20-F 1 zk2227465.htm 20-F Ellomay Capital Ltd. - 946394 - 2022
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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
 
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
FORM 20-F
(Mark One)
 
 
REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR (g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
OR
 
 
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021
 
OR
 
 
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
OR
 
 
SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
Date of event requiring this shell company report......
 
For the transition period from __________________ to __________________
 
Commission File Number 001-35284
 
ELLOMAY CAPITAL LTD.
(Exact Name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
 
ISRAEL
(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
 
18 Rothschild Boulevard, 1st floor
Tel Aviv 6688121, Israel
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
Kalia Rubenbach, Chief Financial Officer
Tel: +972-3-797-1111; Facsimile: +972-77-344-6856
18 Rothschild Boulevard, 1st floor
Tel Aviv 6688121, Israel
(Name, Telephone, E-mail and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)
 
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 
Title of each class
 
Trading Symbol
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
Ordinary Shares, par value NIS 10.00 per share
 
ELLO
 
NYSE American LLC
 

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
 
None

Title of Class
 
 
Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act:
None

Title of Class
 
Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report: 12,849,2951 ordinary shares, NIS 10.00 par value per share.
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
 
Yes ☐ No
 
If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.
 
Yes ☐ No
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
 
Yes ☑ No ☐
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).
 
Yes No
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company. See definition of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
 
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Emerging growth company
 
If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
 
† The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
 
Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:
 
U.S. GAAP ☐
International Financial Reporting Standards as issued ☑
by the International Accounting Standards Board
Other ☐
 
If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow.
 
Item 17 ☐ Item 18 ☐
 
If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act):
 
Yes ☐ No
 

1
Does not include a total of 258,046 ordinary shares held at that date as treasury shares under Israeli law, all of which were repurchased by Ellomay. For so long as such treasury shares are owned by Ellomay they have no rights and, accordingly, are neither eligible to participate in or receive any future dividends which may be paid to Ellomay’s shareholders nor are they entitled to participate in, be voted at or be counted as part of the quorum for, any meetings of Ellomay’s shareholders.
 
2

 

Table of Contents

Page
       
 5
 
 
 
 6

Part I

 8
 
 
 
 8
 
 
 
 8
 
 
 
 28
 
 
 
 103
 
 
 
 103
 
 
 
Item 6:
Directors, Senior Management and Employees  126
     
Item 7: Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions  150
     
Item 8: Financial Information  157
     
Item 9:
The Offer and Listing  158
     
Item 10:
Additional Information  159
     
Item 11:  176
     
Item 12:
Description of Securities Other than Equity Securities  177

Part II

Item 13:  177
     
Item 14:  177
     
Item 15:
Controls and Procedures  177
     
Item 16A: Audit Committee Financial Expert  178
     
Item 16B: Code of Ethics  179
     
Item 16C: 
Principal Accountant Fees and Services  179

3

Item 16D:
180
     
Item 16E: Purchases of Equity Securities by the Company and Affiliated Purchasers 180
     
Item 16F: Change in Registrant’s Certifying Accountants  180
     
Item 16G: Corporate Governance 180
     
Item 16H: Mine Safety Disclosure  181

Part III

Item 17: 181
     
Item 18:
Financial Statements 181
     
Item 19: Exhibits 182

4

      


INTRODUCTION

The following is the Report on Form 20-F of Ellomay Capital Ltd., or the Report. Unless the context in which such terms are used would require a different meaning, all references to “Ellomay,” “us,” “we,” “our” or the “Company” refer to Ellomay Capital Ltd. and its consolidated subsidiaries.

All references to “€,” “euro” or “EUR” are to the legal currency of the European Union, or EU, all references to “NIS” or “New Israeli Shekel” are to the legal currency of Israel and all references to “$,” “dollar,” “US$,” “USD” or “U.S. dollar” are to the legal currency of the United States of America. Other than as specifically noted, all amounts translated into a different currency were translated based on the relevant exchange rate as of December 31, 2021.

We prepare our consolidated financial statements in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards, or IFRS, as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board, or IASB.

All trademarks, service marks, trade names and registered marks used in this Report are trademarks, trade names or registered marks of their respective owners.

Statements made in this Report concerning the contents of any agreement, contract or other document are summaries of such agreements, contracts or documents and are not complete description of all of their terms. If we filed any of these agreements, contracts or documents as exhibits to this report or to any previous filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, you may read the document itself for a complete understanding of its terms.
5


FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

In addition to historical information, this report on Form 20-F contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. Some of the statements under “Item 3.D: Risk Factors,” “Item 4: Information on Ellomay,” “Item 5: Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” and elsewhere in this Report, constitute forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements reflect our current view about future plans, intentions or expectations. These statements relate to future events or other future financial performance, plans strategies and prospects, and are identified by terminology such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “expect,” “scheduled,” “plan,” “intend,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “aim,” “potential,” or “continue” or the negative of those terms or other comparable terminology, but the absence of these words does not mean that a statement is not forward-looking.

The forward-looking statements contained in this Report are based on current expectations and beliefs concerning future developments and the potential effects on our business. There can be no assurance that future developments actually affecting us will be those anticipated. These forward-looking statements involve a number of risks, uncertainties or other assumptions that may cause actual results or performance to be materially different from those expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements, including the following:


risks related to projects that are in the development stage, among other issues due to the inability to obtain or maintain licenses or project finance and to regulatory requirements;
 

our EPC contractors’ technical, professional and financial ability to construct, install, test and commission a renewable energy plant;
 

changes in the prices of electricity;
 

our contractors’ technical, professional and financial ability to deliver on and comply with their operation and maintenance, or O&M, undertakings in connection with the operation of our renewable energy plants;
 

the effects of the Covid-19 pandemic on the development, construction and operation of projects, including in connection with actions taken by governments and authorities, delays in construction due to quarantine and other measures, changes in regulation, changes in the price of electricity and in the consumption of electricity;
 

dependency on the availability of financial incentives and government subsidies and on governmental regulations for our operating renewable energy projects and the potential reduction or elimination, including retroactive amendments, of the government subsidies and economic incentives applicable to, or amendments to regulations governing the, renewable energy markets in which we operate or to which we may in the future enter;
 

defects in the components of the renewable energy plants we operate;
 

risks relating to operations in foreign countries, including cross currency movements, payment cycles and tax issues;
 

changes in the prices of the components or raw materials required for the production of renewable energy;
 
6


the market, economic and political factors in the countries in which we operate;
 

weather conditions and various meteorological and geographic factors;
 

our ability to maintain and gain expertise in the energy market, and to track, monitor and manage the projects which we have undertaken;
 

our ability to meet our undertakings under various financing agreements, including to our debenture holders, and our ability to raise additional equity or debt financing in the future;
 

future disagreements with our partners who own a portion of the renewable energy plants;
 

the risks we are exposed to due to our holdings in U. Dori Energy Infrastructures Ltd. and Dorad Energy Ltd.;
 

the risks we are exposed to due to our involvement in Waste-to-Energy, or WtE, projects in the Netherlands;
 

fluctuations in the value of currency and interest rates;
 

the price and market liquidity of our ordinary shares;
 

the fact that we may be deemed to be an “investment company” under the Investment Company Act of 1940 under certain circumstances (including due to the investments of assets following the sale of our business), and the risk that we may be required to take certain actions with respect to the investment of our assets or the distribution of cash to shareholders in order to avoid being deemed an “investment company”; and
 

our plans with respect to the management of our financial and other assets and our ability to identify, evaluate and consummate additional suitable business opportunities and strategic alternatives.
 
Assumptions relating to the foregoing involve judgment with respect to, among other things, future economic, competitive and market conditions, and future business decisions, all of which are difficult or impossible to predict accurately and many of which are beyond our control. In light of the significant uncertainties inherent in the forward-looking information included herein, the inclusion of such information should not be regarded as a representation by us or any other person that our objectives or plans will be achieved. Factors that could cause actual results to differ from our expectations or projections include the risks and uncertainties relating to our business described in this Report under “Item 3.D: Risk Factors,” “Item 4: Information on Ellomay,” “Item 5: Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” and elsewhere in this Report. In addition, new factors emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for management to predict all such factors, nor assess the impact of any such factor on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements. Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which reflect management’s analysis as of the date hereof. We undertake no obligation to publicly revise these forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances that arise after the date hereof, except as required by applicable law. In addition to the disclosure contained herein, readers should carefully review any disclosure of risks and uncertainties contained in other documents that we file from time to time with the SEC.

To the extent that this Report contains forward-looking statements (as distinct from historical information), we desire to take advantage of the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 and we are therefore including this statement for the express purpose of availing ourselves of the protections of the safe harbor with respect to all forward-looking statements.

7


PART I

ITEM 1: Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers

Not Applicable.

ITEM 2: Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable

Not Applicable.

ITEM 3: Key Information

A.          [Reserved]

B.            Capitalization and Indebtedness

Not Applicable.
          
C.            Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds

Not Applicable.

D.            Risk Factors
 
Investing in our securities involves significant risk and uncertainty. You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below as well as the other information contained in this Report before making an investment decision with respect to our securities. If any of the following risks actually occurs, our business, financial condition, prospects, results of operations and cash flows could be harmed and could therefore have a negative effect on the trading price of our securities.

The risks described below are the material risks we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently deem to be immaterial may also materially adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations in the future.
 
Risks Related to our Business

Risks Related to our Renewable Energy Operations
 
In recent years, we entered the development and entrepreneurship renewable energy market. These operations are exposed to regulatory and other development risks that may cause such projects not to enter into the construction phase and other risks that may cause damages, delays and interruptions during the construction phase, and thereby cause the total or partial loss of the project development funds invested in the project.  We are currently active in several projects in various development and construction stages, including the construction of a 156 MW pumped storage project in the Manara Cliff in Israel, or the Manara PSP, and the development of various PV projects in Italy, Israel and Spain. Projects in the development stages are exposed to various risks, including the inability to obtain or maintain regulatory permits and approvals, the inability to obtain project finance, upon terms economically beneficial or at all, and the inability to secure the project’s income through a PPA or a hedging agreement supported by a government or a corporation with sufficient financial capabilities. Projects in the construction stage are exposed to various risks, including delays in the construction, interferences from third parties such as adjacent plot owners, residents living in the vicinity, governmental, municipal, environmental and other authorities, malfunctions in construction equipment, shortage in equipment or personnel required for the construction and damage caused by weather conditions and other factors that we cannot control. All projects in the development and construction stages are subject to additional risks, including changes to existing regulation reducing the potential profitability of such projects, potential disagreements and conflicts with partners, dependency on technical consultants and surveys and risks associated with operations in foreign countries, as applicable. If any of these risks materialize, the entire project may be delayed or cancelled altogether, causing the loss of all part of the funds invested in the project development efforts. Even if we succeed in selling our rights in a project to third parties, the return of our project development expenses will likely be conditioned upon the continued development of the project by such third parties.
8

   
Existing regulations, and changes to such regulations, may present technical, regulatory and economic barriers and restrictions to the construction and operation of renewable energy plants, which may adversely affect our operations.  The installation and operation of renewable energy plants is subject to oversight and regulation in accordance with international, European (to the extent applicable), national and local ordinances, building codes, zoning (or permitting), environmental protection regulation, including waste disposal regulations, utility interconnection requirements, security requirements and other rules and regulations. Any changes in applicable regulations that increases the burdens or restrictions on the operation of our renewable energy plants, such as a change in regulations governing the disposal of anaerobic digestion produced by our WtE plants, reduction of remuneration received on electricity produced, as the reduction mechanism for excess remuneration resulting from the high price of natural gas on international markets introduced by the Spanish government during 2021, could increase our costs of operation and, as a result, adversely affect our results of operations. In addition, various governmental, municipal and other regulatory entities require the issuance and continued effectiveness of relevant permits, licenses and authorizations for the construction and operation of renewable energy plants. If such permits, licenses and authorizations are not issued on a timely basis, this could result in the interruption, cessation or abandonment of a newly constructed renewable energy plant, or may require making significant changes to such renewable energy plant, any of which may cause severe losses. In addition, if issued, these licenses and permits may be revoked by the authorities following their issuance in the event the authorities discover irregularities or deviations from the scope of the license or permit. Any revocation of existing licenses may obligate us to cease constructing or operating the relevant renewable energy plant for the period required in order to renew the relevant license or indefinitely and therefore will adversely affect our business and results of operations.

A drop in the price of energy may negatively impact our results of operations.  The revenue from the sale of energy produced by renewable energy plants is based on proceeds from the sale of electricity and gas produced in the electricity and gas market at market price and sometimes also includes incentives in the form of governmental subsidies or fixed tariffs. Previous revisions to the governmental subsidies regime in several countries, including Spain, Italy and Israel, which reduced or eliminated the scope of the incentives paid by governments, increased the dependency of renewable energy plants on market prices or on tariffs determined in a public bid process. A decrease in the price of electricity and gas, particularly in the countries in which we operate and in which some of our revenues are based on the market price of electricity and gas, may negatively impact our profitability and our ability or interest to expand our renewable energy operations.
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The success of our renewable energy plants, from their construction through their commissioning and ongoing commercial operation, depends to a large extent on the cooperation, reliability, solvency, and proper performance of the contractors we engage for the construction, operation and maintenance of our renewable energy plants, or the Contractors, and of the other third parties involved in the construction and operation of the plants, including subcontractors, local advisors, financing entities, land owners, suppliers of feedstock, the energy grid regulator, governmental agencies and potential purchasers of electricity.  The construction and operation of a renewable energy plant requires timely input, often of a highly specialized technical nature, from several parties, including the suppliers of the various system components (such as solar panels or CHP engine) and plant operators, other suppliers of relevant parts and materials (including replacement parts), feedstock suppliers, land owners, subcontractors, electricity brokers, financing entities and governmental and related agencies (as subsidizers and as regulators). In addition, as we use Contractors to construct and thereafter operate and maintain our renewable energy plants, we depend on the Contractors’ expertise and experience, representations, warranties and undertakings regarding, inter alia: the construction quality, schedule of construction, operation, maintenance and performance of each of the plants, the use of high-quality materials, strict compliance with applicable legal requirements and the Contractors’ financial stability. If the Contractors’ representations or warranties are inaccurate or untrue, or if any of the Contractors or other entities fail to perform their obligations properly, this could result in the interruption or cessation of construction or operations or abandonment of the relevant plant, or may require significant expenses to mitigate the damages or repair them, any of which may cause us severe losses.

The performance of our renewable energy plants depends on the quality of the equipment installed in such plants and on the reliability of the suppliers of spare and replacement parts. The performance of our renewable energy plants depends on the quality of the components of the plants and the equipment installed in the plants. Any defects or deterioration in the quality of such components and equipment could harm our results of operations, and if we will not be able to quickly locate quality replacement parts or perform repairs, our results of operations could be adversely affected for a long period of time. For example, the performance of our photovoltaic plants, or the PV Plants, depends on the quality of the solar panels installed. Degradation in the performance of the solar panels above a certain level is guaranteed by the panel suppliers and we generally receive undertakings from the Contractors with respect to minimum performances. Therefore, one of the critical factors in the success of our PV Plants is the existence of reliable solar panel suppliers, who guarantee the performance and quality of the solar panels supplied and their ability to provide us with replacement and spare parts that are of sufficient quality. If the suppliers of solar panels will not meet their undertakings under the guarantees and no replacement panels will be available at a reasonable price, this could result in the interruption, cessation or abandonment of the relevant PV Plant, or may require significant expenses to mitigate the damages or repair them, any of which may cause us severe losses.
 
In the event we are unable to comply with the obligations and undertakings, including with respect to financial covenants, which we undertook in connection with the project financing of our renewable energy plants, our results of operations may be adversely affected.  In connection with the financing of our PV Plants, our WtE plants, and the Manara PSP, we entered into long-term agreements with various financing entities and may in the future enter into additional project finance agreements in connection with our other projects, for example, the projects currently under development in Italy. The agreements that govern the provision of financing include, and future project finance agreements are expected to include, inter alia, undertakings and financial covenants, the majority of which are based on the ongoing income derived from the relevant plant, which may be adversely affected by the various risks detailed herein. If we fail to comply with any of these undertakings and covenants, we may be subject to penalties, future financing requirements, and the acceleration of the repayment of debt. These occurrences would have an adverse effect on our financial position and results of operations and on our ability to obtain outside financing for other projects.
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As a substantial part of our business is currently located in Europe, we are subject to additional risks that may negatively impact our operations.  We currently have substantial PV operations in Spain and WtE operations in the Netherlands, all of which are held by our Luxembourg subsidiary, and may make additional investments in projects located in Europe, such as the development and construction of additional PV plants in Spain and Italy. Due to these existing operations and any additional future investments, we are subject to special considerations or risks associated with companies operating in other jurisdictions, including rules and regulations, cross currency movements, different payment cycles, tax issues, such as tax law changes and variations in tax laws as compared to Israel, cultural and language differences, crime, strikes, riots, civil disturbances, terrorist attacks and wars and deterioration of political and economic relations with Israel. Our European operations subject us to a number of these risks, as well as the requirement to comply with the local laws, such as the Spanish, Dutch and EU laws.

On January 31, 2020 the United Kingdom due to the Brexit referendum stopped being a member of the EU. Brexit has created significant uncertainty about the future relationship between the United Kingdom and the EU, and given rise for the governments of other EU member states to consider withdrawal. Our regulatory risk could increase if there were to be future divergence with the EU regime.

These developments, or the perception that any of them could occur, could have a material adverse effect on global economic conditions and the stability of global financial markets, and could significantly reduce global market liquidity and future growth. Asset valuations, currency exchange rates and credit ratings may be especially subject to increased market volatility. We cannot assure you that we would be able to adequately address some or all of these additional risks. If we were unable to do so, our operations might suffer.

The continued global crisis resulting from the current novel strain of coronavirus (Covid-19) and any other pandemic, epidemic or outbreak of an infectious disease may adversely affect our operations. If a pandemic, epidemic or outbreak of an infectious disease occurs in Europe, Israel or elsewhere, our business may be adversely affected. Following the outbreak of the Coronavirus (Covid-19) in December 2019, this virus and its variants spread globally to over 180 countries, including European countries and Israel. The spread of Covid-19 has resulted in the World Health Organization declaring the outbreak of Covid-19 as a “pandemic.” Due to the spread of Covid-19 and the measures taken by governments in order to control the spread, there was a decrease in economic activity in many areas around the world, including Israel and Europe since March 2020. The spread of the virus has led, inter alia, to a disruption in the supply chain, a decrease in global transportation, restrictions on travel, mass gatherings, commerce and work that were announced by the State of Israel and other countries around the world and a decrease in the value of financial assets and commodities on the markets in Israel and the world. Although our operations have not thus far been materially adversely affected by the restrictions imposed by local governments and authorities in the countries in which we operate, in the event the restrictions continue, or new restrictions are imposed, our operations, including the projects under construction and development, may be adversely affected. The spread of Covid-19 and its implications may also indirectly affect our operations, for example through changes in the prices of oil resulting in a decrease in the electricity prices, and through reduction in demand for electricity, delays in construction of projects due to curtailment of work, limited availability of components required in order to operate or construct new projects, regulatory changes by countries affected by the virus, including changes in subsidies, collection delays, delays in obtaining permits, limited availability or changes in terms of financing for future projects, limited availability or changes in terms of financing for future projects or corporate financing and lower returns on potential future investments. As a result, our business and operating results could be negatively affected. The extent to which the Covid-19 pandemic or any other widely-spread health crisis impacts our business will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted, including new information which may emerge concerning the severity of Covid-19, the resurgence of new variants or mutations of the virus and the actions to contain Covid-19 or treat its impact, among others.
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Our business is affected by the availability of financial incentives. The reduction or elimination of government subsidies and economic incentives could reduce our profitability and our revenues. Many countries, such as Spain, Italy, the Netherlands and Israel, introduced in the past substantial incentives to offset the cost of renewable energy production, including photovoltaic power systems and WtE technologies in the form of Feed-in-Tariff, or FiT, or other incentives aimed at promoting the use of clean energy (including solar energy and biogas) and reducing dependence on other forms of energy. In addition, several countries encourage manufacturers and farmers to choose waste management methods that are more environmentally-friendly, either by establishing fines on non-environmentally friendly waste management methods or by payment of incentives. Certain of these government incentives were reduced or eliminated in the past years (for example with respect to photovoltaic installations in Italy and Spain) and the remaining incentives could potentially be reduced or eliminated in the future. If the governments in the countries in which we operate elect to revise the existing incentive schemes, it may adversely affect our profitability from projects that enjoy incentives. Any retroactive or prospective changes in the incentive schemes may affect our business plan and potential future projects we may be interested in developing or acquiring. In general, uncertainty about the introduction of, reduction in, or elimination of, incentives or delays or interruptions in the implementation of favorable laws could affect our profitability.

Natural disasters, terrorist attacks, or other catastrophic events could harm our operations. Our worldwide operations could be subject to natural disasters terrorist attacks, public health events and other business disruptions, which could harm our future revenue and financial condition and increase our costs and expenses. Among others, floods, storms, seismic turbulence and earth movements may damage our projects in operation or under construction. The insurance coverage we have for a portion of such risks may not cover the damage in full because these circumstances are sometimes deemed “acts of god.” In the event that an earthquake, fire, tsunami, typhoon, terrorist attack, or other natural, manmade or technical catastrophe were to damage or destroy any part of our plants or those of manufacturers on which we rely, destroy or disrupt vital infrastructure systems or interrupt our operations or services for any extended period of time, our business, financial condition and results of operations would be materially and adversely affected.
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An increase in the prices of components of a renewable energy plant may adversely affect our projects under development, our future growth and our business. Installations of renewable energy plants have substantially increased over the past few years. The increased demand led to fluctuations in the prices of the components of the plants resulting from oversupply and undersupply. For example, the increased demand for solar panels resulted in substantial investments in solar panels production facilities, creating oversupply and a sharp continuing decrease in the prices of solar panels. The Covid-19 pandemic and its effects on global supply chains, since 2020, halted years of solar panel price cost reductions. The Covid-19 pandemic has put pressure on global supply chains with factory closures, import tariffs, shortages of raw materials, and shipping bottlenecks creating supply chain shortages and delays. It may take several years until solar module prices stabilize and such conditions increase the costs of replacing components in our existing plants and the costs of constructing new plants, could potentially delay the commencement or completion of construction of new projects and may impact the profitability of constructing plants and our ability to expand our business. Also, shortage or delays to deliveries of vital components can result in construction and installations delays.
 
The market for renewable energy is intensely competitive and rapidly evolving. The market for renewable energy attracts many initiatives and therefore is intensely competitive. For example, in recent years the Israeli Electricity Authority commenced issuing licenses to photovoltaic installations in tender processes resulting in a substantial decrease in prices per KWh in the newly issued licenses. Our competitors who strive to construct new renewable energy plants and acquire existing plants may offer lower prices per KWh in future tender process, may have established more prominent market positions, may have greater resources and may have more experience in this field. Extensive competition may adversely affect our ability to continue to acquire and develop new plants.
 
Our success depends in part on our senior management team and other key employees and our ability to attract, integrate and retain key personnel and qualified individuals. We depend on the expertise of our senior management team and other key employees to help us meet our strategic objectives. The inability to maintain our senior management team and other key employees or to attract highly skilled personnel, may materially adversely affect the implementation of our development business plan and could ultimately adversely impact our business.
 
We do not wholly-own a few of our operating projects and projects under development. Although we currently control these projects, disagreements with our partners could cause delays in the construction or development of the projects or affect decisions made in connection with operating plants. We wholly-own all of our operating PV plants and the Netherlands’ WtE plants, except the 300 MW photovoltaic plant in the municipality of Talaván, Cáceres, Spain, which was connected to the Spanish national grid in December 2020, or the Talasol PV Plant, of which we hold 51%. We also own 83.333% of the Manara PSP and may in the future enter into projects that we do not wholly-own or introduce additional partners to the Manara PSP or other projects under development or to our operating plants. Although we control both the Talasol PV Plant and the Manara PSP, any disagreements with our partners could delay the development or construction of the Manara PSP, affect decisions made in connection with the Talasol PV Plant and require management resources and attention. Any delays or damages caused due to such disagreements could adversely affect our business plans and results of operations.
 
We may be subject to disruptions or failures in information technology, telecommunication systems and network infrastructures that could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition. Our renewable energy business relies, among other things, on information technology and on telecommunication services as we remotely monitor and control our assets and interface with regulatory agencies and wholesale power markets. Disruptions or failures in such systems may result due to various causes, including internal malfunctions in our systems or in the systems of third parties such as suppliers, governmental authorities, from employee error, theft or misuse, malfeasance, power disruptions, natural disasters or accidents and may also result from cyber-attacks or other breaches of information technology security. Such disruptions and failures could have an adverse effect on our business operations, financial reporting, financial condition and results of operations.
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Risks Related to our PV Plants
 
The revenues derived from several of our PV Plants mainly depend on payments received from governmental entities. Any future deterioration in the financial position of the local governments or regulated entities, resulting in partial or no payment or in regulatory changes may adversely affect the results of our operations.  The revenues derived by several of our PV Plants are based mainly on payments received from governmental or regulated entities. In Spain (except with respect to the Talasol PV Plant), our revenues are primarily based on payments from governmental entities in accordance with a specific remuneration incentive scheme. In Israel, all of our income is based on a fixed tariff from the Israel Electric Company, or the IEC, a governmental company that controls the Israeli electricity market. We cannot assure you that there will not be changes to the governments’ photovoltaic energy incentive schemes or in the financial stability of the governments or relevant governmental agencies or companies. Any changes in the financial stability of the governmental entities paying all or a portion of our PV revenues and any resulting change in the regulation may directly or indirectly affect the payments we receive and, therefore, our operations and revenues.

