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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549 
___________________________________________________________________________________
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023 or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                     to                     .
COMMISSION FILE NUMBER: 000-26489
ENCORE CAPITAL GROUP, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter) 
Delaware48-1090909
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(IRS Employer Identification No.)
350 Camino De La Reina, Suite 100
San Diego, California 92108
(Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)
(877) 445-4581
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code) 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each ClassTrading Symbol(s)Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered
Common Stock, $0.01 Par Value Per ShareECPG
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes   No  
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large accelerated filer    Accelerated filer Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.    
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.      
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant's executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).    Yes      No  
The aggregate market value of the voting stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was approximately $1,120.9 million at June 30, 2023, based on the closing price of the common stock of $48.62 per share on such date, as reported by Nasdaq.
The number of shares of our Common Stock outstanding at February 15, 2024, was 23,545,102.
Documents Incorporated by Reference
Portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement in connection with its annual meeting of stockholders to be held in 2024 are incorporated by reference in Items 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14 of Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023, which proxy statement will be filed no later than 120 days after the close of the registrant’s fiscal year December 31, 2023.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
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PART I
Item 1—Business
Our Business
We are an international specialty finance company providing debt recovery solutions and other related services for consumers across a broad range of financial assets. We primarily purchase portfolios of defaulted consumer receivables at deep discounts to face value and manage them by working with individuals as they repay their obligations and work toward financial recovery. Defaulted receivables are consumers’ unpaid financial obligations to credit originators, including banks, credit unions, consumer finance companies and commercial retailers. Defaulted receivables may also include receivables subject to bankruptcy proceedings. We also provide debt servicing and other portfolio management services to credit originators for non-performing loans in Europe.
Through Midland Credit Management, Inc. and its domestic affiliates (collectively, “MCM”) we are a market leader in portfolio purchasing and recovery in the United States. Through Cabot Credit Management Limited (“CCM”) and its subsidiaries and European affiliates (collectively, “Cabot”) we are one of the largest credit management services providers in Europe and the United Kingdom. These are our primary operations.
We also have additional international investments and operations as we have explored new asset classes and geographies including: (1) an investment in Encore Asset Reconstruction Company (“EARC”) in India and (2) an investment in portfolio in Mexico. We refer to these additional international operations as our Latin America and Asia-Pacific (“LAAP”) operations.
To date, operating results from LAAP have not been significant to our total consolidated operating results. Our long-term growth strategy is focused on continuing to invest in our core portfolio purchasing and recovery business in the United States and United Kingdom and strengthening and developing our business in the rest of Europe. As a result, descriptions of our operations in Part I - Item 1 of this Form 10-K will focus primarily on MCM (United States) and Cabot (Europe) operations.
Throughout this Annual Report on Form 10-K, when we refer to our United States operations, we include accounts originated in the United States that are serviced through our operations centers in the United States, India and Costa Rica. When we refer to our international operations, we are referring to accounts originated outside of the United States. Those accounts are generally serviced in the country of origin. When we refer to Europe, we are referring to Europe including the United Kingdom.
Company Information
We were incorporated in Delaware in 1999. In June 2013, we completed our merger with Asset Acceptance Capital Corp., which was another leading provider of debt recovery solutions in the United States. In July 2013, by acquiring a majority ownership interest in the indirect holding company of CCM, we acquired control of CCM. In February 2014, CCM acquired Marlin Financial Group Limited, a leading acquirer of non-performing consumer debt in the United Kingdom. In August 2014, we acquired Atlantic Credit & Finance, Inc., which was a market leader in the United States in buying and collecting on freshly charged-off debt. In June 2015, CCM expanded in the United Kingdom by acquiring Hillesden Securities Ltd and its subsidiaries (“dlc”). In November 2017, CCM completed the acquisition of Wescot Credit Services Limited (“Wescot”), a leading UK contingency debt collection and BPO services company. In July 2018, we completed the purchase of all of the outstanding equity of CCM not owned by us. As a result, CCM became our wholly owned subsidiary.
Our headquarters is located in San Diego, California 92108 and our telephone number is (877) 445-4581. Our website address is www.encorecapital.com. The site provides access, free of charge, to relevant investor related information, such as our annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and any amendments to those reports that are filed with or furnished to the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) pursuant to Sections 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, press releases, featured articles, an event calendar, and frequently asked questions. SEC filings are available on our Internet site as soon as reasonably practicable after being filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. Also available on our website are our Standards of Business Conduct and charters for the committees of our Board of Directors. We intend to disclose any amendment to, or waiver of, a provision of our Standards of Business Conduct on our website. The content of our Internet site is not incorporated by reference into this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC (http://www.sec.gov).
Our Competitive Advantages
Analytic Strength. We believe that success in our business depends on our ability to establish and maintain an information and data advantage. Leveraging our database of financially-distressed consumers, our in-house team of statisticians, business analysts, and software programmers have developed, and continually enhance, proprietary behavioral and valuation models, custom software applications, and other business tools that guide our portfolio purchases.
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We have been able to leverage many years of data, insights, modeling and operational experience. Each year we purchase significant amounts of credit bureau and customized consumer data that describe account level and macroeconomic factors related to credit, savings, and payment behavior. This robust data accumulation from our collection channels and other sources supports our direct mail, call center and digital collection efforts and our market-leading proprietary scorecards for legal placements. We leverage these and other powerful statistical models to drive each collection activity.
We have made significant progress in developing our digital collection strategies, which we continue to optimize along with our collections websites. In developing our digital platform, we have allowed consumers to access account information, supporting documents and perform payments online. By leveraging direct mail, email, text messaging, web chat, and search engines, we have bolstered data accumulation and collections payments through our digital platform. Innovation and investment in digital collection technology and speech analytics have enhanced our ability to collect and have enabled us to quickly adapt to changes in our operating environment, as they provide real-time insights that help optimize our interaction with consumers, as well as valuable information for training purposes.
Consumer Intelligence and Principled Intent. Across the full extent of our operations, we strive to treat consumers with respect, compassion and integrity. From affordable payment plans to hardship solutions, we work with our consumers as they attempt to return to financial health. We are committed to having a dialogue that is honorable and constructive and hope to play an important and positive role in our consumers’ financial recovery. We believe that our interests and those of the financial institutions from which we purchase portfolios are closely aligned with the interests of government agencies seeking to protect consumer rights. To demonstrate our commitment to conducting business ethically, we developed our Consumer Bill of Rights. Its articles govern the principled treatment we aim to provide consumers. Operating with a consumer-first approach has built trust among consumers and issuers of consumer credit, allowing us to improve liquidation and maintain purchasing supply. We expect to continue to invest in infrastructure and processes that support consumer advocacy and financial literacy while promoting an appropriate balance between corporate and consumer responsibility.
At the core of our analytic approach is a focus on understanding our consumers’ willingness and ability to repay their financial obligations. In this effort, we apply tools and methods from statistics, economics, and management science across the full extent of our business. During portfolio valuation, we use internally developed proprietary statistical models that determine the likelihood and expected amount of collections from each consumer within a portfolio. Subsequently, the expectations for each account are aggregated to arrive at a portfolio-level liquidation model and a valuation for the entire portfolio is determined. During the collection process, we apply a number of proprietary operational frameworks to match our collection approach to an individual consumer’s predicted payment behavior.
Our data collection practices and analytics processes are designed with consumer experience in mind. Over time we have adjusted our execution to optimize lifetime liquidation with a high-touch, focused approach. We connect with the consumer through extended conversations and offer expanded interaction and payment options. Our analytics infrastructure provides insights to consumer sentiment, allowing us to tailor our communication and collections efforts to each consumer. This sustained consumer focus and other operational enhancements have led to improved liquidation effectiveness and fair consumer treatment.
Regulatory Expertise. Both the U.S. and UK markets have established regulatory systems and compliance requirements, which benefit scaled market participants such as Encore. Issuers of consumer debt sell charged-off receivables to a select group of trusted buyers, further necessitating a robust compliance and regulatory framework. As the cost of compliance increases, economies of scale are important to the provision of cost effective credit management services. Our established regulatory framework positions us well to capture new portfolios and realize cost-efficiencies.
Although MCM and Cabot both operate in developed and established credit markets, fundamental differences exist between the two from the standpoint of the regulatory approach being followed. The U.S. environment is governed by a rules-based approach that details specific rules on how the company should conduct operations when interacting with consumers. The UK landscape is principles-based in nature; outcomes and principles are set by the regulators. Parties under their purview are responsible for determining how to appropriately achieve the stated outcomes and principles. We have strategically structured our compliance infrastructure at MCM and Cabot to account for these key market-specific factors.
Many credit providers seek to do business with credit management companies that provide consistent, compliant and consumer-focused services to protect the credit provider’s own reputation. Encore’s established regulatory and compliance programs are a key differentiator that enables the Company to demonstrate its expertise to credit providers. MCM has achieved certification from all major U.S. issuers who sell their charged-off accounts to third parties. Cabot also maintains a leading track record of regulatory approval and was the first large UK-based credit management service company to receive full FCA authorization.
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Strong Capital Stewardship. We continue to maintain a focus on raising and deploying capital prudently to maximize the return on our invested capital. Our operational scale and geographic diversification enable us to adjust to market trends and deploy capital to maximize risk-adjusted returns.
Operational Scale and Cost Efficiency. We are a market leader in portfolio purchasing and recovery in the United States and one of the largest credit management services providers in Europe. This operational scale combined with cost efficiency is central to our purchasing and collection strategies. We also experience considerable cost advantages stemming from our scale and focus on collecting in a cost-efficient manner. Our operations in India and Costa Rica contribute to achieving these efficiencies.
Our Strategy
Market Focus. We continue to concentrate on our core portfolio purchasing and recovery business in the U.S. and the UK markets in an effort to generate our highest risk-adjusted returns. We believe these markets have attractive structural characteristics including: (1) a large and consistent flow of purchasing opportunities; (2) a strong regulatory framework that creates advantages for firms with sufficient financial and operational capabilities; (3) a high degree of sophistication and data availability; and (4) stable long term returns and resilience in the event of macroeconomic disruption. In addition, we are strengthening our presence in Spain, France, and Portugal, each of which we believe shares a number of these same attractive market characteristics.
Competitive Advantage. We strive to enhance our competitive advantages through innovation, which we expect will result in collections growth and improved productivity. To continue generating strong risk-adjusted returns, we intend to continue investing in analytics and technology, risk management and compliance. We will also continue investing in initiatives that enhance our relationships with consumers, expand our digital capabilities and collections, improve liquidation rates on our portfolios or reduce costs.
Balance Sheet Strength. We are focused on strengthening our balance sheet while delivering strong financial and operational results. This includes increasing our cash flow generation through efficient collection operations. Depending on our relative leverage and a number of other factors, we may apply excess cash toward reducing our debt or, in circumstances in which we are operating within or below the lower end of our target leverage range, we may allocate capital toward share repurchases. Furthermore, we believe our global funding structure enhances access to capital markets and provides us with financial flexibility, particularly with respect to our ability to allocate capital to our markets with the best risk-adjusted returns. Depending on the capital markets, we may consider additional financings to refinance debt or fund our operations and any potential acquisitions.
Our Financial Priorities
We have tailored our strategy to optimize our ability to achieve and maintain strong returns throughout the credit cycle. With respect to our balance sheet objectives, we strive to preserve financial flexibility and operate with leverage in a range that we believe benefits the company, and we also target a strong debt rating.
Our capital allocation priorities include portfolio purchases at attractive returns, strategic merger and acquisition (M&A) consideration, and the return of capital to stockholders through share repurchases.
Debt Purchasing Approach
We provide sellers of delinquent receivables liquidity and immediate value through the purchase of charged-off consumer receivables. We believe that we are a valuable partner to these sellers given our financial strength, focus on principled intent, and track record of financial success.
Identify purchase opportunities. We maintain relationships with various financial service providers such as banks, credit unions, consumer finance companies, retailers, utilities companies and government agencies. These relationships frequently generate recurring purchase opportunities. We identify purchase opportunities and secure, where possible, exclusive negotiation rights. We believe that we are a valued partner for credit originators from whom we purchase portfolios, and our ability to secure exclusive negotiation rights is typically a result of our strong relationships and our purchasing scale. Receivable portfolios are typically sold either through a general auction, in which the seller requests bids from market participants, or in a private sale where the buyer negotiates directly with a seller. The sale transaction can be either for a one-time spot purchase or for a “forward flow” contract. A “forward flow” contract is a commitment to purchase receivables over a duration that is typically three to twelve months, but can be longer, with specifically defined volume, frequency, and pricing. Typically, these forward flow contracts have provisions that allow for early termination or price renegotiation should the underlying quality of the portfolio deteriorate over time or if any particular month’s delivery is materially different than the original portfolio used to price the forward flow contract. We also have the ability in many of our forward flow contracts to terminate after a certain
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notice period. We generally attempt to secure forward flow contracts for receivables because a consistent volume of receivables over a set duration can enable us to more accurately forecast and plan our operational needs.
Evaluate purchase opportunities using analytical models. Once a portfolio of interest is identified, we obtain detailed information regarding the portfolio’s accounts, including certain information regarding the consumers themselves. We use this account-level information to perform due diligence and evaluate the portfolio. We use statistical analysis and forecasting to analyze this information to create expected future cash forecasts for the portfolio. Our collection expectations are based on, among other things, account characteristics and credit file variables, which we use to predict a consumer’s willingness and ability to repay their debt. Our servicing strategy and collections channel capacity are also a major determinant of collections expectations and portfolio expected value. Additional adjustments to cash expectations are made to account for qualitative factors that may affect the payment behavior of our consumers (such as prior collection activities or the underwriting approach of the seller), and to ensure our valuations are aligned with our operations.
Formal approval process. Once we have determined the estimated value of the portfolio and have completed our qualitative due diligence, we present the purchase opportunity to our investment committee, which either sets the maximum purchase price for the portfolio based on an Internal Rate of Return (“IRR”), or declines to bid. Members of the investment committee vary based on the type, amount, IRR and jurisdiction of the purchase opportunity, but include our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer for material purchases.
We believe long-term success is best achieved by combining a diversified asset sourcing approach with an account-level scoring methodology and a disciplined evaluation process.
Collections Approach related to Debt Purchasing
MCM (United States)
We continue to expand and build upon the insight gained from previous collection activities and consumer interactions when developing our account-level collection strategies for portfolios we acquire. We continuously refine our collection strategy to determine the most effective approach for each account. Our current collection approaches consist of:
Direct Mail and Email. We develop innovative mail and email campaigns offering consumers payment programs, and occasionally appropriate discounts, to encourage settlement of their accounts.
Call Centers. We maintain domestic collection call centers in Phoenix, Arizona, St. Cloud, Minnesota, Troy, Michigan, and Roanoke, Virginia and international call centers in Gurgaon, India and San Jose, Costa Rica. Each call center generally consists of multiple collection departments. Account managers receive extensive training and are divided into specialty teams, each of which is supervised by a group manager. Account managers are trained to assess our consumers’ willingness and ability to pay. They attempt to work with consumers to evaluate sources and means of repayment to achieve a lump sum settlement or develop payment programs customized to the individual’s ability to pay. In cases where a payment plan is developed, account managers encourage consumers to pay through automatic payment arrangements. We continuously educate account managers to understand and apply relevant laws and policies relating to the account manager’s daily collection activities. We have robust training and monitoring programs to help ensure compliance with applicable laws and policies by our account managers.
Digital Collections. We have made significant progress in expanding our digital strategies to match consumer preferences and continue to analyze and optimize our digital strategies. Currently, consumers can access their account information, view supporting documents and make payments through our website. We leverage email, text messaging and web chat to interact with our consumers. Account managers in our call centers are also encouraged to make consumers aware of our digital channels including our website. We expect digital collections to increase as we continue to develop our digital strategies and more consumers become aware of the digital channel.
Legal Action. We generally refer accounts for legal action when the consumer has not responded to our direct mail efforts or our calls and it appears the consumer is able, but unwilling, to pay their obligations. When we decide to pursue legal action, we place the account into our internal legal channel or refer them to our network of retained law firms. If placed to our internal legal channel, attorneys in that channel will evaluate each account and make the final determination whether to pursue legal action. If referred to our network of retained law firms, we rely on our law firms’ expertise with respect to applicable debt collection laws to evaluate each account placed in that channel in order to make the decision whether or not to pursue collection litigation. Prior to engaging an external law firm (and throughout our engagement of any external law firm), we monitor and evaluate the firm’s compliance with consumer credit laws and regulations, operations, financial condition, and experience, among other key criteria. The
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law firms we hire are encouraged to communicate with consumers in an attempt to collect their debts prior to initiating litigation. We pay these law firms a contingent fee based on amounts they collect on our behalf.
Third-Party Collection Agencies. We selectively employ a strategy that uses collection agencies. Collection agencies receive a contingent fee based on amounts they collect on our behalf. Generally, we use these agencies to service specialized account segments.
Inactive. We strive to use our financial resources judiciously and efficiently by not deploying resources on accounts where the prospects of collection are remote based on a consumer’s situation.
No Resale. Our policy is to not resell accounts to third parties in the ordinary course of business.
We expand and build upon the insight developed during our purchase process when developing our account collection strategies for portfolios we acquire. Our proprietary consumer-level collectability analysis is the primary determinant of whether an account is actively serviced post-purchase. The channel identification process is analogous to a decision tree where we first differentiate those consumers who we believe are unable to pay from those who we believe are able to pay. Consumers who we believe are financially incapable of making any payments, or are facing extenuating circumstances or hardships that would prevent them from making payments, are excluded from our collection process. It is our practice to attempt to contact consumers and assess each consumer’s willingness to pay through analytics, phone calls, email and/or letters. If the consumer’s contact information is unavailable or out of date, the account is routed to our skip tracing process, which includes the use of different skip tracing companies to provide accurate phone numbers and addresses. The consumers that engage with us are presented with payment plans that are intended to suit their needs or are sometimes offered discounts on their obligations. For the consumers that do not respond to our calls, emails or our letters we must then decide whether to pursue collections through legal action. We periodically refine our collection approach to determine the most effective collection strategy to pursue for each account.
Cabot (Europe)
In Europe, we also use direct mail and email, call centers, legal action, third-party collection agencies and digital methods to pursue collections.
We use insights developed during our purchasing process to build account collection strategies. Our proprietary consumer-level collectability analysis is the primary determinant of how an account will be serviced post-purchase. We continuously refine this analysis to determine the most effective collection strategy to pursue for each account we own. We purchase both paying portfolios, which consist of accounts where over 50% of the investment value is associated with consumers who are already repaying some of their debt, albeit at levels that still require the debt to be written off under the originators’ internal accounting policies, and non-paying portfolios, where 50% or more of the investment value is associated with consumers who are not repaying some of their debt, which are higher risk and have less predictable cash flows than paying portfolios. Paying portfolios tend to have a higher purchase price relative to face value than non-paying accounts due to the higher expectations for collections, as well as lower anticipated collection costs. Non-paying portfolios often consist of a substantial number of accounts without contact details and for which the vendor has made numerous unsuccessful attempts to collect.
We employ a variety of collections strategies from the point of purchase, tailored to both the type of account and the consumer’s financial strength. For paying accounts, we seek to engage with the consumers to transfer their payment stream to us and understand their detailed financial situation. For non-paying accounts, we apply a segmentation framework tailoring our communication and contact intensity in line with our assessment of their credit bureau data, the size of their debt, our belief as to the consumer’s ability to pay their debt, and whether we have an existing relationship with them from other accounts. Where contact is made and consumers indicate both a willingness and ability to pay, we create tailor-made payment plans to suit the consumer’s situation. In doing so, we utilize UK regulatory protocols to assess affordability and ensure their plan is fair, balanced and sustainable. Where we identify consumers with an ability to pay but who appear to be unwilling to pay their debt due, we pursue a range of collections strategies, which may include litigation processes in order to stimulate engagement and enable us to agree to a suitable plan. Scoring is applied in conjunction with manual selection criteria to determine whether litigation might be an option, also informing any enforcement action that may be deemed most appropriate to the consumer’s situation. Relationships with consumers are maintained through the duration of the payment plan, seeking to review plans at least annually in order to take into account fluctuations in consumers’ financial situations. Again, scoring is used to vary the intensity of contact effort, mirroring the likelihood of a consumer’s financial situation having changed. In the event that a consumer breaks their plan, segmentation is used to tailor the communication and contact intensity as we seek to re-engage with the consumer and understand the reason for the break. By understanding the reason for the break we can tailor the solutions we recommend to rehabilitate the plan and put the consumer back on the path to financial recovery. In this way, we have built strong relationships with our consumer base, reflected in exceptional customer service scores.
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Debt Servicing
Our debt servicing operations, which are performed by subsidiaries of Cabot, include early stage collections, business process outsourcing and contingent collections for credit originators. We mainly provide debt servicing for consumer accounts, but also provide services for business-to-business accounts. We believe our debt servicing operations provide us: exposure to the oversight requirements of financial services clients that drive a continually evolving compliance agenda; access to proprietary debt purchase opportunities; and an opportunity to support clients across the collections and recoveries lifecycle, thereby allowing us to remain close to evolving trends.
Seasonality
Customer payment patterns in the countries in which we operate can be affected by dynamics that occur on a seasonal basis including income tax refunds, holiday spending habits and certain employment trends. Collections in the United States have historically tended to be somewhat higher in the first three calendar quarters than in the fourth calendar quarter.
Compliance and Enterprise Risk Management
We have established a compliance management system framework, operational procedures, and governance structures to enable us to conduct business in accordance with applicable rules, regulations, and guidelines. Our philosophy rests on well-established risk management principles including a model leveraging three lines of defense. Our first line of defense consists of business lines or other operating units, whose role is to own and manage risks and associated mitigating controls. Our second line of defense is comprised of strong compliance and enterprise risk management functions, who ensure that the business maintains policies and procedures in compliance with existing laws and regulations, advise the business on assessing risk and strengthening controls, and provide additional, related support. These second-line functions facilitate oversight by our management and Board of Directors and are responsible for promoting compliance with applicable laws and regulations, assisting in formulating and maintaining policies and procedures, and engaging in training, risk assessments, testing, monitoring, complaint response, compliance audits and corrective actions. Our third line of defense is provided by our internal audit function, providing independent assurance that both first and second line functions are performing their roles appropriately within the context of our framework.
Beyond written policies, one of our core internal goals is the adherence to principled intent as it pertains to all consumer interactions. We believe that it is in our shareholders’ and our employees’ best interest to treat all consumers with the highest standards of integrity. Specifically, we have strict policies and a code of ethics that guide all dealings with our consumers. Our employees undergo comprehensive training on legal and regulatory compliance, and we engage in regular call monitoring checks, data checks, performance reviews, and other operational reviews to ensure compliance with company guidelines.
Credit originators who sell us defaulted consumer receivables routinely conduct examinations of our collection practices and procedures and typically make reports with recommendations to us as to how they believe we can improve those practices and procedures. We respond to these reports in the ordinary course of business and make changes to our practices and procedures that we believe are appropriate to address any issues raised in such reports.
Competition
The consumer credit recovery industry is highly competitive in the United States, the United Kingdom and throughout Europe. We compete with a wide range of collection and financial services companies, traditional contingency collection agencies and in-house recovery departments. Competitive pressures affect the availability and pricing of receivable portfolios, as well as the availability and cost of qualified recovery personnel.
When purchasing receivables, we compete primarily on the basis of price, the ease of negotiating and closing the prospective portfolio purchases with us, our ability to obtain funding, and our reputation with respect to the quality of services that we provide. We believe that our ability to compete effectively in this market is also dependent upon, among other things, our relationships with credit originators and portfolio resellers of charged-off consumer receivables, and our ability to provide quality collection strategies in compliance with applicable laws.
We believe that smaller competitors in the United States and the United Kingdom are facing difficulties in the portfolio purchasing market because of the higher cost to operate due to increased regulatory pressure and scrutiny applied by regulators. In addition, sellers of charged-off consumer receivables are sensitive to the reputational risks involved in the industry and are therefore being more selective with buyers in the marketplace. We believe this favors larger participants in this market, such as us, that are better able to adapt to these pressures.
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Government Regulation
MCM (United States)
Our U.S. debt purchasing business and collection activities are subject to federal, state, and municipal statutes, rules, regulations, and ordinances that establish specific requirements and procedures that debt purchasers and collectors must follow when collecting consumer accounts, including requirements to obtain and maintain relevant licenses in certain U.S. states in which we conduct our activities. It is our policy to comply with the provisions of all applicable laws in all of our recovery activities, including any applicable state licensing requirements. Our failure to comply with these laws or to maintain relevant state licenses could have a material adverse effect on us to the extent that they limit our recovery activities or subject us to fines or penalties in connection with such activities.
The federal Fair Debt Collection Practices Act (“FDCPA”) and comparable state and local laws establish specific requirements and procedures that debt collectors must follow when communicating with consumers, including the time, place and manner of the communications, and prohibit unfair, deceptive, or abusive debt collection practices. Pursuant to the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Financial Protection Act of 2010 (the “Dodd-Frank Act”), Congress transferred the Federal Trade Commission’s (“FTC”) role of administering the FDCPA to the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (“CFPB”), along with certain other federal statutes, and gave the CFPB authority to implement regulations under the FDCPA. The FTC and the CFPB share enforcement responsibilities under the FDCPA.
In addition to the FDCPA, the federal laws that directly or indirectly apply to our business (including the regulations that implement these laws) include, but are not limited to, the following:
Dodd-Frank Act, including the Consumer Financial Protection Act (Title X of the Dodd-Frank Act, “CFPA”)
Servicemembers’ Civil Relief Act
Electronic Fund Transfer Act and the CFPB’s Regulation E
Telephone Consumer Protection Act (“TCPA”)
Equal Credit Opportunity Act and the CFPB’s Regulation B
Truth In Lending Act and the CFPB’s Regulation Z
Fair Credit Billing Act
U.S. Bankruptcy Code
Fair Credit Reporting Act (“FCRA”) and the CFPB’s Regulation V
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act
Federal Trade Commission Act (“FTCA”)
Credit CARD Act
Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act and the CFPB’s Regulation P
Foreign Corrupt Practices Act
The Dodd-Frank Act was adopted to reform and strengthen regulation and supervision of the U.S. financial services industry. It contains comprehensive provisions governing the oversight of financial institutions, some of which apply to us. Among other things, the Dodd-Frank Act established the CFPB, which has broad authority to implement and enforce “federal consumer financial law,” as well as authority to examine financial institutions, including credit issuers that may be sellers of receivables and debt buyers and collectors such as us, for compliance with federal consumer financial law.
The CFPB has broad authority to prevent unfair, deceptive, or abusive acts or practices by issuing regulations or by using its enforcement authority without first issuing regulations. State Attorneys General and state financial regulators also have authority to enforce the CFPA’s general prohibitions against unfair, deceptive, or abusive acts or practices, as well as state-specific prohibitions against unfair or deceptive acts or practices. Additionally, the FTCA prohibits unfair and deceptive acts or practices in connection with a trade or business and gives the FTC enforcement authority to prevent and redress violations of this prohibition. The broad authority of these regulators has increased the potential consequences of noncompliance with federal consumer financial law.
The CFPB’s authority enables it to conduct hearings, adjudication proceedings, and investigations, either unilaterally or jointly with other state and federal regulators, to determine if federal consumer financial law has been violated. The CFPB has authority to impose monetary penalties for violations of applicable federal consumer financial laws (including the CFPA, FDCPA, and FCRA, among other consumer protection statutes), require remediation of practices, and pursue enforcement actions. The CFPB also has authority to obtain cease and desist orders (which can include orders for restitution or rescission of contracts, as well as other kinds of affirmative relief), costs, and monetary penalties ranging from $5,000 per day for ordinary violations of federal consumer financial laws to $25,000 per day for reckless violations and $1 million per day for knowing violations. The CFPB has been active in its supervision of, and examination and enforcement activities related to, financial services companies generally, including bringing enforcement actions, imposing fines and mandating large refunds to customers of several financial institutions for various practices.
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The CFPB and the FTC continue to devote substantial attention to the debt collection industry, and have brought multiple investigations and enforcement actions against debt collectors for alleged violations of the FDCPA and other applicable laws. Continued regulatory scrutiny by the CFPB and the FTC over debt collection practices may result in additional investigations and enforcement actions against the debt collection industry.
In September 2015, we entered into a consent order (the “2015 Consent Order”) with the CFPB in which we settled allegations arising from our practices between 2011 and 2015. In September 2020, the CFPB filed a lawsuit alleging that we violated the 2015 Consent Order. In the lawsuit, the CFPB alleged that we did not perfectly adhere to certain operational provisions of the 2015 Consent Order, leading to alleged violations of federal consumer financial law. In October 2020, we entered into a stipulated judgment (“Stipulated Judgment”) with the CFPB to resolve the lawsuit. The Stipulated Judgment requires us to, among other things, continue to follow a narrow subset of the operational requirements contained in the 2015 Consent Order, all of which have long been part of our routine practices. In connection with the Stipulated Judgment, the CFPB formally terminated the 2015 Consent Order.
Additionally, we are subject to ancillary state Attorney General investigations related to similar debt collection practices. We have entered into various settlement agreements with the Attorneys General of certain U.S. states in connection with our debt collection and litigation practices.
In November 2021, the CFPB final rules in the form of a new Regulation F that implement the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act became effective. Regulation F restates and clarifies prohibitions on harassment and abuse, false or misleading representations, and unfair practices by debt collectors when collecting consumer debt. The rules included provisions related to, among other things, the use of newer technologies (text, voicemail and email) to communicate with consumers, limits relating to telephonic communications, consumer disclosures and credit reporting.
In addition, the CFPB has issued guidance in the form of bulletins, interpretive rules, and advisory opinions on debt collection and credit furnishing activities generally, including those related to:
representations regarding credit reports and credit scores during the debt collection process;
the application of the CFPA’s prohibition of unfair, deceptive, or abusive acts or practices on debt collection;
the risks that in-person collection of consumer debt may create in violating the FDPCA and CFPA;
the scope of state attorney generals’ enforcement authority under the CFPA and the FCRA; and
the collection of fees associated with certain accounts.
The CFPB also accepts debt collection consumer complaints and released template letters for consumers to use when corresponding with debt collectors. The CFPB makes publicly available its data on consumer complaints. The Dodd-Frank Act also mandates the submission of multiple studies and reports to Congress by the CFPB, and CFPB staff regularly make speeches on topics related to credit and debt. All of these activities could trigger additional legislative or regulatory action. In addition, the CFPB has engaged in enforcement activity in sectors adjacent to our industry, impacting credit originators, collection firms, and payment processors, among others. The CFPB’s enforcement activity in these spaces, especially in the absence of clear rules or regulatory expectations, can be disruptive to third parties as they attempt to define appropriate business practices. As a result, certain commercial relationships we maintain may be disrupted or impacted by changes in third-parties’ business practices or perceptions of elevated risk relating to the debt collection industry.
Our activities are also subject to federal and state laws concerning identity theft, data privacy, and cybersecurity. The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act and its implementing regulations, including the FTC “Safeguards Rule,” require us generally to protect the confidentiality of our consumers’ nonpublic personal information, to disclose to our consumers our privacy policy and practices, including those regarding sharing consumers’ nonpublic personal information with third parties and to report certain data breaches and other security events to the FTC. In addition, the FCRA requires us to prevent identity theft and to securely dispose of consumer credit reports. Certain state laws impose similar or stricter privacy obligations as well as obligations to provide notification of security breaches of personal information to affected individuals, consumer reporting agencies, businesses and governmental agencies. The applicable regulatory framework for privacy and cybersecurity issues is evolving and uncertain. For example, the California Privacy Rights Act (“CPRA”), which became operative on January 1, 2023 and amends and expands the California Consumer Privacy Act (“CCPA”), imposes more stringent requirements on certain businesses with respect to consumer and employee data privacy in California. These laws include provisions that give California residents and employees expanded rights to access and delete certain personal information, opt out of certain personal information sharing, and receive detailed information about how certain personal information is used. Compliance with any new or developing privacy laws in the United States, including any state or federal laws, may require significant resources and subject us to a variety of regulatory and private sanctions.

