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UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
______________________________________________
FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2023
Or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from _____ to _____
dtecolorlogoa04.jpg
Commission File Number: 1-11607
DTE Energy Company
Michigan38-3217752
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S Employer Identification No.)
Commission File Number: 1-2198
DTE Electric Company
Michigan38-0478650
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S Employer Identification No.)
Registrants address of principal executive offices: One Energy Plaza, Detroit, Michigan 48226-1279
Registrants telephone number, including area code: (313) 235-4000
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
RegistrantTitle of Each ClassTrading Symbol(s)Name of Exchange on which Registered
DTE Energy Company
(DTE Energy)
Common stock, without par valueDTENew York Stock Exchange
DTE Energy2017 Series E 5.25% Junior Subordinated Debentures due 2077DTWNew York Stock Exchange
DTE Energy2020 Series G 4.375% Junior Subordinated Debentures due 2080DTBNew York Stock Exchange
DTE Energy2021 Series E 4.375% Junior Subordinated Debentures due 2081DTG
New York Stock Exchange
DTE Electric Company
(DTE Electric)
NoneNone
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
DTE Energy
None
DTE Electric
None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
DTE Energy
Yes
No
DTE Electric
Yes
No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
DTE Energy
Yes
No
DTE Electric
Yes
No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
DTE Energy
Yes
No
DTE Electric
Yes
No



Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).
DTE Energy
Yes
No
DTE Electric
Yes
No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
DTE EnergyLarge accelerated filerAccelerated filerNon-accelerated filerSmaller reporting companyEmerging growth company
DTE ElectricLarge accelerated filerAccelerated filerNon-accelerated filerSmaller reporting companyEmerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
DTE Energy
Yes
No
DTE Electric
Yes
No
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflects the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.
DTE Energy
DTE Electric
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive based compensation received by any of the registrants' executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).
DTE Energy
DTE Electric
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).
DTE Energy
Yes
No
DTE Electric
Yes
No
On June 30, 2023, the aggregate market value of DTE Energy's voting and non voting common equity held by non-affiliates was approximately $22.6 billion (based on the New York Stock Exchange closing price on such date).
Number of shares of Common Stock outstanding at January 31, 2024:
RegistrantDescriptionShares
DTE EnergyCommon Stock, without par value206,452,985 
DTE ElectricCommon Stock, $10 par value, indirectly-owned by DTE Energy138,632,324 
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Certain information in DTE Energy's definitive Proxy Statement for its 2024 Annual Meeting of Common Shareholders to be held May 2, 2024, which will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Regulation 14A, not later than 120 days after the end of the Registrants' fiscal year covered by this report on Form 10-K, is incorporated herein by reference to Part III (Items 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14) of this Form 10-K.
This combined Form 10-K is filed separately by two registrants: DTE Energy and DTE Electric. Information contained herein relating to any individual registrant is filed by such registrant solely on its own behalf. DTE Electric makes no representation as to information relating exclusively to DTE Energy.
DTE Electric, an indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of DTE Energy, meets the conditions set forth in General Instructions I(1)(a) and (b) of Form 10-K and is therefore filing this form with the reduced disclosure format specified in General Instruction I(2) of Form 10-K.







TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules


AFUDCAllowance for Funds Used During Construction
ASUAccounting Standards Update issued by the FASB
CADCanadian Dollar (C$)
CARBCalifornia Air Resources Board that administers California's Low Carbon Fuel Standard
Carbon emissionsEmissions of carbon containing compounds, including carbon dioxide and methane, that are identified as greenhouse gases
CCRCoal Combustion Residuals
CFTCU.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission
COVID-19Coronavirus disease of 2019
DOEU.S. Department of Energy
DTE ElectricDTE Electric Company (an indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of DTE Energy) and subsidiary companies
DTE EnergyDTE Energy Company, directly or indirectly the parent of DTE Electric, DTE Gas, and numerous non-utility subsidiaries
DTE GasDTE Gas Company (an indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of DTE Energy) and subsidiary companies
DTE Securitization I
DTE Electric Securitization Funding I, LLC, a special purpose entity wholly-owned by DTE Electric. The entity was created to issue securitization bonds for qualified costs related to the River Rouge generation plant and tree trimming surge program and to recover debt service costs from DTE Electric customers
DTE Securitization II
DTE Electric Securitization Funding II, LLC, a special purpose entity wholly-owned by DTE Electric. The entity was created to issue securitization bonds for qualified costs related to the St. Clair and Trenton Channel generation plants and to recover debt service costs from DTE Electric customers
DTE Sustainable GenerationDTE Sustainable Generation Holdings, LLC (an indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of DTE Energy) and subsidiary companies
DT MidstreamDT Midstream, Inc., formerly DTE Energy's natural gas pipeline, storage, and gathering non-utility business comprising the Gas Storage and Pipelines segment and certain DTE Energy holding company activity in the Corporate and Other segment, which separated from DTE Energy and became an independent public company on July 1, 2021
EGLEMichigan Department of Environment, Great Lakes, and Energy, formerly known as Michigan Department of Environmental Quality
ELGEffluent Limitations Guidelines
EPAU.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Equity units
DTE Energy's 2019 equity units issued in November 2019, which were used to finance the former Gas Storage and Pipelines segment acquisition on December 4, 2019
EWREnergy Waste Reduction program, which includes a mechanism authorized by the MPSC allowing DTE Electric and DTE Gas to recover through rates certain costs relating to energy waste reduction
FASBFinancial Accounting Standards Board
FERCFederal Energy Regulatory Commission
FGDFlue Gas Desulfurization
FOVFinding of Violation
FTRsFinancial Transmission Rights are financial instruments that entitle the holder to receive payments related to costs incurred for congestion on the transmission grid
GCRA Gas Cost Recovery mechanism authorized by the MPSC that allows DTE Gas to recover through rates its natural gas costs
1