We are exposed to the possibility of damages to, or theft of, the various components of our PV Plants. Such occurrences may cause disruptions in the production of electricity and additional costs.  Our PV Plants may suffer damages and disruption in the production of electricity due to theft of panels and other components, or due to bad weather and land conditions. Although such damages are generally covered by the PV Plants’ insurance policies, under certain circumstances such occurrences may not be covered or may only be partially covered by the insurance and, if covered, utilization of the insurance may cause an increase in the premiums paid to our insurance companies, all of which may adversely affect our results of operations and profitability.
 
Our ability to produce solar power depends upon the magnitude and duration of sunlight as well as other meteorological and geographic factors.  Solar power production has a seasonal cycle, and adverse meteorological conditions can materially impact the output of photovoltaic plants and result in production of electricity below expected output, which in turn could adversely affect our profitability. For example, 2018 was characterized with relatively low levels of radiation, which resulted in a decrease in our PV-related revenues for that year. Lower electricity output due to changes in meteorological conditions and other geographic factors may adversely affect our profitability.
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Risks Related to our WtE (Biogas) Plants

In addition to the risks involved in the construction and operation of, and the regulatory risks applicable to, renewable energy plants in general, WtE plants are exposed to risks specific to this industry. In addition to the risks detailed above under “Risks Related to our Renewable Energy Operations,” WtE plants are exposed to additional risks specific to this industry, including:


As the raw materials used to produce energy in the WtE market are not freely available (as is the case with wind and solar energies), the success of a WtE plant depends, among other things, on the prices of feedstock required in order to maintain the optimal mix of feedstock necessary to maximize performance of the plants and meet a certain of range of energy (gas, electricity or heat) production levels. In order to ensure continuous supply of raw materials, both in terms of the quantity and the quality and composition of the raw materials, a WtE plant is required to enter into supply relationships with several feedstock suppliers, such as farmers, food manufacturers and other specialized feedstock suppliers and to continuously monitor the proposed transactions in order to locate the most efficient and beneficial offers. Any increase in the price of feedstock or shortage in the type or quality of feedstock required to produce the desired energy levels with the technology used by the plant could slow down or halt operations, causing a material adverse effect on the results of operations. The price and quality of the feedstock mix might also increase the plant’s operating costs, either due to the need to purchase a more expensive feedstock mix in order to meet the desired energy production levels, or due to an increase in residues and the resulting increase of surplus quantities that require removal. In addition to the impact of the quality of the feedstock on the production levels, maintaining and monitoring the feedstock quality is crucial for preventing malfunctions in the process, for example due to high levels of certain chemicals that might harm the CHP engines. Additionally, a wrong feedstock mix and/or low feedstock quality might create biology problems such as lower bacteria population, which directly adversely impacts the biogas production. Therefore, any shortage of quality feedstock and changes in the feedstock mix available for use could have a material adverse effect on the results of operations of our WtE plants.
 

The WtE industry is subject to many laws and regulations which govern the protection of the environment, quality control standards, health and safety requirements, and the management, transportation and disposal of different types of waste. Environmental laws and regulations may require removal or remediation of pollutants and may impose civil and criminal penalties for violations. The costs arising from compliance with environmental laws and regulations may increase operating costs for our WtE plants and we may be exposed to penalties for failure to comply with such laws and regulations. In addition, existing regulation governing waste management and waste disposal provide incentives to feedstock suppliers to use waste management solutions such as the provision of feedstock to WtE plants. Any regulatory changes that impose additional environmental restrictions on the WtE industry or that relieve feedstock suppliers from the stringent regulation concerning waste management and disposal could increase our operating costs, limit or change the cost of the feedstock available to us, and adversely affect our results of operations.
 
Risks Related to our Israeli Operations
 
The electricity sector in Israel is highly regulated. Any changes in the tariffs, system charges or applicable regulations may adversely affect our operations and results of operations. In addition, failure to obtain and maintain electricity production and supply licenses from the regulator could materially adversely affect our operations and results of operations. The Israeli electricity sector is subject to various laws and regulations, such as the tariffs charged by the IEC, including a resolution to charge private manufacturers, such as Dorad Energy Ltd., or Dorad, in which we indirectly hold 9.375%, for the IEC’s system operation services, and the licensing requirement. The prices paid by Dorad to the IEC for system operation services provided to Dorad and the fees received by Dorad and by our PV Plant located in Talmei Yosef, Israel, or the Talmei Yosef PV Plant, from the IEC for electricity sold to the IEC and for providing the IEC with energy availability, are all based on tariffs determined by the Israeli regulator. The updates and changes to the regulation and tariffs required to be paid to the IEC by Dorad may not necessarily involve negotiations or consultations with Dorad and may be unilaterally imposed on it. Any changes in the tariffs, system charges or applicable regulations may adversely affect our operations and results of operations. In addition, a manufacturer of energy in Israel is required to initially hold a conditional license and thereafter hold a permanent license, issued by the Israeli Electricity Authority, which include ongoing milestones and conditions. Failure to maintain such licenses could adversely affect our development efforts and our results of operations.
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The electricity sector in Israel is highly centralized. The IEC controls and operates the electricity system and all stages of the transmission of electricity. The electricity sector in Israel is dominated by the IEC, which controls and operates the electricity system in Israel, including the delivery and transmission of electricity, and also manufactures the substantial majority of electricity in Israel. The IEC is also the only customer of the Talmei Yosef PV Plant and is subject to the requirement to pay a fixed tariff for the electricity manufactured by such plant. Similarly, it is currently expected that the sole customer of the Manara PSP will be the IEC, who will be required to pay the Manara PSP for availability and electricity produced. The ability of the IEC to pay the renewable energy manufacturers could be affected by financial instability of the IEC. The inability of the IEC to pay Dorad, Talmei Yosef, the Manara PSP or any energy project we may be involved in in Israel, may adversely affect our plan of operations and could have a material adverse effect on our profitability.
 
The Talmei Yosef PV Plant and the Dorad Power Plant are located in the southern part of Israel, in proximity to the Gaza Strip and within range of missile and mortar bombs launched from the Gaza Strip. The Manara PSP is located the northern part of Israel, in proximity to the border with Lebanon. The Talmei Yosef Project is located near the Gaza Strip border and the Dorad Power Plant is located in Ashkelon, a town in the southern part of Israel, in proximity to the Gaza Strip. In recent years, there has been an escalation in violence and missile attacks from the Gaza Strip to Southern and Central Israel. The Manara PSP is constructed in close proximity to Israel’s border with Lebanon, in an area that has also been attacked by missiles in the past. Certain measures were taken to protect the Dorad Power Plant from missile attacks. However, any such further attacks to the area surrounding the Gaza Strip or to the area in close proximity to the northern border of Israel or any direct damage to the location of these plants may damage the relevant plants and disrupt the operations of the projects and thereafter their operations, and may cause losses and delays.
 
Risks Related to our Investment in Dori Energy
 
We have joint control in U. Dori Energy Infrastructures Ltd., or Dori Energy, who, in turn, holds a minority stake in Dorad.  Therefore, we do not control the operations and actions of Dorad. We currently hold 50% of the equity of Dori Energy who, in turn, holds 18.75% of Dorad and accordingly our indirect interest in Dorad is 9.375%. Although we entered into a shareholders’ agreement, or the Dori Energy Shareholders Agreement, with Dori Energy and the other shareholder of Dori Energy, Amos Luzon Entrepreneurship and Energy Group Ltd. (f/k/a U. Dori Group Ltd.), or the Luzon Group, providing us with joint control of Dori Energy, should differences of opinion as to the management, prospects and operations of Dori Energy arise, such differences may limit our ability to direct the operations of Dori Energy. Moreover, Dori Energy holds a minority stake in Dorad and as of the date hereof is entitled to nominate only one director in Dorad, which, according to the Dori Energy Shareholders Agreement, we are entitled to nominate. As we have one representative on the Dorad board of directors, which has a total of seven directors, we do not control Dorad’s operations. Therefore, as we have joint control over Dori Energy and limited control over Dorad, we may be unable to prevent certain developments that may adversely affect their business and results of operations. Since July 2015, several of Dorad’s direct and indirect shareholders, including Ellomay Clean Energy Ltd., or Ellomay Energy, our wholly-owned subsidiary that holds Dori Energy’s shares, are involved in various legal proceedings, all as more fully described in “Item 4.B: Business Overview” below. In addition, to the extent our interest in Dori Energy is deemed an investment security, as defined in the Investment Company Act of 1940, or the Investment Company Act, we could be deemed to be an investment company under the Investment Company Act, depending on the value of our other assets. Please see “We may be deemed to be an “investment company” under the Investment Company Act of 1940, which could subject us to material adverse consequences” below.
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The Dori Energy Shareholders Agreement contains restrictions on our right to transfer our holdings in Dori Energy, which may make it difficult for us to terminate our involvement with Dori Energy. The Dori Energy Shareholders Agreement contains several restrictions on our ability to transfer our holdings in Dori Energy, including a right of first refusal. The aforesaid restrictions may make it difficult for us to terminate our involvement with Dori Energy should we elect to do so and may adversely affect the return on our investment in Dori Energy.
 
Dorad, which is currently the only substantial asset held by Dori Energy, operates the Dorad Power Plant, whose successful operations and profitability depends on a variety of factors, some of which are not within Dorad’s control.  Dorad’s only substantial asset is the Dorad Power Plant, situated on the premises of the Eilat-Ashkelon Pipeline Company, or EAPC, located south of Ashkelon, Israel. The Dorad Power Plant is subject to various complex agreements with third parties (the IEC, the operations and maintenance contractor, suppliers, private customers, etc.) and to regulatory restrictions and guidelines in connection with, among other issues, the tariffs to be paid by the IEC to Dorad for the energy it produces. Various factors and events may materially adversely affect Dorad’s results of operations and profitability and, in turn, have a material adverse effect on Dori Energy’s and on our results of operations and profitability. These factors and events include:
 

The operation of the Dorad Power Plant is highly complex and depends upon the continued ability: (i) to operate the various turbines, and (ii) to turn the turbines on and shut them down quickly based on demand. The profitability of Dorad also depends on the accuracy of the proprietary forecasting system used by Dorad. Any defects or disruptions, or inaccuracies in forecasts, may result in an inability to provide the amount of electricity required by Dorad’s customers or in over-production, both of which could have a material adverse effect on Dorad’s operations and profitability.
 

Dorad’s operations depend upon the expertise and success of its operations and maintenance contractor, who is responsible for the day-to-day operations of the Dorad Power Plant. If the services provided by such contractor will cause delays in the production of energy or any other damage to the Dorad Power Plant or to Dorad’s customers, Dorad may be subject to claims for damages and to additional expenses and losses and therefore Dorad’s profitability could be adversely affected.
 
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Significant equipment failures may limit Dorad’s production of energy. Although such damages are generally covered by insurance policies, any such failures may cause disruption in the production, may not all be covered by the insurance and the correction of such failures may involve a considerable amount of resources and investment and could therefore adversely affect Dorad’s profitability.
 

The construction of the Dorad Power Plant was mainly financed by a consortium of financing entities pursuant to a long-term credit facility and such credit facility provides for pre-approval by the consortium of certain of Dorad’s actions and contracts with third parties. Changes in the credit ratings of Dorad and its shareholders, non-compliance with financing and other covenants, delays in provision of required pre-approvals or disagreements with the financial entities and additional factors may adversely affect Dorad’s operations and profitability.
 

Dorad entered into a long-term natural gas supply agreement with the partners in the “Tamar” license, or Tamar, located in the Mediterranean Sea off the coast of Israel. This agreement includes a “take or pay” mechanism, subject to certain restrictions and conditions that may result in Dorad paying for natural gas not actually required for its operations. In addition, Tamar is currently (until the agreement regarding the acquisition of natural gas from Energean Israel Ltd., or Energean, becomes effective) Dorad’s sole supplier of natural gas and has undertaken to supply natural gas to various customers and is permitted to export a certain amount of the natural gas to customers outside of Israel. Dorad’s operations depend on the timely, continuous and uninterrupted supply of natural gas from Tamar and on the existence of sufficient reserves throughout the term of the agreement with Tamar. In addition, the price of natural gas under the supply agreement with Tamar is linked to production tariffs determined by the Israeli Electricity Authority but cannot be lower than the “final floor price” included in the agreement. In the event of future reductions in the fuel and energy prices and the production tariff, the price of gas may reach the “floor price” and thereafter will not be further reduced. Any delays, disruptions, increases in the price of natural gas under the agreement, or shortages in the gas supply from Tamar will adversely affect Dorad’s results of operations.
 

The Dorad power plant is subject to environmental regulations, aimed at increasing the protection of the environment and reducing environmental hazards, including by way of imposing restrictions regarding noise, harmful emissions to the environment and handling of hazardous materials. Currently the costs of compliance with the foregoing requirements are not material. Any breach or other noncompliance with the applicable laws may cause Dorad to incur additional costs due to penalties and fines and expenses incurred in order to regain compliance with the applicable laws, all of which may have an adverse effect on Dorad’s profitability and results of operations.
 

Due to the agreements with contractors of the Dorad Power Plant and the indexation included in the gas supply agreement, Dorad is exposed to changes in the exchange rates of the U.S. dollar against the NIS. To minimize this exposure Dorad executed forward transactions to purchase U.S. dollars against the NIS. In addition, due to the indexing to the Israeli consumer price index under Dorad’s credit facility, it is exposed to fluctuations in the Israeli CPI, which may adversely affect its results of operations and profitability. Dorad’s profitability might be adversely affected due to future changes in exchange rates or in the Israeli consumer price index.
 
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Dorad is involved in several arbitration and court proceedings initiated by Dorad’s shareholders, including Dori Energy. Disagreements and disputes among shareholders may interfere with Dorad’s operations and specifically with Dorad’s business plan and potential growth.
 

The Covid-19 crisis affects Dorad’s customers (which include hotels and other industrial customers), and therefore any decrease in electricity consumption by Dorad’s customers and in Israel generally (affecting the amount of electricity purchased by the IEC from Dorad), may affect Dorad’s financial results. In its financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2021, Dorad reported a certain decrease in consumption of electricity by its customers and by the IEC due to the Covid-19 crisis, which according to Dorad’s financial statements did not have a material impact on Dorad as of December 31, 2021, and it is continuously examining the options available to it in the event of a material impact on in its income as a result of the spread of Covid-19.
 
Risks Related to the Manara PSP

The Manara PSP currently holds a conditional license. Such conditional license may be revoked for various reasons, such as non-compliance with milestones stipulated in the conditional license. The Manara PSP currently holds a conditional license for the construction of a 156 MW pumped storage project, or the Manara PSP Conditional License, issued to it on June 17, 2020. Conditional licenses issued by the Israeli Electricity Authority include several milestones, and deadlines for completing such milestones, including the completion of the construction works of the pumped storage power plant. The Israeli Electricity Authority could revoke the Manara PSP Conditional License if Ellomay Pumped Storage (2014) Ltd., the project company of the Manara PSP, or Ellomay PS, does not timely meet the milestones included in it. Any such attempted revocation is subject to a written notice from the Israeli Electricity Authority, which is required to include the reasons for the proposed revocation, and to a hearing of Ellomay PS before the Israeli Electricity Authority. If the Manara PSP Conditional License will be revoked in the future, that could prevent the completion of the Manara PSP, resulting in a loss of some or all the funds invested in the Manara PSP.
 
The construction of the Manara PSP is a complex and unique engineering challenge. The construction process of the Manara PSP includes planning and conducting of a comprehensive investigation to characterize the variety of soils and rocks at the construction sites. In accordance with the infrastructure characteristics and the seismic risks that exist on site, stability calculations need to be performed on the basis of which instructions are given for the planning and execution of the reservoirs. Any complications during the construction period of the Manara PSP could cause delays in the construction and could expose the Manara PSP to non-compliance with the terms of the Manara PSP Conditional License issued to it by the Israeli Electricity Authority and could otherwise materially adversely affect our results of operations in connection with the Manara PSP.
 
Risks Related to our Operations and Ownership Structure
 
Our ability to leverage our operations and increase our operations depends, inter alia, on our ability to obtain attractive project and corporate financing from financial entities.  Our ability to obtain attractive financing and the terms of such financing, including interest rates, equity to debt ratio requirement and timing of debt availability will significantly impact our ability to leverage our investments and enhance our operations and to fulfill our development plans. Although we have financing agreements with respect to several of our PV Plants, WtE Plants and the Manara PSP and although we raised significant funds in Israel through the issuance of debentures, there is no assurance we will be able to procure additional project financing for projects under development or any operations we will acquire or projects we wish to advance in the future, or to obtain additional corporate financing, on terms favorable to us or at all. Our inability to obtain additional financing on favorable terms, or at all, may adversely affect our ability to leverage our investments and to procure the equity required in order to increase and further develop our operations and execute our business plan.
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Our ability to freely operate our business is limited due to certain restrictive covenants contained in the deeds of trust of our Debentures. The deeds of trust governing our Series C Debentures and our Series D Convertible Debentures, or the Deeds of Trust and the Debentures, respectively, contain restrictive covenants that limit our operating and financial flexibility. These covenants include, among other things, a “negative pledge” with respect to a floating pledge on all of our assets. The Deeds of Trust also contain covenants regarding maintaining certain levels of financial ratios and criteria, including as a condition to the distribution of dividends, as a trigger for an obligation to pay additional interest and as a cause for immediate repayment, and other customary immediate repayment conditions, including, under certain circumstances, in the event of a change of control, a default under the deed of trust of the other debentures issued by us, a change in our field of operations or a disposition of a substantial amount of assets. Our ability to continue to comply with these and other obligations depends in part on the future performance of our business. Such obligations may hinder our ability to finance our future operations or the manner in which we operate our business. In particular, any non-compliance with performance-related covenants and other undertakings of the Debentures could result in increased interest payments for some or all of the Debentures or a demand for immediate repayment of the outstanding amount under the Debentures and restrict our ability to obtain additional funds, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Our debt increases our exposure to market risks, may limit our ability to incur additional debt that may be necessary to fund our operations and could adversely affect our financial stability. As of December 31, 2021, our total indebtedness in connection with corporate and project financing (including the Talasol PV Plant, of which we hold 51%) was approximately €363 million, including principal and interest expected repayments, financing related swap transactions and excluding any related capitalized costs. The Deeds of Trust permit us to incur additional indebtedness, including by issuing additional debentures of the existing series of Debentures and issuing additional series of debentures, subject to maintaining certain financial ratios and covenants. Our debt, including the Debentures, and any additional debt we may incur, could adversely affect our financial condition by, among other things:


increasing our vulnerability to adverse economic, industry or business conditions and cross currency movements and limiting our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our industry and the economy in general;
 

requiring us to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to service our debt, thus reducing the funds available for operations and future business development; and
 

limiting our ability to obtain additional financing to operate, develop and expand our business.
 
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We may incur significant additional amounts of debt, which could further exacerbate the risks associated with our substantial indebtedness. We may be able to incur substantial additional indebtedness, including additional issuances of debentures and secured indebtedness, in the future. Although the Deeds of Trust governing our Debentures contain conditions that may affect our ability to incur additional debt, mainly through the issuance of additional debentures of the existing series of the Debentures, these conditions are limited and we will be able to incur additional debt and enter into leveraged transactions, so long as we do not breach the financial covenants and meet these conditions. If new debt is added to our existing debt levels, the related risks that we face would intensify and we may not be able to meet all our debt obligations, including the obligations in connection with repayment of the Debentures.

We cannot assure you that our business will generate cash flow from operations or future borrowings from other sources in an amount sufficient to enable us to service our indebtedness, including the Debentures, or to fund our other liquidity needs. To service our indebtedness, we require a significant amount of cash. Our ability to make payments on, and to refinance our indebtedness, including the Debentures, to fund planned capital expenditures and to maintain sufficient working capital depends on our ability to generate cash in the future. This, to a certain extent, is subject to general economic, financial, competitive, legislative, regulatory and other factors that are beyond our control. As such, we may not be able to generate sufficient cash to service the Debentures or our other indebtedness, and may be forced to take other actions to satisfy our obligations under our indebtedness, such as reduce or delay capital expenditures, sell assets, seek additional capital or restructure or refinance all or a portion of our indebtedness, including the Debentures, on or before the maturity thereof, which may not be successful and could have a material adverse effect on our operations. We cannot assure you that we will be able to refinance any of our indebtedness, including the Debentures, on commercially reasonable terms or at all, or that the terms of that indebtedness will allow any of the above alternative measures or that these measures would satisfy our scheduled debt service obligations. If we are unable to generate sufficient cash flow to repay or refinance our debt on favorable terms, it could significantly adversely affect our financial condition, the value of our outstanding debt, including the Debentures, and our ability to make any required cash payments under our indebtedness, including the Debentures. Our ability to restructure or refinance our debt will depend on the condition of the capital markets and our financial condition at that time. Any refinancing of our debt could be at higher interest rates and may require us to comply with more onerous covenants, which could further restrict our business operations.

Our business results may be affected by currency and interest rate fluctuations and the hedging transactions we enter into in order to manage currency and interest rate related risks.  We hold cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash and marketable securities mainly in euro and NIS. Our holdings in our PV Plants located in Spain and in the WtE Plants located in the Netherlands are denominated in euro and our holdings in the Talmei Yosef PV Plant and in Dori Energy are denominated in NIS. Our Debentures and the project finance obtained in connection with the Talmei Yosef PV Plant and the Manara PSP are denominated in NIS and the interest and principal payments are to be made in NIS. The financing for several of our PV Plants bears interest based on EURIBOR rate. Therefore our repayment obligations and undertakings may be affected by adverse movements in the exchange and interest rates. Although we attempt to manage these risks by entering into various swap interest and currency transactions as more fully explained in “Item 11: Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk” below, we cannot ensure we will succeed in eliminating these risks in their entirety.  These swap transactions may also impact the results of our operations due to fluctuations in their value based on changes in the relevant exchange or interest rate.
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Our inability to effectively hedge interest rate, currency and other market-related risks may adversely affect our profitability. We use hedging instruments in an attempt to manage interest rate, currency and other market-related risks. If any of the variety of instruments we use to hedge our exposure to these various types of risk is not effective, we may incur losses, which may have an adverse effect on our financial condition. The majority of our derivative contracts are OTC derivatives, i.e., derivative contracts that are not transacted on an exchange. These derivatives are entered into under ISDA Master Agreements. If a counterparty defaults on these contracts, the underlying exposure would no longer be effectively hedged, which could result in losses. In addition, there can be no assurance that we will continue to be able to hedge risks related to current or future assets or liabilities in an efficient manner or at all. Disruptions such as market crises and economic recessions may put a strain on the availability and effectiveness of hedging instruments. For example, the expected transition away from LIBOR and similar benchmark rates may have a different impact on the hedged item and the hedging instrument, which could cause some of our hedge to become ineffective, resulting in potential losses.

If we do not conduct an adequate due diligence investigation of a target project or if certain events beyond our control occur, we may be required to subsequently take write-downs or write-offs, restructuring, and impairment or other charges that could have a significant negative effect on our financial condition, results of operations and our stock price. We must conduct a due diligence investigation of target projects that we intend to acquire or purchase an interest in. Intensive due diligence is time consuming and expensive due to the cost of the technical, accounting, finance and legal professionals involved in the due diligence process. Even if we conduct extensive due diligence on a target business, we cannot assure you that this due diligence will reveal all material issues that may affect a particular target project, or that factors outside the control of the target project and outside of our control will not later arise. If our due diligence review fails to identify issues specific to a target project, industry or the environment in which the target project operates, or if certain events or circumstances occur that are beyond our control, we may be forced to later write-down or write-off assets, restructure our operations, or incur impairment or other charges that could result in losses. Even though these charges may be non-cash items and may not have an immediate impact on our liquidity, the fact that we report charges of this nature could contribute to negative market perceptions about us or our ordinary shares.

We are currently operating in a period of economic uncertainty and capital markets disruption, which has been significantly impacted by geopolitical instability due to the ongoing military conflict between Russia and Ukraine. Our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected by any negative impact on the global economy and capital markets resulting from the conflict in Ukraine or any other geopolitical tensions.

U.S. and global markets are experiencing volatility and disruption following the escalation of geopolitical tensions and the start of the military conflict between Russia and Ukraine. On February 24, 2022, a full-scale military invasion of Ukraine by Russian troops was reported. Although the length and impact of the ongoing military conflict is highly unpredictable, the conflict in Ukraine could lead to market disruptions, including significant volatility in commodity prices, credit and capital markets, as well as supply chain interruptions. We are continuing to monitor the situation in Ukraine and globally and assessing its potential impact on our business.
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Additionally, Russia’s prior annexation of Crimea, recent recognition of two separatist republics in the Donetsk and Luhansk regions of Ukraine and subsequent military interventions in Ukraine have led to sanctions and other penalties being levied by the United States, European Union and other countries against Russia, Belarus, the Crimea Region of Ukraine, the so-called Donetsk People’s Republic, and the so-called Luhansk People’s Republic, including agreements to remove certain Russian financial institutions from the Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication payment system. Additional potential sanctions and penalties have also been proposed and/or threatened. Russian military actions and the resulting sanctions could adversely affect the global economy and financial markets and lead to instability and lack of liquidity in capital markets, potentially making it more difficult for us to obtain additional funds.