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In addition to the federal statutes detailed above, many states have general consumer protection statutes, laws, regulations, or court rules that apply to debt purchasing and collection. In a number of states and cities, we must maintain licenses to perform debt collection activities and must satisfy ongoing compliance and bonding requirements. It is our policy to comply with all applicable licensing, compliance and bonding requirements. Our failure to comply with existing requirements, changing interpretations of existing requirements, or adoption of new requirements, could subject us to a variety of regulatory and private sanctions. These could include license suspension or revocation; orders or injunctive relief, including orders providing for rescission of transactions or other affirmative relief; and monetary relief, including restitution, damages, fines and/or penalties. In addition, failure to comply with state licensing and compliance requirements could restrict our ability to collect in certain states, subject us to increased regulation, increase our costs, or adversely affect our ability to collect our receivables.
State laws may also, among other things, limit the amounts we may garnish from a consumer in enforcing a judgement, limit the ways in which we can contact a consumer, limit the time in which we may file legal actions, and require specific account information for certain collection activities. By way of example, Washington D.C. passed the “Protecting Consumers from Unjust Debt Collection Practices Amendment Act of 2021” which went into effect January 2023. The law, among other things, requires both debt buyers and debt collectors operating in Washington D.C. to have in their possession specific account information before debt collection efforts can begin and has contact limitations more restrictive than the CFPB. In addition, other state and local requirements and court rulings in various jurisdictions may also affect our ability to collect.
The relationship between consumers and credit card issuers is also extensively regulated by federal and state consumer protection and related laws and regulations. These laws may affect some of our operations because the majority of our receivables originate through credit card transactions. The laws and regulations applicable to credit card issuers, among other things, impose disclosure requirements when a credit card account is advertised, when it is applied for and when it is opened, at the end of monthly billing cycles, and at year-end. Federal law requires, among other things, that credit card issuers disclose to consumers the interest rates, fees, grace periods, and balance calculation methods associated with their credit card accounts. Some laws prohibit discriminatory practices in connection with the extension of credit. If the originating institution fails to comply with applicable statutes, rules, and regulations, it could create claims and rights for consumers that would reduce or eliminate their obligations related to those receivables. When we acquire receivables, we generally require the credit originator or portfolio reseller to represent that they have complied with applicable statutes, rules, and regulations relating to the origination and collection of the receivables before they were sold to us.
Federal statutes further provide that, in some cases, consumers cannot be held liable for, or their liability is limited with respect to, charges to their credit card accounts that resulted from unauthorized use of their credit cards. These laws, among others, may give consumers a legal cause of action against us, or may limit our ability to recover amounts owing with respect to the receivables, whether or not we committed any wrongful act or omission in connection with the account.
These laws and regulations, and others similar to the ones listed above, as well as laws applicable to specific types of debt, impose requirements or restrictions on collection methods or our ability to enforce and recover certain of our receivables. Effects of the law, including those described above, and any new or changed laws, rules, or regulations, and reinterpretation of the same, may adversely affect our ability to recover amounts owing with respect to our receivables or the sale of receivables by creditors and resellers.
Cabot (Europe)
Our operations in Europe are affected by local statutes, rules and regulations. It is our policy to comply with these laws in all of our recovery activities in Europe, where applicable.
Financial Conduct Authority Regulation. UK debt purchase and services collections businesses are principally regulated by the Financial Conduct Authority (“FCA”), the UK Information Commissioner’s Office and the UK Office of Communications. Cabot has three regulated entities in the UK: the debt purchase brand Cabot Credit Management Group Limited (“CCMG”), the servicing brand Wescot Credit Services Limited (“Wescot”) and Cabot’s law firm, Mortimer Clarke Solicitors Limited (“Mortimer Clarke”). The FCA regards debt collection as a “high risk” activity primarily due to the potential impact that poor practice can have on already vulnerable consumers and as a result maintains a high focus on the sector. The FCA Handbook sets out the FCA rules and other provisions. Firms wishing to carry on regulated consumer credit activities must comply with all applicable sections of the FCA Handbook, including principles to “act to deliver good outcomes for retail customers,” as well as the applicable consumer credit laws and regulations. The FCA also publishes guidance on various topics from time to time that it expects firms to comply with.
The FCA has applied its rules to consumer credit firms in a number of areas, including its high-level principles and conduct of business standards. In July 2023, the FCA implemented its new Consumer Duty, which aims to provide a higher level of consumer protection in retail financial markets and combines existing consumer treatment requirements with enhanced standards by requiring firms to act to deliver good outcomes for customers. The FCA has significant powers and, as the FCA
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deepens its understanding of the industry through continued supervision, it is likely that the regulatory requirements applicable to the debt purchase industry will continue to increase via requirements such as the Consumer Duty. In addition, it is likely that the compliance framework that will be needed to continue to satisfy the FCA requirements will demand continued investment and resources. Companies authorized by the FCA must be able to demonstrate that they meet the threshold conditions for authorization and comply on an ongoing basis with the FCA’s high level standards for authorized firms, such as its Principles for Business (including the principle of ‘‘treating customers fairly’’), and rules and guidance on systems and controls.
The Senior Managers and Certification Regime (“SMCR”), designed to drive accountability and risk ownership within businesses, came into effect for UK operations in December 2019, and affected the majority of colleagues who need to be aware of and adhere to the required standards of conduct. In addition to the full authorization of its business with the FCA, CCMG, Wescot and Mortimer Clarke have appointed certain individuals who have significant control or influence over the management of the respective businesses, known as Senior Management Function Managers (“SMF Managers”). SMF Managers are subject to statements of principle and codes of practice established and enforced by the FCA.
The FCA has the ability to, among other things, impose significant fines, ban certain individuals from carrying on trade within the financial services industry, impose requirements on a firm’s permission, cease certain products from being collected upon and in extreme circumstances remove permissions to trade.
Consumer protection. The Consumer Credit Act of 1974 (and its related regulations) (the “UK Consumer Credit Act”) and the UK Consumer Rights Act 2015 set forth requirements for the entry into and ongoing management of consumer credit arrangements in the United Kingdom. A failure to comply with these requirements can make agreements unenforceable or can result in a requirement that charged and collected interest be repaid. The FCA continues to review the provisions of the UK Consumer Credit Act and having up to this point prioritized changes linked to Brexit are now working with the UK Government to focus on terms that have been identified as requiring the most urgent updates.
Data protection. In addition to these regulations on debt collection and debt purchase activities, Cabot must comply with the General Data Protection Regulation 2016/679 (“GDPR”) and where applicable the UK Data Protection Act 2018. This substantially replaced the previous legislation (Data Protection Act of 1998) and introduced significant changes to the data protection regime including but not limited to: the conditions for obtaining consent to process personal data; transparency and providing information to individuals regarding the processing of their personal data; enhanced rights for individuals; notification obligations for personal data breach; and new supervisory authorities, including a European Data Protection Board (“EDPB”). Data Protection Officer(s) have been appointed for the UK, Spain and Ireland who are supported by Privacy Champions at each European/UK site to promote and enforce good data protection practices.
In the EU, there is a new regulatory framework under Directive 2021/2167 of the European Parliament and of the Council on credit servicers and credit purchasers, known as the Non-Performing Loan (“NPL”) Directive. Member states within the EU must comply with this Directive and transpose it into local law. The NPL Directive regulates the sale, purchase, and servicing of NPLs originated by EU credit institutions, and states that the activity of credit servicing is subject to authorization and defines the requirements for the granting of such authorization. Member States must establish their authorization procedures and set up a national register of all credit servicers authorized to provide services within their territory. The activities of credit servicers are subject to supervision by the competent authority of the home Member State. To date, of the markets we operate in, Ireland and France are the only EU member states to transpose the NPL Directive into local law with our Irish entity automatically being given credit servicing authorization and our French entity currently working through the authorization process.
In addition, the other markets in which we currently operate are subject to local laws and regulations, and we continue to review the required risk and compliance programs to facilitate compliance with applicable laws and regulations in those markets. Our operations outside the United States are subject to the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, which prohibits U.S. companies and their agents and employees from providing anything of value to a foreign official for the purposes of influencing any act or decision of these individuals in order to obtain an unfair advantage, to help, obtain, or retain business.
Human Capital Management
As of December 31, 2023, we had approximately 7,400 employees, of which approximately 19% were in the United States and 81% were in our international locations. We have no employees in North America represented by a labor union or subject to the terms of collective bargaining agreements. We have employees in Spain, France and the United Kingdom who are represented by collective bargaining agreements. We believe that our relations with our employees in all locations are positive.
Our approach to human capital management starts with a strong foundation anchored in our commitment to values and ethics. Attracting, developing and retaining talent is critical to executing our strategy and our ability to compete effectively. We believe in the importance of creating a diverse and inclusive work environment for our employees, supporting their well-being with fair and market-competitive pay and benefits, and investing in their growth and development.
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We also value feedback from our employees and regularly survey them to understand how they feel about the company and subsequently take appropriate actions and employ employee engagement best practices to improve their work experience.
Commitment to Values and Ethics
We are committed to ensuring fundamental human rights across our business and in each region. We have published a Global Human Rights Policy that outlines our commitment to respect and promote human rights in accordance with internationally recognized human rights standards. This policy details our actions concerning human rights, such as providing fair and competitive compensation, benefits and hours to our colleagues, freedom of association and collective bargaining, and our zero-tolerance policy for harassment and discrimination.
We also hold our employees to the ethical practices and decision making as guided by our Standards of Business Conduct, which embody Encore’s Mission, Vision and Values, provide guidance on specific behaviors, and set the foundation for ethical decision making. Our Standards of Business Conduct reflect our commitment to operating in a fair, honest, responsible and ethical manner and provide direction for reporting complaints in the event of alleged violations of our policies (including through our Employee Compliance Hotline).
Diversity and Inclusion
At Encore, we are committed to cultivating an inclusive culture that reflects our consumers and our communities, where our actions and mindset ensure every individual can thrive. We see advancing diversity and inclusion as a journey that we will continually work on to build a better Encore for our employees and other stakeholders. We value diverse viewpoints and inclusive experiences and strive for balanced representation in our overall organization. We foster a culture of respect and inclusion in various ways, including offering unconscious bias and diversity training, tracking gender diversity, and celebrating diversity through global cultural appreciation initiatives. As of December 31, 2023, approximately 49% of our total workforce were women.
Financial, Health and Mental Well-Being
We strive to retain and attract the most talented employees by taking a holistic approach to well-being. This includes competitive compensation and benefits in the form of base salary, short-term incentives, opportunities for long-term incentives, retirement and financial support, and recognition programs as part of our financial well-being offerings. We also provide competitive benefits that include comprehensive health and welfare insurance, generous time-off and leave, and programs such as Employee Assistance Program, paid time off for volunteering activities, and wellness incentives to support the health and mental well-being of our employees.
Growth and Development
We are committed to actively fostering a learning culture and investing in ongoing professional and career development for our employees. We empower managers and employees with collective accountability for developing themselves and others, and promote ongoing dialogue, coaching, feedback, and improvement through our performance management practices. We offer employees an extensive number of programs and tools for their personal and professional development including instructor-led training courses, leadership development programs, on-demand virtual learning, individual development planning, mentoring, roles-based functional and technical training, compliance training, peer learning opportunities, and tuition reimbursement programs. We also aligned our talent and succession planning framework at a global level to support the development of our internal talent pipeline for current and future organizational needs, and to provide an overall health gauge of our global talent pool.
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Item 1A—Risk Factors
There are risks and uncertainties in our business that could cause our actual results to differ from those anticipated. We urge you to read these risk factors carefully in connection with evaluating our business and in connection with the forward-looking statements and other information contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Any of the risks described herein could affect our business, financial condition, or future results and the actual outcome of matters as to which forward-looking statements are made. The list of risks is not intended to be exhaustive, and the order in which the risks appear is not intended as an indication of their relative weight or importance. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us, or that we currently deem to be immaterial, also may adversely affect our business, financial condition and/or operating results.
Risks Related to Our Business and Industry
Financial and economic conditions affect the ability of consumers to pay their obligations, which could harm our financial results.
Economic conditions globally and locally directly affect unemployment and credit availability. Adverse conditions (including natural disasters), economic changes (including significant inflation), and financial disruptions (including unemployment) place financial pressure on the consumer, which may reduce our ability to collect on our consumer receivable portfolios and may adversely affect the value of our consumer receivable portfolios. Further, increased financial pressures on the financially distressed consumer may result in additional regulatory requirements or restrictions on our operations and increased litigation filed against us. These conditions could increase our costs and harm our business, financial condition, and operating results.
We may not be able to purchase receivables at favorable prices, which could limit our growth or profitability.
Our ability to continue to operate profitably depends upon the continued availability of receivable portfolios that meet our purchasing standards and are cost-effective based upon projected collections exceeding our costs. Due, in part, to fluctuating prices for receivable portfolios, fluctuating supply and competition within the marketplace, there has been, and could continue to be, considerable variation in our purchasing volume and pricing from quarter to quarter and year to year. The volume of our portfolio purchases may be limited when prices are high and may or may not increase when portfolio pricing is more favorable to us. Further, our rates of return may decline when portfolio prices are high. We do not know how long portfolios will be available for purchase on terms acceptable to us, or at all.
The availability of receivable portfolios at favorable prices depends on a number of factors, including:
volume of defaults in consumer debt;
continued sale of receivable portfolios by originating institutions and portfolio resellers at sufficient volumes and acceptable price levels;
competition in the marketplace;
our ability to develop and maintain favorable relationships with key major credit originators and portfolio resellers;
our ability to obtain adequate data from credit originators or portfolio resellers to appropriately evaluate the collectability of, estimate the value of, and collect on portfolios; and
changes in laws and regulations governing consumer lending, bankruptcy, and collections. 
We enter into “forward flow” contracts, which are commitments to purchase receivables on a periodic basis over a specified period of time in accordance with certain criteria, which may include a specifically defined volume, frequency, and pricing. In periods of decreasing prices, we may end up paying an amount higher for such debt portfolios in a forward flow contract than we would otherwise agree to pay at the time for a spot purchase, which could result in reduced returns. We may only be able to terminate such forward flow agreements in certain limited circumstances or, for certain agreements, after a certain notice period.
In addition, because of the length of time involved in collecting charged-off consumer receivables on acquired portfolios and the volatility in the timing of our collections, we may not be able to identify trends and make changes in our purchasing strategies in a timely manner. Ultimately, if we are unable to continually purchase and collect on a sufficient volume of receivables to generate cash collections that exceed our costs or to generate satisfactory returns, our business, financial condition and operating results will be adversely affected.
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A significant portion of our portfolio purchases during any period may be concentrated with a small number of sellers, which could adversely affect our volume and timing of purchases.
A significant percentage of our portfolio purchases for any given fiscal quarter or year may be concentrated with a few large sellers, some of which may also involve forward flow arrangements. We cannot be certain that any of our significant sellers will continue to sell charged-off receivables to us, that such sales would be on terms or in quantities acceptable to us, or that we would be able to replace these purchases with purchases from other sellers.
A significant decrease in the volume of portfolio available from any of our principal sellers would force us to seek alternative sources of charged-off receivables.
We may be unable to find alternative sources from which to purchase charged-off receivables, and even if we could successfully replace these purchases, the search could take time and the receivables could be of lower quality, cost more, or both, any of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.
We face intense competition that could impair our ability to maintain or grow our purchasing volumes.
The charged-off receivables purchasing market is highly competitive. We compete with a wide range of other purchasers of charged-off consumer receivables. To the extent our competitors are able to better maximize recoveries on their assets or are willing to accept lower rates of return, we may not be able to grow or sustain our purchasing volumes or we may be forced to acquire portfolios at expected rates of return lower than our historical rates of return. Some of our competitors may obtain alternative sources of financing at more favorable rates than those available to us, the proceeds from which may be used to fund expansion and to increase the amount of charged-off receivables they purchase.
We face bidding competition in our acquisition of charged-off consumer receivables. We believe that successful bids are predominantly awarded based on price and, to a lesser extent, based on service, reputation, and relationships with the sellers of charged-off receivables. Some of our current competitors, and potential new competitors, may have more effective pricing and collection models, greater adaptability to changing market needs, and more established relationships in our industry than we do. Moreover, our competitors may elect to pay prices for portfolios that we determine are not economically sustainable and, in that event, we may not be able to continue to offer competitive bids for charged-off receivables.
If we are unable to develop and expand our business or to adapt to changing market needs as well as our current or future competitors, we may experience reduced access to portfolios of charged-off consumer receivables in sufficient face value amounts at appropriate prices, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.
We may purchase receivable portfolios that are unprofitable or we may not be able to collect sufficient amounts to recover our costs and to fund our operations.
We acquire and service charged-off receivables that the obligors have failed to pay and the sellers have deemed uncollectible and have written off. The originating institutions and/or portfolio resellers generally make numerous attempts to recover on these nonperforming receivables, often using a combination of their in-house collection and legal departments, as well as third-party collection agencies. In order to operate profitably over the long term, we must continually purchase and collect on a sufficient volume of charged-off receivables to generate revenue that exceeds our costs. These receivables are difficult to collect, and we may not be successful in collecting amounts sufficient to cover the costs associated with purchasing the receivables and funding our operations. If we are not able to collect on these receivables, collect sufficient amounts to cover our costs or generate satisfactory returns, this may adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.
We may experience losses on portfolios consisting of new types of receivables or receivables in new geographies due to our lack of collection experience with these receivables, which could harm our business, financial condition and operating results.
