and industrial customers throughout Michigan and the sale of storage and transportation capacity.

7



Non-utility Operations
Gas Storage and Pipelines consists of natural gas pipeline, gathering, transportation, and storage businesses.
Power and Industrial Projects is comprised primarily of projects that deliver energy and utility-type products and services to industrial, commercial, and institutional customers, produce reduced emissions fuel, and sell electricity from renewable energy projects.
Energy Trading consists of energy marketing and trading operations.
Corporate and Other
Corporate and Other includes various holding company activities, holds certain non-utility debt, and holds energy-related investments.
orgchart2a03.jpg
Refer to Management’s Discussion and Analysis in Item 7 of this Report for an in-depth analysis of each segment’s financial results. A description of each business unit follows.
ELECTRIC
Description
DTE Energy's Electric segment consists principally of DTE Electric, an electric utility engaged in the generation, purchase, distribution, and sale of electricity to approximately 2.2 million customers in southeastern Michigan. DTE Electric is regulated by numerous federal and state governmental agencies, including, but not limited to, the MPSC, the FERC, the NRC, the EPA, and the MDEQ. Electricity is generated from fossil-fuel plants, a hydroelectric pumped storage plant, a nuclear plant, wind and other renewable assets and is supplemented with purchased power. The electricity is sold, or distributed through the retail access program, to three major classes of customers: residential, commercial, and industrial, throughout southeastern Michigan.
Weather, economic factors, competition, energy waste reduction initiatives, and electricity prices affect sales levels to customers. DTE Electric's peak load and highest total system sales generally occur during the third quarter of the year, driven by air conditioning and other cooling-related demands. DTE Electric's operations are not dependent upon a limited number of customers, and the loss of any one or a few customers would not have a material adverse effect on the results of DTE Electric.
See Note 4 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of the Report, "Revenue."

8



Fuel Supply and Purchased Power
DTE Electric's power is generated from a variety of fuels and is supplemented with purchased power. DTE Electric expects to have an adequate supply of fuel and purchased power to meet its obligation to serve customers. DTE Electric's generating capability is heavily dependent upon the availability of coal. Coal is purchased from various sources in different geographic areas under agreements that vary in both pricing and terms. DTE Electric expects to obtain the majority of its coal requirements through long-term contracts, with the balance to be obtained through short-term agreements and spot purchases. DTE Electric has long-term and short-term contracts for the purchase of approximately 24 million tons of low-sulfur western coal and approximately 850 thousand tons of Appalachian coal to be delivered from 2019 to 2022. All of these contracts have pricing schedules. DTE Electric has approximately 86% of the expected coal requirements for 2019 under contract. Given the geographic diversity of supply, DTE Electric believes it can meet its expected generation requirements. DTE Electric leases a fleet of rail cars and has the expected western and eastern coal rail requirements under contract through 2021. Contracts covering expected vessel transportation requirements for delivery of purchased coal to electric generating facilities are under contract through 2019.
DTE Electric participates in the energy market through MISO. DTE Electric offers its generation in the market on a day-ahead and real-time basis and bids for power in the market to serve its load. DTE Electric is a net purchaser of power that supplements its generation capability to meet customer demand during peak cycles or during major plant outages.

9



Properties
DTE Electric owns generating facilities that are located in the State of Michigan. Substantially all of DTE Electric's property is subject to the lien of a mortgage.
Generating facilities owned and in service as of December 31, 2018 are shown in the following table:
 
 
Location by
Michigan
County
 
 
 
Net Generation Capacity(a)
Facility
 
 
Year in Service
 
(MW)
Fossil-fueled Steam-Electric
 
 
 
 
 
 
Belle River(b)
 
St. Clair
 
1984 and 1985
 
1,034

Greenwood
 
St. Clair
 
1979
 
785

Monroe(c)
 
Monroe
 
1971, 1973, and 1974
 
3,066

River Rouge
 
Wayne
 
1958
 
272

St. Clair
 
St. Clair
 
1953, 1954, 1961, and 1969
 
1,216

Trenton Channel
 
Wayne
 
1968
 
495

 
 
 
 
 
 
6,868

Natural gas and Oil-fueled Peaking Units
 
Various
 
1966-1971, 1981, 1999, 2002, and 2003
 
2,033

Nuclear-fueled Steam-Electric Fermi 2
 
Monroe
 
1988
 
1,141

Hydroelectric Pumped Storage Ludington(d)
 
Mason
 
1973
 
1,054

Renewables(e)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Wind(f)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Brookfield Wind Park
 
Huron
 
2014
 
75

Echo Wind Park
 
Huron
 
2014
 
112

Gratiot Wind Park
 
Gratiot
 
2011 and 2012
 
102

Pinnebog Wind Park
 
Huron
 
2016
 
51

Thumb Wind Project
 
Huron and Sanilac
 
2012
 
110

 
 
 
 
 
 
450

Solar
 
 
 
 
 
 
Utility-Owned SolarCurrents
 
Various
 
2010-2016
 
14

Utility Scale Solar
 
Various
 
2017
 
50

 
 
 
 
 
 
64

 
 
 
 
 
 
11,610

_______________________________________
(a)
Represents summer net rating for all units with the exception of renewable facilities. The summer net rating is based on operating experience, the physical condition of units, environmental control limitations, and customer requirements for steam, which would otherwise be used for electric generation. Wind and solar facilities reflect name plate capacity measured in alternating current.
(b)
Represents DTE Electric's 81% interest in Belle River with a total capability of 1,270 MW. See Note 7 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of this Report, "Jointly-Owned Utility Plant."
(c)
The Monroe generating plant provided 43% of DTE Electric’s total 2018 power plant generation.
(d)
Represents DTE Electric’s 49% interest in Ludington with a total capability of 2,151 MW. See Note 7 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of this Report, "Jointly-Owned Utility Plant."
(e)
In addition to the owned renewable facilities described above, DTE Electric has long-term contracts for 481 MW of renewable power generated from wind, solar, and biomass facilities.
(f)
In December 2018, DTE Electric acquired the majority of the Pine River Wind Park with a Net Generation Capacity of 161 MW located in Gratiot County, which is expected to be placed into service in the first quarter of 2019.
See "Capital Investments" in Management's Discussion and Analysis in Item 7 of this Report for information regarding plant retirements and future capital expenditures.

10



DTE Electric owns and operates 696 distribution substations with a capacity of approximately 36,661,000 kilovolt-amperes (kVA) and approximately 442,700 line transformers with a capacity of approximately 32,059,000 kVA.
Circuit miles of electric distribution lines owned and in service as of December 31, 2018 are shown in the following table:
 
 
Circuit Miles
Operating Voltage-Kilovolts (kV)
 
Overhead
 
Underground
4.8 kV to 13.2 kV
 
28,498

 
15,252

24 kV
 
182

 
686

40 kV
 
2,306

 
376

120 kV
 
61

 
8

 
 
31,047

 
16,322

There are numerous interconnections that allow the interchange of electricity between DTE Electric and electricity providers external to the DTE Electric service area. These interconnections are generally owned and operated by ITC Transmission, an unrelated company, and connect to neighboring energy companies.
Regulation
DTE Electric is subject to the regulatory jurisdiction of various agencies, including, but not limited to, the MPSC, the FERC, and the NRC. The MPSC issues orders pertaining to rates, recovery of certain costs, including the costs of generating facilities and regulatory assets, conditions of service, accounting, and operating-related matters. DTE Electric's MPSC-approved rates charged to customers have historically been designed to allow for the recovery of costs, plus an authorized rate of return on investments. The FERC regulates DTE Electric with respect to financing authorization and wholesale electric activities. The NRC has regulatory jurisdiction over all phases of the operation, construction, licensing, and decommissioning of DTE Electric's nuclear plant operations. DTE Electric is subject to the requirements of other regulatory agencies with respect to safety, the environment, and health.
See Notes 8, 9, 12, and 18 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of this Report, "Asset Retirement Obligations," "Regulatory Matters," "Fair Value," and "Commitments and Contingencies."
Energy Assistance Programs
Energy assistance programs, funded by the federal government and the State of Michigan, remain critical to DTE Electric’s ability to control its uncollectible accounts receivable and collections expenses. DTE Electric’s uncollectible accounts receivable expense is directly affected by the level of government-funded assistance that qualifying customers receive. DTE Electric works continuously with the State of Michigan and others to determine whether the share of funding allocated to customers is representative of the number of low-income individuals in the service territory. DTE Electric also partners with federal, state, and local officials to attempt to increase the share of low-income funding allocated to customers.
Strategy and Competition
DTE Electric's electrical generation operations seek to provide the energy needs of customers in a cost effective manner. With potential capacity constraints in the MISO region, there will be increased dependency on DTE Electric's generation to provide reliable service and price stability for customers. This generation will require continuing investments in DTE Electric's primary coal generating units, a natural gas fueled combined cycle generation facility, and renewables.
DTE Electric's distribution operations focus is on distributing energy in a safe, cost effective, and reliable manner to customers. DTE Electric seeks to increase operational efficiencies to increase customer satisfaction at an affordable rate.

11



The electric retail access program in Michigan gives electric customers the option of retail access to alternative electric suppliers, subject to limits. Customers with retail access to alternative electric suppliers represented approximately 10% of retail sales in 2018, 2017, and 2016 and consisted primarily of industrial and commercial customers. MPSC rate orders and 2008 energy legislation enacted by the State of Michigan have placed a 10% cap on the total retail access related migration, mitigating some of the unfavorable effects of electric retail access on DTE Electric's financial performance and full service customer rates. Energy legislation passed in 2016 retained the 10% retail access cap with some revisions. DTE Electric expects that customers with retail access to alternative electric suppliers will represent approximately 10% of retail sales in 2019.
Competition in the regulated electric distribution business is primarily from the on-site generation of industrial customers and from distributed generation applications by industrial and commercial customers. DTE Electric does not expect significant competition for distribution to any group of customers in the near term.
Revenues from year to year will vary due to weather conditions, economic factors, regulatory events, and other risk factors as discussed in the "Risk Factors" in Item 1A. of this Report.
GAS
Description
DTE Energy's Gas segment consists principally of DTE Gas, a natural gas utility engaged in the purchase, storage, transportation, distribution, and sale of natural gas to approximately 1.3 million residential, commercial, and industrial customers throughout Michigan, and the sale of storage and transportation capacity.
DTE Gas' natural gas sales, end-user transportation, and intermediate transportation volumes, revenues, and Net Income, are impacted by weather. Given the seasonal nature of the business, revenues and Net Income are concentrated in the first and fourth quarters of the calendar year. By the end of the first quarter, the heating season is largely over, and DTE Gas typically realizes substantially reduced revenues and earnings in the second quarter, and losses in the third quarter. The impacts of changes in annual average customer usage are minimized by the RDM.
DTE Gas operations are not dependent upon a limited number of customers, and the loss of any one or a few customers would not have a material adverse effect on the results of DTE Gas.
See Note 4 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of the Report, "Revenue."
Natural Gas Supply
DTE Gas' gas distribution system has a planned maximum daily send-out capacity of 2.4 Bcf, with approximately 66% of the volume coming from underground storage for 2018. Peak-use requirements are met through utilization of storage facilities, pipeline transportation capacity, and purchased gas supplies. Because of the geographic diversity of supply and its pipeline transportation and storage capacity, DTE Gas is able to reliably meet supply requirements. DTE Gas believes natural gas supply and pipeline capacity will be sufficiently available to meet market demands in the foreseeable future.
DTE Gas purchases natural gas supplies in the open market by contracting with producers and marketers, and maintains a diversified portfolio of natural gas supply contracts. Supplier, producing region, quantity, and available transportation diversify DTE Gas' natural gas supply base. Natural gas supply is obtained from various sources in different geographic areas (Appalachian, Gulf Coast, Mid-Continent, Canada, and Michigan) under agreements that vary in both pricing and terms. Gas supply pricing is generally tied to the New York Mercantile Exchange and published price indices to approximate current market prices combined with MPSC-approved fixed price supplies with varying terms and volumes through 2021.

12



DTE Gas is directly connected to interstate pipelines, providing access to most of the major natural gas supply producing regions in the Appalachian, Gulf Coast, Mid-Continent, and Canadian regions. The primary long-term transportation supply contracts at December 31, 2018 are listed below.
 
