Company Quick10K Filing
Electronic Arts
Price95.67 EPS9
Shares297 P/E10
MCap28,414 P/FCF36
Net Debt-2,940 EBIT2,930
TEV25,474 TEV/EBIT9
TTM 2019-09-30, in MM, except price, ratios
10-K 2020-03-31 Filed 2020-05-20
10-Q 2019-12-31 Filed 2020-02-04
10-Q 2019-09-30 Filed 2019-11-06
10-Q 2019-06-30 Filed 2019-08-06
10-K 2019-03-31 Filed 2019-05-24
10-Q 2018-12-31 Filed 2019-02-06
10-Q 2018-09-30 Filed 2018-11-06
10-Q 2018-06-30 Filed 2018-08-08
10-K 2018-03-31 Filed 2018-05-23
10-Q 2017-12-31 Filed 2018-02-06
10-Q 2017-09-30 Filed 2017-11-07
10-Q 2017-06-30 Filed 2017-08-08
10-K 2017-03-31 Filed 2017-05-24
10-Q 2016-12-31 Filed 2017-02-07
10-Q 2016-09-30 Filed 2016-11-08
10-Q 2016-06-30 Filed 2016-08-09
10-K 2016-03-31 Filed 2016-05-27
10-Q 2015-12-31 Filed 2016-02-08
10-Q 2015-09-30 Filed 2015-11-10
10-Q 2015-06-30 Filed 2015-08-11
10-K 2015-03-31 Filed 2015-05-21
10-Q 2014-12-31 Filed 2015-02-04
10-Q 2014-09-30 Filed 2014-11-04
10-Q 2014-06-30 Filed 2014-08-05
10-K 2014-03-31 Filed 2014-05-21
10-Q 2013-12-31 Filed 2014-02-04
10-Q 2013-09-30 Filed 2013-11-05
10-Q 2013-06-30 Filed 2013-08-02
10-K 2013-03-31 Filed 2013-05-22
10-Q 2012-12-31 Filed 2013-02-05
10-Q 2012-09-30 Filed 2012-11-06
10-K 2012-03-31 Filed 2012-05-25
10-Q 2011-12-31 Filed 2012-02-07
10-Q 2011-09-30 Filed 2011-11-08
10-Q 2011-06-30 Filed 2011-08-09
10-K 2011-03-31 Filed 2011-05-24
10-Q 2010-12-31 Filed 2011-02-07
10-Q 2010-09-30 Filed 2010-11-08
10-Q 2010-06-30 Filed 2010-08-09
10-K 2010-03-31 Filed 2010-05-28
10-Q 2009-12-31 Filed 2010-02-09
8-K 2020-07-30 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2020-05-28
8-K 2020-05-07
8-K 2020-05-05
8-K 2020-01-30
8-K 2019-11-05
8-K 2019-10-29
8-K 2019-08-29
8-K 2019-08-19
8-K 2019-08-08
8-K 2019-07-30
8-K 2019-05-28
8-K 2019-05-15
8-K 2019-05-09
8-K 2019-05-07
8-K 2019-02-07
8-K 2019-02-05
8-K 2019-01-28
8-K 2018-10-30
8-K 2018-08-31
8-K 2018-08-30
8-K 2018-08-09
8-K 2018-07-30
8-K 2018-07-26
8-K 2018-05-24
8-K 2018-05-21
8-K 2018-05-16
8-K 2018-05-07
8-K 2018-04-12
8-K 2018-01-30

EA 10K Annual Report

Part I
Item 1: Business
Item 1A: Risk Factors
Item 1B: Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 2: Properties
Item 3: Legal Proceedings
Item 4: Mine Safety Disclosures
Part II
Item 5: Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Item 6: Selected Financial Data
Item 7: Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Item 7A: Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 8: Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Item 9: Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
Item 9A: Controls and Procedures
Item 9B: Other Information
Part III
Item 10: Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
Item 11: Executive Compensation
Item 12: Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
Item 13: Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
Item 14: Principal Accounting Fees and Services
Part IV
Item 15: Exhibits and Financial Statements
EX-10.10 ex-1010formofperforman.htm
EX-21.1 ex-211subsidiariesofth.htm
EX-23.1 ex-231kpmgconsent33120.htm
EX-31.1 ex-311sec302ceocert331.htm
EX-31.2 ex-312sec302cfocert331.htm
EX-32.1 ex-321sec906ceocert331.htm
EX-32.2 ex-322sec906cfocert331.htm

Electronic Arts Earnings 2020-03-31

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow
151296302012201420172020
Assets, Equity
1.61.20.80.40.0-0.42012201420172020
Rev, G Profit, Net Income
1.30.80.4-0.1-0.5-1.02012201420172020
Ops, Inv, Fin

ea-20200331
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UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
Form 10-K
 ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended March 31, 2020
OR
 TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                     to                    
Commission File No. 000-17948
ELECTRONIC ARTS INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware 94-2838567
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 (I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
209 Redwood Shores Parkway 94065
Redwood CityCalifornia (Zip Code)
(Address of principal executive offices) 
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code:
(650628-1500
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each Class  Trading SymbolName of Each Exchange on Which Registered
Common Stock, $0.01 par value  EANASDAQ Global Select Market
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes þ        No ¨
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes ¨        No þ
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes þ        No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes þ        No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.  
Large Accelerated Filer
þ
Accelerated filer
¨
Non-accelerated filer
¨
Smaller reporting company
 ¨
Emerging growth company
¨
         
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).     Yes         No þ
The aggregate market value of the registrant’s common stock, $0.01 par value, held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of September 27, 2019, the last business day of our second fiscal quarter, was $27,568 million.
As of May 18, 2020, there were 288,687,620 shares of the registrant’s common stock, $0.01 par value, outstanding.
Documents Incorporated by Reference
Portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement for its 2020 Annual Meeting of Stockholders (the “2020 Proxy”) are incorporated by reference into Part III hereof. The 2020 Proxy is expected to be filed not later than 120 days after the registrant’s fiscal year end. Except with respect to information specifically incorporated by reference into this Form 10-K, the 2020 Proxy is not deemed to be filed as part hereof.


Table of Contents


ELECTRONIC ARTS INC.
2020 FORM 10-K ANNUAL REPORT
Table of Contents
 
  Page
PART I
Item 1
Item 1A
Item 1B
Item 2
Item 3
Item 4
PART II
Item 5
Item 6
Item 7
Item 7A
Item 8
Item 9
Item 9A
Item 9B
PART III
Item 10
Item 11
Item 12
Item 13
Item 14
PART IV
Item 15

2

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CAUTIONARY NOTE ABOUT FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements. We use words such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “expect,” “intend,” “estimate”, “plan”, “predict”, “seek”, “goal”, “will”, “may”, “likely”, “should”, “could” (and the negative of any of these terms), “future” and similar expressions to identify forward-looking statements. In addition, any statements that refer to projections of our future financial performance, trends in our business, projections of markets relevant to our business, uncertain events and assumptions and other characterizations of future events or circumstances are forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements consist of, among other things, statements related to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic to our business, operations and financial results, industry prospects, our future financial performance, and our business plans and objectives, and may include certain assumptions that underlie the forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and reflect management’s current expectations. Our actual results could differ materially from those discussed in the forward-looking statements. Factors that might cause or contribute to such differences include those discussed in Part I, Item 1A of this Annual Report under the heading “Risk Factors” beginning on page 9. We assume no obligation to revise or update any forward-looking statement for any reason, except as required by law.

PART I

Item 1: Business

Overview

Electronic Arts is a global leader in digital interactive entertainment. We develop, market, publish and deliver games, content and services that can be played and watched on game consoles, PCs, mobile phones and tablets.

Our Strategic Pillars

Our strategy is to create amazing games and content, powered by services, delivered to a large, global audience. We believe that the breadth and depth of our portfolio, live services offerings, and our use of multiple business models and distribution channels provide us with strategic advantages. These advantages include the opportunity to engage an increasing number of players across more distribution channels and geographies, and dependable sources of revenue from our annualized sports franchises (e.g., FIFA, Madden NFL), our console, PC and mobile catalog titles (i.e., titles that did not launch in the current fiscal year), and our live services.

Amazing Games and Content, Powered by Services

Our foundation is a portfolio of intellectual property from which we create innovative games and content that enables us to build on-going and meaningful relationships with communities of players, creators and viewers. Our portfolio includes brands that we either wholly own (such as Battlefield, The Sims, Apex Legends, Need for Speed and Plants v. Zombies) or license from others (such as FIFA, Madden NFL and Star Wars).

We develop and publish games and services across diverse genres, such as sports, first-person shooter, action, role-playing and simulation. We have added to the breadth of our portfolio in recent years by, among other things, launching Star Wars Jedi: Fallen Order, a single-player action-adventure game based in the Star Wars universe, and Apex Legends, our first free-to-play console game, as well as by expanding the ways in which players can engage with The Sims 4. The depth of our portfolio is demonstrated by providing players with opportunities for choice within genres and franchises. For example, our sports portfolio includes the FIFA (soccer), Madden NFL (American football), NHL (ice hockey), and UFC (ultimate fighting) franchises, among others. And within our franchises we have innovated by providing multiple modalities of play designed to satisfy the various motivations of our players. For example, within FIFA 20, in addition to the professional soccer simulation base game, players can also engage with FIFA Ultimate Team, designed for players motivated by competition and self-improvement as well as VOLTA FOOTBALL, designed for players that play for social connection and self-expression. FIFA is our largest and most popular game and franchise, and the annualized console and PC game is consistently one of the best-selling games in the marketplace. Net revenue from FIFA 20, FIFA 19, and FIFA 18 represented approximately 12 percent of our total net revenue in fiscal year 2020, approximately 14 percent of our total net revenue in fiscal year 2019 and approximately 11 percent of our total net revenue in fiscal year 2018, respectively.

We seek to add to the breadth and depth of our portfolio by investing in developing and establishing new brands as well as investing in our partnerships with external game developers to create games and content that we bring to market.

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In addition, through our live services offerings, we offer our players high-quality experiences designed to provide value to players and extend and enhance gameplay. These live services include extra content, subscription offerings and other revenue generated outside of the sale of our base games. Our digital live services net revenue represented 51 percent of our total net revenue during fiscal year 2020. We expect that live services net revenue, particularly extra content net revenue, will continue to be material to our business. Our most popular live service is the extra content purchased within the Ultimate Team mode associated with our sports franchises. Ultimate Team allows players to collect current and former professional players in order to build, and compete as, a personalized team. Net revenue from Ultimate Team represented approximately 27 percent, 28 percent and 23 percent of our total net revenue during fiscal year 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively, a substantial portion of which was derived from FIFA Ultimate Team. In addition, in fiscal year 2020, we provided players with additional engagement opportunities through new maps, vehicles and more in Battlefield V, new ways to play across eras in Star Wars Battlefront II, launched four seasons of content for Apex Legends and released five additional content packs for The Sims 4 on PC.

Within our games and live services, we offer additional services that are designed to connect players to their friends and to the games they love, such as access to online marketplaces and in-game player rewards and achievements, which such services do not directly monetize. We also are investing in a number of long-term service-based initiatives that we believe will allow us to better serve and deepen our engagement with our players, such as an infrastructure that will enable us to better deliver content that will resonate with players and provide more choice in the way that players connect with their games, with each other, and with new types of content, and our esports initiatives. We believe that the interest and enthusiasm that surrounds esports will drive engagement and monetization in our products and services in addition to providing revenue opportunities through partnerships with sponsors and broadcasters.

Delivered to a Large, Global Audience

We are focused on reaching more players whenever and wherever they want to play. We believe that we can add value to our network by making it easier for players to connect to a world of play by offering choice of business model, distribution channel and device. Our games and services can be played and watched on consoles, PCs, mobile phones, tablets, and reach our players through both digital distribution channels and retail channels. Players can access our games and services through traditional single-game purchase or through our subscription offerings; and certain of our games and services are available through a “free-to-play” model whereby players download the game for free and engage with services provided on an ongoing basis. For example, we develop products and services within the FIFA franchise that allow players to engage with FIFA through multiple business models, distribution channels and devices, including: (1) our annualized console and PC games and associated services, which can be purchased through both digital distribution and retail channels and also is available through our subscription services; (2) FIFA Mobile, a mobile free-to-play offering; and (3) FIFA Online, a PC free-to-play game available in certain Asian countries.