GHGsGreenhouse gases
Green Bond
A financing option to fund projects that have a positive environmental impact based upon a specified set of criteria. The proceeds are required to be used for eligible green expenditures
Interconnection sales
Sales of power by DTE Electric into the energy market through MISO, generally resulting from excess generation compared to customer demand
IRSInternal Revenue Service
ISOIndependent System Operator
LLCDTE Energy Corporate Services, LLC, a subsidiary of DTE Energy
MGPManufactured Gas Plant
MISOMidcontinent Independent System Operator, Inc.
MPSCMichigan Public Service Commission
MTMMark-to-market
NAVNet Asset Value
NEILNuclear Electric Insurance Limited
Net zeroGoal for DTE Energy's utility operations and gas suppliers at DTE Gas that any carbon emissions put into the atmosphere will be balanced by those taken out of the atmosphere. Achieving this goal will include collective efforts to reduce carbon emissions and actions to offset any remaining emissions. Progress towards net zero goals is estimated and methodologies and calculations may vary from those of other utility businesses with similar targets
Non-utilityAn entity that is not a public utility. Its conditions of service, prices of goods and services, and other operating related matters are not directly regulated by the MPSC
NOX
Nitrogen Oxides
NPDESNational Pollutant Discharge Elimination System
NRCU.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission
PLDCity of Detroit's Public Lighting Department
PSCRA Power Supply Cost Recovery mechanism authorized by the MPSC that allows DTE Electric to recover through rates its fuel, fuel-related, and purchased power costs
RECRenewable Energy Credit
REFReduced Emissions Fuel
RegistrantsDTE Energy and DTE Electric
Retail accessMichigan legislation provided customers the option of access to alternative suppliers for electricity and natural gas
RPSRenewable Portfolio Standard program, which includes a mechanism authorized by the MPSC allowing DTE Electric to recover through rates its renewable energy costs
RTORegional Transmission Organization
SECSecurities and Exchange Commission
SO2
Sulfur Dioxide
SOFRSecured Overnight Financing Rate
TCJATax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017, which reduced the corporate Federal income tax rate from 35% to 21%
Topic 606FASB issued ASU No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, as amended
Topic 842FASB issued ASU No, 2016-02, Leases, as amended
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TRIATerrorism Risk Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of 2015
TRMA Transitional Reconciliation Mechanism authorized by the MPSC that allows DTE Electric to recover through rates the deferred net incremental revenue requirement associated with the transition of PLD customers to DTE Electric's distribution system
USDUnited States Dollar ($)
VEBAVoluntary Employees Beneficiary Association
VIEVariable Interest Entity
Units of Measurement
BcfBillion cubic feet of natural gas
BTUBritish thermal unit, heat value (energy content) of fuel
kWh
Kilowatt-hour of electricity
MDth/dMillion dekatherms per day
MMBtuOne million BTU
MWMegawatt of electricity
MWhMegawatt-hour of electricity

3

FILING FORMAT
This combined Form 10-K is separately filed by DTE Energy and DTE Electric. Information in this combined Form 10-K relating to each individual Registrant is filed by such Registrant on its own behalf. DTE Electric makes no representation regarding information relating to any other companies affiliated with DTE Energy other than its own subsidiaries. Neither DTE Energy, nor any of DTE Energy’s other subsidiaries (other than DTE Electric), has any obligation in respect of DTE Electric's debt securities, and holders of such debt securities should not consider the financial resources or results of operations of DTE Energy nor any of DTE Energy’s other subsidiaries (other than DTE Electric and its own subsidiaries (in relevant circumstances)) in making a decision with respect to DTE Electric's debt securities. Similarly, none of DTE Electric nor any other subsidiary of DTE Energy has any obligation with respect to debt securities of DTE Energy. This combined Form 10-K should be read in its entirety. No one section of this combined Form 10-K deals with all aspects of the subject matter of this combined Form 10-K.

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
Certain information presented herein includes "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 with respect to the financial condition, results of operations, and businesses of the Registrants. Words such as "anticipate," "believe," "expect," "may," "could," "projected," "aspiration," "plans," and "goals" signify forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future results and conditions, but rather are subject to numerous assumptions, risks, and uncertainties that may cause actual future results to be materially different from those contemplated, projected, estimated, or budgeted. Many factors may impact forward-looking statements of the Registrants including, but not limited to, the following:
impact of regulation by the EPA, EGLE, the FERC, the MPSC, the NRC, and for DTE Energy, the CFTC and CARB, as well as other applicable governmental proceedings and regulations, including any associated impact on rate structures;
the amount and timing of cost recovery allowed as a result of regulatory proceedings, related appeals, or new legislation, including legislative amendments and retail access programs;
economic conditions and population changes in the Registrants' geographic area resulting in changes in demand, customer conservation, and thefts of electricity and, for DTE Energy, natural gas;
the operational failure of electric or gas distribution systems or infrastructure;
impact of volatility in prices in the international steel markets and in prices of environmental attributes generated from renewable natural gas investments on the operations of DTE Vantage;
the risk of a major safety incident;
environmental issues, laws, regulations, and the increasing costs of remediation and compliance, including actual and potential new federal and state requirements;
the cost of protecting assets and customer data against, or damage due to, cyber incidents and terrorism;
health, safety, financial, environmental, and regulatory risks associated with ownership and operation of nuclear facilities;
volatility in commodity markets, deviations in weather, and related risks impacting the results of DTE Energy's energy trading operations;
changes in the cost and availability of coal and other raw materials, purchased power, and natural gas;
advances in technology that produce power, store power, or reduce power consumption;
changes in the financial condition of significant customers and strategic partners;
the potential for losses on investments, including nuclear decommissioning and benefit plan assets and the related increases in future expense and contributions;
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access to capital markets and the results of other financing efforts which can be affected by credit agency ratings;
instability in capital markets which could impact availability of short and long-term financing;
impacts of inflation and the timing and extent of changes in interest rates;
the level of borrowings;
the potential for increased costs or delays in completion of significant capital projects;
changes in, and application of, federal, state, and local tax laws and their interpretations, including the Internal Revenue Code, regulations, rulings, court proceedings, and audits;
the effects of weather and other natural phenomena, including climate change, on operations and sales to customers, and purchases from suppliers;
unplanned outages at our generation plants;
employee relations and the impact of collective bargaining agreements;
the availability, cost, coverage, and terms of insurance and stability of insurance providers;
cost reduction efforts and the maximization of generation and distribution system performance;
the effects of competition;
changes in and application of accounting standards and financial reporting regulations;
changes in federal or state laws and their interpretation with respect to regulation, energy policy, and other business issues;
successful execution of new business development and future growth plans;
contract disputes, binding arbitration, litigation, and related appeals;
the ability of the electric and gas utilities to achieve goals for carbon emission reductions; and
the risks discussed in the Registrants' public filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission.
New factors emerge from time to time. The Registrants cannot predict what factors may arise or how such factors may cause results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statement. Any forward-looking statements speak only as of the date on which such statements are made. The Registrants undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statement to reflect events or circumstances after the date on which such statement is made or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events.