We continually look for opportunities to expand the classes of assets that make up the portfolios we acquire. Therefore, we may acquire portfolios consisting of assets with which we have little or no collection experience or portfolios of receivables in new geographies where we do not historically maintain an operational footprint. Our lack of experience with these assets may hinder our ability to generate expected levels of profits from these portfolios. Further, our existing methods of collections may prove ineffective for these new receivables, and we may not be able to collect on these portfolios. Our inexperience with these receivables may have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results.
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The statistical models we use to project remaining cash flows from our receivable portfolios may prove to be inaccurate and, if so, our financial results may be adversely affected.
We use internally developed models to project the remaining cash flows from our receivable portfolios. These models consider known data about our consumers’ accounts, including, among other things, our collection experience and changes in external consumer factors, in addition to data known when we acquire the accounts. Our models also consider data provided by third parties including public sources. We may not be able to achieve the collections forecasted by our models. Our models may not appropriately identify or assess all material factors or trends and yield correct or accurate forecasts as our historical collection experience may not reflect current or future realities. We also have no control over the accuracy of information received from third parties. If such information is not accurate our models may not accurately project estimated remaining cash flows. If we are not able to achieve the levels of forecasted collections, our revenues will be reduced or we may be required to record a charge, which may adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.
A significant portion of our collections relies upon our success in individual lawsuits brought against consumers and our ability to collect on judgments in our favor.
We generate a significant portion of our revenue by collecting on judgments that are granted by courts in lawsuits filed against consumers. A decrease in the willingness of courts to grant these judgments, a change in the requirements for filing these cases or obtaining these judgments, a decrease in our ability to collect on these judgments, or any closure of court systems could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results. As we increase our use of the legal channel for collections, our short-term margins may decrease as a result of an increase in upfront court costs and costs related to counter claims. We may not be able to collect on certain aged accounts because of applicable statutes of limitations and we may be subject to adverse effects of regulatory changes. Further, courts in certain jurisdictions require that a copy of the account statements or applications be attached to the pleadings in order to obtain a judgment against consumers. If we are unable to produce those account documents, these courts could deny our claims, and our business, financial condition and operating results may be adversely affected.
Increases in costs associated with our collections through collection litigation can raise our costs associated with our collection strategies and the individual lawsuits brought against consumers to collect on judgments in our favor.
We have substantial collection activity through our legal collections channel and, as a consequence, increases in upfront court costs, costs related to counterclaims, and other court costs may increase our total cost in collecting on accounts in this channel, which may have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results.
Our business, financial condition and operating results may be adversely affected if consumer bankruptcy filings increase or if bankruptcy laws change.
Our business model may be uniquely vulnerable to an economic recession, which typically results in an increase in the amount of defaulted consumer receivables, thereby contributing to an increase in the amount of personal bankruptcy filings. Under certain bankruptcy filings, a consumer’s assets are sold to repay credit originators, with priority given to holders of secured debt. Since the defaulted consumer receivables we purchase are generally unsecured, we often are not able to collect on those receivables. In addition, since we purchase receivables that may have been delinquent for a long period of time, this may be an indication that many of the consumers from whom we collect will be unable to pay their debts going forward and are more likely to file for bankruptcy in an economic recession. Furthermore, potential changes to existing bankruptcy laws could contribute to an increase in consumer bankruptcy filings. We cannot be certain that our collection experience would not decline with an increase in consumer bankruptcy filings. If our actual collection experience with respect to a defaulted consumer receivable portfolio is significantly lower than we projected when we purchased the portfolio, our business, financial condition and operating results could be adversely affected.
We are subject to audits conducted by sellers of debt portfolios and may be required to implement specific changes to our policies and practices as a result of adverse findings by such sellers as a part of the audit process, which could limit our ability to purchase debt portfolios from them in the future, which could materially and adversely affect our business.
Pursuant to purchase contracts, we are subject to audits that are conducted by sellers of debt portfolios. Such audits may occur with little notice and the assessment criteria used by each seller varies based on their own requirements, policies and standards. Although much of the assessment criteria is based on regulatory requirements, we may be asked to comply with additional terms and conditions that are unique to particular debt originators. From time to time, sellers may believe that we are not in compliance with certain of their criteria and in such cases, we may be required to dedicate resources and to incur expenses to address such concerns, including the implementation of new policies and procedures. In addition, to the extent that we are unable to satisfy the requirements of a particular seller, such seller could remove us from their panel of preferred purchasers, which could limit our ability to purchase debt portfolios from that seller in the future, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.
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We rely on third parties to provide us with services in connection with certain aspects of our business, and any failure by these third parties to perform their obligations, or our inability to arrange for alternative third-party providers for such services, could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results.
We are dependent upon the efforts of third-party service providers including collection agencies, law firms, data providers, tracing service providers and other servicers to help service and collect our charged-off receivables. Our third-party servicers could fail to perform collection services for us adequately, remit those collections to us or otherwise perform their obligations adequately. In addition, one or more of those third-party service providers could cease operations abruptly or become insolvent, or our relationships with such third-party service providers may otherwise change adversely. Further, we might not be able to secure replacement third-party service providers or promptly transfer account information to our new third-party service provider or in-house in the event our agreements with our third-party collection agencies and attorneys were terminated. In addition, to the extent these third-party service providers violate laws, other regulatory requirements or their contractual obligations, or act inappropriately in the conduct of their business, our business and reputation could be negatively affected or penalties could be directly imposed upon us. Any of the foregoing factors could cause our business, financial condition and operating results to be adversely affected.
We have entered into agreements with third parties to provide us with services in connection with our business, including payment processing, credit card authorization and processing, payroll processing, record keeping for retirement and benefit plans and certain information technology functions. Any failure by a third party to provide us with contracted services on a timely basis or within service level expectations and performance standards may have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results. In addition, we may be unable to find, or enter into agreements with, suitable replacement third party providers for such services, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.
We are dependent on our data gathering systems and proprietary consumer profiles, and if access to such data was lost or became public, our business could be materially and adversely affected.
Our models and consumer databases provide information that is critical to our business. We rely on data provided to us by multiple credit reference agencies, our servicing partners and other sources in order to operate our systems, develop our proprietary consumer profiles and run our business generally. If these credit reference agencies were to terminate their agreements or stop providing us with data for any reason, for example, due to a change in governmental regulation, or if they were to considerably raise the price of their services, our business could be materially and adversely affected. Also, if any of the proprietary information or data that we use became public, for example, due to a change in government regulations, we could lose a significant competitive advantage and our business could be negatively impacted.
If we become unable to continue to acquire or use information and data in the manner in which it is currently acquired and used, or if we were prohibited from accessing or aggregating the data in these systems or profiles for any reason, we may lose a significant competitive advantage, in particular if our competitors continue to be able to acquire and use such data, and our business could be materially and adversely affected.
If our technology and telecommunications systems were to fail, fail to be effective, or if we are not able to successfully anticipate, invest in, or adopt technological advances within our industry, it could have an adverse effect on our operations.
Our success depends in large part on sophisticated computer and telecommunications systems. The temporary or permanent loss of our computer and telecommunications equipment and software systems, through casualty, operating malfunction, software virus, or service provider failure, could disrupt our operations. In the normal course of our business, we must record and process significant amounts of data quickly and accurately to properly bid on prospective acquisitions of receivable portfolios and to access, maintain, and expand the databases we use for our collection activities. Any simultaneous failure of our information systems and their backup systems would interrupt our business operations.
In addition, our business relies on computer and telecommunications technologies, and our ability to integrate new technologies into our business is essential to our competitive position and our success. We may not be successful in anticipating, investing in, or adopting technological changes on a timely or cost-effective basis. Computer and telecommunications technologies are evolving rapidly and are characterized by short product life cycles.
We continue to make significant modifications to our information systems to ensure that they continue to be adequate for our current and foreseeable demands and continued expansion, and our future growth may require additional investment in these systems. These system modifications may exceed our cost or time estimates for completion or may be unsuccessful. If we cannot update our information systems effectively, our business, financial condition and operating results may be adversely affected.
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We use our technology and telecommunications systems to contact consumers in an attempt to collect on receivables. Over recent years, we have observed an increase in the adoption by consumers, telephone carriers and communications platforms of call, email, or other communication filtering or blocking. If calls, emails or other communications are blocked or we are otherwise not able to contact our consumers our ability to collect on our receivables through our call center and digital collections channel could be impacted and we would need to pursue collections through our higher-cost legal collections channel, which could impact our operating results.
Our business results and operations could be adversely affected by a cybersecurity event, breach, business interruption or similar incident relating to our information technology systems.
We rely on information technology networks and systems to process and store electronic information. We collect and store sensitive data, including personally identifiable information of our consumers, on our information technology networks. Despite the implementation of risk and security measures (see Item 1A-Cybersecurity), our information technology networks and systems have been, and in the future may be, vulnerable to disruptions and shutdowns due to attacks by threat actors or breaches due to malfeasance by contractors, employees and others who have access to our networks and systems.
In addition to our own systems, we use third-party service providers, who in turn may also use third-party providers, to process certain data or information on our behalf. Although we generally contractually require these service providers to implement and maintain reasonable security measures, we cannot control third parties and cannot guarantee that a security breach will not occur in their systems.
The occurrence of any of cybersecurity incident could compromise our networks and the information stored on our networks (or on the networks of third-party service providers) could be accessed. Due to our size and the large number of service providers we work with and the increasing sophistication and complexity of cyber attacks, an incident could occur and persist for an extended period without detection. Any investigation of a cyber attack or other security incident would be unpredictable and would take time before the completion of any investigation and before there is availability of full and reliable information.
As cyber attacks continue to evolve, we may be required to expend significant additional resources to continue to modify or enhance our protective measures or to investigate and remediate any information security vulnerabilities. In addition, our remediation efforts may not be successful.
While we currently maintain cybersecurity insurance, such insurance may not be sufficient in type or amount to cover us against claims related to cybersecurity breaches or attacks, failures or other data security-related incidents, and we cannot be certain that cyber insurance will continue to be available to us on economically reasonable terms, or at all, or that an insurer will not deny coverage as to any future claim.
Any cybersecurity event, breach or similar incident relating to our information technology systems could disrupt our operations, adversely affect the willingness of sellers to sell to us or result in legal claims, liability, reputational damage or regulatory penalties under laws protecting the privacy of personal information, any of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.
We have significant international operations, which exposes us to additional risks and uncertainties.
Our international operations subject us to a number of additional risks and uncertainties, including:
compliance with and changes in international laws, including regulatory and compliance requirements that could affect our business;
differing accounting standards and practices;
increased exposure to U.S. laws that apply abroad, such as the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, and exposure to other anti-corruption laws such as the UK Bribery Act;
social, political and economic instability, recessions or uncertainty (including as a result of Brexit);
fluctuations in foreign economies and currency exchange rates;
difficulty in hiring, staffing and managing qualified and proficient local employees and advisors to run international operations;
the difficulty of managing and operating an international enterprise, including difficulties in maintaining effective communications with employees due to distance, language, and cultural barriers;
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difficulties implementing and maintaining effective internal controls and risk management and compliance initiatives;
potential disagreements with our joint venture business partners;
differing labor regulations and business practices; and
foreign and, in some circumstances, U.S. tax consequences.
Each of these could adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.
We may not be able to adequately protect the intellectual property rights upon which we rely and, as a result, any lack of protection may diminish our competitive advantage.
We rely on proprietary software programs and valuation and collection processes and techniques, and we believe that these assets provide us with a competitive advantage. We consider our proprietary software, processes, and techniques to be trade secrets, but they are not protected by patent or registered copyright. We may not be able to protect our technology and data resources adequately, which may diminish our competitive advantage, which may, in turn, adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.
Exchange rate fluctuations could adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.
Because we conduct some business in currencies other than U.S. dollars, primarily the British Pound, but report our financial results in U.S. dollars, we face exposure to fluctuations in currency exchange rates upon translation of these business results into U.S. dollars. In the normal course of business, we may employ various strategies to manage these risks, including the use of derivative instruments. These strategies may not be effective in protecting us against the effects of fluctuations from movements in foreign exchange rates. Fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates could adversely affect our financial condition and operating results.
An outbreak of a contagious disease or other public health emergency could materially impact our business and results of operations.
The COVID-19 pandemic and resulting containment measures caused economic, financial and operational disruptions that adversely affected certain aspects of our business and results of operations. Other public health emergencies could also affect our business and results of operations and any impact would depend on future developments that we are not able to predict, including the duration, spread and severity of the public health emergency; the nature, extent and effectiveness of containment measures; the extent and duration of the effect on the economy; and how quickly and to what extent normal economic and operating conditions resumed.
Risks Related to Government Regulation and Litigation
Our business is subject to extensive laws and regulations, which have increased and may continue to increase.
As noted in detail in “Item 1 - Part 1 - Business - Government Regulation” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, extensive laws and regulations directly apply to key portions of our business. These laws and regulations are also subject to review from time to time and may be subject to significant change. Changes in laws and regulations applicable to our operations, or the manner in which they are interpreted or applied, could limit our activities in the future or could significantly increase the cost of regulatory compliance. These negative effects could result from changes in collection laws and guidance, laws related to credit reporting, consumer bankruptcy laws, laws related to the management and enforcement of consumer debt, court and enforcement procedures, the statute of limitation for debts, accounting standards, taxation requirements, employment laws, communications laws, data privacy and protection laws, anti-bribery and corruption laws and anti-money laundering laws. For example, in November 2021, the CFPB final rules in the form of a new Regulation F that implement the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act became effective. Regulation F restated and clarified prohibitions on harassment and abuse, false or misleading representations, and unfair practices by debt collectors when collecting consumer debt as discussed in more detail under “Part I - Item 1—Business - Government Regulation.”
We sometimes purchase accounts in asset classes that are subject to industry-specific and/or issuer-specific restrictions that limit the collection methods that we can use on those accounts. Further, we have seen a trend in laws, rules and regulations requiring increased availability of historic information about receivables in order to collect. If credit originators or portfolio resellers are unable or unwilling to meet these evolving requirements, we may be unable to collect on certain accounts. Our inability to collect sufficient amounts from these accounts, through available collection methods, could adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.
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In addition, the CFPB has engaged in enforcement activity in sectors adjacent to our industry, impacting credit originators, collection firms, and payment processors, among others. Enforcement activity in these spaces by the CFPB or others, especially in the absence of clear rules or regulatory expectations, may be disruptive to third parties as they attempt to define appropriate business practices. As a result, certain commercial relationships we maintain may be disrupted or impacted by changes in third-parties’ business practices or perceptions of elevated risk relating to the debt collection industry, which could reduce our revenues, or increase our expenses, and consequently adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.
Additional consumer protection or privacy laws, rules and regulations may be enacted, or existing laws, rules or regulations may be amended, reinterpreted or enforced in a different manner, imposing additional restrictions or requirements on the collection of receivables.
Any of the developments described above may adversely affect our ability to purchase and collect on receivables and may increase our costs associated with regulatory compliance, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.
Failure to comply with government regulation could result in the suspension, termination or impairment of our ability to conduct business, may require the payment of significant fines and penalties, or require other significant expenditures.
The U.S. collections industry is heavily regulated under various federal, state, and local laws, rules, and regulations. Many states and several cities require that we be licensed as a debt collection company. The CFPB, FTC, state Attorneys General and other regulatory bodies have the authority to investigate a variety of matters, including consumer complaints against debt collection companies, and can bring enforcement actions and seek monetary penalties, consumer restitution, and injunctive relief. If we, or our third-party collection agencies or law firms fail to comply with applicable laws, rules, and regulations, including, but not limited to, identity theft, privacy, data security, the use of automated dialing equipment, laws related to consumer protection, debt collection, and laws applicable to specific types of debt, it could result in the suspension or termination of our ability to conduct collection operations, which would adversely affect us. Further, our ability to collect our receivables may be affected by state laws, which require that certain types of account documentation be presented prior to the institution of any collection activities.
