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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
Form 10-K
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
    
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from              to             
Commission File Number: 001-35480
enpha14.jpg
Enphase Energy, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
20-4645388
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
47281 Bayside Parkway
Fremont, CA 94538
(Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)

(707) 774-7000
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class:
Trading Symbol(s)
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $0.00001 par value per shareENPH
Nasdaq Global Market
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes   No 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes   No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes   No 



Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  Yes x  No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by checkmark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that require a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to § 240.10D-1(b). ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes   No 
The aggregate market value of the voting stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant on June 30, 2023, based upon the closing price of $167.48 of the registrant’s common stock as reported on the Nasdaq Global Market, was approximately $17.2 billion.
As of February 5, 2024, there were 135,759,339 shares of the registrant’s common stock outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant’s Proxy Statement for the 2024 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after the end of the registrant’s fiscal year ended December 31, 2023 are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.




Enphase Energy, Inc.
Table of Contents
Page


Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains “forward-looking” statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), about us and our industry that involve substantial risks and uncertainties. All statements other than statements of historical facts in this Annual Report on the Form 10-K are forward-looking statements. In some cases, forward-looking statements can be identified by terms such as “anticipates,” “believes,” “could,” “seeks,” “estimates,” “expects,” “intends,” “may,” “plans,” “potential,” “predicts, “projects,” “should,” “will,” “would” or similar expressions and the negatives of those terms. These forward-looking statements are contained principally in Part I, Item 1, Business; Part I, Item 1A, Risk Factors; Part II, Item 7, Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations; and other sections of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Such statements include, but are not limited to, statements concerning the following:
our expectations as to our future financial performance, including revenue, cost of revenue, expenses, liquidity, cash requirements and our ability to maintain and grow our profitability;
the capabilities, performance and competitive advantage of our technology and products and planned changes;
timing of new product releases, and the anticipated marketing adoption of our current and future products;
our expectations regarding, and our ability to meet, demand for our products;
our business strategies, including anticipating trends and operating conditions;
growth of and development in markets in which we target; and our expansion into new and existing markets;
our performance in operations, including component supply management and manufacturing timelines;
our product quality and customer service;
our expectations regarding the effects on our business and financial performance of compliance with applicable laws and regulations;
the impact of changes in tax laws;
our expectations regarding macroeconomic events, geopolitical developments, supply chain disruptions and inflationary pressures and their impact on our business operations, financial performance and the markets in which we, our supplier, manufacturers and installers operate; and
the anticipated benefits and risks relating to our recent acquisitions.
Our actual results or experience could differ significantly from the forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to these differences include those discussed in Part I, Item 1A, Risk Factors and Part II, Item 7, Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, as well as those discussed elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Forward-looking statements are inherently uncertain, and you should not place undue reliance on these statements, which speak only as of the date that they were made. These cautionary statements should be considered in connection with any written or oral forward-looking statements that we may issue in the future. We do not undertake any obligation to release publicly any revisions to these forward-looking statements after completion of the filing of this Annual Report on Form 10-K to reflect later events or circumstances or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events. The forward-looking statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are intended to be subject to protection afforded by the safe harbor for forward-looking statements contained in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995.
In this Annual Report on Form 10-K, unless otherwise indicated or the context otherwise requires, “Enphase Energy,” “Enphase,” “the Company,” “we,” “us,” and “our” refer to Enphase Energy, Inc., a Delaware corporation, and its subsidiaries.

Enphase Energy, Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 4

Risk Factors Summary
Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. The following is a summary of the principal factors that make an investment in our securities speculative or risky, as more fully described below in the section titled “Risk Factors.” This summary should be read in conjunction with the “Risk Factors” section and should not be relied upon as an exhaustive summary of the material risks facing our business. In addition to this summary, you should consider the information set forth in the “Risk Factors” section and the other information contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K before investing in our securities:
Risk Related to our Business, Operations and Our Industry
Unfavorable macroeconomic and market conditions may adversely affect our industry, business and financial results.
If demand for solar energy solutions does not grow or grows at a slower rate than we anticipate, our business will suffer.
The reduction, elimination or expiration of government subsidies and economic incentives for on-grid solar electricity applications could reduce demand for solar photovoltaic systems and harm our business.
The solar industry is highly competitive, and we expect to face increased competition as new and existing competitors introduce products or develop alternative technologies, which could negatively impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our recent and planned expansion into existing and new markets could subject us to additional business, financial and competitive risks.
We may fail to capture customers as we design and develop new products, and update existing products.
We depend upon a small number of outside contract manufacturers, and our business and operations could be disrupted if we encounter problems with these contract manufacturers.
We rely primarily on distributors, installers and providers of solar financing to assist in selling our products to customers, and the failure of these customers to perform at the expected level, or at all, would have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of our operations.
We depend on limited-source suppliers for key components and products. If we are unable to source these components and products on a timely basis, we will not be able to deliver our products to our customers.
Challenges relating to supply chain constraints, including with respect to raw materials, semiconductors and integrated circuits, could adversely impact our revenue, gross margins and results of operations.
If we or our contract manufacturers are unable to obtain raw materials in a timely manner or if the price of raw materials increases significantly, production time and product costs could increase, which may adversely affect our business.
Manufacturing problems could result in delays in product shipments, which would adversely affect our revenue, competitive position and reputation.
The loss of, or events affecting, one of our major customers could reduce our sales and have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our energy systems, including our storage solutions, IQ8 microinverters, ACM products and Ensemble OS technology, may not achieve broader market acceptance, which would prevent us from increasing our revenue and market share.
If our products contain manufacturing or software defects, our business and financial results could be harmed.
If we fail to retain our key personnel or if we fail to attract additional qualified personnel, we may not be able to achieve our anticipated level of growth and our business could suffer.
Restructuring activities could disrupt our business and adversely affect our results of operations.

Enphase Energy, Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 5

Risk Related to our Intellectual Property and Technology
We are dependent on information technology systems, infrastructure and data. We or third parties upon which we rely could be subject to breaches of our information technology systems caused by system security risks, failure of our data protection, cyber-attacks and erroneous or non-malicious actions or failures to act by our employees or others with authorized access to our networks, which could cause significant reputational, legal and financial damages.
The software we use in providing system configuration recommendations or potential energy savings estimates to customers relies in part on third-party information that may not be accurate or up-to-date; this may therefore generate inaccurate recommendations or estimates, resulting in a loss of reputation and customer confidence.
We are subject to stringent and evolving data privacy and security laws, contractual obligations, information security policies and other obligations governing the use, processing and transfer of personal information and any unauthorized access to, or disclosure or theft of personal information we gather, store or use could harm our reputation and subject us to claims or litigation.
If we fail to protect, or incur significant costs in enforcing, our intellectual property and other proprietary rights, our business and results of operations could be materially harmed.
We may be subject to disruptions or failures in information technology systems and network infrastructures that could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition.
Third parties may assert that we are infringing upon their intellectual property rights, which could divert management’s attention, cause us to incur significant costs, and prevent us from selling or using the technology to which such rights relate.
Risk Related to Legal Proceedings and Regulations
Changes in current laws or regulations or the imposition of new laws or regulations, or new interpretations thereof, in the solar energy sector, by federal or state agencies in the United States or foreign jurisdictions could impair our ability to compete, and could materially harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Changes in the United States trade environment, including the recent imposition of import tariffs, could adversely affect the amount or timing of our revenue, results of operations or cash flows.
Our significant international operations subject us to additional risks that could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Expectations relating to ESG considerations and related reporting obligations may expose the business to potential liabilities, increased costs, and reputational harm.
We could be adversely affected by any violations of the FCPA, the U.K. Bribery Act, and other foreign anti-bribery laws.
Risk Related to our Financial Condition and Liquidity
Our gross profit may fluctuate over time, which could impair our ability to achieve or maintain profitability.
We are under continuous pressure to reduce the prices of our products, which has adversely affected, and may continue to adversely affect, our gross margins.
If we do not forecast demand for our products accurately, we may experience product shortages, delays in product shipment or excess product inventory, any of which will adversely affect our business and financial condition.
Our focus on a limited number of specific markets increases risks associated with the modification, elimination or expiration of governmental subsidies and economic incentives for on-grid solar electricity applications.
A drop in the retail price of electricity derived from the utility grid or from alternative energy sources, or a change in utility pricing structures, may harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Enphase Energy, Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 6

Risk Related to our Acquisition Activity
As part of growing our business, we have made and expect to continue to make acquisitions. If we fail to successfully select, execute or integrate our acquisitions, then our business and operating results could be harmed and our stock price could decline.
Risk Related to our Debt and Equity Securities
Our financial results may vary significantly from quarter to quarter due to a number of factors, which may lead to volatility in our stock price.
Conversion of our Convertible Notes may dilute the ownership interest of existing stockholders or may otherwise depress the price of our common stock, adversely affect our financial condition and operating results.
The convertible note hedge and warrant transactions and/or their early termination may affect the value of our common stock.
PART I
Item 1.    Business
Our Company
We are a global energy technology company originally founded in March 2006. We deliver smart, easy-to-use solutions that manage solar generation, storage and communication on one platform. Our intelligent microinverters work with virtually every solar panel made, and when paired with our smart technology, results in one of the industry’s best-performing clean energy systems.
Today, our intelligent microinverters work with virtually every solar panel made, and when paired with our award-winning smart battery technology, results in one of the industry's best-performing clean energy systems. For the first time in the evolution of our centuries-old grid, people can get paid for the clean energy they produce and share with their communities, helping to build a new energy future that harnesses the sun. This clean, free, abundant source of energy can power our lives and ultimately help replace fossil fuels altogether. We have shipped more than 73.0 million microinverters, and approximately 4.0 million Enphase residential and commercial systems have been deployed in more than 150 countries.
We design, develop, manufacture and sell home energy solutions that manage energy generation, energy storage and control and communications on one intelligent platform. We have revolutionized the solar industry by bringing a systems approach to solar technology and by pioneering a semiconductor-based microinverter that converts energy at the individual solar module level and, combined with our proprietary networking and software technologies, provides advanced energy monitoring and control. This is vastly different than a string inverter system using string modules, whether with or without an optimizer, which only converts the energy of the entire array of solar modules from a single high voltage electrical unit and lacks intelligence about the energy producing capacity of the solar array.
The Enphase® Energy System™ brings a high technology, networked approach to solar generation plus energy storage, by leveraging our design expertise across power electronics, semiconductors and cloud-based software technologies. Our integrated approach to energy solutions maximizes a home’s energy potential while providing advanced monitoring and remote maintenance capabilities. The Enphase Energy System uses a single technology platform for seamless management of the entire system, including IQ® Microinverters, IQ® Batteries, IQ® EV Charger, and other hardware. Installers use the Installer App to rapidly commission system components, and system owners may use the Enphase App to monitor their energy production, consumption, and storage. We have a built-in system redundancy in both photovoltaic (“PV”) generation and energy storage, eliminating the risk that comes with a single-point of failure. Further, the nature of our cloud-based, monitored system allows for remote firmware and software updates, that allows cost-effective remote maintenance and ongoing utility compliance.
We have transitioned from solar only systems to complete energy management solutions, which consist of solar, batteries, load control, electrical vehicle (“EV”) charging, compatibility with third-party generators, and grid services. This transition has contributed to the rising global interest in the full electrification of homes and businesses through renewable sources of energy.
Enphase Energy, Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 7

Our Strategy
Our objective is to build best-in-class home energy systems and deliver them to homeowners through our installer and distribution partners, enabled by a comprehensive digital platform. Key elements of our strategy include:
Best-in-class customer experience. Our value proposition is to deliver products that are productive, reliable, smart, simple and safe, with superior customer service, to enable homeowners’ storage and energy independence. On the service front, our installer, distributor and module partners are our first line of association with our ultimate customer, the homeowner and business user. Our goals are to partner better with these service providers so that we can provide exceptional, high quality service to homeowners who have installed our products. We are convinced that continued reinforcement of customer experience improvements by providing 24x7 support can be a competitive advantage for us.
Grow market share worldwide. We intend to capitalize on our market leadership in the microinverter category and our momentum with installers and homeowners to expand our market share position in our core markets. In addition, we intend to further increase our market share in the Europe, Asia Pacific and Latin America regions. Further, we intend to expand into new markets, including emerging markets, with new and existing products and local go-to-market capabilities.
Expand our product offerings. We distinguish ourselves from other inverter companies with our systems-based and high technology approach, as we continue to invest in research and development to develop all components of our home energy management systems and remain committed to providing our customers and partners with best-in-class power electronics, storage solutions, communications and load control, all managed by a cloud-based home energy management system.
Increase power and efficiency and reduce cost per watt. Our engineering team is focused on continuing to increase average power conversion efficiency and alternating current (“AC”) output power in order to pair with higher rated direct current (“DC”) modules while reducing costs per watt.
Increase storage energy density and reduce installation time and cost per kWh. Our engineering team is focused on increasing the energy density of our battery capacity, quality and reducing installation time and cost per kilowatt hour (“kWh”) to make solar-plus-storage resilient, sustainable and affordable for the masses.
Focus on the homeowner, distributor and installer partners. We are focused on making it easier for our distributors, installers and customers to do business and generating revenue through digitalization of the business-to-business and business-to-customer process of the distributor, installer and customer journey. Our key focus is to expand our digital presence through enhancing our array of tools on our digital platform to keep us continually connected with our installers and homeowners, as well as increasing the use of the online store significantly.
Our Products
The Enphase Energy System, powered by IQ Microinverters, IQ Batteries and other products and services, is an integrated solar, storage and energy management offering that enables self-consumption and delivers our core value proposition of yielding more energy, simplifying design and installation, and improving system uptime and reliability.
IQ Microinverters. We now ship IQ8™ series microinverters into 21 countries worldwide. We are also shipping IQ8 Microinverters with peak output power of 480 W AC for the small-commercial market in North America, and grid-tied applications in South Africa, Mexico, Brazil, and India. The new IQ8 Microinverters are designed to maximize energy production and can manage a continuous DC current of 14 amperes, supporting higher powered solar modules through increased energy harvesting.
The Enphase IQ8 microinverter-based system has been certified by UL, a global safety science leader, to a UL certification that meets the new North American safety and grid interconnection standards for connecting solar inverters, energy storage systems and distributed energy resources to the grid in compliance with IEEE 1547-2018 and IEEE 1547-1 2020.
Enphase Energy, Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 8

In November 2023, we introduced our new IQ8 Microinverter, IQ8P-3P™, for the small commercial solar market in North America. The IQ8P-3P Microinverter enables a peak output power of up to 480 W, supporting small three-phase commercial applications and newer, high-powered solar panels.
IQ Batteries. Our Enphase IQ Battery storage systems, with usable and scalable capacity of 10.1 kWh and 3.4 kWh for the United States, and 10.5 kWh and 3.5 kWh for Europe and other international countries, are based on our Ensemble OS™ energy system, which powers the world’s first grid-independent microinverter-based storage systems. We currently ship our Enphase IQ Battery storage systems to customers in North America, Belgium, Germany, Austria, France, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Spain, Portugal, Sweden, Denmark, and Greece. Enphase IQ Batteries in Europe can be installed with both single-phase and three-phase third-party solar energy inverters, enabling homeowners to upgrade their existing home solar systems with a residential battery storage solution that reduces costs while providing increased self-reliance.
In May 2023, we introduced our latest Enphase Energy System, which features the new IQ® Battery 5P and IQ8 Microinverters. The IQ Battery 5P is modular with 5 kWh capacity and the IQ8 Microinverters provide a peak output power of 384 W. The IQ Battery 5P is also available for customers in Australia, the United States, Puerto Rico, the United Kingdom, Italy and Australia. The IQ Battery 5P is modular by design and is designed to deliver 3.84 kW continuous power and 7.68 kW peak power, which allows homeowners to start heavy loads like air conditioners easily during power outages.
Our IQ® Load Controller for our Enphase IQ Battery storage systems allow homeowners to decide what gets power in their home in the event of a grid outage, with the ability to choose up to four loads. These loads will be on when the grid is present and shed automatically in the event of a grid failure. This product makes installation simpler and saves time for installers.
Electric Vehicle (“EV”) Chargers. The increasing penetration of EVs has implications for home energy management, as households not only consume significantly more power with an EV, but also have a large battery that can be used for both backup and grid service. In the first quarter of 2023, we began production shipments of Enphase branded EV chargers at our existing contract manufacturing facility in Mexico. We expect this move could help to meet the rapidly growing demand for reliable and affordable EV charging solutions by providing a greater supply of product and more predictable lead times. Our EV chargers are compatible with most EVs sold in North America. Customers are able to purchase Enphase-branded EV chargers with a charging power range between 32 amperes and 64 amperes.
In January 2023, we demonstrated our bidirectional EV charger technology enabling vehicle-to-home and vehicle-to-grid functionality. This new bidirectional EV charger is designed to leverage the power of grid forming IQ8 Microinverters and Ensemble OS energy management technology to seamlessly integrate into Enphase home energy systems, and can be controlled from the Enphase App, empowering homeowners to make, use, save, and sell their own power.
In June 2023, we introduced the IQ® Energy Router family of devices in Germany and Austria to enable the integration of select third-party EV chargers and heat pumps into Enphase solar and battery systems. The IQ Energy Router family of devices monitors and controls energy usage between an Enphase solar and battery system, EV chargers and heat pumps. The devices work in coordination with the Enphase Energy System and deploy artificial intelligence-based solar production forecasting, consumption forecasting, and an optimization engine to maximize self-consumption.
In October 2023, we launched our smart Enphase IQ EV Chargers in the United States and Canada. The IQ EV Charger is Wi-Fi-equipped and includes smart control and monitoring capabilities. The IQ EV Charger is designed to seamlessly integrate into our solar and battery system to help homeowners maximize electricity cost savings by charging directly from solar energy.
Grid Services. We participate in the ConnectedSolutions program, which is an incentive program implemented by two utilities in the Northeast region of the United States to reduce electrical demand during high-use periods. Enphase storage customers in Connecticut, Massachusetts and Rhode Island can sign-up, monitor, track money earned and control participation in the program using the Enphase App. We also participate in the Hawaiian Electric’s Battery Bonus grid services program that offers an incentive for homeowners on the island of Oahu to install a new home battery. And we participate in the Arizona Public Service residential battery services program, which offers homeowners who install Enphase IQ Batteries in its service territory the chance to participate and earn money through one-time, upfront incentives. In addition, the Vermont-based utility Green Mountain Power (“GMP”)
Enphase Energy, Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 9

offers Enphase Energy Systems to its customers in a cutting-edge battery lease grid services pilot program. Homeowners can also enroll in GMP’s “Bring Your Own Device” grid services program, which allows customers with their own Enphase Energy Systems to participate and earn an up-front incentive. These grid services programs allow utilities to leverage IQ Batteries instead of turning on polluting peaker plants, while generating an income stream for the IQ Battery owner. Although these programs do not drive material revenues, we continue to believe that facilitating grid services participation for our customers can reduce the lifetime cost of IQ Batteries and help drive increased demand for our Enphase Energy Systems.
In December 2022, Pacific Gas & Electric Company (“PG&E”) and Enphase announced the launch of a fixed power solutions pilot program, Residential Storage Initiative, in which PG&E is providing free Enphase IQ Battery storage systems to approximately 100 low-income residential customers that have been the most frequently impacted by outages as a result of PG&E’s Enhanced Powerline Safety Settings. Customers participating in the pilot are auto enrolled in the PG&E Power Saver Rewards program, where they can earn money and help California avoid power interruptions by reducing consumption and utilizing energy stored in their battery systems during times of high demand.
In December 2023, we announced our expanded support for virtual power plants through grid services programs across the United States powered by the IQ Battery. Through the PG&E Emergency Load Reduction Program, California homeowners in PG&E territory who install Enphase IQ Batteries and enroll in the program could earn money from PG&E for using the electricity stored in their IQ Batteries to help reduce demand on the grid during peak load periods. Homeowners with IQ Batteries can also now enroll in Public Service Enterprise Group Long Island’s Battery Storage Rewards Program and Connecticut’s Energy Storage Solutions Program.
Enphase® Installer Platform. We are now offering SolargrafSM, our cloud-based solar and battery design, proposal software and permitting services for both residential and commercial customers. Solargraf is offered in the United States, Canada, Brazil, Germany and Austria for residential customers and in select regions for commercial customers.
We also offer a predictive software platform dedicated to simplifying the cleantech service landscape by matching cleantech asset owners to a local and on-demand workforce of service providers. In addition, we offer another software platform designed to provide high quality leads to solar installers, with the objective of increasing lead volumes and conversion rates to help drive down the customer acquisition costs for installers.
Customers and Sales
We currently offer solutions targeting the residential and commercial markets in the United States, Canada, Mexico, Europe, Australia, New Zealand, India, Brazil, the Philippines, Thailand, South Africa and certain other Central American and Asian markets. We sell primarily to solar distributors who combine our products with others, including solar modules products and racking systems, and resell to installers in each target region. In addition to our solar distributors, we sell directly to select large installers, original equipment manufacturers (“OEM”) and strategic partners. Our OEM customers include solar module manufacturers who integrate our microinverters with their solar module products and resell to both distributors and installers. Strategic partners include a variety of companies, including industrial equipment suppliers and providers of solar financing solutions. We also sell certain products and services to homeowners, primarily in support of our warranty services and legacy product upgrade programs, via our online store. In the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, one customer accounted for approximately 40%, 37% and 34%, respectively, of our total net revenues. Our revenue generated from the United States market has represented 64%, 76% and 80% of our total net revenues for the annual periods ended on December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively, as we work to expand our international business.
Competition
The markets for our products are highly competitive and we compete with central and string inverter manufacturers, storage system manufacturers and new technologies that compete with our business. The principal areas in which we compete with other companies include:
product performance and features;
total cost of ownership;
breadth of product line;
local sales and distribution capabilities;
Enphase Energy, Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 10