5

Part I
Items 1. and 2. Business and Properties
General
In 1995, DTE Energy incorporated in the State of Michigan. DTE Energy's utility operations consist primarily of DTE Electric and DTE Gas. DTE Energy also has two other segments that are engaged in a variety of energy-related businesses.
DTE Electric is a Michigan corporation organized in 1903 and is an indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of DTE Energy. DTE Electric is a public utility engaged in the generation, purchase, distribution, and sale of electricity to approximately 2.3 million customers in southeastern Michigan.
DTE Gas is a Michigan corporation organized in 1898 and is an indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of DTE Energy. DTE Gas is a public utility engaged in the purchase, storage, transportation, distribution, and sale of natural gas to approximately 1.3 million customers throughout Michigan and the sale of storage and transportation capacity.
DTE Energy's other businesses include 1) DTE Vantage which is primarily involved in renewable natural gas projects and providing custom energy solutions to industrial, commercial, and institutional customers, and 2) energy marketing and trading operations.
DTE Electric and DTE Gas are regulated by the MPSC. Certain activities of DTE Electric and DTE Gas, as well as various other aspects of businesses under DTE Energy, are regulated by the FERC. In addition, the Registrants are regulated by other federal and state regulatory agencies including the NRC, the EPA, EGLE, and for DTE Energy, the CFTC and CARB.
The Registrants' annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, proxy statements, and all amendments to such reports are available free of charge through the Investor Relations SEC Filings page of DTE Energy's website: www.dteenergy.com, as soon as reasonably practicable after they are filed with or furnished to the SEC.
The DTE Energy Code of Ethics and Standards of Behavior, Board of Directors’ Mission and Guidelines, Board Committee Charters, and Categorical Standards for Director Independence are also posted on the DTE Energy website. The information on DTE Energy’s website is not part of this report or any other report that DTE Energy files with, or furnishes to, the SEC.
Additionally, the public may read and copy any materials the Registrants file electronically with the SEC at www.sec.gov.
Corporate Structure
DTE Energy sets strategic goals, allocates resources, and evaluates performance based on the following structure. For financial information by segment for the last three years, see Note 22 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, "Segment and Related Information."
Electric
The Electric segment consists principally of DTE Electric, which is engaged in the generation, purchase, distribution, and sale of electricity to approximately 2.3 million residential, commercial, and industrial customers in southeastern Michigan.
Gas
The Gas segment consists principally of DTE Gas, which is engaged in the purchase, storage, transportation, distribution, and sale of natural gas to approximately 1.3 million residential, commercial, and industrial customers throughout Michigan and the sale of storage and transportation capacity.
Non-utility Operations
DTE Vantage is comprised primarily of renewable energy projects that sell electricity and pipeline-quality gas and projects that deliver custom energy solutions to industrial, commercial, and institutional customers.
Energy Trading consists of energy marketing and trading operations.
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Corporate and Other
Corporate and Other includes various holding company activities, holds certain non-utility debt, and holds certain investments, including funds supporting regional development and economic growth.
Org Chart.jpg
Refer to Management’s Discussion and Analysis in Item 7 of this Report for an in-depth analysis of each segment’s financial results. A description of each business unit follows.