Our failure or the failure of third-party agencies and attorneys, or the credit originators or portfolio resellers selling receivables to us, to comply with existing or new laws, rules, or regulations could limit our ability to recover on receivables, affect the willingness of financial institutions to sell portfolios to us, cause us to pay damages to consumers or result in fines or penalties, which could reduce our revenues, or increase our expenses, and consequently adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results. For example, in 2020, the CFPB filed a lawsuit alleging that Encore and certain of our U.S. subsidiaries had violated a consent order (the “2015 Consent Order”) pursuant to which we had previously settled allegations raised by the CFPB arising from practices during the period between 2011 and 2015. In the lawsuit, the CFPB alleged that we did not perfectly adhere to certain operational provisions of the 2015 Consent Order, leading to alleged violations of federal consumer financial law. In 2020, we entered into a stipulated judgment (“Stipulated Judgment”) with the CFPB to resolve the lawsuit. The Stipulated Judgment required us to, among other things, continue to follow a narrow subset of the operational requirements contained in the 2015 Consent Order, all of which have long been part of the Company’s routine practices and pay a $15.0 million civil monetary penalty.
In addition, new federal, state or local laws or regulations, or changes in the ways these rules or laws are interpreted or enforced, could limit our activities in the future and/or significantly increase the cost of regulatory compliance.
Our operations outside the United States are subject to foreign and U.S. laws and regulations that apply to our international operations, including GDPR, the UK Consumer Credit Act, the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the UK Bribery Act and other local laws prohibiting corrupt payments to government officials. Violations of these laws and regulations could result in fines and penalties, criminal sanctions, prohibitions on the conduct of our business and reputational damage.
The debt purchase and collections sector and the broader consumer credit industry in the United Kingdom, Ireland and the other European jurisdictions in which we operate are also highly regulated under various laws and regulations. This legislation is principles-based and therefore the interpretation of compliance is complex and may change over time. Failure to comply with any applicable laws, regulations, rules or contractual compliance obligations could result in investigations, information gathering, public censures, financial penalties, disciplinary measures, liability and/or enforcement actions, including licenses or permissions that we need to do business not being granted or being revoked or the suspension or termination of our ability to conduct collections. In addition, our debt purchase contracts with vendors include certain conditions and failure to comply or revocation of a permission or authorization, or other actions taken by us that may damage the reputation of the vendor, may entitle the vendor to terminate any agreements with us. Damage to our reputation, whether because of a failure to comply with applicable laws, regulations or rules, revocation of a permission or authorization, any other regulatory action or our failure to
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comply with contractual compliance obligations, could deter vendors from choosing us as their debt purchase or collections provider.
Compliance with this extensive regulatory framework is expensive and labor-intensive. Any of the foregoing could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results.
We are subject to ongoing risks of regulatory investigations and litigation, including individual and class action lawsuits, under consumer credit, consumer protection, theft, privacy, collections, and other laws, and we may be subject to awards of substantial damages or be required to make other expenditures or change our business practices as a result.
We operate in an extremely litigious climate and currently are, and may in the future be, named as defendants in litigation, including individual and class action lawsuits under consumer credit, consumer protection, theft, privacy, data security, automated dialing equipment, debt collections, and other laws. Many of these cases present novel issues on which there is no clear legal precedent, which increases the difficulty in predicting both the potential outcomes and costs of defending these cases. We are subject to ongoing risks of regulatory investigations, inquiries, litigation, and other actions by the CFPB, FTC, FCA, state Attorneys General, Central Bank of Ireland or other governmental bodies relating to our activities. For example, in September 2020 the CFPB filed a lawsuit alleging that Encore and certain of its US subsidiaries had violated the 2015 Consent Order and in October 2020 we entered into the Stipulated Judgment with the CFPB to resolve the lawsuit. These litigation and regulatory actions involve potential compensatory or punitive damage claims, fines, costs, sanctions, civil monetary penalties, consumer restitution, or injunctive relief, as well as other forms of relief, that could require us to pay damages, make other expenditures or result in changes to our business practices. Any changes to our business practices could result in lower collections, increased cost to collect or reductions in estimated remaining collections. Actual losses incurred by us in connection with judgments or settlements of these matters may be more than our associated reserves. Further, defending lawsuits and responding to governmental inquiries or investigations, regardless of their merit, could be costly and divert management’s attention from the operation of our business. All of these factors could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results.
Negative publicity associated with litigation, governmental investigations, regulatory actions, cybersecurity breaches and other public statements could damage our reputation.
From time to time there are negative news stories about our industry or company, especially with respect to alleged conduct in collecting debt from consumers. These stories may follow the announcements of litigation or regulatory actions involving us or others in our industry. Negative publicity about our alleged or actual debt collection practices, about the debt collection industry in general or our cybersecurity could adversely affect our stock price, our position in the marketplace in which we compete, and our ability to purchase charged-off receivables, any of which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results.
Risks Related to Our Indebtedness and Common Stock
Our significant indebtedness could adversely affect our financial health and could harm our ability to react to changes to our business.
As described in greater detail in “Note 6: Borrowings” to our consolidated financial statements, as of December 31, 2023, our total long-term indebtedness outstanding was approximately $3.3 billion. Our substantial indebtedness could have important consequences to investors. For example, it could:
increase our vulnerability to general economic downturns and industry conditions;
require us to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to payments on our indebtedness, thereby reducing the availability of our cash flow to fund working capital, capital expenditures and other general corporate requirements;
limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and the industry in which we operate;
place us at a competitive disadvantage compared to competitors that have less debt;
increase our exposure to market and regulatory changes that could diminish the amount and value of our inventory that we borrow against under our secured credit facilities; and
limit, along with the financial and other restrictive covenants contained in the documents governing our indebtedness, our ability to borrow additional funds, make investments and incur liens, among other things.
Any of these factors could adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.
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Servicing our indebtedness requires a significant amount of cash, and we may not have sufficient cash flow from our business to pay our substantial indebtedness.
Our ability to make scheduled payments of the principal of, to pay interest on or to refinance our indebtedness or to make cash payments in connection with any conversion of our convertible notes depends on our future performance, which is subject to economic, financial, competitive and other factors beyond our control. Our business may not continue to generate cash flow from operations in the future sufficient to service our indebtedness and make necessary capital expenditures. If we are unable to generate adequate cash flow, we may be required to adopt one or more alternatives, such as selling assets, restructuring indebtedness or obtaining additional equity capital on terms that may be onerous or highly dilutive. Our ability to refinance our indebtedness will depend on the capital markets and our financial condition at that time. We may not be able to engage in any of these activities or engage in these activities on desirable terms, which could result in a default on our debt obligations which could, in turn, adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.
Despite our current indebtedness levels, we may still incur substantially more indebtedness or take other actions which would intensify the risks discussed above.
Despite our current consolidated indebtedness levels, we and our subsidiaries may be able to incur substantial additional indebtedness in the future. We are not restricted under the terms of the indentures governing our convertible notes from incurring additional indebtedness, securing existing or future indebtedness, recapitalizing our indebtedness or taking a number of other actions that could have the effect of diminishing our ability to make payments on our indebtedness. Although our credit facilities and other existing debt currently limit the ability of us and certain of our subsidiaries to incur certain additional indebtedness, these restrictions are subject to a number of qualifications and exceptions and, under certain circumstances, additional indebtedness incurred in compliance with these restrictions, including additional secured indebtedness, could be substantial. Also, these restrictions will not prevent us from incurring obligations that do not constitute indebtedness. To the extent new indebtedness or other new obligations are added to our current levels, the risks described above could intensify.
We may not be able to continue to satisfy the covenants in our debt agreements.
Our debt agreements impose a number of covenants, including restrictive covenants on how we operate our business. Failure to satisfy any one of these covenants could result in negative consequences including the following, each of which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results:
acceleration or amortization of outstanding indebtedness;
exercise by our lenders of rights with respect to the collateral pledged under certain of our outstanding indebtedness;
our inability to continue to purchase receivables needed to operate our business;
decrease in the level of liquidity that can be accessed under certain of our debt agreements; or
our inability to secure alternative financing on favorable terms, if at all.
In particular, the Global Senior Facility also requires the Company and the guarantors to observe certain customary affirmative covenants, including three maintenance covenants. These require the Company to ensure that the LTV Ratio (as defined in the Global Senior Facility) does not exceed 0.75 and the SSRCF Ratio (as defined in the Global Senior Facility) does not exceed 0.275. The Company is further required to maintain a Fixed Charge Coverage Ratio (as defined in the Global Senior Facility) of at least 2.0. These financial covenants are, subject in the case of the LTV Ratio to a minimum drawing requirement, tested quarterly (or with respect to the SSRCF Ratio, monthly). The breach of any of these maintenance covenants could lead to the consequences referred to above.
Increases in interest rates could adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.
Portions of our outstanding debt bear interest at a variable rate. Increases in interest rates could increase our interest expense which would, in turn, lower our earnings. We may periodically evaluate whether to enter into derivative financial instruments, such as interest rate swap agreements, to reduce our exposure to fluctuations in interest rates on variable interest rate debt and their impact on earnings and cash flows. These strategies may not be effective in protecting us against the effects of fluctuations from movements in interest rates. Increases in interest rates could adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.
Our common stock price may be subject to significant fluctuations and volatility.
The market price of our common stock has been subject to significant fluctuations. These fluctuations could continue. Among the factors that could affect our stock price are:
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our operating and financial performance and prospects;
our ability to repay our debt;
our access to financial and capital markets to refinance our debt;
investor perceptions of us and the industry and markets in which we operate;
future sales of equity or equity-related securities;
changes in earnings estimates or buy/sell recommendations by analysts;
changes in the supply of, demand for or price of portfolios;
our acquisition activity, including our expansion into new markets;
regulatory changes affecting our industry generally or our business and operations;
general financial, domestic, international, economic and other market conditions; and
the number of short positions on our stock at any particular time.
The stock market in recent years has experienced significant price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated to the operating performance of companies. The market price of our common stock could fluctuate significantly for many reasons, including in response to the risks described in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, elsewhere in our filings with the SEC from time to time or for reasons unrelated to our operations, such as reports by industry analysts, investor perceptions or negative announcements by our customers, competitors or suppliers regarding their own performance, as well as industry conditions and general financial, economic and political instability.
The price of our common stock could also be affected by possible sales of our common stock by investors who view our convertible notes as a more attractive means of equity participation in us and by hedging or arbitrage trading activity that we expect to develop involving our common stock.
If securities or industry analysts have a negative outlook regarding our stock or our industry, or our operating results do not meet their expectations, our stock price could decline. The trading market for our common stock is influenced by the research and reports that industry or securities analysts publish about us. If one or more of the analysts who cover our company downgrade our stock or if our operating results do not meet their expectations, our stock price could decline.
Future sales of our common stock or the issuance of other equity securities may adversely affect the market price of our common stock.
In the future, we may sell additional shares of our common stock or other equity or equity-related securities to raise capital or issue equity securities to finance acquisitions. In addition, a substantial number of shares of our common stock are reserved for issuance upon conversion of our convertible notes. We are not restricted from issuing additional common stock, including securities that are convertible into, or that represent the right to receive, common stock.
The liquidity and trading volume of our common stock is limited. The issuance or sale of substantial amounts of our common stock or other equity or equity-related securities (or the perception that such issuances or sales may occur) could adversely affect the market price of our common stock as well as our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional equity or equity-related securities. We cannot predict the effect that future issuances or sales of our common stock or other equity or equity-related securities would have on the market price of our common stock.
We may not have the ability to raise the funds necessary to repurchase our notes upon a fundamental change or change of control or to settle conversions in cash, and our future indebtedness may contain limitations on our ability to pay cash upon conversion of our convertible notes.
Holders of our notes will have the right to require us to repurchase their notes upon the occurrence of a fundamental change or a change of control at a repurchase price equal to 100% of their principal amount, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any. In addition, upon a conversion of notes we will be required to make cash payments for each $1,000 in principal amount of notes converted of at least the lesser of $1,000 and the sum of certain daily conversion values. However, we may not have enough available cash or be able to obtain financing at the time we are required to make repurchases of the notes surrendered therefor or to settle conversions in cash. In addition, certain of our debt agreements contain restrictive covenants that limit our ability to engage in specified types of transactions, which may affect our ability to repurchase our notes. Further, our ability to repurchase our notes or to pay cash upon conversion may be limited by law, by regulatory authority or by agreements governing our future indebtedness. Our failure to repurchase the notes or to pay cash upon conversion of the notes at a time when the repurchase or cash payment upon conversion is required by any indenture pursuant to which the notes were offered would constitute a default under the relevant indenture. Such default could constitute a default under other agreements
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governing our indebtedness. If the repayment of any indebtedness were to be accelerated, we may not have sufficient funds to repay such indebtedness and repurchase the notes.
Provisions in our charter documents and Delaware law may delay or prevent acquisition of us, which could decrease the value of shares of our common stock.
Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws and Delaware law contain provisions that could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire us without the consent of our Board of Directors. These provisions include advance notice provisions, limitations on actions by our stockholders by written consent and special approval requirements for transactions involving interested stockholders. We are authorized to issue up to five million shares of preferred stock, the relative rights and preferences of which may be fixed by our Board of Directors, subject to the provisions of our articles of incorporation, without stockholder approval. The issuance of preferred stock could be used to dilute the stock ownership of a potential hostile acquirer. The provisions that discourage potential acquisitions of us and adversely affect the voting power of the holders of common stock may adversely affect the price of our common stock.
General
We are dependent on our management team for the adoption and implementation of our strategies and the loss of its services could have an adverse effect on our business.
Our management team has considerable experience in finance, banking, consumer collections, and other industries. We believe that the expertise of our executives obtained by managing businesses across numerous other industries has been critical to the enhancement of our operations. Our management team has created a culture of new ideas and progressive thinking, coupled with increased use of technology and statistical analysis. The management teams at each of our operating subsidiaries are also important to the success of their respective operations. The loss of the services of one or more key members of management could disrupt our collective operations and seriously impair our ability to continue to acquire or collect on portfolios of charged-off receivables and to manage and expand our business, any of which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results.
We may not be able to recruit and retain key employees and workers in a competitive labor market.
If we cannot successfully recruit and retain key employees and workers, or if we experience the unexpected loss of those employees, our operations may be negatively affected. In addition, cost inflation may require us to enhance our compensation in order to compete effectively in the hiring and retention of employees.
We may make acquisitions that prove unsuccessful and any mergers, acquisitions, dispositions or joint venture activities may change our business and financial results and introduce new risks.
From time to time, we may make acquisitions of, or otherwise invest in, other companies that could complement our business, including the acquisition of entities in diverse geographic regions and entities offering greater access to businesses and markets that we do not currently serve. The acquisitions we make may be unprofitable or may take some time to achieve profitability. In addition, we may not successfully operate the businesses that we acquire, or may not successfully integrate these businesses with our own, which may result in our inability to maintain our goals, objectives, standards, controls, policies, culture, or profitability. Through acquisitions, we may enter markets in which we have limited or no experience. Any acquisition may result in a potentially dilutive issuance of equity securities, and the incurrence of additional debt which could reduce our profitability. We also pursue dispositions and joint ventures from time to time. Any such transactions could change our business lines, geographic reach, financial results or capital structure. Our company could be larger or smaller after any such transactions and may have a different investment profile.
An impairment of goodwill could negatively impact our financial results.
We have a significant amount of goodwill. Goodwill is tested for impairment at the reporting unit level annually and in interim periods if certain events occur that indicate that the fair value of a reporting unit may be below its carrying value. The goodwill test compares the fair value for each of our reporting units to its associated carrying value. Determining the fair value of a reporting unit requires us to make judgments and involves the use of significant estimates and assumptions. Adverse changes in the Company’s actual or expected operating results, market capitalization, business climate, economic factors or other negative events that may be outside the control of management could result in a material non-cash impairment charge in the future. The annual goodwill impairment analysis performed during the fourth quarter of 2023 resulted in an impairment charge for the Cabot reporting unit of $238.2 million. There can, however, be no assurance that we will not be required to take an additional impairment charge in the future, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
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We may consume resources in pursuing business opportunities, financings or other transactions that are not consummated, which may strain or divert our resources.
We anticipate that the investigation of various transactions, and the negotiation, drafting, and execution of relevant agreements, disclosure documents and other instruments with respect to such transactions, will require substantial management time and attention and substantial costs for financial advisors, accountants, attorneys and other advisors. If a decision is made not to consummate a specific transaction, the costs incurred up to that point for the proposed transaction likely would not be recoverable. Furthermore, even if an agreement is reached relating to a specific transaction, we may fail to consummate the transaction for any number of reasons, including those beyond our control. Any such event could consume significant management time and result in a loss to us of the related costs incurred, which could adversely affect our financial position and our business.
Failure to establish and maintain effective internal controls could have a material adverse effect on the accuracy and timing of our financial reporting in future periods.
As a publicly traded company, we are subject to the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the “Exchange Act”) and the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (“Sarbanes-Oxley Act”). The Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires that we maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting. Any failure to maintain such internal controls could adversely impact our ability to report our financial results on a timely and accurate basis. Any such failures could have a material adverse effect on our financial results and investor confidence and the market for our common stock.