module compatibility and interoperability;
reliability and duration of product warranty;
technological expertise;
brand recognition;
customer service and support;
compliance with industry standards and certifications;
compliance with current and planned local electrical codes;
integration with storage offerings;
size and financial stability of operations;
size of installed base; and
local manufacturing and product content.
In an installation consisting of a traditional central inverter, the solar PV modules are connected in series strings. In a large installation, there are multiple series strings connected in parallel. The aggregated voltage from each of these strings is then fed into a large central inverter. We believe that traditional string inverters have a number of design and performance challenges limiting innovation and their ability to reduce the cost of solar power systems, including the following:
Productivity limits. If solar modules are wired using a traditional central inverter—a group or “string” of modules are wired in series, and an entire string’s output is limited by the output of the lowest-performing module. Because of its string design, there is a single point of failure risk with the traditional string inverter approach.
Reliability issues. Traditional string inverters are the single most common component of solar installations to fail, resulting in system downtime and adversely impacting total energy output. As a result, string inverters typically carry warranties of only 5 to 12 years.
Complex design and installation requirements. The string inverter-based solar PV installation requires greater effort on the part of the installer, both in terms of design and on-site labor. String inverter installations require string design and calculations for safe and reliable operation, as well as specialized equipment such as DC combiners, conduits and disconnects. In addition, the use of high-voltage DC requires specialized knowledge and training and safety precautions to install string inverter technology.
Safety issues. String inverter solar PV installations have a wide distribution of high-voltage (600 volts to 1,000 volts) DC wiring. If damaged, DC wires can generate sustained electrical arcs, reaching temperatures of more than 5,000°F. This creates the risk of fire for solar PV installation owners and injury for installers and maintenance personnel.
These challenges of traditional string inverters have a direct impact on the cost and expected return on investment of solar installations to both installers and system owners:
Installer. Solar PV installers aim for simple installation design, fast installation times and maximum system performance and predictability. The installation of high-voltage DC string inverter technology, however, requires significant preparation, precautionary safety measures, time-consuming string calculations, extensive design expertise and specialized installation equipment, training and knowledge. Together, these factors significantly increase complexity and cost of installation and limit overall productivity for the installer.
System owner. Solar power system owners aim for high energy production, low cost, high reliability, and low maintenance requirements, as well as reduced fire risks. With traditional string inverters, owners often are unable to optimize the size or shape of their solar PV installations due to string design limitations. As such, they experience performance loss from shading and other obstructions, can face frequent system failures and lack the ability to effectively monitor the performance of their solar PV installation. In addition, string inverter installations operate at high-voltage DC, which bears significant fire risks. Further, due to their large size, string inverter installations can affect architectural aesthetics of the house or commercial building.
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Several of our existing and potential competitors are significantly larger than us and may have greater financial, marketing, distribution and customer support resources and may have significantly broader brand recognition, especially in certain markets. In addition, some of our competitors have more resources and experience in developing or acquiring new products and technologies and in creating market awareness for these offerings.
Competitors in the inverter market include, among others, SolarEdge Technologies, Inc. (“SolarEdge”), Tesla, Inc. (“Tesla”), Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd., (“Huawei”), Sungrow Power Supply Co., Ltd., Growatt New Energy Co., Ltd and other companies offering string inverters with and without solar optimizers. We believe that our microinverter solutions offer significant advantages and competitive differentiation relative to traditional central or string inverter technology, even when supplemented by DC-to-DC optimizers on the roof.
Competitors in the storage market include Tesla, SolarEdge, Huawei, LG Chem, BYD and other producers of battery cells and integrated storage systems market. Competitors in the EV charger market include Wallbox, ChargePoint Holdings, Inc., Tesla, JuiceBox and EVBox, among others.
Manufacturing, Quality Control and Supply Chain Management
We utilize a sourcing strategy that emphasizes global procurement of materials and product manufacturing in lower cost regions. We outsource the manufacturing of our products to third-party contract manufacturers. Flex Ltd. and affiliates (“Flex”), Salcomp Plc. and affiliates (“Salcomp”), and Sunwoda Electric Co. Ltd. (“Sunwoda”) assemble and test our microinverters, IQ Battery storage systems and IQ Gateway products. Prices for such services are agreed to by the parties on a quarterly basis, and we are obligated to purchase manufactured products and raw materials that cannot be resold upon the termination of the corresponding agreement. Flex also provides receiving, kitting, storage, transportation, inventory visibility and other value-added logistics services at locations managed by Flex. Hong Kong Sinbon Industrial Limited manufactures our custom AC cables. Amperex Technology Limited and A123 Systems LLC supply lithium-ion batteries to help increase our available capacity. In addition, we rely on several unaffiliated companies to supply certain components used in the fabrication of our products.
Our relationships with Flex, Salcomp and Sunwoda provide us with strategic manufacturing capabilities and flexibility. During the fiscal year 2023, we began shipments of microinverters from our contract manufacturers in the United States. Moving manufacturing to the United States allows us to take advantage of the benefits of the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022 (the “IRA”) as well as help us better serve our customers by cutting down delivery times and diversifying our supply chain.
In the first quarter of 2023, we began production shipments of Enphase branded EV chargers at our existing contract manufacturing facility in Mexico. We expect this move could help to meet the rapidly growing demand for reliable and affordable EV charging solutions by providing a greater supply of product and more predictable lead times.
In the fourth quarter of 2023, we implemented a restructuring plan (the “2023 Restructuring Plan”) to reduce our operating costs, and better align our cost structure with current market conditions, strategic priorities and our ongoing commitment to profitable growth. As part of the 2023 Restructuring Plan, we plan to cease operations at our contract manufacturing locations in Romania and in Wisconsin, United States, and resize our other contract manufacturing sites.
Customer Service
We continue to cultivate an organizational focus on customer satisfaction and are committed to providing a best-in-class customer experience. We maintain high levels of customer engagement through our customer support group, Enphase community, and the Enphase App. We significantly improved features in Service Manager™, which installers can use from their mobile devices to get service instantly. We continue to provide 24/7 support for installers and Enphase system owners globally across our phone, online chat and email communications channel. We continue to train our customer service agents with a goal of reducing average customer wait times to under one minute, and we continue to expand our network of field service technicians in the United States, Europe and Australia to provide direct homeowner assistance. Our Net Promoter Score (commonly referred to as “NPS”) improved to 76% in 2023 from 69% in 2022 as a result of multiple customer service initiatives.
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Research and Development
We plan to continue to devote substantial resources to research and development with the objective of developing new products and systems and increasing the value or reducing the cost of existing products and systems. Our research and development roadmap identifies new product features and defines improvement targets for existing products that enhance the benefit of our energy management solutions to our customers and support our growth plans. We measure the effectiveness of our research and development using metrics that include product cost, performance and reliability, homeowner and installer experience, as well as development cost and performance to schedule.
Intellectual Property
We operate in an industry in which innovation, investment in new ideas and protection of our intellectual property rights are critical for success. We protect our technology through a variety of means, including through patent, trademark, copyright and trade secrets laws in the United States and similar laws in other countries, confidentiality agreements and other contractual arrangements. As of December 31, 2023, we have approximately 401 global patents and 264 pending patent applications. Our patents are expiring on an ongoing basis between the present and 2044, but there is not a material portion of our patent portfolio expiring in the near future.
We have licensed certain technologies for application in hardware and software in our products. Such licenses are generally fully-paid, royalty-free licenses. Given the volume and pace of new patents worldwide, it may become necessary in the future to license intellectual property on terms that are yet unknown to us, and that may be less favorable than licenses in the past. In addition, we license open source software from various third parties for use in hardware and software. Such open source software is licensed under open source licenses, and we take efforts to maintain compliance with such licenses.
We continually assess the need for patent protection for those aspects of our technology that we believe provide significant competitive advantages. A majority of our patents relate to DC to AC power conversion, energy storage devices and related energy environments.
With respect to proprietary know-how that is not patentable and processes for which patents are difficult to enforce, we rely on trade secret protection and confidentiality agreements to safeguard our interests. We believe that many elements of our microinverter and storage manufacturing processes involve proprietary know-how, technology or data that are not covered by patents or patent applications, including technical processes, test equipment designs, algorithms and procedures.
We own or have rights to various trademarks and service marks in the United States and in other countries, including Enphase, the Enphase “e”, IQ, and many other marks. We rely on both registration of our marks as well as common law protection where available.
All of our research and development personnel have entered into confidentiality and proprietary information agreements with us. These agreements address intellectual property protection and require our employees to assign to us all of the inventions, designs and technologies they develop during the course of employment with us.
We also require our customers and business partners to enter into confidentiality agreements before we disclose any sensitive aspects of our technology or business plans.
As part of our overall strategy to protect our intellectual property, we may take legal actions to prevent third parties from infringing or misappropriating our intellectual property or from otherwise gaining access to our technology.
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Government Regulations
Our business activities are subject to a changing patchwork of laws and regulations that prevail at the federal, state, regional and local levels as well as in foreign jurisdictions. For example, substantially all of our import operations are subject to complex trade and customs laws, regulations and tax requirements such as sanctions orders or tariffs set by governments through mutual agreements or unilateral actions. In addition, the countries in which our products are manufactured or imported may from time to time impose additional duties, tariffs or other restrictions on our imports or adversely modify existing restrictions. Changes in tax policies or trade regulations, the disallowance of tax deductions on imported merchandise, or the imposition of new tariffs on imported products, could have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations. Compliance with these laws, rules and regulations has not had, and is not expected to have, a material effect on our capital expenditures and results of operations.
We are also subject to other complex foreign and U.S. laws and regulations related to anti-bribery and corruption laws, antitrust or competition laws, and data privacy and security laws, such as the EU General Data Protection Regulation, among others. We have policies and procedures in place to promote compliance with these laws and regulations. To date, our compliance actions and costs relating to these laws, rules and regulations have not resulted in a material cost or effect on our capital expenditures, earnings or competitive position. Government regulations are subject to change, and accordingly we are unable to assess the possible effect of compliance with future requirements or whether our compliance with such regulations will materially impact our business in the future.
Government Incentives
U.S. federal, state and local government bodies, as well as non-U.S. government bodies provide incentives to owners, distributors, system integrators and manufacturers of solar energy and battery energy storage systems to promote the use of these resources in the form of rebates, tax credits, lower VAT rate and other financial incentives, such as system performance payments, payments for renewable energy credits associated with renewable energy generation and exclusion of solar energy systems from property tax assessments. The market for on‑grid applications, where solar power, possibly coupled with battery storage, is used to supplement a customer’s electricity purchased from the utility network or sold to a utility under tariff, often depends in large part on the availability and size of these government subsidies and economic incentives, which vary by geographic market and from time to time, thus helping to catalyze customer acceptance of solar energy as an alternative to utility-provided power. The disallowance or changes in government subsidies or economic incentives could have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations. Among other government-established incentives, net energy metering and related policies have supported the growth of on-grid solar and storage products, and changes to such policies may significantly reduce demand for electricity from our solar and storage service offerings. Net energy metering provides compensation for a customer exporting excess solar generation to the electrical grid.
In August 2022, the IRA was enacted, which includes extension of the investment tax credit (“ITC”) as well as a new advanced manufacturing production tax credit (“AMPTC”), to incentivize clean energy component sourcing and production, including for the production of microinverters. The IRA also included a 10% ITC for solar system components that are manufactured with a minimum threshold of domestic content. The IRA provides an AMPTC on microinverters of 11 cents per alternating current watt, which had a favorable impact to our results of operations in the year ended December 31, 2023. The AMPTC for microinverters decreases by 25% each year beginning in 2030 and ending after 2032. Under the IRA, the ITC was also extended until 2032 to allow a qualifying homeowner to deduct 30% of the cost of installing residential solar systems from their U.S. federal income taxes, thereby returning a material portion of the purchase price of the residential solar system to homeowners. Under the terms of the current extension, the ITC will remain at 30% through the end of 2032, reduce to 26% for 2033, reduce to 22% for 2034, and further reduce to 0% after the end of 2034 for residential solar systems, unless it is extended before that time. We believe the enactment of the IRA is favorable to our overall business.
In December 2022, the California Public Utilities Commission (“CPUC”) approved a new net energy metering policy, called Net Energy Metering 3.0 (“NEM 3.0”), which went into effect starting April 15, 2023. The new policy reduces the compensation earned by solar customers selling extra energy to the grid by a substantial amount. The average export rate in California under NEM 3.0 is approximately $0.05/kWh to $0.08/kWh compared to the prior average of $0.25/kWh to $0.35/kWh under the prior regime, called Net Energy Metering 2.0 (“NEM 2.0”). In November 2023, the CPUC also adopted changes to its Virtual NEM and NEM Aggregation programs that prohibit the netting of import energy charges at multi-meter commercial or agricultural properties with solar energy
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generated at or adjacent to those properties, except for residential account holders in a multi-family residential property. Both of these policy changes in California reduced demand for solar PV systems in the year ended December 31, 2023 and may continue to do so for future inverter sales. However, the reduction in export compensation under NEM 3.0, coupled with rising utility rates, may encourage deployment of battery energy storage with solar PV systems and mitigate some of the demand reductions.
Seasonality
Historically, the majority of our revenue are from the North American and European regions which experience higher sales of our products in the second, third and fourth quarters and have been affected by seasonal customer demand trends, including weather patterns and construction cycles. The first quarter historically has had softer customer demand in our industry, due to these same factors. Although these seasonal factors are common in the solar sector, historical patterns should not be considered a reliable indicator of our future sales activity or performance.
Environment and Climate Change
We have understood the climate change threat from the beginning and have been creating clean energy technologies needed to directly combat it, protect our environment and enable sustainable development. We recognize our ability to do so rests on our capacity to understand, anticipate and successfully navigate various types of climate risk. Our strategy is advancing solutions to meet any number of climate risk mitigation opportunities – solar energy equipment, battery storage, EV charging, smart load management and integration with grid modernization efforts.
We align our risk assessment and climate strategy with the recommendations of the Taskforce for Climate-Related Financial Disclosures (“TCFD”), as all existing and emerging climate risk disclosure regulations are modeled on this framework. We issued our third TCFD aligned Environmental, Social and Governance Report in 2023 and plan to follow up with another aligned report in 2024.
We believe that sound corporate governance is critical to helping us achieve our goals, including with respect to designing products that address both energy generation and consumption. We continue to evolve a governance framework that exercises appropriate oversight of responsibilities at all levels throughout the company and manages its affairs consistent with high principles of business ethics and advancing a sustainable future for all.
Human Capital Resources
As of December 31, 2023, we had 3,157 full-time employees. Of the full-time employees, 1,218 were engaged in research and development, 1,220 in sales and marketing, 283 in general and administration, 268 in solar system configuration design and permitting services and 168 in manufacturing and operations. Of these employees, 1,002 were in the United States, 1,696 in India, 223 in Europe, 118 in New Zealand, 29 in Australia, 25 in Mexico, 24 in Canada, 24 in China, and 16 in Brazil.
None of our employees are represented by a labor union; however, our employees in France are represented by a collective bargaining agreement. We have not experienced any employment-related work stoppages, and we consider our relations with our employees to be good.
Culture
Supporting our purpose of “Advancing a sustainable future for all,” all employees are expected to uphold the following core values that drive our culture:
Customer First
Integrity
Innovation
Teamwork
Quality
These core values are represented by how we work together, how we perform and how we all get rewarded. Values are reinforced in new hire training, culture workshops and everyday interactions.
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Talent
Our talent and culture are critical to our success. Our human capital management philosophy and objectives focus on creating a high-performance culture in which our employees deliver, succeed and lead. We achieve our objectives through various employee engagement and talent development efforts. Our employee engagement efforts include our quarterly all-employee town hall meetings, through which we aim to keep our employees well-informed and to increase transparency, and employee engagement surveys, through which we incorporate critical employee feedback into our culture, operations and strategic plans. We have established relationships with top universities worldwide, professional associations and industry groups to build a talent pipeline and established the Enphase Learning Academy to provide employees with on demand relevant technical and professional programs.
We are committed to promoting and cultivating an inclusive and diverse culture that welcomes and celebrates everyone without bias. In addition, we look to actively engage within our communities to foster and attain social equity. We became a corporate sponsor of the non-profit Women in Cleantech and Sustainability and our Chief Executive Officer signed the CEO Action for Diversity & Inclusion pledge. This shows our commitment to advancing diversity and inclusion in the workplace.
Compensation Philosophy
Our compensation philosophy creates the framework for our rewards strategy. We have a pay-for-performance culture that ties compensation to the performance of the individual and our company. We provide competitive compensation programs that focus on the following five key elements:
Pay-for-performance: Reward and recognize leading contributors and high potential employees by paying market competitive total direct compensation, which includes base salary, quarterly bonus or commission, and stock-based compensation
External market-based research: Pay levels that are competitive with respect to the labor markets and industries in which we compete for talent
Internal equity: Maintaining internally consistent and non-discriminatory pay and pay practices
Fiscal responsibility: Providing programs in line with economic conditions and our company’s financial health
Legal compliance: Ensure the organization is legally compliant with employee compensation laws in all states and countries in which we operate
Health and Wellness
We invest in our employees through high-quality benefits and various health and wellness initiatives. Our benefits packages provide a balance of protection along with the flexibility to meet the individual needs of our employees. Our global work-from-home policy introduced in response to COVID-19 pandemic was modified to allow employees in certain countries and locations to work in a hybrid mode as business necessitates. Our focus remains on the safety of our employees and business partners, and we strive to protect the health and well-being of the communities in which we operate, in part, by providing technology to our employees, end-customers and business partners to help them do their best work while remote. We expect these business operating conditions will substantially remain in effect throughout 2024. We will continue to actively monitor the situation and we will make further changes to our business operations as may be permitted by federal, state, or local authorities and that we determine are in the best interests of our employees, end-customers, partners, suppliers and stockholders.
Available Information
We file electronically with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”), our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act can be accessed on our Investor Relations website at www.investor.enphase.com. Alternatively, you may access these reports at the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov. We make available, free of charge, copies of these reports as soon as reasonably practicable after filing these reports with the SEC or otherwise furnishing it to the SEC. The contents of our websites are not incorporated by reference into this Annual Report on Form 10-K or in any other report or document we file with the SEC, and any references to our websites are intended to be inactive textual references only.
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Item 1A.    Risk Factors
We have identified the following risks and uncertainties that may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. The risks described below are not the only ones we face. Additional risks not presently known to us or that we currently believe are not material may also significantly impair our business operations. Our business could be harmed by any of these risks. The trading price of our common stock could decline due to any of these risks, and you may lose all or part of your investment. In assessing these risks, you should also refer to the other information contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including our consolidated financial statements and related notes. See also “Forward-Looking Statements” in the forepart of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Risks Related to our Business, Operations and Our Industry
Unfavorable macroeconomic and market conditions may adversely affect our industry, business and financial results.
Our business depends on the overall demand for our solar energy products and on the economic health and willingness of our customers and potential customers to make capital commitments to purchase our products and services. Macroeconomic or market uncertainty, including increased interest rates and high inflation, or expectations of future interest rate cuts by the U.S. Federal Reserve, may cause, and has caused, customers to delay purchasing our products and services or not purchase at all. In addition, a number of the risks associated with our business, which are disclosed in these risk factors, may increase in likelihood, magnitude or duration, and we may face new risks that we have not yet identified.
Unfavorable macroeconomic and market conditions can result and have previously resulted in sustained periods of decreased demand. Macroeconomic and market conditions could be adversely affected by a variety of political, economic or other factors in the United States and international markets, which could, in turn, adversely affect spending levels of installers and end users and could create volatility or deteriorating conditions in the markets in which we operate. Macroeconomic uncertainty or weakness could result in:
reduced demand for our products as a result of constraints on capital spending for residential solar energy systems by our customers;
increased price competition for our products that may adversely affect revenue, gross margin and profitability;
decreased ability to forecast operating results and make decisions about budgeting, planning and future investments;
business and financial difficulties faced by our suppliers, distributors or other partners, including impacts to material costs, sales, liquidity levels, ability to continue investing in their businesses, ability to import or export goods, ability to meet development commitments and manufacturing capability; and
increased overhead and production costs as a percentage of revenue.
Reductions in customer spending in response to unfavorable or uncertain macroeconomic and market conditions, globally or in a particular region where we operate, would adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
If demand for solar energy solutions does not grow or grows at a slower rate than we anticipate, our business will suffer.
Our IQ Microinverters, ACM products and IQ Battery storage systems are utilized in solar PV installations, which provide on-site distributed power generation. As a result, our future success depends on continued demand for solar energy solutions and the ability of solar equipment vendors to meet this demand. The solar industry is an evolving industry that has experienced substantial changes in recent years, and we cannot be certain that consumers and businesses will adopt solar PV systems as an alternative energy source at levels sufficient to continue to grow our business. Traditional electricity distribution is based on the regulated industry model under which businesses and consumers obtain their electricity from a government regulated utility. For alternative methods of distributed power to succeed, businesses and consumers must adopt new purchasing practices. The viability and continued growth in demand for solar energy solutions and, in turn, our products, may be impacted by many factors outside of our control, including:
market acceptance of solar PV systems based on our product platform;
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cost competitiveness, reliability and performance of solar PV systems compared to conventional and non-solar renewable energy sources and products;
availability and amount of government subsidies and incentives to support the development and deployment of solar energy solutions;
the extent to which the electric power industry and broader energy industries are deregulated to permit broader adoption of solar electricity generation;
the cost and availability of key raw materials and components used in the production of solar PV systems;
prices of traditional utility-provided energy sources;
levels of investment by end-users of solar energy products, which tend to decrease when economic growth slows; and
the emergence, continuance or success of, or increased government support for, other alternative energy generation technologies and products.
If demand for solar energy solutions does not grow, demand for our customers’ products from residential homeowners and commercial businesses will decrease, which would have an adverse impact on our ability to increase our revenue and grow our business.
Further, our success depends on continued demand for solar energy solutions and the ability of solar equipment vendors to meet this demand. Supply chain disruptions, increased interest rates and higher inflation, have caused and may continue to cause various negative effects, including an inability to meet the needs of our existing or potential end customers. If demand for solar energy solutions decreases or does not grow, demand for our customers’ products as well as demand for our products will decrease, which would have an adverse impact on our ability to increase our revenue and grow our business.
The reduction, elimination or expiration of government subsidies and economic incentives for on-grid solar electricity applications could reduce demand for solar PV systems and harm our business.
The market for on-grid applications, where solar power, on a standalone basis or paired with energy storage systems, is used to supplement a customer’s electricity purchased from the utility network or sold to a utility under tariff, depends in large part on the availability and size of government and economic incentives that vary by geographic market. Because our customers’ sales of solar power are typically into the on-grid market, the reduction, elimination or expiration of government subsidies and economic incentives for on-grid solar electricity may negatively affect the competitiveness of solar electricity relative to conventional and non-solar renewable sources of electricity and could harm or halt the growth of the solar electricity industry and our business.
National, state and local government bodies in many countries, including the United States, have provided incentives in the form of feed-in tariffs (“FiTs”), rebates, tax credits and other incentives to system owners, distributors, system integrators and manufacturers of solar PV systems and battery energy storage systems to bolster the cost competitiveness of solar electricity in on-grid applications relative to the cost of utility power, and to reduce dependency on other forms of energy. Many of these government incentives expire, phase out over time, terminate upon the exhaustion of the allocated funding, require renewal by the applicable authority or are being changed by governments due to changing market circumstances or changes to national, state or local energy policy.
Electric utility companies or generators of electricity from other non-solar renewable sources of electricity may successfully lobby for changes in the relevant legislation in their markets that are harmful to the solar industry. Reductions in, or eliminations or expirations of, governmental incentives in regions where we focus our sales efforts could result in decreased demand for and lower revenue from solar PV systems there, which would adversely affect sales of our products. In addition, our ability to successfully penetrate new geographic markets may depend on new countries adopting and maintaining incentives to promote solar electricity, to the extent such incentives are not currently in place. Furthermore, electric utility companies may establish pricing structures or interconnection requirements that could adversely affect our sales and be harmful to the solar and distributed rooftop solar generation industry.
Among other government-established incentives, net energy metering and related policies have supported the growth of on-grid solar products, and changes to such policies may reduce demand for electricity from our solar service offerings. Net energy metering is a utility rate program that requires a consumer’s electric company to
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purchase the excess solar energy that the consumer’s solar panels produce and pay the retail rate for electricity exported to the grid, less certain non-bypassable fees paid by the consumer. For example, in 2016, the CPUC issued an order retaining retail rate-based net energy metering credits for residential customers of California's major utilities as part of NEM 2.0. Customers under NEM 2.0 were made subject to interconnection application fees and must take service under time‑of-use rates with different electricity prices during peak and off-peak hours. Existing customers who receive service under the prior net energy metering program, as well as new customers under the NEM 2.0 program, remain eligible for the NEM 2.0 program for a period of 20 years. However, on December 15, 2022, the CPUC adopted a “NEM 3.0” policy, also known as the Net Billing Tariff, that unbundles export compensation from retail rates and instead bases it on a tool called the Avoided Cost Calculator (“ACC”), which estimates the hourly utility costs that are avoided by exports from distributed generation. The CPUC did seek to ease the transition for the solar market by adopting export “adders” to the hourly ACC values for the first several years of the tariff. Nevertheless, these ACC-based export compensation values are significantly lower than retail rates for most hours of the year and may therefore increase payback periods, and thereby reduce demand, for solar-only systems. Similarly, in November 2023, the CPUC adopted changes to its Virtual NEM and NEM Aggregation programs that prohibit the netting of import energy charges at multi-meter commercial or agricultural properties with solar energy generated at or adjacent to those properties, except for residential account holders in a multi-family residential property. These types of modifications to net energy metering incentives have impacted and could further harm our business, both in California, where we have derived a significant portion of historical revenues in the United States, and in other jurisdictions, if pursued there.
The solar industry is highly competitive, and we expect to face increased competition as new and existing competitors introduce products or develop alternative technologies, which could negatively impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We compete primarily against central and string inverter manufacturers, as well as against new solutions and emerging technologies that directly compete with our business. A number of companies have developed or are developing microinverters and other products that will compete directly with our solutions in the module-level power electronics market. We also compete against manufacturers of energy storage systems and EV chargers for our solutions in these markets.
Competitors in the inverter market include, among others, SolarEdge, Tesla, Huawei, Sungrow Power Supply Co., Ltd., Growatt New Energy Co., Ltd and other companies offering string inverters with and without solar optimizers. Competitors in the storage market include Tesla, SolarEdge, Huawei, LG Chem, BYD and other producers of battery cells and integrated storage systems market. Competitors in the EV charger market include Wallbox, ChargePoint, Tesla, JuiceBox and EVBox, among others.
Several of our existing and potential competitors are significantly larger than we are and may have greater financial, marketing, distribution and customer support resources and may have significantly broader brand recognition, especially in certain markets. In addition, some of our competitors have more resources and experience in developing or acquiring new products and technologies and creating market awareness for these offerings. Further, certain competitors may be able to develop new products more quickly than we can and may be able to develop products that are more reliable or that provide more functionality than ours. In addition, some of our competitors have the financial resources to offer competitive products at aggressive or below-market pricing levels, which could cause us to lose sales or market share or require us to lower prices of our products in order to compete effectively. Suppliers of solar products, particularly solar modules, have experienced eroding prices over the last several years and as a result many have faced margin compression and declining revenues. If we have to reduce our prices, or if we are unable to offset any future reductions in our average selling prices (“ASPs”) by increasing our sales volume, reducing our costs and expenses or introducing new products, our revenue and gross profit would suffer.
Significant developments in alternative technologies, such as advances in other forms of distributed solar PV power generation, storage solutions such as batteries, the widespread use or adoption of fuel cells for residential or commercial properties or improvements in other forms of centralized power production may have a material adverse effect on our business and prospects. Any failure by us to adopt new or enhanced technologies or processes, or to react to changes in existing technologies, could result in product obsolescence, the loss of competitiveness of our products, decreased revenue and a loss of market share to competitors.
We also may face competition from some of our customers or potential customers who evaluate our capabilities against the merits of manufacturing products internally. Other solar module manufacturers could also develop or acquire competing inverter technology or attempt to develop components that directly perform DC-to-AC
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conversion in the module itself. Due to the fact that such customers may not seek to make a profit directly from the manufacture of these products, they may have the ability to manufacture competitive products at a lower cost than we would charge such customers. As a result, these customers or potential customers may purchase fewer of our systems or sell products that compete with our systems, which would negatively impact our revenue and gross profit.
Our recent and planned expansion into existing and new markets could subject us to additional business, financial and competitive risks.
We currently offer solar energy systems targeting the residential and commercial markets throughout the world, and we intend to expand into other international markets. Our success in new geographic and product markets will depend on a number of factors, such as:
acceptance of microinverters and batteries in markets in which they have not traditionally been used;
our ability to compete in new product markets to which we are not accustomed;
accurate forecasting and effective management of inventory levels in line with anticipated product demand;
our ability to manage manufacturing capacity and production;
willingness of our potential customers to incur a higher upfront capital investment than may be required for competing solutions;
timely qualification and certification of new products;
our ability to reduce production costs in order to price our products competitively;
availability of government subsidies and economic incentives for solar energy solutions;
our customer service capabilities and responsiveness; and
timely hiring of skilled employees and the efficient execution of our project plan.
Failure to address these new markets successfully, to generate sufficient revenue from these markets to offset associated research and development, marketing and manufacturing costs, or to otherwise effectively anticipate and manage the risks and challenges associated with our potential expansion into new product and geographic markets, could adversely affect our revenue and our ability to achieve or sustain profitability.
We may fail to capture customers as we design and develop new products and update existing products.
We are pursuing opportunities in energy management and energy storage that are highly competitive markets. We have made investments in our infrastructure, increased our operating costs and forgone other business opportunities in order to seek opportunities in these areas and will continue to do so. Any new product is subject to certain risks, including component sourcing, strategic partner selection and execution, customer acceptance, competition, product differentiation, market timing, challenges relating to economies of scale in component sourcing and the ability to attract and retain qualified personnel. There can be no assurance that we will be able to develop and grow these or any other new concepts to a point where they will become profitable or generate positive cash flow. If we fail to execute on our plan with respect to new product introductions, or fail to adequately update our legacy products, we may fail to generate revenue in the quantities or timeline projected, thus, having a materially adverse impact on our operating results and financial stability.
We continue to develop new generations of our IQ Microinverters, IQ Batteries and EV charging products. Developing new products or next generation products is complex and requires significant preparation, precautionary safety measures, time-consuming string calculations, extensive design expertise and specialized installation equipment, training and knowledge. Together, these factors significantly increase complexity and cost of installation and limit overall productivity for the installer. Our installers may not have sufficient resources or expertise necessary to sell our products at the prices, in the volumes and within the time frames that we expect, which could hinder our ability to expand our operations and harm our revenue and operating results.
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We depend upon a small number of outside contract manufacturers, and our business and operations could be disrupted if we encounter problems with these contract manufacturers.
We do not have internal manufacturing capabilities and rely upon a small number of contract manufacturers to build our products. In particular, we outsource the manufacturing of our products to third-party contract manufacturers. Flex, Salcomp and Sunwoda assemble and test our IQ Microinverter, ACM products, IQ Battery storage systems and IQ Gateway products. Prices for such services are agreed to by the parties on a quarterly basis, and we are obligated to purchase manufactured products and raw materials that cannot be resold upon the termination of the related agreement. As of December 31, 2023, our related purchase obligations (including amounts related to component inventory procured by our primary contract manufacturers on our behalf) were approximately $184.4 million. The timing of purchases in future periods could differ materially from our estimates due to fluctuations in demand requirements related to varying sales levels as well as changes in economic conditions.
Flex also provides receiving, kitting, storage, transportation, inventory visibility and other value-added logistics services at locations managed by Flex. In addition, we rely on several unaffiliated companies to supply certain components used in the fabrication of our products.
Our reliance on a small number of contract manufacturers makes us vulnerable to possible capacity constraints and reduced control over component availability, delivery schedules, manufacturing yields and costs. We do not have long-term supply contracts with our contract manufacturing partners. Consequently, these manufacturers are not obligated to supply products to us for any period, in any specified quantity or at any certain price. If any of these suppliers reduce or eliminate the supply of the components to us in the future, our revenue, business, financial condition and results of operations would be adversely impacted.
Further, the revenue that our contract manufacturers generate from our orders may represent a relatively small percentage of their overall revenue. As a result, fulfilling our orders may not be considered a priority in the event of constrained ability to fulfill all of their customer obligations in a timely manner. In addition, the facilities in which the vast majority of our products are manufactured are located outside of the United States. We believe that the location of these facilities outside of the United States increases our supply risk, including the risk of supply interruptions or reductions in manufacturing quality or controls.
If any of our contract manufacturers were unable or unwilling to manufacture our products in required volumes and at high quality levels or renew existing terms under supply agreements, we would have to identify, qualify and select acceptable alternative contract manufacturers, which may not be available to us on favorable terms, if at all. An alternative contract manufacturer may not be available to us when needed or may not be in a position to satisfy our quality or production requirements on commercially reasonable terms. Any significant interruption in manufacturing would require us to reduce our supply of products to our customers, which in turn would reduce our revenue, harm our relationships with our customers and cause us to forgo potential revenue opportunities.
We rely primarily on distributors, installers and providers of solar financing to assist in selling our products to customers, and the failure of these customers to perform at the expected level, or at all, would have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of our operations.
We sell our solutions primarily through distributors, as well as through direct sales to solar equipment installers and developers of third-party solar finance offerings. We do not have exclusive arrangements with these third parties. As a result, many of these third parties, or customers, also use or market and sell products from our competitors, which may reduce our sales. These customers may generally terminate their relationships with us at any time, or with short notice, and further may fail to devote the resources necessary to sell our products at the prices, in the volumes and within the time frames that we expect, or may focus their marketing and sales efforts on products of our competitors. In addition, participants in the solar industry are becoming increasingly focused on vertical integration of the solar financing and installation process, which may lead to an overall reduction in the number of potential parties who may purchase and install our products.
We typically provide our distributors and installers with training and other programs, including accreditations and certifications; however, these programs may not be effective or utilized consistently. Further, newer distributors and installers may require extensive training and may take significant time and resources to achieve productivity. Our distributors and installers may subject us to lawsuits, potential liability and reputational harm if, for example, any were to misrepresent the functionality of our platform or products to customers, fail to perform services to our customers’ expectations, or violate laws or our policies. In addition, our distributors and installers may utilize our platform to develop products and services that could potentially compete with products and services that we offer
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currently or in the future. Concerns over competitive matters or intellectual property ownership could constrain the growth and development of these relationships or result in the termination of one or more relationships. If we fail to effectively manage and grow our network of distributors and installers, or properly monitor the quality and efficacy of their service delivery, our ability to sell our products and efficiently provide our services may be impacted, and our operating results may be harmed.
Our future performance depends on our ability to effectively manage our relationships with our existing customers, as well as to attract additional customers that will be able to market and support our products effectively, especially in markets in which we have not previously distributed our products. Termination of agreements with current customers, failure by customers to perform as expected, or failure by us to cultivate new customer relationships, could hinder our ability to expand our operations and harm our revenue and operating results.
We depend on limited-source suppliers for key components and products. If we are unable to source these components and products on a timely basis, we will not be able to deliver our products to our customers.
We depend on sole-source and limited-source suppliers for key components of our products, such as our ASICs and lithium-ion batteries. Any of the sole-source and limited-source suppliers upon whom we rely could experience quality and reliability issues, stop producing our components, cease operations, face climate-related disruptions, or be acquired by, or enter into exclusive arrangements with, our competitors. We generally do not have long-term supply agreements with our suppliers, and our purchase volumes may currently be too low for us to be considered a priority customer by most of our suppliers. As a result, most of these suppliers could stop selling to us at commercially reasonable prices, or at all. Any such quality or reliability issue, or interruption or delay may force us to seek similar components or products from alternative sources, which may not be available on commercially reasonable terms, in a timely manner, or at all. Switching suppliers may require that we redesign our products to accommodate new components and may potentially require us to re-qualify our products, which would be costly and time-consuming. Any interruption in the quality or supply of sole-source or limited-source components for our products would adversely affect our ability to meet scheduled product deliveries to our customers and could result in lost revenue or higher expenses and would harm our business.
Challenges relating to supply chain constraints, including with respect to raw materials, semiconductors and integrated circuits, could adversely impact our revenue, gross margins and results of operations.
In times of increased demand, the global supply market for certain raw materials and components, including, in particular, semiconductors, integrated circuits and other electronic components used in some of our products, has experienced significant constraint and disruption. A constrained supply environment could affect component availability, lead times and cost and could increase the likelihood of unexpected cancellations or delays of previously committed supply of key components. To mitigate these risks, we may in the future and have in the past incurred higher costs to secure available inventory, have extended our purchase commitments and placed non-cancellable, advanced orders with or through suppliers, particularly for long lead time components. Our efforts to expand our manufacturing capacity and multi-source and pre-order components may fail to reduce the impact of these adverse supply chain conditions on our business.
Despite any mitigation efforts, constrained supply conditions may adversely impact our revenue and results of operations. At the same time, increased costs associated with supply premiums, labor, expediting fees and freight and logistics may adversely impact our gross margin, profitability and ability to reduce the cost to manufacture our products in a manner consistent with prior periods. In the past, the COVID-19 pandemic and regional conflicts and wars has also contributed to and exacerbated the strain on our supply chain, and there can be no assurance that these types of impacts will not continue, or worsen, in the future. Increased supply chain challenges could also result in increased use of cash, engineering design changes and delays in new product introductions, each of which could adversely impact our business and financial results. In the event of any persistent supply chain challenges, these challenges would adversely impact our revenue, gross margins and results of operations.