Availability
(MDth/d)
 
Contract
Expiration
Great Lakes Gas Transmission L.P.
30
 
2022
Viking Gas Transmission Company
21
 
2022
Vector Pipeline L.P. (an affiliate)
20
 
2022
ANR Pipeline Company
129
 
2028
Panhandle Eastern Pipeline Company
125
 
2029
NEXUS Pipeline (an affiliate)
75
 
2033
Properties
DTE Gas owns distribution, storage, and transportation properties that are located in the State of Michigan. The distribution system includes approximately 19,800 miles of distribution mains, approximately 1,305,000 service pipelines, and approximately 1,273,000 active meters, and DTE Gas owns approximately 2,000 miles of transmission pipelines that deliver natural gas to the distribution districts and interconnect DTE Gas storage fields with the sources of supply and the market areas.
DTE Gas owns storage properties relating to four underground natural gas storage fields with an aggregate working gas storage capacity of approximately 139 Bcf. These facilities are important in providing reliable and cost-effective service to DTE Gas customers. In addition, DTE Gas sells storage services to third parties.
Most of DTE Gas' distribution and transportation property is located on property owned by others and used by DTE Gas through easements, permits, or licenses. Substantially all of DTE Gas' property is subject to the lien of a mortgage.
DTE Gas leases a portion of its pipeline system to the Vector Pipeline Partnership (an affiliate) through a capital lease arrangement. See Note 17 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of the Report, "Capital and Operating Leases."
Regulation
DTE Gas is subject to the regulatory jurisdiction of the MPSC, which issues orders pertaining to rates, recovery of certain costs, including the costs of regulatory assets, conditions of service, accounting, and operating-related matters. DTE Gas' MPSC-approved rates charged to customers have historically been designed to allow for the recovery of costs, plus an authorized rate of return on investments. DTE Gas operates natural gas storage and transportation facilities in Michigan as intrastate facilities regulated by the MPSC and provides intrastate storage and transportation services pursuant to a MPSC-approved tariff.
DTE Gas also provides interstate storage and transportation services in accordance with an Operating Statement on file with the FERC. The FERC's jurisdiction is limited and extends to the rates, non-discriminatory requirements, and the terms and conditions applicable to storage and transportation provided by DTE Gas in interstate markets. FERC granted DTE Gas authority to provide storage and related services in interstate commerce at market-based rates. DTE Gas provides transportation services in interstate commerce at cost-based rates approved by the MPSC and filed with the FERC.
DTE Gas is subject to the requirements of other regulatory agencies with respect to safety, the environment, and health.
See Notes 9 and 18 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of this Report, "Regulatory Matters" and "Commitments and Contingencies."
Energy Assistance Program
Energy assistance programs, funded by the federal government and the State of Michigan, remain critical to DTE Gas' ability to control its uncollectible accounts receivable and collections expenses. DTE Gas' uncollectible accounts receivable expense is directly affected by the level of government-funded assistance its qualifying customers receive. DTE Gas works continuously with the State of Michigan and others to determine whether the share of funding allocated to customers is representative of the number of low-income individuals in the service territory. DTE Gas also partners with federal, state, and local officials to attempt to increase the share of low-income funding allocated to DTE Gas customers.

13



Strategy and Competition
DTE Gas' strategy is to ensure the safe, reliable, and cost effective delivery of natural gas service within its franchised markets in Michigan. In addition, DTE Gas is promoting the extension of its distribution system to underserved markets and the increased use of natural gas furnaces, water heaters, and appliances within its current customer base. DTE Gas continues to focus on the reduction of operating costs and the delivery of energy waste reduction products and services to its customers, making natural gas service the preferred fuel and even more affordable for its customers.
Competition in the gas business primarily involves other natural gas transportation providers, as well as providers of alternative fuels and energy sources. The primary focus of competition for end-user transportation is cost and reliability. Some large commercial and industrial customers have the ability to switch to alternative fuel sources such as coal, electricity, oil, and steam. If these customers were to choose an alternative fuel source, they would not have a need for DTE Gas' end-user transportation service. DTE Gas competes against alternative fuel sources by providing competitive pricing and reliable service, supported by its storage capacity.
Having an extensive transportation pipeline system has enabled marketing of DTE Gas' storage and transportation services to gas producers, marketers, distribution companies, end-user customers, and other pipeline companies. The business operates in a central geographic location with connections to major Midwestern interstate pipelines that extend throughout the Midwest, eastern United States, and eastern Canada.
DTE Gas' storage capacity is used to store natural gas for delivery to its customers, and is also sold to third parties under a variety of arrangements. Prices for storage arrangements for shorter periods are generally higher, but more volatile, than for longer periods. Prices are influenced primarily by market conditions, weather, and natural gas pricing.
GAS STORAGE AND PIPELINES
Description
Gas Storage and Pipelines owns natural gas storage fields, lateral and gathering pipeline systems, compression and surface facilities, and has ownership interests in interstate pipelines serving the Midwest, Ontario, and Northeast markets. The pipeline and storage assets are primarily supported by long-term, fixed-price revenue contracts.
Properties
Gas Storage and Pipelines holds the following properties:
Property Classification
 
% Owned
 
Description
 
Location
Pipelines
 
 
 
 
 
 
Appalachia Gathering System
 
100%
 
116-mile pipeline delivering Marcellus Shale gas to Texas Eastern Pipeline and Stonewall Gas Gathering system
 
PA and WV
Birdsboro Pipeline
 
100%
 
14-mile pipeline delivering gas supply to the Birdsboro Power Plant
 
PA
Bluestone Pipeline
 
100%
 
64-mile pipeline delivering Marcellus Shale gas to Millennium Pipeline and Tennessee Pipeline
 
PA and NY
Michigan gathering systems
 
100%
 
590-mile pipeline system in northern Michigan
 
MI
Millennium Pipeline
 
26%
 
269-mile pipeline serving markets in the Northeast
 
NY
NEXUS Pipeline
 
50%
 
256-mile pipeline to transport Utica and Marcellus shale gas to Ohio, Michigan, and Ontario market centers
 
OH and MI
Stonewall Gas Gathering
 
55%
 
68-mile pipeline connecting Appalachia Gathering System to Columbia Pipeline
 
WV
Susquehanna gathering system
 
100%
 
203-mile pipeline delivering Southwestern Energy's Marcellus Shale gas production to Bluestone Pipeline
 
PA
Tioga Gas Gathering
 
100%
 
3-mile pipeline delivering production gas to Dominion Transmission interconnect
 
PA
Vector Pipeline
 
40%
 
348-mile pipeline connecting Chicago, Michigan, and Ontario market centers
 
IL, IN, MI, and Ontario
Storage
 
 
 
 
 
 
Washington 10
 
100%
 
75 Bcf of storage capacity
 
MI
Washington 28
 
50%
 
16 Bcf of storage capacity
 
MI

14



The assets of these businesses are well integrated with other DTE Energy operations. Pursuant to an operating agreement, DTE Gas provides physical operations, maintenance, and technical support for the Washington 10 and 28 storage facilities and for the Michigan gathering systems.
Regulation
Gas Storage and Pipelines operates natural gas storage facilities in Michigan as intrastate facilities regulated by the MPSC, and provides intrastate storage and related services pursuant to an MPSC-approved tariff. Gas Storage and Pipelines also provides interstate services in accordance with an Operating Statement on file with the FERC. Vector, Millennium, Birdsboro, and NEXUS Pipelines provide interstate transportation services in accordance with their FERC-approved tariffs. In addition, NEXUS and Vector are subject to applicable laws, rules, and regulations in Canada. Gas Storage and Pipelines' gathering and pipeline assets are subject to the rules and regulations of various state utility commissions.
Strategy and Competition
Gas Storage and Pipelines expects to continue its steady growth plan by expanding existing assets, acquiring and/or developing new assets that are typically supported with long-term customer commitments. The focus will be on opportunities in the Midwest to Northeast region to supply natural gas to meet growing demand and displace less attractive supply from certain regions in North America. Much of the growth in demand for natural gas is expected to occur in the eastern Canada and the northeast U.S. regions. Gas Storage and Pipelines believes that the Vector, Millennium, and NEXUS Pipelines are well positioned to provide access routes and low-cost expansion options to these markets due to growth in production from the Marcellus/Utica Shales in Pennsylvania and West Virginia. Gas Storage and Pipelines has agreements with key producers that support its Bluestone Pipeline, Susquehanna gathering, Tioga gathering, AGS, and SGG businesses. Gas Storage and Pipelines is evaluating new pipeline and storage investment opportunities that could include additional pipeline and gathering expansions, laterals, compression, and other Marcellus/Utica shale midstream development or partnering opportunities.
Gas Storage and Pipelines has competition from other pipelines and storage providers. Operations are dependent upon a limited number of customers, and the loss of any one or a few customers could have a material adverse effect on the results of Gas Storage and Pipelines.
POWER AND INDUSTRIAL PROJECTS
Description
Power and Industrial Projects is comprised primarily of projects that deliver energy and utility-type products and services to industrial, commercial, and institutional customers, produce reduced emissions fuel, and sell electricity and gas from renewable energy projects. This business segment provides services using project assets usually located on or near the customers' premises in the steel, automotive, pulp and paper, airport, chemical, and other industries as follows:
Industrial Energy Services
Steel and Petroleum Coke — Power and Industrial Projects produces metallurgical coke from a coke battery with a capacity of 1.0 million tons per year and has an investment in a second coke battery with a capacity of 1.2 million tons per year. Power and Industrial Projects also provides pulverized coal and petroleum coke to the steel, pulp and paper, and other industries.
On-Site Energy — Power and Industrial Projects provides power generation, steam production, chilled water production, wastewater treatment, and compressed air supply to industrial customers. Power and Industrial Projects also provides utility-type services using project assets usually located on or near the customers' premises in the automotive, airport, chemical, and other industries.

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Renewable Energy
Wholesale Power and Renewables — Power and Industrial Projects holds ownership interests in, and operates, five renewable generating plants with a capacity of 217 MWs. The electric output is sold under long-term power purchase agreements.
Renewable Gas Recovery — Power and Industrial Projects has ownership interests in, and operates, twenty-three gas recovery sites in nine different states. The sites recover methane from landfills and agricultural businesses and convert the gas to generate electricity, replace fossil fuels in industrial and manufacturing operations, or refine to pipeline-quality gas, which can then be used as vehicle fuel.
Reduced Emissions Fuel
Reduced Emissions Fuel — Power and Industrial Projects has constructed and placed in service REF facilities at ten sites including facilities located at seven third-party owned coal-fired power plants. DTE Energy has sold membership interests in five of the facilities and entered into lease arrangements in three of the facilities. In addition, DTE Energy has an agreement to operate an REF facility owned by an outside party located at a third-party owned coal-fired power plant. The facilities blend a proprietary additive with coal used in coal-fired power plants, resulting in reduced emissions of nitrogen oxide and mercury. Qualifying facilities are eligible to generate tax credits for ten years upon achieving certain criteria. The value of a tax credit is adjusted annually by an inflation factor published by the IRS. The value of the tax credit is reduced if the reference price of coal exceeds certain thresholds. The economic benefit of the REF facilities is dependent upon the generation of production tax credits.
Properties and Other
The following are significant properties operated by Power and Industrial Projects:
Business Areas
 
Location
 
Service Type
Industrial Energy Services
 
 
 
 
Steel and Petroleum Coke
 
 
 
 
Pulverized Coal Operations
 
MI
 
Pulverized Coal
Coke Production
 
MI
 
Metallurgical Coke Supply
Other Investment in Coke Production and Petroleum Coke
 
IN and MS
 
Metallurgical Coke Supply and Pulverized Petroleum Coke
On-Site Energy
 
 
 
 
Automotive
 
IN, MI, NY, and OH
 
Electric Distribution, Chilled Water, Waste Water, Steam, Cooling Tower Water, Reverse Osmosis Water, Compressed Air, Mist, and Dust Collectors
Airports
 
MI and PA
 
Electricity and Hot and Chilled Water
Chemical Manufacturing
 
KY and OH
 
Electricity, Steam, Natural Gas, Compressed Air, and Wastewater
Consumer Manufacturing
 
OH
 
Electricity, Steam, Wastewater, and Sewer
Business Park
 
PA
 
Electricity
Hospital and University
 
CA and IL
 
Electricity, Steam, and Chilled Water
Renewable Energy
 
 
 
 
Pulp and Paper
 
AL
 
Electric Generation and Steam
Renewables
 
CA and MN
 
Electric Generation
Renewable Gas Recovery
 
AZ, CA, MI, NC, NY, OH, TX, UT, and WI
 
Electric Generation and Renewable Natural Gas
Reduced Emissions Fuel
 
MI, OH, IL, PA, TX, and WI
 
REF Supply

16



 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
(In millions)
Production Tax Credits Generated (Allocated to DTE Energy)
 
 
 
 
 