ELECTRIC
Description
DTE Energy's Electric segment consists principally of DTE Electric, an electric utility engaged in the generation, purchase, distribution, and sale of electricity to approximately 2.3 million customers in southeastern Michigan. DTE Electric is regulated by numerous federal and state governmental agencies, including, but not limited to, the MPSC, the FERC, the NRC, the EPA, and EGLE. Electricity is primarily generated by two coal-fired plants, a combined cycle natural gas plant, a hydroelectric pumped storage plant, a nuclear plant, wind and solar assets, and is supplemented with purchased power. The electricity is sold, or distributed through the retail access program, to three major classes of customers: residential, commercial, and industrial, throughout southeastern Michigan.
Weather, economic factors, competition, energy waste reduction initiatives, and electricity prices affect sales levels to customers. DTE Electric's peak load and highest total system sales generally occur during the third quarter of the year, driven by air conditioning and other cooling-related demands. DTE Electric's operations are not dependent upon a limited number of customers, and the loss of any one or a few customers would not have a material adverse effect on the results of DTE Electric.
The Electric segment also includes non-utility operations relating to renewable energy projects at DTE Sustainable Generation, which were acquired to support DTE Energy's renewable energy goals.
For a summary of Electric segment operating revenues by service, see Note 5 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, "Revenue."
Fuel Supply and Purchased Power
DTE Electric's power is generated primarily from a variety of fuels and is supplemented with renewable generation and purchased power. DTE Electric expects to have an adequate supply of power to meet its obligation to serve customers. DTE Electric's generating capability is largely dependent upon the availability of coal and natural gas.
Coal is purchased from various sources in different geographic areas under agreements that vary in both pricing and terms. DTE Electric expects to obtain the majority of its coal requirements through long-term contracts, with the balance to be obtained through short-term agreements and spot purchases. DTE Electric has long-term and short-term contracts for the purchase of approximately 8.6 million tons of low-sulfur western coal and approximately 1.0 million tons of Appalachian coal to be delivered from 2024 to 2025. All of these contracts have pricing schedules. DTE Electric has 97% of its expected coal requirements under contract for 2024. DTE Electric leases a fleet of rail cars and has the expected western and eastern coal rail requirements under multi-year contracts. DTE Electric's 2024 rail transportation is covered under long-term agreements. DTE Electric expects to cover all of its 2024 vessel transportation requirements for delivery of purchased coal to electric generating facilities through existing agreements.
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DTE Electric's natural gas supply requirements are expected to be met through a combination of short and long-term agreements, agreements with local distribution companies, and spot market purchases. Natural gas purchase requirements for 2024 are expected to be approximately 63 Bcf. DTE Electric has contracts for firm gas transportation and storage capacity to ensure reliable and flexible gas supply to its power plants. Given the geographic diversity of supply, DTE Electric believes it can meet its expected generation requirements.
DTE Electric participates in the energy market through MISO. DTE Electric offers its generation in the market on a day-ahead and real-time basis and bids for power in the market to serve its load. DTE Electric is a net purchaser of power that supplements its generation capability to meet customer demand during peak cycles or during major plant outages.
Properties
DTE Electric owns generating facilities that are located in the State of Michigan. Substantially all of DTE Electric's property is subject to the lien of a mortgage.
Generating facilities owned and in service as of December 31, 2023 for the electric segment are shown in the following table:
Location by
Michigan
County
Net Generation Capacity(a)
FacilityYear in Service(MW)
Fossil-fueled Steam-Electric
Coal
Monroe(b)
Monroe1971, 1973, and 19743,066 
Belle River(c)
St. Clair1984 and 19851,034 
Natural Gas/Oil
GreenwoodSt. Clair1979785 
Natural Gas/Combined Cycle
Blue Water Energy CenterSt. Clair20221,143 
DearbornWayne201935 
6,063 
Natural gas and Oil-fueled Peaking UnitsVarious1966-1971, 1981, 1999, 2002, and 20031,969 
Nuclear-fueled Steam-Electric Fermi 2Monroe19881,141 
Hydroelectric Pumped Storage Ludington(d)
Mason19731,122 
Renewables(e)
Wind UtilityVarious
2011-2023
1,491 
Wind Non-UtilityVarious2019 and 2020106 
Solar UtilityVarious2010-202165 
Solar Non-UtilityDelta2019 and 2022
1,664 
11,959 
_______________________________________
(a)Represents summer net rating for all units with the exception of renewable facilities. The summer net rating is based on operating experience, the physical condition of units, environmental control limitations, and customer requirements for steam, which would otherwise be used for electric generation. Wind and solar facilities reflect name plate capacity measured in alternating current.
(b)The Monroe generating plant provided 32% of DTE Electric’s total 2023 power plant generation.
(c)Represents DTE Electric's 81% interest in Belle River with a total capability of 1,270 MW. See Note 7 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, "Jointly-Owned Utility Plant."
(d)Represents DTE Electric’s 49% interest in Ludington with a total capability of 2,290 MW. See Note 7 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, "Jointly-Owned Utility Plant."
(e)In addition to the owned renewable facilities described above, DTE Electric has long-term contracts for 560 MW of renewable power generated from wind, solar, and biomass facilities. Of that amount, currently 52 MW relates to power purchase agreements with DTE Sustainable Generation.
See "Capital Investments" in Management's Discussion and Analysis in Item 7 of this Report for information regarding plant retirements and future capital expenditures.
DTE Electric owns and operates 701 distribution substations with a capacity of approximately 37,650,000 kilovolt-amperes (kVA) and approximately 453,700 line transformers with a capacity of approximately 33,359,000 kVA.
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Circuit miles of electric distribution lines owned and in service as of December 31, 2023 are shown in the following table:
Circuit Miles
Operating Voltage-Kilovolts (kV)OverheadUnderground
4.8 kV to 13.2 kV28,556 13,454 
24 kV170 701 
40 kV2,338 445 
120 kV58 
31,122 14,608 
There are numerous interconnections that allow the interchange of electricity between DTE Electric and electricity providers external to the DTE Electric service area. These interconnections are generally owned and operated by ITC Transmission, an unrelated company, and connect to neighboring energy companies.
Regulation
DTE Electric is subject to the regulatory jurisdiction of various agencies, including, but not limited to, the MPSC, the FERC, and the NRC. The MPSC issues orders pertaining to rates, recovery of certain costs, including the costs of generating facilities and regulatory assets, conditions of service, accounting, and operating-related matters. DTE Electric's MPSC-approved rates charged to customers have historically been designed to allow for the recovery of costs, plus an authorized rate of return on investments. The FERC regulates DTE Electric with respect to financing authorization, wholesale electric market activities, certain affiliate transactions, the acquisition and disposition of certain generation and other facilities, and, in conjunction with the NERC, compliance with mandatory reliability standards. The NRC has regulatory jurisdiction over all phases of the operation, construction, licensing, and decommissioning of DTE Electric's nuclear plant operations. DTE Electric is subject to the requirements of other regulatory agencies with respect to safety, the environment, and health.
See Notes 8, 9, 12, 18, and 19 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, "Asset Retirement Obligations," "Regulatory Matters," "Fair Value," "Commitments and Contingencies," and " Nuclear Operations."
Energy Assistance Programs
Energy assistance programs, funded by the federal government and the State of Michigan, remain critical to DTE Electric’s ability to control its uncollectible accounts receivable and collections expenses. DTE Electric’s uncollectible accounts receivable expense is directly affected by the level of government-funded assistance that qualifying customers receive. DTE Electric works continuously with the State of Michigan and others to determine whether the share of funding allocated to customers is representative of the number of low-income individuals in the service territory. DTE Electric also partners with federal, state, and local officials to attempt to increase the share of low-income funding allocated to customers.
Strategy and Competition
DTE Electric's electrical generation operations seek to provide the energy needs of customers in a cost-effective manner and support DTE Energy's goal to reduce carbon emissions by 65% in 2028, 85% in 2032, and 90% by 2040 from 2005 carbon emissions levels, as well as net zero emissions by 2050. With potential capacity constraints in the MISO region, there will be increased dependency on DTE Electric's generation to provide reliable service and price stability for customers.
Additionally, as a result of legislation passed by the state of Michigan in the fourth quarter 2023, DTE Electric will be required to meet a 100% clean energy portfolio standard by 2040. Clean energy sources include renewables, nuclear, and natural gas-fired plants, provided such plants utilize a carbon capture and storage system that is at least 90% effective to offset carbon emissions. The legislation also requires 50% of an electric utility's energy to be generated from renewable sources by 2030 and 60% by 2035. DTE Electric is currently assessing the impacts of this legislation and will include updates in its next Integrated Resource Plan to comply with the new requirements.
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To maintain reliability and meet carbon reduction goals in the near-term, DTE Electric will continue its energy waste reduction initiatives and transition away from coal-fired plants to renewable energy and other sources, including leveraging existing infrastructure at the Belle River power plant through a coal to natural gas conversion. To achieve long-term carbon reduction goals, DTE Electric plans to end the use of coal-fired power plants in 2032 and plans significant investments in solar, wind, and battery storage. DTE Electric expects this transition to renewables and natural gas to reduce future operating and fuel costs. DTE Electric will also continue to monitor the advancement of emerging technologies such as long-duration storage, modular nuclear reactors, hydrogen, and carbon capture and sequestration, and how these technologies may support clean, reliable generation and customer affordability.
DTE Electric's distribution operations focus is on distributing energy in a safe, cost-effective, and reliable manner to customers. An increasing intensity of wind storms and other weather events, coupled with increasing electric vehicle adoption, will drive a continued need for substantial grid investment over the long-term. DTE Electric is hardening and upgrading its infrastructure and has plans to build substations to provide additional capacity as customers shift to more electrification, including electric vehicles. DTE Electric seeks to increase operational efficiencies to maintain rate affordability and increase reliability and customer satisfaction through accelerated tree trimming, pole maintenance, enhanced grid automation to reduce outage duration, and increased underground distribution.
To enhance customer affordability, DTE Electric is also working to optimize opportunities from the Inflation Reduction Act to generate production tax credits for wind and solar production and existing nuclear generation, as well as investment tax credits for solar and energy storage. DTE Electric expects these tax credits to reduce the cost of owning assets that support its clean energy transition, thereby reducing customer rate impacts from any future cost recoveries.
The electric retail access program in Michigan gives electric customers the option of retail access to alternative electric suppliers, subject to limits. Energy legislation enacted by the State of Michigan has placed a 10% cap on total retail access. This cap mitigates some of the unfavorable effects of electric retail access on DTE Electric's financial performance and full-service customer rates. Customers with retail access to alternative electric suppliers consist primarily of industrial and commercial customers and represented approximately 10% of retail sales in 2023, 2022, and 2021. DTE Electric expects that customers with retail access to alternative electric suppliers will remain at approximately 10% of retail sales in 2024 and future years.
Competition in the regulated electric distribution business is primarily from the on-site generation of industrial customers and from distributed generation applications by industrial and commercial customers. DTE Electric does not expect significant competition for distribution to any group of customers in the near term.
Revenues from year to year will vary due to weather conditions, economic factors, regulatory events, and other risk factors as discussed in the "Risk Factors" in Item 1A. of this Report.