Digitally, our console games and live services can be purchased through third-party storefronts, such as the digital stores of our console partners Sony, Microsoft and Nintendo. Our direct sales to Sony and Microsoft represented approximately 32 percent and 17 percent of total net revenue, respectively, in fiscal year 2020; approximately 29 percent and 16 percent of total net revenue, respectively, in fiscal year 2019; and approximately 27 percent and 16 percent of total net revenue, respectively, in fiscal year 2018. Our mobile and tablet games and services are available through third-party application storefronts such as the Apple App Store and Google Play. Our PC games and services can be downloaded directly through Origin, EA’s digital storefront, as well as through third-party online download stores, such as Steam. We also partner with third parties to publish our mobile and PC games and services in certain Asian territories, such as our partnerships with Tencent Holdings Limited and Nexon Co. Ltd. for FIFA Online in China and Korea, respectively. From time to time, third parties will publish mobile and tablet games and services under a license to certain of our intellectual property assets.

We also offer subscription services, such as EA Access on consoles and Origin Access and Origin Access Premier on PC as we look to build deeper relationships with our players and offer increased choice and flexibility for our players to try new games. These subscription services allow players access to a selection of our console and PC games and services for a monthly or annual fee. In fiscal year 2020, we expanded our subscription offerings by bringing our EA Access subscription service to the Sony distribution channel and expect to expand our Origin Access subscription service to more distribution channels in fiscal year 2021.

Our packaged goods games are sold directly to mass market retailers, specialty stores and through distribution arrangements.

New distribution methods and business models are expected to continue to emerge in the future, and we intend to evaluate these opportunities on a case-by-case basis.

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Significant Relationships

Sony & Microsoft. Under the terms of agreements we have entered into with Sony Computer Entertainment Inc. and its affiliates and with Microsoft Corporation and its affiliates, we are authorized to develop and distribute disc-based and digitally-delivered software products and services compatible with PlayStation and Xbox consoles, respectively. Under these agreements with Sony and Microsoft, we have the non-exclusive right to use, for a fixed term and in a designated territory, technology that is owned or licensed by them to publish our games on their respective consoles. With respect to our digitally-delivered products and services, the console manufacturers pay us either a wholesale price or a royalty percentage on the revenue they derive from their sales of our products and services. Our transactions for packaged goods products are made pursuant to individual purchase orders, which are accepted on a case-by case basis by Sony or Microsoft (or their designated replicators), as the case may be. For packaged goods products, we pay the console manufacturers a per-unit royalty for each unit manufactured. Many key commercial terms of our relationships with Sony and Microsoft — such as manufacturing terms, delivery times, policies and approval conditions — are determined unilaterally, and are subject to change by the console manufacturers.

The license agreements also require us to indemnify the console manufacturers for any loss, liability and expense resulting from any claim against the console manufacturer regarding our games and services, including any claims for patent, copyright or trademark infringement brought against the console manufacturer. Each license may be terminated by the console manufacturer if a breach or default by us is not cured after we receive written notice from the console manufacturer, or if we become insolvent. The console manufacturers are not obligated to enter into license agreements with us for any future consoles, products or services.

Apple, Google and Other App Stores. We have agreements to distribute our mobile applications and additional content through distributors such as Apple and Google. Our applications are downloaded for mobile devices from third party application storefronts. The distributor charges consumers for content purchased within the application or charges consumers a one-time fee to download the application. Our distribution agreements establish the amounts that are retained by the distributor and the amounts passed through to us. These arrangements are typically terminable on short notice. The agreements generally do not obligate the distributors to market or distribute any of our applications.

Publishing Partners in Asia. We have entered into agreements whereby we partner with certain companies, including Tencent Holdings Limited and Nexon Co., Ltd. or their respective affiliates, pursuant to which these companies publish our mobile and PC free-to-play games in certain Asian territories, including China and Korea. Our players access games from the publishers’ online storefronts and are charged for additional content purchased within our game environment. The agreements generally establish the amounts that are retained by the publisher, and the amounts passed through to us.

Competition

The market for interactive entertainment is intensely competitive and changes rapidly as new products, business models and distribution channels are introduced. We also face competition for the right to use certain intellectual property included in our products. In order to remain successful, we are required to anticipate, sometimes years in advance, the ways in which our products and services will compete in the market. We face significant competition from companies such as Activision Blizzard, Take-Two Interactive, Ubisoft, Bethesda, Epic Games, NetEase, Tencent, Sony, Microsoft and Nintendo, primarily with respect to developing games and services that operate on consoles, PCs and/or mobile devices. In addition, broader technology companies with significant resources, including Google, Apple and Amazon, are pursuing initiatives in our industry that may compete with us.

More broadly, we compete against providers of different sources of entertainment, such as movies, television, social networking, online casual entertainment and music that our players could enjoy in their free time. Important competitive factors in our industry include the ability to attract creative and technical talent, game quality and ease of use, innovation, compatibility of products with certain consoles and other distribution channels, brand recognition, reputation, reliability, security, creativity, price, marketing, and quality of customer service.

Intellectual Property and Technology

To establish and protect our intellectual property, we rely on a combination of copyrights, trademarks, patents, patent applications, trade secrets, know-how, license agreements, confidentiality provisions and procedures and other contractual provisions. We actively engage in enforcement and other activities to protect our intellectual property, but the laws of some countries in which we operate, particularly in Asia, either do not protect our intellectual property to the same extent as the laws of the United States or are poorly enforced. As our digital business has grown, our games and services increasingly depend on the reliability, availability and security of our technological infrastructure. Our industry is prone to, and our systems and
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networks are subject to actions by malfeasant actors, such as cyber-attacks and other information security incidents. While we devote financial and operational resources to implement systems, processes and technologies to guard against cyber events and to help protect our intellectual property, employee and consumer data and information technology systems against intrusions or other security breaches, we have experienced such events in the past and expect future events to occur. In addition, we engage in activities designed to limit the impact of abuse of our digital products and services, including monitoring our games for evidence of exploitation and re-balancing our game environments in the event that such abuse is discovered.

Governmental Regulation

We are a global company subject to various and complex laws and regulations domestically and internationally, including laws and regulations related to user privacy, data collection and retention, consumer protection, protection of minors, content, advertising, localization, information security, intellectual property, competition and taxation, among others. Many of these laws and regulations are continuously evolving and developing, and the application to, and impact on, us is uncertain. Certain of our business models are subject to new laws or regulations or evolving interpretations and application of existing laws and regulations, including those related to gambling. The growth and development of electronic commerce, virtual items and virtual currency has prompted calls for new laws and regulations and resulted in the application of existing laws or regulations that have limited or restricted the sale of our products and services in certain territories.

Seasonality

We have historically experienced the highest percentage of our net bookings in our third fiscal quarter due to seasonal holiday demand and the launch timing of our games. While we expect this trend to continue in fiscal year 2021, there is no assurance that it will.

Employees

As of March 31, 2020, we had approximately 9,800 regular, full-time employees, over 6,000 of whom were outside the United States. We believe that our ability to attract, train, motivate and retain qualified employees is a critical factor in the successful development of our products and services and that our future success will depend, in large measure, on our ability to continue attracting, training, motivating and retaining qualified employees. Approximately 7 percent of our employees, all of whom work for our DICE development studio in Sweden, are represented by a union.

Investor Information

Our website address is www.ea.com. Our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and current reports on Form 8-K, and any amendments to those reports filed pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act, as amended, are available free of charge on the Investor Relations section of our website at http://ir.ea.com as soon as reasonably practicable after they are electronically filed with or furnished to the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). We announce material financial information and business updates through our SEC filings, press releases, public conference calls and webcasts, the Investor Relations section of our website at http://ir.ea.com, our blog at https://www.ea.com/news and through our Twitter account @EA. Except as expressly set forth in this Form 10-K annual report, the contents of our website and/or social media accounts are not incorporated into, or otherwise to be regarded as part of this report.

Company Information

We were incorporated originally in California in 1982. In September 1991, we were reincorporated under the laws of Delaware. Our principal executive offices are located at 209 Redwood Shores Parkway, Redwood City, California 94065 and our telephone number is (650) 628-1500.

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Information About Our Executive Officers
The following table sets forth information regarding our executive officers as of May 20, 2020:
Name Age Position
Andrew Wilson 45 Chief Executive Officer
Blake Jorgensen 60 Chief Operating Officer and Chief Financial Officer
Laura Miele 50 Chief Studios Officer
Kenneth Moss 54 Chief Technology Officer
Christopher Bruzzo 50 Chief Marketing Officer
Joel Linzner 68 Executive Vice President, Worldwide Business Affairs
Mala Singh 49 Chief People Officer
Matthew Bilbey 44 Executive Vice President of Strategic Growth
Kenneth A. Barker 53 Senior Vice President, Chief Accounting Officer
Jacob J. Schatz 51 Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary

Mr. Wilson has served as EA’s Chief Executive Officer and as a director of EA since September 2013. Prior to his appointment as our Chief Executive Officer, Mr. Wilson held several positions within the Company since joining EA in May 2000, including Executive Vice President, EA SPORTS from August 2011 to September 2013. Mr. Wilson also serves as a director of Intel Corporation, is chairman of the board of the privately-held World Surf League and is a member of the Board of Trustees of the Paley Center for Media.

Mr. Jorgensen has served as EA’s Chief Financial Officer since September 2012 and as EA’s Chief Operating Officer since April 2018. Prior to joining EA, he served as Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer of Levi Strauss & Co. from July 2009 to August 2012. From June 2007 to June 2009, Mr. Jorgensen served as Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer of Yahoo! Inc. Mr. Jorgensen earned his M.B.A. from Harvard Business School and his undergraduate degree from Stanford University.

Ms. Miele has served as EA’s Chief Studios Officer since April 2018. Ms. Miele joined EA in March 1996 and has held several positions at the Company, including Executive Vice President, Global Publishing from April 2016 to April 2018, Senior Vice President of Americas Publishing from June 2014 to April 2016, and several senior roles in the Company's marketing organization.

Mr. Moss has served as EA’s Chief Technology Officer since July 2014. He served as Vice President of Market Places Technology, Science and Data at eBay Inc. from November 2011 to July 2014. Prior to joining eBay, he co-founded CrowdEye, Inc. and served as its Chief Executive Officer from October 2008 to November 2011. Mr. Moss graduated from Princeton University.

Mr. Bruzzo has served as EA’s Chief Marketing Officer since September 2014. Prior to joining EA, he served as Senior Vice President at Starbucks Corporation from June 2011 to August 2014. Mr. Bruzzo graduated from Whitworth University.

Mr. Linzner has served as EA’s Executive Vice President, Worldwide Business Affairs since April 2016. From March 2005 until April 2016, Mr. Linzner was EA's Executive Vice President, Business and Legal Affairs. Prior to joining EA in July 1999, Mr. Linzner served as outside litigation counsel to EA and several other companies in the video game industry. Mr. Linzner earned his J.D. from Boalt Hall at the University of California, Berkeley, after graduating from Brandeis University.

Ms. Singh has served as EA’s Chief People Officer since October 2016. Ms. Singh was previously employed by EA from 2009 to 2013, serving as Vice President, Human Resources, EA Labels from 2011 to 2013. Prior to rejoining EA, Ms. Singh served as the Chief People Officer of Minted, LLC from January 2014 to October 2016. Ms. Singh earned both her undergraduate and graduate degrees from Rutgers University - New Brunswick.

Mr. Bilbey has served as EA’s Executive Vice President of Strategic Growth since April 2018. Mr. Bilbey joined EA in 1995 and has held several positions within the Company, including Chief Operating Officer, Worldwide Studios from August 2016 to April 2018 and Senior Vice President, Group General Manager from November 2013 to January 2017.

Mr. Barker has served as the Company's Chief Accounting Officer since June 2003. From February 2012 to September 2012, he also served as Interim Chief Financial Officer. Prior to joining EA, Mr. Barker was at Sun Microsystems, Inc., as its Vice
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President and Corporate Controller and at Deloitte & Touche as an audit partner. Mr. Barker serves on the Board of Directors of Gatepath, a non-profit organization, and on the Accounting Advisory Board for the University of Notre Dame. Mr. Barker graduated from the University of Notre Dame.

Mr. Schatz has served as EA’s General Counsel and Corporate Secretary since June 2014. Mr. Schatz joined EA in 1999, and prior to his current role, he served as Deputy General Counsel and as Vice President from 2006 to 2014. Mr. Schatz earned his J.D. from Georgetown University Law Center, and received his undergraduate degree from Pomona College. Mr. Schatz is a member of the Bar of the State of California and is admitted to practice in the United States Supreme Court, the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals and several United States District Courts.
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Item 1A:  Risk Factors

Our business is subject to many risks and uncertainties, which may affect our future financial performance. In the past, we have experienced certain of the events and circumstances described below, which adversely impacted our business and financial performance. If any of the events or circumstances described below occurs, our business or financial performance could be harmed, our actual results could differ materially from our expectations and the market value of our stock could decline. The risks and uncertainties discussed below are not the only ones we face. There may be additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently do not believe could be material that may harm our business or financial performance.