REF
$
178

 
$
144

 
$
103

Renewables
7

 
6

 
8

Renewable Gas Recovery
3

 
3

 
3

 
$
188

 
$
153

 
$
114

Regulation
Certain electric generating facilities within Power and Industrial Projects have market-based rate authority from the FERC to sell power. The facilities are subject to FERC reporting requirements and market behavior rules. Certain projects of Power and Industrial Projects are also subject to the applicable laws, rules, and regulations related to the EPA, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, DOE, and various state utility commissions.
Strategy and Competition
Power and Industrial Projects will continue leveraging its energy-related operating experience and project management capability to develop and grow its steel, on-site energy, and renewable energy businesses, and optimize the REF businesses. Power and Industrial Projects will also continue to pursue opportunities to provide asset management and operations services to third parties. There are limited competitors for Power and Industrial Projects' existing disparate businesses who provide similar products and services. Power and Industrial Projects' operations are dependent upon a limited number of customers, and the loss of any one or a few customers could have a material adverse effect on the results of Power and Industrial Projects.
Power and Industrial Projects anticipates building around its core strengths in the markets where it operates. In determining the markets in which to compete, Power and Industrial Projects examines closely the regulatory and competitive environment, new and pending legislation, the number of competitors, and its ability to achieve sustainable margins. Power and Industrial Projects plans to maximize the effectiveness of its related businesses as it expands.
Power and Industrial Projects intends to focus on the following areas for growth:
Providing operating services to owners of on-site industrial power plants;
Acquiring and developing renewable gas recovery facilities, renewable energy projects, and other energy projects.
ENERGY TRADING
Description
Energy Trading focuses on physical and financial power and gas marketing and trading, structured transactions, enhancement of returns from its asset portfolio and optimization of contracted natural gas pipeline transportation, and storage positions. Energy Trading also provides natural gas, power, and related services which may include the management of associated storage and transportation contracts on the customers’ behalf and the supply or purchase of renewable energy credits to various customers. Energy Trading's customer base is predominantly utilities, local distribution companies, pipelines, producers and generators, and other marketing and trading companies. Energy Trading enters into derivative financial instruments as part of its marketing and hedging activities. These financial instruments are generally accounted for under the MTM method, which results in the recognition in earnings of unrealized gains and losses from changes in the fair value of the derivatives. Energy Trading utilizes forwards, futures, swaps, and option contracts to mitigate risk associated with marketing and trading activity, as well as for proprietary trading within defined risk guidelines. Energy Trading also provides commodity risk management services to the other businesses within DTE Energy.
Significant portions of the Energy Trading portfolio are economically hedged. Most financial instruments and physical power and natural gas contracts are deemed derivatives; whereas, natural gas inventory, contracts for pipeline transportation, renewable energy credits, and storage assets are not derivatives. As a result, this segment will experience earnings volatility as derivatives are marked-to-market without revaluing the underlying non-derivative contracts and assets. The business’ strategy is to economically manage the price risk of these underlying non-derivative contracts and assets with futures, forwards, swaps, and options. This results in gains and losses that are recognized in different interim and annual accounting periods.

17



Regulation
Energy Trading has market-based rate authority from the FERC to sell power and blanket authority from the FERC to sell natural gas at market prices. Energy Trading is subject to FERC reporting requirements and market behavior rules. Energy Trading is also subject to the applicable laws, rules, and regulations related to the CFTC, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, and DOE. In addition, Energy Trading is subject to applicable laws, rules, and regulations in Canada.
Strategy and Competition
DTE Energy's strategy for the Energy Trading business is to deliver value-added services to DTE Energy customers. DTE Energy seeks to manage this business in a manner complementary to the growth of DTE Energy's other business segments. Energy Trading focuses on physical marketing and the optimization of its portfolio of energy assets. The segment competes with electric and gas marketers, financial institutions, traders, utilities, and other energy providers. The Energy Trading business is dependent upon the availability of capital and an investment grade credit rating. DTE Energy believes it has ample available capital capacity to support Energy Trading activities. DTE Energy monitors its use of capital closely to ensure that its commitments do not exceed capacity. A material credit restriction would negatively impact Energy Trading's financial performance. Competitors with greater access to capital, or at a lower cost, may have a competitive advantage. DTE Energy has risk management and credit processes to monitor and mitigate risk.
CORPORATE AND OTHER
Description
Corporate and Other includes various holding company activities, holds certain non-utility debt, and holds energy-related investments.
ENVIRONMENTAL MATTERS
The Registrants are subject to extensive environmental regulation and expect to continue recovering environmental costs related to utility operations through rates charged to customers. The following table summarizes DTE Energy's, including DTE Electric's, estimated significant future environmental expenditures based upon current regulations. Pending or future reconsiderations of current regulations may impact the estimated expenditures summarized in the table below. The amounts reported in the table do not include any expenditures related to the EPA Clean Power Plan that has been stayed as discussed below. Actual costs to comply could vary substantially. Additional costs may result as the effects of various substances on the environment are studied and governmental regulations are developed and implemented.
 
DTE Electric
 
DTE Gas
 
Non-utility
 
Total
 
(In millions)
Water
$
60

 
$

 
$

 
$
60

Contaminated and other sites
10

 
25

 

 
35

Coal combustion residuals and effluent limitations guidelines
515

 

 

 
515

Estimated total future expenditures through 2025
$
585

 
$
25

 
$

 
$
610

Estimated 2019 expenditures
$
30

 
$
15

 
$

 
$
45

Estimated 2020 expenditures
$
60

 
$
5

 
$

 
$
65

Water — The EPA finalized regulations on cooling water intake in August 2014. DTE Electric is conducting studies to determine the best technology for reducing the environmental impacts of the cooling water intake structures at each of its facilities. DTE Electric may be required to install technologies to reduce the impacts of the cooling water intakes.
Contaminated and Other Sites — Prior to the construction of major interstate natural gas pipelines, gas for heating and other uses was manufactured locally from processes involving coal, coke, or oil. The facilities, which produced gas, have been designated as MGP sites. DTE Gas owns, or previously owned, 14 such former MGP sites. DTE Electric owns, or previously owned, three former MGP sites. DTE Energy anticipates the cost amortization methodology approved by the MPSC for DTE Gas, which allows DTE Gas to amortize the MGP costs over a ten-year period beginning with the year subsequent to the year the MGP costs were incurred, will prevent environmental costs from having a material adverse effect on DTE Energy's operations. DTE Electric believes the likelihood of a material change to the accrued amount is remote based on current knowledge of the conditions at each site.

18



The Registrants are also in the process of cleaning up other sites where contamination is present as a result of historical and ongoing utility operations. These other sites include an engineered ash storage facility, electric distribution substations, gas pipelines, electric generating power plants, and underground and aboveground storage tank locations. Cleanup activities associated with these sites will be conducted over the next several years. Any significant change in assumptions, such as remediation techniques, nature and extent of contamination, and regulatory requirements, could impact the estimate of remedial action costs for these sites and affect the Registrants' financial position and cash flows and the rates charged to their customers.
Coal Combustion Residuals and Effluent Limitations Guidelines — In April 2015, the EPA published a final rule for the disposal of coal combustion residuals, commonly known as coal ash. The rule became effective in October 2015. The rule is based on the continued listing of coal ash as a non-hazardous waste and relies on various self-implementation design and performance standards. DTE Electric owns and operates three permitted engineered coal ash storage facilities to dispose of coal ash from coal-fired power plants and operates a number of smaller impoundments at its power plants. At certain facilities, the rule requires the installation of monitoring wells, compliance with groundwater standards, and the closure of basins at the end of the useful life of the associated power plant. At other facilities, the rule requires ash laden waters be moved from earthen basins to steel and concrete tanks. In 2018, DTE Electric updated its estimated expenditures to remediate accordingly. On October 12, 2018, a D.C. District Court decision became effective that may affect the timing of closure of coal ash impoundments that are not lined with an engineered liner system. In 2019, the EPA is expected to affirmatively undertake rulemaking to implement the D.C. District Court's decision that will determine any changes to DTE Electric's plans in the operations and closure of coal ash impoundments.
In November 2015, the EPA finalized effluent limitations guidelines for the steam electric power generating industry which requires additional controls to be installed between 2018 and 2023. The initial costs to comply with this rule are under development and estimates are included in the Coal Combustion Residual and Effluent Limitations Guidelines amount in the above table.
On April 12, 2017, the EPA granted a petition for reconsideration of the ELG Rule. The EPA also signed an administrative stay of the ELG Rule’s compliance deadlines for fly ash transport water, bottom ash transport water, and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater, among others. On June 6, 2017, the EPA published in the Federal Register a proposed rule to postpone certain applicable deadlines within the ELG rule. The final rule was published on September 18, 2017. The final rule nullified the administrative stay but also extended the earliest compliance deadlines for the FGD wastewater and bottom ash transport water until November 1, 2020 in order for the EPA to propose and finalize a new ruling. The ELG compliance requirements and final deadlines for bottom ash transport water and FGD wastewater, and total ELG related compliance costs will not be known until the EPA completes its reconsideration of the ELG Rule.
Air — DTE Electric is subject to the EPA ozone and fine particulate transport, and acid rain regulations that limit power plant emissions of SO2 and NOX. The EPA and the State of Michigan have also issued emission reduction regulations relating to ozone, fine particulate, regional haze, mercury, and other air pollution. These rules have led to emission controls on fossil-fueled power plants to reduce SO2, NOX, mercury, and other emissions. These rulemakings could require additional controls for SO2, NOX, and other hazardous air pollutants over the next few years. DTE Electric does not anticipate additional capital expenditures to comply with air pollution requirements through 2025, pending the results of future rulemakings.
The EPA has implemented regulatory actions under the Clean Air Act to address emissions of GHGs from the utility sector and other sectors of the economy. Among these actions, the EPA has finalized performance standards for emissions of carbon dioxide from new and existing fossil-fuel EGUs. In February 2016, the U.S. Supreme Court granted petitioners' requests for a stay of the carbon rules for existing EGUs (also known as the EPA Clean Power Plan) pending final review by the courts. The Clean Power Plan has no legal effect while the stay is in place. In October 2017, the EPA issued a proposal to repeal the Clean Power Plan, and in August 2018 the EPA issued its proposed Affordable Clean Energy rule to replace the Clean Power Plan. In addition, in December 2018, the EPA issued proposed revisions to the carbon dioxide standards for new, modified or reconstructed fossil-fuel fired EGUs. The carbon dioxide standard for new sources are not expected to have a material impact on DTE Electric, since DTE Electric has no plans to build new coal-fired generation and any potential new gas generation will be able to comply with the standards. These proposed rules do not impact DTE Energy's goal to reduce carbon emissions 30% by the early 2020s, 45% by 2030, 75% by 2040, and more than 80% by 2050.

19



Pending or future legislation or other regulatory actions could have a material impact on DTE Electric's operations and financial position and the rates charged to its customers. Impacts include expenditures for environmental equipment beyond what is currently planned, financing costs related to additional capital expenditures, the purchase of emission credits from market sources, higher costs of purchased power, and the retirement of facilities where control equipment is not economical. DTE Electric would seek to recover these incremental costs through increased rates charged to its utility customers, as authorized by the MPSC.
See Management’s Discussion and Analysis in Item 7 of this Report and Notes 8, 9, and 18 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of this Report, "Asset Retirement Obligations," "Regulatory Matters," and "Commitments and Contingencies."
EMPLOYEES
DTE Energy and its subsidiaries had approximately 10,600 employees as of December 31, 2018, of which approximately 5,200 were represented by unions. DTE Electric had approximately 4,900 employees as of December 31, 2018, of which approximately 2,800 were represented by unions. There are several bargaining units for DTE Energy subsidiaries' represented employees. The majority of represented employees for both DTE Energy and DTE Electric are under contracts that expire in 2020 and 2021.

Item 1A. Risk Factors
There are various risks associated with the operations of the Registrants' utility businesses and DTE Energy's non-utility businesses. To provide a framework to understand the operating environment of the Registrants, below is a brief explanation of the more significant risks associated with their businesses. Although the Registrants have tried to identify and discuss key risk factors, others could emerge in the future. Each of the following risks could affect performance.
The Registrants are subject to rate regulation. Electric and gas rates for the utilities are set by the MPSC and the FERC and cannot be changed without regulatory authorization. The Registrants may be negatively impacted by new regulations or interpretations by the MPSC, the FERC, or other regulatory bodies. The Registrants' ability to recover costs may be impacted by the time lag between the incurrence of costs and the recovery of the costs in customers' rates. Regulators also may decide to disallow recovery of certain costs in customers' rates if they determine that those costs do not meet the standards for recovery under current governing laws and regulations. Regulators may also disagree with the Registrants' rate calculations under the various mechanisms that are intended to mitigate the risk to their utilities related to certain aspects of the business. If the Registrants cannot agree with regulators on an appropriate reconciliation of those mechanisms, it may impact the Registrants' ability to recover certain costs through customer rates. Regulators may also decide to eliminate these mechanisms in future rate cases, which may make it more difficult for the Registrants to recover their costs in the rates charged to customers. The Registrants cannot predict what rates the MPSC will authorize in future rate cases. New legislation, regulations, or interpretations could change how the business operates, impact the Registrants' ability to recover costs through rates or the timing of such recovery, or require the Registrants to incur additional expenses.
Changes to Michigan's electric retail access program could negatively impact the Registrants' financial performance. The State of Michigan currently experiences a hybrid market, where the MPSC continues to regulate electric rates for DTE Electric customers, while alternative electric suppliers charge market-based rates. MPSC rate orders, and energy legislation enacted by the State of Michigan, have placed a 10% cap on the total potential retail access migration. However, even with the legislated 10% cap on participation, there continues to be legislative and financial risk associated with the electric retail access program. Electric retail access migration is sensitive to market price and full service electric price changes. The Registrants are required under current regulation to provide full service to retail access customers that choose to return, potentially resulting in the need for additional generating capacity.