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If we or our contract manufacturers are unable to obtain raw materials in a timely manner or if the price of raw materials increases significantly, production time and product costs could increase, which may adversely affect our business.
The manufacturing and packaging processes used by our contract manufacturers depend on raw materials such as copper, aluminum, silicon and petroleum-based products. From time to time, suppliers may extend lead times, limit supplies or increase prices due to capacity constraints or other factors. Certain of our suppliers have the ability to pass along to us directly or through our contract manufacturers any increases in the price of raw materials. If the prices of these raw materials rise significantly, we may be unable to pass on the increased cost to our customers. While we may from time to time enter into hedging transactions to reduce our exposure to wide fluctuations in the cost of raw materials, the availability and effectiveness of these hedging transactions may be limited. Due to all these factors, our results of operations could be adversely affected if we or our contract manufacturers are unable to obtain adequate supplies of raw materials in a timely manner or at reasonable cost. In addition, from time to time, we or our contract manufacturers may need to reject raw materials that do not meet our specifications, resulting in potential delays or declines in output. Furthermore, problems with our raw materials may give rise to compatibility or performance issues in our products, which could lead to an increase in product warranty claims. Errors or defects may arise from raw materials supplied by third parties that are beyond our detection or control, which could lead to additional product warranty claims that may adversely affect our business and results of operations.
Manufacturing problems could result in delays in product shipments, which would adversely affect our revenue, competitive position and reputation.
We have in the past and may in the future experience delays, disruptions or quality control problems in our manufacturing operations. Our product development, manufacturing and testing processes are complex and require significant technological and production process expertise. Such processes involve a number of precise steps from design to production. Any change in our processes could cause one or more production errors, requiring a temporary suspension or delay in our production line until the errors can be researched, identified and properly addressed and rectified. This may occur particularly as we introduce new products, modify our engineering and production techniques and expand our capacity. In addition, our failure to maintain appropriate quality assurance processes could result in increased product failures, loss of customers, increased production costs and delays. Any of these developments could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
A disruption could also occur in one of our contract manufacturers’ facilities due to any number of reasons, such as equipment failure contaminated materials, process deviations, the effects of climate change and related extreme weather events, or social, geopolitical or health factors, including pandemics or widespread health epidemics such as the COVID-19 pandemic, which could adversely impact manufacturing yields or delay product shipments. As a result, we could incur additional costs that would adversely affect our gross profit, and product shipments to our customers could be delayed beyond the schedules requested, which would negatively affect our revenue, competitive position and reputation.
Additionally, manufacturing yields depend on a number of factors, including the stability and manufacturability of the product design, manufacturing improvements gained over cumulative production volumes, and the quality and consistency of component parts. Capacity constraints, raw materials shortages, logistics issues, labor shortages and changes in customer requirements, manufacturing facilities or processes have historically caused, and may in the future cause, reduced manufacturing yields, negatively impacting the gross profit on, and our production capacity for, those products. Moreover, an increase in the rejection and rework rate of products during the quality control process before, during or after manufacture would result in our experiencing lower yields, gross profit and production capacity. Furthermore, counterfeit parts in our supply chain have been and continue to be a concern, since any counterfeit part can be a lower quality product, which may affect our system reliability.
The risks of these types of manufacturing problems are further increased during the introduction of new product lines, which has from time to time caused, and may in the future cause, temporary suspension of product lines while problems are addressed or corrected. Since our business is substantially dependent on a limited number of product lines, any prolonged or substantial suspension of an individual product line could result in a material adverse effect on our revenue, gross profit and competitive position as well as our distributor and customer relationships.
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The loss of, or events affecting, one of our major customers could reduce our sales and have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023, one customer accounted for approximately 40% of total net revenues. Further, as of December 31, 2023, amounts due from one customer represented approximately 40% of the total accounts receivable balance. Our customers’ decisions to purchase our products are influenced by a number of factors outside of our control, including, among others, retail energy prices, the macroeconomic environment, and government regulation and incentives. Although we have agreements with some of our largest customers, these agreements generally do not have long-term purchase commitments and are generally terminable by either party after a relatively short notice period. In addition, these customers may decide to no longer use, or to reduce the use of, our products and services for other reasons that may be out of our control. We may also be affected by events impacting our large customers that result in their decreasing their orders with us or impairing their ability to pay for our products. The loss of, or events affecting, one or more of our large customers has had from time to time, and could in the future have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our energy systems, including our storage solutions, IQ8 microinverters and Ensemble OS technology, may not achieve broader market acceptance, which would prevent us from increasing our revenue and market share.
If we fail to achieve broader market acceptance of the Enphase Energy System, including international acceptance of our storage solutions, IQ8 microinverters, ACM products and Ensemble OS technology, there would be an adverse impact on our ability to increase our revenue, gain market share and achieve and sustain profitability. Our ability to achieve broader market acceptance for our products and services will be impacted by a number of factors, including:
our ability to produce energy systems that compete favorably against other solutions on the basis of price, quality, reliability and performance;
our ability to timely introduce and complete new designs and timely qualify and certify our products;
whether installers, system owners and solar financing providers will continue to adopt our systems, which have a relatively limited history with respect to reliability and performance;
whether installers, system owners and solar financing providers will adopt our storage solution, which is a relatively new technology with a limited history with respect to reliability and performance;
the ability of prospective system owners to obtain long-term financing for solar PV installations based on our product platform on acceptable terms or at all;
our ability to develop products, systems and services that comply with local standards and regulatory requirements, as well as potential in-country manufacturing requirements; and
our ability to develop and maintain successful relationships with our customers and suppliers.
In addition, our ability to achieve increased market share will depend on our ability to increase sales to established solar installers, who have traditionally sold central or string inverters, or who currently sell DC-to-DC optimizers. These installers often have made substantial investments in design, installation resources and training in traditional central or string inverter systems or DC optimizers, which may create challenges for us to achieve their adoption of our solutions.
If our products contain manufacturing or software defects, our business and financial results could be harmed.
We design and make complex products and they may contain undetected or latent errors or defects. Complex hardware and software systems, such as our products, can often contain undetected errors when first introduced or as new versions are released. In the past, we have experienced latent defects only discovered once the microinverters or batteries are deployed in the field. Changes in our supply chain or the failure of our suppliers to otherwise provide our third-party contract manufacturers with components or materials that meet our specifications could introduce defects into our products. As we grow our product volumes, the chance of manufacturing defects could increase. In addition, new product introductions or design changes made for the purpose of cost reduction, performance improvement or improved reliability could introduce new design defects that may impact the performance and life of our products. Any design or manufacturing defects or other failures of our products to
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perform as expected could cause us to incur significant service and re-engineering costs, divert the attention of our engineering personnel from product development efforts and significantly and adversely affect installer and customer satisfaction, market acceptance and our business reputation. Furthermore, if we are unable to correct manufacturing defects or other failures of products in a manner satisfactory to our customers, our results of operations, customer satisfaction and our business reputation could be adversely affected.
Since some of our products are electricity-producing devices, it is possible that our systems could result in injury, whether by product malfunctions, defects, improper installation, or other causes. We rely on third party installers to install our products according to our installation guides and with local laws. Any significant installation problems could cause us significant harm, including, the incurrence of significant service costs, diverting the attention of our engineering personnel from product development efforts and adversely affecting installer and customer satisfaction, market acceptance and our business reputation, and could subject us to litigation and regulatory costs.
In addition, due to the high energy density of lithium-ion cells, mishandling, inappropriate storage or delivery, non-compliance with safety instructions or field failures can potentially cause a battery cell to rapidly release its stored energy, which may in turn cause a thermal event that can ignite nearby materials, including other lithium-ion cells. As the use of lithium-ion batteries becomes more widespread, these events may occur more often, causing damage to property, injury, lawsuits and adverse publicity, which may adversely affect our reputation, results of operations or financial condition.
If we fail to retain our key personnel or if we fail to attract additional qualified personnel, we may not be able to achieve our anticipated level of growth and our business could suffer.
Our future success and ability to implement our business strategy depends, in part, on our ability to attract and retain key personnel, and on the continued contributions of members of our senior management team and key personnel in areas such as engineering, marketing and sales, any of whom would be difficult to replace. For example, we are highly dependent on our president and chief executive officer, Badrinarayanan Kothandaraman. Mr. Kothandaraman possesses technical knowledge of our business, operations and strategy, and he has substantial experience and contacts that help us implement our goals, strategy and plan. If we lose his services or if he decides to join a competitor or otherwise compete directly or indirectly with us, our business, operating results and financial condition could be materially harmed.
All of our employees, including our senior management, are free to terminate their employment relationships with us at any time. Competition for highly skilled executives and employees in the technology industry is intense, and our competitors have targeted individuals in our organization that have desired skills and experience. If we are not able to continue to attract, train and retain our leadership team and our qualified employees necessary for our business, the progress of our product development programs could be hindered, and we could be materially adversely affected. To help attract, retain and motivate our executives and qualified employees, we use stock-based incentive awards, including restricted stock units. If the value of such stock awards does not appreciate as measured by the performance of the price of our common stock, or if our share-based compensation otherwise ceases to be viewed as a valuable benefit, our ability to attract, retain and motivate our executives and employees could be weakened, which could harm our business and results of operations. Also, if the value of our stock awards increases substantially, this could potentially create substantial personal wealth for our executives and employees and affect our ability to retain our personnel. In addition, any restructuring plans may adversely impact our ability to attract and retain key employees.
Additionally, our ability to attract qualified personnel, including senior management and key technical personnel, is critical to the execution of our growth strategy. Competition for qualified senior management personnel and highly skilled individuals with technical expertise is extremely intense, and we face challenges identifying, hiring and retaining qualified personnel in all areas of our business. In addition, integrating new employees into our team could prove disruptive to our operations, require substantial resources and management attention and ultimately prove unsuccessful. Our failure to attract and retain qualified senior management and other key technical personnel could limit or delay our strategic efforts, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Restructuring activities could disrupt our business and adversely affect our results of operations.
We have taken steps, including reducing our global workforce, streamlining our operations and internal reorganizations, to increase operational efficiencies and execution, reduce operating costs, and better align our workforce and cost structure with current market condition. We may take similar steps in the future as we seek to
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realize operating synergies, meet our strategic priorities and profitability objectives, or to reflect more closely changes in our business needs. These changes could be disruptive to our business, including our research and development efforts, and could result in significant expense, including accounting charges for inventory and technology-related write-offs, workforce reduction costs and charges relating to consolidation of excess facilities. Substantial expense or charges resulting from restructuring activities could adversely affect our results of operations and use of cash in those periods in which we undertake such actions.
Any failure by management to properly manage growth could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition.
Our business has grown rapidly, and, if our business develops, we may continue to grow our business rapidly. Growth in our business could place significant demands on our management, operations, systems, accounting, internal controls and financial resources, and it may also negatively impact our ability to retain key personnel. If we experience difficulties in any of these or other areas, we may not be able to expand our business successfully or effectively manage our growth. Any failure by management to manage our growth and to respond to changes in our business could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our business has been and could continue to be affected by seasonal trends and construction cycles.
We have been and could continue to be subject to industry-specific seasonal fluctuations. Historically, the majority of our revenue are from the North American and European regions, which experience higher sales of our products in the second, third and fourth quarters and have been affected by seasonal customer demand trends, including weather patterns and construction cycles. The first quarter historically has had softer customer demand in our industry, due to these same factors. In the United States, customers will sometimes make purchasing decisions towards the end of the year in order to take advantage of tax credits or for budgetary reasons. In addition, construction levels are typically slower in colder and wetter months. In European countries with FiTs, the construction of solar PV systems may be concentrated during the second half of the calendar year, largely due to the annual reduction of the applicable minimum FiT and the fact that the coldest winter months are January through March. Accordingly, our business and quarterly results of operations could be affected by seasonal fluctuations in the future.
If we are unsuccessful in continuing to expand our direct-to-consumer sales channel by driving purchases through our website, our business and results of operation could be harmed.
Although we primarily sell our solutions and products directly to solar distributors, who resell to installers and integrators, who then in turn integrate our products into complete solar PV installations for residential and commercial system owners, we have recently invested significant resources in our direct-to-consumer sales channel through our website, and our future growth relies, in part, on our ability to attract consumers through this channel. Expanding our direct-to-consumer sales model will require significant expenditures in marketing, software development and infrastructure. Further, the success of direct-to-consumer sales through our website is also subject to general business regulations and laws, as well as federal, state, foreign and provincial regulations and laws specifically governing the internet and e-commerce. These regulations and laws may cover taxation, tariffs, privacy, data protection, pricing, distribution, electronic contracts and other communications, consumer protection and intellectual property. These laws and regulations can be complex, difficult to interpret and may change over time. Continued regulatory limitations and other obstacles interfering with our ability to sell our products directly to consumers could have a negative and material impact our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
Further, the expansion of our direct-to-consumer channel could alienate some of our existing distributors and installers and cause a reduction in sales from these third parties. Our existing distributors and installers may perceive themselves to be at a disadvantage based on the direct-to-consumer sales offered through our website. Due to these and other factors, conflicts in our sales channels could arise and cause our existing distributors and installers to divert resources away from the promotion and sale of our products. If we are unable to successfully continue to drive traffic to, and increase sales through, our website, our business and results of operations could be harmed.
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Risks Related to our Intellectual Property and Technology
We are dependent on information technology systems, infrastructure and data. We or third parties upon which we rely could be subject to breaches of our information technology systems caused by system security risks, failure of our data protection, cyber-attacks and erroneous or non-malicious actions or failures to act by our employees or others with authorized access to our networks, which could cause significant reputational, legal and financial damages.
Like many companies, in the ordinary course of business we process, use transfer, generate, disclose, secure, transmit and store a wide variety of confidential and proprietary information including personal information and other sensitive information relating to our business, products and services. The secure maintenance of this information is critical to our business and reputation. Despite our implementation of security measures, our systems are vulnerable to damages from computer viruses, computer denial-of-service attacks, ransomware, supply chain attacks, worms and other malicious software programs or other attacks, covert introduction of malware to computers and networks, unauthorized access, including impersonation of authorized users, social-engineering attacks (including through deep fakes, which may be increasingly more difficult to identify as fake, and phishing attacks), efforts to discover and exploit any security vulnerabilities or securities weaknesses and other similar issues and disruptions. In particular, severe ransomware attacks are becoming increasingly prevalent – particularly for companies like ours that interact with critical infrastructure or manufacturing – and can lead to significant interruptions in our operations, and ability to provide our products or services. Although we make significant efforts to maintain the security, availability, integrity and confidentiality of our information technology and related systems and have implemented measures to manage the risk of a security breach or disruption, there can be no assurance that our security efforts and measures will be effective, or that attempted security breaches or disruptions would not be successful or damaging.
Remote work has become more common and has increased risks to our information technology and related systems, as more of our employees utilize network connections, computers and devices outside our premises or network, including working at home, while in transit and in public locations.
The techniques used in attempted cyber-attacks and intrusions are sophisticated and constantly evolving and may be difficult to detect for long periods of time. We may be unable to anticipate these techniques or implement adequate preventative measures. Although to date we have not experienced any material breaches of our systems that could have material adverse effect on our business, attacks and intrusions on our systems will continue and we may experience a breach of our systems that compromises sensitive company information or customer data including personal information. In addition, hardware, software, or applications we develop or procure from third parties may contain defects in design or manufacture or other problems that could unexpectedly compromise information security. Intentional or non-malicious breaches by employees or others may pose a risk that sensitive data, including our intellectual property, trade secrets or personal information of our employees, customers or users, or other business partners may be exposed to unauthorized persons or to the public, or that risks of loss or misuse of this information could occur. Furthermore, if we experience a significant data security breach, we could be exposed to reputational damage and significant costs, including to rebuild our systems, modify our products and services, defend litigation, respond to government enforcement actions, pay damages or take other remedial steps, any of which could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition. In addition, we may be required to incur significant costs to protect against damage caused by these disruptions or security breaches in the future. These risks, as well as the number and frequency of cybersecurity events globally, may also be heightened during times of geopolitical tension or instability.
Future or past business transactions (such as acquisitions or integrations) could expose us to additional cybersecurity risks and vulnerabilities, as our systems could be negatively affected by vulnerabilities present in acquired or integrated entities’ systems and technologies.
We may also rely on and share information with contractors and third-party providers to conduct our business and provide our products and services. Although such contractors and third-party providers take steps designed to secure data and prevent security incidents, our ability to monitor these third-parties’ information security practices and potential security incidents is limited, and these third-parties may not have adequate information security measures in place. These third-party providers may experience a significant data security breach, which may also detrimentally affect our business, ability to provide our products and services, results of operations and financial condition.
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The cost and operational consequences of implementing further data protection measures could be significant and theft of our intellectual property or proprietary business information could require substantial expenditures to remedy. Further, we cannot be certain that (a) our liability insurance will be sufficient in type or amount to cover us against claims related to security breaches, cyberattacks and other related breaches; (b) such coverage will cover any indemnification claims against us relating to any incident, will continue to be available to us on economically reasonable terms, or at all; and (c) any insurer will not deny coverage as to any future claim. The successful assertion of one or more large claims against us that exceed available insurance coverage, or the occurrence of changes in our insurance policies, including premium increases or the imposition or large deductible or co-insurance requirements, could adversely affect our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations.
Unauthorized use or disclosure of, or access to, any personal information maintained by us or on our behalf, whether through breach of our systems, breach of the systems of our suppliers or vendors by an unauthorized party, or through employee or contractor error, theft or misuse, or otherwise, could harm our business. If any such unauthorized use or disclosure of, or access to, such personal information was to occur, our operations could be seriously disrupted, and we could be subject to demands, claims and litigation by private parties and investigations, related actions and penalties by regulatory authorities. In addition, we could incur significant costs in notifying affected persons and entities and otherwise complying with the multitude of foreign, federal, state and local laws and regulations relating to the unauthorized access to, or use or disclosure of, personal information. Finally, any perceived or actual unauthorized access to, or use or disclosure of, such information could harm our reputation, substantially impair our ability to attract and retain customers and have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The software we use in providing system configuration recommendations or potential energy savings estimates to customers relies in part on third-party information that may not be accurate or up-to-date; this may therefore generate inaccurate recommendations or estimates, resulting in a loss of reputation and customer confidence.
We provide our customers online tools to help them determine proper system sizing and configurations, estimates of bill savings and potential revenues resulting from executing a specific curtailment strategy. These estimates are in turn based on a number of factors such as customer tariff structures, estimated wholesale electricity prices, future economic conditions and estimates of the reduction in electricity usage as a result of a curtailment activity. If the estimates we provide prove to be significantly different from actual payments or savings received by our customers, it may result in the loss of reputation and/or customer confidence.
We are subject to stringent and evolving data privacy and security laws, contractual obligations, information security policies and other obligations governing the use, processing and transfer of personal information, and any unauthorized access to, or disclosure or theft of, personal information we gather, store or use could harm our reputation and subject us to claims or litigation.
We receive, store and use certain personal information of our customers, and the end-users of our customers’ energy systems, including names, addresses, e-mail addresses, energy system details and performance information. We also store and use personal information of our employees. We take steps to protect the security, integrity and confidentiality of the personal information we collect, store and transmit, but there is no guarantee that inadvertent or unauthorized use or disclosure will not occur or that third parties will not gain unauthorized access to this information despite our efforts. Because techniques used to obtain unauthorized access or sabotage systems change frequently and generally are not identified until they are launched against a target, we and our suppliers or vendors may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate preventative or mitigation measures.
We are subject to a variety of local, state, national and international laws, directives and regulations that apply to the collection, use, retention, protection, disclosure, transfer and other processing of personal data in the different jurisdictions in which we operate, including, for example, comprehensive regulatory systems in the United States, Europe and Brazil. It remains unclear what additional requirements will be codified in future laws, how those laws will be enforced, and how these legal shifts impact our operations and risk. We may be required to modify our data practices and policies, at potentially substantial additional costs and expenses. Complying with these forthcoming and future laws, regulations, amendments to or re-interpretations of existing laws and regulations, and contractual or other obligations relating to privacy, data protection, data transfers, data localization, or information security may require us to make changes to our services to enable us or our customers to meet new legal requirements, incur substantial operational costs, modify our data practices and policies, and restrict our business operations.
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Additionally, certain privacy and other laws impose obligations to provide notification of security breaches of computer databases that contain personal information to affected individuals, state officers and others. Any actual or perceived failure by us to comply with these laws, regulations or other obligations may lead to significant fines, penalties, regulatory investigations, lawsuits, significant costs for remediation, damage to our reputation, or other liabilities.
If we fail to protect, or incur significant costs in enforcing, our intellectual property and other proprietary rights, our business and results of operations could be materially harmed.
Our success depends to a significant degree on our ability to protect our intellectual property and other proprietary rights. We rely on a combination of patent, trademark, copyright, trade secret and unfair competition laws, as well as confidentiality and license agreements and other contractual provisions, to establish and protect our intellectual property and other proprietary rights. We have applied for patent and trademark registrations in the United States and in other countries, many of which have been issued. We cannot guarantee that any of our pending applications will be approved or that our existing and future intellectual property rights will be sufficiently broad to protect our proprietary technology, and any failure to obtain such approvals or finding that our intellectual property rights are invalid or unenforceable could force us to, among other things, rebrand or re-design our affected products. This includes an inherent risk that our registered or unregistered trademarks or trade names that we own or use may be challenged, infringed, circumvented, declared generic, lapsed or determined to be infringing on or dilutive of other marks, and that we may not be able to protect our rights, all of which may cause material adverse impact on our marketing abilities. Our patent protection depends on compliance with various required procedures, document submissions, fee payments, and other requirements imposed by national patent offices, and our patent protection could be reduced or eliminated for non-compliance with these requirements, despite our engagement of reputable law firms and other professionals to help us comply with such requirements. Even where we do comply with such requirements and enjoy the full length of patent protection, patent terms are finite in length – generally 20 years from the earliest U.S. non-provisional priority filing date – which may be inadequate to protect our competitive position on our products. In countries where we have not applied for patent protection or where effective intellectual property protection is not available to the same extent as in the U.S., we may be at greater risk that our proprietary rights will be misappropriated, infringed or otherwise violated.
To protect our unregistered intellectual property, including our trade secrets and know-how, we rely in part on trade secret laws and confidentiality and invention assignment agreements with our employees and independent contractors. We also require other third parties who may have access to our proprietary technologies and information to enter into non-disclosure agreements. Such measures, however, provide only limited protection, and we cannot assure that our confidentiality and non-disclosure agreements will prevent unauthorized disclosure or use of our confidential information, especially after our employees or third parties end their employment or engagement with us, or provide us with an adequate remedy in the event of such disclosure. Furthermore, competitors or other third parties may independently discover our trade secrets, copy or reverse engineer our products or portions thereof, or develop similar technology. If we fail to protect our intellectual property and other proprietary rights, or if such intellectual property and proprietary rights are infringed, misappropriated or otherwise violated, our business, results of operations or financial condition could be materially harmed.
In the future, we may need to take legal action to prevent third parties from infringing upon or misappropriating our intellectual property or from otherwise gaining access to our technology. Protecting and enforcing our intellectual property rights and determining their validity and scope could result in significant litigation costs and require significant time and attention from our technical and management personnel, which could significantly harm our business. In addition, we may not prevail in such proceedings. An adverse outcome of any such proceeding may reduce our competitive advantage or otherwise harm our financial condition and our business.
We may be subject to disruptions or failures in information technology systems and network infrastructures that could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition.
We rely on the efficient and uninterrupted operation of complex information technology systems and network infrastructures to operate our business. In addition, our web-based monitoring service, which our installers and end-user customers use to track and monitor the performance of their energy systems, is dependent on cloud-based hosting services, along with the availability of internet or cellular data services at end-user premises. Despite testing by us, real or perceived errors, failures or bugs in our customer solutions, software or technology or the technology or software we license from third parties, including open source software, may not be found until our customers use our products. Real or perceived errors, failures or bugs in our products could result in negative publicity, loss of or
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delay in market acceptance of our products, harm to our brand, weakening of our competitive position or claims by customers for losses sustained by them. A disruption, infiltration or failure of our information technology systems, third-party cloud hosting platforms or end-user data services as a result of software or hardware malfunctions, system implementations or upgrades, computer viruses, cyber-attacks, third-party security breaches, employee/human error, theft or misuse, malfeasance, power disruptions, natural disasters or accidents could cause breaches of data security, failure of our service, loss of intellectual property and critical data and the release and misappropriation of sensitive competitive information and partner, customer and employee personal data. We have been and may in the future be subject to fraud attempts from outside parties through our electronic systems (such as “phishing” e-mail communications to our finance, technical or other personnel), which could put us at risk for harm from fraud, theft or other loss if our internal controls do not operate as intended. Any such future events could further harm our competitive position, result in a loss of customer confidence, cause us to incur significant costs to remedy any damages and ultimately materially adversely affect our business and financial condition.
Third parties may assert that we are infringing upon their intellectual property rights, which could divert management’s attention, cause us to incur significant costs, and prevent us from selling or using the technology to which such rights relate.
Our competitors and other third parties hold numerous patents related to technology used in our industry, and claims of patent or other intellectual property right infringement or violation have been litigated against our competitors. We may also be subject to such claims and litigation. Regardless of their merit, responding to such claims can be time consuming, divert management’s attention and resources, and may cause us to incur significant expenses. While we believe that our products and technology do not infringe upon any intellectual property rights of third parties, we cannot be certain that we would be successful in defending against any such claims. Furthermore, patent applications in the United States and most other countries are confidential for a period of time before being published, so we cannot be certain that we are not infringing third parties’ patent rights or that we were the first to conceive or protect inventions covered by our patents or patent applications. An adverse outcome with respect to any intellectual property claim could invalidate our proprietary rights and force us to do one or more of the following:
obtain from a third-party claiming infringement a license to sell or use the relevant technology, which may not be available on reasonable terms, or at all;
stop manufacturing, selling, incorporating or using products that embody the asserted intellectual property;
pay substantial monetary damages;
indemnify our customers under some of our customer contracts; or
expend significant resources to redesign the products that use the infringing technology, or to develop or acquire non-infringing technology.
Any of these actions could result in a substantial reduction in our revenue and could result in losses over an extended period of time.
Our failure to obtain the right to use necessary third-party intellectual property rights on reasonable terms, or our failure to maintain, and comply with the terms and conditions applicable to these rights, could harm our business and prospects.
We have licensed, and in the future we may choose or be required to license, technology or intellectual property from third parties in connection with the development and marketing of our products. We cannot assure you that such licenses will be available to us on commercially reasonable terms, or at all, and our inability to obtain such licenses could require us to substitute technology of lower quality or of greater cost.
Further, such licenses may be non-exclusive, which could result in our competitors gaining access to the same intellectual property. The licensing or acquisition of third-party intellectual property rights is a competitive area, and other established companies may pursue strategies to license or acquire third-party intellectual property rights that we may consider attractive or necessary. These established companies may have a competitive advantage over us due to their size, capital resources or greater development or commercialization capabilities. In addition, companies that perceive us to be a competitor may be unwilling to assign or license rights to us. We could encounter delays and incur significant costs, in product or service introductions while we attempt to develop alternative products or services, or redesign our products or services, to avoid infringing third-party patents or proprietary rights. Failure to obtain any such licenses or to develop a workaround could prevent us from
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commercializing products or services, and the prohibition of sale or the threat of the prohibition of sale of any of our products or services could materially affect our business and our ability to gain market acceptance for our products or services.
In addition, we incorporate open source software code in our proprietary software. Use of open source software can lead to greater risks than use of third-party commercial software, since open source licensors generally do not provide warranties or controls with respect to origin, functionality or other features of the software. Further, companies that incorporate open source software into their products have, from time to time, faced claims challenging their use of open source software and compliance with open source license terms. As a result, we could be subject to lawsuits by parties claiming ownership of what we believe to be open source software or claiming noncompliance with open source licensing terms. Some open source software licenses require users who distribute open source software as part of their products to publicly disclose all or part of the source code in their software and make any derivative works of the open source code available for limited fees or at no cost. Although we monitor our use of open source software, open source license terms may be ambiguous, and many of the risks associated with the use of open source software cannot be eliminated. If we were found to have inappropriately used open source software, we may be required to release our proprietary source code, re-engineer our software, discontinue the sale of certain products in the event re-engineering cannot be accomplished on a timely basis, or take other remedial action. Furthermore, if we are unable to obtain or maintain licenses from third parties or fail to comply with open source licenses, we may be subject to costly third-party claims of intellectual property infringement or ownership of our proprietary source code. There is little legal precedent in this area and any actual or claimed requirement to disclose our proprietary source code or pay damages for breach of contract could harm our business and could help third parties, including our competitors, develop products and services that are similar to or better than ours. Any of the above could harm our business and put us at a competitive disadvantage.
Risks related to Legal Proceedings and Regulations
Changes in current laws or regulations or the imposition of new laws or regulations, or new interpretations thereof, in the solar energy sector, by federal or state agencies in the United States or foreign jurisdictions could impair our ability to compete and could materially harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
There has been and will continue to be regulatory uncertainty in the clean energy sector generally and the solar energy sector in particular. Changes in current laws or regulations, or the imposition of new laws and regulations in the United States and around the world, could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, any changes to the laws and implementing regulations affecting the clean energy sector may create delays in the introduction of new products, prevent our customers from deploying our products or, in some cases, require us to redesign our products.
For example, several states or territories, including California, Hawaii and Queensland, Australia, have either implemented or are considering implementing rules regulating the installation of solar power systems, and we may not be able to adequately evolve our products and services to accommodate such new policies and regulations, which may result in new rates and tariffs. In the event that we cannot comply with these or other new regulations or implement a solution to such noncompliance as they arise, the total market available for our microinverter and battery products in such states, and our business as a result, may be adversely impacted.
Additionally, if the federal or state agencies in the United States takes action to eliminate or reduce laws, regulations and incentives supporting solar energy, such actions may result in a decrease in demand for solar energy in the United States and other geographical markets, it would harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Changes in the United States trade environment, including the recent imposition of import tariffs, could adversely affect the amount or timing of our revenue, results of operations or cash flows.
Escalating trade tensions between the U.S. and China have led to increased tariffs and trade restrictions, including tariffs applicable to certain of our products. For example, in September 2018, the U.S. began assessing 10% tariffs on certain solar products manufactured in China, including our microinverter products and related accessories which are manufactured in China. These tariffs increased to 25% in May 2019, and on January 2020, the United States and China entered into an initial trade deal which preserves the bulk of the tariffs imposed in 2018 and maintains a threat of additional sanctions should China breach the terms of the deal.
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However, in March 2020, the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative announced certain exclusion requests related to tariffs on Chinese imported microinverter products that fit the dimensions and weight limits within a Section 301 Tariff exclusion (the “Tariff Exclusion”). The Tariff Exclusion applied to covered products exported from China to the United States from September 24, 2018 until August 7, 2020. Accordingly, we sought and received refunds totaling approximately $38.9 million plus approximately $0.6 million accrued interest on tariffs previously paid from September 24, 2018 to March 31, 2020 for certain microinverters that qualify for the Tariff Exclusion. This exemption expired in August 2020, and our request to extend it has been denied. Unless U.S. policy changes, or we are eligible for other exemptions or take other actions to avoid them, such tariffs will continue to apply to our microinverters and other products. Such tariffs could hurt the demand for these products and materially harm our business, financial condition and results of operations. There is no guarantee that we will be successful in obtaining exemptions or that any actions that we may pursue with respect to the organization and operation of our business will effectively mitigate the effects of any tariffs that apply to our business. If we are not able to avoid or mitigate the effects of such tariffs, the tariffs (or mitigating actions we might take) could result in material additional costs to us and our suppliers, and our results of operations could be negatively impacted as a result.
It is unknown whether and to what extent additional new tariffs or other new laws or regulations will be adopted that increase the cost of manufacturing in China and/or importing components from China to the United States. Further, it is unknown what effect that any such new tariffs or retaliatory actions would have on us or our industry and customers. Our lithium-ion phosphate (“LFP”) battery cells for our storage products are supplied solely via our two suppliers in China. Although we are in the process of searching for other suppliers outside of China for future supplies, the expertise and industry for the LFP battery cell is primarily in China and we cannot be certain that we will locate additional qualified suppliers with the right expertise to develop our battery cells outside of China, if at all.
In response to the tensions in U.S.-China trade relations and increased tariffs, we focused efforts and resources on attaining manufacturers outside of China, primarily in Mexico and India. The tariffs and the possibility of additional tariffs in the future have created uncertainty in the industry. If the price of solar power systems in the United States increases, the use of solar power systems could become less economically feasible and could reduce our gross margins or reduce the demand of solar power systems manufactured and sold, which in turn may decrease demand for our products. Additionally, existing or future tariffs may negatively affect key partners, suppliers, and manufacturers. Such outcomes could adversely affect the amount or timing of our revenue, results of operations or cash flows, and continuing uncertainty could cause sales volatility, price fluctuations or supply shortages or cause our customers to advance or delay their purchase of our products. It is difficult to predict what further trade-related actions governments may take, which may include additional or increased tariffs and trade restrictions, and we may be unable to quickly and effectively react to such actions. As additional new tariffs, legislation and/or regulations are implemented, or if existing trade agreements are renegotiated or if China or other affected countries take retaliatory trade actions, such changes could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.
In addition, while we are not aware of any other current or proposed export or import regulations that would materially restrict our ability to sell our products in countries where we offer our products for sale, any change in export or import regulations or related legislation, shift in approach to the enforcement or scope of existing regulations, or change in the countries, persons or technologies targeted by these regulations, could result in decreased use of our products by, or in our decreased ability to export or sell our products to, existing or potential customers with international operations. In such event, our business and results of operations could be adversely affected.
Our significant international operations subject us to additional risks that could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We have significant international operations, including in emerging markets such as India, and we are continuing to expand our international operations as part of our growth strategy. As of December 31, 2023, approximately 54% of our total employees were located in India, where we primarily conduct our research and development activities, procurement, customer support services, and other general and administrative support functions.
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In addition, during 2023, we continued to expand our operations into Europe and for the year ended December 31, 2023 approximately 31% of our net revenues was derived from Europe as compared to approximately 19% of our net revenues from the same region for the year ended December 31, 2022. Our current international operations and our ongoing plans to expand our international operations have placed, and will continue to place, a strain on our employees, management systems and other resources.
Our international operations may fail to succeed due to risks inherent in operating businesses internationally, such as:
adverse social, political and economic conditions, such as inflation and rising interest rates;
our lack of familiarity with commercial and social norms and customs in countries which may adversely affect our ability to recruit, retain and manage employees in these countries;
difficulties and costs associated with staffing and managing foreign operations;
the potential diversion of management’s attention to oversee and direct operations that are geographically distant from our U.S. headquarters;
compliance with multiple, conflicting and changing governmental laws and regulations, including environmental, employment, tax, privacy and data protection laws and other regulatory requirements;
legal systems in which our ability to enforce and protect our rights may be different or less effective than in the United States and in which the ultimate result of dispute resolution is more difficult to predict;
difficulty and cost of staffing and managing foreign operations;
tariffs, export controls and other non-tariff barriers such as quotas and local content rules;
more limited protection for intellectual property rights in some countries;
adverse tax consequences, including as a result of transfer pricing adjustments involving our foreign operations;
effects of adverse changes in currency exchange rates;

higher incidence of corruption or unethical business practices;
restrictions on the transfer of funds;
natural disasters (including as a result of climate change), acts of war or terrorism, and public health emergencies, including the COVID-19 pandemic; and
uncertain economic, legal and political conditions in Europe, Asia and other regions where we do business, including, for example, as a result of the ongoing military conflicts in Ukraine, the Gaza Strip and nearby areas, and any changes in China-Taiwan and U.S.-China relations.
The success of our international sales and operations will depend, in large part, on our ability to anticipate and manage these risks effectively. Our failure to manage any of these risks could harm our international operations, reduce our international sales, and could give rise to liabilities, costs or other business difficulties that could adversely affect our operations and financial results.
Expectations relating to ESG considerations and related reporting obligations may expose the business to potential liabilities, increased costs, and reputational harm.
Many stakeholders including governments, regulators, investors, employees and business partners are increasingly focused on corporate environmental, social and governance (“ESG”) considerations such as greenhouse gas emissions, natural resource management, human rights and human capital management practices. Any failure, perceived or otherwise, to comply with existing and emerging ESG-related laws and regulations in the United States, Europe and elsewhere, or to meet varied and evolving stakeholder expectations or standards with respect to ESG issues could result in legal and regulatory proceedings and may harm our business, reputation, financial condition and results of operations.
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We could be adversely affected by any violations of the FCPA, the U.K. Bribery Act, and other foreign anti-bribery laws.
The U.S. FCPA generally prohibits companies and their intermediaries from making improper payments to non-U.S. government officials for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business. Other countries in which we operate also have anti-bribery laws, some of which prohibit improper payments to government and non-government persons and entities, and others (e.g., the FCPA and the U.K. Bribery Act) extend their application to activities outside of their country of origin. Our policies mandate compliance with all applicable anti-bribery laws. We currently operate in, and may further expand into, key parts of the world that have experienced governmental corruption to some degree and, in certain circumstances, strict compliance with anti-bribery laws may conflict with local customs and practices. In addition, due to the level of regulation in our industry, our entry into new jurisdictions through internal growth or acquisitions requires substantial government contact where norms can differ from U.S. standards. Additionally, the costs of complying with these laws (including the costs of investigations, auditing, and monitoring) could adversely affect our current or future business. Although, we implement policies and procedures and conduct training designed to facilitate compliance with these anti-bribery laws, thereby mitigating the risk of violations of such laws, our employees, subcontractors, agents and partners may take actions in violation of our policies and anti-bribery laws. Any such violation, even if prohibited by our policies, could subject us to criminal or civil penalties or other sanctions, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows, and reputation.
From time to time we are involved in a number of legal proceedings and, while we cannot predict the outcomes of such proceedings and other contingencies with certainty, some of these outcomes could adversely affect our business and financial condition.
We are, or may become, involved in legal proceedings, government and agency investigations, and consumer, employment, tort and other litigation. We cannot predict with certainty the outcomes of these legal proceedings. The outcome of these legal proceeding could require us to take, or refrain from taking, actions which could negatively affect our operations or could require us to pay substantial amounts of money adversely affecting our financial condition and results of operations. There can also be no assurance that we are adequately insured to protect against all claims and potential liabilities. Additionally, defending against lawsuits and legal proceedings may involve significant expense and could divert the attention of our key personnel.
Risks Related to our Financial Condition and Liquidity
Our gross profit may fluctuate over time, which could impair our ability to achieve or maintain profitability.
Our gross profit has varied in the past and is likely to continue to vary significantly from period to period. Our gross profit may be adversely affected by numerous factors, some of which are beyond our control, including:
changes in customer, geographic or product mix;
increased price competition, including the impact of customer and competitor discounts and rebates;
the impact of inflation and higher interest rates;
our ability to reduce and control product costs, including our ability to make product cost reductions in a timely manner to offset declines in our product prices;
warranty costs and reserves, including changes resulting from changes in estimates related to the long-term performance of our products, product replacement costs and warranty claim rates, as well as changes in the discount rates;
loss of cost savings due to changes in component or raw material pricing or charges incurred due to inventory holding periods if product demand is not correctly anticipated;
introduction of new products;
ordering patterns from our distributors;
price reductions on older products to sell remaining inventory;
component shortages and related expedited shipping costs;
our ability to reduce production costs, such as through technology innovations, in order to offset price declines in our products over time;
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changes in shipment volume;
changes in distribution channels;
excess and obsolete inventory and inventory holding charges;
expediting costs incurred to meet customer delivery requirements;
changes to the IRA;
tariffs assessed on our products imported to the U.S. and elsewhere; and
fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates.
Fluctuations in gross profit may adversely affect our ability to manage our business or achieve or maintain profitability.
We are under continuous pressure to reduce the prices of our products, which has adversely affected, and may continue to adversely affect, our gross margins.
The solar power industry has been characterized by declining product prices over time. We have reduced the prices of our products in the past, and we expect to continue to experience pricing pressure for our products in the future, including from our major customers. In addition, we have reduced our prices ahead of planned cost reductions of our products, which has adversely affected our gross margins. When seeking to maintain or increase their market share, our competitors may also reduce the prices of their products. In addition, our customers may have the ability or seek to internally develop and manufacture competing products at a lower cost than we would otherwise charge, which would add additional pressure on us to lower our selling prices. If we are unable to offset any future reductions in our ASPs by increasing our sales volume, reducing our costs and expenses or introducing new products, our gross margins would continue to be adversely affected.
Given the general downward pressure on prices for our products driven by competitive pressure and technological change, a principal component of our business strategy is reducing the costs to manufacture our products to remain competitive. If our competitors are able to drive down their manufacturing costs faster than we can or increase the efficiency of their products, our products may become less competitive even when adjusted for efficiency, and we may be forced to sell our products at a price lower than our cost. Further, if raw materials costs and other third-party component costs were to increase, we may not meet our cost reduction targets. If we cannot effectively remain price competitive, this could result in lost market share and lower gross margins.
If we do not forecast demand for our products accurately, we may experience product shortages, delays in product shipment or excess product inventory, any of which will adversely affect our business and financial condition.
We manufacture our products according to our estimates of customer demand. This process requires us to make multiple forecasts and assumptions relating to the demand of our distributors, their end customers and general market conditions. Because we sell most of our products to distributors, who in turn sell to their end customers, we have limited visibility as to end-customer demand. We depend significantly on our distributors to provide us visibility into their end-customer demand, and we use these forecasts to make our own forecasts and planning decisions. If the information from our distributors turns out to be incorrect, then our own forecasts may also be inaccurate. Furthermore, we do not have long-term purchase commitments from our distributors, installers or end customers, and our sales are generally made by purchase orders that may be canceled, changed or deferred without notice to us or penalty. As a result, it is difficult to forecast future customer demand to plan our operations.
If we overestimate demand for our products, or if purchase orders are canceled or shipments are delayed, we may have excess inventory that we cannot sell. We may have to make significant provisions for inventory write-downs based on events that are currently not known, and such provisions or any adjustments to such provisions could be material. We may also become involved in disputes with our suppliers who may claim that we failed to fulfill forecast or minimum purchase requirements. Conversely, if we underestimate demand, we may not have sufficient inventory to meet end-customer demand, and we may lose market share, damage relationships with our distributors and end customers and forgo potential revenue opportunities. Obtaining additional supply in the face of product shortages may be costly or impossible, particularly in light of supply chain disruptions and our outsourced manufacturing processes, which could prevent us from fulfilling orders in a timely and cost-efficient manner or at all. In addition, if we overestimate our production requirements, our contract manufacturers may purchase excess components and build excess inventory. If our contract manufacturers, at our request, purchase excess components
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that are unique to our products and are unable to recoup the costs of such excess through resale or return or build excess products, we could be required to pay for these excess parts or products and recognize related inventory write-downs.
In addition, we plan our operating expenses, including research and development expenses, hiring needs and inventory investments, in part on our estimates of customer demand and future revenue. If customer demand or revenue for a particular period is lower than we expect, we may not be able to proportionately reduce our fixed operating expenses for that period, which would harm our operating results for that period.
Our focus on a limited number of specific markets increases risks associated with the modification, elimination or expiration of governmental subsidies and economic incentives for on-grid solar electricity applications.
To date, we have generated most of our revenue from North America, and revenue generated from the U.S. market represented 64%, 76% and 80% of our total net revenues for the annual periods ended on December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively. We also expect to continue to generate a majority of our revenue from North America in the future.
There are several important incentives (including the ITC), AMPTC and other U.S. federal and state tax incentives, that impact our business. Under the IRA, the ITC was extended until 2032 to allow a qualifying homeowner to deduct 30% of the cost of installing residential solar systems from their U.S. federal income taxes, thereby returning a material portion of the purchase price of the residential solar system to homeowners. Under the terms of the current extension, the ITC will remain at 30% through the end of 2032, reduce to 26% for 2033, reduce to 22% for 2034, and further reduce to 0% after the end of 2034 for residential solar systems, unless it is further extended before that time. If the ITC, AMPTC, or other tax credits are reduced or eliminated as part of futures changes to the U.S. Internal Revenue Code, changes to state law or regulatory reform initiatives by subsequent legislative action or by a presidential administration, sales of our products in North America and other markets could be adversely affected. In addition, changes to the IRA could impact the benefits we currently expect to receive from our plans to increase our domestic manufacturing footprint in the United States, in partnership with third-party contract manufacturers.
Several European countries, including Germany, Belgium, Italy and the United Kingdom, have adopted reductions in or concluded their net energy metering or FiT programs. Certain countries have proposed or enacted taxes levied on renewable energy. These and related developments have significantly impacted the solar industry in Europe and may adversely affect the future demand for solar energy solutions in Europe, which could adversely impact our results of operations.
We also sell our products in Australia. In 2012, Australia enacted a Renewable Energy Target that is intended to ensure that 33,000 Gigawatt-hours of Australia’s electricity comes from renewable sources by 2020. This policy supports both the installation of large-scale centralized renewable generation projects, along with small-scale systems of under 100kW each for residential and small business customers. This target was met in 2019; however, the scheme continues to require high-energy users to meet their obligations under the policy until 2030. During 2018, the state of Victoria introduced state-based incentive schemes, aimed at solar customers in the state of Victoria. Other Australian states and territories introduced similar programs in 2019. Any change in, or failure to implement, these programs may adversely affect the demand for solar energy solutions in Australia.
Reductions in incentives and uncertainty around future energy policy, including local content requirements, have negatively affected and may continue to negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations as we seek to increase our business domestically and abroad. Additionally, as we further expand to other countries, changes in incentive programs or electricity policies could negatively affect returns on our investments in those countries as well as our business, financial condition and results of operations.
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A drop in the retail price of electricity derived from the utility grid or from alternative energy sources, or a change in utility pricing structures, may harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We believe that a system owner’s decision to purchase a solar PV system is strongly influenced by the cost of electricity generated by solar PV installations relative to the retail price of electricity from the utility grid and the cost of other renewable energy sources, including electricity from solar PV installations using central inverters. Decreases in the retail prices of electricity from the utility grid would make it more difficult for all solar PV systems to compete. In particular, growth in unconventional natural gas production and an increase in global liquefied natural gas capacity are expected to keep natural gas prices relatively low for the foreseeable future. Persistent low natural gas prices, lower prices of electricity produced from other energy sources, such as nuclear power or coal-fired plants, or improvements to the utility infrastructure could reduce the retail price of electricity from the utility grid, making the purchase of solar PV systems less economically attractive and depressing sales of our products. In addition, energy conservation technologies and public initiatives to reduce demand for electricity also could cause a fall in the retail price of electricity from the utility grid.
Moreover, technological developments by our competitors in the solar industry, including manufacturers of central inverters and DC-to-DC optimizers, could allow these competitors or their partners to offer electricity at costs lower than those that can be achieved from solar PV installations based on our product platform, which could result in reduced demand for our products. Additionally, as increasing adoption of distributed generation places pressure on traditional utility business models or utility infrastructure, utilities may change their pricing structures to increase the cost of installation or operation of solar distributed generation. Such measures can include grid access fees, costly or lengthy interconnection studies, limitations on distributed generation penetration levels, or other measures. If the cost of electricity generated by solar PV installations incorporating our solutions is high relative to the cost of electricity from other sources, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be harmed.
Our portfolio of marketable securities is subject to market, interest and credit risk that may reduce its value.
As of December 31, 2023, we had approximately $1,406.3 million in debt security investments. These investments consisted primarily of money market funds, U.S. Treasuries, U.S. government securities, commercial paper and debt securities of corporations. We currently do not use derivative financial instruments to adjust our investment portfolio risk or income profile. These investments, as well as any cash deposited in bank accounts, are subject to general credit, liquidity, market and interest rate risks, which may be exacerbated by unusual events, such as the COVID-19 pandemic and the U.S. debt ceiling crisis, which affected various sectors of the financial markets and led to global credit and liquidity issues. If the global credit market continues to experience volatility or deteriorates, our investment portfolio may be impacted and some or all of our investments may experience other-than-temporary impairment, which could adversely impact our operating results and position.
Risks Related to our Acquisition Activity
As part of growing our business, we have made and expect to continue to make acquisitions. If we fail to successfully select, execute or integrate our acquisitions, then our business and operating results could be harmed and our stock price could decline.
From time to time, we will undertake acquisitions to add new product lines and technologies, gain new sales channels or enter new sales territories. For example, in 2021, we acquired Sofdesk, the solar design business of DIN, 365 Pronto, and ClipperCreek, Inc. (“ClipperCreek”), and in 2022, we acquired SolarLeadFactory, LLC (“SolarLeadFactory”) and GreenCom Networks AG (“GreenCom”). Acquisitions involve numerous risks and challenges, including but not limited to the following:
integrating the companies, assets, systems, products, sales channels and personnel that we acquire;
higher than anticipated acquisition and integration costs and expenses;
reliance on third parties to provide transition services for a period of time after closing to ensure an orderly transition of the business;
growing or maintaining revenues to justify the purchase price and the increased expenses associated with acquisitions;
entering into territories or markets with which we have limited or no prior experience;
establishing or maintaining business relationships with customers, vendors and suppliers who may be new to us;
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overcoming the employee, customer, vendor and supplier turnover that may occur as a result of the acquisition;
disruption of, and demands on, our ongoing business as a result of integration activities including diversion of management's time and attention from running the day to day operations of our business;
inability to implement uniform standards, disclosure controls and procedures, internal controls over financial reporting and other procedures and policies in a timely manner;
inability to realize the anticipated benefits of or successfully integrate with our existing business the businesses, products, technologies or personnel that we acquire; and
potential post-closing disputes.
As part of undertaking an acquisition, we may also significantly revise our capital structure or operational budget, such as issuing common stock that would dilute the ownership percentage of our stockholders, assuming liabilities or debt, utilizing a substantial portion of our cash resources to pay for the acquisition or significantly increasing operating expenses. Our acquisitions have resulted and may in the future result in charges being taken in an individual quarter as well as future periods, which results in variability in our quarterly earnings. In addition, our effective tax rate in any particular quarter may also be impacted by acquisitions. Following the closing of an acquisition, we may also have disputes with the seller regarding contractual requirements and covenants, purchase price adjustments, contingent payments or for indemnifiable losses. Any such disputes may be time consuming and distract management from other aspects of our business. In addition, if we increase the pace or size of acquisitions, we will have to expend significant management time and effort into the transactions and integrations, and we may not have the proper human resources bandwidth to ensure successful integrations and accordingly, our business could be harmed or the benefits of our acquisitions may not be realized.
As part of the terms of an acquisition, we may commit to pay additional contingent consideration if certain revenue or other performance milestones are met. We are required to evaluate the fair value of such commitments at each reporting date and adjust the amount recorded if there are changes to the fair value.
We cannot ensure that we will be successful in selecting, executing and integrating acquisitions. Failure to manage and successfully integrate acquisitions could materially harm our business and operating results. In addition, if stock market analysts or our stockholders do not support or believe in the value of the acquisitions that we choose to undertake, our stock price may decline.
We invest in companies for both strategic and financial reasons but may not realize a return on our investments.
We have made, and continue to seek to make, investments in companies around the world to further our strategic objectives and support our key business initiatives. These investments may include equity or debt instruments of public or private companies and may be non-marketable at the time of our initial investment. We do not restrict the types of companies in which we seek to invest. These companies may range from early-stage companies that are often still defining their strategic direction to more mature companies with established revenue streams and business models. If any company in which we invest fails, we could lose all or part of our investment in that company. If we determine that an other-than-temporary decline in the fair value exists for an equity or debt investment in a public or private company in which we have invested, we will have to write down the investment to its fair value and recognize the related write-down as an investment loss. The performance of any of these investments could result in significant impairment charges and gains (losses) on other equity investments. We must also analyze accounting and legal issues when making these investments. If we do not structure these investments properly, we may be subject to certain unfavorable accounting impact, such as potential consolidation of financial results.
Furthermore, if the strategic objectives of an investment have been achieved, or if the investment or business diverges from our strategic objectives, we may seek to dispose of the investment. Our non-marketable equity investments in private companies are not liquid, and we may not be able to dispose of these investments on favorable terms or at all. The occurrence of any of these events could harm our results. Gains or losses from equity securities could vary from expectations depending on gains or losses realized on the sale or exchange of securities and impairment charges related to debt instruments as well as equity and other investments.
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An impairment in the carrying value of goodwill or other intangible and long-lived assets could negatively affect our operating results.
We record goodwill from the purchase consideration paid in excess of the fair value of the net assets recorded in connection with a business acquisition. We may not realize all the economic benefit from our business acquisitions, which could result in an impairment of goodwill or intangible assets. As of December 31, 2023, goodwill and intangible assets, net were approximately $214.6 million and $68.5 million, respectively. We test goodwill for impairment at least annually during the fourth quarter of each fiscal year or between annual tests if an event occurs or circumstances change that would indicate the carrying amount may be impaired. Goodwill is tested at the reporting unit level, which we have determined to be the same as the entity as a whole (entity level). We first perform a qualitative assessment to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of our reporting unit is less than its carrying value. If, after assessing the qualitative factors, we determine that it is more likely than not that the fair value of our reporting unit is less than it’s carrying value, an impairment analysis will be performed.
Qualitative factors include industry and market consideration, overall financial performance, share price trends and market capitalization and company-specific events. We may be required to record a significant charge in our financial statements during the period in which any impairment of our goodwill or amortizable intangible assets is determined, which would negatively impact our operating results.
Risks Related to our Debt and Equity Securities
Our financial results may vary significantly from quarter to quarter due to a number of factors, which may lead to volatility in our stock price.
Our quarterly revenue and results of operations have varied in the past and may continue to vary significantly from quarter to quarter. As a result, the trading price of our common stock has been, and is likely to continue to be, volatile and could be subject to wide fluctuations in response to various factors, some of which are beyond our control. In addition, the trading prices of the securities of solar companies in general have been highly volatile, and the volatility in market price and trading volume of securities is often unrelated or disproportionate to the financial performance of the companies issuing the securities. Factors affecting the market price of our common stock, some of which are beyond our control, include:
seasonal and other fluctuations in demand for our products;
the timing, volume and product mix of sales of our products, which may have different ASPs or profit margins;
changes in our pricing and sales policies or the pricing and sales policies of our competitors;
the impact of supply chain disruptions on our business, sales and results of operations;
our ability to design, manufacture and deliver products to our customers in a timely and cost-effective manner and that meet customer requirements;
our ability to manage our relationships with our contract manufacturers, customers and suppliers;
quality control or yield problems in our manufacturing operations;
the anticipation, announcement or introductions of new or enhanced products by our competitors and ourselves;
reductions in the retail price of electricity;
our exposure to the credit risks of our customers, particularly in light of the fact that some of our customers are relatively new entrants to the solar market without long operating or credit histories, and the impact of inflation and higher interest rates;
changes in laws, regulations and policies applicable to our business and products, particularly those relating to government incentives for solar energy applications;
the impact of tariffs on the solar industry in general and our products in particular;
the amount and timing of operating costs and capital expenditures related to the maintenance and expansion of our business operations;
the impact of government-sponsored programs on our customers;
our ability to estimate future warranty obligations due to product failure rates, claim rates or replacement costs;
our ability to forecast our customer demand and manufacturing requirements, and manage our inventory;
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fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates;
announcement of acquisitions or dispositions of our assets or business operations;
issuances of our common stock or equity-linked securities such as the Convertible Notes;
changes in our management;
technical factors in the public trading market for our common stock that may produce price movements that may or may not comport to macro, industry or company-specific fundamentals, including, without limitation, the sentiment of retail investors (including as may be expressed on financial trading and other social media sites), the amount and status of short interest in our securities, rising interest rates, inflation, access to margin debt, trading in options and other derivatives on our common stock and any related hedging or other technical trading factors; and
general social, geopolitical, environmental or health factors, including pandemics or widespread health epidemics such as the COVID-19 pandemic.
The above factors are difficult to forecast, and these, as well as other factors, could materially and adversely affect our quarterly and annual results of operations. Any failure to adjust spending quickly enough to compensate for a revenue shortfall could magnify the adverse impact of this revenue shortfall on our results of operations. Moreover, our results of operations may not meet our announced guidance or the expectations of research analysts or investors, in which case the price of our common stock could decrease significantly. There can be no assurance that we will be able to successfully address these risks.
In addition, in the past, many companies that have experienced volatility in the market price of their stock have been subject to securities class action litigation. We have been in the past and may become in the future the target of this type of litigation in the future. Securities litigation against us could result in substantial costs and divert our management’s attention from other business concerns, which could seriously harm our business.
Conversion of our Convertible Notes may dilute the ownership interest of existing stockholders or may otherwise depress the price of our common stock, adversely affect our financial condition and operating results.
In March 2021, we issued and sold a total of $575.0 million aggregate principal amount of our 0.0% convertible senior notes due 2028 (the “Notes due 2028”) and $632.5 million aggregate principal amount of our 0.0% convertible senior notes due 2026 (the “Notes due 2026”).
In March 2020, we issued and sold a total of $320.0 million aggregate principal amount of our 0.25% convertible senior notes due 2025 (the “Notes due 2025”).
In August 2018, we issued and sold a total of $65.0 million aggregate principal amount of our 4.0% convertible senior notes due 2023 (the “Notes due 2023”) in a private placement to qualified institutional buyers and an affiliate of ours. In May 2019, we entered into separately and privately negotiated transactions with certain holders of the Notes due 2023 resulting in the repurchase and exchange of $60.0 million aggregate principal amount of the notes in consideration for the issuance of shares of common stock and separate cash payments. On July 28, 2023, the holder of the Notes due 2023 converted the remaining outstanding $5.0 million in aggregate principal amount into 900,090 shares of our common stock based on the conversion rate of 180.018 shares of common stock per $1,000 principal amount of notes (which is equivalent to a conversion price of approximately $5.56 per share). Following the conversion, Notes due 2023 are no longer outstanding.
As of December 31, 2023 we have following Convertible Notes outstanding:
the Notes due 2028;
the Notes due 2026; and
the Notes due 2025.
The conversion of some or all of the Convertible Notes may dilute the ownership interests of existing stockholders. Any sales in the public market of the common stock issuable upon such conversion could adversely affect prevailing market prices of our common stock. In addition, the existence of the Convertible Notes may encourage short selling by market participants because the conversion of the Convertible Notes could be used to satisfy short positions. In addition, the anticipated conversion of the Convertible Notes into shares of our common stock could depress the price of our common stock.
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Servicing our debts requires a significant amount of cash, and we may not have sufficient cash flow from our business to pay our debts.
Our ability to make scheduled payments of the principal of, to pay interest on or to refinance our indebtedness, including the Convertible Notes, depends on our future performance, which is subject to economic, financial, competitive and other factors beyond our control. Our business may not continue to generate cash flow from operations in the future sufficient to service our debts, including the Convertible Notes, and make necessary capital expenditures. If we are unable to generate cash flow, we may be required to adopt one or more alternatives, such as selling assets, restructuring debt or obtaining additional equity capital on terms that may be onerous or highly dilutive. Our ability to refinance our indebtedness, including the Convertible Notes, will depend on the capital markets and our financial condition at such time. We may not be able to engage in any of those activities or engage in these activities on desirable terms, which could result in a default on our debt obligations, including our obligations under the Convertible Notes.
We may not have the ability to raise the funds necessary to settle conversions of the Convertible Notes or repurchase the Convertible Note upon a fundamental change, and our future debt may contain limitations on our ability to pay cash upon conversion or repurchase of the Convertible Notes.
Holders of our Convertible Notes will have the right to require us to repurchase their Convertible Notes upon the occurrence of a fundamental change at a fundamental change repurchase price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the Convertible Notes to be repurchased, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any. Fundamental change is defined in the Convertible Notes Indenture entered into in connection with the financing and consists of events such as an acquisition of a majority of our outstanding common stock, an acquisition of our company or substantially all of our assets, the approval by our stockholders of a plan of liquidation or dissolution, or our common stock no longer being listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market or the Nasdaq Global Market. Upon conversion of the Convertible Notes, unless we elect to deliver solely shares of our common stock to settle such conversion (other than paying cash in lieu of delivering any fractional share), we will be required to make cash payments in respect of the Convertible Notes being converted. However, we may not have enough available cash or be able to obtain financing at the time we are required to make such repurchase of the Convertible Notes. In addition, our ability to repurchase the Convertible Notes or to pay cash upon conversion of the Convertible Notes may be limited by law, by regulatory authority or by agreements governing our future indebtedness. Our failure to repurchase notes at a time when the repurchase is required by the relevant indenture or to pay any cash payable on future conversions of the notes as required by the relevant indenture would constitute a default under the relevant indenture. A default under the indenture or a fundamental change itself could also lead to a default under agreements governing our future indebtedness. If the repayment of the related indebtedness were to be accelerated after any applicable notice or grace periods, we may not have sufficient funds to repay the indebtedness and repurchase the Convertible Notes or make cash payments upon conversion of the Convertible Notes.
The convertible note hedge and warrant transactions and/or their early termination may affect the value of our common stock.
In connection with the offering of the Notes due 2028, Notes due 2026 and Notes due 2025, we entered into privately negotiated convertible note hedge transactions pursuant to which we have the option to purchase approximately the same number of shares of our common stock initially issuable upon conversion of the Notes due 2028, Notes due 2026 and Notes due 2025, at a price approximately the same as the initial conversion price of the Notes due 2028, Notes due 2026 and Notes due 2025. These transactions are expected to reduce the potential dilution with respect to our common stock upon conversion of the Notes due 2028, Notes due 2026 and Notes due 2025. Separately, we also entered into privately negotiated warrant transactions to acquire the same number of shares of our common stock initially issuable upon conversion of the Notes due 2028, Notes due 2026 and Notes due 2025 (subject to customary anti-dilution adjustments) at an initial strike price of approximately $370.33, $397.91 and $106.94 per share for Notes due 2028, Notes due 2026 and Notes due 2025, respectively. If the market value per share of our common stock, as measured under the warrants, exceeds the strike price of the warrants, the warrants will have a dilutive effect on the ownership interests of existing stockholders and on our earnings per share, unless we elect, subject to certain conditions, to settle the warrants in cash. However, we may not have enough available cash or be able to obtain financing at the time of settlement.
In addition, the existence of the convertible note hedge and warrant transactions may encourage purchasing and selling share of our common stock, or other of our securities and instruments, in open market and/or privately negotiated transactions in order to modify hedge positions. Any of these activities could adversely affect the value of our common stock and the value of the Notes due 2028, Notes due 2026 and Notes due 2025.
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Changes in current accounting methods, standards, or regulations applicable to the Convertible Notes due 2028, Notes due 2026 and Notes due 2025 could have a material impact on our reported financial results, future financial results, future cash flows, and/or our stock price.
Under Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 470-20, “Debt with Conversion and Other Options,” an entity must separately account for the host contract and conversion option associated with convertible debt instruments, such as the Notes due 2025, that may be settled entirely or partially in cash upon conversion, in a manner that reflects the issuer’s economic interest cost. We are required to amortize the debt discount as non-cash interest expense over the term of the Notes due 2025, which could adversely affect our reported or future financial results or the trading price of our common stock.
In August 2020, the FASB issued Account Standard Update (“ASU”) 2020-06, “Debt - Debt with Conversion and Other Options (subtopic 470-20),” effective January 1, 2022, the Notes due 2028 and the Notes due 2026 were accounted for as a single liability measured at its amortized cost. Interest expense associated with the Notes due 2028 and the Notes due 2026 recorded in the consolidated statements of operations is close to the coupon rate interest expense. Further, for the diluted earnings per share calculation, treasury stock method is no longer permitted for the Notes due 2028, Notes due 2026 and Notes due 2025. The if-converted method is used for the calculation of the diluted earnings per share calculation, when accounting for the shares issuable upon conversion of the Notes due 2028, Notes due 2026 and Notes due 2025, which will adversely affect our diluted earnings per share. However, if the principal amount of the Notes due 2028, Notes due 2026 and Notes due 2025 being converted is required to be paid in cash and only the excess is permitted to be settled in shares, the if-converted method will produce a similar result as the “treasury stock” method which was applied prior to the adoption of ASU 2020-06.
ASU 2016-15, “Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments,” clarifies how certain cash receipts and payments should be classified in the statement of cash flows, including the cash settlement for the Notes due 2025. Upon cash settlement, repayment of the principal amount of the Notes due 2025 will be bifurcated between cash outflows for operating activities for the portion related to accreted interest attributable to debt discounts arising from the difference between the coupon interest rate and the effective interest rate, and financing activities for the remainder. This will require us to classify remainder of the debt discount of $5.6 million for the Notes due 2025 of accreted interest as cash used in operating activities in our consolidated statement of cash flows upon cash settlement, which could adversely affect our future cash flow from operations.
We may not be able to raise additional capital to execute on our current or future business opportunities on favorable terms, if at all, or without dilution to our stockholders.
We believe that our existing cash and cash equivalents and cash flows from our operating activities will be sufficient to meet our anticipated cash needs for at least the next 12 months. However, we may need to raise additional capital or debt financing to execute on our current or future business strategies, including to:
provide additional cash reserves to support our operations;
invest in our research and development efforts;
expand our operations into new product markets and new geographies;
acquire complementary businesses, products, services or technologies; or
otherwise pursue our strategic plans and respond to competitive pressures, including adjustments to our business to mitigate the effects of any tariffs that might apply to us or our industry.
We do not know what forms of financing, if any, will be available to us. If financing is not available on acceptable terms, if and when needed, our ability to fund our operations, enhance our research and development and sales and marketing functions, develop and enhance our products, respond to unanticipated events and opportunities, or otherwise respond to competitive pressures would be significantly limited. In any such event, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially harmed, and we may be unable to continue our operations. Moreover, if we raise additional funds through the issuance of equity or convertible debt securities, the percentage ownership of our stockholders could be significantly diluted, and these newly issued securities may have rights, preferences or privileges senior to those of existing stockholders.
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We currently do not intend to pay dividends on our common stock and, consequently, your only opportunity to achieve a return on your investment is if the price of our common stock appreciates.
We currently do not plan to declare dividends on shares of our common stock in the foreseeable future. In addition, our term loan agreement restricts our ability to pay dividends. Consequently, an investor’s only opportunity to achieve a return on its investment in our company will be if the market price of our common stock appreciates and the investor sells its shares at a profit.
General Risks Related to our Business
Natural disasters, public health events, significant disruptions of information technology systems, data security breaches, or other catastrophic events could adversely affect our operations.
Our worldwide operations could be subject to natural disasters (including as a result of climate change), public health events, significant disruptions of information technology systems, data security breaches and other catastrophic business disruptions, which could harm our future revenue and financial condition and increase our costs and expenses. For example, our corporate headquarters in Fremont, California is located near major earthquake fault lines and our Petaluma, California facility is near fault lines and the sites of recent catastrophic wildfires. We rely on third-party manufacturing facilities, including for all product assembly and final testing of our products, which are performed at third-party manufacturing facilities, in China, Mexico and India. There may be conflict or uncertainty in the countries in which we operate, including public health issues (for example, the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic or an outbreak of other contagious diseases or health epidemics), safety issues, natural disasters, fire, disruptions of service from utilities, nuclear power plant accidents, regional wars, or general economic or political factors. Such risks could result in an increase in the cost of components, production delays, general business interruptions, delays from difficulties in obtaining export licenses for certain technology, tariffs and other barriers and restrictions, longer payment cycles, increased taxes, restrictions on the repatriation of funds and the burdens of complying with a variety of foreign laws, any of which could ultimately have a material adverse effect on our business.
In the event that natural disasters (including as a result of climate change), public health epidemics or technical catastrophes were to damage or destroy any part of our facilities or those of our contract manufacturer, destroy or disrupt vital infrastructure systems or interrupt our operations or services for any extended period of time, our business, financial condition and results of operations would be materially and adversely affected.
If we fail to maintain an effective system of internal controls or are unable to remediate any deficiencies in our internal controls, we might not be able to report our financial results accurately or prevent fraud; in that case, our stockholders could lose confidence in our financial reporting, which would harm our business and could negatively impact the price of our stock.
Effective internal controls are necessary for us to provide reliable financial reports and prevent fraud. In addition, Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, as amended (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”), requires us to establish and maintain internal control over financial reporting and disclosure controls procedures. The process of implementing our internal controls and complying with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act has required, and will continue to require, significant attention of management. If we or our independent registered public accounting firm discover a material weakness in our internal controls over financial reporting, the disclosure of that fact, even if quickly remedied, could reduce the market’s confidence in our financial statements and harm our stock price. To the extent any material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting are identified, we could be required to expend significant management time and financial resources to correct such material weaknesses or to respond to any resulting regulatory investigations or proceedings.
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Our business is subject to tax liabilities.
We are subject to income tax, indirect tax or other tax claims by tax agencies in jurisdictions in which we conduct business. Significant judgment is required in determining our worldwide provision for income taxes. Tax laws are dynamic and subject to change as new laws are passed and new interpretations of the law are issued or applied. The IRA included significant changes to the U.S. federal income tax laws, the consequences of which could increase our future U.S. income tax expense. As additional guidance is issued by the applicable taxing authorities and as new accounting treatment is clarified, we may report additional adjustments in the period if new information becomes available. We have deferred tax assets related to net operating losses or tax credits that could be subject to limitations under IRS Code Sections 382 or 383, and State separate return limitation year rules. The limitations could reduce our ability to utilize our net operating losses or tax credits before the expiration of the tax attributes. Tax law changes or the limitations could be material and could materially affect our tax obligations and effective tax rate.
In the ordinary course of our business, there are many transactions and calculations where the ultimate income tax, indirect tax, or other tax determination is uncertain. Although we believe our tax estimates are reasonable, we cannot be certain that the final determination of our tax audits and litigation will not be materially different from that which is reflected in historical tax provisions and accruals. Should additional taxes be assessed as a result of an audit, assessment or litigation, there could be a material adverse effect on our cash, tax provisions and net income in the period or periods for which that determination is made.
Our charter documents and Delaware law could prevent a takeover that stockholders consider favorable and could also reduce the market price of our stock.
Our certificate of incorporation and our bylaws contain provisions that could delay or prevent a change in control of our company. These provisions could also make it more difficult for stockholders to elect directors and take other corporate actions, including effecting changes in our management. These provisions include:
providing for a classified board of directors with staggered, three-year terms, which could delay the ability of stockholders to change the membership of a majority of our board of directors;
not providing for cumulative voting in the election of directors, which limits the ability of minority stockholders to elect director candidates;
authorizing our board of directors to issue, without stockholder approval, preferred stock rights senior to those of common stock, which could be used to significantly dilute the ownership of a hostile acquiror;
prohibiting stockholder action by written consent, which forces stockholder action to be taken at an annual or special meeting of our stockholders;
requiring the affirmative vote of holders of at least 66 2/3% of the voting power of all of the then outstanding shares of voting stock, voting as a single class, to amend provisions of our certificate of incorporation relating to the management of our business, our board of directors, stockholder action by written consent, advance notification of stockholder nominations and proposals, forum selection and the liability of our directors, or to amend our bylaws, which may inhibit the ability of stockholders or an acquiror to effect such amendments to facilitate changes in management or an unsolicited takeover attempt;
requiring special meetings of stockholders may only be called by our chairman of the board, if any, our chief executive officer, our president or a majority of our board of directors, which could delay the ability of our stockholders to force consideration of a proposal or to take action, including the removal of directors; and
requiring advance notification of stockholder nominations and proposals, which may discourage or deter a potential acquiror from conducting a solicitation of proxies to elect the acquiror’s own slate of directors or otherwise attempting to obtain control of us.
In addition, the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporate Law may prohibit large stockholders, in particular those owning 15% or more of our outstanding common stock, from engaging in certain business combinations, without approval of substantially all of our stockholders, for a certain period of time.
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These provisions in our certificate of incorporation, our bylaws and under Delaware law could discourage potential takeover attempts, reduce the price that investors might be willing to pay for shares of our common stock in the future and result in the market price being lower than it would be without these provisions.
Item 1B.    Unresolved Staff Comments
None.
Item 1C.    Cybersecurity
Risk management and Strategy
We rely on information technology and data to operate our business and develop, market and deliver our products and services to our customers. Our critical information technology includes certain computer networks, third-party hosted services, communications systems, software, personal computers and servers (collectively, “Information Technology"), and our critical data includes certain confidential, personal, proprietary and sensitive data (collectively “Confidential Data”). Accordingly, we maintain risk assessment processes designed to identify cybersecurity threats relating to such Information Technology and Confidential Data, and assess potential material impact to our business that may result from such threats. Based on our assessment, we implement and maintain risk management processes designed to protect the confidentiality, integrity and availability of our Information Technology and Confidential Data and mitigate material harm to our business.
We identify such threats by, among other methods, monitoring the threat environment using manual and automated tools, subscribing to reports and services that identify cybersecurity threats, analyzing reports of threats and actors, conducting scans of the threat environment, evaluating our and our industry’s risk profile, evaluating threats reported to us, conducting threat assessments for internal and external threats, and conducting vulnerability assessments.
In the event a threat results in a cybersecurity incident, we have a process for escalating certain cybersecurity incidents from our security team up through our security leadership and ultimately to management.
Based on our risk assessment process, we implement and maintain various technical, physical and organizational processes designed to manage and mitigate cybersecurity risks that could affect our Information Technology and Confidential Data, and potential material impacts that may result from such risks. We have implemented measures designed to prevent, detect, respond to, mitigate and recover from identified and significant cybersecurity threats. The cybersecurity risk management processes we maintain for our Information Technology and Confidential Data, depending on the particular environment and system processes, are designed to address cybersecurity threats; incident response; vulnerability management; business continuity; incident detection and response; internal and external evaluations to assess our exposure to cybersecurity threats, environment, compliance with risk mitigation procedures, and effectiveness of relevant controls; documented risk assessments; encryption of data; network security; threat modeling; physical and electronic access; physical security; asset management, tracking and disposal; systems monitoring; vendor risk management; employee security training; penetration testing; cyber insurance; and the maintenance of a dedicated cybersecurity team.
To operate our business, we utilize certain third-party service providers to perform a variety of functions and provide certain security-related services, such as outsourced business critical functions, professional services, SaaS platforms, managed services, cloud-based infrastructure, data center facilities, content delivery to customers, encryption and authentication technology, corporate productivity services, and other functions; as well as third parties that assist us to identify, assess and manage cybersecurity risks, including professional services firms, threat intelligence service providers, cybersecurity software providers, penetration testing firms and other vendors that help to identify, assess or manage cybersecurity risks. For certain vendors, our vendor management process includes evaluating the cybersecurity practices of such provider and contractually imposing obligations on the provider related to the services they provide and/or the information they process.
For a description of the risks from cybersecurity threats that may materially affect the company and how those risks may affect the company, please refer to Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors—Risks Related to our Intellectual Property and Technology of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information about cybersecurity-related risks.
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Governance
Our board of directors oversees our overall risk management strategy. The Audit Committee has general oversight with respect to cybersecurity risk. The Audit Committee has established a cybersecurity subcommittee to discuss issues and risks related to cybersecurity, and it includes one of our board members with cybersecurity experience, and holds regular meetings. This subcommittee has a dedicated agenda during such meetings that are designed to assist the Audit Committee with its cybersecurity oversight and allow it to report to the full Board if necessary. The meetings involve presentations and reports from our management, security leadership and information security team, including updates on relevant cybersecurity threats faced by the company and steps we are taking to address them.
Our management team is involved with our efforts to prevent, detect, and mitigate cybersecurity incidents by overseeing the implementation and maintenance of our cybersecurity policies and procedures and activities carried out in furtherance of those policies and procedures. The Vice President of Information Technology leads our cybersecurity risk management efforts and helps us assess cybersecurity risks, establish priorities, and determine the scope and details of our cybersecurity program. We have identified certain members of management and relevant employees to oversee our cybersecurity incident response and vulnerability management processes.
Item 2.    Properties
The table below presents details for each of our principal properties:
FacilityLocationHeldApproximate Square FootageLease end term
Corporate headquartersFremont, U.S.Leased40,446Sep-2025
Customer service supportBoise, U.S.Leased24,688Jan-2027
Administrative office and R&D facilityPetaluma, U.S.Leased141,231Aug-2032
Administrative office and R&D facilityAustin, U.S.Leased18,695Nov-2033
Marketing and sales support, and R&D facilityGermanyLeased11,260Dec-2029
Global support officeBengaluru, IndiaLeased173,292Apr-2026
R&D facilityChristchurch, New ZealandLeased27,099Sep-2031
Marketing and sales supportMelbourne, AustraliaLeased4,478Jul-2026
Marketing and sales supports-Hertogenbosch, NetherlandsLeased6,997Jan-2026
Item 3.    Legal Proceedings
From time to time, we may be involved in litigation relating to claims arising out of our operations, the ultimate disposition of which could have a material adverse effect on our operations, financial condition, or cash flows. We are not currently aware of any material legal proceedings, in which we are involved.
Item 4.    Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.
PART II
Item 5.    Market for the Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Common Stock
Our common stock, $0.00001 par value per share, has traded on The Nasdaq Global Market under the stock symbol “ENPH” since March 30, 2012.
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Holders
As of February 5, 2024, there were approximately 18 holders of record of our common stock, one of which was Cede & Co., a nominee for Depository Trust Company (“DTC”). All of the shares of our common stock held by brokerage firms, banks and other financial institutions as nominees for beneficial owners are deposited into participant accounts at DTC and are therefore considered to be held of record by Cede & Co. as one stockholder.
Dividend Policy
We have never paid any cash dividends on our common stock. We currently anticipate that we will retain any available funds to invest in the growth and operation of our business and we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future.
Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities
None, except as previously disclosed.
Issuer Repurchases of Securities
In July 2023, our board of directors authorized the 2023 Repurchase Program (the “2023 Repurchase Program”) pursuant to which we may repurchase up to an aggregate of $1.0 billion of our common stock. As of December 31, 2023, we have approximately $790.0 million remaining for repurchase of shares under the 2023 Repurchase Program. Purchases may be completed from time to time in the open market or privately negotiated transactions, including through Rule 10b5-1 plans. The program may be discontinued or amended at any time and expires on July 26, 2026.
The following table provides information about our repurchases of our common stock during the three months ended December 31, 2023 (in thousands, except per share amounts):
Period Ended
Total Number of Shares Purchased
Average Price Paid per Share(1)
Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Programs
Approximate Dollar Value of Shares that May Yet Be Purchased Under the Programs(2)
October 2023— $— — $890,000 
November 2023954,852 $78.54 954,852 $815,002 
December 2023228,394 $109.46 228,394 $790,002 
Total
1,183,246 1,183,246 
(1)     Average price paid per share includes brokerage commissions.
(2)     During the three months ended December 31, 2023, we repurchased 1,183,246 shares of our common stock at a weighted average price of $84.51 per share for an aggregate amount of $100.0 million.
Stock Performance Graph
This section is not “soliciting material” and is not deemed “filed” for purposes of Section 18 of the Exchange Act or otherwise subject to the liabilities of that section, nor shall it be deemed incorporated by reference in any filing under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act, as amended, regardless of any general incorporation language in such filing.
The graph depicted below shows a comparison of cumulative total stockholder returns for our common stock, the S&P 500 Index and the Invesco Solar ETF for the period from December 31, 2018 to December 31, 2023. An investment of $100 is assumed to have been made in our common stock and in each index on December 31, 2018, all dividends were reinvested, and the relative performance of the investments are tracked through December 31, 2023. The information shown is historical and stockholder returns over the indicated period should not be considered indicative of future stockholder returns or future performance.
Enphase Energy, Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 47

940
December 31,
2018
December 31,
2019
December 31,
2020
December 31,
2021
December 31,
2022
December 31,
2023
Enphase Energy, Inc.
$100 $552 $3,710 $3,868 $5,602 $2,794 
S&P 500 Index$100 $129 $150 $190 $153 $190 
Invesco Solar ETF$100 $166 $554 $415 $393 $288 
Item 6.    [Reserved]
Enphase Energy, Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 48

Item 7.    Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following section generally discusses 2023 results compared to 2022 results. Discussion of 2022 results compared to 2021 results to the extent not included in this report can be found in Part II, Item 7 of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022.
Business Overview and 2023 Highlights
We are a global energy technology company. We deliver smart, easy-to-use solutions that manage solar generation, storage and communication on one platform. Our intelligent microinverters work with virtually every solar panel made, and when paired with our smart technology, results in one of the industry’s best-performing clean energy systems. As of December 31, 2023, we have shipped more than 73.0 million microinverters, and approximately 4.0 million Enphase residential and commercial systems have been deployed in more than 150 countries.
We sell primarily to solar distributors who combine our products with others, including solar modules products and racking systems, and resell to installers in each target region. In addition to our solar distributors, we sell directly to select large installers, OEMs and strategic partners. Our OEM customers include solar module manufacturers who integrate our microinverters with their solar module products and resell to both distributors and installers. Strategic partners include providers of solar financing solutions. We also sell certain products and services to homeowners primarily in support of our warranty services and legacy product upgrade programs, via our online store.
During the fiscal year 2023, we began shipments of microinverters from our contract manufacturers in the United States. Moving manufacturing to the United States allows us to take advantage of the benefits of the IRA as well as helps us better serve our customers by cutting down delivery times and diversifying our supply chain.
Global Events Affecting our Business and Operations
As we have a growing global footprint, we are subject to risk and exposure from the evolving macroeconomic environment, including the effects of increased global inflationary pressures and interest rates, fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates, potential economic slowdowns or recessions, and geopolitical pressures, including the unknown impacts of current and future trade regulations and the armed conflicts in Ukraine, the Gaza Strip and nearby areas. We continuously monitor the direct and indirect impacts of these circumstances on our business and financial results.
Demand for Products. The demand environment for our products experienced a broad-based slowdown beginning in the second quarter of 2023 in the United States and in the third quarter of 2023 in Europe that continued into the fourth quarter. This resulted in elevated inventory with distributors and installers, and as a result we sold fewer microinverters to distributors and installers during the second half of 2023 compared to the first half of 2023 as they responded to this slower demand environment. In the United States, this slowdown was primarily the result of higher interest rates and the transition from NEM 2.0 to NEM 3.0 in California, which has increased the payback period for our customers in California. In Europe, this slowdown was primarily the result of a decrease in purchases in the second half of 2023 after the initial surge of sales related to onset of the armed conflict in Ukraine in 2022, and overall channel inventory correction. In addition, there has been increased uncertainty in net energy metering policies and solar export penalties in a key European market, which resulted in lower sales in that region. We expect these trends to continue to have an adverse effect on our revenue in 2024.
In light of the slowdown in demand, in the fourth quarter of 2023, we implemented the 2023 Restructuring Plan to reduce our operating costs, and better align our cost structure with current market conditions, strategic priorities and our ongoing commitment to profitable growth. As part of the 2023 Restructuring Plan, we are reducing our global workforce by approximately 10% and plan to cease operations at our contract manufacturing locations in Romania and Wisconsin, United States, and resize our other contract manufacturing sites, to be closer aligned to expected demand.
Inflation Reduction Act of 2022. In August 2022, the IRA was enacted, which includes extension of the ITC as well as the AMPTC to incentivize clean energy component sourcing and production of microinverters. The IRA also included an additional 10% ITC for solar system components that are manufactured with a minimum threshold of domestic content. The IRA provides an AMPTC on microinverters of 11 cents per alternating current watt, which had a favorable impact to our results of operations in the year ended December 31, 2023. The AMPTC for microinverters decreases by 25% each year beginning in 2030 and ending after 2032. Under the IRA, the ITC was
Enphase Energy, Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 49

also extended until 2032 to allow a qualifying homeowner to deduct 30% of the cost of installing residential solar systems from their U.S. federal income taxes, thereby returning a material portion of the purchase price of the residential solar system to homeowners. Under the terms of the current extension, the ITC will remain at 30% through the end of 2032, reduce to 26% for 2033, reduce to 22% for 2034, and further reduce to 0% after the end of 2034 for residential solar systems, unless it is extended before that time. We believe the enactment of the IRA is favorable to our overall business.
In December 2022, the CPUC approved and voted for NEM 3.0, which has been effective since April 15, 2023. The new policy reduces the compensation earned by solar customers selling extra energy to the grid by a substantial amount. The average export rate in California under NEM 3.0 is approximately $0.05/kWh to $0.08/kWh compared to the prior average of $0.25/kWh to $0.35/kWh under NEM 2.0. In November 2023, the CPUC also adopted changes to its Virtual NEM and NEM Aggregation programs that prohibit the netting of import energy charges at multi-meter commercial or agricultural properties with solar energy generated at or adjacent to those properties, except for residential account holders in a multi-family residential property. Both of these policy changes in California reduced demand for solar PV systems in the year ended December 31, 2023 and may continue to do so for future inverter sales. However, the reduction in export compensation under NEM 3.0, coupled with rising utility rates, may encourage deployment of battery energy storage with solar PV systems and mitigate some of the demand reductions
Components of Consolidated Statements of Operations
Net Revenues
We generate revenue from sales of our solutions, which include microinverter and related accessories, an IQ Gateway and IQ Energy Router, cloud-based monitoring services, storage solutions, EV charging solutions, design, proposal, permitting and lead generation services, as well as a platform matching cleantech asset owners to a local and on-demand workforce of service providers, distributors, large installers, OEMs and strategic partners.
Our revenue is affected by changes in the volume and ASPs of our solutions and related accessories, supply and demand, sales incentives and competitive product offerings. Our revenue growth is dependent on our ability to compete effectively in the marketplace by remaining cost competitive, macroeconomic conditions, favorable regulatory environment, developing and introducing new products that meet the changing technology, and performance requirements of our customers, the diversification and expansion of our revenue base, and our ability to market our products in a manner that increases awareness for microinverter technology and differentiates us in the marketplace.
Cost of Revenues and Gross Profit
Cost of revenues is comprised primarily of product costs, warranty, manufacturing support personnel and logistics costs, freight costs, inventory write-downs, hosting services costs related to our Enlighten service offering, lead acquisition costs, design and proposal services, depreciation and amortization of manufacturing test equipment, amortization of capitalized software development costs related to our Enlighten service offering and design and proposal services, employee-related expenses associated with proposal and permitting services and design and proposal service customer support. AMPTC earned under the IRA for U.S. manufactured microinverters shipped to customers in the year ended December 31, 2023 are treated as a reduction to cost of revenues based on our interpretation of the most current guidance.
Our product costs are impacted by technological innovations, such as advances in semiconductor integration and new product introductions, economies of scale resulting in lower component costs, and improvements in production processes and automation. Certain costs, primarily personnel and depreciation and amortization of test equipment, are not directly affected by sales volume.
We outsource our manufacturing to third-party contract manufacturers and generally negotiate product pricing with them on a quarterly basis. We believe our contract manufacturing partners have sufficient production capacity to meet the anticipated demand for our products for the foreseeable future. However, shortages in the supply of certain key raw materials could adversely affect our ability to meet customer demand for our products. We contract with third parties, including one of our contract manufacturers, to serve as our logistics providers by warehousing and delivering our products in the United States, Canada, Mexico, Europe, Australia, New Zealand, India, Brazil, the Philippines, Thailand, South Africa, and certain other Central American and Asian markets.
Enphase Energy, Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 50

Gross profit may vary from quarter to quarter and is primarily affected by our ASPs, product cost, product mix, customer mix, AMPTC, shipping costs, warranty costs and sales volume fluctuations resulting from seasonality.
Operating Expenses
Operating expenses consist of research and development, sales and marketing, general and administrative and restructuring and asset impairment charges. Personnel-related costs are the most significant component of each of these expense categories, other than restructuring and asset impairment charges, and include salaries, benefits, payroll taxes, sales commissions, incentive compensation, post-combination expense and stock-based compensation.
Research and development expense includes personnel-related expenses, third-party design and development costs, testing and evaluation costs, depreciation expense and other indirect costs. Research and development employees are primarily engaged in the design and development of power electronics, semiconductors, powerline communications, networking and software functionality, and storage. We devote substantial resources to research and development programs that focus on enhancements to, and cost efficiencies in, our existing products and timely development of new products that utilize technological innovation to drive down product costs, improve functionality, and enhance reliability. We intend to continue to invest appropriate resources in our research and development efforts because we believe they are critical to maintaining our competitive position.
Sales and marketing expense includes personnel-related expenses, travel, trade shows, marketing, customer support and other indirect costs. We expect to continue to make the necessary investments to enable us to execute our strategy to increase our market penetration geographically and enter into new markets by expanding our customer base of distributors, large installers, OEMs and strategic partners. We currently offer solutions targeting the residential and commercial markets in the United States, Canada, Mexico, Europe, Australia, New Zealand, India, Brazil, the Philippines, Thailand, South Africa and certain other Central American and Asian markets. We expect to continue to expand the geographic reach of our product offerings and explore new sales channels in addressable markets in the future.
General and administrative expense includes personnel-related expenses for our executive, finance, human resources, information technology and legal organizations, facilities costs, and fees for professional services. Fees for professional services consist primarily of outside legal, accounting and information technology consulting costs.
Restructuring and asset impairment charges are the net charges resulting from restructuring initiatives implemented in 2022 and 2023 to increase operational efficiencies and execution, reduce operating costs, and better align our workforce and cost structure with current market conditions, as well as reflect our business needs, strategic priorities and ongoing commitment to profitable growth. Under the 2023 Restructuring Plan, costs included in restructuring and asset impairment charges primarily consisted of employee severance and one-time benefits, workforce reorganization charges and asset impairment charges. Refer to Note 12. “Restructuring and Asset Impairment Charges,” of the notes to consolidated financial statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information.
Other Income (Expense), Net
Other income (expense), net primarily consists of interest income on our cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities, amortization of discount or premium on purchase of cash equivalents and marketable securities, gains or losses upon conversion of foreign currency transactions into U.S. dollars, interest expense, changes in fair value of contingent consideration, non-cash interest expense related to the accretion of debt discount and amortization of deferred financing costs, non-cash charges recognized for loss on partial settlement of convertible notes, and the change in fair value of our debt securities.
Income Tax Benefit (Provision)
We are subject to income taxes in the countries where we sell our products. Historically, we have primarily been subject to taxation in the United States because we have sold the majority of our products to customers in the United States. As we have expanded the sale of products to customers outside the United States, we have become subject to taxation based on the foreign statutory rates in the countries where these sales took place. As sales in foreign jurisdictions increase in the future, our effective tax rate may fluctuate accordingly. We regularly assess the ability to realize deferred tax assets based on the weight of all available evidence, including such factors as the history of recent earnings and expected future taxable income on a jurisdiction by jurisdiction basis.
Enphase Energy, Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 51

Summary Consolidated Statements of Operations
The following table sets forth a summary of our consolidated statements of operations for the periods presented:
Years Ended December 31,
(In thousands)
202320222021
Net revenues$2,290,786 $2,330,853 $1,382,049 
Cost of revenues1,232,398 1,356,258 827,627 
Gross profit1,058,388 974,595 554,422 
Operating expenses:
Research and development227,336 168,846 105,526 
Sales and marketing231,792 215,102 128,974 
General and administrative137,835 140,002 104,090 
Restructuring and asset impairment charges15,684 2,384 — 
Total operating expenses612,647 526,334 338,590 
Income from operations445,741 448,261 215,832 
Other income (expense), net
Interest income69,728 13,656 695 
Interest expense(8,839)(9,438)(45,152)
Other income (expense), net6,509 (431)6,050 
Loss on partial settlement of convertible notes— — (56,497)
Total other income (expense), net67,398 3,787 (94,904)
Income before income taxes513,139 452,048 120,928 
Income tax benefit (provision)(74,203)(54,686)24,521 
Net income$438,936 $397,362 $145,449 
Enphase Energy, Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 52

Results of Operations
Net Revenues 
Years Ended December 31,
Change in
20232022
$
%
(In thousands, except percentages)
Net revenues
$2,290,786 $2,330,853 $(40,067)(2)%
    
Net revenues decreased by 2%, or $40.1 million, in the year ended December 31, 2023, as compared to the same period in 2022, driven primarily by a decrease in shipments of IQ Batteries to 351.6 Megawatt-hour (“MWh”) in the year ended December 31, 2023, from 508.5 MWh shipped in the year ended December 31, 2022. The decrease in total net revenues was partially offset by an increase in ASP for microinverters, primarily the result of a favorable product mix as we sold more IQ8 microinverters relative to IQ7™ microinverters as well as a slight increase in the volume of microinverter units shipped. We sold approximately 15.5 million microinverter units in the year ended December 31, 2023, as compared to approximately 15.4 million units in the year ended December 31, 2022. The overall decrease in net revenues is due to a broad-based slowdown beginning in the second quarter of 2023 in the United States and the third quarter of 2023 in Europe that resulted in elevated inventory with distributors and installers, and as a result we sold fewer microinverters to distributors and installers during the second half of 2023 compared to the first half of 2023, as distributors and installers responded to this slower demand environment. In the United States, this slowdown was primarily the result of higher interest rates and the transition from NEM 2.0 to NEM 3.0 in California increasing the payback period for our customers. In Europe, this slowdown was primarily the result of a decrease in purchases after the initial surge of sales related to the onset of the armed conflict in Ukraine in 2022, and overall channel inventory correction. In addition, there has been increased uncertainty in net energy metering policies and solar export penalties in a key European market.
Cost of Revenues and Gross Margin
Years Ended December 31,
Change in
20232022
$
%
(In thousands, except percentages)
Cost of revenues
$1,232,398 $1,356,258 $(123,860)(9)%
Gross profit
1,058,388 974,595 83,793 %
Gross margin
46.2 %41.8 %
Cost of revenues decreased by 9%, or $123.9 million, in the year ended December 31, 2023, as compared to the same period in 2022, primarily due to lower volume of shipments of IQ Batteries as well as the recognition of credits of $53.5 million under the AMPTC for U.S. manufactured microinverters shipped to customers during the year ended December 31, 2023.
Gross margin increased by 4.4 percentage points in the year ended December 31, 2023, as compared to the same period in 2022. The increase was primarily due to the benefit recognized from tax credits under the AMPTC of approximately 2.3 percentage points, an increase in ASP driven by a favorable product mix as we sold more IQ8 microinverters relative to IQ7 microinverters in the year ended December 31, 2023, and also due to cost management improvements, which included lower shipping costs.
Research and Development
Years Ended December 31,
Change in
20232022
$
%
(In thousands, except percentages)
Research and development$227,336 $168,846 $58,490 35 %
Percentage of net revenues10 %%
Enphase Energy, Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 53

Research and development expense increased by 35%, or $58.5 million, in the year ended December 31, 2023, as compared to the same period in 2022. The increase was primarily due to $43.1 million of higher personnel-related expenses, $8.1 million of equipment expense, and $7.3 million of professional services and support costs associated with our investment in the development, introduction and qualification of new products. The increase in personnel-related expenses was primarily due to an increase in total compensation costs, including stock-based compensation costs due to hiring and retention programs for employees. The amount of research and development expenses may fluctuate from period to period due to the differing levels and stages of development activity for our products.
Sales and Marketing
Years Ended December 31,
Change in
20232022
$
%
(In thousands, except percentages)
Sales and marketing$231,792 $215,102 $16,690 %
Percentage of net revenues10 %%
Sales and marketing expense increased by 8%, or $16.7 million, in the year ended December 31, 2023, as compared to the same period in 2022. The increase was primarily due to $12.3 million of higher personnel-related expenses from a growth in headcount as a result of our efforts to improve customer experience, to provide 24/7 support along with a field service desk for installers and Enphase system owners globally, and to support our business expansion globally. The increase in sales and marketing expense in the year ended December 31, 2023, as compared to the same period in 2022, was also attributable to $3.2 million of higher professional services, advertising costs and equipment costs to support our business expansion and $1.2 million provision for doubtful accounts.
General and Administrative
Years Ended December 31,
Change in
20232022
$
%
(In thousands, except percentages)
General and administrative$137,835 $140,002 $(2,167)(2)%
Percentage of net revenues%%
General and administrative expense decreased by 2%, or $2.2 million, in the year ended December 31, 2023, as compared to the same period in 2022. The decrease was primarily due to $11.3 million of lower personnel-related expenses, primarily related to $10.4 million lower stock-based compensation due to lower estimated achievement with performance stock units granted in 2023, offset by $5.6 million of higher legal and professional services and $3.5 million higher facility costs to support scalability of our business expansion.
Restructuring and Asset Impairment Charges
Years Ended December 31,
Change in
20232022
$
%
(In thousands, except percentages)
Restructuring and asset impairment charges$15,684 $2,384 $13,300 558 %
Percentage of net revenues 0.7 %0.1 %
Restructuring and asset impairment charges are the net charges resulting from restructuring initiatives implemented in 2022 and 2023. We implemented the 2023 Restructuring Plan in the fourth quarter of 2023 to increase operational efficiencies, reduce operating costs, and to better align our workforce and cost structure with current market conditions, our business needs, and strategic priorities.
Restructuring charges of $15.7 million in the year ended December 31, 2023, primarily consisted of $9.7 million of asset impairment charges, $3.7 million of contract termination charges and $1.4 million of employee severance and one-time benefits. Restructuring charges of $2.4 million in the year ended December 31, 2022, primarily consisted of one-time termination benefits and other employee-related expenses.
Enphase Energy, Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 54

Other Income (Expense), Net
Years Ended December 31,
Change in
20232022
$
%
(In thousands, except percentages)
Interest income$69,728 $13,656 $56,072 411 %
Interest expense(8,839)(9,438)599 (6)%
Other income (expense), net6,509 (431)6,940 (1,610)%
Total other income (expense), net$67,398 $3,787 $63,611 1,680 %
Interest income of $69.7 million in the year ended December 31, 2023 increased, as compared to $13.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2022, primarily due to an increase in interest rates earned and a higher average cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities balance in the year ended December 31, 2023, as compared to the same period in 2022.
Interest expense of $8.8 million in the year ended December 31, 2023, primarily included $8.4 million for the coupon interest, debt discount amortization with the Notes due 2025 and amortization of debt issuance costs with the Notes due 2023, Notes due 2025, Notes due 2026 and Notes due 2028, and $0.4 million interest incurred with the Notes due 2025 and the Notes due 2023. Interest expense of $9.4 million in the year ended December 31, 2022, primarily related to $9.2 million for the coupon interest expense, debt discount amortization with the Notes due 2025, amortization of debt issuance costs with the Notes due 2023, Notes due 2025, Notes due 2026 and Notes due 2028, and $0.2 million accretion of interest expense on contingent consideration for an acquisition.
Other income (expense), net of $6.5 million in the year ended December 31, 2023, primarily related to $8.7 million non-cash net gain related to change in the fair value of debt securities, partially offset by $2.1 million net loss due to foreign currency denominated monetary assets and liabilities and $0.1 million in realized loss on investments. Other income (expense), net of $0.4 million in the year ended December 31, 2022, primarily related to a $0.9 million net loss due to foreign currency denominated monetary assets and liabilities and a $0.3 million impairment of a note receivable, partially offset by a $0.7 million non-cash net gain related to a change in the fair value of debt securities and $0.1 million in interest income.
Income Tax Provision
Years Ended December 31,Change in
20232022$
%
(In thousands, except percentages)
Income tax provision$74,203 $54,686 $19,517 36 %
The income tax provision was $74.2 million in the year ended December 31, 2023, as compared to $54.7 million in the same period in 2022. The increase was primarily due to higher projected tax expense in the U.S. and foreign jurisdictions that are more profitable in 2023 compared to 2022, combined with a lower tax deduction from employee stock-based compensation in 2023 compared to 2022.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Sources of Liquidity
As of December 31, 2023, we had $1.9 billion in net working capital, including cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities of $1.7 billion, of which approximately $1.7 billion were held in the United States. Our cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities primarily consist of U.S. treasuries, money market mutual funds, corporate notes, commercial paper and bonds and both interest-bearing and non-interest-bearing deposits, with the remainder held in various foreign subsidiaries. We consider amounts held outside the United States to be accessible and have provided for the estimated income tax liability on the repatriation of our foreign earnings.
Enphase Energy, Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 55

Years Ended December 31,Change in
20232022$%
(In thousands, except percentages)
Cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities$1,695,034 $1,612,843 $82,191 %
Total Debt$1,293,738 $1,290,357 $3,381 0.3 %
Our cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities increased by $82.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, as compared to the same period in 2022, primarily due to cash generated from operations, partially offset by cash used to fund investments in private companies, repurchases of common stock pursuant to our share repurchase program and payments of withholding taxes related to net share settlement of equity awards.
Total carrying amount of debt increased by $3.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, as compared to the same period in 2022, primarily due to $8.4 million accretion of debt discount and issuance costs, partially offset by the $5.0 million for the Notes due 2023 that were converted into shares of our common stock.
We expect that our principal short-term (over the next 12 months) and long-term cash needs related to our operations will be used to fund working capital, strategic investments, acquisitions, repurchases of common stock pursuant to our share repurchase program and payments of withholding taxes for net share settlement of equity awards, make payments on our outstanding debt and the purchases of property and equipment. We plan to fund any cash requirements for the next 12 months and the long term from our existing cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities on hand, and cash generated from operations. We anticipate that access to the debt market will be more limited compared to prior years as interest rates have increased and are expected to remain high. Our ability to obtain debt or any other additional financing that we may choose to, or need to, obtain will depend on, among other things, our development efforts, business plans, operating performance and the condition of the capital markets at the time we seek financing.
Repurchase of Common Stock. In July 2023, our board of directors authorized a share repurchase program (the “2023 Repurchase Program”) pursuant to which we were authorized to repurchase up to $1.0 billion of our common stock. The repurchases could be funded from available working capital and could be executed from time to time, subject to general business and market conditions and other investment opportunities, through open market purchases or privately negotiated transactions, including through Rule 10b5-1 plans. The program may be discontinued or amended at any time and expires on July 26, 2026. During the year ended December 31, 2023, we repurchased 3,284,368 shares for an aggregate amount of $410.0 million. Refer to Note 15. “Stockholders’ Equity,” in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for more information on our repurchase of common stock.
Convertible Notes. As of December 31, 2023, our aggregate principal convertible notes obligations were $1,309.7 million which primarily consisted of the Notes due 2028 of $575.0 million, Notes due 2026 of $632.5 million and Notes due 2025 of $102.2 million. Upon conversion of the Notes due 2025, Notes due 2026 and Notes due 2028, we will pay cash equal to the aggregate principal amount of the Notes of such series to be converted, and, at our election, will pay or deliver cash and/or shares of our common stock for the amount of our conversion obligation in excess of the aggregate principal amount of the Notes of such series. During the annual period ended December 31, 2023, we received a request for the conversion of $2.0 thousand in the principal amount of the Notes due 2025, of which we have elected to settle the aggregate principal amount of the Notes due 2025 in a combination of cash and any excess in shares of our common stock in accordance with the applicable indenture. Such conversion is expected to be settled in February 2024. Refer to Note 13. “Debt,” in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for more information on our outstanding convertible notes.
Operating Leases. We have entered into various non-cancelable operating leases primarily for our facilities with original lease periods expiring through the year 2033, with the most significant leases relating to our offices in Petaluma, California and Bengaluru, India. As of December 31, 2023, we had total operating lease obligations of $29.5 million recorded on our consolidated balance sheet.
Other Material Cash Requirements. As of December 31, 2023, we had open purchase obligations of $184.4 million related to component inventory that our primary contract manufacturers procure on our behalf in accordance with our production forecast as well as other inventory related purchase commitments. The timing of purchases in future periods could differ materially from estimates presented above due to fluctuations in demand requirements related to varying sales levels as well as changes in economic conditions.
Enphase Energy, Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 56

Cash Flows. The following table summarizes our cash flows for the periods presented:
Years Ended December 31,
20232022
(In thousands)
Net cash provided by operating activities$696,780 $744,817 
Net cash used in investing activities(366,355)(371,906)
Net cash used in financing activities(516,774)(17,126)
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents1,853 (1,857)
Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents$(184,496)$353,928 
Cash from operations could be affected by various risks and uncertainties, including, but not limited to, the broad-based slowdown in demand for our products, new regulations and other risk factors discussed in Part I, Item IA, Risk Factors of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Our future capital requirements will depend on many factors, including our growth rate, the timing and extent of spending to support development efforts, the expansion of sales and marketing activities, the introduction of new and enhanced products, the costs to acquire or invest in complementary businesses and technologies, the costs to ensure access to adequate manufacturing capacity, the continuing market acceptance of our products and macroeconomic events, such as the impacts from inflation, and increase in interest rates. We may also choose to seek additional equity or debt financing. In the event that additional financing is required from outside sources, we may not be able to raise it on terms acceptable to us or at all. If we are unable to raise additional capital when desired, our business, operating results and financial condition may be adversely affected.
Cash Flows from Operating Activities
Cash flows from operating activities consisted of our net income adjusted for certain non-cash reconciling items, such as stock-based compensation expense, non-cash interest expense, change in the fair value of debt securities, deferred income taxes, asset impairment, depreciation and amortization, and changes in our operating assets and liabilities. Net cash provided by operating activities decreased by $48.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, as compared to the same period in 2022, primarily due to higher operating expenses as we continue to invest in the long-term growth of our business.
Cash Flows from Investing Activities
For the year ended December 31, 2023, net cash used in investing activities of $366.4 million was primarily from the purchase of $241.0 million of marketable securities, net of sale and maturities, $110.4 million used in purchases of test and assembly equipment to expand our supply capacity, related facility improvements and information technology enhancements, including capitalized costs related to internal-use software, and $15.0 million used in the investment in a private company.
For the year ended December 31, 2022, net cash used in investing activities of $371.9 million was primarily from the purchase of $247.3 million marketable securities, net of sale and maturities, $62.2 million net cash used to acquire GreenCom, SolarLeadFactory and ClipperCreek, $46.4 million used in purchases of test and assembly equipment to expand our supply capacity, related facility improvements and information technology enhancements, including capitalized costs related to internal-use software and $16.0 million used to invest in private companies.
Cash Flows from Financing Activities
For the year ended December 31, 2023, net cash used in financing activities of approximately $516.8 million was primarily from $410.0 million used to repurchase our common stock under our share repurchase program, and the payment of $120.6 million in employee withholding taxes related to net share settlement of equity awards, partially offset by $13.9 million net proceeds from employee stock option exercises and purchases under our employee stock purchase plan.
For the year ended December 31, 2022, net cash used by financing activities of approximately $17.1 million was primarily from the payment of $27.5 million in employee withholding taxes related to net share settlement of equity awards, partially offset by $10.4 million net proceeds from employee stock option exercises and purchases under our employee stock purchase plan.
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Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
The preparation of our consolidated financial statements and related notes requires us to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses, fair value of acquired intangible assets and goodwill, useful lives of acquired intangible assets and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. The SEC has defined a company’s critical accounting policies as the ones that are most important to the portrayal of a company’s financial condition and results of operations, and which require a company to make its most difficult and subjective judgments. Based on this definition, we have identified the critical accounting policies and judgments addressed below.
We have based our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates due to risks and uncertainties, including uncertainty in the current economic environment due to inflation, interest rates fluctuations and new regulations. As of the date of issuance of these financial statements, we are not aware of any specific event or circumstance that would require us to update our estimates, judgments or revise the carrying value of our assets or liabilities. For a description of our significant accounting policies, refer to Note 2. “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies,” of the notes to consolidated financial statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. An accounting policy is considered to be critical if it requires an accounting estimate to be made based on assumptions about matters that are highly uncertain at the time the estimate is made, and if different estimates that reasonably could have been used, or changes in the accounting estimates that are reasonably likely to occur periodically, could materially impact the consolidated financial statements. We believe the following critical accounting policies reflect the more significant estimates and assumptions used in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements.
Revenue Recognition
We generate revenue from sales of our solutions, which include microinverter units and related accessories, an IQ Gateway and IQ Energy Router, cloud-based Enlighten monitoring services, storage solutions, EV charging solutions, design, proposal, permitting and lead generation services, as well as a platform matching cleantech asset owners to a local and on-demand workforce of service providers, distributors, large installers, OEMs and strategic partners.
Revenues are recognized when control of the promised goods or services are transferred to our customers in an amount that reflects the consideration that is expected to be received in exchange for those goods or services. We generate all of our revenues from contracts with our customers. A description of principal activities from which we generate revenues are follows.
Products Delivered at a Point in Time. We sell our products and professional services to customers in accordance with the terms of the related customer contracts. We generate revenues from sales of our solutions, which include microinverter units and related accessories, storage solutions, EV charging solutions, design, proposal, permitting and lead generation services, as well as a platform matching cleantech asset owners to a local and on-demand workforce of service providers to distributors, large installers, OEMs and strategic partners. Microinverter units, microinverter accessories, storage and EV solutions, design proposal, permitting and lead generation services, as well as completed work orders on our platform matching cleantech asset owners to a local and on-demand workforce of service providers, are delivered to customers at a point in time, and we recognize revenue for these products or professional services when we transfer control of the product or professional services to the customer, which is generally upon product shipment or service delivery, respectively.
Products Delivered Over Time. The sale of an IQ Gateway and IQ Energy Router includes our Enlighten cloud-based monitoring service. The full consideration for these products represents a single performance obligation and is deferred at the sale date and recognized over the estimated service period of 7 years. We also sell certain communication accessories that contain a service performance obligation to be delivered over time. The revenue from these products is recognized over the related service period, which is typically 5 years. The subscription services revenue generated from each customer’s subscription to our design and proposal service is recognized on a ratable basis over the contract term beginning on the date that our service is made available to the customer. The subscription contracts are generally 3 to 12 months in length and billed in advance.
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When we sell a product with more than one performance obligation, such as our IQ Combiner, which includes both hardware and the IQ Gateway, the total consideration is allocated to these performance obligations based on their relative standalone selling prices.
We record certain contra revenue promotions as variable consideration and recognize these promotions at the time the related revenue is recorded.
We record upfront contract acquisition costs, such as sales commissions, to be capitalized and amortized over the estimated life of the asset. For contracts that have a duration of less than one year, we follow the Topic 606 practical expedient and expense these costs when incurred. Commissions related to the sale of monitoring hardware and services are capitalized and amortized over the period of the associated revenue.
Refer to Note 3. “Revenue Recognition,” of the notes to consolidated financial statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information related to revenue recognition.
Inventory
Inventory is valued at the lower of cost or market. Market is current replacement cost (by purchase or by reproduction, dependent on the type of inventory). In cases where market exceeds net realizable value (i.e., estimated selling price less reasonably predictable costs of completion and disposal), inventories are stated at net realizable value. Market is not considered to be less than net realizable value reduced by an allowance for an approximately normal profit margin. We determine cost on a first-in first-out basis. Certain factors could affect the realizable value of its inventory, including customer demand and market conditions. Management assesses the valuation on a quarterly basis and writes down the value for any excess and obsolete inventory based upon expected demand, anticipated sales price, effect of new product introductions, product obsolescence, customer concentrations, product merchantability and other factors. Inventory write-downs are equal to the difference between the cost of inventories and market.
Government Grants
Government grants represent benefits provided by federal, state, or local governments that are not subject to the scope of ASC 740. We recognize a grant when we have reasonable assurance that we will comply with the grant’s conditions and that the grant will be received. Government grants that are not related to long-lived assets are considered income-based grants, which are recognized as a reduction to the related cost of activities that generated the benefit. We recognized credits under AMPTC as a reduction to cost of revenues in the consolidated statement of operations for the microinverters manufactured in the United States and sold to customers in the year ended December 31, 2023. Such credit is also reflected as a reduction of income tax payable on our consolidated balance sheet within accrued liabilities.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments 
The fair value of a financial instrument is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. The carrying amounts of our cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash, accounts receivable, accounts payable and accrued liabilities approximate fair value because of the short maturity of those instruments. Equity investments with readily determinable fair value are carried at fair value based on quoted market prices or estimated based on market conditions and risks existing at each balance sheet date. Equity investments without readily determinable fair value are measured at cost less impairment, and are adjusted for observable price changes in orderly transactions for an identical or similar investment of the same issuer.
Warranty Obligations
Our warranty accrual provides for the replacement of microinverter units, AC Battery storage solutions, EV Chargers, and IQ Gateway and IQ Energy Router units that fail during the product’s warranty term. The warranty term related to microinverter units is 15 years for first and second generation microinverters and up to 25 years for subsequent generation microinverters. The warranty term for AC Battery storage solutions is 10 to 15 years depending on the generation. The warranty term for the IQ Gateway and IQ Energy Router is 5 years, while the warranty term for EV Chargers is 1 to 5 years depending on the product. On a quarterly basis, we employ a consistent, systematic and rational methodology to assess the adequacy of our warranty liability. This assessment includes updating all key estimates and assumptions for each generation of product, based on historical results, trends and the most current data available as of the filing date. The key estimates and assumptions used in the
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warranty liability are thoroughly reviewed by management on a quarterly basis. The key estimates used by us to estimate our warranty liability are: (1) the number of units expected to fail and returned for replacement over time (i.e., return rate); and (2) the per unit cost of replacement units, including outbound shipping and limited labor costs, expected to be incurred to replace failed units over time (i.e., replacement cost).
Estimated Return Rates — Our Quality and Reliability department has primary responsibility to determine the estimated return rates for each generation of product. To establish initial return rate estimates for each generation of product, our quality engineers use a combination of industry standard Mean Time Between Failure estimates for individual components contained in that generation of product, third-party data collected on similar equipment deployed in outdoor environments similar to those in which our product are installed, and rigorous long term reliability and accelerated life cycle testing which simulates the service life of the product in a short period of time. As units are deployed into operating environments, we continue to monitor product performance through our Enlighten monitoring platform. It typically takes three to nine months between the date of sale and date of end-user installation. Consequently, our ability to monitor actual failures of units sold similarly lags by three to nine months. When a product fails and is returned, we perform diagnostic root cause failure analysis to understand and isolate the underlying mechanism(s) causing the failure. We then use the results of this analysis (combined with the actual, cumulative performance data collected on those units prior to failure through Enlighten) to draw conclusions with respect to how or if the identified failure mechanism(s) will impact the remaining units deployed in the installed base.
As the vast majority of our microinverters have been sold to end users for residential applications, we believe that warranty return rates will be affected by changes over time in residential home ownership because we expect that subsequent homeowners are less likely to file a return than the homeowners who originally purchased the microinverters.
Estimated Replacement Costs — Three factors are considered in our analysis of estimated replacement cost: (1) the estimated cost of replacement products; (2) the estimated cost to ship replacement products to end users; and (3) the estimated labor reimbursement expected to be paid to third-party installers, or estimated labor cost expected to be incurred for field service technicians, performing replacement services for the end user. Because our warranty provides for the replacement of defective products over long periods of time (typically between 5 to 25 years, depending on the product and the generation of that product purchased), the estimated per unit cost of current and future product generations is considered in the estimated replacement cost. Estimated costs to ship replacement units are based on observable, market-based shipping costs paid by us to third-party freight carriers. We have a separate program that allows third-party installers to claim fixed-dollar reimbursements for labor costs they incur to replace failed units for a limited time from the date of original installation. Included in our estimated replacement cost is an analysis of the number of fixed-dollar labor reimbursements expected to be claimed by third-party installers over the limited offering period.
In addition to the key estimates noted above, we also compare actual warranty results to expected results and evaluate any significant differences. We may make additional adjustments to the warranty provision based on performance trends or other qualitative factors. If actual return rates, or replacement costs differ from our estimates in future periods, changes to these estimates may be required, resulting in increases or decreases in our warranty obligations. Such increases or decreases could be material.
Fair Value Option for Microinverters and Other Products Sold Since January 1, 2014
Our warranty obligations related to products sold since January 1, 2014 provide us the right, but not the requirement, to assign our warranty obligations to a third party. Under Accounting Standards Codification 825, “Financial Instruments” (also referred to as the “fair value option”), an entity may choose to elect the fair value option for such warranties at the time it first recognizes the eligible item. We made an irrevocable election to account for all eligible warranty obligations associated with products sold since January 1, 2014 at fair value. This election was made to reflect the underlying economics of the time value of money for an obligation that will be settled over an extended period of up to 25 years.
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We estimate the fair value of warranty obligations by calculating the warranty obligations in the same manner as for sales prior to January 1, 2014 and applying an expected present value technique to that result. The expected present value technique, an income approach, converts future amounts into a single current discounted amount. In addition to the key estimates of return rates, and replacement costs, we used certain inputs that are unobservable and significant to the overall fair value measurement. Such additional assumptions included compensation comprised of a profit element and risk premium required of a market participant to assume the obligation and a discount rate based on our credit-adjusted risk-free rate. Refer to Note 11. “Fair Value Measurements,” of the notes to consolidated financial statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information.
Commitments and Contingencies
In the normal course of business, we are subject to loss contingencies and loss recoveries, such as legal proceedings and claims arising out of our business as well as tariff refunds. An accrual for a loss contingency or loss recovery is recognized when it is probable and the amount of loss or recovery can be reasonably estimated. Refer to Note 14. “Commitments and Contingencies,” of the notes to consolidated financial statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information.
Business Combinations
Assets acquired and liabilities assumed as part of a business acquisition are generally recorded at their fair value at the date of acquisition. The excess of purchase price over the fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed is recorded as goodwill. Determining fair value of identifiable assets, particularly intangibles, and liabilities acquired also requires us to make estimates, which are based on all available information and in some cases assumptions with respect to the timing and amount of future revenues and expenses associated with an asset. Accounting for business acquisitions requires us to make judgments as to whether a purchase transaction is a multiple element contract, meaning that it includes other transaction components. This judgment and determination affect the amount of consideration paid that is allocable to assets and liabilities acquired in the business purchase transaction. Additional information existing as of the acquisition date but unknown to us may become known during the remainder of the measurement period, not to exceed 12 months from the acquisition date, which may result in changes to the amounts and allocations recorded.
Intangible Assets
Intangible assets include patents and other purchased intangible assets. Intangible assets with finite lives are amortized on a straight-line basis, with estimated useful lives ranging from 5 to 9 years. Indefinite-lived intangible assets are tested for impairment annually and are also tested for impairment between annual tests if an event occurs or circumstances change that would indicate that the carrying amount may be impaired. Intangible assets with finite lives are tested for impairment whenever events or circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset (asset group) may not be recoverable. An impairment loss is recognized when the carrying amount of an asset exceeds the estimated undiscounted cash flows used in determining the fair value of the asset. The amount of the impairment loss to be recorded is calculated by the excess of the asset’s carrying value over its fair value. Fair value is generally determined using a discounted cash flow analysis. We recorded asset impairment charges of $3.8 million in the year ended December 31, 2023 associated with the customer relationship intangible asset. There were no events or changes in circumstances that may indicate the carrying amount of remaining assets is not recoverable.
Income Taxes
We record income taxes using the asset and liability method, which requires the recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected tax consequences of temporary differences between the tax bases of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and amounts recognized for income tax purposes. In estimating future tax consequences, generally all expected future events other than enactments or changes in the tax law or rates are considered. Valuation allowances are provided when necessary to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount expected to be realized.
We assess the realizability of the deferred tax assets to determine release of valuation allowance as necessary. In the event we determine that it is more likely than not that we would be able to realize deferred tax assets in the future in excess of our net recorded amount, an adjustment to the valuation allowance for the deferred tax asset would increase income in the period such determination was made. Likewise, should it be determined that