Our business is intensely competitive. We may not deliver successful and engaging products and services, or consumers may prefer our competitors’ products or services over our own.

Competition in our business is intense. Many new products and services are regularly introduced, but only a relatively small number of products and associated services drive significant engagement and account for a significant portion of total revenue. Our competitors range from established interactive entertainment companies and diversified media companies to emerging start-ups, and we expect new competitors to continue to emerge throughout the world. If our competitors develop and market more successful and engaging products or services, offer competitive products or services at lower price points, or if we do not continue to develop consistently high-quality, well-received and engaging products and services, our revenue, margins, and profitability will decline.

We strive to create innovative and high-quality products and services that allow us to build on-going and meaningful relationships with our community. However, innovative and high-quality titles, even if highly-reviewed, may not meet our expectations. Many financially successful products and services within our industry are iterations of prior titles with large established consumer bases and significant brand recognition, which makes competing in certain categories challenging. In addition, products or services of our direct competitors or other entertainment companies may take a larger portion of consumer spending or time than we anticipate, which could cause our products and services to underperform relative to our expectations. A significant portion of our revenue historically has been derived from products and services based on a few popular franchises, and the underperformance of a single major title has had, and could in the future have, a material adverse impact on our financial results. For example, we have historically derived a significant portion of our net revenue from sales related to our largest and most popular game, FIFA, annualized versions of which are consistently one of the best-selling games in the marketplace. Any events or circumstances that negatively impact our FIFA franchise, such as product or service quality, competing products that take a portion of consumer spending and time, the delay or cancellation of a product or service launch, or real or perceived security risks could negatively impact our financial results to a disproportionate extent.

The increased importance of live services, including extra content, to our business heightens the risks associated with the products for which such live services are offered. Live services that are either poorly-received or provided in connection with underperforming games may generate lower than expected sales. Any lapse, delay or failure in our ability to provide high-quality live services content to consumers over an extended period of time could materially and adversely affect our financial results, consumer engagement with our live services, and cause harm to our reputation and brand. Our most popular live service is the extra content available for the Ultimate Team mode associated with our sports franchises. Any events or circumstances that negatively impact our ability to reliably provide content or sustain engagement for Ultimate Team, particularly FIFA Ultimate Team, would negatively impact our financial results to a disproportionate extent.

Our business is subject to economic, market and geopolitical conditions.

Our business is subject to economic, market, public health and geopolitical conditions, which are beyond our control. The United States and other international economies have experienced cyclical downturns from time to time. Worsening economic conditions that negatively impact discretionary consumer spending and consumer demand, including inflation, slower growth, recession and other macroeconomic conditions, including those resulting from public health outbreaks such as the COVID-19 pandemic and geopolitical issues could have a material adverse impact on our business and operating results. In addition, the United Kingdom’s departure from the European Union has caused economic and legal uncertainty in the region and may result in macroeconomic conditions that adversely affect our business.

We are particularly susceptible to market conditions and risks associated with the entertainment industry, which, in addition to general macroeconomic downturns, also include the popularity, price and timing of our games, changes in consumer demographics, the availability and popularity of other forms of entertainment, and critical reviews and public tastes and preferences, which may change rapidly and cannot necessarily be predicted.
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Catastrophic events may disrupt our business.

Natural disasters, cyber-incidents, weather events, wildfires, power disruptions, telecommunications failures, public health outbreaks, failed upgrades of existing systems or migrations to new systems, acts of terrorism or other events could cause outages, disruptions and/or degradations of our infrastructure, including our or our partners’ information technology and network systems, a failure in our ability to conduct normal business operations, or the closure of public spaces in which players engage with our games and services. The health and safety of our employees, players, third-party organizations with whom we partner or regulatory agencies on which we rely could be also affected, which may prevent us from executing against our business strategies or cause a decrease in consumer demand for our products and services. System redundancy may be ineffective and our disaster recovery and business continuity planning may not be sufficient for all eventualities. Such failures, disruptions, closures, or inability to conduct normal business operations could also prevent access to our products, services or online stores selling our products and services, cause delay or interruption in our product or live services offerings, allow breaches of data security or result in the loss of critical data. Several of our key locations are closed as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, including our global headquarters in Redwood Shores, California and key studios across North America, Europe and Asia, and the distribution of our workforce could disrupt out ability to conduct normal business operations. Our corporate headquarters and several of our key studios also are located in seismically active regions. An event that results in the disruption or degradation of any of our critical business functions or information technology systems, harms our ability to conduct normal business operations or causes a decreased in consumer demand for our products and services could materially impact our reputation and brand, financial condition and operating results.

We may not meet our product and live service development schedules and key events, sports seasons and/or movies that are tied to our product and live service release schedule may be delayed, cancelled or poorly received.

Our ability to meet product and live service development schedules is affected by a number of factors both within and outside our control, including feedback from our players, the creative processes involved, the coordination of large and sometimes geographically dispersed development teams, the complexity of our products and the platforms for which they are developed, the need to fine-tune our products prior to their release and, in certain cases, approvals from third parties. During the worldwide COVID-19 pandemic, our ability to meet product and live service development schedules will be challenged as we have closed key studios across North America, Europe and Asia and moved to a distributed workforce for certain of our development teams. We have experienced development delays for our products in the past, which caused us to delay or cancel release dates. Any failure to meet anticipated production or release schedules likely would result in a delay of revenue and/or possibly a significant shortfall in our revenue, increase our development and/or marketing expenses, harm our profitability, and cause our operating results to be materially different than anticipated. If we miss key selling periods for products or services, particularly the fiscal quarter ending in December, for any reason, including product delays or product cancellations our sales likely will suffer significantly.

We also seek to release certain products and extra content for our live services - such as our sports franchises and the associated Ultimate Team live service - in conjunction with key events, such as the beginning of a sports season, events associated with the sports calendar, or the release of a related movie. If such seasons or events were delayed, cancelled or poorly received, our sales could suffer materially. For example, the worldwide COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in the disruption, postponement and cancellation of sports seasons and sporting events. Continued disruption, postponement and cancellation of sports seasons and sporting events around which we seek to launch our games and provide live services could have a material adverse impact on our business and operating results.

Our industry changes rapidly and we may fail to anticipate or successfully implement new or evolving technologies, or adopt successful business strategies, distribution methods or services.

Rapid changes in our industry require us to anticipate, sometimes years in advance, the ways in which our products and services will be competitive in the market. We have invested, and in the future may invest, in new business strategies, technologies, distribution methods, products, and services. There can be no assurance that these strategic investments will achieve expected returns. For example, we are investing in the technological infrastructure that we expect will enable us to deliver content that will resonate with players and provide more choice in the way that players connect with their games, with each other, and with new types of content. Such endeavors involve significant risks and uncertainties. No assurance can be given that the technology we choose to implement, the business strategies we choose to adopt and the products and services that we pursue will achieve financial results that meet or exceed our expectations. Our reputation and brand could also be adversely affected. We also may miss opportunities or fail to respond quickly enough to adopt technology or distribution methods or develop products, services or new ways to engage with our games that become popular with consumers, which could adversely affect our financial results.

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Our development process usually starts with particular platforms and distribution methods in mind, and a range of technical development, feature and ongoing goals that we hope to be able to achieve. We may not be able to achieve these goals, or our competition may be able to achieve them more quickly and in a way that better engages consumers. In either case, our products and services may be technologically inferior to those of our competitors, less appealing to consumers, or both. If we cannot achieve our goals within the original development schedule for our products and services, then we may delay their release until these goals can be achieved, which may delay or reduce revenue and increase our development expenses. Alternatively, we may increase the resources employed in research and development in an attempt to accelerate our development of new technologies, either to preserve our product or service launch schedule or to keep up with our competition, which would increase our development expenses.

We may experience security breaches and cyber threats.

The integrity of our and our partners’ information technology networks and systems is critical to our ongoing operations, products, and services. Our industry is prone to, and our systems and networks are subject to actions by malfeasant actors, such as cyber-attacks and other information security incidents that seek to exploit, disable, damage, and/or disrupt our networks, business operations, products and services and supporting technological infrastructure, or gain access to consumer and employee personal information, our intellectual property and other assets. In addition, our systems and networks could be harmed or improperly accessed due to error by employees or third parties that are authorized to access to these networks and systems. We also rely on technological infrastructure provided by third-party business partners to support the online functionality of our products and services, who are also subject to these same cyber risks. Both our partners and we have expended, and expect to continue to expend, financial and operational resources to guard against cyber risks and to help protect our data and systems. However, the techniques used by malfeasant actors changes frequently, continue to evolve in sophistication and volume, and often are not detected for long periods of time. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, remote access to our networks and systems has increased substantially. While we have taken steps to secure our networks and systems, we may be more vulnerable to a successful cyber-attack or information security incident while our workforce remains distributed. The costs to respond to, mitigate, and/or notify affected parties of cyber-attacks and other security vulnerabilities are significant. In addition, such events could compromise the confidentiality, integrity, or accessibility of these networks and systems or result in the compromise or loss of the data, including personal data, processed by these systems. Consequences of such events have included, and could in the future include, the loss of proprietary and personal data and interruptions or delays in our business operations, as well as loss of player confidence and damage to our brand and reputation. In addition, such events could cause us to be non-compliant with applicable regulations, subject us to legal claims or penalties under laws protecting the privacy or security of personal information or proprietary material information. We have experienced such events in the past and expect future events to occur.

In addition, the virtual economies that we have established in many of our games are subject to abuse, exploitation and other forms of fraudulent activity that can negatively impact our business. Virtual economies involve the use of virtual currency and/or virtual assets that can be used or redeemed by a player within a particular game or service. The abuse or exploitation of our virtual economies have included the illegitimate generation and sale of virtual items, including in black markets. Our online services have been impacted by in-game exploits and the use of automated or other fraudulent processes to generate virtual item or currency illegitimately, and such activity may continue. These abuses and exploits, and the steps that we take to address these abuses and exploits may result in a loss of anticipated revenue, increased costs to protect against or remediate these issues, interfere with players’ enjoyment of a balanced game environment and cause harm to our reputation and brand.

Our business is subject to complex and prescriptive regulations regarding consumer protection and data privacy practices, and could be adversely affected if our consumer protection, data privacy and security practices are not adequate, or perceived as being inadequate.

We are subject to global data privacy, data protection, localization, security and consumer-protection laws and regulations worldwide. These laws and regulations are emerging and evolving and the interpretation and application of these laws and regulations often are uncertain, contradictory and changing. The failure to maintain data practices that are compliant with applicable laws and regulations, or evolving interpretations of applicable laws and regulations, could result in inquiries from enforcement agencies or direct consumer complaints, resulting in civil or criminal penalties, and could adversely impact our reputation and brand. In addition, the operational costs of compliance with these regulations is high and will likely continue to increase.

Even if we remain in strict compliance with applicable laws and regulations, consumer sensitivity to the collection and processing of their personal information continues to increase. Any real or perceived failures in maintaining acceptable data privacy practices, including allowing improper or unauthorized access, acquisition or misuse and/or uninformed disclosure of
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consumer, employee and other information, or a perception that we do not adequately secure this information or provide consumers with adequate notice about the information that they authorize us to collect and disclose could result in brand, reputational, or other harms to the business, result in costly remedial measures, deter current and potential customers from using our products and services and cause our financial results to be materially affected.

Third party vendors and business partners receive access to certain information that we collect. These vendors and business partners may not prevent data security breaches with respect to the information we provide them or fully enforce our policies, contractual obligations and disclosures regarding the collection, use, storage, transfer and retention of personal data. A data security breach of one of our vendors or business partners could cause reputational and financial harm to them and us, negatively impact our ability to offer our products and services, and could result in legal liability, costly remedial measures, governmental and regulatory investigations, harm our profitability, reputation and brand, and cause our financial results to be materially affected.

We also are subject to payment card association rules and obligations pursuant to contracts with payment card processors. Under these rules and obligations, if information is compromised, we could be liable to payment card issuers for the cost of associated expenses and penalties. In addition, if we fail to follow payment card industry security standards, even if no consumer information is compromised, we could incur significant fines or experience a significant increase in payment card transaction costs.

We may experience outages, disruptions or degradations in our services, products and/or technological infrastructure.

The reliable performance of our products and services depends on the continuing operation and availability of our information technology systems and those of our external service providers, including third-party “cloud” computing services. Our games and services are complex software products and maintaining the sophisticated internal and external technological infrastructure required to reliably deliver these games and services is expensive and complex. The reliable delivery and stability of our products and services has been, and could in the future be, adversely impacted by outages, disruptions, failures or degradations in our network and related infrastructure, as well as in the online platforms or services of key business partners that offer, support or host our products and services. The reliability and stability of our products and services has been affected by events outside of our control as well as by events within our control, such as the migration of data among data centers and to third-party hosted environments, the performance of upgrades and maintenance on our systems, and online demand for our products and services that exceeds the capabilities of our technological infrastructure.