20



The Registrants' electric distribution system and DTE Energy's gas distribution system are subject to risks from their operation, which could reduce revenues, increase expenses, and have a material adverse effect on their business, financial position, and results of operations. The Registrants' electric distribution and DTE Energy’s gas distribution systems are subject to many operational risks. These operational systems and infrastructure have been in service for many years. Equipment, even when maintained in accordance with good utility practices, is subject to operational failure, including events that are beyond the Registrants' control, and could require significant operation and maintenance expense or capital expenditures to operate efficiently. Because the Registrants’ distribution systems are interconnected with those of third parties, the operation of the Registrants’ systems could be adversely affected by unexpected or uncontrollable events occurring on the systems of such third parties.
DTE Energy's non-utility businesses may not perform to its expectations. DTE Energy relies on non-utility operations for an increasing portion of earnings. If DTE Energy's current and contemplated non-utility investments do not perform at expected levels, DTE Energy could experience diminished earnings and a corresponding decline in shareholder value.
DTE Energy relies on cash flows from subsidiaries. DTE Energy is a holding company. Cash flows from the utility and non-utility subsidiaries are required to pay interest expenses and dividends on DTE Energy debt and securities. Should a major subsidiary not be able to pay dividends or transfer cash flows to DTE Energy, its ability to pay interest and dividends would be restricted.
The Registrants' businesses have safety risks. The Registrants' electric distribution system, power plants, renewable energy equipment, and other facilities, and DTE Energy's gas distribution system, gas infrastructure, and other facilities, could be involved in incidents that result in injury, death, or property loss to employees, customers, third parties, or the public. Although the Registrants have insurance coverage for many potential incidents, depending upon the nature and severity of any incident, they could experience financial loss, damage to their reputation, and negative consequences from regulatory agencies or other public authorities.
Environmental laws and liability may be costly. The Registrants are subject to, and affected by, numerous environmental regulations. These regulations govern air emissions, water quality, wastewater discharge, and disposal of solid and hazardous waste. Compliance with these regulations can significantly increase capital spending, operating expenses, and plant down times, and can negatively affect the affordability of the rates charged to customers.
Uncertainty around future environmental regulations creates difficulty planning long-term capital projects in the Registrants' generation fleet and, for DTE Energy's gas distribution businesses. These laws and regulations require the Registrants to seek a variety of environmental licenses, permits, inspections, and other regulatory approvals. The Registrants could be required to install expensive pollution control measures or limit or cease activities, including the retirement of certain generating plants, based on these regulations. Additionally, the Registrants may become a responsible party for environmental cleanup at sites identified by a regulatory body. The Registrants cannot predict with certainty the amount and timing of future expenditures related to environmental matters because of the difficulty of estimating cleanup costs. There is also uncertainty in quantifying liabilities under environmental laws that impose joint and several liability on potentially responsible parties.
The Registrants may also incur liabilities as a result of potential future requirements to address climate change issues. Proposals for voluntary initiatives and mandatory controls are being discussed both in the United States and worldwide to reduce GHGs such as carbon dioxide, a by-product of burning fossil fuels. If increased regulations of GHG emissions are implemented, the operations of DTE Electric's fossil-fueled generation assets may be significantly impacted. Since there can be no assurances that environmental costs may be recovered through the regulatory process, the Registrants' financial performance may be negatively impacted as a result of environmental matters.
For DTE Energy, future environmental regulation of natural gas extraction techniques, including hydraulic fracturing, being discussed both at the United States federal level and by some states may affect the profitability of natural gas extraction businesses which could affect demand for, and profitability of, DTE Energy's gas transportation businesses.
Threats of cyber incidents, physical security, and terrorism could affect the Registrants' business. Issues may threaten the Registrants such as cyber incidents, physical security, or terrorism that may disrupt the Registrants' operations, and could harm the Registrants' operating results.

21



Information security risks have increased in recent years as a result of the proliferation of new technologies and the increased sophistication and frequency of cyberattacks, and data security breaches. The Registrants' industry requires the continued operation of sophisticated information and control technology systems and network infrastructure. Despite implementation of security measures, all of the Registrants' technology systems are vulnerable to disability or failures due to cyber incidents, physical security threats, acts of war or terrorism, and other causes, as well as loss of operational control of the Registrants' electric generation and distribution assets and, DTE Energy's gas distribution assets. If the Registrants' information technology systems were to fail and they were unable to recover in a timely way, the Registrants may be unable to fulfill critical business functions, which could have a material adverse effect on the Registrants' business, operating results, and financial condition.
Suppliers, vendors, contractors, and information technology providers have access to systems that support the Registrants’ operations and maintain customer and employee data.  A breach of these third-party systems could adversely affect the business as if it was a breach of our own system.  Also, because the Registrants’ generation and distribution systems are part of an interconnected system, a disruption caused by a cyber incident at another utility, electric generator, system operator, or commodity supplier could also adversely affect the Registrants’ businesses, operating results, and financial condition.
In addition, the Registrants' generation plants and electrical distribution facilities, and DTE Energy's gas pipeline and storage facilities, in particular, may be targets of physical security threats or terrorist activities that could disrupt the Registrants' ability to produce or distribute some portion of their products. The Registrants have increased security as a result of past events and may be required by regulators or by the future threat environment to make investments in security that the Registrants cannot currently predict.
Failure to maintain the security of personally identifiable information could adversely affect the Registrants. In connection with the Registrants' businesses, they collect and retain personally identifiable information of their customers, shareholders, and employees. Customers, shareholders, and employees expect that the Registrants will adequately protect their personal information. The regulatory environment surrounding information security and privacy is increasingly demanding. A significant theft, loss, or fraudulent use of customer, shareholder, employee, or Registrant data by cybercrime or otherwise, could adversely impact the Registrants' reputation, and could result in significant costs, fines, and litigation.
Construction and capital improvements to the Registrants' power facilities, DTE Energy's distribution systems and its Gas Storage and Pipelines business subject them to risk. The Registrants are managing ongoing, and planning future, significant construction and capital improvement projects at the Registrants' multiple power generation and distribution facilities, at DTE Energy's gas distribution system, and at DTE Energy's Gas Storage and Pipelines business. Many factors that could cause delays or increased prices for these complex projects are beyond the Registrants' control, including the cost of materials and labor, subcontractor performance, timing and issuance of necessary permits or approvals (including required certificates from regulatory agencies), construction disputes, impediments to acquiring rights-of-way or land rights on a timely basis and on acceptable terms, cost overruns, and weather conditions. Failure to complete these projects on schedule and on budget for any reason could adversely affect the Registrants' financial performance, operations, or expected investment returns at the affected facilities, businesses and development projects.
Operation of a nuclear facility subjects the Registrants to risk. Ownership of an operating nuclear generating plant subjects the Registrants to significant additional risks. These risks include, among others, plant security, environmental regulation and remediation, changes in federal nuclear regulation, increased capital expenditures to meet industry requirements, and operational factors that can significantly impact the performance and cost of operating a nuclear facility compared to other generation options. Insurance maintained by the Registrants for various nuclear-related risks may not be sufficient to cover the Registrants' costs in the event of an accident or business interruption at the nuclear generating plant, which may affect the Registrants' financial performance. In addition, the Registrants' nuclear decommissioning trust fund, to finance the decommissioning of the nuclear generating plant, may not be sufficient to fund the cost of decommissioning. A decline in market value of assets held in decommissioning trust funds due to poor investment performance or other factors may increase the funding requirements for these obligations. Any increase in funding requirements may have a material impact on the Registrants’ liquidity, financial position, or results of operations.

22



The supply and/or price of energy commodities and/or related services may impact the Registrants' financial results. The Registrants are dependent on coal for much of their electrical generating capacity as well as uranium for their nuclear operations. DTE Energy's access to natural gas supplies is critical to ensure reliability of service for utility gas customers. DTE Energy's non-utility businesses are also dependent upon supplies and prices of energy commodities and services. Price fluctuations, fuel supply disruptions, and changes in transportation costs, could have a negative impact on the amounts DTE Electric charges utility customers for electricity and DTE Gas charges utility customers for gas, and on the profitability of DTE Energy's non-utility businesses. The Registrants' hedging strategies and regulatory recovery mechanisms may be insufficient to mitigate the negative fluctuations in commodity supply prices in their utility and, for DTE Energy, non-utility businesses, and the Registrants' financial performance may therefore be negatively impacted by price fluctuations. The price of energy also impacts the market for DTE Energy's non-utility businesses that compete with utilities and alternative electric suppliers.
The supply and/or price of other industrial raw and finished inputs and/or related services may impact the Registrants' financial results. The Registrants are dependent on supplies of certain commodities, such as copper and limestone, among others, and industrial materials, and services in order to maintain day-to-day operations and maintenance of their facilities. Price fluctuations, or supply interruptions for these commodities and other items, could have a negative impact on the amounts charged to customers for the Registrants' utility products and, for DTE Energy, on the profitability of the non-utility businesses.
Emerging technologies may have a material adverse effect on the Registrants. Advances in technology that produce power or reduce power consumption include cost-effective renewable energy technologies, distributed generation, energy waste reduction technologies, and energy storage devices. Such developments may impact the price of energy, may affect energy deliveries as customer-owned generation becomes more cost-effective, may require further improvements to our distribution systems to address changing load demands, and could make portions of our electric system power supply and/or distribution facilities obsolete prior to the end of their useful lives. Such technologies could also result in further declines in commodity prices or demand for delivered energy. Each of these factors could materially affect the Registrants’ results of operations, cash flows, or financial position.
Adverse changes in the Registrants' credit ratings may negatively affect them. Regional and national economic conditions, increased scrutiny of the energy industry and regulatory changes, as well as changes in the Registrants' economic performance, could result in credit agencies reexamining their credit ratings. While credit ratings reflect the opinions of the credit agencies issuing such ratings and may not necessarily reflect actual performance, a downgrade in the Registrants' credit ratings below investment grade could restrict or discontinue their ability to access capital markets and could result in an increase in their borrowing costs, a reduced level of capital expenditures, and could impact future earnings and cash flows. In addition, a reduction in the Registrants' credit ratings may require them to post collateral related to various physical or financially settled contracts for the purchase of energy-related commodities, products, and services, which could impact their liquidity.
Poor investment performance of pension and other postretirement benefit plan assets and other factors impacting benefit plan costs could unfavorably impact the Registrants' liquidity and results of operations. The Registrants' costs of providing non-contributory defined benefit pension plans and other postretirement benefit plans are dependent upon a number of factors, such as the rates of return on plan assets, the level of interest rates used to measure the required minimum funding levels of the plans, future government regulation, and the Registrants' required or voluntary contributions made to the plans. The performance of the debt and equity markets affects the value of assets that are held in trust to satisfy future obligations under the Registrants' plans. The Registrants have significant benefit obligations and hold significant assets in trust to satisfy these obligations. These assets are subject to market fluctuations and will yield uncertain returns, which may fall below the Registrants' projected return rates. A decline in the market value of the pension and other postretirement benefit plan assets will increase the funding requirements under the pension and other postretirement benefit plans if the actual asset returns do not recover these declines in the foreseeable future. Additionally, the pension and other postretirement benefit plan liabilities are sensitive to changes in interest rates. If interest rates decrease, the liabilities increase, resulting in increasing benefit expense and funding requirements. Also, if future increases in pension and other postretirement benefit costs as a result of reduced plan assets are not recoverable from the Registrants' utility customers, the results of operations and financial position of the Registrants could be negatively affected. Without sustained growth in the plan investments over time to increase the value of plan assets, the Registrants could be required to fund these plans with significant amounts of cash. Such cash funding obligations could have a material impact on the Registrants' cash flows, financial position, or results of operations.