Any of the abovementioned factors could affect our business, prospects, financial condition, and operating results. The extent and duration of the military action, sanctions and resulting market disruptions are impossible to predict, but could be substantial. Any such disruptions may also magnify the impact of other risks described in this Form  20-F.

We may be deemed to be an “investment company” under the Investment Company Act of 1940, which could subject us to material adverse consequences.  We could be deemed to be an “investment company” under the Investment Company Act if we invest more than 40% of our assets in “investment securities,” as defined in the Investment Company Act. Investments in securities of majority owned subsidiaries (defined for these purposes as companies in which we control 50% or more of the voting securities) are not “investment securities” for purposes of this definition. As our interest in Dori Energy is not considered an investment in majority owned securities, unless we maintain the required portion of our assets under our control, limit the nature of the requisite portion of our investments of our cash assets to cash and cash equivalents (which are generally not “investment securities”), succeed in making additional strategic “controlling” investments and continue to monitor our investment in Dori Energy, we may be deemed to be an “investment company.” We do not believe that our holdings in the Spanish PV Plants or the WtE Plants would be considered “investment securities,” as we control the PV Plants (other than the Talasol PV Plant) and the WtE Plants via wholly-owned subsidiaries. In addition, despite minority holder protective rights granted to the minority shareholders of the Talasol PV Plant and the Manara PSP, including several rights which effectively require the unanimous consent of all shareholders, we believe that our interests in the Talasol PV Plant and the Manara PSP do not constitute “investment securities” given, among other things, our majority shareholder and board membership status in the project companies. We do not believe that the current fair value of our holdings in Dori Energy (all as more fully set forth under “Business” below) and other relevant assets, all of which may be deemed to be “investment securities,” would result in our being deemed to be an “investment company.” If we were deemed to be an “investment company,” we would not be permitted to register under the Investment Company Act without an order from the SEC permitting us to register because we are incorporated outside of the United States and, prior to being permitted to register, we would not be permitted to publicly offer or promote our securities in the United States. Even if we were permitted to register, it would subject us to additional commitments and regulatory compliance. Investments in cash and cash equivalents might not be as favorable to us as other investments we might make if we were not potentially subject to regulation under the Investment Company Act. We seek to conduct our operations, including by way of investing our cash and cash equivalents, to the extent possible, so as not to become subject to regulation under the Investment Company Act. In addition, because we are actively engaged in exploring and considering strategic investments and business opportunities, and in fact the majority of our investments to date (mainly in the Italian, Spanish and Israeli photovoltaic power plants markets and in the Netherlands’ WtE market) were made through a controlling investment, we do not believe that we are currently engaged in “investment company” activities or business. These strategies may force us to pursue less than optimal business strategies or forego business arrangements and to forgo certain cash management strategies that could have been financially advantageous to us and to our financial situation and business prospect.
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We may be characterized as a passive foreign investment company. Our U.S. Holders may suffer adverse tax consequences.  Under the passive foreign investment company or “PFIC” rules, for any taxable year that our passive income or our assets that produce passive income exceeds specified levels, we will be characterized as a PFIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes. This characterization could result in adverse U.S. tax consequences for our U.S. Holders (as defined below), which may include having certain distributions on our ordinary shares and gains realized on the sale of our ordinary shares treated as ordinary income, rather than as capital gains income, and having potentially punitive interest charges apply to the proceeds of sales of our ordinary shares and certain distributions.

Certain elections may be made to reduce or eliminate the adverse impact of the PFIC rules for our U.S. Holders, but these elections may be detrimental to such U.S. Holders under certain circumstances. The PFIC rules are extremely complex and U.S. Holders are urged to consult independent tax advisers regarding the potential consequences to them of our classification as a PFIC.

Based on our income and/or assets, we believe that we were a PFIC with respect to any U.S. Holder that held our shares in 2008 through 2012. We also believe, based on our income and assets, that it is likely that we were not a PFIC with respect to U.S. Holders that initially acquired our ordinary shares in 2013-2021. However, the Internal Revenue Service may disagree with our determinations regarding our prior or present PFIC status and, depending on future events, we could become a PFIC in future years.

For a more detailed discussion of the consequences of our being classified as a PFIC, see “Item 10.E: Taxation” below under the caption “U.S. Tax Considerations Regarding Ordinary Shares.”

Risks Relating to our Ordinary Shares

You may have difficulty enforcing U.S. judgments against us in Israel.  We are organized under the laws of Israel and our headquarters are in Israel. All of our officers and directors reside outside of the United States. Therefore, it may be difficult to effect service of process upon us or any of these persons within the United States. In addition, you may not be able to enforce any judgment obtained in the U.S. against us or any of such persons in Israel and in any event will be required to file a request with an Israeli court for recognition or enforcement of any non-Israeli judgment. Subject to certain time limitations, executory judgments of a United States court for liquidated damages in civil matters may be enforced by an Israeli court, provided that: (i) the judgment was obtained after due process before a court of competent jurisdiction, that recognizes and enforces similar judgments of Israeli courts and according to the rules of private international law currently prevailing in Israel, (ii) adequate service of process was effected and the defendant had a reasonable opportunity to be heard, (iii) the judgment and its enforcement are not contrary to the law, public policy, security or sovereignty of the State of Israel, (iv) the judgment was not obtained by fraud and does not conflict with any other valid judgment in the same matter between the same parties, (v) the judgment is no longer appealable, and (vi) an action between the same parties in the same matter is not pending in any Israeli court at the time the lawsuit is instituted in the foreign court. If a foreign judgment is enforced by an Israeli court, it will be payable in Israeli currency. You may not be able to enforce civil actions under U.S. securities laws if you file a lawsuit in Israel.
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We may rely on certain Israeli “home country” corporate governance practices which may not afford shareholders the same protection afforded to stockholders of U.S. companies. As a foreign private issuer for purposes of U.S. securities laws, NYSE American LLC rules allow us to follow certain Israeli “home country” corporate governance practices in lieu of the corresponding NYSE American LLC corporate governance rules. Such home country practices may not afford shareholders the same level of rights or protections in certain matters as those of stockholders of U.S. domestic companies. To the extent we are entitled to elect to follow Israeli law and practice rather than corresponding U.S. law or practice, such as with regard to the requirement for shareholder approval of changes to option plans, our shareholders may not be afforded the same level of rights they would have under U.S. practice.

The rights and responsibilities of our shareholders are governed by Israeli law and differ in some respects from the rights and responsibilities of shareholders under U.S. law. We are incorporated under Israeli law. The rights and responsibilities of holders of our ordinary shares are governed by our memorandum and articles of association and Israeli law. These rights and responsibilities differ in some respects from the rights and responsibilities of shareholders in typical U.S. corporations. In particular, each shareholder of an Israeli company has a duty to act in good faith in exercising his or her rights and fulfilling his or her obligations toward the company and other shareholders and to refrain from abusing his power in the company, including, among other things, in voting at the general meeting of shareholders on certain matters.  Israeli law provides that these duties are applicable in shareholder votes on, among other things, amendments to a company’s articles of association, increases in a company’s authorized share capital, mergers and interested party transactions requiring shareholder approval. In addition, a controlling shareholder of an Israeli company or a shareholder who knows that it possesses the power to determine the outcome of a shareholder vote or who has the power to appoint or prevent the appointment of a director or officer in the company has a duty of fairness toward the company. However, Israeli law does not define the substance of this duty of fairness. Because Israeli corporate law has undergone extensive revisions in recent years, there is little case law available to assist in understanding the implications of these provisions that govern shareholder behavior.

You may be diluted by the future issuance of additional ordinary shares, among other reasons, for purposes of carrying out future acquisitions, financing needs, and also as a result of our incentive and compensation plans. In the past three years we issued 2,143,750 ordinary shares in private placements including through exercise of warrants. In addition, on October 26, 2020, we issued a new series of options (the Series 1 Options), tradable on the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange, to purchase an aggregate of 385,000 ordinary shares at an exercise price per share of NIS 150 (subject to adjustments upon customary terms) and on February 23, 2021 we issued our Series D Convertible Debentures, which are convertible into an aggregate of 375,757 ordinary shares at a conversion price per share of NIS 165 (subject to adjustments upon customary terms). In the event some or all of our Series 1 Options are exercised, or some or all of our Series D Convertible Debentures are converted, you may experience dilution of your percentage of holdings in our ordinary shares. We may also choose to raise additional equity capital in the future for various reasons and purposes. The issuance of any additional ordinary shares in the future, or any securities that are exercisable for or convertible into our ordinary shares, will have a dilutive effect on our shareholders as a consequence of the reduction in the percentage ownership.
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Tax audits may result in an obligation to make material payments to tax authorities at the conclusion of these audits.  We conduct our business globally (currently in Israel, Luxembourg, Italy, Spain and The Netherlands). Our domestic and international tax liabilities are subject to the allocation of revenues and expenses in different jurisdictions and the timing of recognizing revenues and expenses. Additionally, the amount of income taxes paid is subject to our interpretation of applicable laws in the jurisdictions in which we file. Not all of the tax returns of our operations in other countries and in Israel are final and we may be subject to further audit and assessment by the applicable tax authorities. For example, during 2018, following a tax inspection and a final settlement reached with the tax authorities, we reduced our carry forward tax losses by approximately €20 million. Such audits often result in proposed assessments and any estimation of the potential outcome of an uncertain tax issue is a matter for judgment, which can be subjective and highly complex. While we believe we comply with applicable tax laws and that we provided adequately for any reasonably foreseeable outcomes related to the tax audit, there can be no assurance that a governing tax authority will not have a different interpretation of the law and assess us with additional taxes, as a result of which our future results may be adversely affected. Although we believe our estimates to be reasonable, the ultimate outcome of such audits, and of any related litigation, could differ materially from our provisions for taxes, which may have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial statements.

We are controlled by a small number of shareholders, who may make decisions with which you may disagree and which may also prevent a change of control via purchases in the market.  Currently, a group of investors comprised of Kanir Joint Investments (2005) Limited Partnership, or Kanir, and S. Nechama Investments (2008) Ltd., or Nechama Investments, hold an aggregate of 44.6% of our outstanding ordinary shares. Shlomo Nehama, our Chairman of the Board who controls Nechama Investments holds directly an additional 3.6% of our outstanding ordinary shares and the estate of Mr. Hemi Raphael, which holds a majority of the outstanding shares of Kanir Investments Ltd., or Kanir Ltd., the general partner of Kanir, holds an additional 2% of our outstanding ordinary shares. Therefore, acting together, these shareholders could exercise significant influence over our business, including with respect to the election of our directors and the approval of change in control and other material transactions. This concentration of control may have the effect of delaying or preventing changes in control or changes in management, or limiting the ability of our other shareholders to approve transactions that they may deem to be in their best interest. In addition, due to this concentration of control, we are deemed a “controlled company” for purposes of NYSE American LLC rules and as such we are not subject to certain NYSE American LLC corporate governance rules. Moreover, our Second Amended and Restated Articles includes the casting vote provided to our Chairman of the Board under certain circumstances and the ability of members of our Board to demand that certain issues be approved by our shareholders, requiring a special majority, all as more fully described in “Memorandum of Association and Second Amended and Restated Articles” below may have the effect of delaying or preventing certain changes and corporate actions that would otherwise benefit our shareholders.

Our failure to maintain effective internal controls over financial reporting could materially adversely affect our reported financial information and the market price of our ordinary shares. We are characterized as an “accelerated filer” under the US Securities Law. Among other things, this characterization imposes a requirement that our registered public accounting firm issue an attestation report as to our internal control over financial reporting in connection with the filing of the Annual Report on Form 20-F for each fiscal year. Our efforts to comply with the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 have resulted in increased general and administrative expenses and a diversion of management time and attention, and we expect these efforts to require the continued commitment of resources. We cannot predict the outcome of our testing in future periods. If we fail to maintain the adequacy of our internal controls, we may not be able to ensure that we or our registered public accounting firm can conclude on an ongoing basis that we have effective internal controls over financial reporting. Failure to maintain effective internal controls over financial reporting could result in investigation or sanctions by regulatory authorities, and could have a material adverse effect on our operating results, investor confidence in our reported financial information, and the market price of our ordinary shares.
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Our ordinary shares are listed in two markets and this may result in price variations that could affect the trading price of our ordinary shares. Our ordinary shares are listed on the NYSE American LLC and on the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange, or TASE, both under the symbol “ELLO.” Trading in our ordinary shares on these markets is made in different currencies (U.S. dollars on the NYSE American LLC and New Israeli Shekels on the TASE), and at different times (due to the different time zones, different trading days and different public holidays in the United States and Israel). The trading prices of our ordinary shares on these two markets may differ due to these and other factors. Any decrease in the trading price of our ordinary shares on one of these markets could cause a decrease in the trading price of our ordinary shares on the other market.

We have not paid a cash dividend or executed a buyback of a substantial number of shares since 2016 and there is no assurance we will do so in the future.  We have not paid any cash dividends or announced a share buyback plan since 2016. Future dividends or future share buyback plans will depend on our earnings, if any, capital requirements, general financial condition and applicable legal and contractual constraints in connection with distribution of profits, and will be within the discretion of our then-board of directors. There can be no assurance that any additional dividends will be paid or share buyback programs adopted, as to the timing or the amount of the dividends or share buyback programs, or as to whether our Board of Directors will elect to distribute our profits by means of share repurchases or a distribution of a cash or other dividend. In addition, the terms of the deeds of trust governing our Debentures restrict our ability to made “distributions” (as such term is defined in the Israeli Companies Law, 1999, as amended, or the Companies Law, which includes cash dividends and repurchase of shares). For more information see “Item 5.B: Liquidity and Capital Resources” and “Item 8.A: Financial Information; Consolidated Statements and Other Financial Information; Dividends” below.

Our stock price has been very volatile in the past and may in the future be volatile, which could adversely affect the market liquidity of our ordinary shares and our ability to raise additional funds. The market liquidity and analyst coverage of our ordinary shares is limited. Our ordinary shares have experienced substantial price volatility in the past, particularly during periods of very limited volume of trading in our ordinary shares resulting in every transaction performed significantly influencing the market price. Although our ordinary shares are listed both on the NYSE American LLC and on the TASE, there is still limited liquidity, and combined with the general economic and political conditions, these circumstances cause the market price for our ordinary shares to continue to be volatile. The continuance of such factors and other factors relating to our business may materially adversely affect the market price of our ordinary shares in the future and could result in lower prices for our ordinary shares than might otherwise prevail and in larger spreads between the bid and asked prices for our ordinary shares. These issues could materially impair our ability to raise funds through the issuance of our ordinary shares in the securities markets.
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Provisions of Israeli law may delay, prevent or make difficult an acquisition of Ellomay or a controlling position in Ellomay, which could prevent a change of control and, therefore, depress the price of our shares.  Israeli corporate law regulates mergers, requires tender offers for acquisitions of shares above specified thresholds, requires special approvals for transactions involving directors, officers or significant shareholders and regulates other matters that may be relevant to these types of transactions. Furthermore, Israeli tax considerations may make potential transactions unappealing to us or to some of our shareholders. These provisions of Israeli law may delay, prevent or make difficult an acquisition of Ellomay, which could prevent a change of control and therefore depress the price of our shares.

ITEM 4: Information on Ellomay

A.            History and Development of Ellomay

Our legal and commercial name is Ellomay Capital Ltd. Our office is located at 18 Rothschild Boulevard, 1st floor, Tel-Aviv 6688121, Israel, and our telephone number is +972-3-7971111. Our registered agent in the United States is CT Corporation System, 111 Eight Avenue, New York, New York 10011.

We were incorporated as an Israeli corporation under the name Nur Advertisement Industries 1987 Ltd. on July 29, 1987. On August 1, 1993, we changed our name to NUR Advanced Technologies Ltd., on November 16, 1997 we again changed our name to NUR Macroprinters Ltd. and on April 7, 2008, in connection with the closing of the sale of our business to HP, we again changed our name to Ellomay Capital Ltd. Our corporate governance is controlled by the Companies Law.

Our ordinary shares are currently listed on the NYSE American LLC and are also listed on the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange under the trading symbol “ELLO” pursuant to the Israeli regulatory “dual listing” regime that provides companies whose securities are listed both in the NYSE American LLC and the TASE certain reporting leniencies.

Recent Developments

The Talasol PV Plant

Achievement of PAC

The Talasol PV Plant reached mechanical completion in September 2020 and was connected to the electricity grid and electricity production commenced at the end of December 2020. In parallel to the connection to the grid, hot commissioning tests have been initiated by the EPC contractor. On January 27, 2021, the EPC finalized the performance tests and the Provisional Acceptance Certificate (PAC) was signed.
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Refinancing of Talasol Project Finance

In January 2022, Talasol achieved financial closing of a Facilities Agreement in the aggregate amount of €175 million provided by European institutional lenders, or the Talasol New Financing. The Talasol New Financing provides for the provision of a term loan facility in two tranches: (i) a term loan in the amount of €155 million of which the final maturity date is June 30, 2044, and (ii) a term loan in the amount of €20 million of which the final maturity date is December 31, 2042. The weighted average life of the Talasol New Financing is approximately 11.5 years, compared to an original weighted average life of 5.5 years of the original project finance of Talasol, or the Talasol Previous Financing. The Talasol New Financing bears a fixed annual interest rate at a weighted average of approximately 3%, compared to a variable interest rate that was fixed at an average of approximately 3% by an interest rate swap contract in the Talasol Previous Financing.

The uses of the Talasol New Financing amount are as follows: (1) prepayment of the outstanding €121 million amount of the Talasol Previous Financing; (2) deposit of €6.9 million in Talasol’s bank account as a debt service fund; (3) deposit of €10 million in Talasol’s bank account as security for a letter of credit to the PPA provider, or the Talasol PPA Security Fund, (4) unwinding the interest rate SWAP entered into in connection with the Previous Financing in an amount of €3.29 million; (5) transaction costs in an amount of approximately €3 million; and (6) an expected special dividend to Talasol’s shareholders in an amount of approximately €30 million.

The Talasol PPA Security Fund will be reduced by €1 million every year, up to a minimum amount of €3.5 million, which will be released at the expiration of the PPA.

Ellomay Solar

We are promoting the construction, through an indirectly wholly-owned subsidiary, Ellomay Solar S.L.U., or Ellomay Solar, of a PV plant in a plot adjacent to the land on which the Talasol PV Plant is located, or the Ellomay Solar Project. This PV plant is planned to have a capacity of 28 MW and Ellomay Solar received a grid connection permit and executed a land lease agreement.

The early works under the EPC agreement commenced on March 1, 2021 and the Notice to Proceed was granted on June 7, 2021. The Ellomay Solar project is waiting for final permits and the achievement of PAC (preliminary acceptance certificate) of the photovoltaic plant held by Ellomay Solar is expected by the end of April 2022.

The Manara PSP

On February 14, 2021, we announced the fulfillment of conditions precedent under the Manara PSP Conditional License, including financial closing and execution of EPC and O&M Agreements.

In April 2021, a notice to commence was issued to Electra Infrastructures Ltd., the EPC contractor of the Manara PSP, and construction of the Manara PSP commenced. The construction period of the Manara PSP is expected to be approximately 62.5 months.

For more information, see “Item 4.B: Business Overview” under the heading “Pumped Storage Project in the Manara Cliff in Israel.”
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The construction of the Manara PSP and the connection of this project to the grid are subject to risks and uncertainties. For more information concerning these and other risks see under “Item 3.D: Risk Factors - Risks Related to our Business.”

PV Projects under Development

As of December 31, 2021, we had additional photovoltaic projects under various development stages as follows: (i) under advanced development stages – 439 MW in Italy and 40 MW plus storage in Israel; and (ii) in early development stages – 850 MW in Italy and Spain. In February 2022, EPC agreements were executed with respect to the first two projects in Italy that are in advanced development stages (with an aggregate capacity of approximately 20 MW) and construction of such projects commenced during January 2022. Construction of another adjacent project (15MW) is currently expected to commence during the second quarter of 2022.

We continue promoting the development of these and other new projects. Due to the travel restrictions imposed in connection with Covid-19, the works is mainly performed through conference calls and other telecommunication measures. We have local managers in each of our countries of operations (Spain, Italy and the Netherlands) that continue advancing the ongoing operations under the guidance of the business development team located in Israel.

The advancement and development of these and other projects are subject to the projects reaching several milestones, including receipt of regulatory approvals and authorizations, procurement of land rights, obtaining financing, commencement and completion of construction and connection to the grid, and to various risks and uncertainties applicable to projects under development as more fully set forth under “Item 3.D: Risk Factors” above.

There can be no assurance as to how many projects, if any, will reach the final stage of connection to the grid and operational status. We may advance some or all of the projects with partners and therefore we may not wholly-own such projects in the future.

Additional Series C Debentures Offering in Israel

On February 23, 2021, we issued additional Series C Debentures in a public offering in Israel in an aggregate principal amount of NIS 100.939 million (approximately €29  million). For additional information concerning the Series C Debentures see “Item 5.B: Liquidity and Capital Resources” and “Item 10.C: Material Contracts.”

Series D Convertible Debentures Offering in Israel

On February 23, 2021, we issued new Series D Convertible Debentures in a public offering in Israel in the aggregate principal amount of NIS 62 million (approximately €17.6 million). For additional information concerning the Series D Convertible Debentures see “Item 5.B: Liquidity and Capital Resources” and “Item 10.C: Material Contracts.”

Additional Series C Debentures Offering in Israel

On October 25, 2021, we issued additional Series C Debentures in a private offering in Israel to Israeli classified investors in an aggregate principal amount of NIS 120 million (approximately €34.1 million).

Our Debentures are listed for trading on the TASE. However, our Debentures are not registered under the Securities Act, and may not be offered or sold in the United States or to U.S. Persons (as defined in Regulation “S” promulgated under the Securities Act) without registration under the Securities Act or an exemption from the registration requirements of the Securities Act.
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Early Repayment of Series B Debentures

On March 18, 2021, our Series B Debentures were repaid in full. Pursuant to the terms of the deed of trust governing the Series B Debentures, the early repayment consisted of a principal payment in the amount of approximately NIS 86.3 million (approximately €21.5 million), accrued interest in the amount of approximately NIS 0.7 million (approximately €0.16 million) and a prepayment charge of approximately NIS 3.4 million (approximately €0.86 million), amounting to an aggregate repayment amount of approximately NIS 90.4 million (approximately €22.5 million).

Exercise of Warrants to Purchase Ordinary Shares

During January and February 2021, Israeli institutional investors who purchased our ordinary shares and warrants in a private placement consummated in February 2020, exercised all of the warrants issued to them in such private placement. As a result, we issued an aggregate of 178,750 ordinary shares, at a price per ordinary share of NIS 80 (approximately $24.6 based on the Dollar/NIS exchange rate at that time), and received gross proceeds of NIS 14.3 million (approximately $4.4 million).

Principal Capital Expenditures and Divestitures

From 2017 through March 1, 2022, we made aggregate capital expenditures of approximately €250 million in connection with our operating Spanish PV Plants. Our aggregate capital expenditures in connection with the acquisition of the Talmei Yosef PV Plant was approximately €11.9 million. Our aggregate capital expenditures in connection with PV Plants under development in Europe and Israel was approximately €5.5 million.  The aggregate capital expenditures in connection with the Manara PSP through March 1, 2022, including amounts recorded in the general and administrative expense, were approximately €95 million. From 2017 through March 1, 2022, capital expenditures incurred by the project companies in connection with the Waste-to-Energy Projects in the Netherlands were approximately €34.5 million.

For further information on our financing activities please refer to “Item 4.B: Business Overview” and “Item 5: Operating and Financial Review and Prospects.”

The SEC maintains an Internet site (http://www.sec.gov) that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding registrants that we file electronically with the SEC. These SEC filings are also available to the public from commercial document retrieval services. Our website is http://www.ellomay.com. The information on our website is not incorporated by reference into this annual report.
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B.          Business Overview

We are involved in the production of renewable and clean energy. We own six PV Plants that are operating and connected to their respective national grids as follows: (i) four photovoltaic plants in Spain with an aggregate installed capacity of approximately 7.9 MW, (ii) 51% of Talasol, which owns a photovoltaic plant with installed capacity of 300 MW in the municipality of Talaván, Cáceres, Spain that was connected to the Spanish electricity grid in the end of December 2020, and (iii) one photovoltaic plant in Israel with an installed capacity of approximately 9 MW. In addition, we indirectly own: (i) 9.375% of Dorad, which owns an approximate 860 MWp dual-fuel operated power plant in the vicinity of Ashkelon, Israel, (ii) 83.333% of Ellomay PS, which is constructing the Manara PSP, (iii) Ellomay Solar S.L.U. that is constructing a photovoltaic plant with installed capacity of 28MW in the municipality of Talaván, Cáceres, Spain,  and (iv) Groen Gas Goor B.V., Groen Gas Oude-Tonge B.V. and Groen Gas Gelderland B.V., project companies operating anaerobic digestion plants in the Netherlands, with a green gas production capacity of approximately 3 million, 3.8 million and 9.5 million (with a license to produce 7.5 million) Nm3 per year, respectively.
 