GAS
Description
DTE Energy's Gas segment consists principally of DTE Gas, a natural gas utility engaged in the purchase, storage, transportation, distribution, and sale of natural gas to approximately 1.3 million residential, commercial, and industrial customers throughout Michigan, and the sale of storage and transportation capacity.
DTE Gas' natural gas sales, end-user transportation, and intermediate transportation volumes, revenues, and Net Income are impacted by weather. Given the seasonal nature of the business, revenues and earnings are concentrated in the first and fourth quarters of the calendar year. By the end of the first quarter, the heating season is largely over, and DTE Gas typically realizes substantially reduced revenues and earnings in the second quarter, and losses in the third quarter. The impacts of changes in annual average customer usage may be minimized by Revenue Decoupling Mechanisms authorized by the MPSC.
DTE Gas operations are not dependent upon a limited number of customers, and the loss of any one or a few customers would not have a material adverse effect on the results of DTE Gas.
For a summary of Gas segment operating revenues by service, see Note 5 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, "Revenue."
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Natural Gas Supply
DTE Gas' gas distribution system has a planned maximum daily send-out capacity of 2.4 Bcf, with approximately 65% of the volume coming from underground storage for 2023. Peak-use requirements are met through utilization of storage facilities, pipeline transportation capacity, and purchased gas supplies. Because of the geographic diversity of supply and its pipeline transportation and storage capacity, DTE Gas is able to reliably meet supply requirements. DTE Gas believes natural gas supply and pipeline capacity will be sufficiently available to meet market demands in the foreseeable future.
DTE Gas purchases natural gas supplies in the open market by contracting with producers and marketers and maintains a diversified portfolio of natural gas supply contracts. Supplier, producing region, quantity, and available transportation diversify DTE Gas' natural gas supply base. Natural gas supply is obtained from various sources in different geographic areas (Appalachian, Gulf Coast, Mid-Continent, Canada, and Michigan) under agreements that vary in both pricing and terms. Gas supply pricing is generally tied to the New York Mercantile Exchange and published price indices to approximate current market prices combined with MPSC-approved fixed price supplies with varying terms and volumes through 2026.
DTE Gas is directly connected to interstate pipelines, providing access to most of the major natural gas supply producing regions in the Appalachian, Gulf Coast, Mid-Continent, and Canadian regions. The primary long-term transportation supply contracts at December 31, 2023 are listed below.
Availability
(MDth/d)
Contract
Expiration
Vector Pipeline L.P.182025
Viking Gas Transmission Company212027
Great Lakes Gas Transmission L.P.332028
ANR Pipeline Company1742028
Panhandle Eastern Pipeline Company802029
NEXUS Pipeline752033
Properties
DTE Gas owns distribution, storage, and transportation properties that are located in the State of Michigan. The distribution system includes approximately 21,000 miles of distribution mains, approximately 1.2 million service pipelines, and approximately 1.3 million active meters. DTE Gas also owns approximately 2,000 miles of transmission pipelines that deliver natural gas to the distribution districts and interconnect DTE Gas storage fields with the sources of supply and the market areas.
DTE Gas owns storage properties relating to four underground natural gas storage fields with an aggregate working gas storage capacity of approximately 139 Bcf. These facilities are important in providing reliable and cost-effective service to DTE Gas customers. In addition, DTE Gas sells storage services to third parties.
Most of DTE Gas' distribution and transportation property is located on property owned by others and used by DTE Gas through easements, permits, or licenses. Substantially all of DTE Gas' property is subject to the lien of a mortgage.
DTE Gas leases a portion of its pipeline system through a finance lease arrangement. See Note 17 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, "Leases."
Regulation
DTE Gas is subject to the regulatory jurisdiction of the MPSC, which issues orders pertaining to rates, recovery of certain costs, including the costs of regulatory assets, conditions of service, accounting, and operating-related matters. DTE Gas' MPSC-approved rates charged to customers have historically been designed to allow for the recovery of costs, plus an authorized rate of return on investments. DTE Gas operates natural gas storage and transportation facilities in Michigan as intrastate facilities regulated by the MPSC and provides intrastate storage and transportation services pursuant to a MPSC-approved tariff.
DTE Gas also provides interstate storage and transportation services in accordance with an Operating Statement on file with the FERC. The FERC's jurisdiction is limited and extends to the rates, non-discriminatory requirements, and the terms and conditions applicable to storage and transportation provided by DTE Gas in interstate markets. FERC granted DTE Gas authority to provide storage and related services in interstate commerce at market-based rates. DTE Gas provides transportation services in interstate commerce at cost-based rates approved by the MPSC and filed with the FERC.
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DTE Gas is subject to the requirements of other regulatory agencies with respect to safety, the environment, and health.
See Notes 9 and 18 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, "Regulatory Matters" and "Commitments and Contingencies."
Energy Assistance Programs
Energy assistance programs, funded by the federal government and the State of Michigan, remain critical to DTE Gas' ability to control its uncollectible accounts receivable and collections expenses. DTE Gas' uncollectible accounts receivable expense is directly affected by the level of government-funded assistance its qualifying customers receive. DTE Gas works continuously with the State of Michigan and others to determine whether the share of funding allocated to customers is representative of the number of low-income individuals in the service territory. DTE Gas also partners with federal, state, and local officials to attempt to increase the share of low-income funding allocated to customers.
Strategy and Competition
DTE Gas' strategy is to ensure the safe, reliable, and cost-effective delivery of natural gas service within its franchised markets in Michigan. In addition, DTE Gas is promoting the extension of its distribution system to underserved markets and the increased use of natural gas furnaces, water heaters, and appliances within its current customer base. DTE Gas continues to focus on the reduction of operating costs and the delivery of energy waste reduction products and services to its customers, making natural gas service the preferred fuel and even more affordable for its customers.
Competition in the gas business primarily involves other natural gas transportation providers, as well as providers of alternative fuels and energy sources. The primary focus of competition for end-user transportation is cost and reliability. Some large commercial and industrial customers have the ability to switch to alternative fuel sources such as coal, electricity, oil, and steam. If these customers were to choose an alternative fuel source, they would not have a need for DTE Gas' end-user transportation service. DTE Gas competes against alternative fuel sources by providing competitive pricing and reliable service, supported by its storage capacity.
Having an extensive transportation pipeline system has enabled marketing of DTE Gas' storage and transportation services to gas producers, marketers, distribution companies, end-user customers, and other pipeline companies. The business operates in a central geographic location with connections to major Midwestern interstate pipelines that extend throughout the Midwest, eastern United States, and eastern Canada.
DTE Gas' storage capacity is used to store natural gas for delivery to its customers and is also sold to third parties under a variety of arrangements. Prices are influenced primarily by market conditions, weather, and natural gas pricing.
DTE Energy plans to reduce the carbon emissions from its gas utility operations by 65% by 2030 and 80% by 2040, and is committed to a goal of net zero carbon emissions by 2050 from internal gas operations and gas suppliers. To achieve net zero, DTE Gas is working to source gas with lower methane intensity, reduce emissions through its main renewal and pipeline integrity programs, and if necessary, use carbon offsets to address any remaining emissions. DTE Energy also aims to help DTE Gas customers reduce their emissions by approximately 35% by 2040 by increasing energy efficiency, pursuing advanced technologies such as hydrogen and carbon capture and sequestration, and through the CleanVision Natural Gas Balance program which provides customers the option to use carbon offsets and renewable natural gas.

DTE VANTAGE
Description
DTE Vantage is comprised primarily of renewable energy projects that sell electricity and pipeline-quality gas and projects that deliver customer energy solutions to industrial, commercial, and institutional customers. This business segment provides services using project assets usually located on or near the customers' premises in the agricultural, steel, automotive, airport, chemical, and other industries as follows:
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Renewable Energy
Renewable Gas Recovery — DTE Vantage has ownership interests in, and operates, twenty-two gas recovery sites in nine states. The sites recover methane from landfills and agricultural businesses and convert the gas to generate electricity and replace fossil fuels in industrial and manufacturing operations. Certain sites also refine the methane to produce pipeline-quality gas and generate environmental attributes, including environmental credits from California's Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) and the federal Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS), and in some cases may generate tax credits. The gas is then sold to off-takers, along with the environmental attributes, to be used as low carbon transportation fuel.
Wholesale Power and Renewables — DTE Vantage holds ownership interests in, and operates, three renewable generating plants with a capacity of 114 MWs. The electric output is sold under long-term power purchase agreements.
Custom Energy Solutions
On-Site Energy — DTE Vantage provides power generation, steam production, chilled water production, wastewater treatment, and compressed air supply to industrial customers. DTE Vantage also provides utility-type services using project assets usually located on or near the customers' premises in the automotive, airport, chemical, and other industries.
Steel and Petroleum Coke — DTE Vantage produces metallurgical coke from a coke battery with a capacity of 1 million tons per year and has an investment in a second coke battery with a capacity of 1.2 million tons per year. DTE Vantage supplies metallurgical and petroleum coke to the steel and other industries.
Emerging Ventures
Carbon Capture and Sequestration — DTE Vantage is currently developing multiple carbon capture projects across the United States to help customers reduce their emissions and meet their evolving environmental commitments. This process captures carbon dioxide from industrial emitters and transports it to sequestration sites where it is injected deep underground, preventing release into the atmosphere.
Properties and Other
The following are significant properties owned by DTE Vantage as of December 31, 2023:
Business AreasLocationService Type
Renewable Energy
Renewable Gas RecoveryAZ, CA, MI, NC, OH, SD, TX, UT, and WIElectric Generation and Renewable Natural Gas
Wholesale Power and Renewables
CA
Electric Generation
Custom Energy Solutions
On-Site Energy
AutomotiveIN, MI, NY, and OHElectric Distribution, Chilled Water, Wastewater, Steam, Cooling Tower Water, Reverse Osmosis Water, Compressed Air, Mist, and Dust Collectors
AirportsMI and PAElectricity and Hot and Chilled Water
Chemical ManufacturingKY and OHElectricity, Steam, Natural Gas, Compressed Air, and Wastewater
Consumer ManufacturingOHElectricity, Steam, Wastewater, and Sewer
Hospital and UniversityCA and ILElectricity, Steam, and Chilled Water
Casino and GamingNJElectricity, Steam, and Chilled Water
Steel and Petroleum Coke
Coke ProductionMI Metallurgical Coke Supply
Other Investment in Coke Production and Petroleum CokeIN and MSMetallurgical Coke Supply and Pulverized Petroleum Coke
Regulation
Certain electric generating facilities within DTE Vantage have market-based rate authority from the FERC to sell power. The facilities are subject to FERC reporting requirements and market behavior rules. Certain projects of DTE Vantage are also subject to the applicable laws, rules, and regulations related to the EPA, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, DOE, CARB, and various state utility commissions.
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Strategy and Competition
DTE Vantage will continue leveraging its energy-related operating experience and project management capability to grow its renewable energy and custom energy solutions businesses and develop its carbon capture and sequestration business. DTE Vantage will also continue to pursue opportunities to provide asset management and operations services to third parties. There are limited competitors for DTE Vantage's existing disparate businesses who provide similar products and services. DTE Vantage's operations are dependent upon a limited number of customers, and the loss of any one or a few customers could have a material adverse effect on the results of DTE Vantage.
DTE Vantage anticipates building around its core strengths in the markets where it operates. In determining the markets in which to compete, DTE Vantage examines closely the regulatory and competitive environment, new and pending legislation, the number of competitors, and its ability to achieve sustainable margins. DTE Vantage plans to maximize the effectiveness of its related businesses as it expands, including optimizing tax credit opportunities from the Inflation Reduction Act related to renewable natural gas and carbon capture and sequestration.
DTE Vantage intends to focus on the following areas for growth:
Acquiring and developing renewable energy projects and other energy projects
Providing energy and utility-type services to commercial and industrial customers
Developing decarbonization opportunities related to carbon capture and sequestration projects

ENERGY TRADING
Description
Energy Trading focuses on physical and financial power, natural gas and environmental marketing and trading, structured transactions, enhancement of returns from its asset portfolio, and optimization of contracted natural gas pipeline transportation and storage positions. Energy Trading also provides natural gas, power, environmental and related services which may include the management of associated storage and transportation contracts on the customers’ behalf and the supply or purchase of environmental attributes to various customers. Energy Trading's customer base is predominantly utilities, local natural gas distribution companies, pipelines, producers and generators, and other marketing and trading companies. Energy Trading also provides commodity risk management services to the other businesses within DTE Energy.
Energy Trading enters into derivative financial instruments as part of its marketing and hedging activities. These financial instruments are generally accounted for under the MTM method, which results in the recognition in earnings of unrealized gains and losses from changes in the fair value of the derivatives. Energy Trading utilizes forwards, futures, swaps, and option contracts to mitigate risk associated with marketing and trading activity, as well as for proprietary trading within defined risk guidelines.
Significant portions of the Energy Trading portfolio are economically hedged. Most financial instruments, physical power and natural gas contracts, and certain environmental contracts are deemed derivatives; whereas, natural gas and environmental inventory, contracts for pipeline transportation, storage assets, and some environmental contracts are not derivatives. As a result, this segment will experience earnings volatility as derivatives are marked-to-market without revaluing the underlying non-derivative contracts and assets. The business’ strategy is to economically manage the price risk of these underlying non-derivative contracts and assets with futures, forwards, swaps, and options. This results in gains and losses that are recognized in different interim and annual accounting periods.
Regulation
Energy Trading has market-based rate authority from the FERC to sell power and blanket authority from the FERC to sell natural gas at market prices. Energy Trading is subject to FERC reporting requirements and market behavior rules. Energy Trading is also subject to the applicable laws, rules, and regulations related to the CFTC, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, and DOE. In addition, Energy Trading is subject to applicable laws, rules, and regulations in Canada.
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Strategy and Competition
DTE Energy's strategy for the Energy Trading business is to deliver value-added services to DTE Energy customers. DTE Energy seeks to manage this business in a manner complementary to the growth of DTE Energy's other business segments. Energy Trading focuses on physical marketing and the optimization of its portfolio of energy assets. The segment competes with electric and gas marketers, financial institutions, traders, utilities, and other energy providers. The Energy Trading business is dependent upon the availability of capital and an investment grade credit rating. DTE Energy believes it has ample available capital capacity to support Energy Trading activities. DTE Energy monitors its use of capital closely to ensure that its commitments do not exceed capacity. A material credit restriction would negatively impact Energy Trading's financial performance. Competitors with greater access to capital, or at a lower cost, may have a competitive advantage. DTE Energy has risk management and credit processes to monitor and mitigate risk.

CORPORATE AND OTHER
Corporate and Other includes various holding company activities, holds certain non-utility debt, and holds certain investments, including funds supporting regional development and economic growth.

ENVIRONMENTAL MATTERS
The Registrants are subject to extensive environmental regulation and expect to continue recovering environmental costs related to utility operations through rates charged to customers. The following table summarizes DTE Energy's, including DTE Electric's, estimated significant future environmental expenditures based upon current regulations. Pending or future reconsideration of current regulations may impact the estimated expenditures summarized in the table below. Actual costs to comply could vary substantially. Additional costs may result as the effects of various substances on the environment are studied and governmental regulations are developed and implemented.
DTE ElectricDTE GasTotal
(In millions)
Water$54 $— $54 
Contaminated and other sites13 20 
Coal combustion residuals and effluent limitations guidelines417 — 417 
Estimated total future expenditures through 2028$478 $13 $491 
Estimated 2024 expenditures$53 $$57 
Estimated 2025 expenditures$54 $$60 
For additional information regarding environmental matters, refer to Notes 8, 9, and 18 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, "Asset Retirement Obligations," "Regulatory Matters," and "Commitments and Contingencies."
HUMAN CAPITAL MANAGEMENT
DTE Energy and its subsidiaries had approximately 9,950 employees as of December 31, 2023, of which approximately 4,900 were represented by unions. DTE Electric had approximately 4,450 employees as of December 31, 2023, of which approximately 2,550 were represented by unions. The workforce is comprised almost entirely of full-time employees.
DTE Energy and utilities across the country are managing the turnover of our workforce due to a significant number of retirements expected in the next ten years - a period that will be impacted by major transformation of our business through technology investments, changes to our electric generation portfolio, and upgrades to our distribution infrastructure.
DTE Energy's non-represented workforce is also facing a transition period as a portion of employees are expected to separate from the company as a result of the voluntary separation incentive program announced in January 2024. For additional information, refer to the "Voluntary Separation Incentive Program" disclosure in Management's Discussion and Analysis in Item 7 of this report.
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Amidst these challenges, DTE Energy is working to build a culture of highly engaged employees with skills and expertise in engineering, technology, and skilled trades, which are in high demand and critical to our industry. DTE Energy has set strategic talent management objectives to attract and retain the best talent and build a culture of service excellence for both external and internal customers. DTE Energy has also set talent management objectives around employee diversity, equity, and inclusion; health, safety, and wellbeing; and market-competitive compensation and benefits, which are discussed further in the sections below. DTE Energy has put in place a comprehensive governance structure to ensure these strategic talent management objectives are met, which includes Board of Directors, Chief Executive Officer, and senior executive oversight of talent decisions.
DTE Energy also aims to deliver world-class leadership development and technical training. DTE Energy provides an internal learning platform that includes free instructor-led and online courses, learning-focused events with expert guest speakers, and a comprehensive development program for new front-line leaders. Training efforts and a focus on succession planning have been critical in supporting employees transitioning to new roles as coal-fired plants are retired and replaced with new, cleaner generation.
Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion (DEI)
DTE Energy is committed to building a diverse, empowered, and engaged team that delivers safe, reliable service and energy to our customers. A diverse workforce and inclusive culture contribute to DTE Energy's success and sustainability by driving innovation and creating trusted relationships with employees, customers, suppliers, and community partners. By tapping into the talent, unique perspectives, and cultural and life experiences of every employee, DTE Energy can ensure its continued success.
As of December 31, 2023, DTE Energy’s workforce was comprised of 28% women and 31% minorities. DTE Energy measures DEI performance by its workforce representation of women, minorities, veterans, and employees with disabilities, as well as the following:
Employee engagement, including specific elements that measure a culture of inclusion
Number of DEI related communications and events
Supplier diversity spend
Rankings and scores from DEI benchmarking surveys
Formal training programs, including unconscious bias training for employees and leaders
DTE Energy has an Inclusion and Diversity Team (IDT) to provide DEI oversight, focus on its strategic objectives, and accelerate our progress. The IDT committee, which is led by DTE Energy's Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, prioritizes an effective pipeline of underrepresented talent, works to create a speak-up culture that welcomes diverse voices, and makes DEI a defining and pervasive message in all of DTE Energy's communications. DTE Energy also has nine employee resource groups providing individuals with a shared interest or identity the opportunity to connect. The energy groups are an important component of DTE Energy's overall DEI strategy, providing opportunities for volunteering, skill building, mentoring, and cultural celebrations.
Health, Safety, and Wellbeing
The health, safety, and wellbeing of people is DTE Energy's top priority - for employees, contractors, customers, and everyone in the communities that DTE Energy serves. DTE Energy's health, safety, and wellbeing culture is maintained and strengthened with the help of multiple safety and wellbeing committees spanning all levels of the company. Members include union representatives, DTE Energy executives, office workers, and field employees.
Safety
DTE Energy empowers its employees to be responsible for their own safety and the safety of everyone around them, and has a culture where employees can stop the job any time they feel unsure or have questions. The use of pre-job briefs, safety standards, and regular training guides employees to identify hazardous work, categorize hazards according to risk, and mitigate the potential for any serious injuries.
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DTE Energy monitors its safety performance through many measures, with a primary focus on the rate of safety incidents, as defined by the Office of Safety and Health Administration ("OSHA rate"). All workplace injuries and incidents are documented thoroughly and reviewed for measures designed to prevent reoccurrence. The most serious injuries, those sustained as a result of a release of high-energy where a serious injury or fatality is sustained ("HSIF"), as well as those that had the potential to result in a serious injury or fatality ("PSIF"), are closely monitored and thoroughly investigated.
Culture of Health and Wellbeing
DTE Energy aspires to become the healthiest and most supportive organization of wellbeing. DTE Energy is focused on supporting employees holistically, including physical health, emotional wellbeing, social connectivity, and financial security. Resources are provided to promote and support healthier lifestyles, including an on-site clinic, fitness centers, on-site and virtual wellbeing classes, and a team of wellbeing coordinators, registered dieticians and athletic trainers. DTE Energy offers a Healthy Living Program to complete both an annual physical with biometric screenings and a Health Risk Assessment to ensure employees have a relationship with a trusted physician and early detection of health conditions. Additionally, DTE Energy offers extensive wellbeing education and disease management programs.
DTE Energy's Wellbeing Executive Leadership Committee (WELCOM) provides oversight of our culture of health and wellbeing strategy and monitors performance across various metrics including an Employer Health Opportunity Assessment, completion of required wellbeing trainings, and measurement of collective health of the DTE family including medical trends and spend. In 2023, DTE Energy was recognized as the winner of the C. Everett Koop National Health Award for best-in-class workplace health and wellbeing programs.
Compensation and Benefits
DTE Energy is committed to offering compensation that is competitive, market driven, and internally equitable. Approximately half of DTE Energy's employees are represented by labor unions through which pay is uniformly determined through collectively bargained agreements. For non-represented employees, DTE Energy's human resources professionals establish pay ranges for each job classification and work with hiring leaders to make competitive offers within the range to candidates based on objective factors like years of experience and extent of preferred qualifications, if applicable. Annually, DTE Energy conducts a review of compensation practices as part of its affirmative action program and makes adjustments as needed to ensure that pay is fair and equitable.
DTE Energy provides competitive, customizable benefits for all regular full-time and regular part-time employees. Innovative compensation and benefits initiatives at DTE Energy include:
A 401(k) plan/Employee Stock Ownership Plan that is available to all regular full-time and regular part-time employees, including automatic enrollment of new hires, automatic annual escalation of employee 401(k) contributions up to 10% of pay, and 401(k) matching contributions
Competitive health and welfare benefits
Child bonding/parental leave of absence
Additional vacation days available for employee purchase
Competitive incentive plans, which are offered to all non-represented employees to create alignment of corporate and individual goals
Incentive Plans
DTE Energy has two primary types of incentives that reward individuals for performance. The incentives are designed to tie compensation to performance and encourage individuals to align their interests with those of the shareholders and customers of the Company.
Annual incentive plans allow DTE Energy to reward individuals with annual cash bonuses for performance against pre-established objectives based on work performed in the prior year. Objectives are aligned with our core priorities and include metrics for employee engagement and safety, customer satisfaction, utility operating excellence, and financial metrics such as earnings per share and cash flows.
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Long-term incentive plans allow DTE Energy to grant individuals long-term equity incentives to encourage continued employment with DTE Energy, to accomplish pre-defined long-term performance objectives, and to create shareholder alignment. Metrics generally include total shareholder return relative to industry peers, utility return on equity, balance sheet health, and cumulative operating earnings per share.
For additional information on the metrics above, please see the "Annual and Long-term Incentives" section of DTE Energy's Proxy Statement.
Additionally, refer to DTE Energy’s annual Sustainability report for further information on metrics tracked for DEI, health and safety, and other components of DTE Energy’s human capital management. The report is available through the Environmental, Social, and Governance section of the Investor Relations page on DTE Energy’s website (www.dteenergy.com), and shall not be deemed incorporated by reference into this Form 10-K.

Item 1A. Risk Factors
There are various risks associated with the operations of the Registrants' utility businesses and DTE Energy's non-utility businesses. To provide a framework to understand the operating environment of the Registrants, below is a brief explanation of the more significant risks associated with their businesses. Although the Registrants have tried to identify and discuss key risk factors, others could emerge in the future. Each of the following risks could affect performance.
Regulatory, Legislative, and Legal Risks
The Registrants are subject to rate regulation. Electric and gas rates for the utilities are set by the MPSC and the FERC and cannot be changed without regulatory authorization. The Registrants may be negatively impacted by new regulations or interpretations by the MPSC, the FERC, or other regulatory bodies. The Registrants' ability to recover costs may be impacted by the time lag between the incurring of costs and the recovery of the costs in customers' rates. Regulators also may decide to disallow recovery of certain costs in customers' rates if they determine that those costs do not meet the standards for recovery under current governing laws and regulations. Regulators may also disagree with the Registrants' rate calculations under the various mechanisms that are intended to mitigate the risk to their utilities related to certain aspects of the business. If the Registrants cannot agree with regulators on an appropriate reconciliation of those mechanisms, it may impact the Registrants' ability to recover certain costs through customer rates. Regulators may also decide to eliminate these mechanisms in future rate cases, which may make it more difficult for the Registrants to recover their costs in the rates charged to customers. The Registrants cannot predict what rates the MPSC will authorize in future rate cases, and unfavorable rate relief could impact our plans for significant capital investment. New legislation, regulations, or interpretations could change how the business operates, impact the Registrants' ability to recover costs through rates or the timing of such recovery, or require the Registrants to incur additional expenses.