23



The Registrants' ability to access capital markets is important. The Registrants' ability to access capital markets is important to operate their businesses and to fund capital investments. Turmoil in credit markets may constrain the Registrants' ability, as well as the ability of their subsidiaries, to issue new debt, including commercial paper, and refinance existing debt at reasonable interest rates. In addition, the level of borrowing by other energy companies, and the market as a whole, could limit the Registrants' access to capital markets. The Registrants' long-term revolving credit facilities do not expire until 2022, but the Registrants regularly access capital markets to refinance existing debt or fund new projects at the Registrants' utilities and DTE Energy's non-utility businesses, and the Registrants cannot predict the pricing or demand for those future transactions.
DTE Energy's participation in energy trading markets subjects it to risk. Events in the energy trading industry have increased the level of scrutiny on the energy trading business and the energy industry as a whole. In certain situations, DTE Energy may be required to post collateral to support trading operations, which could be substantial. If access to liquidity to support trading activities is curtailed, DTE Energy could experience decreased earnings potential and cash flows. Energy trading activities take place in volatile markets and expose DTE Energy to risks related to commodity price movements, deviations in weather, and other related risks. DTE Energy's trading business routinely has speculative trading positions in the market, within strict policy guidelines DTE Energy sets, resulting from the management of DTE Energy's business portfolio. To the extent speculative trading positions exist, fluctuating commodity prices can improve or diminish DTE Energy's financial results and financial position. DTE Energy manages its exposure by establishing and enforcing strict risk limits and risk management procedures. During periods of extreme volatility, these risk limits and risk management procedures may not work as planned and cannot eliminate all risks associated with these activities.
Weather significantly affects operations. At both utilities, deviations from normal hot and cold weather conditions affect the Registrants' earnings and cash flows. Mild temperatures can result in decreased utilization of the Registrants' assets, lowering income and cash flows. At DTE Electric, ice storms, tornadoes, or high winds can damage the electric distribution system infrastructure and power generation facilities and require it to perform emergency repairs and incur material unplanned expenses. The expenses of storm restoration efforts may not be fully recoverable through the regulatory process. DTE Gas can experience higher than anticipated expenses from emergency repairs on its gas distribution infrastructure required as a result of weather related issues.
Unplanned power plant outages may be costly. Unforeseen maintenance may be required to safely produce electricity or comply with environmental regulations. As a result of unforeseen maintenance, the Registrants may be required to make spot market purchases of electricity that exceed the costs of generation. The Registrants' financial performance may be negatively affected if unable to recover such increased costs.
Regional, national, and international economic conditions can have an unfavorable impact on the Registrants. The Registrants' utility and DTE Energy's non-utility businesses follow the economic cycles of the customers they serve and credit risk of counterparties they do business with. Should the financial conditions of some of DTE Energy's significant customers deteriorate as a result of regional, national or international economic conditions, reduced volumes of electricity and gas, and demand for energy services DTE Energy supplies, collections of accounts receivable, reductions in federal and state energy assistance funding, and potentially higher levels of lost gas or stolen gas and electricity could result in decreased earnings and cash flows.
Renewable portfolio standards and energy waste reduction programs may affect the Registrants' business. The Registrants are subject to existing Michigan, and potential future, federal legislation and regulation requiring them to secure sources of renewable energy. The Registrants have complied with the existing federal and state legislation, but do not know what requirements may be added by federal or state legislation in the future. In addition, the Registrants expect to comply with new Michigan legislation increasing the percentage of power required to be provided by renewable energy sources. The Registrants cannot predict the financial impact or costs associated with complying with potential future legislation and regulations. Compliance with these requirements can significantly increase capital expenditures and operating expenses and can negatively affect the affordability of the rates charged to customers.
The Registrants are also required by Michigan legislation to implement energy waste reduction measures and provide energy waste reduction customer awareness and education programs. These requirements necessitate expenditures, and implementation of these programs creates the risk of reducing the Registrants' revenues as customers decrease their energy usage. The Registrants cannot predict how these programs will impact their business and future operating results.

24



Failure to attract and retain key executive officers and other skilled professional and technical employees could have an adverse effect on the Registrants operations. The Registrants' businesses are dependent on their ability to attract and retain skilled employees. Competition for skilled employees in some areas is high, and the inability to attract and retain these employees could adversely affect the Registrants' business and future operating results. In addition, the Registrants have an aging utility workforce, and the failure of a successful transfer of knowledge and expertise could negatively impact their operations.
A work interruption may adversely affect the Registrants. There are several bargaining units for DTE Energy's approximately 5,200 and DTE Electric's approximately 2,800 represented employees. The majority of represented employees are under contracts that expire in 2020 and 2021. A union choosing to strike would have an impact on the Registrants' businesses. The Registrants are unable to predict the effect a work stoppage would have on their costs of operations and financial performance.
DTE Energy's ability to utilize production tax credits may be limited. To reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil, the Internal Revenue Code provides production tax credits as an incentive for taxpayers to produce fuels and electricity from alternative sources. DTE Energy generated production tax credits from coke production, renewable gas recovery, reduced emission fuel, and gas production operations, and for the Registrants, renewable energy generation. If the Registrants' production tax credits were disallowed in whole or in part as a result of an IRS audit or changes in tax law, there could be additional tax liabilities owed for previously recognized tax credits that could significantly impact the Registrants' earnings and cash flows.
If DTE Energy's goodwill becomes impaired, it may be required to record a charge to earnings. DTE Energy annually reviews the carrying value of goodwill associated with acquisitions it has made for impairment. Factors that may be considered for purposes of this analysis include any change in circumstances indicating that the carrying value of DTE Energy goodwill may not be recoverable, such as a decline in stock price and market capitalization, future cash flows, and slower growth rates in the industry. DTE Energy cannot predict the timing, strength, or duration of any economic slowdown or subsequent recovery, worldwide or in the economy or markets in which it operates; however, when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of these assets may not be recoverable, DTE Energy may take a non-cash impairment charge, which could potentially materially impact DTE Energy's results of operations and financial position.
The Registrants may not be fully covered by insurance. The Registrants have a comprehensive insurance program in place to provide coverage for various types of risks, including catastrophic damage as a result of severe weather or other natural disasters, war, terrorism, or a combination of other significant unforeseen events that could impact the Registrants' operations. Economic losses might not be covered in full by insurance, or the Registrants' insurers may be unable to meet contractual obligations.

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
None.


25



Item 3. Legal Proceedings
In March 2018, the Trenton Channel Power Plant experienced exceedances of its mercury emission limits. The exceedances were reported to the EPA and the MDEQ. On September 12, 2018, the EPA issued a NOV. DTE Electric is currently working with the EPA to address the NOV.  At this time, DTE Electric cannot predict the impact of the NOV.
For more information on legal proceedings and matters related to the Registrants, see Notes 9 and 18 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of this Report, "Regulatory Matters" and "Commitments and Contingencies," respectively.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.

26



Part II
Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters, and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
DTE Energy common stock is listed under the ticker symbol "DTE" on the New York Stock Exchange, which is the principal market for such stock.
At December 31, 2018, there were 181,925,281 shares of DTE Energy common stock outstanding. These shares were held by a total of 51,338 shareholders of record.
All of the 138,632,234 issued and outstanding shares of DTE Electric common stock, par value $10 per share, are owned by DTE Energy, and constitute 100% of the voting securities of DTE Electric. Therefore, no market exists for DTE Electric's common stock.
For information on DTE Energy dividend restrictions, see Note 16 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of this Report, "Short-Term Credit Arrangements and Borrowings."
All of DTE Energy's equity compensation plans that provide for the annual awarding of stock-based compensation have been approved by shareholders. For additional detail, see Note 21 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of this Report, "Stock-Based Compensation."
See the following table for information as of December 31, 2018:
 
Number of Securities to be Issued Upon Exercise of Outstanding Options
 
Weighted-Average Exercise Price of Outstanding Options
 
Number of Securities Remaining Available for Future Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plans
Plans approved by shareholders
52,100

 
$
43.30

 
2,897,674

UNREGISTERED SALES OF DTE ENERGY EQUITY SECURITIES AND USE OF PROCEEDS
Purchases of DTE Energy Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers
The following table provides information about DTE Energy's purchases of equity securities that are registered by DTE Energy pursuant to Section 12 of the Exchange Act of 1934 for the quarter ended December 31, 2018:
 
Number of Shares Purchased(a)
 
Average Price
Paid per Share
(a)
 
Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced
Plans or Programs
 
Average Price Paid per Share
 
Maximum Dollar
Value that May
Yet Be Purchased Under the Plans or Programs
10/01/2018 — 10/31/2018
143

 
$
110.14

 

 

 

11/01/2018 — 11/30/2018

 
$

 

 

 

12/01/2018 — 12/31/2018

 
$

 

 

 

Total
143

 
 

 

 
 

 
 

_______________________________________
(a)
Represents shares of DTE Energy common stock withheld to satisfy income tax obligations upon the vesting of restricted stock based on the price in effect at the grant date.

27



COMPARISON OF CUMULATIVE FIVE YEAR TOTAL RETURN
Total Return to DTE Energy Shareholders
(Includes reinvestment of dividends)
 
 
Annual Return Percentage
Year Ended December 31,
Company/Index
 
2014
 
2015
 
2016
 
2017
 
2018
DTE Energy Company
 
34.61

 
(3.77
)
 
26.93

 
14.59

 
4.19

S&P 500 Index
 
13.69

 
1.38

 
11.95

 
21.82

 
(4.39
)
S&P 500 Multi-Utilities Index
 
28.94

 
(1.73
)
 
18.56

 
12.09

 
1.77

 
 
Indexed Returns
Year Ended December 31,
 
 
Base Period
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Company/Index
 
2013
 
2014
 
2015
 
2016
 
2017
 
2018
DTE Energy Company
 
100.00

 
134.61

 
129.54

 
164.41

 
188.40

 
196.30

S&P 500 Index
 
100.00

 
113.69

 
115.26

 
129.04

 
157.19

 
150.29

S&P 500 Multi-Utilities Index
 
100.00

 
128.94

 
126.71

 
150.22

 
168.38

 
171.35

dteenergy20_chart-06124a04.jpg


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Item 6. Selected Financial Data
The following selected financial data of DTE Energy should be read in conjunction with the accompanying Management’s Discussion and Analysis in Item 7 of this Report and Combined Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of this Report. This information has been omitted for DTE Electric per General Instruction I (2) (a) of Form 10-K for wholly-owned subsidiaries (reduced disclosure format).
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
(In millions, except per share amounts)
Operating Revenues
$
14,212

 
$
12,607

 
$
10,630

 
$
10,337

 
$
12,301

Net Income Attributable to DTE Energy Company(a)
$
1,120

 
$
1,134

 
$
868

 
$
727

 
$
905

Diluted Earnings Per Common Share
$
6.17

 
$
6.32

 
$
4.83

 
$
4.05

 
$
5.10

Financial Information
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Dividends declared per share of common stock
$
3.60

 
$
3.36

 
$
3.06

 
$
2.84

 
$
2.69

Total Assets
$
36,288

 
$
33,767

 
$
32,041

 
$
28,662

 
$
27,827

Long-Term Debt(b)
$
12,134

 
$
12,185

 
$
11,269

 
$
8,760

 
$
8,271

Shareholders’ equity
$
10,237

 
$
9,512

 
$
9,011

 
$
8,772

 
$
8,327

_______________________________________
(a)
The 2017 results include a $105 million net income tax benefit related to the enactment of the TCJA.
(b)
Long-Term Debt includes Capital lease obligations and excludes debt due within one year.

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following combined discussion is separately filed by DTE Energy and DTE Electric. However, DTE Electric does not make any representations as to information related solely to DTE Energy or the subsidiaries of DTE Energy other than itself.
EXECUTIVE OVERVIEW
DTE Energy is a diversified energy company with 2018 Operating Revenues of approximately $14.2 billion and Total Assets of approximately $36.3 billion. DTE Energy is the parent company of DTE Electric and DTE Gas, regulated electric and natural gas utilities engaged primarily in the business of providing electricity and natural gas sales, distribution, and storage services throughout Michigan. DTE Energy operates three energy-related non-utility segments with operations throughout the United States.
The following table summarizes DTE Energy's financial results:
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
(In millions, except per share amounts)
Net Income Attributable to DTE Energy Company
$
1,120

 
$
1,134

 
$
868

Diluted Earnings per Common Share
$
6.17

 
$
6.32

 
$
4.83

The decrease in 2018 Net Income Attributable to DTE Energy Company was primarily due to lower earnings in the Gas Storage and Pipelines, Energy Trading, and Corporate and Other segments, partially offset by higher earnings in the Electric, Gas, and Power and Industrial Projects segments. The 2018 decrease was partially attributable to true-up adjustments for the remeasurement of deferred taxes of $21 million as the adjustments increased Income Tax Expense, of which $17 million was attributable to the regulated utilities and increased Regulatory liabilities. The increase in 2017 Net Income Attributable to DTE Energy Company was primarily due to higher earnings in the Gas Storage and Pipelines, Energy Trading, and Power and Industrial Projects segments, partially offset by lower earnings in the Corporate and Other segment. The 2017 increase was also due to $105 million of net income tax benefit related to the enactment of the TCJA.
Please see detailed explanations of segment performance in the following "Results of Operations" section.
DTE Energy's strategy is to achieve long-term earnings growth, a strong balance sheet, and an attractive dividend yield.