PV Plants

Photovoltaic Industry Background

Clean electricity generation accounts for a growing share of electric power. While a majority of the world’s current electricity supply is still generated from fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas, these traditional energy sources face a number of challenges including fluctuating prices, security concerns over dependence on imports from a limited number of countries, and growing environmental concerns over the climate change risks associated with power generation using fossil fuels. As a result of these and other challenges facing traditional energy sources, governments, businesses and consumers are increasingly supporting the development of alternative energy sources, including solar energy, the fastest-growing source of renewable energy.

By extracting energy directly from the sun and converting it into an immediately usable form, either as heat or electricity, intermediate steps are eliminated.

Global trends in the industry

Solar PV power in the European Union has shown strong resilience despite Covid-19 negatively impacting everyone’s life in many aspects. Surprisingly, demand for solar power technology in the European Union did not decrease but rather increased notably. EU members states installed 18.2 GW of solar power capacity in 2020, an 11% improvement over the 16.2 GW deployed in the previous year.

For the next 2 years, SolarPower Europe projects 27.4 in 2022 and 30.8 GW in 2023, translating into 15% and 18% higher deployments than in their EMO 2019. And in 2024, SolarPower Europe sees demand crossing the 35 GW level, bringing total installed solar PV capacity to 253 GW.

The Asia-Pacific (APAC) is projected to lead the PV market from 2020 to 2025. The market growth can be attributed to the presence of key players such as JinkoSolar (China), JA Solar (China), Trina Solar (China), and LONGi (China) in APAC. The growing adoption of PV modules in countries such as China, Japan, and India is fueling the growth of the market. These countries are among the top 5 players in the photovoltaic market in APAC with a cumulative installed photovoltaic capacity of ~300 GW as of 2019. Moreover, the region is the largest producer and consumer of PV modules and related PV components. Various initiatives and favorable policies launched by governments of different countries in APAC to promote the use of solar energy are expected to propel the demand for PV systems in the region during the forecast period.
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At the end of 2020, Israel’s total installed renewable energy capacity, as per the Report on the State of the Electricity Sector of the Israeli Electricity Authority, was 2.5 GW, constituting 13% of the total capacity in the Israeli electricity market, with solar contributing 2.2 GW (1.4 GW from dual-use photovoltaic systems and 0.8 GW from land photovoltaic systems).In October 2020, the Israeli government approved a plan to deploy around 15 GW more solar capacity to help raise the 2030 target for the proportion of national electricity drawn from renewables from 17% to 30%. The Israeli Electricity Authority forecasted in its 2020 report that the total installed renewable energy capacity at the end of 2025 will be 9.8 MW (of which 4.2 GW will be in dual-use photovoltaic systems and 3.7 GW will be from land photovoltaic systems), which is expected to constitute 35% of the total capacity expected in Israel at that time. The original renewable energy directive (2009/28/EC) establishes an overall policy for the production and promotion of energy from renewable sources in the EU. It requires the EU to fulfil at least 20% of its total energy needs with renewables by 2020 – to be achieved through the attainment of individual national targets. All EU countries must ensure that at least 10% of their transport fuels come from renewable sources by 2020.

In December 2018, the revised renewable energy directive 2018/2001/EU entered into force, as part of the clean energy for all Europeans package, aimed at keeping the EU a global leader in renewables and, more broadly, helping the EU to meet its emissions reduction commitments under the Paris Agreement. 

The new directive establishes a new binding renewable energy target for the EU for 2030 of at least 32%, with a clause for a possible upwards revision by 2023.

Anatomy of a Solar Power Plant

Solar power systems convert the energy in sunlight directly into electrical energy within solar cells based on the photovoltaic effect. Multiple solar cells, which produce DC power, are electrically interconnected into solar panels. A typical solar panel may have several dozens of individual solar cells. Multiple solar panels are electrically wired together and are electrically wired to an inverter, which converts the power from DC to AC and interconnects with the utility grid.

Solar electric cells convert light energy into electricity at the atomic level. The conversion efficiency of a solar electric cell is defined as the ratio of the sunlight energy that hits the cell divided by the electrical energy that is produced by the cell. In recent years, effort in the industry has been directed towards the development of solar cell technology that reduces per watt costs and increases conversion efficiency. Solar electric cells today are getting better at converting sunlight to electricity, but commercial panels still harvest only part of the radiation they are exposed to. Scientists are working to improve solar panels’ efficiency using various methods.
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Solar electric panels are composed of multiple solar cells, along with the necessary internal wiring, aluminum and glass framework, and external electrical connections.

Inverters convert the DC power from solar panels to the AC power distributed by the electricity grid. Grid-tie inverters synchronize to utility voltage and frequency and only operate when utility power is stable (in the case of a power failure these grid-tie inverters shut down to safeguard utility personnel from possible harm during repairs). Inverters also operate to maximize the power extracted from the solar panels, regulating the voltage and current output of the solar array based on sun intensity.

Monitoring. There are two basic approaches to access information on the performance of a solar power system. The most accurate and reliable approach is to collect the solar power performance data locally from the counters and the inverter with a hard-wired connection and then transmit that data via the internet to a centralized database. Data on the performance of a system can then be accessed from any device with a web browser, including personal computers and cell phones. As an alternative to web-based remote monitoring, most commercial inverters have a digital display on the inverter itself that shows performance data and can also display this data on a nearby personal computer with a hard-wired or wireless connection.

Tracker Technology vs. Fixed Technology

Some of our PV Plants use fixed solar panels while others use panels equipped with single or dual axis tracking technology. Tracking technology is used to minimize the angle of incidence between the incoming light and a photovoltaic panel. As photovoltaic panels accept direct and diffuse light energy and panels using tracking technology always gather the available direct light, the amount of energy produced by such panels, compared to panels with a fixed amount of installed power generating capacity, is higher. As the double axis trackers allow the photovoltaic production to stay closer to maximum capacity for many additional hours, an increase of approximately 20% (single) - 30% (dual) of the photovoltaic modules plane irradiation can be estimated. On the other hand, tracker technology requires more complex and expensive operations and maintenance and, as this is a more sophisticated technology, it is exposed to more defects.

Energy Storage Solutions

According to a new study published by the European Commission, innovative energy storage solutions will play an important role in ensuring the integration of renewable energy sources into the grid in the EU at the lowest cost. This will help the EU reach its 2050 de-carbonization objectives under the European Green Deal while ensuring Europe’s security of energy supply. This independent study, titled “Energy Storage Study - Contribution to the security of electricity supply in Europe”, analyzes the different flexibility energy storage options that will be needed to reap the full potential of the large share of variable energy sources in the power system. This study notes that the main energy storage reservoir in the EU at the moment is pumped hydro storage. However, as prices fall, new battery technology projects are emerging - such as lithium-ion batteries and behind-the-meter storage.
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Solar Power Benefits

The direct conversion of light into energy offers the following benefits compared to conventional energy sources:


Reliability - Solar energy production does not require fossil fuels and is therefore less dependent on this limited natural resource with volatile prices. Although there is variability in the amount and timing of sunlight over the day, season and year, a properly sized and configured system can be designed to be highly reliable while providing long-term, fixed price electricity supply.
 

Convenience - Solar power systems can be installed on a wide range of sites, including small residential roofs, the ground, covered parking structures and large industrial buildings. Most solar power systems also have few, if any, moving parts and are generally guaranteed to operate for 20-25 years, resulting in low maintenance and operating costs and reliability compared to other forms of power generation.
 

Cost-effectiveness - While solar power has historically been more expensive than fossil fuels, there are continual advancements in solar panel technology which increase the efficiency and lower the cost of production, thus making the production of solar energy even more cost effective.
 

Environmental - Solar power is one of the cleanest electric generation sources, capable of generating electricity without air or water emissions, noise, vibration, habitat impact or waste generation. In particular, solar power does not generate greenhouse gases that contribute to global climate change or other air pollutants, as power generation based on fossil fuel combustion does, and does not generate radioactive or other wastes as nuclear power and coal combustion do. It is anticipated that environmental protection agencies will limit the use of fossil fuel based electric generation and increase the attractiveness of solar power as a renewable electricity source.
 

Security - Producing solar power improves energy security both on an international level (by reducing fossil energy purchases from hostile countries) and a local level (by reducing power strains on local electrical transmission and distribution systems).
 
These benefits impacted our decision to enter into the solar photovoltaic market. We believe the fluctuations in fuel costs, environmental concerns and energy security make it likely that the demand for solar power production will continue to grow. Many countries, including Italy and Spain, have put incentive programs in place to spur the installation of grid-tied solar power systems. For further information please see “Material Effects of Government Regulations on the PV Plants.”
 
Measuring the Performance of Solar Power Plants
 
One of the main factors for measuring the efficiency and quality of a power plant is the performance ratio (PR). The performance ratio is stated as percent and describes the relationship between the actual and theoretical energy outputs of the PV plant. This calculation provides the proportion of the energy that is actually available for export to the electricity grid after deduction of any energy losses and of energy consumption for the operation of the PV plant. The performance ratio can be used to compare PV plants at different locations as the calculation is independent of the location of a PV plant. The closer the performance ratio is to 100%, the more efficient the relevant PV plant is operating, however a PV plant cannot reach a performance ratio of 100% as there are inevitable losses and use of energy of the PV plant. High-performance PV plants can however reach a performance ratio higher than 80%.
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There are several risk factors associated with the photovoltaic market. See “Item 3.D: Risk Factors - Risks Related to our Business.”

Our Photovoltaic Plants


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The following table includes information concerning our PV Plants:

Name
Installed Production / Capacity1
Location
Type of Plant
Connection to Grid
Fixed Tariff
Revenue in the year ended December 31, 2020 (in thousands)2
Revenue in the year ended December 31, 2021 (in thousands)2
“Rinconada II”
2,275 kWp
Municipality of Córdoba, Andalusia, Spain
PV – Fixed Panels
July 2010
N/A
€732
€698
“Rodríguez I”
1,675 kWp
Province of Murcia, Spain
PV – Fixed Panels
November 2011
N/A
€531
€550
“Rodríguez II”
2,691 kWp
Province of Murcia, Spain
PV – Fixed Panels
November 2011
N/A
€882
€907
“Fuente Librilla”
1,248 kWp
Province of Murcia, Spain
PV – Fixed Panels
June 2011
N/A
€432
€432
“Talmei Yosef”
9,000 kWp
Talmei Yosef, Israel
PV – Fixed Panels
November 2013
0.98573 (NIS/kWh)
€1,066
€1,016
“Talasol”
300,000 kWp
Talaván, Cáceres, Spain
PV – Fixed Panels
December 2020
N/A
--5
€28,494


1.
The actual capacity of a photovoltaic plant is generally subject to a degradation of 0.5%-0.7% per year, depending on climate conditions and quality of the solar panels.
 

2.
These results are not indicative of future results due to various factors, including changes in the climate and the degradation of the solar panels.
 

3.
The tariff of NIS 0.9631/kWh is fixed for a period of 20 years and is updated once a year based on changes to the Israeli CPI of October 2011. The tariff increased from NIS 0.976/kWh in November 2013 to NIS 1.005/kWh in 2020 and decreased to NIS 0.9946/kWh on 2021.
 

4.
As a result of the accounting treatment of the Talmei Yosef PV Plant as a financial asset, out of total proceeds from the sale of electricity of approximately €4.1 million and €4.3 million for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2021, respectively, only revenues related to the ongoing operation of the plant in the amount of approximately €1million are recognized as revenues in each of 2020 and 2021.
 

5.
The Talasol PV Plant is 51% owned by us and the revenues included in the table reflect 100% ownership. As the Talasol PV Plant was connected to the Spanish national grid at the end of December 2020 and achieved PAC in January 2021, no revenues were recorded in connection with this PV Plant for the year ended December 31, 2020 and until PAC was achieved in January 2021. Revenues generated prior to the achievement of PAC (in the amount of approximately €0.9 million) were capitalized to fixed assets.
 
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Photovoltaic Plants

The construction and operation of photovoltaic plants entail the engagement of Contractors, in order to build, assemble, install, test, commission, operate and maintain the photovoltaic power plants, for the benefit of our wholly-owned subsidiaries.

Each of the PV Plants is constructed and operates on the basis of the following main agreements:


Development Agreement with a local experienced developer for the provision of development services with respect to photovoltaic greenfield projects from initial processing, obtaining of approvals and clearances with the aim of reaching “ready to build” status;
 

an Engineering, Procurement & Construction projects Contract, or an EPC Contract, which governs the installation, testing and commissioning of a photovoltaic plant by the respective Contractor;
 

an Operation and Maintenance (O&M) Agreement, which governs the operation and maintenance of the photovoltaic plant by the respective Contractor;
 

a number of ancillary agreements, including:
 

o
one or more “surface rights agreements” or “lease agreements” with the land owners, which provide the terms and conditions for the lease of land on which the photovoltaic plants are constructed and operated;
 

o
optionally, one or more “project financing agreements” with financing entities, as were already executed with respect to several of the PV Plants and as more fully described below, and as may be executed in the future with respect to one or more of the remaining PV Plants; and
 

o
a stock purchase agreement in the event we acquire an existing company that owns a photovoltaic plant that is under construction or is already constructed.
 
With respect to our Spanish PV Plants –


Standard “power distribution agreements” with the applicable Spanish power distribution grid company such as Endesa Distribución Eléctrica, S.L.U., or Endesa, or Iberdrola Distribución Eléctrica, S.A.U., or Iberdrola, regarding the rights and obligations of each party, concerning, inter alia, the evacuation of the power generated in the plant to the grid;
 

Standard “representation agreements” with an entity that will act as the energy sales agent of the PV Plant in the energy market, in accordance with Spanish Royal Decree 436/2004; and
 

Assignment Contract (“contrato de encargo de proyecto”) and the Technical Access Contract (“Contracto técnico de acceso a la red de transporte") with Red Eléctrica de España (the Spanish grid operator, or REE).
 
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With respect to our Israeli PV Plant:


A power purchase agreement with the IEC for the purchase of electricity by the IEC with a term of 20 years commencing on the date of connection to the grid.
 
With respect to Italian PV Plants to be developed or held in the future –


one or more “power purchase agreements” with GSE, specifying the power output to be purchased by GSE for resale and the consideration in respect thereof  or, alternatively, a “power purchase agreements” with a private energy broker, specifying the power output to be purchased for resale and the consideration in respect thereof;
 

one or more “interconnection agreements” with the Enel Distribuzione S.p.A, or ENEL, the Italian national electricity grid operator, which provide the terms and conditions for the connection to the Italian national grid; and
 

to the extent the FiT or any other incentive will be applicable - standard “incentive agreements” with GSE, Italy’s energy regulation agency responsible, inter alia, for incentivizing and developing renewable energy sources in Italy and purchasing energy and re-selling it on the electricity market. Under such agreements, it is anticipated that GSE will grant the applicable FiT governing the purchase of electricity (FiTs are further detailed in “Material Effects of Government Regulations on the Italian PV Plants”).
 
All of our PV Plants are operational and the summaries below describe the material terms of the O&M Agreements executed in connection with such PV Plants.

Operation and Maintenance Agreements

General

As mentioned above, each of the PV Plants is operated and maintained by a local contractor pursuant to an O&M Agreement executed between such Contractor and our subsidiary that owns the PV Plant, or the PV Principal. Each O&M Agreement sets out the terms under which each of the Contractors is to operate and maintain the PV Plant once it becomes operational.

In our Talmei Yosef PV Plant and Talasol PV Plant, a technical adviser, or the Technical Advisor, was appointed by the Financing Entity, to monitor the performance of the services. Our current Technical Advisers in Spain and Israel is a leading technical firm which appears in the banks’ white list.

We expect that, if required, we could replace some or all of our current O&M Contractors with other contractors and service providers. However, we cannot ensure that if such replacement shall take place we will be able to receive the same terms and warranties from the new contractor. In addition, to the extent the relevant PV Plant received financing from a bank or other financing institution, the applicable financing agreement generally requires that we obtain the financing institution’s approval for the replacement of an O&M contractor.

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The Services

Each O&M Agreement governs the provision of the following services: (i) Subscription Services, which include Preventive Maintenance Services (maintenance services such as cleaning of panels and taking care of vegetation, surveillance, remote supervision of operation and full operational status of the PV Plant) and Corrective Maintenance Services (services to correct incidents arising at the PV Plant or to remedy any anomaly in the operation of the PV Plant), and (ii) Non-Subscription Services, which are all services outside the scope of the Subscription Services. In some cases, certain engagement agreements are executed by us directly with service providers (such as internet, security services, etc.).

The Consideration

Based on the range of services offered by the Contractor, the annual consideration for the Subscription Services in our operating PV Plants, other than Talasol, varies from €12,800 to €20,700 per MWp (linked to the local Consumer Price Index) for each of the PV Plants, paid in the majority of the PV Plants on a quarterly basis. The annual consideration for the Talasol O&M services amounts to approximately €2 million, paid on a monthly basis. The Subscription Services fee is fixed and the Contractor is not entitled to request an increase in the price due to the occurrence of unforeseen circumstances. This annual consideration does not include the price of the insurance policies to be obtained by the PV Principal, including all risk insurance policies.

Contractor’s Obligations, Representations and Warranties

The Contractor’s obligations under the O&M Agreement include, inter alia, the duty to diligently perform the operation and maintenance services in compliance with the applicable law and permits in a workmanlike manner and using the most advanced technologies, to manage the spare parts and replenish the inventory as needed, and to assist the PV Principal and the Financing Entity in dealing with the authorities by providing the necessary information required by such authorities. The Contractor represents and warrants, inter alia, that it holds the necessary permits and authorizations, and that it has the necessary skills and experience to perform the services contemplated by the O&M Agreement.

Termination

Each party may terminate the O&M Agreement (to the extent applicable, after obtaining the approval of the financing entity) if the other is in breach of any of its obligations that remain uncured for 30 days following written notice thereof.

The O&M Agreement is terminated if the Contractor is liquidated or becomes bankrupt or insolvent, and on other similar grounds, unless the PV Principal is willing to continue the O&M Agreement.

The O&M Agreement also provides the parties the option to withdraw from the agreement other than in the event of a breach by the other party, subject to certain circumstances and advance notice requirements.
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The Talasol PV Plant

In April 2017, we, through Ellomay Luxembourg, purchased 100% of the shares of Talasol for a purchase price of €10 million. An amount of €8 million out of such purchase price was deposited in escrow during May 2017. In October 2018, Ellomay Luxembourg paid €1 million as a down-payment based on an understanding reached with the sellers of the Talasol shares and in January 2019, following the fulfilment or waiver of the conditions subsequent, an additional amount of €7 million was paid to the sellers, thus releasing the €8 million escrow deposited in May 2017. An additional amount of €2 million was deposited in a trust account held in escrow and released to the sellers of Talasol in May 2020.

In June 2018, Talasol entered into an engineering, procurement & construction agreement, or the Talasol EPC Agreement, with METKA EGN Limited, or METKA EGN, following a tender process initiated by Talasol. The Talasol EPC Agreement provides a fixed and lump-sum amount of €192.5 million for the complete execution and performance of the works defined in the Talasol EPC Agreement. The works include the engineering, procurement and construction of the Talasol PV Plant and the ancillary facilities for injecting power into the grid, including a 400 kV step-up substation, the high voltage interconnection line to the point of connection to the grid and performance of two years of O&M services. METKA EGN is expected to complete the works under the EPC Agreement within a period of 16 months from the commencement date. The Talasol EPC Agreement includes additional standard provisions, including with respect to liquidated damages in connection with delays and performance, performance guarantees, suspension and termination.

In June 2018, Talasol executed a financial power swap, or the Talasol PPA, in respect of approximately 80% of the output of a prospective photovoltaic plant for a period of 10 years. The Talasol PPA was executed with a leading international energy company with a solid investment grade credit rating and a pan-European asset base, which is active in more than forty countries and has a proven track record in financial hedges. The power produced by the Talasol PV Plant is sold in the open market for the then current market power price. The Talasol PPA is expected to hedge the risks associated with fluctuating electricity market prices by allowing Talasol to secure a certain level of income for the power production included under the Talasol PPA. The hedging provides that if the market price goes below a price underpinned by the Talasol PPA, the Hedging Provider will pay Talasol the difference between the market price and the underpinned price, and if the market price is above the underpinned price, Talasol will pay the Hedging Provider the difference between the market price and the underpinned price. The hedge transaction became effective in March 2019.

In July 2018, Talasol executed a pre-hedge transaction with Goldman Sachs International in connection with the prospective project financing for the construction of a photovoltaic plant. The pre-hedge transaction is a fixed for floating interest rate swap intended to lock-in current market floating rates.

In April 2019, the Talasol PV Plant reached financial closing and we sold 49% of our holdings in Talasol to two entities and therefore our current ownership interest in the Talasol PV Plant is 51%.

As noted above, the Talasol PV Plant reached mechanical completion in September 2020 and was connected to the electricity grid and electricity production commenced at the end of December 2020. In parallel to the connection to the grid, hot commissioning tests have been initiated by the EPC contractor. PAC was achieved on January 27, 2021.
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Agreements with Partners in Talasol

On April 17, 2019, Ellomay Luxembourg executed a Credit Facilities Assignment and Sale and Purchase of Shares Agreement, or the Talasol SPA, with GSE 3 UK Limited and Fond-ICO Infraestructuras II, FICC, or, together, the Talasol Partners, pursuant to which it agreed to sell to each of the Talasol Partners 24.5% of its holdings in Talasol.

The Talasol SPA further provided that Ellomay Luxembourg would assign to the Talasol Partners, in equal parts, 49% of its rights and obligations under the agreements executed in connection with the project finance obtained for the Talasol PV Plant. The Talasol SPA provided that the legal risks will be transferred to the Talasol Partners on the closing date and the economic yields and results of operations of Talasol’s business will be transferred to the Talasol Partners as from December 31, 2018.

The Talasol SPA included customary representations and warranties of Ellomay Luxembourg and the Talasol Partners and a mutual indemnification mechanism for breaches of representations and warranties or of undertakings, subject to time, minimum claims, minimum aggregate claims and maximum liability limitations, as a sole remedy, subject to customary exceptions. The consummation of the transactions contemplated by the Talasol SPA was subject to the fulfillment or waiver of several customary conditions precedent by June 30, 2019, including the fulfillment of all conditions precedent under the Talasol PV Plant’s project finance and the entry by the Talasol Partners into an equity support agreement.

The transactions contemplated under the Talasol SPA were consummated in April 2019. The aggregate purchase price paid by the Talasol Partners, in the amount of approximately €16.1 million, represented 49% of the amounts withdrawn and interests accrued from and by Talasol under its shareholder development costs credit facility in connection with the Talasol PV Plant’s financing as of the closing date of the Talasol SPA (approximately €4.9 million), plus a payment for 49% of Talasol’s shares (approximately €4.9 million) plus a premium of approximately €6.1 million. Of such aggregate purchase price, the payment of €1.4 million was deferred until the achievement of a preliminary acceptance certificate, or PAC, under the EPC agreement of the Talasol PV Plant. Following the achievement of PAC on January 27, 2021 the deferred payment amount of €1.4 million was received by Ellomay Luxembourg.

On the closing date of the Talasol SPA, Ellomay Luxembourg and the Talasol Partners entered into a Partners’ Agreement, or the Talasol PA, setting forth the relationship between the prospective shareholders of Talasol, the governance and management of Talasol, the funding and financing of Talasol and the mechanism for future transfers of Talasol’s shares. The Talasol PA provides that all matters brought for a vote at a partners’ meeting, other than specific reserved matters, will be adopted by the majorities set forth in the Spanish Companies Act. The Talasol PA includes minority rights for the Talasol Partners, and provides that we will appoint the majority of the board members and that all matters brought for a vote at a board of directors meeting will be adopted by a simple majority of the directors, other than specific matters.

The Talasol PA further provides that Ellomay Luxembourg will be entitled to receive a management fee from Talasol in consideration for the administrative, support and management services to be provided to Talasol by Ellomay Luxembourg. The Talasol PA includes restrictions on transfer of the shares of Talasol by Ellomay Luxembourg and any of the Talasol Partners, which is prohibited for a certain period (other than in connection with certain customary permitted transfers) and thereafter is subject to a right of first offer, tag along rights granted to the Talasol Partners on sales by Ellomay Luxembourg and a drag along right granted to Ellomay Luxembourg.
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The Talasol PV Plant has entered into its operational stage, which entails several risks and uncertainties. For more information concerning these and other risks see under “Risk Factors - Risks Related to our Business.” The projected production, revenues and other future results and outcomes included herein are based on the current expectations and assumptions of the Company and its advisors and are subject to various conditions and circumstances.

Talasol PV Plant Project Finance

The Talasol PV Plant obtained project financing in connection with the commencement of its construction. During January 2022, Talasol refinanced the Talasol Previous Financing by entering into the Talasol New Financing. For more information concerning the Talasol New Financing, see “Item 4.A: History and Development of Ellomay; Recent Developments” and for more information concerning the Talasol Previous Financing see “Item 5.B: Liquidity and Capital Resources.”

Ellomay Solar

On February 26, 2021, Ellomay Solar entered into an engineering, procurement & construction agreement in connection with the Ellomay Solar Project with METKA EGN Spain S.L.U., a 100% indirect subsidiary of MYTILINEOS S.A., under the Renewables & Storage Development Business Unit.