If we or our external business partners were to experience an event that caused a significant system outage, disruption or degradation or if a transition among data centers or service providers or an upgrade or maintenance session encountered unexpected interruptions, unforeseen complexity or unplanned disruptions, our products and services may not be available to consumers or may not be delivered reliably and stably. As a result, our reputation and brand may be harmed, consumer engagement with our products and services may be reduced, and our revenue and profitability could be negatively impacted. We do not have redundancy for all our systems, many of our critical applications reside in only one of our data centers, and our disaster recovery planning may not account for all eventualities.

As our digital business grows, we will require an increasing amount of internal and external technical infrastructure, including network capacity and computing power to continue to satisfy the needs of our players. We are investing, and expect to continue to invest, in our own technology, hardware and software and the technology, hardware and software of external service providers to support our business. It is possible that we may fail to scale effectively and grow this technical infrastructure to accommodate increased demands, which may adversely affect the reliable and stable performance of our games and services, therefore negatively impacting engagement, reputation, brand and revenue growth.

Government regulations applicable to us may negatively impact our business.

We are a global company subject to various and complex laws and regulations domestically and internationally, including laws and regulations related to consumer protection, protection of minors, content, advertising, localization, information security, intellectual property, competition and taxation, among others. Many of these laws and regulations are continuously evolving and developing, and the application to, and impact on, us is uncertain. For example, the World Health Organization recently included “gaming disorder” in the 11th Revision of the International Classification of Diseases, prompting discussion and consideration of legislation and policies aimed at mitigating the risk of overuse of, and overspending within, video games. These laws could harm our business by limiting the products and services we can offer consumers or the manner in which we offer them. The costs of compliance with these laws may increase in the future as a result of changes in applicable laws or
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changes to interpretation. Any failure on our part to comply with these laws or the application of these laws in an unanticipated manner may harm our business and result in penalties or significant legal liability.

Certain of our business models are subject to new laws or regulations or evolving interpretations and application of existing laws and regulations, including those related to gambling. The growth and development of electronic commerce, virtual items and virtual currency has prompted calls for new laws and regulations and resulted in the application of existing laws or regulations that have limited or restricted the sale of our products and services in certain territories. For example, governmental organizations have applied existing laws and regulations to certain mechanics commonly included within our games, including the Ultimate Team mode associated with our sports franchises. In addition, we include modes in our games that allow players to compete against each other and manage player competitions that are based on our products and services. Although we structure and operate our skill-based competitions with applicable laws in mind, including those related to gambling, our skill-based competitions in the future could become subject to evolving laws and regulations. New laws related to these business models or the interpretation or application of current laws that impact these business models - each of which could vary significantly across jurisdictions - could subject us to additional regulation and oversight, cause us to further limit or restrict the sale of our products and services or otherwise impact our products and services, lessen the engagement with, and growth of, profitable business models, and expose us to increased compliance costs, significant liability, fines, penalties and harm to our reputation and brand.

We are subject to laws in certain foreign countries, and adhere to industry standards in the United States, that mandate rating requirements or set other restrictions on the advertisement or distribution of interactive entertainment software based on content. In addition, certain foreign countries allow government censorship of interactive entertainment software products. Adoption of ratings systems, censorship or restrictions on distribution of interactive entertainment software based on content could harm our business by limiting the products we are able to offer to our consumers. In addition, compliance with new and possibly inconsistent regulations for different territories could be costly, delay or prevent the release of our products in those territories.

Negative perceptions about our business, products and services and the communities within our products and services may damage our business, and we may incur costs to address concerns.

Expectations regarding the quality, performance and integrity of our products and services are high. Players have sometimes been critical of our brands, products, services, online communities, business models and/or business practices for a wide variety of reasons, including perceptions about gameplay fun, fairness, game content, features or services, or objections to certain of our business practices. These negative responses may not be foreseeable. We also may not effectively manage these responses because of reasons within or outside of our control. For example, we have included in certain games the ability for players to purchase digital items, including in some instances virtual “packs”, “boxes” or “crates” that contain variable digital items. The inclusion of variable digital items in certain games has attracted the attention of our community and if the future implementation of these features creates a negative perception of gameplay fairness or other negative perceptions, our reputation and brand could be harmed and revenue could be negatively impacted. In addition, we have taken actions, including delaying the release of our games and delaying or discontinuing features and services for our games, after taking into consideration, among other things, feedback from our community even if those decisions negatively impacted our operating results in the short term. We expect to continue to take actions to address concerns as appropriate, including actions that may result in additional expenditures and the loss of revenue.

In addition, we aim to offer our players safe, inclusive and fulfilling online communities. We may not be able to maintain healthy, long-term online communities within our games and services as a result of the use of those communities as forums for harassment or bullying, our inability to successfully discourage overuse of our games and services or overspending within our games and services, or the successful implementation of cheating programs. Although we expend resources, and expect to continue to expend resources, to maintain healthy online communities, our efforts may not be successful due to scale, limitations of existing technologies or other factors.

Negative sentiment about gameplay fairness, our online communities, our business practices, business models or game content also can lead to investigations or increased scrutiny from governmental bodies and consumer groups, as well as litigation, which, regardless of their outcome, may be costly, damaging to our reputation and harm our business.

Our business depends on the success and availability of consoles, systems and devices developed by third parties and our ability to develop commercially successful products and services for those consoles, systems and devices.

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The success of our business is driven in part by the commercial success and adequate supply of third-party consoles, systems and devices for which we develop our products and services or through which our products and services are distributed. Our success depends on our ability to reach a large, global audience by accurately predicting which consoles, systems and devices will be successful in the marketplace, our ability to develop commercially successful products and services that reach players across multiple channels, our ability to simultaneously manage products and services on multiple consoles, systems and devices and our ability to effectively transition our products and services to new consoles, systems and devices. We must make product development decisions and commit significant resources well in advance of the commercial availability of new consoles, systems and devices, and we may incur significant expense to adjust our product portfolio and development efforts in response to changing consumer preferences. Additionally, we may enter into certain exclusive licensing arrangements that affect our ability to deliver or market products or services on certain consoles, systems or devices. A console, system or device for which we are developing products and services may not succeed as expected or new consoles, systems or devices may take market share and interactive entertainment consumers away from those for which we have devoted significant resources. If consumer demand for the consoles, systems or devices for which we are developing products and services is lower than our expectations, we may be unable to fully recover the investments we have made in developing our products and services, and our financial performance will be harmed. Alternatively, a console, system or device for which we have not devoted significant resources could be more successful than we initially anticipated, causing us to not be able to reach our intended audience and take advantage of meaningful revenue opportunities.

External game developers may not meet product development schedules or otherwise honor their obligations.

We contract with external game developers to develop our games or to publish or distribute their games. While we maintain contractual protections, we have less control over the product development schedules of games developed by external developers. We depend on their ability to meet product development schedules which could be negatively affected by, among other things, the shift to a distributed workforce model resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, disputes occasionally arise with external developers, including with respect to game content, launch timing, achievement of certain milestones, the game development timeline, marketing campaigns, contractual terms and interpretation. If we have disputes with external developers or they cannot meet product development schedules, acquire certain approvals or are otherwise unable or unwilling to honor their obligations to us, we may delay or cancel previously announced games, alter our launch schedule or experience increased costs and expenses, which could result in a delay or significant shortfall in anticipated revenue, harm our profitability and reputation, and cause our financial results to be materially affected.

We may not attract, train, motivate and retain key personnel.

Our business depends on our ability to attract, train, motivate and retain executive, technical, creative, marketing and other personnel that are essential to the development, marketing and support of our products and services. The market for highly-skilled workers and leaders in our industry is extremely competitive, particularly in the geographic locations in which many of our key personnel are located. In addition, our leading position within the interactive entertainment industry makes us a prime target for recruiting our executives, as well as key creative and technical talent. We may experience significant compensation costs to hire and retain senior executives and other personnel that we deem critical to our success. If we cannot successfully recruit, train, motivate and retain qualified employees, develop and maintain a diverse and inclusive work environment, or replace key employees following their departure, our ability to develop and manage our business will be impaired.

Our marketing and advertising efforts may fail to resonate with consumers.

Our products and services are marketed worldwide through a diverse spectrum of advertising and promotional programs. An increasing portion of our marketing activity is taking place on social media platforms and through streaming networks, influencers and content creators that are outside of our direct control. Our ability to engage players with our products and services is dependent in part upon the success of these programs, and changes to player preferences, the impact of athletes, celebrities, influencers or content creators, marketing regulations, technology changes or service disruptions may negatively impact our ability to reach and engage our players or otherwise negatively impact our marketing campaigns or the franchises associated with those marketing campaigns. Moreover, if the marketing for our products and services is not innovative or fails to resonate with players, particularly during key selling periods, or if advertising rates or other media placement costs increase, our business and operating results could be harmed.

We may experience declines or fluctuations in the recurring portion of our business.

Our business model includes revenue that we deem recurring in nature, such as revenue from our annualized sports franchises (e.g., FIFA, Madden NFL), our console, PC and mobile catalog titles (i.e., titles that did not launch in the current fiscal year),
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and our live services. While we have been able to forecast the revenue from these areas of our business with greater relative confidence than for new games, services and business models, we cannot provide assurances that consumer demand will remain consistent, including in connection with circumstances outside of our control. Furthermore, we may cease to offer games and services that we previously had deemed to be recurring in nature. Consumer demand has declined and fluctuated, and could in the future decline or fluctuate, as a result of a number of factors, including their level of satisfaction with our games and services, our ability to improve and innovate our annualized titles, our ability to adapt our games and services to new distribution channels and business models, outages and disruptions of online services, the games and services offered by our competitors, our marketing and advertising efforts or declines in consumer activity generally as a result of economic downturns, among others. The reception to our sports games also depends, in part, on the popularity, reputation and brand of the leagues, organizations and individual athletes with whom we partner. Events and circumstances outside of our control that have a negative impact on the accessibility, popularity, reputation and brand of these partners has impacted, and could in the future negatively impact, sales related to our annualized sports games. Any decline or fluctuation in the recurring portion of our business may have a negative impact on our financial and operating results.

We could fail to successfully adopt new business models.

From time to time we seek to establish and implement new business models. Forecasting the success of any new business model is inherently uncertain and depends on a number of factors both within and outside of our control. Our actual revenue and profit for these businesses may be significantly greater or less than our forecasts. In addition, these new business models could fail, resulting in the loss of our investment in the development and infrastructure needed to support these new business models, as well as the opportunity cost of diverting management and financial resources away from more successful and established businesses. For example, we have devoted financial and operational resources to our subscription offerings without any assurance that these businesses will be financially successful. While we anticipate growth in this area of our business, consumer demand is difficult to predict as a result of a number of factors, including satisfaction with our products and services, our ability to provide engaging products and services, third parties offering their products and services within our subscription, partners that provide, or don’t provide, access to our subscription, products and services offered by our competitors, reliability of our infrastructure and the infrastructure of our partners, pricing, the actual or perceived security of our and our partners information technology systems and reductions in consumer spending levels. In addition, if our subscription offerings are successful, sales could be diverted from established business models. If we do not select a target price that is optimal for our subscription services, maintain our target pricing structure or correctly project renewal rates, our financial results may be harmed.

Acquisitions, investments, divestitures and other strategic transactions could result in operating difficulties and other negative consequences.

We have made and may continue to make acquisitions or enter into other strategic transactions including (1) acquisitions of companies, businesses, intellectual properties, and other assets, (2) minority investments in strategic partners, and (3) investments in new interactive entertainment businesses as part of our long-term business strategy. These transactions involve significant challenges and risks including that the transaction does not advance our business strategy, that we do not realize a satisfactory return on our investment, that we acquire liabilities, that our due diligence process does not identify significant issues, liabilities or other challenges, diversion of management’s attention from our other businesses, the incurrence of debt, contingent liabilities or amortization expenses, write-offs of goodwill, intangibles, or acquired in-process technology, or other increased cash and non-cash expenses. In addition, we may not integrate these businesses successfully or achieve expected synergies. For example, we may experience difficulties with the integration of business systems and technologies, the integration and retention of new employees, the implementation of our internal control and compliance procedures and/or the remediation of the internal control and compliance environment of the acquired entity, or the maintenance of key business and customer relationships. These events could harm our operating results or financial condition.

We may fund strategic transactions with (1) cash, which would reduce cash available for other corporate purposes, (2) debt, which would increase our interest expense and leverage and/or (3) equity which would dilute current shareholders’ percentage ownership and also dilute our earnings per share. We also may divest or sell assets or a business and we may have difficulty selling such assets or business on acceptable terms in a timely manner. This could result in a delay in the achievement of our strategic objectives, cause us to incur additional expense, or the sale of such assets or business at a price or on terms that are less favorable than we anticipated.

We may be unable to maintain or acquire licenses to include intellectual property owned by others in our games, or to maintain or acquire the rights to publish or distribute games developed by others.

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Many of our products and services are based on or incorporate intellectual property owned by others. For example, our EA Sports products include rights licensed from major sports leagues, teams and players’ associations and our Star Wars products include rights licensed from Disney. Competition for these licenses and rights is intense. If we are unable to maintain these licenses and rights or obtain additional licenses or rights with significant commercial value, our ability to develop successful and engaging products and services may be adversely affected and our revenue, profitability and cash flows may decline significantly. Competition for these licenses has increased, and may continue to increase, the amounts that we must pay to licensors and developers, through higher minimum guarantees or royalty rates, which could significantly increase our costs and reduce our profitability.

We rely on the consoles, systems and devices of partners who have significant influence over the products and services that we offer in the marketplace.

A significant percentage of our digital net revenue is attributable to sales of products and services through our significant partners, including Sony, Microsoft, Apple and Google. The concentration of a material portion of our digital sales in these partners exposes us to risks associated with these businesses. Any deterioration in the businesses of our significant partners could disrupt and harm our business, including by limiting the methods through which our digital products and services are offered and exposing us to collection risks.

In addition, our license agreements typically provide these partners with significant control over the approval and distribution of the products and services that we develop for their consoles, systems and devices. For products and services delivered via digital channels, each respective partner has policies and guidelines that control the promotion and distribution of these titles and the features and functionalities that we are permitted to offer through the channel. In addition, we are dependent on these partners to invest in, and upgrade, the capabilities of their systems in a manner than corresponds to the preferences of consumers. Failure by these partners to keep pace with consumer preferences could have an adverse impact the engagement with our products and services and our ability to merchandise and commercialize our products and services which could harm our business and/or financial results.

Moreover, certain significant partners can determine and change unilaterally certain key terms and conditions, including the ability to change their user and developer policies and guidelines. In many cases these partners also set the rates that we must pay to provide our games and services through their online channels, and retain flexibility to change their fee structures or adopt different fee structures for their online channels, which could adversely impact our costs, profitability and margins. These partners also control the information technology systems through which online sales of our products and service channels are captured. If our partners establish terms that restrict our offerings, significantly impact the financial terms on which these products or services are offered to our customers, or their information technology systems experiences outages that impact our players’ ability to access our games or purchase extra content or cause an unanticipated delay in reporting, our business and/or financial results could be materially affected.

During the transition period to new console systems, our operating results may be more volatile.

New console systems historically have been developed and released several years apart. In periods of transition, sales of products for legacy generation consoles typically slow or decline in response to the anticipated and actual introduction of new consoles, and sales of products for new generation consoles typically stabilize only after new consoles are widely-established with the consumer base. Sony and Microsoft have announced new generation consoles, but such consoles have not yet been released. Consistent with historical transition periods, we expect consumers to purchase fewer products for the Sony PlayStation 4 and Microsoft Xbox One consoles during the upcoming transition period. The console transition may have a comparable impact on our live services business, potentially increasing the impact on our financial results. The transition could accelerate faster than anticipated and may put downward pressure on legacy generation pricing, which could negatively affect our operating results. Our revenue from sales for the new generation consoles from Sony and Microsoft may not offset the negative effects of the transition on our operating results. Alternatively, adoption of the new generation consoles in which we have made significant investments may be slower than we anticipate or consumer availability may be delayed because of, among other things, business disruptions resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. We do not control the release dates or unit volumes of consoles made available for sale, the pricing or appeal of new generation consoles, or the rates at which consumers purchase these consoles. As a result, our operating results during this transition may be more volatile and difficult to predict.

Our business partners may be unable to honor their obligations to us or their actions may put us at risk.

We rely on various business partners, including third-party service providers, vendors, licensing partners, development partners, and licensees in many areas of our business. Their actions may put our business and our reputation and brand at risk. For
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example, we may have disputes with our business partners that may impact our business and/or financial results. In many cases, our business partners may be given access to sensitive and proprietary information in order to provide services and support to our teams, and they may misappropriate our information and engage in unauthorized use of it. In addition, the failure of these third parties to provide adequate services and technologies, or the failure of the third parties to adequately maintain or update their services and technologies, could result in a disruption to our business operations. Further, disruptions in the financial markets, economic downturns including related to the COVID-19 pandemic, poor business decisions, or reputational harm may adversely affect our business partners and they may not be able to continue honoring their obligations to us or we may cease our arrangements with them. Alternative arrangements and services may not be available to us on commercially reasonable terms or we may experience business interruptions upon a transition to an alternative partner or vendor. If we lose one or more significant business partners, our business could be harmed and our financial results could be materially affected.

The products or services we release may contain defects, bugs or errors.

Our products and services are extremely complex software programs and are difficult to develop and distribute. We have quality controls in place to detect defects, bugs or other errors in our products and services before they are released. Nonetheless, these quality controls are subject to human error, overriding, and resource or technical constraints. In addition, the effectiveness of our quality controls and preventative measures may be negatively affected by the distribution of our workforce resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. As such, these quality controls and preventative measures may not be effective in detecting all defects, bugs or errors in our products and services before they have been released into the marketplace. In such an event, the technological reliability and stability of our products and services could be below our standards and the standards of our players and our reputation, brand and sales could be adversely affected. In addition, we could be required to, or may find it necessary to, offer a refund for the product or service, suspend the availability or sale of the product or service or expend significant resources to cure the defect, bug or error each of which could significantly harm our business and operating results.

We may be subject to claims of infringement of third-party intellectual property rights.

From time to time, third parties may claim that we have infringed their intellectual property rights. Although we take steps to avoid knowingly violating the intellectual property rights of others, it is possible that third parties still may claim infringement. Existing or future infringement claims against us may be expensive to defend and divert the attention of our employees from business operations. Such claims or litigation could require us to pay damages and other costs. We also could be required to stop selling, distributing or supporting products, features or services which incorporate the affected intellectual property rights, redesign products, features or services to avoid infringement, or obtain a license, all of which could be costly and harm our business.

In addition, many patents have been issued that may apply to potential new modes of delivering, playing or monetizing products and services such as those that we produce or would like to offer in the future. We may discover that future opportunities to provide new and innovative modes of game play and game delivery may be precluded by existing patents that we are unable to acquire or license on reasonable terms.

From time to time we may become involved in other legal proceedings.

We are currently, and from time to time in the future may become, subject to legal proceedings, claims, litigation and government investigations or inquiries, which could be expensive, lengthy, disruptive to normal business operations and occupy a significant amount of our employees’ time and attention. In addition, the outcome of any legal proceedings, claims, litigation, investigations or inquiries may be difficult to predict and could have a material adverse effect on our business, reputation, operating results, or financial condition.

Our products and brands are subject to intellectual property infringement, including in jurisdictions that do not adequately protect our products and intellectual property rights.

We regard our products, brands and intellectual property as proprietary and take measures to protect our assets from infringement. We are aware that some unauthorized copying of our products and brands occurs, and if a significantly greater amount were to occur, it could negatively impact our business. Further, our products and services are available worldwide and the laws of some countries, particularly in Asia, either do not protect our products, brands and intellectual property to the same extent as the laws of the United States or are poorly enforced. Legal protection of our rights may be ineffective in countries with weaker intellectual property enforcement mechanisms. In addition, certain third parties have registered our intellectual property rights without authorization in foreign countries. Successfully registering such intellectual property rights could limit or restrict
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our ability to offer products and services based on such rights in those countries. Although we take steps to enforce and police our rights, our practices and methodologies may not be effective against all eventualities.

A significant portion of our packaged goods sales are made to a relatively small number of retail and distribution partners, and these sales may be disrupted.

We derive a significant percentage of our net revenue attributable to sales of our packaged goods products to our top retail and distribution partners. The concentration of a significant percentage of these sales through a few large partners could lead to a short-term disruption to our business if certain of these partners significantly reduced their purchases or ceased to offer our products. The financial position of certain partners has deteriorated and while we maintain protections such as monitoring the credit extended to these partners, we could be vulnerable to collection risk if one or more of these partners experienced continued deterioration of their business or declared bankruptcy. The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in closures of the retail stores of certain partners, which could negatively impact the sales of our packaged goods products and accelerate deterioration of the financial position of such partners. Additionally, receivables from these partners generally increase in our December fiscal quarter as sales of our products generally increase in anticipation of the holiday season which expose us to heightened risk at that time of year. Having a significant portion of our packaged goods sales concentrated in a few partners could reduce our negotiating leverage with them. If one or more of these partners experience deterioration in their business or become unable to obtain sufficient financing to maintain their operations, our business could be harmed.

Our financial results are subject to currency and interest rate fluctuations.

International sales are a fundamental part of our business. For our fiscal year ended March 31, 2020, international net revenue comprised 59 percent of our total net revenue, and we expect our international business to continue to account for a significant portion of our total net revenue. As a result of our international sales, and also the denomination of our foreign investments and our cash and cash equivalents in foreign currencies, we are exposed to the effects of fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates, and volatility in foreign currency exchange rates has increased in connection with the macroeconomic uncertainty caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Strengthening of the U.S. dollar, particularly relative to the Euro, British pound sterling, Australian dollar, Chinese yuan, South Korean won and Polish zloty, has a negative impact on our reported international net revenue but a positive impact on our reported international operating expenses (particularly when the U.S. dollar strengthens against the Swedish krona and the Canadian dollar) because these amounts are translated at lower rates. We use foreign currency hedging contracts to mitigate some foreign currency risk. However, these activities are limited in the protection they provide us from foreign currency fluctuations and can themselves result in losses. In addition, interest rate volatility, including lower interest rates resulting from actions taken in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic, can decrease the amount of interest earned on our cash, cash equivalents and short-term investment portfolio.

We utilize debt financing and such indebtedness could adversely impact our business and financial condition.

We have $1 billion in senior unsecured notes outstanding as well as an unsecured $500 million revolving credit facility. While the facility is currently undrawn, we may use the proceeds of any future borrowings for general corporate purposes. We may also enter into other financial instruments in the future.

Our indebtedness could affect our financial condition and future financial results by, among other things:

Requiring the dedication of a substantial portion of any cash flow from operations to the payment of principal of, and interest on, our indebtedness, thereby reducing the availability of such cash flow to fund our growth strategy, working capital, capital expenditures and other general corporate purposes

Limiting our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and our industry; and

Increasing our vulnerability to adverse changes in general economic and industry conditions.

The agreements governing our indebtedness impose restrictions on us and require us to maintain compliance with specified covenants. In particular, the revolving credit facility requires us to maintain compliance with a debt to EBITDA ratio. Our ability to comply with these covenants may be affected by events beyond our control. If we breach any of these covenants and do not obtain a waiver from the lenders or noteholders, then, subject to applicable cure periods, our outstanding indebtedness may be declared immediately due and payable. In addition, changes by any rating agency to our credit rating may negatively impact the value and liquidity of both our debt and equity securities, as well as the potential costs associated with any potential
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refinancing our indebtedness. Downgrades in our credit rating could also restrict our ability to obtain additional financing in the future and could affect the terms of any such financing.

Changes in our tax rates or exposure to additional tax liabilities, and changes to tax laws and interpretations of tax laws could adversely affect our earnings and financial condition.

We are subject to taxes in the United States and in various foreign jurisdictions. Significant judgment is required in determining our worldwide income tax provision, tax assets, and accruals for other taxes, and there are many transactions and calculations where the ultimate tax determination is uncertain. Our effective income tax rate is based in part on our corporate operating structure and the manner in which we operate our business and develop, value and use our intellectual property. Taxing authorities in jurisdictions in which we operate have, and may continue to, challenge and audit our methodologies for calculating our income taxes, which could increase our effective income tax rate and have an adverse impact on our results of operations and cash flows. In addition, our provision for income taxes is materially affected by our profit levels, changes in our business, changes in the mix of earnings in countries with differing statutory tax rates, changes in the elections we make, changes in the valuation of our deferred tax assets and liabilities, or changes in applicable tax laws or interpretations of existing income and withholding tax laws, as well as other factors. For example, the outcome of future guidance related to the U.S. Tax Act could cause us to change our analysis and materially impact our previous estimates and consolidated financial statements.

In addition, changes to U.S. federal, state or international tax laws or their applicability to corporate multinationals in the countries in which we do business, particularly in Switzerland, where our international business is headquartered, and actions we have taken in our business with respect to such laws, have affected our effective tax rates and cash taxes, cause us to change the way in which we structure our business and resulted in other costs. Our effective tax rate also could be adversely affected by changes in our valuation allowances for deferred tax assets. In particular, the partial valuation allowance against our Swiss deferred tax assets could be affected by changes in future Swiss taxable income, expected growth rates of future Swiss taxable income, which are based primarily on third party market and industry growth data, and changes in Swiss interest rates. The partial valuation allowance is due to the limited seven-year carry forward period and our scheduling of future Swiss taxable income. Significant judgment is involved in determining the amount of the partial valuation allowance, particularly in estimating future Swiss taxable income over the period in which the Swiss deferred tax assets will reverse and assumptions related to expected growth rates. Actual financial results also may differ materially from our current estimates and could have a material impact on our assessment of the valuation allowance.

We are required to pay taxes other than income taxes, such as payroll, sales, use, value-added, net worth, property, transfer, and goods and services taxes, in both the United States and foreign jurisdictions. Several foreign jurisdictions have introduced new digital services taxes on revenue of companies that provide certain digital services or expanded their interpretation of existing tax laws with regard to other non-income taxes. There is limited guidance about the applicability of these new taxes or changing interpretations to our business and significant uncertainty as to what will be deemed in scope. If these foreign taxes are applied to the Company, it could have an adverse and material impact on our business and financial performance.

Our reported financial results could be adversely affected by changes in financial accounting standards.

Our reported financial results are impacted by the accounting standards promulgated by the SEC and national accounting standards bodies and the methods, estimates, and judgments that we use in applying our accounting policies. These methods, estimates, and judgments are subject to risks, uncertainties, assumptions and changes that could adversely affect our reported financial position and financial results. In addition, changes to applicable financial accounting standards could impact our reported financial position and financial results. For more information on recently adopted accounting standards and recently issued accounting standards applicable to us, see Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Note 1 — Description of Business and Basis of Presentation under the subheadings “Recently Adopted Accounting Standards” and “Other Recently Issued Accounting Standards”.

As we enhance, expand and diversify our business and product offerings, the application of existing or future financial accounting standards, particularly those relating to the way we account for revenue, costs and taxes, could have an adverse effect on our reported results although not necessarily on our cash flows.

Our stock price has been volatile and may continue to fluctuate significantly.

The market price of our common stock historically has been, and we expect will continue to be, subject to significant fluctuations. These fluctuations may be due to our operating results or factors specific to our operating results (including those discussed in the risk factors above, as well as others not currently known to us or that we currently do not believe are material),
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changes in securities analysts’ estimates of our future financial performance, ratings or recommendations, our results or future financial guidance falling below our expectations and analysts’ and investors’ expectations, the announcement and integration of any acquisitions we may make, departure of key personnel, cyberattacks, or factors largely outside of our control including, those affecting interactive gaming, entertainment, and/or technology companies generally, national or international economic conditions, investor sentiment or other factors related or unrelated to our operating performance. In particular, economic downturns may contribute to the public stock markets experiencing extreme price and trading volume volatility. These broad market fluctuations could adversely affect the market price of our common stock.













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Item 1B:  Unresolved Staff Comments
None.

Item 2:  Properties
Not applicable.

Item 3:  Legal Proceedings
We are subject to claims and litigation arising in the ordinary course of business. We do not believe that any liability from any reasonably foreseeable disposition of such claims and litigation, individually or in the aggregate, would have a material adverse effect on our Consolidated Financial Statements.

Item 4:  Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.
 
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PART II
Item 5:  Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Holders
There were approximately 784 holders of record of our common stock as of May 18, 2020. In addition, a significant number of beneficial owners of our common stock hold their shares in street name. Our common stock is traded on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol “EA”.
Dividends
We have not paid any cash dividends and do not anticipate paying cash dividends in the foreseeable future.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
In May 2018, a Special Committee of our Board of Directors, on behalf of the full Board of Directors, authorized a program to repurchase up to $2.4 billion of our common stock. We repurchased approximately 12.3 million and 10.4 million shares for approximately $1,207 million and $1,116 million under this program, respectively, during the fiscal years ended March 31, 2020 and 2019. The May 2018 program was scheduled to expire on May 31, 2020, however we completed repurchases under the May 2018 program in April 2020.

The following table summarizes the number of shares repurchased in the fourth quarter of the fiscal year ended March 31, 2020:
Fiscal MonthTotal Number of Shares PurchasedAverage Price Paid per ShareTotal Number of Shares Purchased as part of Publicly Announced ProgramsMaximum Dollar Value that May Still Be Purchased Under the Programs (in millions)
December 29, 2019 - January 25, 2020797,785  $109.32  797,785  $282  
January 26, 2020 - February 22, 2020750,646  $109.73  750,646  $199  
February 23, 2020 - March 28, 20201,209,537  $100.15  1,209,537  $78  
2,757,968  $105.41  2,757,968  


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Stock Performance Graph
The following information shall not be deemed to be “filed” with the SEC nor shall this information be incorporated by reference into any future filing under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Exchange Act, as amended, except to the extent that we specifically incorporate it by reference into a filing.
The following graph shows a five-year comparison of cumulative total returns during the period from March 31, 2015 through March 31, 2020, for our common stock, the S&P 500 Index (to which EA was added in July 2002), the NASDAQ Composite Index, and the RDG Technology Composite Index, each of which assumes an initial value of $100. Each measurement point is as of the end of each fiscal year. The performance of our stock depicted in the following graph is not necessarily indicative of the future performance of our stock.
COMPARISON OF 5 YEAR CUMULATIVE TOTAL RETURN*
Among Electronic Arts Inc., the S&P 500 Index, the NASDAQ Composite Index,
and the RDG Technology Composite Index
ea-20200331_g1.jpg
*Based on $100 invested on March 31, 2015 in stock or index, including reinvestment of dividends.
 
 March 31,
 201520162017201820192020
Electronic Arts Inc.$100  $112  $152  $206  $173  $170  
S&P 500 Index100  102  119  136  149  138  
NASDAQ Composite Index100  101  124  149  165  166  
RDG Technology Composite Index100  100  127  163  192  204  

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Item 6:  Selected Financial Data
ELECTRONIC ARTS INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
SELECTED FIVE-YEAR CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL DATA
(In millions, except per share data)
 Year Ended March 31,
STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS DATA20202019201820172016
Net revenue (a)
$5,537  $4,950  $5,150  $4,845  $4,396  
Cost of revenue1,369  1,322  1,277  1,298  1,354  
Gross profit4,168  3,628  3,873  3,547  3,042  
Total operating expenses2,723  2,632  2,439  2,323  2,144  
Operating income1,445  996  1,434  1,224  898  
Interest and other income (expense), net63  83  15  (14) (21) 
Income before provision for (benefit from) income taxes1,508  1,079  1,449  1,210  877  
Provision for (benefit from) income taxes(1,531) 
(b)
60  406  
(c)
243  (279) 
(d)
Net income$3,039  $1,019  $1,043  $967  $1,156  
Earnings per share:
Basic$10.37  $3.36  $3.39  $3.19  $3.73  
Diluted$10.30  $3.33  $3.34  $3.08  $3.50  
Number of shares used in computation:
Basic293  303  308  303  310  
Diluted295  306  312  314  330  
 As of March 31,
BALANCE SHEETS DATA20202019201820172016
Cash and cash equivalents$3,768  $4,708  $4,258  $2,565  $2,493  
Short-term investments1,967  737  1,073  1,967  1,341  
Working capital3,853  
(e)
4,116  3,513  2,784  1,936  
(e)
Total assets11,112  8,957  8,584  7,718  7,050  
Senior notes, net397  994  992  990  989  
Other long-term liabilities590  367  506  253  245  
Total liabilities3,651  3,626  3,989  3,658  3,652  
Total stockholders’ equity7,461  5,331  4,595  4,060  3,396  

(a)On April 1, 2018, at the beginning of fiscal year 2019, we adopted the New Revenue Standard, which significantly changed how we recognize and report net revenue. Financial data for periods prior to April 1, 2018 has not been restated. For more information on the impact of adoption of the New Revenue Standard, please see Part II, Item 8, Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Note 1 under the heading “Recently Adopted Accounting Standards” included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for our fiscal year ended March 31, 2019.

(b)During the fiscal year ended March 31, 2020, we recognized total one-time tax benefits of $1.760 billion related to the $1.840 billion Swiss Deferred Tax Asset, partially offset by the $80 million one-time Altera opinion charge. Please see Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Note 2 — Summary of Significant Accounting Policies - Income Taxes, for more information.

(c)For the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018, we recognized a tax expense of $235 million due to the application of the U.S. Tax Act, enacted on December 22, 2017.

(d)For the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016, we recognized a tax benefit of $453 million for the reversal of a significant portion of our deferred tax valuation allowance.

(e)Working capital for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2020 includes the current portion of the 3.70% Senior Notes due March 1, 2021. Working capital for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016 includes the current portion of 0.75% convertible senior notes due 2016.
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Item 7:  Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

OVERVIEW

The following overview is a high-level discussion of our operating results, as well as some of the trends and drivers that affect our business. Management believes that an understanding of these trends and drivers provides important context for our results for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2020, as well as our future prospects. This summary is not intended to be exhaustive, nor is it intended to be a substitute for the detailed discussion and analysis provided elsewhere in this Form 10-K, including in the “Business” section and the “Risk Factors” above, the remainder of this “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (“MD&A”)” or the Consolidated Financial Statements and related Notes.

About Electronic Arts

Electronic Arts is a global leader in digital interactive entertainment. We develop, market, publish and deliver games, content and services that can be played and watched on game consoles, PCs, mobile phones and tablets. We believe that the breadth and depth of our portfolio, live services offerings, and our use of multiple business models and distribution channels provide us with strategic advantages. Our foundation is a collection of intellectual property from which we create innovative games and content that enables us to build on-going and meaningful relationships with a community of players, creators and viewers. Our portfolio includes brands that we either wholly own (such as Battlefield, The Sims, Apex Legends, Need for Speed and Plants v. Zombies) or license from others (such as FIFA, Madden NFL and Star Wars). We also offer our players high-quality experiences designed to provide value to players and extend and enhance gameplay. Our live services experiences include extra content, subscription offerings and other revenue generated outside of the sale of our base games. In addition, we are focused on reaching more players whenever and wherever they want to play. We believe that we can add value to our network by making it easier for players to connect to a world of play by offering choice of business model, distribution channel and device.

Financial Results

Our key financial results for our fiscal year ended March 31, 2020 were as follows:

Total net revenue was $5,537 million, up 12 percent year-over-year. On a constant currency basis, we estimate
total net revenue would have been $5,610 million, up 13 percent year-over-year.
Digital net revenue was $4,314 million, up 16 percent year-over-year.
Gross margin was 75.3 percent, up 2 percentage points year-over-year.
Operating expenses were $2,723 million, up 3 percent year-over-year. On a constant currency basis, we estimate that operating expenses would have been $2,754 million, up 5 percent year-over-year.
Operating income was $1,445 million, up 45 percent year-over-year.
Net income was $3,039 million, including a one-time net tax benefit of $1,760 million. Excluding the one-time tax benefit, net income would have been $1,279 million, up 26 percent year-over-year.
Diluted earnings per share was $10.30, including a one-time net tax benefit of $5.97. Excluding the one-time tax benefit, diluted earnings per share would have been $4.33, up 30 percent year-over-year.
Operating cash flow was $1,797 million, up 16 percent year-over-year.
Total cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments were $5,735 million.
We repurchased 12.3 million shares of our common stock for $1,207 million.

From time to time, we make comparisons of current periods to prior periods with reference to constant currency. Constant currency comparisons are based on translating local currency amounts in the current period at actual foreign exchange rates from the prior comparable period. We evaluate our financial performance on a constant currency basis in order to facilitate period-to-period comparisons without regard to the impact of changing foreign currency exchange rates. For additional information on the one-time net tax benefit excluded above from net income and diluted earnings per share, please see Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Note 2 — Summary of Significant Accounting Policies - Income Taxes.

Trends in Our Business

COVID-19 Impact. We are closely monitoring the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic to our people and our business. Since the outbreak of COVID-19, we have focused on actions to support our people, our players, and communities around the world that have been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic.

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Our People: First, we have focused on the health and wellbeing of our people and their families. During the fiscal quarter ending March 31, 2020, we shifted nearly all of our global workforce to work from home in response to the growing threat of the pandemic. Our IT, security and digital platform teams mobilized to add capacity to our remote working systems to scale to a distributed workforce and support business continuity. To date, substantially all of our people outside of Shanghai are continuing to work from home. We have developed a detailed protocol for how we will evaluate the readiness to return to work for each of our offices around the world, accounting for guidance from health authorities and government, the comfort level of our employees, and preparation of our facilities for continued physical distancing.

Our Business: Throughout this time, we have also focused on what we can do for our players. We launched our “Stay Home, Play Together” initiative to bring our players together when physical distancing is keeping us apart, and dozens of Stay & Play programs have been delivered to date. With more people staying at home we have experienced, and are continuing to experience, heightened levels of engagement and live services net bookings growth during the three months ended March 31, 2020 and during the current fiscal quarter to date.

Future Outlook: The full extent of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic to our business, operations and financial results will depend on numerous evolving factors that we may not be able to predict. For example, we do not know when stay-at-home orders will be eased and lifted, and how our products and services will be impacted when that occurs. Engagement and net bookings could subside. Additional factors that could impact our business – particularly if stay-at-home orders remain in place for the longer term or a second wave of stay-at-home orders is necessary – include: our ability to deliver new games and services in a distributed work environment, macroeconomic challenges that impact consumer demand, the status of sports seasons on which our products and live services are based, impacts to our key business partners, foreign exchange rate fluctuations, and other factors included in Part I, Item 1A of this Annual Report under the heading “Risk Factors”.

Live Services Business. We offer our players high-quality experiences designed to provide value to players and to extend and enhance gameplay. These live services include extra content, subscription offerings and other revenue generated outside of the sale of our base games. Our net revenue attributable to digital live services for console and PC was $2,813 million, $2,216 million and $2,083 million during fiscal years 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively, and we expect that live services net revenue will continue to be material to our business. Net revenue attributable to extra content, which includes extra content within digital live services for console and PC as well as extra content within our mobile business was $2,763 million, $2,309 million and $2,033 million during fiscal years 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively. Extra content net revenue has increased as players engage with our games and services over longer periods of time, and purchase additional content designed to provide value to players and extend and enhance gameplay. Our most popular live service is the extra content purchased for the Ultimate Team mode associated with our sports franchises. Ultimate Team allows players to collect current and former professional players in order to build and compete as a personalized team. Net revenue from extra content sales for Ultimate Team was $1,491 million, $1,369 million and $1,180 million during fiscal years 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively, a substantial portion of which was derived from FIFA Ultimate Team.

Digital Delivery of Games. In our industry, players increasingly purchase games digitally as opposed to purchasing physical discs. While this trend, as applied to our business, may not be linear because of product mix during a fiscal year, consumer buying patterns and other factors, over time we expect players to purchase an increasingly higher proportion of our games digitally; therefore we expect net revenue attributable to digital full game downloads to increase over time and net revenue attributable to sales of packaged goods to decrease. Our net revenue attributable to digital full game downloads was $809 million, $680 million and $707 million during fiscal years 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively; while our net revenue attributable to packaged goods sales decreased from $1,700 million in fiscal year 2018 to $1,240 million in fiscal year 2019 and $1,223 million in fiscal year 2020. In addition, as measured based on total units sold on Microsoft’s Xbox One and Sony’s PlayStation 4 rather than by net revenue, we estimate that 49 percent, 49 percent, and 39 percent of our total units sold during fiscal years 2020, 2019 and 2018 were sold digitally. Digital full game units are based on sales information provided by Microsoft and Sony; packaged goods units sold through are estimated by obtaining data from significant retail partners in North America, Europe and Asia, and applying internal sales estimates with respect to retail partners from which we do not obtain data. We believe that these percentages are reasonable estimates of the proportion of our games that are digitally downloaded in relation to our total number of units sold for the applicable period of measurement. We expect the long-term trends in revenue and in the percentage of games digitally downloaded to continue. Increases in consumer adoption of digital purchase of games combined with increases in our live services revenue generally results in expansion of our gross margin, as costs associated with selling a game digitally is generally less than selling the same game through traditional retail and distribution channels.

Free-to-Play Games. The global adoption of mobile devices and a business model for those devices that allows consumers to try new games with no up-front cost, and that are monetized through a live service associated with the game, particularly extra content sales, has led to significant sales growth in the mobile gaming industry. Similarly, sales of extra content are the primary driver of our mobile business. We expect the mobile gaming industry to continue to grow during our 2021 fiscal year. Likewise,
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the consumer acceptance of free-to-play, live service-based, online PC games has broadened our consumer base and has begun to expand into the console market. For example, within our business, we offer Apex Legends as a free-to-play, live service-based PC and console game. We expect extra content revenue generated from mobile, PC and console free-to-play games to remain an important part of our business.

Concentration of Sales Among the Most Popular Games. In all major segments of our industry, we see a large portion of games sales concentrated on the most popular titles. Similarly, a significant portion of our revenue historically has been derived from games based on a few popular franchises, several of which we have released on an annual or bi-annual basis. In particular, we have historically derived a significant portion of our net revenue from our largest and most popular game, FIFA, the annualized version of which is consistently one of the best-selling games in the marketplace.

Recurring Revenue Sources. Our business model includes revenue that we deem recurring in nature, such as revenue from our annualized sports franchises (e.g., FIFA, Madden NFL), our console, PC and mobile catalog titles (i.e., titles that did not launch in the current fiscal year), and our live services. We have been able to forecast revenue from these areas of our business with greater relative confidence than for new games, services and business models. As we continue to incorporate new business models and modalities of play into our games, our goal is to continue to look for opportunities to expand the recurring portion of our business.

Net Bookings. In order to improve transparency into our business, we disclose an operating performance metric, net bookings. Net bookings is defined as the net amount of products and services sold digitally or sold-in physically in the period. Net bookings is calculated by adding total net revenue to the change in deferred net revenue for online-enabled games and platform fees.


The following is a calculation of our total net bookings for the periods presented:
Year Ended March 31,
(In millions)20202019
Total net revenue$5,537  $4,950  
Change in deferred net revenue (online-enabled games)(165) 182  
Platform fees(161) (188) 
Net bookings$5,211  $4,944  

Net bookings were $5,211 million for fiscal year 2020 driven by sales related to FIFA 20, Madden NFL 20 and Star Wars Jedi: Fallen Order. Net bookings increased $267 million or 5 percent as compared to fiscal year 2019 due primarily to Star Wars Jedi: Fallen Order, Apex Legends and Need for Speed Heat, partially offset by Battlefield V and Anthem. Digital net bookings were $4,052 million for fiscal year 2020, an increase of $330 million or 9 percent as compared to fiscal year 2019. The increase in digital net bookings was primarily driven by our live services which grew $372 million or 15 percent year-over-year, primarily due to sales of extra content for Apex Legends, FIFA Ultimate Team and Madden Ultimate Team; and full game downloads which grew $18 million or 2 percent due to net bookings associated with Star Wars Jedi: Fallen Order and Need for Speed Heat, partially offset by Battlefield V. These increases were partially offset by a decrease of $60 million or 10 percent in our mobile business due to declines from aging titles.


CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND ESTIMATES

Our Consolidated Financial Statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“U.S. GAAP”). The preparation of these Consolidated Financial Statements requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, contingent assets and liabilities, and revenue and expenses during the reporting periods. The policies discussed below are considered by management to be critical because they are not only important to the portrayal of our financial condition and results of operations, but also because application and interpretation of these policies requires both management judgment and estimates of matters that are inherently uncertain and unknown, including uncertainty in the current economic environment due to the recent outbreak of COVID-19. As a result, actual results may differ materially from our estimates.
For a complete discussion of our critical accounting policies and estimates with respect to revenue recognition for revenue transactions occurring prior to April 1, 2018, which were accounted for under ASC 605, Revenue Recognition (the “Old Revenue Standard” or “ASC 605”), refer to Part II, Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and
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Results of Operations” under the subheading Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for our fiscal year ended March 31, 2018, filed with the SEC on May 23, 2018. With respect to revenue transactions occurring on April 1, 2018 and onward, our revenue recognition accounting policy is set forth below and follows ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (the “New Revenue Standard” or “ASC 606”).
Revenue Recognition
We derive revenue principally from sales of our games, and related extra content and services that can be played on game consoles, PCs, mobile phones and tablets. Our product and service offerings include, but are not limited to, the following:

full games with both online and offline functionality (“Games with Services”), which generally includes (1) the initial game delivered digitally or via physical disc at the time of sale and typically provide access to offline core game content (“software license”); (2) updates on a when-and-if-available basis, such as software patches or updates, and/or additional free content to be delivered in the future (“future update rights”); and (3) a hosted connection for online playability (“online hosting”);

full games with online-only functionality which require an Internet connection to access all gameplay and functionality (“Online-Hosted Service Games”);

extra content related to Games with Services and Online-Hosted Service Games which provides access to additional in-game content;

subscriptions, such as Origin Access, Origin Access Premier and EA Access, that generally offers access to a selection of full games, in-game content, online services and other benefits typically for a recurring monthly or annual fee; and

licensing to third parties to distribute and host our games and content.

We evaluate and recognize revenue by:

identifying the contract(s) with the customer;

identifying the performance obligations in the contract;

determining the transaction price;

allocating the transaction price to performance obligations in the contract; and

recognizing revenue as each performance obligation is satisfied through the transfer of a promised good or service to a customer (i.e., “transfer of control”).

Certain of our full game and/or extra content are sold to resellers with a contingency that the full game and/or extra content cannot be resold prior to a specific date (“Street Date Contingency”). We recognize revenue for transactions that have a Street Date Contingency when the Street Date Contingency is removed and the full game and/or extra content can be resold by the reseller. For digital full game and/or extra content downloads sold to customers, we recognize revenue when the full game and/or extra content is made available for download to the customer.

Online-Enabled Games

Games with Services. Our sales of Games with Services are evaluated to determine whether the software license, future update rights and the online hosting are distinct and separable. Sales of Games with Services are generally determined to have three distinct performance obligations: software license, future update rights, and the online hosting.

Since we do not sell the performance obligations on a stand-alone basis, we consider market conditions and other observable inputs to estimate the stand-alone selling price for each performance obligation. For Games with Services, generally 75 percent of the sales price is allocated to the software license performance obligation and recognized at a point in time when control of the license has been transferred to the customer (which is usually at or near the same time as the booking of the transaction). The remaining 25 percent is allocated to the future update rights and the online hosting performance obligations and recognized ratably as the service is provided (over the Estimated Offering Period).

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Online-Hosted Service Games. Sales of our Online-Hosted Service Games are determined to have one distinct performance obligation: the online hosting. We recognize revenue from these arrangements as the service is provided.

Extra Content. Revenue received from sales of downloadable content are derived primarily from the sale of virtual currencies and digital in-game content that enhance players’ game experience. Sales of extra content are accounted for in a manner consistent with the treatment for our Games with Services and Online-Hosted Service Games as discussed above, depending upon whether or not the extra content has offline functionality. That is, if the extra content has offline functionality, then the extra content is accounted for similarly to Games with Services (generally determined to have three distinct performance obligations: software license, future update rights, and the online hosting). If the extra content does not have offline functionality, then the extra content is determined to have one distinct performance obligation: the online-hosted service offering.

Subscriptions

Sales of our subscriptions are deemed to be one performance obligation and we recognize revenue from these arrangements ratably over the subscription term as the performance obligation is satisfied.

Licensing Revenue

In certain countries, we utilize third-party licensees to distribute and host our games and content in accordance with license agreements, for which the licensees typically pay us a fixed minimum guarantee and/or sales-based royalties. These arrangements typically include multiple performance obligations, such as a time-based license of software and future update rights. We recognize as revenue a portion of the minimum guarantee when we transfer control of the license of software (generally upon commercial launch) and the remaining portion ratably over the contractual term in which we provide the licensee with future update rights. Any sales-based royalties are generally recognized as the related sales occur by the licensee.

Significant Judgments around Revenue Arrangements

Identifying performance obligations. Performance obligations promised in a contract are identified based on the goods and services that will be transferred to the customer that are both capable of being distinct, (i.e., the customer can benefit from the goods or services either on its own or together with other resources that are readily available), and are distinct in the context of the contract (i.e., it is separately identifiable from other goods or services in the contract). To the extent a contract includes multiple promises, we must apply judgment to determine whether those promises are separate and distinct performance obligations. If these criteria are not met, the promises are accounted for as a combined performance obligation.

Determining the transaction price. The transaction price is determined based on the consideration that we will be entitled to receive in exchange for transferring our goods and services to the customer. Determining the transaction price often requires judgment, based on an assessment of contractual terms and business practices. It further includes review of variable consideration such as discounts, sales returns, price protection, and rebates, which is estimated at the time of the transaction. In addition, the transaction price does not include an estimate of the variable consideration related to sales-based royalties. Sales-based royalties are recognized as the sales occur.

Allocating the transaction price. Allocating the transaction price requires that we determine an estimate of the relative stand-alone selling price for each distinct performance obligation. Determining the relative stand-alone selling price is inherently subjective, especially in situations where we do not sell the performance obligation on a stand-alone basis (which occurs in the majority of our transactions). In those situations, we determine the relative stand-alone selling price based on various observable inputs using all information that is reasonably available. Examples of observable inputs and information include: historical internal pricing data, cost plus margin analyses, third-party external pricing of similar or same products and services such as software licenses and maintenance support within the enterprise software industry. The results of our analysis resulted in a specific percentage of the transaction price being allocated to each performance obligation.

Determining the Estimated Offering Period. The offering period is the period in which we offer to provide the future update rights and/or online hosting for the game and related extra content sold. Because the offering period is not an explicitly defined period, we must make an estimate of the offering period for the service related performance obligations (i.e., future update rights and online hosting). Determining the Estimated Offering Period is inherently subjective and is subject to regular revision. Generally, we consider the average period of time customers are online when estimating the offering period. We also consider the estimated period of time between the date a game unit is sold to a reseller and the date the reseller sells the game unit to the customer (i.e., time in channel). Based on these two factors, we then consider the method of distribution. For example, games
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sold at retail would have a composite offering period equal to the online gameplay period plus time in channel as opposed to digitally-distributed software licenses which are delivered immediately via digital download and therefore, the offering period is estimated to be only the online gameplay period.

Additionally, we consider results from prior analyses, known and expected online gameplay trends, as well as disclosed service periods for competitors’ games in determining the Estimated Offering Period for future sales. We believe this provides a reasonable depiction of the transfer of future update rights and online hosting to our customers, as it is the best representation of the time period during which our games are played. We recognize revenue for future update rights and online hosting performance obligations ratably on a straight-line basis over this period as there is a consistent pattern of delivery for these performance obligations. These performance obligations are generally recognized over an estimated nine-month period beginning in the month after shipment for software licenses sold through retail and an estimated six-month period for digitally-distributed software licenses beginning in the month of sale.

Principal Agent Considerations

We evaluate sales to end customers of our full games and related content via third-party storefronts, including digital storefronts such as Microsoft’s Xbox Store, Sony’s PlayStation Store, Apple App Store, and Google Play Store, in order to determine whether or not we are acting as the principal in the sale to the end customer, which we consider in determining if revenue should be reported gross or net of fees retained by the third-party storefront. An entity is the principal if it controls a good or service before it is transferred to the end customer. Key indicators that we evaluate in determining gross versus net treatment include but are not limited to the following:

the underlying contract terms and conditions between the various parties to the transaction;
which party is primarily responsible for fulfilling the promise to provide the specified good or service to the end customer;
which party has inventory risk before the specified good or service has been transferred to the end customer; and
which party has discretion in establishing the price for the specified good or service.

Based on an evaluation of the above indicators, except as discussed below, we have determined that generally the third party is considered the principal to end customers for the sale of our full games and related content. We therefore report revenue related to these arrangements net of the fees retained by the storefront. However, for sales arrangements via Apple App Store and Google Play Store, EA is considered the principal to the end customer and thus, we report revenue on a gross basis and mobile platform fees are reported within cost of revenue.

Income Taxes

We recognize deferred tax assets and liabilities for both (1) the expected impact of differences between the financial statement amount and the tax basis of assets and liabilities and (2) the expected future tax benefit to be derived from tax losses and tax credit carryforwards. We record a valuation allowance against deferred tax assets when it is considered more likely than not that all or a portion of our deferred tax assets will not be realized. In making this determination, we are required to give significant weight to evidence that can be objectively verified. It is generally difficult to conclude that a valuation allowance is not needed when there is significant negative evidence, such as cumulative losses in recent years. Forecasts of future taxable income are considered to be less objective than past results. Therefore, cumulative losses weigh heavily in the overall assessment.

In addition to considering forecasts of future taxable income, we are also required to evaluate and quantify other possible sources of taxable income in order to assess the realization of our deferred tax assets, namely the reversal of existing deferred tax liabilities, the carryback of losses and credits as allowed under current tax law, and the implementation of tax planning strategies. Evaluating and quantifying these amounts involves significant judgments. Each source of income must be evaluated based on all positive and negative evidence and; this evaluation may involve assumptions about future activity. Certain taxable temporary differences that are not expected to reverse during the carry forward periods permitted by tax law cannot be considered as a source of future taxable income that may be available to realize the benefit of deferred tax assets.

Every quarter, we perform a realizability analysis to evaluate whether it is more likely than not that all or a portion of our deferred tax assets will not be realized. As of March 31, 2020, we have recognized a $131 million valuation allowance related to our Swiss deferred tax assets. Our Swiss deferred tax asset realizability analysis relies upon future Swiss taxable income as the primary source of taxable income but considers all available sources of Swiss income based on the positive and negative evidence. We give more weight to evidence that can be objectively verified. However, there is significant judgment involved in estimating future Swiss taxable income over the 20-year period over which the Swiss deferred tax assets will reverse, specifically related to assumptions about expected growth rates of future Swiss taxable income, which are based primarily on
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third party market and industry growth data. Actual results that differ materially from those estimates could have a material impact on our valuation allowance assessment. Although objectively verifiable, Swiss interest rates have an impact on the valuation allowance and are based on published Swiss guidance. Any significant changes to such interest rates could result in a material impact to the valuation allowance. Switzerland has a seven-year carryforward period and does not permit the carry back of losses. We do not recognize any deferred taxes related to the U.S. taxes on foreign earnings as we recognize these taxes as a period cost.

As part of the process of preparing our Consolidated Financial Statements, we are required to estimate our income taxes in each jurisdiction in which we operate prior to the completion and filing of tax returns for such periods. This process requires estimating both our geographic mix of income and our uncertain tax positions in each jurisdiction where we operate. These estimates involve complex issues and require us to make judgments about the likely application of the tax law to our situation, as well as with respect to other matters, such as anticipating the positions that we will take on tax returns prior to our preparing the returns and the outcomes of disputes with tax authorities. The ultimate resolution of these issues may take extended periods of time due to examinations by tax authorities and statutes of limitations. In addition, changes in our business, including acquisitions, changes in our international corporate structure, changes in the geographic location of business functions or assets, changes in the geographic mix and amount of income, as well as changes in our agreements with tax authorities, valuation allowances, applicable accounting rules, applicable tax laws and regulations, rulings and interpretations thereof, developments in tax audit and other matters, and variations in the estimated and actual level of annual pre-tax income can affect the overall effective tax rate.


IMPACT OF RECENTLY ISSUED ACCOUNTING STANDARDS
The information under the subheading “Impact of Recently Issued Accounting Standards” in Note 1 — Description of Business and Basis of Presentation to the Consolidated Financial Statements in this Form 10-K is incorporated by reference into this Item 7.
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RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Our fiscal year is reported on a 52- or 53-week period that ends on the Saturday nearest March 31. Our results of operations for the fiscal years ended March 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018 contained 52 weeks each and ended on March 28, 2020, March 30, 2019 and March 31, 2018, respectively. For simplicity of disclosure, all fiscal periods are referred to as ending on a calendar month end.

Net Revenue
Net revenue consists of sales generated from (1) full games sold as digital downloads or as packaged goods and designed for play on game consoles and PCs, (2) full games for mobile phones and tablets, (3) live services associated with these games, such as extra content, (4) subscriptions that generally offer access to a selection of full games, in-game content, online services and other benefits, and (5) licensing our games to third parties to distribute and host our games.
Comparison of Fiscal Year 2020 to Fiscal Year 2019

Net Revenue

Net revenue for fiscal year 2020 was $5,537 million, primarily driven by FIFA 20, FIFA 19, The Sims 4, Apex Legends and Madden NFL 20. Net revenue for fiscal year 2020 increased $587 million, as compared to fiscal year 2019. This increase was driven by a $924 million increase in revenue primarily from Apex Legends, Star Wars Jedi: Fallen Order and Anthem. This increase was partially offset by a $337 million decrease in revenue primarily from the Battlefield franchise.

Net Revenue by Composition

As our business has evolved and more of our products are delivered to consumers digitally, we have placed a significant emphasis and focus on assessing our business performance through a review of net revenue by composition, which is primarily based on method of distribution.

Our net revenue by composition for fiscal years 2020 and 2019 was as follows (in millions):
Year Ended March 31,
20202019$ Change% Change
Net revenue:
Full game downloads$809  $680  $129  19 %
Live services2,813  2,216  597  27 %
Mobile692  814  (122) (15)%
Total Digital$4,314  $3,710  $604  16 %
Packaged goods and other$1,223  $1,240  $(17) (1)%
Total net revenue$5,537  $4,950  $587  12 %
Digital Net Revenue

Digital net revenue includes full game downloads, live services, and mobile revenue. Full game downloads includes revenue from digital sales of full games on console and PC. Live services includes revenue from sales of extra content for console, PC, browser games, game software licensed to our third-party publishing partners who distribute our games digitally, subscriptions, and advertising. Mobile primarily includes revenue from the sale of extra content for our mobile games. It also includes revenue
from the sale of full games and advertising on mobile phones and tablets.

Digital net revenue for fiscal year 2020 was $4,314 million, primarily driven by extra content sales for FIFA Ultimate Team, Apex Legends and The Sims 4. Digital net revenue for fiscal year 2020 increased $604 million, as compared to fiscal year 2019. This increase was due to a $597 million increase in live services revenue primarily driven by sales of extra content for Apex Legends, FIFA Ultimate Team and Madden Ultimate Team, and a $129 million increase in full game downloads revenue primarily driven by Star Wars Jedi: Fallen Order, partially offset by a $122 million decrease in mobile revenue primarily driven by lower extra content sales for Star Wars: Galaxy of Heroes and Madden Mobile.

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Packaged Goods and Other Net Revenue

Packaged goods net revenue includes revenue from software that is distributed physically. This includes (1) net revenue from game software distributed physically through traditional channels such as brick and mortar retailers, and (2) our software licensing revenue from third parties (for example, makers of console platforms, personal computers or computer accessories) who include certain of our products for sale with their products (for example, OEM bundles). Other net revenue includes our non-software licensing revenue.

Packaged goods and other net revenue for fiscal year 2020 was $1,223 million, primarily driven by FIFA 20, Star Wars Jedi: Fallen Order, Madden NFL 20, and FIFA 19. Packaged goods and other net revenue remained relatively consistent for fiscal year 2020, as compared to fiscal year 2019.

Cost of Revenue

Cost of revenue for fiscal years 2020 and 2019 was as follows (in millions):
March 31,
2020
% of Net RevenueMarch 31,
2019
% of Net Revenue% ChangeChange as a % of Net Revenue
$1,369  25 %$1,322  27 %%(2)%

Cost of revenue consists of (1) manufacturing royalties, net of volume discounts and other vendor reimbursements, (2) certain royalty expenses for celebrities, professional sports leagues, movie studios and other organizations, and independent software developers, (3) data center, bandwidth and server costs associated with hosting our online games and websites, (4) inventory costs, (5) payment processing fees, (6) mobile platform fees associated with our mobile revenue (for transactions in which we are acting as the principal in the sale to the end customer), (7) expenses for defective products, (8) write-offs of post launch prepaid royalty costs and losses on previously unrecognized licensed intellectual property commitments, (9) amortization of certain intangible assets, (10) personnel-related costs, and (11) warehousing and distribution costs. We generally recognize volume discounts when they are earned from the manufacturer (typically in connection with the achievement of unit-based milestones); whereas other vendor reimbursements are generally recognized as the related revenue is recognized.

Cost of Revenue

Cost of revenue increased by $47 million, or 4 percent during fiscal year 2020, as compared to fiscal year 2019. This increase was primarily due to an increase in inventory and royalty costs associated with Star Wars Jedi: Fallen Order, an increase in royalty costs driven by higher sales associated with Madden franchise, a higher royalty rate associated with the FIFA franchise, and data center, bandwidth and server usage costs associated with Apex Legends, partially offset by a decrease in inventory costs associated with Battlefield V and the FIFA franchise, and data center, bandwidth and server usage costs associated with Anthem, which launched as online-only title during fiscal year 2019.

Cost of revenue as a percentage of total net revenue decreased by 2 percent during fiscal year 2020, as compared to fiscal year 2019. This decrease was primarily due to an increase in the proportion of our digital net revenues to packaged goods and other net revenues, which generally have higher costs than our digital games.
Research and Development
Research and development expenses consist of expenses incurred by our production studios for personnel-related costs, related overhead costs, external third-party development costs, contracted services, depreciation and any impairment of prepaid royalties for pre-launch products. Research and development expenses for our online products include expenses incurred by our studios consisting of direct development and related overhead costs in connection with the development and production of our online games. Research and development expenses also include expenses associated with our digital platform, software licenses and maintenance, and management overhead.
Research and development expenses for fiscal years 2020 and 2019 were as follows (in millions):
March 31,
2020
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