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DTE Energy's utilities are investing capital to improve customer reliability through investments in base infrastructure and new generation, and to comply with environmental requirements. DTE Energy expects that planned significant capital investments will result in earnings growth. DTE Energy is focused on executing plans to achieve operational excellence and customer satisfaction with a focus on customer affordability. DTE Energy operates in a constructive regulatory environment and has solid relationships with its regulators.
In May 2017, DTE Energy announced its plan to reduce carbon emissions. This goal will be attained by cutting carbon emissions 30% by the early 2020s, 45% by 2030, 75% by 2040, and more than 80% by 2050. To achieve this reduction, DTE Energy will transition away from coal-powered sources and incorporate more renewable energy, energy waste reduction projects, demand response, and natural gas fueled generation. DTE Energy has already begun the transition in the way it produces power through the continued retirement of its aging coal-fired plants. In May 2018, DTE Energy announced its plans to accelerate its clean energy initiatives by targeting at least a 50% clean energy goal by 2030 to be achieved through a combination of investments in renewable energy and energy waste reduction projects. Refer to the "Capital Investments" section below for further discussion.
DTE Energy has significant investments in non-utility businesses. DTE Energy employs disciplined investment criteria when assessing growth opportunities that leverage its assets, skills, and expertise, and provides diversity in earnings and geography. Specifically, DTE Energy invests in targeted energy markets with attractive competitive dynamics where meaningful scale is in alignment with its risk profile. DTE Energy expects growth opportunities in the Gas Storage and Pipelines and Power and Industrial Projects segments.
A key priority for DTE Energy is to maintain a strong balance sheet which facilitates access to capital markets and reasonably priced short-term and long-term financing. Near-term growth will be funded through internally generated cash flows and the issuance of debt and equity. DTE Energy has an enterprise risk management program that, among other things, is designed to monitor and manage exposure to earnings and cash flow volatility related to commodity price changes, interest rates, and counterparty credit risk.
CAPITAL INVESTMENTS
DTE Energy's utility businesses require significant capital investments to maintain and improve the electric generation and electric and natural gas distribution infrastructure and to comply with environmental regulations and renewable energy requirements.
DTE Electric's capital investments over the 2019-2023 period are estimated at $11.3 billion comprised of $4.0 billion for capital replacements and other projects, $4.6 billion for distribution infrastructure, and $2.7 billion for new generation. DTE Electric has retired four coal-fired generation units at the Trenton Channel, River Rouge, and St Clair facilities and has announced plans to retire its remaining thirteen coal-fired generating units. Seven of these coal-fired generating units will be retired through 2023 at the Trenton Channel, River Rouge, and St. Clair facilities. The remaining coal-fired generating units at the Belle River and Monroe facilities are expected to be retired by 2040. The retired facilities will be replaced with renewables, energy waste reduction, demand response, and natural gas fueled generation. In April 2018, DTE Electric received approval from the MPSC to build a natural gas fueled combined cycle generation facility to provide approximately 1,100 megawatts of energy beginning in 2022. In August 2018, DTE Electric began construction on its natural gas fueled combined cycle generation facility. In March 2018, DTE Electric filed its 2018 Renewable Energy Plan with the MPSC proposing approximately 1,000 additional megawatts of energy from new wind and solar projects to be completed by 2022. The MPSC had previously approved 300 of the 1,000 additional megawatts for wind projects in an MPSC order received in September 2016. In January 2018, DTE Electric filed with the MPSC its five-year distribution operations investment and maintenance plan to improve system reliability. DTE Electric plans to seek regulatory approval for capital expenditures consistent with prior ratemaking treatment. For further discussion of regulatory matters, see Note 9 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, "Regulatory Matters."
DTE Gas' capital investments over the 2019-2023 period are estimated at $2.5 billion comprised of $1.2 billion for base infrastructure, and $1.3 billion for gas main renewal, meter move out, and pipeline integrity programs. DTE Gas plans to seek regulatory approval for capital expenditures consistent with ratemaking treatment.
DTE Energy's non-utility businesses' capital investments are primarily for expansion, growth, and ongoing maintenance. Gas Storage and Pipelines' capital investments over the 2019-2023 period are estimated at $4.0 billion to $5.0 billion for gathering and pipeline investments and expansions. Power and Industrial Projects' capital investments over the 2019-2023 period are estimated at $1.0 billion to $1.4 billion for industrial energy services and RNG projects.

30



ENVIRONMENTAL MATTERS
The Registrants are subject to extensive environmental regulation. Additional costs may result as the effects of various substances on the environment are studied and governmental regulations are developed and implemented. Actual costs to comply could vary substantially. The Registrants expect to continue recovering environmental costs related to utility operations through rates charged to customers, as authorized by the MPSC.
Air — DTE Electric is subject to the EPA ozone and fine particulate transport and acid rain regulations that limit power plant emissions of SO2 and NOX. The EPA and the State of Michigan have also issued emission reduction regulations relating to ozone, fine particulate, regional haze, mercury, and other air pollution. These rules have led to controls on fossil-fueled power plants to reduce SO2, NOX, mercury, and other emissions. Additional rulemakings may occur over the next few years which could require additional controls for SO2, NOX, and other hazardous air pollutants. To comply with existing requirements, DTE Electric spent approximately $2.4 billion through 2018. DTE Electric does not anticipate additional capital expenditures through 2025.
The EPA has implemented regulatory actions under the Clean Air Act to address emissions of GHGs from the utility sector and other sectors of the economy. Among these actions, in 2015 the EPA finalized performance standards for emissions of carbon dioxide from new and existing EGUs. In February 2016, the U.S. Supreme Court granted petitioners' requests for a stay of the carbon rules for existing EGUs (also known as the EPA Clean Power Plan) pending final review by the courts. The Clean Power Plan has no legal effect while the stay is in place. On March 28, 2017, a presidential executive order was issued on "Promoting Energy Independence and Economic Growth." The order instructs the EPA to review, and if appropriate, suspend, revise or rescind the Clean Power Plan rule. Following the issuance of this order, the federal government requested the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit to hold all legal challenges in abeyance until the review of these regulations is completed. On October 10, 2017, the EPA proposed to rescind the Clean Power Plan and announced its intent to issue an ANPR seeking input as to whether it should replace the rule and, if so, what form it should take. In August 2018, the EPA proposed revised emission guidelines for GHGs from existing electric utility generating units. The proposed rule, named the Affordable Clean Energy (ACE) rule, is intended to replace the Clean Power Plan rule. Comments on the proposed ACE rule were due on October 31, 2018. It is not possible to determine the potential impact of the EPA's proposed ACE rule on existing sources at this time.
Pending or future legislation or other regulatory actions could have a material impact on DTE Electric's operations and financial position and the rates charged to its customers. Impacts include expenditures for environmental equipment beyond what is currently planned, financing costs related to additional capital expenditures, the purchase of emission credits from market sources, higher costs of purchased power, and the retirement of facilities where control equipment is not economical. DTE Electric would seek to recover these incremental costs through increased rates charged to its utility customers, as authorized by the MPSC.
Increased costs for energy produced from traditional coal-based sources due to recent, pending, and future regulatory initiatives, could also increase the economic viability of energy produced from renewable, natural gas fueled generation, and/or nuclear sources, energy waste reduction initiatives, and the potential development of market-based trading of carbon instruments which could provide new business opportunities for DTE Energy's utility and non-utility segments. At the present time, it is not possible to quantify the financial impacts of these climate related regulatory initiatives on the Registrants or their customers.
See Items 1. and 2. Business and Properties and Note 18 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of this Report, "Commitments and Contingencies," for further discussion of Environmental Matters.

31



OUTLOOK
The next few years will be a period of rapid change for DTE Energy and for the energy industry. DTE Energy's strong utility base, combined with its integrated non-utility operations, position it well for long-term growth.
Looking forward, DTE Energy will focus on several areas that are expected to improve future performance:
electric and gas customer satisfaction;
electric distribution system reliability;
new electric generation;
gas distribution system renewal;
rate competitiveness and affordability;
regulatory stability and investment recovery for the electric and gas utilities;
employee safety and engagement;
cost structure optimization across all business segments;
cash, capital, and liquidity to maintain or improve financial strength; and
investments that integrate assets and leverage skills and expertise.
DTE Energy will continue to pursue opportunities to grow its businesses in a disciplined manner if it can secure opportunities that meet its strategic, financial, and risk criteria.

RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations includes financial information prepared in accordance with GAAP, as well as the non-GAAP financial measures, Utility Margin and Non-utility Margin, discussed below, which DTE Energy uses as measures of its operational performance. Generally, a non-GAAP financial measure is a numerical measure of financial performance, financial position or cash flows that excludes (or includes) amounts that are included in (or excluded from) the most directly comparable measure calculated and presented in accordance with GAAP.
DTE Energy uses Utility Margin and Non-utility Margin, non-GAAP financial measures, to assess its performance by reportable segment.
Utility Margin includes electric and gas Operating Revenues net of Fuel, purchased power, and gas expenses. The utilities’ fuel, purchased power, and natural gas supply are passed through to customers, and therefore, result in changes to the utilities’ revenues that are comparable to changes in such expenses. As such, DTE Energy believes Utility Margin provides a meaningful basis for evaluating the utilities’ operations across periods, as it excludes the revenue effect of fluctuations in these expenses.
The Non-utility Margin relates to the Power and Industrial Projects and Energy Trading segments. For the Power and Industrial Projects segment, Non-utility Margin primarily includes Operating Revenues net of Fuel, purchased power, and gas expenses. Operating Revenues include sales of refined coal to third parties and the affiliated Electric utility, metallurgical coke and related by-products, petroleum coke, renewable natural gas, and electricity, as well as rental income and revenues from utility-type consulting, management, and operational services. For the Energy Trading segment, Non-utility Margin includes revenue and realized and unrealized gains and losses from physical and financial power and gas marketing, optimization, and trading activities, net of Purchased power and gas related to these activities. DTE Energy evaluates its operating performance of these non-utility businesses using the measure of Operating Revenues net of Fuel, purchased power, and gas expenses.

32



Utility Margin and Non-utility Margin are not measures calculated in accordance with GAAP and should be viewed as a supplement to and not a substitute for the results of operations presented in accordance with GAAP. Utility Margin and Non-utility Margin do not intend to represent operating income, the most comparable GAAP measure, as an indicator of operating performance and are not necessarily comparable to similarly titled measures reported by other companies.
The following sections provide a detailed discussion of the operating performance and future outlook of DTE Energy's segments. Segment information, described below, includes intercompany revenues and expenses, and other income and deductions that are eliminated in the Consolidated Financial Statements.
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
(In millions)
Net Income (Loss) Attributable to DTE Energy by Segment
 
 
 
 
 
Electric
$
664

 
$
606

 
$
622

Gas
150

 
146

 
138

Gas Storage and Pipelines
235

 
275

 
119

Power and Industrial Projects
161

 
138

 
95

Energy Trading
39

 
72

 
(45
)
Corporate and Other
(129
)
 
(103
)
 
(61
)
Net Income Attributable to DTE Energy Company
$
1,120

 
$
1,134

 
$
868

ELECTRIC
The Results of Operations discussion for DTE Electric is presented in a reduced disclosure format in accordance with General Instruction I (2) (a) of Form 10-K for wholly-owned subsidiaries.
The Electric segment consists principally of DTE Electric. Electric results are discussed below:
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
(In millions)
Operating Revenues — Utility operations
$
5,298

 
$
5,102

 
$
5,225

Fuel and purchased power — utility
1,552

 
1,454

 
1,532

Utility Margin
3,746

 
3,648

 
3,693

Operation and maintenance
1,437

 
1,382

 
1,408

Depreciation and amortization
836

 
753

 
750

Taxes other than income
307

 
302

 
284

Asset (gains) losses and impairments, net
(1
)
 

 

Operating Income
1,167

 
1,211

 
1,251

Other (Income) and Deductions
310

 
284

 
276

Income Tax Expense
193

 
321

 
353

Net Income Attributable to DTE Energy Company
$
664

 
$
606

 
$
622

See DTE Electric's Consolidated Statements of Operations in Item 8 of this Report for a complete view of its results. For an explanation of differences between the Electric segment and DTE Electric's Consolidated Statements of Operations, refer to Note 20 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, "Retirement Benefits and Trusteed Assets."
Utility Margin increased $98 million in 2018 and decreased $45 million in 2017. Revenues associated with certain mechanisms and surcharges are offset by related expenses elsewhere in the Registrants' Consolidated Statements of Operations.