The Ellomay Solar EPC Agreement provides a fixed and lump-sum amount of €15.82 million for the complete execution and performance of the works defined in the EPC Agreement. The works include the engineering, procurement and construction of the Ellomay Solar Project and the ancillary facilities for injecting power into the grid and performance of two years of O&M services. The EPC Agreement contains additional standard provisions, including liquidated damages in connection with delays and performance, performance guarantees, suspension and termination.

METKA EGN Spain is expected to complete the works under the EPC Agreement within a period of 9 months from receipt of the Notice to Proceed. The early works commenced on March 1, 2021 and the Notice to Proceed was granted on June 7, 2021. The Ellomay Solar project is waiting for final permits and the achievement of PAC (preliminary acceptance certificate) of the photovoltaic plant held by Ellomay Solar is expected by the end of April 2022.

Israeli Tender Process for PV plus Storage

On July 19, 2020, we were notified that we are one of the winners of a first-in-kind quota tender process published by the Israeli Electricity Authority for combined photovoltaic and electricity storage facilities in Israel. The tariff per kWh determined in the tender process is NIS 0.199 for a quota of 20 MW. This tariff is linked to the Israeli CPI and is valid for a period of 23 years commencing on the commercial operation of each relevant facility.
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As noted, the tender process was for a quota and we are currently examining and expect to further examine potential sites for the construction of the facilities. With respect to each project we will be required to obtain approvals, if applicable, from the ILA in connection with the site for such project, and to take all other actions necessary for the promotion of such project. Pursuant to the terms of the tender, we are further required to receive approvals for connection to the electricity grid and a grid synchronization approval from the Israeli Electric Company within up to 37 months. Following the receipt of the notice from the Israeli Electricity Authority, we submitted a performance guarantee in an aggregate amount of NIS 12 million (approximately €3 million based on the euro/NIS exchange rate at that time).

The continued development and construction of the facilities depends upon various factors, including, but not limited to, the Company’s ability to locate sites for construction, enter into EPC agreements and obtain project finance and all other required approvals, all upon terms acceptable to us. Therefore, there is no assurance as to whether and when such process will be completed.

Framework Agreements for the Development of PV Projects in Italy

First Framework Agreement

In November 2019, Ellomay Luxembourg executed a Framework Agreement, or the First Framework Agreement, with an established and experienced European developer and contractor. Pursuant to the First Framework Agreement, the developer will scout and develop photovoltaic greenfield projects in Italy with the aim of reaching an aggregate authorized capacity of at least 250 MW over a three-year period.

The First Framework Agreement provides that each project will be presented to Ellomay Luxembourg when it becomes “ready to build”. Thereafter, if Ellomay Luxembourg accepts the project, the developer is obligated to transfer to Ellomay Luxembourg 100% of the share capital of the entity that holds the rights to the project. With respect to each project, subject to the conditions set forth in the First Framework Agreement, Ellomay Luxembourg will enter into engineering, procurement and construction, or EPC, and O&M contracts with the developer to construct and operate the projects.

The First Framework Agreement provides that when the first project under the First Framework Agreement achieves the positive environmental impact assessment, the parties will negotiate the terms of a model lump-sum, turnkey EPC contract and O&M contract that will be executed with the developer in connection with all projects acquired under the First Framework Agreement.

In connection with the execution of the First Framework Agreement, Ellomay Luxembourg paid the developer an advance payment of approximately €1.2 million, based on the target aggregate project capacity of 250 MW, and undertook to pay an additional advance payment per each project when the project submits its environmental impact assessment application. As of March 1, 2022 the additional advance payment paid amounted to approximately €0.3 million.  In the event the target aggregate capacity is not achieved within a three-year period or in the event a project does not reach “ready to build” status, the advance payment will be proportionately refunded.
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The advancement and development of projects that will become part of the First Framework Agreement is subject to various conditions, including receipt of regulatory approvals and authorizations and procurement of land rights. There can be no assurance as to the aggregate capacity of projects that will reach the “ready to build” status and as to the number and aggregate capacity of projects that Ellomay Luxembourg will decide to acquire, and any such future decision will be subject to the relevant circumstances existing at the time a project reaches the “ready to build” status under the First Framework Agreement.

Second Framework Agreement

In December 2019, Ellomay Luxembourg executed an additional Framework Agreement, or the Second Framework Agreement, with an established and experienced European developer. Pursuant to the Second Framework Agreement, the developer will provide Ellomay Luxembourg with development services with respect to photovoltaic greenfield projects in Italy in the scope of 350 MW with the aim of reaching an aggregate “ready to build” authorized capacity of at least 265 MW over a forty-one month period.

The Second Framework Agreement provides that the developer will offer all projects identified during the term of the Second Framework Agreement exclusively to Ellomay Luxembourg and that, with respect to each project acquired by Ellomay Luxembourg, the developer will be entitled to provide development services until it reaches the “ready to build” status. The parties agreed on a development budget including a monthly development service consideration, to be paid to the developer and all other payments for the tasks required to bring the projects to a ready to build. In addition, Ellomay Luxembourg undertook to pay a success fee to the developer with respect to each project that achieves a “ready to build” status. Currently development is progressing as planned.

In April 2021, the Second Framework Agreement was amended and the target of reaching an aggregate “ready to build” authorized capacity of at least 265 MW was increased to 365 MW.

In February 2022, EPC agreements were executed with respect to the first two projects in Italy that are in advanced development stages (with an aggregate capacity of approximately 20 MW) and construction of such projects commenced during January 2022. Construction of another adjacent project (15MW) is currently expected to commence during the second quarter of 2022.

The advancement and development of projects that will become part of the Second Framework Agreement is subject to various conditions, including receipt of regulatory approvals and authorizations and procurement of land rights. There can be no assurance as to the aggregate capacity of projects that will by identified by the developer and that will thereafter reach the “ready to build” status, and as to our decision and success in completing construction of any of such projects. Any future decision of the Company with respect to the continued development of projects will be subject to the relevant circumstances existing at the time such decision will be made. In addition, projects in the construction stage are exposed to several risks, including delays in supply of equipment and defaults by contractors. Covid-19’s impact on the manufacturing and supply chains worldwide, may delay or prevent construction of projects.

Sale of Italian PV Portfolio

On December 20, 2019, we sold ten Italian indirect wholly-owned subsidiaries, which own twelve photovoltaic plants with an aggregate nominal capacity of approximately 22.6 MW, or the Italian PV Portfolio, and sold the sale of the receivables arising from shareholder loans provided to such companies. The purchase price was €38.7 million (after approximately €2.3 million adjustments in connection with funds received by us from the Italian subsidiaries during 2019). The Sale and Purchase Agreement governing the sale of the subsidiaries and the receivables includes customary representations and warranties and indemnification mechanisms, including specific indemnification for existing risks for a limited time as follows: (i) indemnification in the amount of up to €0.25 million in connection with potential tax liabilities (until December 31, 2023), (ii) indemnification in the amount of up to €0.5 million in connection with potential incentive reduction under limited circumstances in one of the Italian subsidiaries sold (until December 31, 2023), and (iii) indemnification in the amount of up to €2.1 million in connection with potential incentive reduction under limited circumstances in one of the Italian subsidiaries sold until June 30, 2021. In connection with such indemnification undertakings, we recorded expenses in the amount of approximately €2.1 million following the announcement received from Gestore dei Servizi Elettrici, or GSE, Italy’s energy regulation agency, claiming alleged non-compliance of the installed modules with the required certifications under the applicable regulation and raising the need to examine incentive eligibility implications. In 2020, with the cooperation of the acquirer of the Italian subsidiaries, an appeal was submitted to GSE. Following the positive outcome of such appeal, the provision for the potential indemnification of approximately €2.1 million was cancelled.
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Competition

Our competitors are mostly other entities that seek land and contractors to construct new power plants on their behalf or seek to purchase existing photovoltaic power plants. The competition in the Israeli photovoltaic sector concentrates on the ability to receive licenses from the Israeli Electricity Authority for the construction of new photovoltaic plants, which is subject to a quota as more fully described below and the ability to acquire existing plants that were already granted an electricity production license. The market for solar energy is intensely competitive and rapidly evolving, and many of our competitors who strive to construct new solar power plants have established more prominent market positions and are more experienced in this field. Our competitors in this market include Etrion Corporation (TSX, TO:ETX), Sunflower Sustainable Investments Ltd. (TASE:SNFL), Enlight Renewable Energy Ltd. (TASE:ENLT), Energixs Renewable Energies Ltd. (TASE:ENRG), Allerion Clean Power S.p.A. (ARN.MI), NextEra Energy Partners (NYSE:NEP), NRG Yield (NASD:NYLD), TransAlta Renewables (TSX:RNW), Pattern Energy Group (NASD:PEGI), Abengoa Yield PLC (NASD:ABY), NextEnergy Solar Fund Limited (LSE:NESF), Bluefield Solar Income Fund Limited (LSE:BSIF), Infinis Energy PLC (LSE:INFI), The Renewables Infrastructure Group Limited (LSE:TRIG) and TerraForm Power, Inc. (NASD:TERP). If we fail to attract and retain ongoing relationships with solar plants developers, we will be unable to reach additional agreements for the development and operation of additional solar plants, should we wish to do so.

Customers

The customers of our PV Plants are generally the local operators of the national grid and our PV Plants do not provide electricity or enter into power purchase agreements with private customers. The agreements with the customers include customary termination provisions, including in connection with breaches of the electricity producer and in the event the plant causes disruptions with the grid.

Seasonality

Solar power production has a seasonal cycle due to its dependency on the direct and indirect sunlight and the effect the amount of sunlight has on the output of energy produced. Although we received the technical calculation of the average production recorded in the area of each of our PV Plants from our technical advisors and incorporated such data into our financial models, adverse meteorological conditions can have a material impact on the PV Plants’ output and could result in production of electricity below expected output.
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Sources and Availability of Components of the Solar Power Plant

As noted above, the construction of our PV Plants entails the assembly of solar panels and inverters purchased from third party suppliers. A critical factor in the success of our PV Plants is the existence of reliable panel suppliers, who guaranty the performance and quality of the panels supplied. Degradation in such performance above a certain minimum level, generally 90% during the initial ten year period and 80% during the following ten-fifteen year period, is guaranteed by the panel suppliers. However, if any supplier is unreliable or becomes insolvent, it may default on warranty obligations.

There are currently sufficient numbers of solar panel manufacturers at sufficient quality and we are not currently dependent on one or more specific suppliers.

In addition, silicon is a dominant component of the solar panels, and although manufacturing abilities have increased over-time, any shortage of silicon, or any other material component necessary for the manufacture of the solar panels, may adversely affect our business.

The COVID-19 pandemic has put pressure on global supply chains with factory closures, import tariffs, shortages of raw materials, and shipping bottlenecks creating supply chain shortages and delays. It may take several years until solar module prices stabilize.

Material Effects of Government Regulations on the PV Plants

The development, construction and operation of a photovoltaic plant is subject to complex legislation covering, inter alia, building permits, licenses, the governmental long-term incentive scheme and security considerations. The following is a brief summary of the regulations applicable to our PV Plants.

Material Effects of Government Regulations on the Italian PV Plants

The regulatory framework surrounding photovoltaic plants located in Italy consists of legislation at the Italian national and local level. Relevant European legislation has been incorporated into Italian legislation, as described below.

National Legislation

(i)          Construction Authorizations

Construction of a photovoltaic plants is subject to receipt of appropriate construction authorizations, pursuant to Legislative Decree no. 380 of 2001, or Decree 380, and Legislative Decree 29 December 2003 no. 387, or Decree 387, the latter of which implements European Directive no. 77 of 2001 on the promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources in the internal electricity market.
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Decree 387 aims to promote renewable energies, inter alia by simplifying the procedures required to commence constructions. In particular, it regulates the so-called Autorizzazione Unica, or AU, in relation to renewable energy plants. The AU is an authorization issued by the Region in which the construction is to take place, or by other local competent authorities, and which joins together all permits, authorizations and opinions that would otherwise be necessary to begin construction (such as, building licenses, landscape authorizations, permits for the interconnection facilities, etc.). The only authorization not included in the AU is the environmental impact assessment (valutazione di impatto ambientale, or VIA, see below), which needs to be obtained before the AU procedure is started. The AU is issued following a procedure called Conferenza di Servizi in which all relevant entities and authorities participate. Such procedure is expected to be completed within 180 days of the filing of the relevant application, but such term is not mandatory and cannot entirely be relied upon.

Decree 380, which is the general law on building administrative procedures, provided another track for obtaining the construction permit. Pursuant to this decree, the construction authorization can be obtained through a permesso di costruire, or the Building Permit, which is an express authorization granted by the competent municipality. Upon positive outcome of the municipality’s review, the Building Permit is granted. Works must start, under penalty of forfeiture of the Building Permit, within one year following the date of issuance, and must be completed within the following three years.

Decree 380 also regulates the so-called Dichiarazione di inizio attività, or DIA, procedure. DIA is a self-certification process whereby the applicant declares that the project in question complies with all relevant requirements and conditions. The competent authority can deny the authorization within 30 days of receipt of DIA; should such a denial not be issued within such term - which is mandatory - the authorization shall be deemed granted and the applicant is allowed to start the works. The DIA procedure can be used in relation to plants whose power is lower than 20 kW. Since the expected power output of the PV Plants exceeds 20kW, the DIA is not available for the PV Plants. With the entry into force of the Romani Decree on March 29, 2011, which implemented European applicable directives (in particular, directive no. 28 of 2009), the DIA procedure has been replaced, with respect to plants fed by renewable energy sources, by the so called procedura abilitativa semplificata, or PAS, according to which, very similarly to the DIA procedure, an applicant can start construction of a plant after 30 days of the filing of the application with the competent Municipality provided that the latter has in such time not raised objections and/or requested integrations. With respect to photovoltaic plants, under the Romani Decree the PAS applies to plants with a power up to 20 kWp, and regions can increase such threshold up to 1 MWp. Furthermore, Decree Law no. 76/2020 (“Decreto Semplificazioni”) has provided that also in relation to PV plants non-substantial modifications can be authorized through the so called dichiarazione di inizio lavori asseverata, i.e. a self-declaration confirmed by a qualified surveyor based on which the relevant works can start immediately.

Decree-Law no. 77/2021 (Decreto Semplificazioni bis) has introduced new provisions mainly aimed at further simplifying and harmonizing the authorization procedures, inter alia by reducing procedural and consultation schedules and providing that PAS procedure can apply also for big-size plants when they are located in specific areas (such as industrial or commercial areas, or former quarries or dumps). Furthermore, overcoming the previous prohibition, this Decree established that, subject to certain conditions, PV plants located on agricultural areas will be eligible for incentives.
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In the past, Italian photovoltaic projects relied on three AUs, three DIAs and six Building Permits. Based on the current regulatory regime, a project to construct a photovoltaic plant in Italy requires the AU, subject to the terms and conditions included therein, or, for cases in which PAS applies, subject to the positive outcome of the relevant procedure.
 
 (ii)          Connection to the National Grid
 
The procedures for the connection to the national grid are provided by the Authority for Electric Energy and Gas, or AEEGSI. Currently, the procedure to be followed for the connection is regulated by the AEEGSI Resolution no. 99 of 2008 (Testo Integrato delle Connessioni Attive, or TICA) which replaces previous legislation and has subsequently been integrated and partially amended by AEEGSI Resolutions no. 124/2010 and 125/2010. According to TICA, an application for connection must be filed with the competent local grid operator, after which the latter notifies the applicant the estimated time for connection, or STMC. The STMC shall be accepted within 45 days of issuance. However, in order for the authorization to the connection to become definitive, all relevant authorization procedures (such as easements, ministerial nulla osta, etc.) must be successfully completed.
 
There are three alternative modalities to sell electricity:


a.
by way of sale on the electricity market (Italian Power Exchange IPEX), the so called “Borsa Elettrica”;


b.
through bilateral contracts with wholesale dealers; and


c.
via the so-called “Dedicated Withdrawal” introduced by AEEGSI Resolution no. 280/07 and subsequent amendments. This is the most common way of selling electricity, as it affords direct and quick negotiations with the national energy handler (GSE), which will in turn deal with energy buyers on the market.

The Incentive Tariff System for Photovoltaic Plants

The Italian government promotes renewable energies by providing certain incentives. In the past, these incentives were provided mainly through granting of a fixed FiT for a period of 20 years from connection of a photovoltaic plant. The FiT was determined with reference to the nominal power of the plant, the characteristics of the plant (plants are divided into non-integrated; partially integrated and architecturally integrated) and the year on which the plant has been connected to the grid.
 
On July 4, 2019, the Italian Ministry for Economic Development issued a decree setting out a new incentive scheme for renewable energy plants including PV (so called “FER1 Decree”).
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With respect to PV, the FER1 Decree provides incentives the amount of which is mainly based on the plant capacity. Additional bonuses are granted to plants below 1 MWp installed as replacement of asbestos rooftops (inserted in a group called “A2”) and to plants with power below 100 kW installed on buildings provided that the amount of self-consumed energy is equal at least to 40% of the total net production (€10/MWh). Below is a table summarizing the amount of the applicable reference tariff:
 
 
Plant Type
Power level (kW)
Reference Tariff
(€/MWh)
A2 plants Bonus (€/MWh)
Bonus for self-consumption (€/MWh)
 
Group A
20 <P 100
105
-
10
100 <P ≤1000
90
-
-
P>1000
70
-
-
Group A2
 
20 <P 100
105
12
10
100 <P ≤1000
90
12
-
 
Incentives are awarded for a period of 20 years at the outcome of seven tenders held between September 2019 and September 2021 (with different procedures depending on whether the plant is below or above 1MWp), whereby the effective granted tariff will be equal to the reference tariff as reduced by the percentage reduction offered by the applicant.
 
Award of the incentive is based on a number of hierarchic criteria that differ for plants below or above 1MWp.
 
With respect to plants below 1MW, the first criterion is the installation of the plant in areas such as closed dumps or mines, or (for A2 plants) on public buildings such as schools or hospitals. This is aimed at giving preference to environment-friendly plants and therefore, for the avoidance of doubt, such plants will be preferred to other plants even if the tariff reduction set out in the application is lower.
 
With respect to plants above 1MW, the first criterion is instead the tariff percentage reduction.
 
For plants above 250KW, the incentive is paid by GSE as positive balance between the tariff and the energy price (i.e. the zonal hourly price); if the balance is negative, GSE is entitled to be returned the relevant amount by the producer. For plants below 250KW, the producer can also request that GSE pay the incentive as all-inclusive tariff (tariffa onnicompreensiva).
 
The incentives provided by the FER1 Decree cannot be cumulated with the ones provided under the various Conto Energia and are in any case subject to achievement of an overall cap equal to an annual medium cost for incentives of €5.8 billion per year.
 
Other Renewable Energy Incentives

Legislative Decree no. 79 of 1999 implements the so-called “priority of dispatch” principle to the marketing of renewable energies, which means that the demand for electricity must be first satisfied by renewable energies.
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In other words, in light of the increasing demand of energy, the sale of the total output of power plants fueled by renewable sources is required by law, and the government must buy power from solar power plants that wish to sell to it, before it can buy the remainder of its power needs from fossil fuel energy resources.
 
Developments regarding the Italian incentive system and the electric energy sale price since 2013
 
(i) The so called “Fare 2” Decree
 
The Ministry of Economic Development issued a draft decree, or the Fare 2 Decree, which provided measures aimed at reducing the cost of energy for consumers.
 
Thereafter, such measures have been incorporated in a law proposal ancillary to the so called “Stability law” (i.e. the budget law to be approved on an annual basis to comply with EU financial requirements).  The abovementioned Fare 2 Decree has been replaced by another decree named Destinazione Italia, which was approved as a Law Decree by the Government and converted into Law n. 9, dated February 21, 2014.
 
This decree does not differ from the Fare 2 Decree as to the matters set forth above, and provides, in particular:
 

a measure consisting of granting the option to access a new revised incentive plan. This specific provision applies to producers of renewable energy and owners of plants to which the “all-inclusive tariff” (tariffa omnicomprensiva) or certain “Green Certificates” (certificati verdi) apply and provides an alternative incentive system for production of renewable energy, which can be activated voluntarily on demand of each producer. The latter must choose either to continue maintaining the same incentive regime for the remaining period of duration of the plan, or access a new plan, enforced for the remaining duration of the plan extended by 7 years, but with a correspondent reduction in the nominal amount of the incentive, in a percentage which varies based on, inter alia, the remaining duration of the plan and the type of energy source.
 

a replacement, starting from January 1, 2014, of the minimum guaranteed prices currently foreseen under the Italian mandatory purchase regime with the zonal hourly prices set out for each specific area (so called prezzi zonali orari, i.e. the average monthly price, correspondent to each hour, as resulting from the electric market price on the area where the PV plant is located). The replacement of minimum guaranteed prices with zonal prices applies to PV plants exceeding 100kWp.
 
Based on the above mentioned provision, the minimum guaranteed prices for energy produced by renewable energy sources have been abolished and the prices that are awarded to such plants are equal to the hourly zonal prices.
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On February 26, 2014, GSE published the following new rules regarding the conditions for access to the minimum prices for photovoltaic plants. Therefore, commencing January 1, 2014, the minimum prices as defined by AEEGSI, are equal to:


For photovoltaic plants with an installed capacity of up to and including 100 kW that benefit from incentives and photovoltaic plants with an installed capacity of up to and including 1 MW that do not benefit from incentives – the minimum price, as defined by AEEGSI; and
 

For other photovoltaic plants – the hourly zonal price.
 
(ii) Minimum Guaranteed Prices determined by AEEGSI
 
AEEGSI opinion n. 483/2013
 
In parallel with the above-described legislative procedure, on October 31, 2013, AEEGSI (i.e., the Italian authority for electric energy) issued a document whereby it started a consultation process aimed at re-determining the amount of the minimum guaranteed prices from which electric energy produced through renewable sources currently benefit under the mandatory purchase regime.
 
This document illustrates the current regime of minimum guaranteed prices and identifies possible issues with respect to which other interested entities may set forth their position.
 
In such document AEEGSI identifies (based on a quantification of standard operational costs) euro 0.0378/Kwh as the price that could be guaranteed to PV plants with nominal power higher than 20kWp, without any progressive diversification (as currently applying in 2013, from euro 0.106/Kwh for the first 3,750 Kwh annual production, through euro 0.0952/Kwh for annual production of electricity up to 25 MWh, and until euro 0.0806/Kwh for annual production of electricity up to 2,000 Mwh) and provided that should such price be lower than the zonal hourly price, the zonal hourly price shall apply.
 
AEEGSI Resolution n. 618/2013
 
 On December 19, 2013, AEEGSI issued a new resolution, determining the new reduced minimum guaranteed prices applicable commencing January 1, 2014 (subject to an annual update), by means of the amendment of AEEGSI Resolution n. 280/2007.
 
(iii) AAEG resolution 36/E on depreciation of PV Plants
 
Resolution n. 36/E dated December 19, 2013, highlighted, that, in case of plants qualified as real estate (which is the case of all of our Italian PV Plants), the depreciation rate for tax purposes will be the same as the depreciation rate for “industry manufacturer” (i.e. 4%).
 
(iv) Imbalance costs under AEEGSI Resolution n. 281/2012
 
On January 1, 2013 AEEGSI Resolution n. 281/2012 (subsequently also implemented by Resolution n. 343/2012), or the AEEGSI Resolution, entered into force, aiming at charging the PV plant owners with the costs relating to the electric system (so called “imbalance costs”) that are the result of an inaccurate forecast of the production of electric energy, particularly in cases in which the owner is party to the mandatory purchase regime with GSE.
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Such costs are mainly due to the fact that under the mandatory purchase regime GSE buys electric energy on the basis of a production forecast that may not be fully accurate; such circumstance causes the GSE to bear costs in connection with the re-sale of electric energy on the market; before Resolution n. 281/2012, such costs were borne by final consumers.
 
In order to transfer such costs to the owners of the PV plants, AEEGSI Resolution n. 281/2012 has mainly provided two types of measures:
 

(i)
imbalance costs are to be borne by the owners of PV plants, in an amount calculated by multiplying the discrepancy of the production forecast by a fixed parameter;


(ii)
in the case that the owner of the PV plant is party to the GSE mandatory purchase regime, administrative costs borne by GSE in connection with forecast services are to be charged on the owner.
 
On June 24, 2013, the administrative Court of the Lombardia Region annulled the parts of AEEGSI Resolution 281/2012 relating to the imbalance costs as the AEEGSI Resolution 281/2012 should apply to programmable sources which should have a different treatment than non-programmable renewable energy sources, such as photovoltaic plants.
 
This judgment was challenged on September 11, 2013 by AEEGSI before the Consiglio di Stato (the Italian supreme administrative Court), which, on June 9, 2014, had rejected the appeal thus confirming the decision of the Court of Lombardia and the partial annulment of the AEEGSI Resolution no. 281/2012. Following said judgment, as of January 1, 2015, AEEGSI reviewed the provisions regarding imbalance costs for non-programmable renewable energy sources. In particular, AEEGSI considered it advisable to provide that beneficiaries of the dispatchment (i.e. of the management of the energy transferred into the national grid and its distribution) may choose, for each of the dispatchment points owned, between two different criteria for the determination of imbalancing costs:
 

1.
application of the actual imbalancing (i.e., the difference, hour by hour, between the measurement of the energy delivered/withdrawn into the grid in one day and the final delivery/withdrawal program as a consequence of the closing of the Electrical Markets and the Dispatchment Services Market).