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Item 1B—Unresolved Staff Comments
None.


Item 1C—Cybersecurity
Cybersecurity Risk Management and Strategy
We have developed and implemented a cybersecurity risk management program intended to protect the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of our critical systems and information. We design and assess our program based on the National Institute of Standards and Technology Cybersecurity Framework (“NIST CSF”). This does not imply that we meet any particular technical standards, specifications, or requirements, only that we use the NIST CSF as a guide to help us identify, assess, and manage cybersecurity risks relevant to our business.
Our cybersecurity risk management program is integrated into our overall enterprise risk management program, and shares common methodologies, reporting channels and governance processes that apply across the enterprise risk management program to other legal, compliance, strategic, operational, and financial risk areas.
Our cybersecurity risk management program includes:
risk assessments designed to help identify material cybersecurity risks to our critical systems and our broader enterprise IT environment;
a security team principally responsible for implementing and managing (1) our cybersecurity risk assessment processes, (2) our security controls, (3) technical security tools and safeguards and (4) our response to cybersecurity incidents;
reviews and audits by our internal audit department;
the use of external service providers, where appropriate, to assess, test or otherwise assist with aspects of our security controls;
cybersecurity awareness training of our employees, incident response personnel, and senior management;
a cybersecurity incident response plan that includes procedures for responding to cybersecurity incidents; and
a third-party risk management and oversight process for service providers, suppliers, and vendors.
We have experienced, and will continue to experience, cybersecurity incidents from time to time in the normal course of business. However, based on our assessments, these incidents have not had a material impact, and we do not believe the incidents have materially affected or will materially affect us, including our operations, business strategy, results of operations or financial condition. For more information regarding risks we face from cybersecurity threats, please see Item 1A- Risk Factors.
Cybersecurity Governance
Our Board considers cybersecurity risk as part of its risk oversight function and has delegated the oversight of cybersecurity and other information technology risks to the Risk Committee. The Risk Committee oversees management’s implementation of our cybersecurity risk management program.
The Risk Committee receives regular reports from management on our cybersecurity risks. In addition, management updates the Risk Committee, as necessary, regarding significant cybersecurity incidents.
The Risk Committee regularly reports to the full Board regarding its activities, including those related to cybersecurity. The full Board also receives briefings from management on our risk management program. Board members receive presentations on cybersecurity topics from management, internal security staff or external experts as part of the Board’s continuing education on topics that impact public companies.
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Our Chief Information Officer, Chief Risk, Strategy and Compliance Officer and General Counsel, are primarily responsible for assessing and managing our material risks from cybersecurity threats. Our Chief Information Officer has primary responsibility for our overall cybersecurity program and supervises both our internal cybersecurity personnel and our retained external cybersecurity consultants. Our Chief Risk, Strategy and Compliance Officer has primary responsibility for our enterprise risk management program, including oversight of our cybersecurity risk management program. Our general counsel has primary responsibility for legal assessments, including assessments related to cybersecurity matters. Such individuals have an average of over 15 years of prior work experience in various roles involving information technology (including information security), risk and compliance or legal and risk analysis.
This team supervises efforts to prevent, detect, mitigate, and remediate cybersecurity risks and incidents through various means, which may include briefings from internal security personnel; threat intelligence and other information obtained from governmental, public or private sources, including external consultants engaged by us; and alerts and reports produced by security tools deployed in the IT environment.

Item 2—Properties
We lease office space for our corporate headquarters in San Diego, California. We also lease office space for our call centers, internal legal and consumer support services in the United States, Costa Rica, India, the United Kingdom and other European countries. We believe that our current leased facilities are generally well maintained and in good operating condition. We believe that these facilities are suitable and sufficient for our operational needs. Our policy is to improve, replace, and supplement the facilities as considered appropriate to meet the needs of our operations.

Item 3—Legal Proceedings
We are involved in disputes, legal actions, regulatory investigations, inquiries, and other actions from time to time in the ordinary course of business. Although no assurance can be given with respect to the outcome of these or any other actions and the effect such outcomes may have, based on our current knowledge, we believe any liability resulting from the outcome of such disputes, legal actions, regulatory investigations, inquiries, and other actions will not have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position or results of operations.
For additional information see “Note 13: Commitments and Contingencies” to the consolidated financial statements.

Item 4—Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.
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PART II
Item 5—Market for the Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Our common stock is traded on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol “ECPG.”
The closing price of our common stock on February 15, 2024, was $51.02 per share and there were 22 stockholders of record. Because many of our shares of common stock are held by brokers and other institutions on behalf of stockholders, we are unable to estimate the total number of beneficial owners of our stock represented by these stockholders of record.
Performance Graph
The following performance graph and related information shall not be deemed “soliciting material” or “filed” with the SEC, nor shall such information be incorporated by reference into any future filing under the Securities Act of 1933 or Securities Exchange Act of 1934, each, as amended, except to the extent that we specifically incorporate it by reference into such filing.
The following graph compares the total cumulative stockholder return on our common stock for the period from December 31, 2018 through December 31, 2023, with the cumulative total return of (a) the NASDAQ Composite Index, (b) a peer group consisting of B2Impact (previously “B2Holding”), Hoist Finance, Intrum, Kruk and PRA Group, Inc. which we believe are comparable companies. The comparison assumes that $100 was invested on December 31, 2018, in our common stock and in each of the comparison indices (including reinvestment of dividends). The stock price performance reflected in the following graph is not necessarily indicative of future stock price performance.
Picture1.jpg
12/1812/1912/2012/2112/22
12/23
Encore Capital Group, Inc.$100.00 $150.47 $165.74 $264.30 $203.97 $215.93 
NASDAQ Composite Index$100.00 $136.69 $198.10 $242.03 $163.28 $236.17 
Peer Group$100.00 $127.45 $122.50 $149.24 $98.64 $106.17 
26

Dividend Policy
As a public company, we have never declared or paid dividends on our common stock. The declaration, payment, and amount of future dividends, if any, is subject to the discretion of our Board of Directors, which may review our dividend policy from time to time in light of the then existing relevant facts and circumstances. Our ability to pay dividends may be restricted by covenants in certain of the indentures governing our senior secured notes and by the terms of our global senior secured revolving credit facility (“Global Senior Facility”). We may also be subject to additional dividend restrictions under future debt agreements or the terms of securities we may issue in the future.
Share Repurchases
In August 2015, our Board of Directors approved a $50.0 million share repurchase program. In May 2021, we announced that the Board of Directors had approved an increase in the size of the repurchase program from $50.0 million to $300.0 million (an increase of $250.0 million). Repurchases under this program are expected to be made from cash on hand and/or a drawing from our Global Senior Facility, and may be made from time to time, subject to market conditions and other factors, in the open market, through private transactions, block transactions, or other methods as determined by management and our Board of Directors, and in accordance with market conditions, other corporate considerations, and applicable regulatory requirements. The program does not obligate us to acquire any particular amount of common stock, and it may be modified or suspended at any time at our discretion. During the year ended December 31, 2022, we repurchased 1,497,184 shares of our common stock for approximately $86.9 million under the share repurchase program. Our practice is to retire the shares repurchased. We did not make any repurchases under the share repurchase program during the year ended December 31, 2023.
Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities
None.
Equity Compensation Plan Information
See Item 12—“Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters.”

Item 6—[Reserved]
27

Item 7—Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following discussion and analysis is intended to help investors understand our business, financial condition, results of operations, liquidity and capital resources. You should read this discussion together with our consolidated financial statements and related notes thereto included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains “forward-looking statements” relating to Encore Capital Group, Inc. (“Encore”) and its subsidiaries (which we may collectively refer to as the “Company,” “we,” “our” or “us”) within the meaning of the securities laws. The words “believe,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “project,” “intend,” “plan,” “will,” “may,” and similar expressions often characterize forward-looking statements. These statements may include, but are not limited to, projections of collections, revenues, income or loss, estimates of capital expenditures, plans for future operations, products or services, and financing needs or plans, as well as assumptions relating to these matters. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in these forward-looking statements are reasonable, we caution that these expectations or predictions may not prove to be correct or we may not achieve the financial results, savings or other benefits anticipated in the forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements are necessarily estimates reflecting the best judgment of our senior management and involve a number of risks and uncertainties, some of which may be beyond our control or cannot be predicted or quantified, that could cause actual results to differ materially from those suggested by the forward-looking statements. Many factors including, but not limited to, those set forth in this Annual Report on Form 10-K under “Part I, Item 1A—Risk Factors,” could cause our actual results, performance, achievements, or industry results to be very different from the results, performance, achievements or industry results expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. Our business, financial condition, or results of operations could also be materially and adversely affected by other factors besides those listed. Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date the statements were made. We do not undertake any obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements to reflect new information or future events, or for any other reason, even if experience or future events make it clear that any expected results expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements will not be realized. In addition, it is generally our policy not to make any specific projections as to future earnings, and we do not endorse projections regarding future performance that may be made by third parties.
Our Business
We are an international specialty finance company providing debt recovery solutions and other related services for consumers across a broad range of financial assets. We purchase portfolios of defaulted consumer receivables at deep discounts to face value and manage them by working with individuals as they repay their obligations and work toward financial recovery. Defaulted receivables are consumers’ unpaid financial commitments to credit originators, including banks, credit unions, consumer finance companies and commercial retailers. Defaulted receivables may also include receivables subject to bankruptcy proceedings. We also provide debt servicing and other portfolio management services to credit originators for non-performing loans in Europe.
Encore Capital Group, Inc. (“Encore”) has three business units: MCM, which consists of Midland Credit Management, Inc. and its subsidiaries and domestic affiliates; Cabot, which consists of Cabot Credit Management Limited (“CCM”) and its subsidiaries and European affiliates, and LAAP, which is comprised of our investments and operations in Latin America and Asia-Pacific.
MCM (United States)
Through MCM, we are a market leader in portfolio purchasing and recovery in the United States.
Cabot (Europe)
Through Cabot, we are one of the largest credit management services providers in Europe and the United Kingdom. Cabot, in addition to its primary business of portfolio purchasing and recovery, also provides a range of debt servicing offerings such as early stage collections, business process outsourcing (“BPO”), and contingent collections, including through Wescot Credit Services Limited (“Wescot”), a leading UK contingency debt collection and BPO services company.
LAAP (Latin America and Asia-Pacific)
We have purchased non-performing loans in Mexico. Additionally, we have invested in Encore Asset Reconstruction Company (“EARC”) in India.
To date, operating results from LAAP have not been significant to our total consolidated operating results. Our long-term growth strategy is focused on continuing to invest in our core portfolio purchasing and recovery business in the United States and United Kingdom and strengthening and developing our business in the rest of Europe.
28

Macroeconomic Update
During 2021, excess consumer liquidity resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic led to consumer behavior (particularly in the U.S.) that contributed to record collections. Similarly, as reported by leading financial industry publications, excess consumer liquidity resulted in lower levels of delinquencies and charge offs for leading lenders. As a result, 2021 was a period of decreased supply and competitive pricing.
During 2022, consumer behavior in the U.S. that contributed to record collections in 2021 normalized, particularly in the second half of the year. Delinquencies, charge offs and market supply remained at lower levels primarily for the first half of the year, resulting in pressure on portfolio pricing. As the year progressed, we began to see signs of increased delinquencies and charge offs in the U.S., which we believe contributed to an increase in portfolio supply. Portfolio pricing in the U.S. in the fourth quarter began to soften, while pricing in the U.K. and Europe remained competitive. Throughout 2022 we noted higher interest rates, elevated levels of inflation, agent staffing challenges as a result of the tight labor market and large foreign exchange rate fluctuations.
During 2023, we believe increased supply led to improved portfolio pricing in the U.S. Inflation in the U.K. put pressure on wages and other costs early in the year and we took action to control our cost base, including a headcount reduction in support functions at Cabot. Despite higher interest rates impacting funding costs for market participants in 2023, we believe that the portfolio pricing environment in the U.K. and Europe did not yet fully reflect increased funding costs that resulted from higher interest rates.
Government Regulation
As discussed in more detail under “Part I - Item 1—Business - Government Regulation” contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, our operations in the United States are subject to federal, state and municipal statutes, rules, regulations and ordinances that establish specific guidelines and procedures that debt purchasers and collectors must follow when collecting consumer accounts, including among others, specific guidelines and procedures for communicating with consumers and prohibitions on unfair, deceptive or abusive debt collection practices. Additionally, our operations in Europe are affected by foreign statutes, rules and regulations regarding debt collection and debt purchase activities. These statutes, rules, regulations, ordinances, guidelines and procedures are modified from time to time by the relevant authorities charged with their administration, which could affect the way we conduct our business.
Portfolio Purchasing and Recovery
MCM (United States)
In the United States, the defaulted consumer receivable portfolios we purchase are primarily charged-off credit card debt portfolios. A small percentage of our capital deployment in the United States is comprised of receivable portfolios subject to Chapter 13 and Chapter 7 bankruptcy proceedings.
We purchase receivables based on robust, account-level valuation methods and employ proprietary statistical and behavioral models across our U.S. operations. These methods and models generally allow us to value portfolios accurately (limiting the risk of overpaying), avoid buying portfolios that are incompatible with our methods or strategies and align the accounts we purchase with our business channels to maximize future collections. As a result, we have been able to realize significant returns from the receivables we acquire. We maintain strong relationships with many of the largest financial service providers in the United States.
Cabot (Europe)
In Europe, our purchased defaulted debt portfolios primarily consist of paying and non-paying consumer loan accounts. We also purchase: (1) portfolios that are in insolvency status, in particular, individual voluntary arrangements; and (2) non-performing secured mortgage portfolios and real estate assets previously securing mortgage portfolios. When we take possession of the underlying real estate assets or purchase real estate assets, we refer to those as real estate-owned assets, or REO assets.
We purchase paying and non-paying receivable portfolios using a proprietary pricing model that utilizes account-level statistical and behavioral data. This model generally allows us to value portfolios accurately and quantify portfolio performance in order to maximize future collections. As a result, we have been able to realize significant returns from the assets we have acquired. We maintain strong relationships with many of the largest financial services providers in the United Kingdom and Europe.
29

Purchases and Collections
Portfolio Pricing, Supply and Demand
MCM (United States)
With lending surpassing pre-pandemic levels and with rising delinquency rates, we have seen an increase in supply. Issuers have continued to sell predominantly fresh portfolios. Fresh portfolios are portfolios that are generally sold within six months of the consumer’s account being charged-off by the financial institution. Pricing in the fourth quarter continued to improve as a result of increased supply. Issuers continue to sell their volume in mostly forward flow arrangements that are often committed early in the calendar year. We believe growth in lending and rising delinquency rates will drive continued growth in supply.
We believe that smaller competitors continue to face difficulties in the portfolio purchasing market because of the high cost to operate due to regulatory pressure and increasing cost of capital. We believe this favors larger participants, like MCM, because the larger market participants are better able to adapt to these pressures and commit to larger forward flow agreements and fluctuating volumes.
Cabot (Europe)
The UK market for charged-off portfolios prior to the COVID-19 pandemic generally provided a relatively consistent pipeline of opportunities, despite a historically low level of charge-off rates, as creditors had embedded debt sales as an integral part of their business models. The percentage of volume that is sold in multi-year forward flow arrangements is increasing.
The Spain, France, and Portugal debt markets continue to be three of the largest in Europe with significant debt sales and an expectation of a significant amount of debt to be sold in the future. Financial institutions continue to look to dispose of non-performing loans in these markets.
Banks decreased portfolio sales at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic in order to focus on customers’ needs. While we have seen a resumption of sales activity across all of our European markets, underlying default rates are generally low by historic levels, and sales levels are expected to fluctuate from quarter to quarter. In general, supply remains slightly below pre-pandemic levels while portfolio pricing remains competitive across our European footprint; however we began to see improvement in pricing in the fourth quarter.
Purchases by Geographic Location
The following table summarizes purchases of receivable portfolios by geographic location during the periods presented (in thousands):
 Year Ended December 31,
 202320222021
MCM (United States)$814,557 $556,000 $408,741 
Cabot (Europe)259,255 244,507 255,788 
Total purchases of receivable portfolios$1,073,812 $800,507 $664,529 
In the United States, capital deployment increased during the year ended December 31, 2023, as compared to 2022. The majority of our deployments in the U.S. come from forward flow agreements, and the timing, contract duration, and volumes for each contract can fluctuate leading to variation when comparing to prior periods. Portfolio purchases in the U.S. were robust as supply increased and pricing improved. Capital deployment increased for the year ended December 31, 2022, as compared to 2021, primarily due to an increase in supply in the U.S. to pre-pandemic levels.
In Europe, capital deployment increased during the year ended December 31, 2023, as compared to 2022. Pricing continues to remain competitive in Europe and as a result purchases were limited for all the periods presented as compared to pre-pandemic levels. In Europe, bank delinquencies remain at relatively low levels, and the level of outstanding unsecured consumer borrowings, while increasing, is still below pre-pandemic levels. Capital deployment decreased for the year ended December 31, 2022, as compared to 2021, primarily due to the unfavorable impact from foreign currency translation driven by the strengthening of the U.S. dollar against the British Pound.
In addition to the purchases of receivable portfolios discussed above, during the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022, and 2021, we also invested $26.9 million, $39.3 million, and $17.1 million in REO assets, respectively.
30

Collections from Purchased Receivables by Channel and Geographic Location
We utilize three channels for the collection of our purchased receivables: call center and digital collections; legal collections; and collection agencies. The call center and digital collections channel consists of collections that result from our call centers, direct mail program and online collections. The legal collections channel consists of collections that result from our internal legal channel or from our network of retained law firms. The collection agencies channel consists of collections from third-party collections agencies to whom we pay a fee or commission. We utilize this channel to supplement capacity in our internal call centers, to service accounts in regions where we do not have collections operations or for accounts purchased where we maintain the collection agency servicing relationship. The following table summarizes the total collections by collection channel and geographic area during the periods presented (in thousands):
 Year Ended December 31,
 202320222021
MCM (United States):
Call center and digital collections$783,164 $772,728 $971,459 
Legal collections526,197 581,078 662,810 
Collection agencies5,221 1,126 7,429 
Subtotal1,314,582 1,354,932 1,641,698 
Cabot (Europe):
Call center and digital collections217,784 203,378 259,666 
Legal collections189,406 193,348 203,339 
Collection agencies136,841 156,545 181,974 
Subtotal544,031 553,271 644,979 
Other geographies:3,954 3,334 20,682 
Total collections from purchased receivables$1,862,567 $1,911,537 $2,307,359 
Gross collections from purchased receivables remained relatively stable during the year ended December 31, 2023, as compared to gross collections during the year ended December 31, 2022.
Gross collections from purchased receivables decreased $395.8 million, or 17.2%, to $1,911.5 million during the year ended December 31, 2022, from $2,307.4 million during the year ended December 31, 2021. The decrease of collections in the United States was primarily a result of an unusually high level of collections in 2021 resulting from changes in consumer behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic. The decrease was also a result of lower purchasing volumes in recent periods due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The changes in consumer behavior that resulted from the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, while more prevalent in 2021, continued through the first half of 2022. We believe the pandemic-related drivers of this changed behavior have normalized. The decrease in collections from purchased receivables in Europe was primarily due to the unfavorable impact from foreign currency translation, primarily by the strengthening of the U.S. dollar against the British Pound. In addition, continuing labor market tightness in the UK affected agent staffing levels and, consequently, mildly impacted collections for the year.
31

Results of Operations
Results of operations, in dollars and as a percentage of total revenues, were as follows for the periods presented (in thousands, except percentages):
 Year Ended December 31,
 202320222021
Revenues
Revenue from receivable portfolios$1,204,437 98.5 %$1,202,361 85.9 %$1,287,730 79.8 %
Changes in recoveries(82,530)(6.7)%93,145 6.7 %199,136 12.3 %
Total debt purchasing revenue1,121,907 91.8 %1,295,506 92.6 %1,486,866 92.1 %
Servicing revenue83,136 6.8 %94,922 6.8 %120,778 7.5 %
Other revenues17,637 1.4 %7,919 0.6 %6,855 0.4 %
Total revenues1,222,680 100.0 %1,398,347 100.0 %1,614,499 100.0 %
Operating expenses
Salaries and employee benefits391,532 32.0 %375,135 26.8 %385,178 23.9 %
Cost of legal collections224,252 18.3 %217,944 15.6 %254,280 15.7 %
General and administrative expenses144,862 11.8 %145,798 10.4 %137,695 8.6 %
Other operating expenses111,179 9.1 %111,234 8.0 %106,938 6.6 %
Collection agency commissions35,657 2.9 %35,568 2.5 %47,057 2.9 %
Depreciation and amortization41,737 3.4 %46,419 3.3 %50,079 3.1 %
Goodwill impairment238,200 19.5 %— — %— — %
Impairment of intangible assets
18,726 1.5 %4,075 0.3 %— — %
Total operating expenses1,206,145 98.5 %936,173 66.9 %981,227 60.8 %
Income from operations16,535 1.5 %462,174 33.1 %633,272 39.2 %
Other expense
Interest expense(201,877)(16.5)%(153,308)(11.0)%(169,647)(10.5)%
Loss on extinguishment of debt— — %— — %(9,300)(0.6)%
Other income (expense)5,078 0.3 %2,123 0.1 %(17,784)(1.1)%
Total other expense(196,799)(16.2)%(151,185)(10.9)%(196,731)(12.2)%
(Loss) income before income taxes(180,264)(14.7)%310,989 22.2 %436,541 27.0 %
Provision for income taxes(26,228)(2.1)%(116,425)(8.3)%(85,340)(5.2)%
Net (loss) income(206,492)(16.8)%194,564 13.9 %351,201 21.8 %
Net income attributable to noncontrolling interest— — %— — %(419)(0.1)%
Net (loss) income attributable to Encore Capital Group, Inc. stockholders$(206,492)(16.8)%$194,564 13.9 %$350,782 21.7 %

32

Comparison of Results of Operations
Our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022 includes discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2022 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2021 in Item 7 of Part II, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”
Year Ended December 31, 2023 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2022
Revenues
Our revenues primarily include debt purchasing revenue, which is revenue recognized from engaging in debt purchasing and recovery activities. We apply our charge-off policy and fully write-off the amortized costs (i.e., face value net of noncredit discount) of the individual receivables we acquire immediately after purchasing the portfolio. We then record a negative allowance that represents the present value of all expected future recoveries for pools of receivables that share similar risk characteristics using a discounted cash flow approach, which is presented as “Investment in receivable portfolios, net” in our consolidated statements of financial condition. The discount rate is an effective interest rate (or “purchase EIR”) established based on the purchase price of the portfolio and the expected future cash flows at the time of purchase.
Debt purchasing revenue includes two components:
(1)     Revenue from receivable portfolios, which is the accretion of the discount on the negative allowance due to the passage of time (generally the portfolio balance multiplied by the EIR), and
(2)     Changes in recoveries, which includes:
(a)     Recoveries above (below) forecast, which is the difference between (i) actual cash collected/recovered during the current period and (ii) expected cash recoveries for the current period, which generally represents over or under performance for the period; and
(b)     Changes in expected future recoveries, which is the present value change of expected future recoveries, where such change generally results from (i) collections “pulled forward from” or “pushed out to” future periods (i.e. amounts either collected early or expected to be collected later) and (ii) magnitude and timing changes to estimates of expected future collections (which can be increases or decreases).
Certain pools already fully recovered their cost basis and became zero basis portfolios (“ZBA”) prior to our adoption of the accounting standard for Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (“CECL”) in January 2020. We did not establish a negative allowance for these pools as we elected the Transition Resource Group for Credit Losses’ practical expedient to retain the integrity of these legacy pools. Similar to how we treated ZBA collections prior to the adoption of CECL, all subsequent collections to the ZBA pools are recognized as ZBA revenue, which is included in revenue from receivable portfolios in our consolidated statements of operations.
Servicing revenue consists primarily of fee-based income earned on accounts collected on behalf of others, primarily credit originators. We earn fee-based income by providing debt servicing (such as early stage collections, BPO, contingent collections, trace services and litigation activities) to credit originators for non-performing loans in Europe.
Other revenues primarily include revenues recognized from the sale of real estate assets that are acquired as a result of our investments in non-performing secured residential mortgage portfolios and real estate assets in Europe and LAAP.
33

The following table summarizes revenues for the periods presented (in thousands, except percentages):
Year Ended December 31,
20232022$ Change% Change
Revenue recognized from portfolio basis$1,176,835 $1,169,010 $7,825 0.7 %
ZBA revenue27,602 33,351 (5,749)(17.2)%
Revenue from receivable portfolios1,204,437 1,202,361 2,076 0.2 %
Recoveries (below) above forecast
(33,405)29,253 (62,658)(214.2)%
Changes in expected future recoveries(49,125)63,892 (113,017)(176.9)%
Changes in recoveries(82,530)93,145 (175,675)(188.6)%
Debt purchasing revenue1,121,907 1,295,506 (173,599)(13.4)%
Servicing revenue83,136 94,922 (11,786)(12.4)%
Other revenues17,637 7,919 9,718 122.7 %
Total revenues$1,222,680 $1,398,347 $(175,667)(12.6)%
Our operating results are impacted by foreign currency translation, which represents the effect of translating operating results where the functional currency is different than our U.S. dollar reporting currency. The strengthening of the U.S. dollar relative to other foreign currencies has an unfavorable impact on our international revenues, and the weakening of the U.S. dollar relative to other foreign currencies has a favorable impact on our international revenues. There was no material foreign currency translation impact to our revenue for the year ended December 31, 2023, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2022.
Revenue recognized from portfolio basis stayed consistent during the year ended December 31, 2023 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2022.
As discussed above, ZBA revenue represents collections from our legacy ZBA pools. We expect our ZBA revenue to continue to decline as we collect on these legacy pools. We do not expect to have new ZBA pools in the future.
Recoveries above or below forecast represent over and under-performance in the reporting period, respectively. Collections under-performed the forecasted collections by approximately $13.3 million and $33.4 million during the three months and year ended December 31, 2023, respectively. The under-performance was primarily attributable to shortfalls in collections for our 2022 and 2021 U.S. vintages as consumers transitioned back to more normalized payment behavior. Recoveries below forecast were approximately $22.2 million during the three months ended December 31, 2022, recoveries above forecast were approximately $29.3 million during the year ended December 31, 2022.
We reassess the forecasts of expected lifetime recoveries each quarter by considering, among other factors, historical and current collection performance, changes in consumer behaviors, and macroeconomic environment. As a result, we have updated our forecast, including reducing expected future recoveries for certain static pools, primarily the 2022 and 2021 U.S. vintages, where the initial cash flow forecasts were established during a period marked by changed consumer behavior, which caused challenges in forecasting. The changes to the forecast, when discounted to present value, resulted in a net negative change in expected future recoveries of approximately $39.2 million for the three months ended December 31, 2023. This negative change in expected future recoveries when combined, together with net $9.9 million of negative changes in expected future recoveries recorded in the first nine months of the year resulted in a net negative change in expected future recoveries of approximately $49.1 million during the year ended December 31, 2023. We recorded approximately $64.0 million net negative change in expected future period recoveries during the three months ended December 31, 2022 and $63.9 million in net positive change in expected future period recoveries during the year ended December 31, 2022.
34

The following tables summarize collections from purchased receivables, revenue from receivable portfolios, end of period receivable balance and other related supplemental data, by year of purchase (in thousands, except percentages):
 Year Ended December 31, 2023As of December 31, 2023
 CollectionsRevenue from Receivable PortfoliosChanges in RecoveriesInvestment in Receivable PortfoliosMonthly EIR
United States:
ZBA$27,584 $27,584 $— $— — %
201113,276 12,519 434 1,003 88.6 %
201215,881 14,209 1,062 2,479 42.0 %
201334,529 32,570 157 5,601 40.5 %
201420,910 13,873 3,965 16,271 6.7 %
201519,518 10,665 1,541 19,042 3.9 %
201635,130 19,773 2,343 33,504 4.2 %
201757,985 35,121 3,380 42,838 5.5 %
201889,548 51,015 (6,206)83,861 4.0 %
2019164,106 91,341 (2,668)160,976 3.8 %
2020194,522 104,555 (3,622)187,358 3.7 %
2021188,895 109,241 (23,969)175,906 3.9 %
2022268,516 179,175 (51,222)398,824 3.1 %
2023
184,182 136,249 29,359 793,117 3.2 %
Subtotal1,314,582 837,890 (45,446)1,920,780 3.7 %
Europe:
ZBA18 18 — — — %
201357,747 51,931 (12,684)125,541 3.2 %
201454,537 44,640 (4,516)119,369 3.0 %
201536,237 27,317 (1,928)89,034 2.5 %
2016 (1)
35,272 24,957 2,863 76,499 2.8 %
201748,763 29,652 (4,282)120,508 1.9 %
201849,675 31,967 (10,229)157,616 1.6 %
201954,544 31,767 1,059 133,484 1.9 %
202037,363 23,939 920 83,638 2.2 %
202158,515 40,972 (10,828)166,490 1.9 %
202270,385 40,530 (5,161)199,024 1.6 %
2023
40,975 18,857 7,258 248,185 1.5 %
Subtotal544,031 366,547 (37,528)1,519,388 2.0 %
Other geographies:(2)
All vintages3,954 — 444 28,264 — %
Subtotal3,954 — 444 28,264 — %
Total$1,862,567 $1,204,437 $(82,530)$3,468,432 3.0 %
_______________________
(1)Portfolio balance includes non-accrual pool groups. The EIR presented is only for pool groups that accrete portfolio revenue.
(2)All portfolios are on non-accrual basis. Annual pool groups for other geographies have been aggregated for disclosure purposes.
35

Year Ended December 31, 2022As of December 31, 2022
CollectionsRevenue from Receivable PortfoliosChanges in RecoveriesInvestment in Receivable PortfoliosMonthly EIR
United States:
ZBA$33,317$33,317$$—%
201118,42516,4901,7451,32888.6%
201220,17317,0313,1843,09042.0%
201343,68744,642(3,503)7,40040.5%
201425,21216,4005,24419,3516.7%
201525,65513,9601,53026,3693.9%
201651,65028,2223,51946,6334.1%
201785,34852,7693,27562,5775.5%
2018144,56673,85030,015128,9653.9%
2019256,444130,76862,008236,9043.8%
2020311,573148,65183,962281,3253.7%
2021240,605160,520(19,221)280,2473.9%
202298,27779,8307,251542,0633.1%
Subtotal1,354,932816,450179,0091,636,2524.0%
Europe:
ZBA3434—%
201368,93859,888(12,516)137,2973.2%
201465,15649,2863,070127,7913.0%
201542,64030,477(2,377)95,3432.5%
2016 (1)
40,20030,292(5,771)81,6182.8%
201761,76238,988(27,217)138,5291.9%
201861,69139,718(23,906)179,6461.6%
201963,60738,051(5,338)148,9971.9%
202045,75728,0833,25393,2732.2%
202166,52946,451(12,637)188,9751.9%
2022
36,95724,643(2,425)227,3531.6%
Subtotal553,271385,911(85,864)1,418,8222.1%
Other geographies: (2)
All vintages3,33433,187—%
Subtotal3,33433,187—%
Total$1,911,537$1,202,361$93,145$3,088,2613.1%
_______________________
(1)Portfolio balance includes non-accrual pool groups. The EIR presented is only for pool groups that accrete portfolio revenue.
(2)All portfolios are on non-accrual basis. Annual pool groups for other geographies have been aggregated for disclosure purposes.
The decrease in servicing revenues during the year ended December 31, 2023, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2022, was primarily attributable to reduced service demand from BPO clients.
Other revenues increased during the year ended December 31, 2023, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2022, primarily driven by the increased sale of real estate assets.

36

Operating Expenses
The following table summarizes operating expenses during the periods presented (in thousands, except percentages):
Year Ended December 31,
20232022$ Change
% Change
Salaries and employee benefits$391,532 $375,135 $16,397 4.4 %
Cost of legal collections224,252 217,944 6,308 2.9 %
General and administrative expenses144,862 145,798 (936)(0.6)%
Other operating expenses111,179 111,234 (55)— %
Collection agency commissions35,657 35,568 89 0.3 %
Depreciation and amortization41,737 46,419 (4,682)(10.1)%
Goodwill impairment
238,200 — 238,200 100.0 %
Impairment of intangible assets
18,726 4,075 14,651 359.5 %
Total operating expenses$1,206,145 $936,173 $269,972 28.8 %
Our operating results are impacted by foreign currency translation, which represents the effect of translating operating results where the functional currency is different than our U.S. dollar reporting currency. The strengthening of the U.S. dollar relative to other foreign currencies has a favorable impact on our international operating expenses, and the weakening of the U.S. dollar relative to other foreign currencies has an unfavorable impact on our international operating expenses. There was no material foreign currency translation impact to operating expenses for the year ended December 31, 2023, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2022.
Operating expenses are explained in more detail as follows:
Salaries and Employee Benefits
The increase in salaries and employee benefits during the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to the year ended December 31, 2022, was primarily due to the following reasons:
An increase in salaries and bonus and payroll related taxes of approximately $10.5 million primarily due to an increase in overall headcount and market adjustments; and
Costs relating to headcount reductions in Europe of approximately $7.4 million; and
The increase was partially offset by decreased stock-based compensation expense of $1.5 million primarily attributed to forfeiture of certain stock awards.
Cost of Legal Collections
Cost of legal collections primarily includes contingent fees paid to our external network of attorneys and the cost of litigation. We pursue legal collections using a network of attorneys that specialize in collection matters and through our internal legal channel. Under the agreements with our contracted attorneys, we advance certain out-of-pocket court costs. Cost of legal collections does not include internal legal channel employee costs, which are included in salaries and employee benefits in our consolidated statements of operations.
The following table summarizes our cost of legal collections during the periods presented (in thousands, except percentages):
Year Ended December 31,
20232022$ Change% Change
Court costs$134,200 $125,289 $8,911 7.1 %
Legal collection fees90,052 92,655 (2,603)(2.8)%
Total cost of legal collections$224,252 $217,944 $6,308 2.9 %
The increase in cost of legal collections during the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to the year ended December 31, 2022, was primarily due to an increase in court costs due to more placements in the legal collection channel.
37

General and Administrative Expenses
The decrease in general and administrative expenses during the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to the year ended December 31, 2022, was primarily due to the following reasons:
A decrease in rent and lease expenses of approximately $7.7 million and a decrease in legal expenses and consulting fees of approximately $7.3 million; and
This decrease was partial offset by an increase in general and administrative expense of approximately $13.7 million primarily relating to costs associated with information technology, business travel, and facilities expense.
Other Operating Expenses
Other operating expenses remained relatively consistent during the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to the year ended December 31, 2022.
Collection Agency Commissions
Collection agency commissions are commissions paid to third-party collection agencies. Collections through the collections agencies channel are predominately in Europe and vary from period to period depending on, among other things, the number of accounts placed with an agency versus accounts collected internally. Commission rates vary depending on, among other things, the amount of time that has passed since the charge-off of the accounts placed with an agency, the asset class, and the geographic location of the receivables. Generally, freshly charged-off accounts have a lower commission rate than accounts that have been charged off for a longer period of time, and commission rates for purchased bankruptcy portfolios are lower than the commission rates for charged-off credit card accounts. Collection agency commissions were consistent during the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to the year ended December 31, 2022.
Depreciation and Amortization
The decrease in depreciation and amortization expenses during the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to the year ended December 31, 2022, was primarily due to a decrease in depreciation expenses of approximately $2.0 million and a decrease in amortizable expenses of approximately $2.7 million as a result of smaller depreciable and amortizable asset balances during the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to the year ended December 31, 2022.
Goodwill Impairment
During the fourth quarter of 2023, we performed our annual goodwill impairment test and concluded that the fair value of our Cabot reporting was less than its carrying amount. As a result, we recorded an impairment charge of $238.2 million to goodwill during the year ended December 31, 2023. Refer to “Note 15: Goodwill and Identified Intangible Assets” to our consolidated financial statements for further details.
Impairment of Intangible Assets
In connection with our annual goodwill impairment testing discussed above, we also tested for impairment of our long-lived intangible assets during the fourth quarter of 2023. As a result of the test, we recorded an impairment charge of approximately $18.7 million for our acquired definite-lived intangible assets during the year ended December 31, 2023. We recorded an impairment charge of $4.1 million for our acquired definite-lived intangible assets during the year ended December 31, 2022. Refer to “Note 15: Goodwill and Identified Intangible Assets” to our consolidated financial statements for further details.
Interest Expense
The following table summarizes our interest expense (in thousands, except percentages):
 Year Ended December 31,
 20232022$ Change% Change
Stated interest on debt obligations$184,717 $137,434 $47,283 34.4 %
Amortization of debt issuance costs15,670 14,539 1,131 7.8 %
Amortization of debt discount
1,490 1,335 155 11.6 %
Total interest expense$201,877 $153,308 $48,569 31.7 %
The increase in interest expense during the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to the year ended December 31, 2022, was primarily due to the following reasons:
The effect resulting from rising interest rates of approximately $31.8 million; and
The effect resulting from increased average debt balance of approximately $13.2 million.
38

Other Income (Expense)
Other income or expense consists primarily of foreign currency exchange gains or losses, interest income and gains or losses recognized on certain transactions outside of our normal course of business. Other income was $5.1 million and $2.1 million during the years ended December 31, 2023, and 2022, respectively.
Provision for Income Taxes
During the years ended December 31, 2023, and 2022, we recorded income tax provisions of $26.2 million and $116.4 million, respectively.
The effective tax rates for the respective periods are shown below:
 Year Ended December 31,
 20232022
Federal provision21.0 %21.0 %
State provision(3.0)%5.0 %
Change in valuation allowance(1)
7.3 %13.2 %
Goodwill impairment (2)
(28.3)%— %
Taxable gain (deductible loss) in foreign jurisdiction (3)
2.9 %(2.7)%
Forfeit benefit due to merger/liquidations (4)
(14.7)%— %
Other
0.3 %0.9 %
Effective rate(14.5)%37.4 %
________________________
(1)In 2023, includes reduction in valuation allowance due to the forfeit of tax benefits on merger or liquidation of foreign subsidiaries that maintained full valuation allowances on their deferred tax assets. In 2022, includes valuation allowance recorded on U.K. deferred tax assets.
(2)During the fourth quarter of 2023, we recorded a non-cash goodwill impairment charge of $238.2 million at the Cabot reporting unit. Refer to “Note 15: Goodwill and Identified Intangible Assets” to our consolidated financial statements for further details.
(3)In 2023, represents a taxable gain recognized in a foreign subsidiary. In 2022, represents deductible loss recognized in a foreign subsidiary that maintains a full valuation allowance on its deferred tax assets. Accordingly, the deductible loss increased the valuation allowance and did not result in any tax benefit during the year ended December 31, 2022.
(4)Represents the forfeit of tax benefits on merger or liquidation of foreign subsidiaries that maintained full valuation allowances on their deferred tax asset.
Our effective tax rate could fluctuate significantly on a quarterly basis and could be adversely affected to the extent earnings are lower than anticipated in countries that have lower statutory tax rates and higher than anticipated in countries that have higher statutory tax rates.
39

Non-GAAP Disclosure
In addition to the financial information prepared in conformity with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (“GAAP”), we provide historical non-GAAP financial information. Management believes that the presentation of such non-GAAP financial information is meaningful and useful in understanding the activities and business metrics of our operations. Management believes that these non-GAAP financial measures reflect an additional way of viewing aspects of our business that, when viewed with our GAAP results, provide a more complete understanding of factors and trends affecting our business.
Management believes that the presentation of these measures provides investors with greater transparency and facilitates comparison of operating results across a broad spectrum of companies with varying capital structures, compensation strategies, derivative instruments, and amortization methods, which provide a more complete understanding of our financial performance, competitive position, and prospects for the future. Readers should consider the information in addition to, but not instead of, our financial statements prepared in accordance with GAAP. This non-GAAP financial information may be determined or calculated differently by other companies, limiting the usefulness of these measures for comparative purposes.
Adjusted EBITDA. Management utilizes adjusted EBITDA (defined as net income before interest income and expense, taxes, depreciation and amortization, stock-based compensation expenses, acquisition, integration and restructuring related expenses, and other charges or gains that are not indicative of ongoing operations), in the evaluation of our operating performance. Adjusted EBITDA for the periods presented is as follows (in thousands):
 Year Ended December 31,
202320222021
GAAP net (loss) income, as reported
$(206,492)$194,564 $351,201 
Adjustments:
Interest expense201,877 153,308 169,647 
Loss on extinguishment of debt— — 9,300 
Interest income(4,746)(1,774)(1,738)
Provision for income taxes26,228 116,425 85,340 
Depreciation and amortization41,737 46,419 50,079 
Net gain on derivative instruments(1)
(3,170)— — 
Stock-based compensation expense13,854 15,402 18,330 
Acquisition, integration and restructuring related expenses(2)
7,401 1,213 20,559 
Goodwill impairment(3)
238,200 — — 
Impairment of intangible assets(3)
18,726 4,075 — 
Adjusted EBITDA$333,615 $529,632 $702,718 
Collections applied to principal balance(4)
$776,280 $635,262 $843,087 
________________________
(1)Amount represents gain or loss recognized on derivative instruments that are not designated as hedging instruments or gain or loss recognized on derivative instruments upon dedesignation of hedge relationships. We adjust for this amount because we believe the gain or loss on derivative contracts is not indicative of ongoing operations.
(2)Amount represents acquisition, integration and restructuring related expenses. We adjust for this amount because we believe these expenses are not indicative of ongoing operations; therefore, adjusting for these expenses enhances comparability to prior periods, anticipated future periods, and our competitors’ results.
(3)During the fourth quarter of 2023, we recorded a non-cash goodwill impairment charge of $238.2 million and a non-cash impairment of intangible assets of $18.7 million. We recorded a non-cash impairment of intangible assets of $4.1 million during the year ended December 31, 2022. We believe these non-cash impairment charges are not indicative of ongoing operations, therefore adjusting for these expenses enhances comparability to prior periods, anticipated future periods, and our competitors’ results. Refer to “Note 15: Goodwill and Identified Intangible Assets” to our consolidated financial statements for further details.
(4)Collections applied to principal balance is calculated in the table below:
 Year Ended December 31,
202320222021
Collections applied to investment in receivable portfolios, net$658,130 $709,176 $1,019,629 
Changes in recoveries
82,530 (93,145)(199,136)
REO proceeds applied to basis35,620 19,231 22,594 
Collections applied to principal balance$776,280 $635,262 $843,087 
40

Supplemental Performance Data
The tables included in this supplemental performance data section include detail for purchases, collections and ERC by year of purchase.
Our collection expectations are based on account characteristics and economic variables. Additional adjustments are made to account for qualitative factors that may affect the payment behavior of our consumers and servicing related adjustments to ensure our collection expectations are aligned with our operations. We continue to refine our process of forecasting collections both domestically and internationally with a focus on operational enhancements. Our collection expectations vary between types of portfolio and geographic location. As a result, past performance of pools in certain geographic locations or of certain types of portfolio are not necessarily a suitable indicator of future results in other locations or for other types of portfolio.
The supplemental performance data presented in this section is impacted by foreign currency translation, which represents the effect of translating financial results where the functional currency of our foreign subsidiary is different than our U.S. dollar reporting currency. For example, the strengthening of the U.S. dollar relative to other foreign currencies has an unfavorable reporting impact on our international purchases, collections, and ERC, and the weakening of the U.S. dollar relative to other foreign currencies has a favorable impact on our international purchases, collections, and ERC.
We utilize proprietary forecasting models to continuously evaluate the economic life of each pool.
41

Cumulative Collections Money Multiple - Cumulative Collections from Purchased Receivables to Purchase Price Multiple
The following table summarizes our receivable purchases, related gross collections, and cumulative collections money multiples (in thousands, except multiples):
Year of
Purchase
Purchase
Price(1)
Cumulative Collections through December 31, 2023
<20142014201520162017201820192020202120222023
Total(2)
CCMM(3)
United States:
<2014$3,244,415 $6,065,954 $1,048,635 $768,510 $523,386 $377,466 $277,776 $221,292 $169,334 $152,031 $115,602 $91,270 $9,811,256 3.0 
2014517,642 — 144,178 307,814 216,357 142,147 94,929 69,059 47,628 34,896 25,212 20,910 1,103,130 2.1 
2015499,036 — — 105,610 231,102 186,391 125,673 85,042 64,133 42,774 25,655 19,518 885,898 1.8 
2016552,974 — — — 110,875 283,035 234,690 159,279 116,452 87,717 51,650 35,130 1,078,828 2.0 
2017527,499 — — — — 111,902 315,853 255,048 193,328 144,243 85,348 57,985 1,163,707 2.2 
2018629,340 — — — — — 175,042 351,696 308,302 228,919 144,566 89,548 1,298,073 2.1 
2019675,374 — — — — — — 174,693 416,315 400,250 256,444 164,106 1,411,808 2.1 
2020538,032 — — — — — — — 213,450 430,514 311,573 194,522 1,150,059 2.1 
2021404,085 — — — — — — — — 120,354 240,605 188,895 549,854 1.4 
2022550,591 — — — — — — — —