33



The following table details changes in various Utility Margin components relative to the comparable prior period:
 
2018
 
2017
 
(In millions)
Weather
$
152

 
$
(109
)
Implementation of new rates
51

 
124

Regulatory mechanism — TRM
40

 
(26
)
PSCR disallowance in 2017
13

 
(13
)
Base sales
(3
)
 
(26
)
TCJA rate reduction
(156
)
 

Other regulatory mechanisms and other
1

 
5

Increase (decrease) in Utility Margin
$
98

 
$
(45
)
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
(In thousands of MWh)
DTE Electric Sales
 
 
 
 
 
Residential
15,959

 
14,885

 
15,875

Commercial
17,282

 
17,283

 
17,521

Industrial
10,324

 
9,897

 
10,004

Other
221

 
258

 
264

 
43,786

 
42,323

 
43,664

Interconnection sales(a)
2,796

 
2,623

 
2,334

Total DTE Electric Sales
46,582

 
44,946

 
45,998

 
 
 
 
 
 
DTE Electric Deliveries
 
 
 
 
 
Retail and wholesale
43,786

 
42,323

 
43,664

Electric retail access, including self-generators(b)
4,737

 
4,820

 
4,936

Total DTE Electric Sales and Deliveries
48,523

 
47,143

 
48,600

______________________________
(a)
Represents power that is not distributed by DTE Electric.
(b)
Represents deliveries for self-generators that have purchased power from alternative energy suppliers to supplement their power requirements.
DTE Electric sales increased for residential, commercial, and industrial primarily due to favorable weather in 2018.
Operation and maintenance expense increased $55 million in 2018 and decreased $26 million in 2017. The increase in 2018 was primarily due to increased uncollectible expense of $34 million due to customer billing initiatives following implementation of the new billing system, increased power plant generation expense of $24 million, an increase in energy waste reduction expense of $10 million to meet higher energy savings targets, partially offset by decreased distribution operations expense of $13 million. The decrease in 2017 was primarily due to decreased power plant generation expenses of $66 million, partially offset by increased storm restoration expenses of $27 million, and increased line clearance expenses of $10 million. The decrease in power plant generation includes an increase of $6 million of costs related to the 2016 fire at a generation facility, offset by $21 million of insurance proceeds received in 2017.
Depreciation and amortization expense increased $83 million in 2018 and increased $3 million in 2017. In 2018, the increase was primarily due to an increase to depreciable base of $46 million and an increase of $42 million associated with the TRM, partially offset by a decrease in regulatory asset amortization of $5 million. In 2017, the increase was due to $45 million of increased expense from an increased depreciable base, partially offset by a decrease of $29 million associated with the TRM, and a decrease of $13 million in amortization of regulatory assets.

34



Other (Income) and Deductions increased $26 million in 2018 and increased $8 million in 2017. The increase in 2018 was primarily due to higher interest expense of $9 million and change in investment earnings (loss of $11 million in 2018 compared to a gain of $26 million in 2017), partially offset by decreased non-operating retirement benefits expense of $13 million and a contribution to the DTE Energy Foundation of $7 million in 2017. The increase in 2017 was primarily due to higher interest expense of $10 million, lower interest income of $8 million related to a sales and use tax settlement received in 2016, and a $7 million contribution to the DTE Energy Foundation, partially offset by $12 million of higher investment earnings and a $3 million decrease in Low Income Self-Sufficiency Plan (LSP) contributions to not-for-profit organizations in 2016.
Outlook DTE Electric will continue to move forward in its efforts to achieve operational excellence, sustain strong cash flows, and earn its authorized return on equity. DTE Electric expects that planned significant capital investments will result in earnings growth. DTE Electric will maintain a strong focus on customers by increasing reliability and satisfaction while keeping customer rate increases affordable. Looking forward, additional factors may impact earnings such as weather, the outcome of regulatory proceedings, benefit plan design changes, investment returns and changes in discount rate assumptions in benefit plans and health care costs, uncertainty of legislative or regulatory actions regarding climate change, and effects of energy waste reduction programs.
DTE Electric filed a rate case with the MPSC on July 6, 2018 requesting an increase in base rates of $328 million based on a projected twelve-month period ending April 30, 2020. The requested increase in base rates is primarily due to an increase in net plant resulting from infrastructure investments, depreciation expense, as requested in the 2016 DTE Electric Depreciation Case Filing, and reliability improvement projects. The rate filing also requests an increase in return on equity from 10.0% to 10.5% and includes projected changes in sales, operation and maintenance expenses, and working capital. In addition, the rate filing requests an Infrastructure Recovery Mechanism to recover the incremental revenue requirement associated with certain distribution, fossil generation, and nuclear generation capital expenditures through 2022. DTE Electric also included Calculation C in this filing to address all remaining issues relative to the enactment of the TCJA, which is primarily the remeasurement of deferred taxes and how the amounts deferred as Regulatory liabilities will flow to ratepayers. A final MPSC order in this case is expected by May 2019. Refer to Note 9 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, “Regulatory Matters” for additional information.
GAS
The Gas segment consists principally of DTE Gas. Gas results are discussed below:
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
(In millions)
Operating Revenues — Utility operations
$
1,436

 
$
1,388

 
$
1,324

Cost of gas — utility
446

 
443

 
454

Utility Margin
990

 
945

 
870

Operation and maintenance
502

 
449

 
440

Depreciation and amortization
133

 
123

 
106

Taxes other than income
73

 
65

 
64

Asset (gains) losses and impairments, net

 

 
4

Operating Income
282

 
308

 
256

Other (Income) and Deductions
65

 
84

 
41

Income Tax Expense
67

 
78

 
77

Net Income Attributable to DTE Energy Company
$
150

 
$
146

 
$
138

Utility Margin increased $45 million in 2018 and increased $75 million in 2017. Revenues associated with certain surcharges are offset by related expenses elsewhere in DTE Energy's Consolidated Statements of Operations.

35



The following table details changes in various Utility Margin components relative to the comparable prior period:
 
2018
 
2017
 
(In millions)
Weather
$
46

 
$
(6
)
Implementation of new rates
15

 
80

Midstream storage and transportation revenues
15

 
(5
)
Regulatory mechanism — RDM
(3
)
 
4

TCJA rate reduction
(40
)
 

Other regulatory mechanisms and other
12

 
2

Increase in Utility Margin
$
45

 
$
75

 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
(In Bcf)
Gas Markets
 
 
 
 
 
Gas sales
135

 
119

 
116

End-user transportation
187

 
165

 
182

 
322

 
284

 
298

Intermediate transportation
329

 
260

 
214

Total Gas sales
651

 
544

 
512

Operation and maintenance expense increased $53 million in 2018 and increased $9 million in 2017. The increase in 2018 was primarily due to increased uncollectible expense of $28 million due to customer billing initiatives following implementation of a new customer billing system and higher gas operations expenses of $22 million, which included increased investment spending and higher pipeline integrity expenses. The increase in 2017 was primarily due to increased corporate expenses of $3 million and increased gas operations expenses of $3 million.
Depreciation and amortization expense increased $10 million in 2018 and increased $17 million in 2017. The increase in 2018 was primarily due to an increased depreciable base. The increase in 2017 was primarily due to an increased depreciable base and higher depreciation rates.
Other (Income) and Deductions decreased $19 million in 2018 and increased $43 million in 2017. The decrease in 2018 was primarily due to lower contributions to the DTE Energy Foundation and other not-for-profit organizations of $27 million, partially offset by higher net interest expense of $6 million. The increase in 2017 was primarily due to increased non-operating retirement benefits expenses of $31 million, increased contributions to the DTE Energy Foundation and other not-for-profit organizations of $7 million and higher interest expense of $5 million.
Outlook — DTE Gas will continue to move forward in its efforts to achieve operational excellence, sustain strong cash flows, and earn its authorized return on equity. DTE Gas expects that planned significant infrastructure capital investments will result in earnings growth. Looking forward, additional factors may impact earnings such as weather, the outcome of regulatory proceedings, benefit plan design changes, and investment returns and changes in discount rate assumptions in benefit plans and health care costs. DTE Gas expects to continue its efforts to improve productivity and decrease costs while improving customer satisfaction with consideration of customer rate affordability.
DTE filed its Calculation C case with the MPSC on November 16, 2018 to reduce the revenue requirement by $12 million related to the amortization of deferred tax remeasurement. Calculation C addresses all remaining issues relative to the enactment of the TCJA, which is primarily the remeasurement of deferred taxes and how the amounts deferred as Regulatory liabilities will flow to ratepayers. Refer to Note 9 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, “Regulatory Matters” for additional information.

36



GAS STORAGE AND PIPELINES
The Gas Storage and Pipelines segment consists of the non-utility gas pipelines and storage businesses. Gas Storage and Pipelines results are discussed below:
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
(In millions)
Operating Revenues — Non-utility operations
$
485

 
$
453

 
$
302

Cost of gas — Non-utility
22

 
30

 
6

Operation and maintenance
103

 
83

 
81

Depreciation and amortization
82

 
76

 
45

Taxes other than income
8

 
8

 
4

Asset (gains) losses and impairments, net

 
2

 

Operating Income
270

 
254

 
166

Other (Income) and Deductions
(61
)
 
(18
)
 
(31
)
Income Tax Expense (Benefit)
68

 
(30
)
 
71

Net Income
263

 
302

 
126

Less: Net Income Attributable to Noncontrolling Interests
28

 
27

 
7

Net Income Attributable to DTE Energy Company
$
235

 
$
275

 
$
119

Operating Revenues — Non-utility operations increased $32 million in 2018 and increased $151 million in 2017. The increase in both periods was primarily due to increased pipeline and gathering volumes. The 2017 increase was also due to the acquisition of AGS and SGG in October 2016.
Cost of gas — Non-utility decreased $8 million in 2018 and increased $24 million in 2017. The 2018 decrease was driven by lower physical purchases of gas from AGS customers for resale to optimize available transportation capacity. The 2017 increase was driven by higher physical purchases of gas from AGS customers for resale to optimize available transportation capacity.
Operation and maintenance expense increased $20 million in 2018 and increased $2 million in 2017. The 2018 increase was primarily due to increased labor related expenses and additional compression activity on the Bluestone Pipeline and Susquehanna gathering systems.
Depreciation and amortization expense increased $6 million in 2018 and increased $31 million in 2017. The 2017 increase was primarily due to the acquisition of AGS and SGG in October 2016.
Other (Income) and Deductions increased $43 million in 2018 and decreased $13 million in 2017. The 2018 increase was primarily due to increased earnings from pipeline investments and a $16 million net loss on extinguishment of debt within the storage business in 2017, partially offset by higher interest expense. The 2017 decrease was primarily due to a $16 million net loss on extinguishment of debt within the storage business and contributions to the DTE Energy Foundation and other not-for-profit organizations, partially offset by increased earnings from pipeline investments.
Income Tax Expense (Benefit) increased $98 million in 2018 and decreased $101 million in 2017. The changes were primarily driven by the $115 million remeasurement of deferred tax assets and liabilities to reflect the reduction in the corporate tax rate from the enactment of the TCJA in December 2017. The 2017 change was partially offset by increased tax expense on higher earnings in 2017.
Net Income Attributable to Noncontrolling Interests increased $1 million in 2018 and increased $20 million in 2017. The 2017 increase was primarily due to the acquisition of SGG in October 2016.
Outlook — DTE Energy believes its long-term agreements with producers and the quality of the natural gas reserves in the Marcellus/Utica region soundly position the gathering systems for future revenues.
NEXUS Pipeline was placed in service in in October 2018. The NEXUS Pipeline provides a transportation path for Appalachian Basin shale gas, including Utica and Marcellus shale gas, directly to consuming markets in northern Ohio, southeastern Michigan, and Dawn Ontario. DTE Energy owns a 50% partnership interest in the NEXUS Pipeline with an investment balance of $1.26 billion at December 31, 2018.