In other words, based on the first option, production units powered by non-programmable renewable energy are subject to the same criteria of determination of imbalancing (regolazione di valorizzazione degli sbilanciamenti) applicable to the programmable ones.


2.
sum of three components, which are a result of the application:
 

to the actual imbalancing which falls within the tolerated thresholds of the price equal to that provided under section 40.3 of Resolution AEEGSI SI 111/06, as amended by Resolution 522/2014/R/eel; and

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to the actual imbalancing exceeding the tolerated thresholds of the price equal to that provided under section 30.4(b) of Resolution AEEGSISI 111/06, as amended by Resolution 522/2014/R/eel.

These two amounts must be calculated pursuant to specific technical formulas.


to the actual imbalancing which falls within the tolerated thresholds, considered as an absolute value, of an imbalancing price equal to the area quota. The area quota must be intended as the ratio between the imbalancing costs which have not been allocated pursuant to the two aforementioned points and the sum of the absolute values of imbalancing costs, which fall within the tolerated thresholds.

This second option, therefore, provides the application of tolerance thresholds to the amended and corrected binding program, which are differentiated by source (in particular, 31% of the program for solar energy), so that all imbalancing costs are allocated among producers of energy through non-programmable sources.

As in the previous regulation, AEEGSI provided that for both production units subject to the ritiro dedicato regime and those who applied to the fixed omni-comprihensive tariff, imbalancing costs and the counter-value deriving from participation in the daily market (“mercato infragiornaliero” or “MI”) are transferred from GSE to the same producers pursuant to the provisions defined by GSE under its Technical Rules.

A new resolution (no. 444 of 2016) was adopted by AEEGSI in July 2016 partly amending the previously applying modalities of payment of imbalancing. Such resolution established that, commencing January 2017 (for PV plants with a capacity lower than 10 MWp), the discrepancy between planned and effective energy input/withdrawn shall not exceed 7.5% (+/-). In the case that such threshold is exceeded, the price paid for positive imbalancing will be reduced in such measure as not to allow any profit to the producer in relation to the forecast in question. Prior to this resolution, distortive practices were often used by intentionally providing energy production forecasts materially different from the actual production in order to maximize revenues deriving from positive imbalancing payments. The provisions of resolution 444/2016 aim at incentivizing producers to keep imbalancing within said limits (+/- 7.5%).
 
(v) Law 116/2014 on the tariff cuts
 
In August 2014, law 116/2014 (so called “spalma incentivi”), providing for a decrease in the FiT guaranteed to existing photovoltaic plants with nominal capacity of more than 200 kW, or Law 116/2014, was approved by the Italian Parliament. Pursuant to Law 116/2014, operators of existing photovoltaic plants, which received a guaranteed 20-year FiT under current Italian legislation, were required to choose between the following four alternatives:
 

(i)
a reduction of 8% in the FiT for photovoltaic plants with nominal capacity above 900 kW, a reduction of 7% in the FiT for photovoltaic plants with nominal capacity between 500 kW and 900 kW and a reduction of 6% in the FiT for photovoltaic plants with nominal capacity between 200 kW and 500 kW (i.e., out of the twelve Italian photovoltaic plants owned by us, eight would be subject to a reduction of 8% in the FiT and four would be subject to a reduction of 7% in the FiT);

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(ii)
extending the 20-year term of the FiT to 24 years with a reduction in the FiT in a range of 17%-25%, depending on the time remaining on the term of the FiT for the relevant photovoltaic plant, with higher reductions applicable to photovoltaic plants that commenced operations earlier (based on the remaining years in the initial guaranteed FiT period of our existing Italian photovoltaic plants, the expected reduction in the FiT for the our photovoltaic plants would have been approximately 19%);


(iii)
a rescheduling in the FiT so that during an initial period the FiT is reduced and during the second period the FiT is increased in the same amount of the reduction with the goal to guarantee an annual saving of at least €600 million by the Italian public between 2015 and 2019, assuming all photovoltaic operators opt for this alternative); or


(iv)
the beneficiaries of FiT incentive schemes can sell up to 80% of the revenues deriving from the incentives generated by the photovoltaic plant to a selected buyer to be identified among the top EU banks. The selected buyer will become eligible to receive the original FiT and will not be subject to the changes set forth in alternatives (i) through (iii) above.

The photovoltaic plant operators were required to make a choice by November 30, 2014, with effect commencing January 1, 2015. Operators that did not make a choice became automatically subject to the first option.
 
Interventions on operating plants and incentives
 
On May 1, 2015, GSE issued a regulation called “Documento Tecnico di Riferimento”, or DTR, setting out the conditions subject to which a PV plant can continue benefitting from incentives despite modifications made to the PV plant due to revamping interventions. The terms of the DTR cover a number of circumstances (such as moving of the plant, modification of the connection point, variation of the installation method, replacement of components, modification of the capacity, etc.). The DTR was criticized for being too restrictive by many operators and relevant associations and in July 2015 the effectiveness of the DTR was suspended by GSE partly due to the fact that relevant measures are addressed in the scheme of new Italian decree dedicated to renewables (Nuovo Decreto FER). The new decree was adopted and entered into force in June 2016.
 
Although Nuovo Decreto FER is mostly dedicated to other forms of renewable energy, it provides measures that apply also to photovoltaic plants. Such measures include:
 
A. Measures on revamping interventions, which provide in particular that in order for a plant to continue benefitting from incentives, such interventions:
 

 (i)
shall not entail an increase of more than 1% (5% for plants up to 20 kWp) of the nominal power of the plant or its single units;


 (ii)
shall use new or regenerated components, in the case of definitive replacements; and


 (iii)
shall be communicated to GSE within 60 days.
 
further implementation measures on the procedures to be followed in case of revamping interventions (i.e., a new Documento Tecnico di Riferimento) were published in February 2017;
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B. Measures on the so called “fake fractioning”, providing in particular that in the case that two or more plants are:
 

 (i)
fed by the same renewable source;


 (ii)
owned by the same entity or by entities belonging to the same group; and


 (iii)
built on the same plot or on bordering plots;
 
such plants have to be considered as one plant with nominal power equal to the aggregate of the single plants’ respective powers. In such case, GSE will:
 

 (i)
re-determine the applicable tariff, if the procedures on tariff admission were complied with notwithstanding the fake fractioning; or


 (ii)
declare the retrospective forfeiture from the tariff, if the procedures on tariff admission were not complied with as a result of the fake fractioning.
 
In terms of sanctions by the GSE, the Italian Budget Law for 2018 includes a provision aimed at limiting GSE’s powers (so called “Benamati Amendment”).
 
Whereas the current provisions allow GSE to declare retrospective forfeiture from the incentives also for minor or anyway rather formal authorization irregularities, the new legislation provides that GSE shall in such cases only reduce incentive to 20%-80% of the original value, depending on the type of breach. Furthermore, it is provided that if notice of the breach is provided to GSE by the producer (before an assessment procedure commences) the reduction will be further reduced by one third. However, the referred legislation does not eliminate the possibility for declaration of forfeiture of the entire amount of the incentives in the event of most material breaches. Law no. 128 dated November 2, 2019 has subsequently introduced an amendment to said provision aimed at further limiting GSE’s sanctions. According to the new provision, GSE’s sanctions shall be limited to a reduction only comprised between 10% and 50% of the original value and, if the notice of the breach is provided by the producer, the reduction shall be further reduced by 50%. Decree Law no. 76/2020 has further extended the scope of the above limitations and stressed the fact that GSE’s controls shall be carried out within a reasonable term, which has been set in twelve months by Decree-Law no. 77/2021 (Decreto Semplificazioni bis).
 
The cases in which the reduction of the incentive can be declared are to be defined by the Ministry of Economic Development.
 
Red II Decree
 
On November 8, 2021, Legislative Decree no. 199, or the Red II Decree, has been issued, implementing the EU RED II Directive (Renewable Energy Directive, no. 2018/2001, or RED II Directive) on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources.
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The Red II Decree has set-up the framework for new incentives in the PV industry, which will have to be implemented through detailed legislation by August 2022. In particular, it has been provided that different incentives will be granted depending on the type of plant, and the main distinction is implemented between “small plants” (with capacity up to 1 MW) and “big plants” (with capacity higher than 1MW):
 

as to small plants, incentives will be awarded: (i) through direct access to incentives, as to plants with market competitive generation costs and plants belonging to energy communities or self-consumption configurations; and (ii) through tender procedures, as to innovative plants and plants with higher generation costs; and
 

as to big plants, incentives will be awarded through downward auction procedures.
 
Procedural simplifications and priority for the access to incentives are contemplated for suitable areas (aree idonee), such as areas where a plant is already installed, decontaminated areas, dumbs and quarries, and other areas for which criteria are to be defined by implementing legislation.
 
The amount of the incentives, as well as the financial commitment allocated thereto, shall be defined by future implementing decrees.
 
The Red II Decree has also set up an ad hoc definition of long term power purchase agreements (PPAs), defined as the contract by which a person or entity undertakes to purchase renewable sources electricity directly from an electricity producer. In that respect, the aim of the Red II Decree is to promote the utilization of PPAs, and in this respect, within 180 days of entry into force thereof, the following actions have been planned:
 

the creation of an online information board with the aim to facilitate the alignment of demand and offer;
 

the setting-up of a platform for the conclusion of PPAs (as already provided in previous legislation);
 

the definition of tender schemes for the supply of renewable source energy to public administration through PPAs; and
 

issuance of an ad hoc regulation in order to inform final customers as to PPAs, also in order to facilitate use thereof by consumers in aggregate shape.
 
Retention from Incentives for Panel Disposal
 
As part of the implementation of legislative decree 49/2014, in December 2015, GSE published the guidelines regarding disposal of PV panels that benefit from incentives. In particular, the decree had established that GSE was entitled to retain a certain amount from payment of incentives as a guarantee for the cost of disposal of the panels installed on PV plants and GSE set out the determination of such retention.
 
The guidelines provide that the retention shall start from the 11th year of incentive and shall be calculated, for plants with nominal capacity higher than 10 kWp, on the basis of the following formula:
 
[2 * (n – i + 1) / n * (n + 1)] * total quota
 
where “n” is equal to 10, “i” is the year in which the retention is applied, and “total quota” is n*number of panels (GSE has however reserved to amend the value of “n” after further assessment of disposal costs).
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For example, for a plant with 100 panels, based on the above formula the retention is equal to €181.82 for the first year and an aggregate amount of €1,000 for a ten-year period (assuming a duration of the incentive of 20 years).
 
The retention will be held by GSE in an interest-bearing escrow account and is to be returned to producers after evidence is provided to GSE that the panels have been disposed correctly. If such evidence is not provided, GSE will proceed by itself to the disposal of the panels and not return the retention to the producer.
 
The guidelines clarify that the retention shall apply also in the case that the incentive-related receivables have been the object of assignment (as is applicable to our financed projects).
 
Fourth and Fifth Conto Energia PV plants (except for certain specific type of plants) are exempt from the retention provided that the relevant panel producers are enrolled with consortia/institutions listed in an ad hoc register held by GSE.
 
Furthermore, in 2021 GSE has provided that as an alternative to the retention PV plant owners can provide a financial guarantee for the dismantling by joining an ad hoc set-up collective system.
 
New provisions regarding determination of cadastral value and so called “super-depreciation”
 
Art. 21 of Law 208/2015 (2016 Italian Budget Law) set out new criteria concerning the determination of the cadastral value of immovable assets with so called special and particular destination (i.e., those belonging to cadastral categories “D” and “E”). PV plants fall within the scope of such provision. Following issuance of the law, on February 1, 2016, the Italian Tax Office (Agenzia delle Entrate) published official clarifications to the scope of said provision. In connection with ground PV plants, the Italian Tax Office pointed out that, on the basis of the new provision, modules and inverters shall not be accounted in the determination of the associated cadastral value, which should entail a significant reduction in the calculation of the related tax burden.
 
With circular dated March 30, 2017, the Italian Tax Office further clarified that PV plants can be characterized as movable assets and particularly, as a result, will be subject to the so called “super-depreciation”, which allows them to increase the actual cost of the investment in PV plants by 40%, with associated significant fiscal benefits. During subsequent years such fiscal benefit has been partly amended; for 2022 a tax credit equal to 6% of the capital expenditure (up to a maximum of 2 million euros) has been provided.
 
Capacity Market
 
At the beginning of February 2018, the EU Commission approved the scheme presented by the Italian government for the setting up of the so-called “capacity market”. This has been approved for a period of 10 years and will allow producers of electric energy (including from PV sources) to participate in auctions whereby they will obtain additional remuneration for providing availability to produce electric energy.
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After consultation with the EU institutions and green light by the latter, the capacity market has been implemented through Decree dated June 28, 2019. However, the remuneration provided therein is not compatible with GSE incentives. Therefore, if a photovoltaic plant benefits from GSE incentives it cannot also benefit from incentives under the capacity market remuneration.
 
Material Effects of Government Regulations on the Spanish PV Plants

The Spanish general legal framework applicable to renewable energies

Law 24/2013, of December 27, 2013, of the Power Sector

The Spanish general legal framework applicable to renewable energies is contained in Law 24/2013, of December 27, 2013, of the Power Sector, or Law 24/2013, which sets forth the regulatory framework of the power sector with the objective of guaranteeing the electricity supply with an adequate level of quality, at the least possible cost, while ensuring the economic and financial sustainability of the system and pursuing effective competition in the power sector. At the same time, the principle of environmental sustainability is considered.

The economic and financial sustainability is the guiding principle for both the Spanish Public Administration and the agents acting under the scope of Law 24/2013, with a view to avoid the accumulation of new tariff deficits. According to Law 24/2013, incomes must be enough to cover expenses and, on the other hand, tariffs and charges must be automatically reviewed in case of overcoming certain established thresholds.

In accordance with Royal Decree-law 9/2013, dated July 12, 2013, which adopts several urgent measures in order to ensure the financial stability of the power system, or RDL 9/3013, Law 24/2013 regulates the new remuneration scheme of those renewable energy installations entitled to a regulated income, or the so called “Specific Remuneration,” in addition to the market price. Law 24/2013 sets forth the principle of reasonable profit for the sake of which the parameters to determine the regulated income are reviewed every six years.

In addition, Law 24/2013 establishes the priority access and dispatching of RES and high efficiency Combined Heat and Power in line with the EU Directives, and further develops the general criteria for access and dispatching by reinforcing the principles of objectivity and non- discrimination. Thereby, the reasons to refuse access are based on technical criteria exclusively.

Moreover, Law 24/2013 develops a specific regulatory framework for self-consumption. Law 24/2013 defines three different categories of self-consumption and obliges those installations connected to the grid to contribute to the costs and services of the system in the same conditions of the rest of customers. It also defines the activity of “recharging managers” (for electric vehicles).
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Royal Decree Law 15/2018

The Spanish general legal framework applicable to renewable energies includes Royal Decree Law 15/2018, of October 5, 2018, or RDL 15/2018, of urgent measures for energy transition and consumer protection. RDL 15/2018 includes, among others, the following:


 (i)
It introduces three principles in the activity of self-consumption: (i) the right to self-consume electricity without charges; (ii) the right to shared self-consumption by one or more consumers to take advantage of economies of scale; and (iii) administrative and technical simplification.

 
 (ii)
Any consumer – whether or not a direct consumer of the market – may acquire energy through bilateral contracting with a producer.


 (iii)
Regarding access and connection permits: (i) the validity of the access and connection permissions granted prior to the entry into force of Law 24/2013 is extended and the aforementioned permits will expire if they have not obtained the authorization of exploitation, on the later of: (a) before March 31, 2020, or (b) five years from the obtaining of the right of access and connection; (ii) the guarantees to be placed for the access and connection permits are increased from €10/kW to €40/kW; (iii) with regards to the actions carried out in the transport or distribution networks by the owners of the access and connection permits which must be developed by the grid operator or distributor, the promoter must advance 10% of the total investment value to be undertaken within a period not exceeding 12 months. Once the aforementioned amount has been paid and the administrative authorization for the generation facility has been obtained, its holder shall, within four months, enter into an Assignment Contract with the transportation grid operator or distributor, otherwise, the validity of the access and connection permits will expire.

Royal Decree-law 17/2019

On November 24, 2019, Royal Decree-law 17/2019, of November 22, or RDL 17/2019, enacted urgent measures for the necessary adaptation of remuneration parameters affecting the electricity system and responding to the process of cessation of activity of thermal generation plants. Among others, this new regulation updates the remuneration parameters of generation plants entitled to a specific remuneration for the regulatory period starting January 1, 2020, as further explained below.

New legislation applicable to renewable energies:

A.          Royal Decree-law 23/2020

On June 25, 2020, Royal Decree-Law 23/2020 of June 23, 2020, or RD-law 23/2020, came into force, approving measures in the energy sector and other sectors for the reactivation of the economy and introducing a series of new provisions focused on overcoming the obstacles identified in the energy transition process and established an attractive framework for renewable energy investments in Spain.

As a novelty, and in connection with the expiry of access and connection to the grid permits, RD-law 23/2020 established certain permitting milestones to be achieved by the promoters. Failure to do so, will result in expiration of the permits (except when the environmental permit was not granted for reasons not attributable to the promoter). The milestones set up in RD-law 23/2020 were modified by Royal Decree-Law 29/2021, of December 21, 2021, or RD-law 29/2021, as further explained below.
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B.          Royal Decree-law 29/2021

On December 23, 2021, RD-law 29/2021 came into force, approving urgent measures in the energy field for the promotion of electric mobility, self-consumption, and the deployment of renewable energies.

As a novelty, and in connection with self-consumption, RD-law 29/2021 establishes that installations associated with a self-consumption modality with a surplus installed power not exceeding 100 kW are exempt from presenting the guarantee unless they are part of a group whose power exceeds 1 MW. Likewise, RD-Law 29/2021 adopts measures to facilitate collective or shared self-consumption - in which several self-consumers benefit from a single installation - and extends this possibility to high voltage.

As for tax measures, RD-law 29/2021 provides that the 7% Tax on the Value of Electricity Production (IVPEE) will remain suspended until March 31, 2022.

Finally, the RD-law 29/2021 modifies the milestones established in RD-law 23/2021. In this sense, the dates foreseen in RDL 23/2020 for the intermediate milestones related to the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), the prior administrative authorization (PAA) and the construction authorization (CAA) have been extended for an additional nine months. All this, without extending the total period of five years for the final milestone of obtaining the administrative exploitation authorization.

Impact on the Talasol PV Plant

The exploitation authorization is required to be granted within five years from the entry into force of RD-law 23/2020 (i.e., by June 25, 2025) as modified by RD-law 29/2021 and was already granted.

Impact on the Ellomay Solar 28 MW Project The exploitation authorization is required to be granted within five years from the entry into force of RD-law 23/2020 (i.e., by June 25, 2025) as modified by RD-law 29/2021 and was granted on January 23, 2022.

Impact on Future PV projects in Spain

Until the moratorium (referred to below) is not released, it is not possible to request access and connection permits for this new project.

Once the access permit is granted to a project, the below milestones will apply (the starting date is the date the permit access was granted):


Request of connection permit required in 6 months.


Valid request of Prior Administrative Authorization required in 6 months.


Obtention of environmental permit required in 31 months.


Obtention of Prior Administrative Authorization required in 34 months.


Obtention of Construction Administrative Authorization required in 37 months.


Obtention of Exploitation Authorization required in 5 years.

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Impact on operating facilities

The above regulation does not affect our existing and operating facilities.

C.          Royal Decree 1183/2020

Royal Decree-law 1183/2020, or RD 1183/2020, was approved on December 30, 2020 and entered into force on December 31, 2020. RD 1183/2020 regulates in detail the procedure for obtaining access and connection permits. RDL 23/2020 established a moratorium by virtue of which it is not possible to request new access and connection permits until the regulation establishing the procedure for obtaining these was approved. This moratorium has been further extended by RD 1183/2020 until the available capacities in accordance with the new criteria established by the Spanish National Commission on Markets and Competition (CNMC) Circular 1/2021 (as defined below) are published. Finally, the approval of RD 1183/2020 determines the entry into force of art. 33.8 of Law 24/2013, which sets a validity of five (5) years of the access and connection permits.

RD 1183/2020 also regulates the access capacity tenders in certain nodes of the transmission grid for the integration of renewable energies.

D.          CNMC Circular 1/2021

The CNMC Circular 1/2021, or Circular 1/2021, establishing the methodology and conditions for access and connection to the electricity transmission and distribution networks, was published on January 22, 2021. Circular 1/2021 completes the regulation process related to access and connection to the electricity transmission and distribution networks. The regulation has been developed through the Resolution of May 20, 2021, explained further below.


E.
Resolution of May 20, 2021, of the CNMC, which establishes the detailed specifications for the determination of the generation access capacity to the transmission network and distribution networks

Resolution of May 20, 2021, contains the detailed specifications for the determination of the access capacity of generation to the transmission grid and distribution networks.

The purpose of the detailed specifications for the determination of the access capacity to the transmission grid for generation is to establish the particular aspects of criteria and methodology for the calculation of the access capacity to the transmission grid for generation or storage facilities, new or existing, which change their declared conditions, with direct connection to the transmission grid or with connection in distribution with influence on the transmission grid.

The detailed specifications for the determination of the generation access capacity to the distribution networks determine the criteria and methodology for the calculation of the access capacity to the distribution networks, the calculation of the access capacity to the distribution network in the processing of requests for access of generation or transmission requests for access of generation or storage facilities, whether new or existing that change their technical characteristics or existing facilities that change their significant technical characteristics.
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F.
Law 7/2021 of climate change and energy transition

Law 7/2021 of May 20, 2021 on climate change and energy transition, or Law 7/2021, establishes objectives for 2030 which include the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions of the Spanish economy by at least 23% compared to 1990; the penetration of renewable energies in final energy consumption of at least 42%; achieving an electricity system with at least 74% of generation from renewable energies and reduction of primary energy consumption by at least 39.5%. It also establishes that Spain must achieve climate neutrality by 2050 at the latest. The energy transition promoted by Law 7/2021 enables the mobilization of more than 200 billion euros of investment over the decade 2021-2030.


G.
Royal Decree-Law 17/2021, of September 14

Royal Decree-Law 17/2021, of September 14, or RD-law 17/2021, entered into force on September 16, 2021. From the entry into force of RD-law 17/2021, and until March 31, 2022, a temporary adjustment in the remuneration of certain generation facilities is foreseen, in proportion to the higher income obtained by such facilities due to the internalization in the price of electricity in the wholesale market of the increase in the price of natural gas in international markets by the marginal emitting technologies.

However, the following are excluded from the scope of application of RD-law 17/2021: (i) production facilities in the electricity systems of the non-peninsular territories, (ii) production facilities that have a recognized remunerative framework (installations under the specific remuneration regime and the economic regime for renewable from auctions) and (iii) production facilities with net power equal to or less than 10 MW, regardless of the date of commissioning.

In addition, the remuneration reduction mechanism will not apply to the part of the energy produced by generation facilities which is subject to a fixed price (physical or financial) PPA either: (i) entered before September 16, 2021 or (ii) entered into on or after September 16, 2021 if the PPA term is more than one year.

Producers likely to be affected by the reduction will have to submit to REE a responsible statement and supporting documentation on the energy covered by contracting instruments. The Talasol PV Plant is affected by this measure with respect to the portion of its revenues that is not covered by the PPA and has submitted the required statement and documentation every month since the entry into force of RD-law 17/2021.

Remuneration of Renewable Energy Plants

The remuneration of electricity generation activity includes the following concepts: (i) the electric energy negotiated through the daily and intraday markets, remunerated on the basis of the price resulting from the balance between the supply and the demand of electric energy offered in them (i.e., spot price), (ii) adjustment services, including non-frequency services and system balance services, necessary to ensure adequate supply to the consumer, (iii) where appropriate, the remuneration for capacity mechanism, (iv) where appropriate, the additional remuneration for the production of electric energy in the electrical systems of non-peninsular territories, which the government may apply to cover the difference between the investment and operational costs and the incomes of these plants, and (v) where appropriate, the specific remuneration for the production of electric energy from renewable energy sources, high efficiency cogeneration and waste.
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The legal and regulatory framework applicable to the production of electricity from renewable energy sources in Spain was modified by RDL 9/2013, due to the adoption of several urgent measures in order to ensure the financial stability of the power system, eliminating the former “Special Regime” and feed-in-tariff established by Royal Decree 661/2007 and Royal Decree 1578/2008 and establishing the basis of the current remuneration scheme applicable to renewable energies called the “Specific Remuneration” regime.

Specific Remuneration includes two components to be paid in addition to the electricity market price: (i) an “investment retribution” sufficient to cover the investment costs of a so-called “standard facility” – provided that such costs are not fully recoverable through the sale of energy in the market, and (ii) an “operational retribution” sufficient to cover the difference, if any, between the operational income and costs of a standard plant that participates in the market.

The Specific Remuneration provides that commencing July 13, 2013 all PV plants currently in operation, including our Spanish PV Plants, were no longer entitled to receive the applicable feed-in-tariff for renewable installations but rather became entitled to receive the Specific Remuneration.

The basic concept of the Specific Remuneration contained in RDL 9/2013 was confirmed by the current Power Act (Law 24/2013) and further developed by the following regulations:


1.
Royal Decree 413/2014 which regulates electricity generation activity using renewable energy sources, cogeneration and waste, or RD 413/2014.


2.
Order IET/1045/2014 approving the retribution parameters for certain types of generation facilities of electricity from renewable energy sources, cogeneration and waste facilities, or Order 1045/2014.


3.
Order ETU/130/2017 updating the retribution parameters for certain types of generation facilities of electricity from renewable energy sources, cogeneration and waste facilities, for the purposes of their application to the Regulatory Semi-period beginning on January 1, 2017 and ending on December 31, 2019, or Order 130/2017.


4.
RDL 17/2019, adopting urgent measures for the necessary adaptation of remuneration parameters affecting the electricity system and responding to the process of cessation of activity of thermal generation plants.


5.
Order TED/171/2020, updating the retribution parameters for certain types of generation facilities of electricity from renewable energy sources, cogeneration and waste facilities, for the purposes of their application to the Regulatory Period beginning on January 1, 2020, or Order 171/2020.

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Pursuant to the above regulations, the calculation of the Specific Remuneration is performed as follows:


a)
The Specific Remuneration is calculated by reference to a “standard facility” during its “useful regulatory life”. Order 1045/2014 characterized the existing renewable installations into different categories (referred to as IT-category). These categories were created taking into account the type of technology, the date of the operating license and the geographical location of renewable installations.

The Specific Remuneration is not calculated independently for each power installation. It is calculated based on the inclusion of each existing installations in one of the formulated IT-categories and, as a result of such inclusion, is based on the retribution parameters assigned to that particular IT-category.


b)
According to RD 413/2014, the calculation of the Specific Remuneration of each IT-category shall be performed taking into account the following parameters:


(i)
the standard revenues for the sale of energy production, valued at the production market prices (currently set at €54.42/MWh, €52.12/MWh and €48.82/MWh for 2020, 2021 and 2022, respectively);

(ii)
the standard exploitation costs; and

(iii)
the standard value of the initial investment. For this calculation, only those costs and investments that correspond exclusively to the electricity production activity will be taken into account. Furthermore, costs or investments determined by administrative rules or acts that do not apply throughout Spanish territory will not be taken into account.


c)
Order 1045/2014 established the relevant parameters applicable to each IT-category. Therefore, to ascertain the total amount of the Specific Remuneration applicable to a particular installation it is necessary to (i) identify the applicable IT-category and (ii) integrate in the Specific Remuneration formula set forth in RD 413/2014 the economic parameters established by Order 1045/2014 for the relevant IT-category and the relevant update regulation (i.e., Order 171/2020).


d)
The Specific Remuneration is calculated for regulatory periods of six years, each divided into two regulatory semi-periods of three years. The first Regulatory Period commenced July 14, 2013 and terminated on December 31, 2019. The second Regulatory Period commenced January 1, 2020 and terminates December 31, 2025 (the corresponding first Regulatory Semi-Period ends December 31, 2022).


e)
The Specific Remuneration is designed to ensure a “reasonable rate of return” or profitability that during the first regulatory period (i.e., until December 2019) shall be equivalent to a Spanish 10-year sovereign bond calculated as the average of stock price in the stock markets during the months of April, May and June 2013, increased by 300 basis points (7.398% for plants prior to RDL 9/2013). RDL 17/2019 has fixed the reasonable rate of return for the second Regulatory Period at 7.09%. However, for plants prior to RDL the reasonable rate of return will remain at 7.398% if the conditions set forth in RDL 17/2019 are met (mainly to withdraw from any arbitration procedure, or to renounce any compensation, in connection with the regulatory changes in Spain that modified the remuneration regime).

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f)
Pursuant to RD 413/2014, the revenues from the Specific Remuneration are set based on the number of operating hours reached by the installation in a given year and adjusted to electricity market price deviations. Furthermore, the economic parameters of the Specific Remuneration might be reviewed by the Spanish government at the end of a regulatory period or semi-period, however the standard value of the initial investment and the useful regulatory life will remain unchanged for the entire Regulatory Useful Life of the installation, as determined by Order 1045/2014.

The update of the Specific Remuneration is carried out by reference to the IT-categories with the sole exception of the adjustment of annual revenues from the Specific Remuneration as a result of the number of Equivalent Operating Hours. This update is made installation by installation by the National Markets and Competition Commission.

The Talasol PV Plant is a “merchant” facility, i.e., will not be entitled to feed-in-tariff, “specific remuneration” or other similar regulatory incentives.

The obligation to finance the tariff deficit

Pursuant to Law 24/2013, renewable installations are required to finance future tariff deficits whereas pursuant to the former Power Act, the tariff deficit was only financed by five vertically integrated companies (Iberdrola, Endesa, E.On, Gas Natural Fenosa and Hidrocantábrico). Therefore, in the event there is a temporary deviation between revenues and costs of the electricity system on any given monthly settlement, this deviation shall be borne by all the companies participating in the settlement system (including renewable facilities).

Taxation of the income from generation of electricity

In December 2012, the Spanish Parliament enacted the 15/2012 on fiscal measures for the sustainability of the energy sector, which entered into force on January 1, 2013. Law 15/2012 sets forth a tax on energy generation of 7% from the total amount received for the production of electricity. RDL 15/2018 suspended this tax with respect to the electricity produced and injected to the grid during a period of six months commencing October 6, 2018 through March 31, 2019. As explained above with respect to RD-law 29/2021, until March 31, 2022 the tax will be suspended.

Removal of the Generation Access Toll

The CNMC approved Circular 3/2020, which was published in the Official State Gazette on January 24, 2020, by which the electricity generators are exempted from paying the toll to access the grid. This means the removal of the €0.5/MWh access toll that was established for electricity generators under Royal Decree – Law 14/2010 of December 23, 2010.

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Material Effects of Government Regulations on the Israeli PV Plant

The Israeli Electricity Market

The Israeli electricity market is dominated by the Israel Electric Corporation (IEC), which manufactures and sells most of the electricity consumed in Israel and by the Palestinian Authority and had an installed capacity of approximately 17.7 GW as at the end of 2019. According to the Israeli Electricity Authority’s report on the electricity sector, published in August 2020, in 2019 the installed capacity of the IEC represented 72% of the total installed capacity in the Israeli market, the actual electricity production of the IEC represented 66% of the actual electricity production in the Israeli market and the IEC’s market share in the supply segment represented 79% of the supply segment of the Israeli market, with the remainder represented by the independent power producers, or IPPs. The IEC controls both the transmission network (for long-distance transmittal of electricity) and the distribution network (for transmittal of electricity to the end users). In recent years, various private manufacturers received energy production licenses from the Israeli Electricity Authority. During 2015, Israel’s largest private power plant, Dalia Power Energies Ltd., was commissioned with installed capacity of approximately 900 MW.

Commencing January 2016, the Israeli Electricity Authority ceased being an independent authority and was merged into the Ministry of Energy pursuant to a government resolution approved in August 2016, which also noted that the Ministry of Energy will be responsible for determining the electricity market policy and for approving electricity manufacturing licenses.

Israeli Regulation

The regulatory framework applicable to the production of electricity by the private sector in Israel is provided under the Israeli Electricity Sector Law, 1996, or the Electricity Law, and the regulations promulgated thereunder, including the Electricity Market Regulations (Terms and procedures for the granting of a license and the duties of the Licensee), 1997, the Electricity Market Principles (Transactions with the supplier of an essential service), 2000, and the Electricity Market Regulations (Conventional Private Electricity Manufacturer), 2005, or the Electricity Market Regulations. In addition, standards, guidelines and other instructions published by the Israeli Electricity Authority (established pursuant to Section 21 of the Electricity Law) and\or by the Israeli Electric Company also apply to the production of electricity by the private sector in Israel. The operations of photovoltaic plants in Israel are also subject to various licensing, permitting and other regulations and requirements, issued and supervised by the relevant municipality, the Israeli Land Authority and various governmental entities including the Ministry of Energy, the Ministry of Agriculture, the Ministry of Interior and the Ministry of Defense.

In June 2018, the Israeli Government issued resolution no. 3859 for the reform of the electricity market and a structural change in the IEC. In July 2018, Amendment No. 16 to the Electricity Law was adopted. This amendment implements the reform of the Israeli electricity market and the reduction of the IEC’s monopolistic power by providing arrangements for the removal of the system management authorities from the IEC, maintaining the transmission and part of the distribution facilities with the IEC, increasing the competition in the production segment by forcing the IEC to sell some of the power plants it owns and opening up the supply segment to competition.
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Renewable Energy in Israel

On August 6, 1998, the Israeli government approved the resolution of the Committee of Ministers for Environment and Hazardous Materials “to act to advance the development of technologies for efficient use of renewable energies in order to reduce the dependency on imported fuel and reduce the contamination of the environment.” Commencing in 2009, the Israeli government adopted a number of decisions intended to achieve the integration of renewable energies into the local electricity market, including the adoption of a roadmap for the market in July 2011 and setting targets for renewable energy manufacturing.

The current targets for manufacturing electricity from renewable sources were set by the Israeli government in September 2015, as follows: 10% in 2020, 13% in 2025 and 30% in 2030. These targets were set as part of the Israeli government’s efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in Israel.

In August 2017, Amendment no. 14 to the Electricity Sector Law, or Amendment no. 14, was published. Amendment no. 14 is in effect until December 31, 2030. Amendment no. 14 requires that the Israeli Minister of Energy formulate a perennial work plan in connection with production of electricity from renewable energy, which will include action items per year in order to meet the targets for renewable energy manufacturing determined by the Israeli government. Amendment no. 14 further provides that an inter-ministerial committee will be established, which will be required to submit its recommendations to the Minister of Energy regarding the advancement of electricity manufacturing from renewable energy, including recommendation with respect to: (i) methods for minimizing or eliminating obstructions for manufacturing of electricity from renewable energy, including in connection with planning and financing and (ii) methods for minimizing or eliminating obstructions for the construction of facilities for manufacturing electricity from renewable energy. Amendment no. 14 also requires the general manager of the Ministry of Energy to provide an annual report to the Economic Committee of the Israeli parliament on meeting the targets for manufacturing electricity from renewable energy and with respect to the implementation of Amendment no. 14 and the perennial work plan.

Photovoltaic Plants

The Israeli Electricity Authority determines the quotas for various traditional and renewable energy manufacturers in Israel. In the past, the Israeli Electricity Authority determined quotas for photovoltaic installations. The previous quota of 300 MWp for medium installations, connected to the distribution grid, and 200 MWp for large installations, connected to the transmission grid, have been fully utilized.

Israeli government resolution no. 2117, approved in October 2014, provides for a shift of thermo-solar, wind and bio-gas quotas in aggregate of 340 megawatt to solar quotas to be equally divided between plants connected to the transmission network and plants connected to the distribution network and further providing that the total quotas will not exceed 114 megawatt per year.

On October 10, 2016, The Israeli Electricity Authority published a hearing concerning the development of new photovoltaic plants with a total capacity ranging between 800-1700 megawatts as will be determined by the Israeli Electricity Authority, or the Publication. According to the Publication, the licenses to construct new photovoltaic plants under the new quotas shall be granted on the basis of a competitive bidding process, in which the bidders shall propose the applicable tariffs they expect to be paid for each KW/h supplied to the electric grid. The Publication provides that bidders who submit the lowest proposals that collectively fall within the quota limits will be entitled to develop a photovoltaic plant and sell electricity to the grid at a price equal to the lowest tariff proposal amongst the unsuccessful bids. Consequently, all successful bidders shall eventually sell electricity at the same tariff.
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The final tariff will be valid for a period of 23 years for plants connected to the distribution grid, and 22 years for plants connected to the transmission grid, starting from the date of commercial operation or upon receiving a permanent license to produce electricity and the commencement of commercial operation, as shall be determined in accordance with the then applicable licensing regulation.

In November 2017, the Minister approved an additional quota of 1,600 MWp for photovoltaic installations that will be allocated between small rooftop installations and medium installations.

During the years 2017-2019, several tenders were conducted. The results of the fourth tender related to land-mounted medium installations that were published in November 2019, set a price per KWh of NIS 0.1798 for an aggregate production capacity of 236 MWp to be constructed by the end of 2020. The results of the second tender related to rooftop and water reservoir mounted installations, also published in November 2019, set a price per KWh of NIS 0.2307 for an aggregate production capacity of 68 MWp.  During 2020, the Israel Electricity Authority conducted additional tenders and on December 28, 2020 the results of the most recent tender were published, with an aggregate installed capacity allocated of 609 MW and price per KWh set at NIS 0.1745, which is 12% lower than the price set in the previous tender.

In addition, the Israeli Electricity Authority approved a quota of 200 MWp for tenders to be published in conjunction with the Israel Land Authority for the construction of photovoltaic installations, of which winners were announced in connection with 136 MWp.

Licensing

The Israeli Electricity Authority regulated the establishment of photovoltaic plants, in several categories as noted above. Medium photovoltaic plants, such as the Israeli PV Plant, are governed by the Israeli Electricity Authority’s decision no. 284, or Decision 284. Decision 284 provides that it will apply until the earlier of reaching a quota of 300 megawatt in Israel or until the end of 2017.

An entity wishing to construct and operate a photovoltaic plant in Israel is required to obtain a conditional license, subject to the fulfillment of several threshold conditions set forth in Decision 284. A conditional license is generally valid for 42 months and the licensee, after meeting the milestones included in the conditional license, may be granted a conditional tariff approval based on the prevailing tariff, which is valid until the earlier of: (i) 90 days following its issuance and (ii) receipt of financing for the construction of the photovoltaic plant. In the event the licensee obtains financing during the 90 day period, it is issued the conditional tariff becomes permanent and is linked to the Israeli Consumer Price Index for a period of 20 years commencing upon commercial operation of the plant. Thereafter, subject to fulfilment of certain conditions, a permanent production license is granted.
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National Outline Plan and Permits

In December 2010, the Israeli National Committee for Planning and Construction approved National Outline Plan 10/d/10, or the Outline Plan, for regulating photovoltaic plants from small rooftop mounted installations through photovoltaic plants on land plots up to a size of 0.29 square miles. The Outline Plan provides for the construction of photovoltaic plants in two routes: permit and plan. Permits are available for rooftop mounted installations and for land installations on specific lands, depending on their designation in the National Outline Plan and a plan route requires the licensee to file a plan with the relevant planning authority and such a plan cannot be filed with respect to certain lands that are designated as forests, national parks or reservations. The Outline Plan provides that preference will be given to the construction of photovoltaic plants in areas designated for construction and development. The Outline Plan permits planning authorities to approve the construction of photovoltaic plants in certain areas in northern and southern Israel in larger scopes than other areas.

Transfer of Rights in a Photovoltaic Plant

Any change of control in a photovoltaic plant that received a production license from the Israeli Electricity Authority requires amending the license and the approval of the Israeli Electricity Authority. Therefore, in the event we execute an agreement to acquire or sell and Israeli PV plant, such acquisition or sale, among other things, will be conditioned upon receipt of these approvals and the amendment of the relevant license.

Dori Energy and the Dorad Power Plant

General

Dori Energy is an Israeli private company in which we currently hold 50%. The remaining 50% is currently held by the Luzon Group (f/k/a the Dori Group). The Luzon Group is an Israeli publicly traded company, whose shares are traded on the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange. Dori Energy’s main asset is its holdings of 18.75% of Dorad.

Dori Energy

On November 25, 2010, Ellomay Clean Energy Ltd., or Ellomay Energy, our wholly-owned subsidiary, entered into an Investment Agreement, or the Dori Investment Agreement, with the Dori Group and Dori Energy, with respect to an investment by Ellomay Energy in Dori Energy. Pursuant to the terms of the Dori Investment Agreement, Ellomay Energy invested a total amount of NIS 50 million (approximately €10 million) in Dori Energy, and received a 40% stake in Dori Energy’s share capital. The transaction contemplated by the Dori Investment Agreement, or the Dori Investment, was consummated in January 2011, or the Dori Closing Date. Following the Dori Closing Date, the holdings of Ellomay Energy in Dori Energy were transferred to Ellomay Clean Energy Limited Partnership, or Ellomay Energy LP, an Israeli limited partnership whose general partner is Ellomay Energy and whose sole limited partner is us. Ellomay Energy LP replaced Ellomay Energy with respect to the Dori Investment Agreement and the Dori Energy Shareholders Agreement.

Ellomay Energy was also granted an option to acquire additional shares of Dori Energy, or the Dori Option, which, if exercised, will increase Ellomay Energy’s percentage holding in Dori Energy to 49% and, subject to the obtainment of certain regulatory approvals – to 50%. The exercise price of the options is NIS 2.4 million for each 1% of Dori Energy’s issued and outstanding share capital (on a fully diluted basis). In May 2015, we exercised the first option and in May 2016, we exercised the second option, accordingly, we currently hold 50% of Dori Energy and our indirect ownership of Dorad is 9.375%. The aggregate amount paid in connection with the exercise of this option amounted to approximately NIS 2.8 million (approximately €0.7 million), including approximately NIS 0.4 million (approximately €0.1 million) required in order to realign the shareholders loans provided to Dori Energy by its shareholders with the new ownership structure.
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Concurrently with the execution of the Dori Investment Agreement, Ellomay Energy, Dori Energy and Dori Group also entered into the Dori Energy Shareholders Agreement that became effective upon the Dori Closing Date. The Dori Energy Shareholders Agreement provides that each of Dori Group and Ellomay Energy is entitled to nominate two directors (out of a total of four directors) in Dori Energy. The Dori Energy Shareholders Agreement also grants each of Dori Group and Ellomay Energy with equal rights to nominate directors in Dorad, provided that in the event Dori Energy is entitled to nominate only one director in Dorad, such director shall be nominated by Ellomay Energy for so long as Ellomay Energy holds at least 30% of Dori Energy. The Dori Energy Shareholders Agreement further includes customary provisions with respect to restrictions on transfer of shares, a reciprocal right of first refusal, tag along, principles for the implementation of a BMBY separation mechanism, special majority rights, etc.

Dori Energy’s representative on Dorad’s board of directors is currently Mr. Ran Fridrich, who is also our CEO and a member of our Board of Directors.

The Dorad Power Plant

Other than information relating to Dori Energy, the disclosures contained herein concerning the Dorad Power Plant are based on information received from Dorad and other publicly available information.

Dorad currently operates the Dorad Power Plant, a combined cycle power plant based on natural gas, with a production capacity of approximately 860 MW, located south of Ashkelon. The Dorad Power Plant was constructed as a turnkey project, with the consideration denominated in US dollars, and commenced commercial operations in May 2014. Dorad executed a lease with respect to the land on which the Dorad Power Plant is located with EAPC for the construction period and for a period of 24 years and 11 months following the commencement of commercial operations of the Dorad Power Plant.

The electricity produced by the Dorad Power Plant is sold to end-users throughout Israel and to the Israeli National Electrical Grid. The transmission of electricity to the end-users is done via the existing transmission and distribution grid, in accordance with the provisions of the Electricity Sector Law and its Regulations, and the Standards and the tariffs determined by the Israeli Electricity Authority. The existing transmission and delivery lines are operated by the IEC, which is the only entity that holds a license to operate an electricity system in Israel. The Dorad Power Plant is based on combined cycle technology using natural gas. The combined cycle configuration is a modern technology to produce electricity, where gas turbines serve as the prime mover. After combustion in the gas turbine to produce electricity, the hot gases from the gas turbine exhaust are directed through an additional heat exchanger to produce steam. The steam powers a steam turbine connected to a generator, which produces additional electric energy. The Dorad Power Plant is comprised of twelve natural gas turbines, each with an installed capacity of 50 MWp and two steam turbines, each with an installed capacity of 100 MWp. These turbines can be turned on and off quickly, with no material losses in energy efficiency, which provides operational flexibility in accordance with the expected needs of customers and the IEC, calculated based on a proprietary forecasting system implemented by Dorad.
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The other shareholders in Dorad are Eilat Ashkelon Infrastructure Services Ltd., or EAIS, (37.5%), and Edelcom Ltd., or Edelcom, (18.75%), both Israeli private companies, and Zorlu Enerji Elektrik Uretim A.S., or Zorlu, (25%), a publicly traded Turkish company. Dorad’s shareholders, including Dori Energy, are parties to a shareholders agreement that includes customary provisions, including a right of first refusal, arrangements in connection with the financing of Dorad’s operations, certain special shareholder majority requirements and the right of each shareholder holding 10% of Dorad’s shares to nominate one member to Dorad’s board of directors. As noted above, pursuant to the Dori Energy Shareholders Agreement, we are currently entitled to recommend the nomination of the Dorad board member on behalf of Dori Energy.

In June 2019, Dorad made the final repayment of shareholders loans in the aggregate amount of NIS 19 million, of which Dori Energy received approximately NIS 3.7 million (approximately €1 million).

Dorad entered into a credit facility agreement with a consortium led by Bank Hapoalim Ltd., or the Dorad Credit Facility, and financial closing of the Dorad Power Plant was reached in November 2010, with the first drawdown received in January 2011. The Dorad Credit Facility provides that the consortium will fund up to 80% of the cost of the project, with the remainder to be funded by Dorad’s shareholders. The funding is linked to the Israeli consumer price index and bears interest at a rate that is subject to updates every three years based on Dorad’s credit rating (Dorad received an “investment grade” rating, on a local scale). The current interest rate is approximately 5.1%. The funding is repaid (interest and principal) in semi-annual payments, commencing six months of the commencement of operations of the Dorad Power Plant and for a period of 17 years thereafter. The Dorad Credit Facility further includes customary provisions, including early repayment under certain circumstances, fixed charges on Dorad’s assets and rights in connection with the Dorad Power Plant and certain financial ratios, which Dorad is in compliance with as of December 31, 2021. Dorad’s senior loan facility is linked to the Israeli CPI. As the production tariff is partially linked to the Israeli CPI, the exposure is minimized. However, as the production tariff is published in delay with respect to the actual changes in the CPI, Dorad executed derivative transactions on the Israeli CPI. In connection with the Dorad Credit Facility, Dorad’s shareholders (including Dori Energy) undertook to provide guarantees to the IEC and to various suppliers and service provides of Dorad and also undertook to indemnify Dorad and the consortium in connection with certain expenses, including certain environmental hazards. The aggregate investment of Dorad in the construction of the Dorad Power Plant was approximately NIS 4.7 billion (equivalent to approximately €1.1 billion). The Dorad Credit Facility provides for the establishment of the project’s accounts and determines the distribution of the cash flows among the accounts. In addition, the Dorad Credit Facility includes terms and procedures for executing deposits and withdrawals from each account and determines the minimum balances in each of the capital reserves.

As of December 31, 2021, we provided guarantees to the Israeli Electricity Authority, to the IEC and to Israel Natural Gas Lines Ltd. in the aggregate amount of approximately NIS 16 million (approximately €4.5 million).
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The Dorad Power Plant commenced operations in May 2014, following the receipt of the permanent production and supply licenses discussed under “Material Effects of Government Regulations on Dorad’s Operations” below.

Dorad previously entered into an operation and maintenance agreement with Eilat-Ashkelon Power Plant Services Ltd., or EAPPS, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Eilat Ashkelon Infrastructure Services Ltd., which holds 37.5% of Dorad. Certain of the obligations under such agreement were assigned to Zorlu, which holds 25% of Dorad. During 2013, EAPPS entered into an agreement with Ezom Ltd., or Ezom, which, to our knowledge, is 75% owned by the controlling shareholder of Edelcom (which holds 18.75% of Dorad) with the remainder held by a company controlled by Zorlu, for the provision of sub-contracting services to EAPPS. Despite the assignment and subcontracting agreement, EAPPS remained liable to Dorad for all obligations under the agreement. In December 2017, Dorad and Ezom executed an operation and maintenance agreement for the Dorad Power Plant, or the Dorad O&M Agreement, replacing EAPPS by Ezom as the O&M contractor of the Dorad Power Plant under the same terms. The Dorad O&M Agreement is for a period of 24 years and 11 months commencing upon receipt of a permanent license by Dorad, and in no event for a period that is longer than the period of the lease of the Dorad Power Plant premises.

Due to the location of the Dorad Power Plant, Dorad has implemented various security measures in order to enable continued operations of the Dorad Power Plant during attacks on its premises.

Dividends

On February 27, 2020, Dorad’s Board of Directors decided to distribute a dividend of NIS 120 million (approximately €31.6 million). In connection with such dividend distribution, Dori Energy received NIS 22.5 million (approximately €5.8 million) and repaid an amount of NIS 10.25 million (approximately €2.6 million) loan to us. On May 6, 2021, Dorad’s Board of Directors approved the distribution of a dividend in the amount of NIS 100 million (approximately €25.4 million) and such dividend was distributed during May 2021. In connection with such dividend distribution, Dori Energy received an amount of approximately NIS 18.8 million (approximately €4.5 million) and repaid an amount of approximately NIS 9 million (approximately €2.3 million) loan to us.

Legal Proceedings

We and Dori Energy, and several of the other shareholders of Dorad and their representatives and Dorad, are involved in various litigations as follows:

Petition to Approve a Derivative Claim filed by Dori Energy and Hemi Raphael

During April 2015, Dori Energy approached Dorad in writing, requesting that Dorad take legal steps to demand that Zorlu, Wood Group Gas Turbines Ltd., the engineering, procurement & construction contractor of the Dorad Power Plant, or Wood Group, and the representatives of Zorlu on the Dorad board of directors disclose details concerning the contractual relationship between Zorlu and Wood Group. In its letters, Dori Energy notes that if Dorad will not act as requested, Dori Energy intends to file a derivative suit in the matter.
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Following this demand, in July 2015, Dori Energy and Dori Energy’s representative on Dorad’s board of directors, who is also a member of our Board of Directors, filed a petition, or the Petition, for approval of a derivative action on behalf of Dorad with the Economic Department of the Tel Aviv-Jaffa District Court. The Petition was filed against Zorlu, Zorlu’s current and past representatives on Dorad’s board of directors and Wood Group and several of its affiliates, all together, the Defendants. The petition requested, inter alia, that the court instruct the Defendants to disclose and provide to Dorad documents and information relating to the contractual relationship between Zorlu and Wood Group, which included the transfer of funds from Wood Group to Zorlu in connection with the EPC agreement of the Dorad Power Plant. For the sake of caution, Plaintiffs further requested to reserve their rights to demand, on behalf of Dorad, monetary damages in a separate complaint after Dorad receives the aforementioned information and documents.

In January 2016, Dori Energy filed a motion to amend the Petition to add Ori Edelsburg (a director in Dorad) and affiliated companies as additional respondents, to remove Zorlu’s representatives and to add several documents which were obtained by Dori Energy, after the Petition had been filed. Dorad and Wood Group filed their response to the motion to amend the Petition and Zorlu filed a motion for dismissal. During the hearing held in March 2016, Zorlu withdrew the motion for dismissal and is required to submit its response to the motion to amend the Petition by March 31, 2016.

At a hearing held in April 2016, the request submitted in January 2016 to amend the Dori Energy Petition to add Ori Edelsburg (a director in Dorad) and affiliated companies as additional respondents was approved. At the end of July 2016, the respondents filed their responses to the amended Dori Energy Petition. Dori Energy and Hemi Raphael had until December 19, 2016 to reply to the respondents’ response. Following the recusal of the judges in the Economic Department of the Tel Aviv-Jaffa District Court, in September 2016 the President of the Israeli Supreme Court instructed that the parties will inform the court as to the proper venue in which the petition should be heard and to update the court whether the parties reached an agreement as to the transfer of the dispute to an arbitration proceeding. During October 2016, Dori Energy notified the court that the parties have not yet reached an agreement and requested that the court determine which judges will decide on the petition and the respondents notified the court that the discussion concerning transferring the dispute to an arbitration process are advancing and an attempt will be made to reach an arbitration agreement during November 2016. On November 15, 2016, the President of the Israeli Supreme Court instructed that the parties will update the court on the proposed transfer of the proceeding to an arbitration process by early December 2016.

In December 2016, an arbitration agreement was executed pursuant to which this proceeding, as well as the petition to approve a derivative claim filed by Edelcom mentioned below will be arbitrated before Judge (retired) Hila Gerstel. In January 2017, the arbitrator ruled, among other things, that the statements of claim in the various proceedings will be submitted by February 19, 2017, the statements of defense will be submitted by April 4, 2017, discovery affidavits will be submitted by April 6, 2017, responses will be submitted by May 4, 2017 and a preliminary hearing will be held on May 10, 2017. These dates were extended with the agreement of the parties so that the statements of claim will be submitted by February 23, 2017 and the statements of defense will be submitted by April 9, 2017. Following the execution of the arbitration agreement, Dori Energy and Mr. Raphael requested the deletion of the proceeding and the request was approved. A statement of claim, or the Claim, was filed by Dori Energy and Mr. Raphael on behalf of Dorad against Zorlu, Mr. Edelsburg, Edelcom and Edeltech Holdings 2006 Ltd., or Edeltech, and, together with Mr. Edelsburg and Edelcom, the Edelsburg Group, on February 23, 2017 in which they repeated their claims included in the amended Petition and in which they required the arbitrator to obligate the defendants, jointly and severally, to pay an amount of $183,367,953 plus interest and linkage to Dorad. During March 2017, the respondents filed two motions with the arbitrator as follows: (i) to instruct the plaintiffs to resubmit the statement of claim filed in connection with the arbitration proceedings in a form that will be identical to the form of the statement of claim submitted to the court, with the addition of the monetary demand only or, alternatively, to instruct that several sections and exhibits will be deleted from the statement of claim and (ii) to postpone the date for filing their responses by 45 days from the date the motion set forth under (i) is decided upon.  The plaintiffs filed their objection to both motions and some of the respondents filed their responses to the objection. In April 2017, the Defendants filed their statements of defense. Within the said statements of defense, Zorlu attached a third party notice against Dorad, Dori Energy and the Luzon Group, in the framework of which it repeated the claims on which its defense statement was based and claimed, among other claims, that if the plaintiffs’ claim against Zorlu was accepted  and would negate Zorlu’s right receive compensation and profit from its agreement with Dorad and therefore Zorlu should be compensated in the amount of approximately NIS 906.4 million (approximately €218.3 million). Similarly, also within their statement of defense, Edelcom, Mr. Edelsburg and Edeltech filed a third party notice against Dori Energy claiming for breaches by Dori Energy of the duty to act in good faith in contract negotiations and that any amount ruled will constitute unlawful enrichment.
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In October 2017, EAIS, which holds 37.5% of Dorad’s shares, filed a statement of claim in this arbitration proceeding. In its statement of claim, EAIS joins Dori Energy’s and Mr. Raphael’s request as set forth in the Claim and raises claims that are similar to the claims raised by Dori Energy and Mr. Raphael in the Claim.

In November 2017, Dori Energy and Mr. Raphael filed their responses to the defendants’ statements of defense and in December 2017, Dori Energy, Mr. Raphael and EAIS filed their statements of defense to the third party notices submitted by the defendants. In December 2017, Zorlu filed a request in connection with the Dori Energy statement of claim to the extent it is directed at board members serving on behalf of Zorlu and in January 2018 the arbitrator provided its ruling that the legal validity of the actions or inactions of board members of Dorad will be attributed to the entities that are shareholders of Dorad on whose behalf the relevant board member acted and the legal determinations, if any, will be directed only towards the shareholders of Dorad. During January 2018, Mr. Edelsburg, Edelcom and Zorlu filed their statement of defense in connection with the claim filed by EAIS and also filed third party notices against EAIS, Dori Energy and the Luzon Group claiming that EAIS and the Luzon Group enriched themselves at Dorad’s account without providing disclosure to the other shareholders and requesting that, should the position of Dori Energy and EAIS be accepted in the main proceeding, the arbitrator, among other things, obligate EAIS to refund to Dorad all of the rent paid to date and determine that Dorad is not required to pay any rent in the future or determine that the rent fees be reduced to their market value and refund Dorad the excess amounts paid by it to EAIS, to determine that the board members that represent EAIS and Dori Energy breached their fiduciary duties towards Dorad and obligate EAIS and Dori Energy to pay the amount of $140 million, plus interest in the amount of $43 million, which is the amount Zorlu received for the sale of its rights under the Dorad EPC agreement, and to rule that in connection with the engineering and construction works performed by the Luzon Group, the Luzon Group and Dori Energy are required to refund to Dorad or compensate the defendants in an amount of $24 million, plus interest and linkage and, alternatively, to determine that Mr. Edelsburg, Edelcom and Zorlu are entitled to indemnification from the third parties for the entire amount they will be required to pay.
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In May 2019, a new arbitrator was appointed and dates were set for the discovery process. The evidentiary hearings were scheduled during March-June 2020 and commencing August 2020. Due to the COVID-19 crisis, several evidentiary hearings scheduled during the period commencing March 2020 were cancelled.  Evidentiary hearings were held during June, August, September, October and November 2020 and during February and March 2021 and the parties filed several motions in connection with the discovery process, the evidentiary hearings and expert opinions. On February 15, 2021 the arbitrator approved replacing the late Mr. Hemi Raphael as the claimant with Mr. Ran Fridrich. The parties filed several motions in connection with the discovery process, the evidentiary hearings and expert opinions. Additional evidentiary hearings were held in March-May 2021. Following the parties’ request for approval of a procedural arrangement regarding the submission of written summaries and the possible supplemental oral argument in all proceedings subject to arbitration, the arbitrator approved the various dates for submitting summaries, ending in May 2022.

For more information see Note 6 to our annual financial statements included elsewhere in this Report.

Petition to Approve a Derivative Claim filed by Edelcom

In February 2016 the representatives of Edelcom Ltd., which holds 18.75% of Dorad, or Edelcom, and Ori Edelsburg sent a letter to Dorad requesting that Dorad file a claim against Ellomay Energy, our wholly-owned subsidiary that holds Dori Energy’s shares, the Luzon Group and Dori Energy referring to an entrepreneurship agreement that was signed in November 2010 between Dorad and the Luzon Group, pursuant to which the Luzon Group received payment in the amount of approximately NIS 49.4 million (approximately €11.9 million) in consideration for management and entrepreneurship services. Pursuant to this agreement, the Luzon Group undertook to continue holding, directly or indirectly, at least 10% of Dorad’s share capital for a period of 12 months from the date the Dorad Power Plant is handed over to Dorad by the construction contractor. The Edelcom Letter claims that as a consequence of the management rights and the options to acquire additional shares of Dori Energy granted to us pursuant to the Dori Investment Agreement, the holdings of the Dori Group in Dorad have fallen below 10% upon execution of the Dori Investment Agreement. The Edelcom Letter therefore claims that Dori Group breached its commitment according to entrepreneurship agreement. The Edelcom Letter requests that Dorad take all legal actions possible against the Dori Group, Dori Energy, Ellomay Energy and Mr. Hemi Raphael to recover the amounts it paid in accordance with the entrepreneurship agreement and also notify Dori Energy that, until recovery of the entrepreneurship fee, Dorad shall withhold the relevant amount from any amount Dori Energy is entitled to receive from Dorad, including repayments of shareholders’ loans and dividend distributions. In July 2016, Edelcom filed a petition for approval of a derivative action against Ellomay Energy, the Luzon Group, Dori Energy and Dorad. In November 2016, Ellomay Energy and Dori Energy filed a joint petition requesting that this application be transferred to the same judges who will be adjudicating the petition filed by Dori Energy and Hemi Raphael mentioned above and in November 2016, Edelcom filed an objection to this request. As noted above, in December 2016, an arbitration agreement was executed pursuant to which this proceeding, as well as the proceeding mentioned above and below will be arbitrated before Judge (retired) Hila Gerstel and the proceeding before the court was deleted. On February 23, 2017, Edelcom submitted the petition to approve the derivative claim to the arbitrator. On April 30, 2017, Ellomay Energy filed its response to the petition and on May 1, 2017 the Luzon Group filed its response to the petition. For more information see above and see Note 6 to our annual financial statements included elsewhere in this Report.
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Opening Motion filed by Zorlu

On April 8, 2019, Zorlu filed an opening motion with the District Court in Tel Aviv against Dorad and the directors serving on Dorad’s board on behalf of Dori Energy and EAIS. In the opening motion, Zorlu asked the court to instruct Dorad to convene a shareholders meeting and to include on the agenda of this meeting a discussion and a vote on the planning and construction of an additional power plant adjacent to the existing power plant, or the Dorad 2 Project. Zorlu claimed that although the articles of association of Dorad provides that the planning and construction of an additional power plant requires a unanimous consent of the Dorad shareholders, and while Zorlu and Edelcom are opposed to this project, including due to the current disagreements among Dorad’s shareholders, Dorad continued taking actions to advance the project, which include spending substantial amounts our of Dorad’s funds. Zorlu further claims that the representatives of Dori Energy and EAIS on the Dorad board have acted to prevent the convening of a shareholders meeting as requested by Zorlu. On April 16, 2019, Edelcom submitted a request to join the opening motion as an additional respondent as Edelcom claims that it is another shareholder in Dorad that opposes the advancement of the project at this stage. In addition, Edelcom joined Dori Energy and EAIS as additional respondents to its request, claiming that these entities are required to be part of the proceeding in order to reach a complete and efficient resolution. All parties agreed to the joining of Edelcom, Dori Energy and EAIS to the proceeding. On June 15, 2019, Edelcom filed its response to the petition, requesting that the court accept the petition. On August 13, 2019, Dorad, EAIS and the Dorad board members submitted their responses and requested that the petition be dismissed. On December 8, 2019 an evidentiary hearing was held. The parties filed their summations in writing during June and July 2020. On August 27, 2020, Dorad informed the District Court that the National Infrastructure Committee resolved, inter alia, to approve the presentation of the plan submitted by Dorad in connection with the additional power plant to the District Committee’s and the public’s comments, subject to amendments. On September 9, 2020, Eilat-Ashkelon Infrastructure Services Ltd., one of the shareholders of Dorad, and its representatives on the Dorad board of directors submitted a response to the notice, claiming that the information included in the notice supports a rejection of the opening motion. Zorlu and Edelcom each filed a response on September 13, 2020 asking to remove the notice provided by Dorad from the District Court’s file. On September 17, 2020, the District Court ruled that the notice will not be removed from the file. On June 28, 2021, a ruling was handed in which the court ordered Dorad to convene a special shareholders meeting, on whose agenda will be the planning and construction of the “Dorad 2 Project”. Following the said ruling, Dorad’s board resolved that Dorad's management will continue to examine the feasibility of the “Dorad 2 Project” and its implications, and bring its decisions to the board's approval. Dorad’s board of directors further resolved that to the extent it will approve the Dorad 2 Project, the decision will be presented to Dorad’s shareholders for approval. On July 27, 2021, a shareholders meeting of Dorad was held. In accordance with the court ruling, the agenda for such meeting included two resolutions (1) the planning and construction of the Dorad 2 Project – a resolution that Dori Energy and EAIS supported and Edelcom and Zorlu rejected; and (2) approval of the aforementioned resolution of the Dorad board of directors – a resolution which Dori Energy and EAIS supported and with respect to which Edelcom and Zorlu abstained. Following such shareholders meeting, correspondence was exchanged between Dorad and Edelcom concerning, among other issues, the implications of the aforementioned resolutions. Dorad estimates (after consulting with legal counsel) that by convening the aforementioned shareholders meeting Dorad complied with the court ruling and therefore the opening motion process ended. To our knowledge, the Dorad 2 Project is currently under initial internal examination by Dorad. On July 13, 2020, Dorad submitted to the National Infrastructure Committee, or NIC, plans for public objections, on January 11, 2021, the NIC decided to postpone the final decision and on December 27, 2021, the NIC decided to conditionally raise the construction of another power plant to a government decision. There can be no assurance as to if, when and under what terms it will be advanced or promoted by Dorad.
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Competition

Dorad competes with the IEC and other private electricity manufacturers with respect to sales to potential customers directly.

Dorad’s position is that the current regulation and structure of the Israeli electricity market provide IEC with a competitive advantage over the private electricity manufacturers. However, as long as the regulation remains unchanged, as the IEC controls the transmission and delivery lines and the connection of the private power plants to the Israeli national grid, Dorad and the other private manufacturers are dependent on the IEC for their operations and may also be subject to unilateral actions on the part of IEC’s employees. For example, the approval of Dorad’s permanent licenses was delayed due to ongoing disputes between the IEC and its employees. For more information, see “Material Effects of Government Regulations on Dorad’s Operations” below.

Customers

Dorad entered into electricity supply agreements with various commercial consumers for an aggregate of approximately 95% of the production capacity of the Dorad Power Plant. The end-users include the Israeli Ministry of Defense, Mekorot (Israel’s water utility and supply company), Israeli food manufacturers (Ossem and Strauss), Israeli hotel chains (Isrotel and Fattal), and others.  The electricity supply agreements are, mainly, based on a reduced rate compared to the rate applicable to electricity consumers in the general market, as determined by the Israeli Electricity Authority.

In addition to the provision of electricity to specific commercial consumers, the agreement between Dorad and the IEC, which governs the provision of services and electricity from the IEC to Dorad, provides that Dorad will supply availability and energy to the IEC based on a production plan determined by the Israeli Electricity Authority, on IEC’s requirements and on the tariffs determined by the Israeli Electricity Authority.

The Covid-19 crisis affects Dorad’s customers (which, as noted above, include hotels and other industrial customers), and during 2020 Dorad reported a certain decrease in consumption of electricity by its customers and by the IEC due to the Covid-19 crisis and its implications on the tourism industry, the industrial entities and electricity consumption in general.

Sources and Availability of Raw Materials for the Operations of the Dorad Power Plant

The Dorad Power Plant is a dual-fuel plant, using natural gas as the main fuel and diesel oil in the event of an emergency. Pursuant to publications of the Israeli Ministry of Energy, natural gas is currently being used for the production of approximately 50% of the electricity produced in Israel.
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Agreement with Tamar

On October 15, 2012, Dorad entered into the Tamar Agreement with Tamar, which is one of the suppliers of natural gas for the Israeli electricity market. Pursuant to information received from Dorad, Dorad purchases natural gas from Tamar for purposes of operating the Dorad Power Plant and the main terms of the Tamar Agreement are as follows:


a.
Tamar has committed to supply natural gas to Dorad in an aggregate quantity of up to approximately 11.2 billion cubic meters (BCM), or the Total Contract Quantity, in accordance with the conditions set forth in the Tamar Agreement.


b.
The Tamar Agreement will terminate on the earlier to occur of: (i) sixteen (16) years following the commencement of delivery of natural gas to the Dorad power plant or (ii) the date on which Dorad will consume the Total Contract Quantity in its entirety. Each of the parties to the Tamar Agreement has the right to extend the Tamar Agreement until the earlier of: (i) an additional year provided certain conditions set forth in the Tamar Agreement were met, or (ii) the date upon which Dorad consumes the Total Contract Quantity in its entirety.


c.
Dorad has committed to purchase or pay for (“take or pay”) a minimum annual quantity of natural gas in a scope and in accordance with a mechanism set forth in the Tamar Agreement. The Tamar Agreement provides that if Dorad did not use the minimum quantity of gas as committed, it shall be entitled to consume this quantity every year during the three following years and this is in addition to the minimum quantity of gas Dorad is committed to.


d.
The Tamar Agreement grants Dorad the option to reduce the minimum annual quantity so that it will not exceed 50% of the average annual gas quantity that Dorad will actually consume in the three years preceding the notice of exercise of the option, subject to adjustments set forth in the Tamar Agreement. The reduction of the minimum annual quantity will be followed by a reduction of the other contractual quantities set forth in the Tamar Agreement. The option described herein is exercisable during the period commencing as of the later of: (i) the end of the fifth year after the commencement of delivery of natural gas to Dorad in accordance with the Tamar Agreement or (ii) January 1, 2020, and ending on the later of: (i) the end of the seventh year after the commencement of delivery of natural gas to Dorad in accordance with the Tamar Agreement or (ii) December 31, 2022. In the event Dorad exercises this option, the quantity will be reduced at the end of a one year period from the date of the notice and until the termination of the Tamar Agreement.


e.
The natural gas price set forth in the Tamar Agreement is linked to the production tariff as determined from time to time by the Israeli Electricity Authority, which includes a “final floor price.” Following the decreases in the price of fuel and electricity during 2015, the Israeli Electricity Authority reduced the rate of electricity production, and as a result the natural gas price under the Tamar Agreement reached the “final floor price” in March 2016. Commencing January 1, 2020, the production component rate was decreased by approximately 7.9%, resulting in a decrease of the gas price under the Tamar Agreement to the final floor price and therefore will not be further reduced in the future. Commencing January 1, 2020, the production component rate was decreased by approximately 4.5%, however due to the floor price arrangement, the gas price was not reduced. Any delays, disruptions, increases in the price of natural gas under the agreement, or shortages in the gas supply from Tamar will adversely affect Dorad’s results of operations. In addition, as future reductions in the production tariff will not affect the price of natural gas under the agreement with Tamar, Dorad’s profitability may be adversely affected.

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f.
Dorad may be required to provide Tamar with guarantees or securities in the amounts and subject to the conditions set forth in the Tamar Agreement.


g.
The Tamar Agreement includes additional provisions and undertakings as customary in agreements of this type such as compensation mechanisms in the event of shortage in supply, the quality of the natural gas, limitation of liability, etc.

As a result of the indexation included in the gas supply agreement, Dorad is exposed to changes in exchange rates of the U.S. dollar against the NIS. To minimize this exposure Dorad executed forward transactions to purchase U.S. dollars against the NIS.

On April 2, 2019, Dorad entered into an addendum to the Tamar Agreement according to which the gas quantities specified in the addendum to the Tamar Agreement that Dorad purchases from Tamar will not be included for the purpose of calculating the quantities of gas at the time of the reduction of the purchases from Tamar, in accordance with the instructions of the Tamar Agreement.

On March 22, 2021, Dorad entered into an addendum to the Tamar Agreement according to which the parties agreed on the amount of gas that Dorad will purchase from Tamar commencing January 1, 2022. This addendum also provides that Dorad will be entitled to compensation in the amount specified in the addendum.
On April 5, 2021, Dorad entered into an additional gas purchase agreement with Tamar, or the Additional Tamar Agreement, pursuant to which Dorad is entitled to purchase additional quantities of gas from Tamar during a period of four years ending on April 5, 2025. As part of the Additional Tamar Agreement, Dorad will receive a grant that depends, among other things, on the amount of gas consumption quantities determined in the Additional Tamar Agreement. Dorad received 50% of the grant in the first half of 2022 and expects to receive the remainder on the date of termination of the Additional Dorad Agreement pursuant to the conditions set forth therein.

The addendums to the Tamar Agreement and the Additional Tamar Agreement were subject to certain conditions precedent that were met on July 14, 2021.

Agreement with Alon Gat

On March 6, 2019, Dorad signed a memorandum of understanding with Alon Energy Centers LP, or Alon Gat, which is constructing a private power plant for the production of electricity in Kiryat Gat, Israel, with a capacity of approximately 73 MW. On November 11, 2019, Dorad signed an addendum to this memorandum of understanding. In the framework of the memorandum of understanding and the addendum, Alon Gat will serve as a producer who will provide Dorad with the full availability of the aforementioned power plant and will sell the electricity produced at the power plant to Dorad, which will serve as supplier. In addition, Alon Gat, who holds the production license, will be responsible for operating the Alon Gat power plant and generating electricity at the plant and will bear all costs related to operating the Alon Gat power plant, the availability and the power generation. Dorad will be responsible for all activities related to the power supply sales to the customers and the IEC. On November 12, 2019, commercial operation of the Alon Gat power plant began and the implementation of the memorandum of understanding became effective. The memorandum of understanding and addendum contain termination provisions, including in the event of regulatory changes that materially impair the implementation of the understandings between the parties. Following the hearing scheduled by the Israeli Electricity Authority in August 2019 and the resolution published by the Israeli Electricity Authority in January 2020 regarding the amendments to the standards on consumption plan anomalies, which may affect the financial feasibility of the understandings with Alon Gat, on August 12, 2021, Dorad signed an amendment to the addendum and memorandum of understanding that includes addressing consumption plan anomalies. As part of the amendment, Dorad will examine the economic viability following the resolution in respect of a change in the production tariff and a material change in the demand hours cluster. which constitutes a regulatory change as defined in the memorandum of understanding and addendum and may affect the financial feasibility of the arrangement with Alon Gat. For more information concerning the resolution of the Israeli Electricity Authority see “Consumption Plans and Deviations” under “Material Effects of Government Regulations on Dorad’s Operations” below.
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Dorad is also a party to a natural gas transmission agreement and to a diesel oil warehousing agreement.

Natural Gas Purchase Agreement with Energean

On October 30, 2017, Dorad signed an agreement with Energean regarding the acquisition of natural gas, in a cumulative volume of approximately 6 BCM over a period of 14 years, from the Karish and Tanin reserves held by them and whose completion is expected to be by the second half of 2021. Dorad will purchase about half of the gas required to operate the Dorad Power Plant and the rest of the demand will continue to be supplied by Tamar. According to the agreement with Energean, if Dorad does not actually consume the minimum quantity it has undertaken, it will be forced to consume this quantity. On November 2018, all the suspending conditions included in the agreement with Energean were fulfilled. On February 5, 2020, Energean informed Dorad that due to the Coronavirus (Covid-19) spread in China, the Chinese government issued restrictions on travel and transportation including to an area where portions of Energean gas production facilities are manufactured and therefore a delay is expected in the construction of production facilities and in the gas supply to Dorad. On April 22, 2020, Energean informed Dorad that it took several steps in order to overcome the impact of the Covid-19 crisis in order to decrease the expected delay in the provision of natural gas to Dorad and on September 10, 2020 Energean updated the date in which it expects to start providing the natural gas from the first half of 2021 to the second half of 2021. On January 21, 2021, Energean updated the forecast date for the initial gas flow to the end of 2021 or the second quarter of 2022. On May 24, 2021, Energean updated the forecast date for the initial gas flow to the second half of 2022. On January 20, 2022, Energean updated the forecast date for the initial gas flow to the fourth quarter of 2022. Due to these delays, Dorad notes that it may continue to purchase gas from Tamar at a higher price than the price set in the agreement with Energean.

Material Effects of Government Regulations on Dorad’s Operations

As noted above under “Material Effects of Government Regulations on the Israeli PV Plant,” the regulatory framework applicable to the production of electricity by the private sector in Israel is provided under the Electricity Law, regulations promulgated thereunder, and other standards, guidelines and instructions published by the Israeli Electricity Authority and the IEC.
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