37



On January 11, 2019, NEXUS signed an agreement to purchase Generation Pipeline, LLC, a public utility regulated by the Public Utilities Commission of Ohio. This 23-mile pipeline system supplies gas to industrial customers in the Toledo, OH area, has existing interconnects with ANR Pipeline Company and Panhandle Eastern Pipeline Company, and is located 4 miles away from Nexus. The transaction is expected to close in the first half of 2019 upon regulatory approvals.
AGS and SGG provide a platform for midstream growth and access to further investment opportunities in the Appalachian basin, an additional connection to the NEXUS Pipeline which should drive incremental volumes on the NEXUS Pipeline, and producer relationships that may lead to more partnering opportunities.
Gas Storage and Pipelines expects to maintain its steady growth by developing an asset portfolio with multiple growth platforms through investment in new projects and expansions. Gas Storage and Pipelines will continue to look for additional investment opportunities and other storage and pipeline projects at favorable prices.
POWER AND INDUSTRIAL PROJECTS
The Power and Industrial Projects segment is comprised primarily of projects that deliver energy and utility-type products and services to industrial, commercial, and institutional customers, produce reduced emissions fuel, and sell electricity and pipeline-quality gas from renewable energy projects. Power and Industrial Projects results are discussed below:
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
(In millions)
Operating Revenues — Non-utility operations
$
2,204

 
$
2,089

 
$
1,906

Fuel, purchased power, and gas — non-utility
1,888

 
1,813

 
1,640

Non-utility Margin
316

 
276

 
266

Operation and maintenance
363

 
342

 
317

Depreciation and amortization
67

 
72

 
72

Taxes other than income
12

 
11

 
13

Asset (gains) losses and impairments, net
27

 
20

 
(1
)
Operating Loss
(153
)
 
(169
)
 
(135
)
Other (Income) and Deductions
(89
)
 
(63
)
 
(49
)
Income Taxes
 
 
 
 
 
Benefit
(7
)
 
(42
)
 
(26
)
Production Tax Credits
(188
)
 
(153
)
 
(114
)
 
(195
)
 
(195
)
 
(140
)
Net Income
131

 
89

 
54

Less: Net Loss Attributable to Noncontrolling Interests
(30
)
 
(49
)
 
(41
)
Net Income Attributable to DTE Energy Company
$
161

 
$
138

 
$
95


38



Operating Revenues — Non-utility operations increased $115 million in 2018 and increased $183 million in 2017. The changes are due to the following:
 
2018
 
(In millions)
Higher demand due to improved conditions in the steel business
$
59

Higher production in the renewables business
25

Higher production, offset by lower coal prices in the REF business
18

Higher sales primarily associated with new contracts in the on-site business
13

 
$
115

 
 
 
2017
 
(In millions)
Higher demand due to improved conditions in the steel business
$
107

Higher production driven by new projects, offset by lower coal prices in the REF business
102

Lower production and one-time recovery in 2016, offset by an acquisition in the renewables business
(9
)
Lower sales primarily associated with expired contracts in the on-site business
(17
)
 
$
183

Non-utility Margin increased $40 million in 2018 and increased $10 million in 2017. The changes are due to the following:
 
2018
 
(In millions)
Higher production in the renewables business
$
20

Higher sales primarily associated with new contracts in the on-site business
12

Higher demand due to improved conditions in the steel business
8

 
$
40

 
 
 
2017
 
(In millions)
Higher demand due to improved conditions in the steel business
$
42

Lower production and one-time recovery in 2016 in the renewables business
(11
)
Lower sales primarily associated with expired contracts in the on-site business
(15
)
Other
(6
)
 
$
10

Operation and maintenance expense increased $21 million in 2018 and increased $25 million in 2017. The 2018 increase was primarily due to higher production in the REF business of $11 million and new contracts in the on-site business of $8 million. The 2017 increase was primarily due to an increase in maintenance spending driven by improved conditions in the steel business of $16 million, higher maintenance and a new acquisition in the renewables business of $7 million, and an increase associated with new projects in the REF business of $5 million, offset by lower spending as a result of Shenango plant closure activities in the first half of 2016 of $6 million.
Asset (gains) losses and impairments, net increased $7 million in 2018 from the net loss of $20 million in 2017 and decreased $21 million in 2017 from the net gain of $1 million in 2016. The 2018 increase was primarily due to $15 million of a liability adjustment related to contingent consideration and an $8 million asset write-off associated with the renewable business in anticipation of a contract ending in 2020. The 2017 decrease was primarily due to an impairment in the REF business of $14 million and an impairment of a petroleum coke project of $6 million.

39



Other (Income) and Deductions increased $26 million in 2018 and increased $14 million in 2017. The 2018 increase was primarily due to higher production in the REF business of $20 million and decreased contributions to the DTE Energy Foundation of $4 million. The 2017 increase was primarily due to increased equity earnings in the renewable business of $9 million and insurance settlements in the renewable and REF businesses of $6 million, offset by increased contributions to the DTE Energy Foundation of $6 million.
Income Taxes — Benefit decreased by $35 million in 2018 and increased by $16 million in 2017. The 2018 decrease was primarily due to the 2017 remeasurement of deferred tax assets and liabilities to reflect the reduction in the corporate tax rate from the enactment of the TCJA in December 2017. The increase in 2017 was primarily due to the remeasurement of deferred tax assets and liabilities to reflect the reduction in the corporate tax rate from the enactment of the TCJA in December 2017 of $21 million, an increase due to higher pretax loss of $7 million, and a decrease due to a worthless stock deduction associated with the Shenango closure in 2016 of $10 million.
Income Taxes — Production Tax Credits increased by $35 million in 2018 and increased $39 million in 2017. The increase in both periods was primarily due to higher production in the REF business.
Net Loss Attributable to Noncontrolling Interests decreased by $19 million in 2018 and increased by $8 million in 2017. The 2018 decrease was primarily due to termination of a project in the REF business. The 2017 increase was primarily due to a change in the ownership percentage in one of the REF projects of $8 million.
Outlook — Power and Industrial Projects has constructed and placed in service REF facilities at ten sites including facilities located at seven third-party owned coal-fired power plants. DTE Energy has sold membership interests in five of the facilities and entered into lease arrangements in three of the facilities. Three REF facilities will phase out in 2019 with the remaining seven to be phased out at the end of 2021.
Power and Industrial Projects will continue to leverage its extensive energy-related operating experience and project management capability to develop additional energy projects to serve energy intensive industrial customers.
ENERGY TRADING
Energy Trading focuses on physical and financial power and natural gas marketing and trading, structured transactions, enhancement of returns from its asset portfolio, and optimization of contracted natural gas pipeline transportation and storage positions. Energy Trading also provides natural gas, power, and related services, which may include the management of associated storage and transportation contracts on the customers' behalf, and the supply or purchase of renewable energy credits to various customers. Energy Trading results are discussed below:
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
(In millions)
Operating Revenues — Non-utility operations
$
5,557

 
$
4,277

 
$
2,575

Purchased power and gas — non-utility
5,417

 
4,077

 
2,552

Non-utility Margin
140

 
200

 
23

Operation and maintenance
75

 
68

 
63

Depreciation and amortization
5

 
5

 
3

Taxes other than income
5

 
4

 
2

Operating Income (Loss)
55

 
123

 
(45
)
Other (Income) and Deductions
3

 
2

 
29

Income Tax Expense (Benefit)
13

 
49

 
(29
)
Net Income (Loss) Attributable to DTE Energy Company
$
39

 
$
72

 
$
(45
)
Operating Revenues — Non-utility operations and Purchased power and gas — non-utility were impacted primarily by an increase in volumes as well as an increase in gas prices for the years ended December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017, primarily in the gas structured strategy.

40



Non-utility Margin decreased $60 million in 2018 and increased $177 million in 2017. The change in both periods was primarily due to timing from the unrealized and realized margins presented in the following tables:
 
2018
 
(In millions)
Unrealized Margins(a)
 
Favorable results, primarily in the power trading strategy
$
20

Unfavorable results, primarily in gas structured, and power full requirements strategies(b)
(100
)
 
(80
)
Realized Margins(a)
 
Favorable results, primarily in the gas structured strategy
54

Unfavorable results, primarily in the power full requirements strategy(c)
(34
)
 
20

Decrease in Non-utility Margin
$
(60
)
_______________________________________
(a)
Natural gas structured transactions typically involve a physical purchase or sale of natural gas in the future and/or natural gas basis financial instruments which are derivatives and a related non-derivative pipeline transportation contract. These gas structured transactions can result in significant earnings volatility as the derivative components are marked-to-market without revaluing the related non-derivative contracts.
(b)
Amount includes $74 million of timing related losses related to gas strategies which will reverse in future periods as the underlying contracts settle.
(c)
Amount includes $11 million of timing related gains related to gas strategies recognized in previous periods that reversed as the underlying contracts settled.
 
2017
 
(In millions)
Unrealized Margins(a)
 
Favorable results, primarily in gas structured and gas full requirements strategies(b)
$
113

Unfavorable results, primarily in power and gas trading and power full requirements strategies
(26
)
 
87

Realized Margins(a)
 
Favorable results, primarily in gas structured, environmental trading and gas storage strategies(c)
103

Unfavorable results, primarily in the power full requirements strategy
(13
)
 
90

Increase in Non-utility Margin
$
177

_______________________________________
(a)
Natural gas structured transactions typically involve a physical purchase or sale of natural gas in the future and/or natural gas basis financial instruments which are derivatives and a related non-derivative pipeline transportation contract. These gas structured transactions can result in significant earnings volatility as the derivative components are marked-to-market without revaluing the related non-derivative contracts.
(b)
Amount includes $113 million of timing related gains related to gas strategies which will reverse in future periods as the underlying contracts settle.
(c)
Amount includes $95 million of timing related losses related to gas strategies recognized in previous periods that reversed as the underlying contracts settled.
Other (Income) and Deductions increased $1 million in 2018 and decreased $27 million in 2017 due to contributions to the DTE Energy Foundation in 2016.
Outlook — In the near-term, Energy Trading expects market conditions to remain challenging, and the profitability of this segment may be impacted by the volatility in commodity prices and the uncertainty of impacts associated with regulatory changes, and changes in operating rules of RTOs. Significant portions of the Energy Trading portfolio are economically hedged. Most financial instruments and physical power and natural gas contracts are deemed derivatives, whereas natural gas inventory, pipeline transportation, renewable energy credits, and storage assets are not derivatives. As a result, Energy Trading will experience earnings volatility as derivatives are marked-to-market without revaluing the underlying non-derivative contracts and assets. Energy Trading's strategy is to economically manage the price risk of these underlying non-derivative contracts and assets with futures, forwards, swaps, and options. This results in gains and losses that are recognized in different interim and annual accounting periods.
See also the "Fair Value" section herein and Notes 12 and 13 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of this Report, "Fair Value" and "Financial and Other Derivative Instruments," respectively.

41



CORPORATE AND OTHER
Corporate and Other includes various holding company activities, holds certain non-utility debt, and holds energy-related investments. The 2018 net loss of $129 million represents an increase of $26 million from the 2017 net loss of $103 million primarily due to a reduction in the corporate tax rate from the TCJA in December 2017, higher interest expense and increased contributions to other not-for-profit organizations, partially offset by the remeasurement of deferred tax assets and liabilities to reflect the reduction in the corporate tax rate from the enactment of the TCJA in 2017. The 2017 net loss of $103 million represents an increase of $42 million from the 2016 net loss of $61 million primarily due to the remeasurement of deferred tax assets and liabilities to reflect the reduction in the corporate tax rate from the enactment of the TCJA in December 2017 resulting in income tax expense of $34 million, and the contribution of land and improvements to the DTE Energy Beacon Park Foundation.
See Note 10 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of this Report, "Income Taxes."

CAPITAL RESOURCES AND LIQUIDITY
Cash Requirements
DTE Energy uses cash to maintain and invest in the electric and natural gas utilities, to grow the non-utility businesses, to retire and pay interest on long-term debt, and to pay dividends. DTE Energy believes it will have sufficient internal and external capital resources to fund anticipated capital and operating requirements. DTE Energy expects that cash from operations in 2019 will be approximately $2.4 billion. DTE Energy anticipates base level utility capital investments, including environmental, renewable, and energy waste reduction expenditures; expenditures for non-utility businesses; and contributions to equity method investees in 2019 of approximately $3.9 billion. DTE Energy plans to seek regulatory approval to include utility capital expenditures in regulatory rate base consistent with prior treatment. Capital spending for growth of existing or new non-utility businesses will depend on the existence of opportunities that meet strict risk-return and value creation criteria.

42



 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Cash and Cash Equivalents
(In millions)
Cash Flow From (Used For)
 
 
 
 
 
Operating Activities
 
 
 
 
 
Net Income
$
1,118

 
$
1,112

 
$
834

Adjustments to reconcile Net Income to Net cash from operating activities: