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UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K 
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from             to            
Commission File Number: 001-36106
EMPIRE STATE REALTY OP, L.P.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)  
Delaware 45-4685158
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization) (I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

111 West 33rd Street, 12th Floor
New York, New York 10120
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
(212) 687-8700
(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each ClassTrading SymbolName of Exchange on Which Registered
Series ES operating partnership unitsESBANYSE Arca, Inc.
Series 60 operating partnership unitsOGCPNYSE Arca, Inc.
Series 250 operating partnership unitsFISKNYSE Arca, Inc.
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes       No 
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes       No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes       No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes       No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. 
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer  Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report  



If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant's executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1 (b).
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes    No  
As of February 22, 2024, there were 19,504,737 units of the registrants' Series ES operating partnership units outstanding, 5,036,429 units of the Series 60 operating partnership units outstanding, and 2,588,428 units of the Series 250 operating partnership units outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Our sole general partner is Empire State Realty Trust, Inc. Portions of Empire State Realty Trust, Inc.'s Proxy Statement for its 2023 Annual Stockholders' Meeting (which is scheduled to be held on May 9, 2024 in-person and virtually via a live webcast) to be filed within 120 days after the end of Empire State Realty Trust, Inc.'s fiscal year are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 
 



EMPIRE STATE REALTY OP, L.P.
FORM 10-K
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE
PART I.
1.Business
1A.Risk Factors
1B.Unresolved Staff Comments
1C.Cybersecurity
2.Properties
3.Legal Proceedings
4.Mine Safety Disclosures
PART II.
5.Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholders Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
6.[Reserved]
7.Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
7A.Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosure about Market Risk
8.Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
9.Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
9A.Controls and Procedures
9B.Other Information
9C.Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections
PART III
10.Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
11.Executive Compensation
12.Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
13.Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
14.Principal Accounting Fees and Services
PART IV
15.Exhibits, Financial Statements and Schedules
16.Form 10-K Summary

1



DEFINITIONS

"annualized rent" represents annualized base rent and current reimbursement for operating expenses and real estate taxes;

"formation transactions" means a series of transactions pursuant to which we acquired, substantially concurrently with the completion of the Offering, through a series of contributions and merger transactions, our commercial portfolio of real estate assets which were held by existing entities, the ownership interests in the certain management entities of our predecessor and one development parcel;

"fully diluted basis" means all outstanding shares of Empire State Realty Trust, Inc.'s Class A common stock at the time indicated plus shares of Class A common stock that may be issuable upon the exchange of operating partnership units on a one-for-one basis and shares of Class A common stock issuable upon the conversion of Class B common stock on a one-for-one basis, which is not the same as the meaning of “fully diluted” under generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America ("GAAP");

"enterprise value" means all outstanding shares of Empire State Realty Trust, Inc.'s Class A common stock at the time indicated plus shares of Class A common stock that may be issuable upon the exchange of operating partnership units on a one-for-one basis and shares of Class A common stock issuable upon the conversion of Class B common stock on a one-for-one basis multiplied by the Class A common share price at December 31, 2023, plus private perpetual preferred units plus consolidated debt at December 31, 2023;

"Malkin Group” means all of the following, as a group: Anthony E. Malkin, Peter L. Malkin and each of their spouses and lineal descendants (including spouses of such descendants), any estates of any of the foregoing, any trusts now or hereafter established for the benefit of any of the foregoing, or any corporation, partnership, limited liability company or other legal entity controlled by Anthony E. Malkin or any permitted successor in such entity for the benefit of any of the foregoing; provided, however that solely with respect to tax protection rights and parties who entered into the contribution agreements with respect to the formation transactions, the Malkin Group shall also include the lineal descendants of Lawrence A. Wien and his spouse (including spouses of such descendants), any estates of the foregoing, any trusts now or hereafter established for the benefit of any of the foregoing, or any corporation, partnership, limited liability company or other legal entity controlled by Anthony E. Malkin for the benefit of the foregoing;

the "Offering" means the initial public offering of Empire State Realty Trust, Inc.'s Class A common stock which was completed on October 7, 2013;

"our Company," "we," "us" and "our" refer to Empire State Realty OP L.P., a Delaware limited partnership, together with its consolidated subsidiaries;

"securityholder" means a holder of our Series ES, Series 250, Series 60 and Series PR operating partnership units, including those units held by Empire State Realty Trust, Inc.; and

"traded OP units" mean our Series ES, Series 250 and Series 60 operating partnership units.











2


PART I
ITEM 1. BUSINESS

Overview
Empire State Realty Trust, Inc. (NYSE: ESRT) is a NYC-focused REIT that owns and operates a portfolio of modernized, amenitized, and well-located office, retail, and multifamily assets. ESRT is a recognized leader in energy efficiency and indoor environmental quality. ESRT’s flagship Empire State Building – the “World’s Most Famous Building” – includes its Observatory, the #1 attraction in the U.S. in Tripadvisor’s Travelers’ Choice Awards: Best of the Best for two consecutive years.

As of December 31, 2023, ESRT’s portfolio is comprised of approximately 8.6 million rentable square feet of office space, 0.7 million rentable square feet of retail space and 727 residential units. Our office portfolio included 11 properties (including three long-term ground leasehold interests) encompassing approximately 8.6 million rentable square feet. Nine of these office properties are located in midtown Manhattan and encompass approximately 7.6 million rentable square feet, including the Empire State Building. The remaining two office properties encompass approximately 1.1 million rentable square feet and are located in Stamford, Connecticut, with immediate access to mass transportation. Additionally, we have entitled land adjacent to one of the Stamford office properties that can support the development of either office or residential per local zoning. Our multifamily portfolio included 727 residential units in New York City.
We were organized as a Delaware limited partnership on November 28, 2011, and commenced operations upon completion of the initial public offering of ESRT’s Class A common stock and related formation transactions on October 7, 2013 (the "IPO"). ESRT's Class A common stock, par value $0.01 per share, is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol "ESRT." ESRT, as the sole general partner in our Company, has responsibility and discretion in the management and control of our Company, and our limited partners, in such capacity, have no authority to transact business for, or participate in the management activities, of our Company. As of December 31, 2023, ESRT owned approximately 60.2% of our operating partnership units.
Business and Growth Strategies
Our primary business objectives are to maximize cash flow and total returns to our shareholders and to increase the value of our properties through the pursuit of the following strategies:
Lease Space
We believe we benefit from the tenant flight to quality trend. Tenants seek a compelling value proposition from landlords with a strong balance sheet and low leverage that continue to invest in the improvement of their buildings, and we offer a high-quality experience in high-quality assets at our attractive price point. Our buildings are fully modernized, well-located near mass transit, well-amenitized, and feature industry leadership in energy efficiency and indoor environmental quality, which helps us to draw consistent leasing volumes through cycles. They also have character. The quality of our commercial portfolio contributed to a strong leasing year in 2023; we leased 951,000 square feet of space and made meaningful absorption progress with a 130 basis point increase in Manhattan office occupancy and a 250 basis point increase in Manhattan leased rate throughout the year. Additionally, we believe our proactive, service-intensive approach to asset and property management helps increase occupancy and rental rates.

We have a brand that we believe tenants associate with a consistently high level of quality of services, healthy buildings, amenities, maintenance, and tenant installations, with high performance design guidelines for energy efficiency and indoor environmental quality, and long-term financial stability. Through our commitment to brokers, we have developed long-term relationships with a focus to attract high quality tenants to our properties. We proactively manage and cultivate our industry relationships and make the most senior members of our management team available to our constituencies. We believe that our consistent, open dialogue with our tenants and brokers enables us to maximize our results. Our focus on performance and long-term perspective allows us to concentrate on the ongoing management of our portfolio, while we concurrently seek opportunities for growth in the future.

We do extensive diligence on our tenants' financial prospects, businesses and business models to determine if we think there is potential to establish long-term relationships in which they will both renew with us and expand over time. Since the Offering, we have completed 277 expansions with existing tenants which total 2.6 million square feet within our portfolio. Our comprehensive building management services and our strong commitment to tenant and broker relationships and satisfaction enable us to negotiate attractive leasing deals, which attracts and retains high credit-quality tenants. We proactively manage our rent roll, foster strong tenant relationships, maintain continuous communication with our tenants, and are responsive to tenant
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needs. We believe the success of our long-term tenant relationships improves our operating results over time by reducing leasing, marketing and tenant improvement costs, as well as tenant turnover.

We regularly monitor our properties, perform routine preventive maintenance, and implement capital improvement programs in connection with property redevelopment and life cycle replacement of equipment and systems to protect our investments. We self-manage all of our office and retail properties, and we use a third-party property manager to manage our multifamily properties. We proactively manage our office properties and rent rolls to create efficient, modern, pre-built offices that can be rented through several lease cycles and attract high credit-quality tenants. We manage and control operating expenses at all of our properties. In addition, we have made energy efficiency retrofitting and sustainability a portfolio-wide initiative driven by economic return. We pass on cost savings achieved by such improvements to our tenants through lower utility costs and reduced operating expense escalations. We believe these initiatives make our properties more desirable to a broader tenant base than the properties of our competitors.

Sell Tickets to the Empire State Building Observatory

The Empire State Building offers panoramic views of New York and neighboring states from its world-famous 86th and 102nd floor observatories. In December 2019, we completed the Observatory’s comprehensive multi-year reimagination and redevelopment. In 2020, we reprogrammed our Observatory business to operate by reservations only, created a new focus on customer experience and reduction of crowds and lines, with an emphasis on growing revenue per visitor, and matched our hours of operation to the reservations demand to manage expenses. We enhanced health and safety protocols, improved marketing and cross-promotional activities to increase brand awareness, and managed expenses prudently.

Our efforts have resulted in strong performance from our Observatory and we experienced continued improvement in Observatory revenue and operating income throughout 2023. We had approximately 2.6 million visitors in 2023 as compared to 0.5 million in 2020, 0.8 million in 2021 and 2.2 million in 2022. Additionally, the Empire State Building Observatory was ranked the # 1 attraction in the United States in Tripadvisor's Travelers’ Choice Awards: Best of the Best for two consecutive years.

Enhance Shareholder Value

We enhance shareholder value primarily through the execution of our capital allocation strategy, maintenance of our balance sheet flexibility and enhanced transparency and disclosure. As it relates to capital allocation strategy, we (i) opportunistically recycle our capital, (ii) make selective, value-enhancing acquisitions and (iii) reinvest in our own shares through share repurchases.
We are diversified and we believe we benefit from New York City’s rebound from our office, Observatory, retail, and multifamily exposure in the city. We have a dedicated investment function to identify potential investment opportunities, which includes our Chief Investment Officer and a full acquisitions team. We believe our well-positioned balance sheet, access to capital, and expertise in redevelopment gives us significant flexibility to structure and pursue attractive investment opportunities. Since December 2021, we have completed acquisitions of three multifamily properties in Manhattan and a retail asset in the Williamsburg neighborhood of Brooklyn, NY. We have also completed the disposition of non-core assets in our greater New York metropolitan area portfolio, including office assets in Norwalk, CT, White Plains, NY and Harrison, NY, and retail assets in Westport, CT. See ITEM 2. Properties for more information.
For the foreseeable future, we intend to focus our acquisition strategy primarily on NYC office, retail and multifamily properties where we can achieve attractive returns on invested capital.

In the current financial environment, we believe our well-positioned balance sheet differentiates us in our efforts to attract brokers and new tenants, who look to partner with financially stable landlords which will invest in their customers and maintain high-quality standards at their assets. Our well-positioned balance sheet has also allowed us to be nimble and recycle capital as well as repurchase shares.

Achieve Sustainability Goals

We are recognized as a leader in the real estate industry in sustainability, and we focus on net zero emissions, energy efficiency, water use reduction, indoor environmental quality, and healthy buildings. We have pioneered certain practices to achieve emissions reduction and energy efficiency, including those described in our Empire Building Playbook, a free guide that we published in partnership with the New York Energy Research Development Authority and the Clinton Global Initiative, for existing commercial buildings to follow our lead and develop a technical and economic pathway to achieve net zero carbon reduction with a proven payback. The reduced energy consumption and emissions lower costs for us and our tenants, and we believe creates a competitive advantage for our properties. We believe that higher quality tenants prioritize sustainability, cost reduction, and lower contributions to greenhouse gas emissions.
Business Segments
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Our reportable segments consist of a real estate segment and an Observatory segment. Our real estate segment includes all activities related to the ownership, management, operation, acquisition, repositioning and disposition of our commercial and multifamily real estate assets, principally office assets, located in Manhattan. Our Observatory segment operates the 86th and 102nd floor observatories at the Empire State Building. These segments are managed separately because each business requires different support infrastructure, provides different services and has dissimilar economic characteristics such as investments needed, stream of revenues and marketing strategies. We account for intersegment sales and rent as if the sales or rent were to third parties at current market prices. This intersegment rent is eliminated upon consolidation.
For more information about our segments, refer to “Financial Statements - Note 13 Segment Reporting” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Rental Revenue
We derive revenues primarily from rents, rent escalations, expense reimbursements and other income received from tenants under existing leases at each of our properties. “Escalations and expense reimbursements” consist of payments made by tenants to us under contractual lease obligations to reimburse a portion of the property operating expenses and real estate taxes incurred at each property.
We believe that the average rental rates for in-place leases at our properties are generally below the current market rates, although individual leases at particular properties presently may be leased above, at or below the current market rates within its particular submarket.
Regulation
General
The properties in our portfolio are subject to various laws, ordinances and regulations, including regulations relating to common areas. We believe each of the existing properties has the necessary permits and approvals to operate its business.
Americans with Disabilities Act
Our properties must comply with Title III of the Americans with Disabilities Act, or ("ADA"), to the extent that such properties are “public accommodations” as defined by the ADA. The ADA may require removal of structural barriers to access by persons with disabilities in certain public areas of our properties where such removal is readily achievable. We believe the existing properties are in substantial compliance with the ADA and that we will not be required to make substantial capital expenditures to address the requirements of the ADA. However, noncompliance with the ADA could result in imposition of fines or an award of damages to private litigants. The obligation to make readily achievable accommodations is an ongoing one, and we will continue to assess our properties and to make alterations as appropriate in this respect.

Environmental Matters

Under various federal, state and/or local laws, ordinances and regulations, as a current or former owner or operator of real property, we may be liable for costs and damages resulting from the presence or release of hazardous substances, waste, or petroleum products at, on, in, under or from such property, including costs for investigation or remediation, natural resource damages, or third-party liability for personal injury or property damage. These laws often impose liability without regard to whether the owner or operator knew of, or was responsible for, the presence or release of such materials, and the liability may be joint and several. Some of our properties have been or may be impacted by contamination arising from current or prior uses of the property or adjacent properties for commercial, industrial or other purposes. Such contamination may arise from spills of petroleum or hazardous substances or releases from tanks used to store such materials. We also may be liable for the costs of remediating contamination at off-site disposal or treatment facilities when we arrange for disposal or treatment of hazardous substances at such facilities, without regard to whether we comply with environmental laws in doing so. The presence of contamination or the failure to remediate contamination on our properties may adversely affect our ability to attract and/or retain tenants, and our ability to develop or sell or borrow against those properties. In addition to potential liability for cleanup costs, private plaintiffs may bring claims for personal injury, property damage or for similar reasons. Environmental laws also may create liens on contaminated sites in favor of the government for damages and costs it incurs to address such contamination. Moreover, if contamination is discovered on our properties, environmental laws may impose restrictions on the manner in which that property may be used or how businesses may be operated on that property.

Some of our properties are adjacent to or near other properties which are used for industrial or commercial purposes or have contained or currently contain underground storage tanks used to store petroleum products or other hazardous or toxic
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substances. Releases from these properties could impact our properties. In addition, some of our properties have previously been used by former owners or tenants for commercial or industrial activities, e.g., gas stations and dry cleaners, and a portion of the Metro Tower site is currently used for automobile parking and was formerly leased to a fueling facility that may release petroleum products or other hazardous or toxic substances at such properties or to surrounding properties. While certain properties contain or contained uses that could have or have impacted our properties, we are not aware of any liabilities related to environmental contamination that we believe will have a material adverse effect on our operations.
We have post-closing obligations related to the 69-97 and 103-107 Main Street, Westport, Connecticut properties that we sold in February 2023 to (i) close out a voluntary remediation program at 69-97 Main Street to address residual impacts of prior presence of underground storage tanks and (ii) comply with a consent order issued by the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection to investigate soil conditions at 103-107 Main Street. We believe any expenses incurred to close out and comply with the remediation program and consent order, respectively, will be immaterial to the results of our operations.
Our property situated at 500 Mamaroneck Avenue in Harrison, New York was the subject of a voluntary remedial action work cleanup plan under an agreement with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, but we sold this property in April 2023 and the obligations have been transferred to the buyer.

In addition, our properties are subject to various federal, state and local environmental and health and safety laws and regulations. Noncompliance with these laws and regulations could subject us or our tenants to liability. These liabilities could affect a tenant’s ability to make rental payments to us. Moreover, changes in laws could increase the potential costs of compliance with such laws and regulations or increase liability for noncompliance. This may result in significant unanticipated expenditures. We sometimes require our tenants to comply with environmental and health and safety laws and regulations and to indemnify us for any related liabilities in our leases with them. But in the event of the bankruptcy or inability of any of our tenants to satisfy such obligations, we may be required to satisfy such obligations. We are not presently aware of any instances of material non-compliance with environmental or health and safety laws or regulations at our properties, and we believe that we and/or our tenants have all material permits and approvals necessary under current laws and regulations to operate our properties.
In addition, we may become subject to new compliance requirements and/or new costs or taxes associated with natural resource or energy usage and related emissions (such as a carbon tax), which could increase our operating costs. In particular, as the owner of large commercial buildings in New York City, we are subject to Local Law 97 passed by the New York City Council in April 2019, which for each such building establishes annual limits for greenhouse gas emissions, requires yearly emissions reports beginning in May 2025, and imposes penalties for emissions above such limits. Based upon our present understanding of the law and calculations related thereto, we expect to pay no fine on any building in our commercial portfolio in the 2024-2029 first period of enforcement.
As the owner or operator of real property, we may also incur liability based on various building conditions. For example, environmental site assessments and investigations have identified asbestos or asbestos-containing material ("ACM") in certain of our properties, and it is possible that other properties that we currently own or operate or those we acquire or operate in the future contain, may contain, or may have contained ACM. Refer to “Financial Statements - Note 9 Commitments and Contingencies - Asset Retirement Obligations” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Environmental and health and safety laws require that ACM be properly managed and maintained and may impose fines or penalties on owners, operators or employers for non-compliance with those requirements. These requirements include special precautions, such as removal, abatement or air monitoring, if ACM would be disturbed during maintenance, redevelopment or demolition of a building, potentially resulting in substantial costs. In addition, we may be subject to liability for personal injury or property damage sustained as a result of releases of ACM into the environment. We are not presently aware of any material liabilities related to building conditions, including any instances of material non-compliance with asbestos requirements or any material liabilities related to asbestos.
Our properties may contain or develop harmful mold or suffer from other indoor air quality issues, which could lead to liability for adverse health effects or property damage or costs for remediation. When excessive moisture accumulates in buildings or on building materials, mold growth may occur, particularly if the moisture problem remains undiscovered or is not addressed over a period of time. Some molds may produce airborne toxins or irritants. Indoor air quality issues can also stem from inadequate ventilation, chemical contamination from indoor or outdoor sources, and other biological contaminants such as pollen, viruses and bacteria. Indoor exposure to airborne toxins or irritants above certain levels can be alleged to cause a variety of adverse health effects and symptoms, including allergic or other reactions. As a result, the presence of significant mold or other airborne contaminants at any of our properties could require us to undertake a costly remediation program to contain or remove the mold or other airborne contaminants from the affected property or increase indoor ventilation. In addition, the presence of significant mold or other airborne contaminants could expose us to liability from our tenants, employees of our
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tenants or others if property damage or personal injury occurs. We are not presently aware of any material adverse indoor air quality issues at our properties.

Affordable Housing
Certain units in our multifamily properties are designated for lower income households and are therefore subject to supervision and regulation by state and federal governmental authorities which regulate affordable housing rental activities. See "Risk Factors - Government housing regulations may limit opportunities at the multifamily properties in which we invest, and failure to comply with resident qualification requirements may result in financial penalties or loss of benefits" for more information.

Insurance
We carry comprehensive liability, fire, extended coverage, earthquake, terrorism and rental loss insurance covering all of our New York City properties and our greater New York metropolitan area properties under a blanket policy. We carry additional all-risk property and business insurance, which includes terrorism insurance, on the Empire State Building through ESRT Captive Insurance Company L.L.C., or ESRT Captive Insurance, our wholly owned captive insurance company. ESRT Captive Insurance covers terrorism insurance for $1.2 billion in losses in excess of $800 million per occurrence suffered by the Empire State Building, providing us with aggregate terrorism coverage of $2 billion at that property. ESRT Captive Insurance fully reinsures the 20% coinsurance under the Terrorism Risk Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of 2015 ("TRIPRA") and the difference between the TRIPRA captive deductible and policy deductible of $100,000 for non-Nuclear, Biological, Chemical and Radiological exposures. We purchased a $50 million limit of Nuclear, Biological, Chemical and Radiological ("NBCR") insurance in excess of a $1.0 million deductible in the commercial insurance market. ESRT Captive Insurance provides NBCR insurance coverage under TRIPRA with a limit of $1.95 billion in excess of the $50 million policy. As a result, we remain only liable for the 20% coinsurance under TRIPRA for NBCR exposures within ESRT Captive Insurance, as well as a deductible equal to 20% of ESRT Captive Insurance’s prior year’s premium. As long as we own ESRT Captive Insurance, we are responsible for ESRT Captive Insurance’s liquidity and capital resources, and ESRT Captive Insurance’s accounts are part of our consolidated financial statements. If we experience a loss and ESRT Captive Insurance is required to pay under its insurance policy, we would ultimately record the loss to the extent of its required payment. The policies described above cover certified terrorism losses as defined under the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act of 2002 ("TRIA") and subsequent extensions. On December 20, 2019, the President of the United States signed into law TRIPRA act of 2019, which extended TRIA through December 31, 2027. TRIA provides for a system of shared public and private compensation for insured losses resulting from acts of terrorism. As a result, the certified terrorism coverage provided by ESRT Captive Insurance is eligible for 80% coinsurance provided by the United States Treasury in excess of a statutorily calculated deductible. ESRT Captive Insurance reinsures 100% of its 20% coinsurance for non-NBCR exposures. The 20% coinsurance on NBCR exposures is retained by ESRT Captive Insurance.

Reinsurance contracts do not relieve ESRT Captive Insurance from its primary obligations to its policyholders. Additionally, failure of the various reinsurers to honor their obligations could result in significant losses to ESRT Captive Insurance. The reinsurance has been ceded to reinsurers approved by the State of Vermont. ESRT Captive Insurance continually evaluates the reinsurers’ financial condition by considering published financial stability ratings of the reinsurers and other factors. There can be no assurance that reinsurance will continue to be available to ESRT Captive Insurance to the same extent and at the same cost. ESRT Captive Insurance may choose in the future to reevaluate the use of reinsurance to increase or decrease the amounts of risk it cedes.

In addition to insurance held through ESRT Captive Insurance described above, we carry terrorism insurance on all of our properties in an amount and with deductibles which we believe are commercially reasonable.

Our insurance policies include substantial self-insurance portions and significant deductibles and co-payments for certain events, and hurricanes in the United States have affected the availability and price of such insurance. We may discontinue certain insurance coverage on some or all of our properties in the future if the cost of premiums for any of these policies in our judgment exceeds the value of the coverage discounted for the risk of loss.
Additionally, we do not carry insurance for certain losses, including, but not limited to, losses caused by war. Furthermore, business interruption insurance due to pandemic level or other public health events may not be readily available at commercially acceptable rates.

Competition
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The leasing of real estate is highly competitive in New York City and Stamford, Connecticut where we operate. We compete with numerous acquirers, developers, owners and operators of commercial real estate, many of which own or may seek to acquire or develop properties similar to ours in the same markets in which our properties are located. The principal means of competition are rent charged, location, amenities and services provided, and the nature and condition of the facility to be leased. In addition, we face competition from other real estate companies, including other REITs, private real estate funds, domestic and foreign financial institutions, life insurance companies, pension trusts, partnerships, individual investors and others, that may have greater financial resources or access to capital than we do or that are willing to acquire properties in transactions which are more highly leveraged or are less attractive from a financial viewpoint than we are willing to pursue. In addition, competition from new and existing observatories and/or broadcasting operations may have a negative impact on revenues from our Observatory operations and/or broadcasting revenues. Adverse impacts on domestic and international travel and changes in foreign currency exchange rates may also decrease demand in the future, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition and ability to make distributions to our securityholders. If our competitors offer space at rental rates below current market rates, below the rental rates we currently charge our tenants, in better locations within our markets or in higher quality facilities, we may lose potential tenants and we may be pressured to reduce our rental rates below those we currently charge in order to retain tenants when our tenants’ leases expire.
ESRT's Tax Status as a REIT
ESRT elected to be subject to tax as a REIT and has operated in a manner that we believe allows it to qualify as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes commencing with its taxable year ended December 31, 2013. We believe that ESRT has been organized in conformity with the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, (the "Code"), and that its intended manner of operation will enable it to continue to meet the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT. So long as ESRT qualifies as a REIT, it generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax on its net taxable income that ESRT distributes to its securityholders. If ESRT fails to qualify as a REIT in any taxable year and does not qualify for certain statutory relief provisions, ESRT will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at regular corporate rates and may be precluded from qualifying as a REIT for the subsequent four taxable years following the year during which it lost its REIT qualification. Even if ESRT qualifies as a REIT, it may be subject to certain U.S. federal, state and local taxes on its income or property.
In order to qualify as a REIT, ESRT must distribute to its securityholders, on an annual basis, at least 90% of its REIT taxable income, determined without regard to the deduction for distributions paid and excluding net capital gains. In addition, ESRT will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at the generally applicable corporate tax rate to the extent that it distributes less than 100% of its net taxable income (including net capital gains) and will be subject to a 4% nondeductible excise tax on the amount by which its distributions in any calendar year are less than a minimum amount specified under U.S. federal income tax laws.
In addition, to qualify as a REIT, ESRT must ensure that it meets the REIT gross income tests annually and that at the end of each calendar quarter, at least 75% of the value of its total assets consists of cash, cash items, government securities and qualified REIT real estate assets, including certain mortgage loans and certain kinds of mortgage-backed securities. The remainder of its investment in securities (other than government securities, securities of corporations that are treated as Taxable REIT Subsidiaries ("TRSs") and qualified REIT real estate assets) generally cannot include more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of any one issuer or more than 10% of the total value of the outstanding securities of any one issuer. In addition, in general, no more than 5% of the value of its assets (other than government securities and qualified real estate assets) can consist of the securities of any one issuer, and no more than 20% of the value of its total securities can be represented by securities of one or more TRSs.

Rents from real property are generally not qualifying income for purposes of the REIT gross income tests if the rent is treated as “related party rent.” Related party rent generally includes (i) any rent paid by a corporation if the REIT (or any person who owns 10% or more of the stock of the REIT by value) directly or indirectly owns 10% or more of the stock of the corporation by vote or value and (ii) rent paid by a partnership if the REIT (or any person who owns 10% or more of the stock of the REIT by value) directly or indirectly owns an interest of 10% or more in the assets or net profits of the partnership. Under an exception to this rule, related party rent is treated as qualifying income for purposes of the REIT gross income tests if it is paid by a TRS of the REIT and (i) at least 90% of the leased space in the relevant property is rented to persons other than either TRSs or other related parties of the REIT, and (ii) the amounts paid to the REIT as rent from real property are substantially comparable to the rents paid by unrelated tenants of the REIT for comparable space.

Income from admissions to the Empire State Building Observatory, and certain other income generated by the Observatory, would not likely be qualifying income for purposes of the REIT gross income tests. ESRT jointly elected with Observatory TRS, which is the current lessee and operator of the Observatory and which is wholly owned by our Company, for
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Observatory TRS to be treated as a TRS of ESRT's for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Observatory TRS leases the Empire State Building Observatory from our Company pursuant to a lease that provides for fixed base rental payments and variable rental payments equal to certain percentages of Observatory TRS’s gross receipts from the operation of the Observatory. Given the unique nature of the real estate comprising the Observatory, as of the date of such lease, we did not believe that there is any space in the Empire State Building or in the same geographic area as the Empire State Building that is likely to be considered sufficiently comparable to the Observatory for the purpose of applying the exception to related party rent described above. ESRT has received from the IRS a private letter ruling that the rent that our Company receives from Observatory TRS pursuant to the lease of the Empire State Building Observatory is qualifying income for purposes of the REIT gross income tests so long as such rent reflects the fair market rental value of the Empire State Building Observatory as determined by an appraisal rendered by a qualified third-party appraiser.

In addition, our operating partnership has acquired various license agreements (i) granting certain third-party broadcasters the right to use space on the tower on the top of the Empire State Building for certain broadcasting and other communication purposes and (ii) granting certain third-party vendors the right to operate concession stands in the Observatory. ESRT has received from the IRS a private letter ruling that the license fees that our Company receives under the license agreements described above constitute qualifying income for purposes of the REIT gross income tests.
Inflation
Substantially all of our leases provide for separate real estate tax and operating expense escalations. In addition, many of the leases provide for fixed base rent increases. We believe inflationary increases may be at least partially offset by the contractual rent increases and expense escalations described above. We do not believe inflation has had a material impact on our financial position or results of operations.
Seasonality
Our Observatory business is subject to tourism trends and weather, and therefore does experience some seasonality. For the year ended December 31, 2023, approximately 17% of our annual Observatory revenue was realized in the first quarter, 26% was realized in the second quarter, 29% was realized in the third quarter, and 28% was realized in the fourth quarter. Our multifamily business experiences some seasonality based on general market trends in New York City – the winter months (November through January) are slower in terms of lease activity. We seek to mitigate this by staggering lease terms such that lease expirations are matched with seasonal demand. We do not consider the balance of our business to be subject to material seasonal fluctuations.
Leasing Trend Fluctuations
Due to the relatively small number of leases that are signed in any particular quarter, one or more larger leases may have a disproportionately positive or negative impact on average rent, tenant improvement and leasing commission costs for that period. As a result, we believe it is more appropriate when analyzing trends in average rent and tenant improvement and leasing commission costs to review activity over multiple quarters or years. Tenant improvement costs include expenditures for general improvements occurring concurrently with, but that are not directly related to, the cost of installing a new tenant. Leasing commission costs are similarly subject to significant fluctuations depending upon the length of leases being signed and the mix of tenants from quarter to quarter.
Human Capital Management
As of December 31, 2023, we employed 666 people, of whom approximately 429 are covered by collective bargaining agreements. We generally have and expect to continue to maintain good relations with our employees and workforce, including those employees covered by collective bargaining agreements. We believe that our success is realized through the attraction, retention, development, engagement and empowerment of our highly-valued and diverse employees, and we endeavor to set our policies and practices accordingly.

We offer what we believe to be generally competitive compensation and benefits. To reward and reinforce participation in the Company’s outcomes, we also make equity grants to employees. We regularly review our compensation and benefits against our peers and the industry to remain competitive.

We strive to attract, hire and retain diverse candidates who meet our high standards. Our retention strategy is based on the effective training and development of, and focus on the total wellness of, our employees. We believe continuous learning supports productivity, innovation and retention, as well as personal and professional growth for our employees. We invest in employee training, including certain programs which are mandatory for all employees, and other programs which are voluntary and self-directed on platforms provided by the Company. We also regularly assess the performance and potential of our diverse
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workforce, review our succession plans and create robust developmental action plans to grow our employees and prepare them
for internal promotional opportunities. We believe our public recognition demonstrates the strength of our program. As of February 2023, we are Great Place to Work-Certified. We were also selected for inclusion in the Bloomberg Gender Equality Index in 2022 and 2023.

Offices
Our principal executive offices are located at 111 West 33rd Street, 12th floor, New York, New York 10120. We also have additional regional leasing and property management offices in Manhattan and Stamford, Connecticut. Our current facilities are adequate for our present and future operations, although we may add or eliminate regional offices, depending upon our future operations.
Available Information
ESRT, our sole general partner, has a website address at http://www.esrtreit.com. The information found on, or otherwise accessible through, ESRT's website is not incorporated by reference into, and does not form a part of, this Annual Report on Form 10-K or any other report or document ESRT or we file with or furnish to the SEC and ESRT makes available, free of charge, on or through the SEC Filings section of its website, ESRT's and our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and any amendments to such reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the "Exchange Act"), as soon as reasonably practicable after ESRT or we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC. ESRT has also posted on its website the Audit Committee Charter, Compensation and Human Capital Committee Charter, Finance Committee Charter, Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee Charter, Corporate Governance Guidelines and Code of Business Conduct and Ethics, which govern its directors, officers and employees. Within the time period required by the SEC, ESRT will post on its website any amendment to its Code of Business Conduct and Ethics and any waiver applicable to its senior financial officers and its executive officers or directors. The SEC maintains an Internet site (http://www.sec.gov) that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC.

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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS

You should carefully consider the following risks, together with all other information in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, before you decide to retain or make an investment in our securities. These are not the only risks we face. Additional risks currently unknown or deemed immaterial could have a material adverse effect on us and our REIT qualification, which could reduce our share price and cause loss of all or part of your investment. Some items below are forward-looking statements. See “Forward-Looking Statements.”

Risks Related to Our Business and Properties

Risks Relating to Portfolio Concentration

Our properties are geographically concentrated in New York and Connecticut, and adverse state or local economic or regulatory developments could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flow and financial condition.

Our commercial portfolio is comprised of properties primarily in New York City as well as in Stamford, Connecticut. As a result, our business is dependent on the New York City economy in general and the market for office, retail and multifamily space in New York City in particular, which exposes us to greater economic and regulatory risks than if we owned a more geographically diverse portfolio. These risks include business layoffs, downsizing, industry slowdowns, and relocations of businesses as well as increases in real estate and other local taxes, and regulatory compliance costs. The current federal tax limits on the deductibility of state and local taxes as well as higher individual tax rate proposals may negatively impact demographic trends in high tax states like New York and Connecticut.

The threat or occurrence of a terrorist event, particularly in New York City, may materially and adversely affect the value of our properties and our ability to generate cash flow.

The threat or occurrence of a terrorist event may cause people to relocate from New York City and Stamford, Connecticut to less populated, lower-profile areas. This could trigger a decrease in the demand, occupancy and rental rates for, and materially affect the value of, our properties and our cash flow. Such negative consequences may be even more likely in a high-profile property like the Empire State Building and its Observatory. Additionally, a terrorist event could cause insurance premiums at certain of our properties to increase significantly.

We rely on three properties, in particular the Empire State Building and its Observatory, for a significant portion of our revenue.

For the year ended December 31, 2023, three of our properties together accounted for approximately 53.2% of our portfolio’s rental revenues, with the Empire State Building individually accounting for approximately 29.6%. Our revenue and cash available for distribution would be materially and adversely affected if any of these three properties were materially damaged or a significant number of their tenants experienced financial strain leading to lease default or bankruptcy filing. Additionally, for fiscal years ended December 31, 2021, 2022 and 2023, we derived revenue of approximately $41.5 million, $106.0 million and $129.4 million, respectively from the Empire State Building’s Observatory operations. Loss of revenue from the Observatory has in the past and may in the future have a material adverse impact on our results of operations and financial condition.

Our five largest tenants represented approximately 15.9% of our total commercial portfolio’s annualized rent as of December 31, 2023.

As of December 31, 2023, our five largest tenants together represented approximately 15.9% of our total commercial portfolio’s annualized rent, with our largest tenant leasing an aggregate of 0.5 million rentable square feet of office space at one of our office properties, representing approximately 5.4% of our total commercial portfolio rentable square feet and approximately 6.2% of our total commercial portfolio annualized rent. Our significant tenants have in the past, and may in the future, experience financial strain leading to lease default or bankruptcy. In such cases, we may not recover our upfront investments in tenant improvement allowances, concessions, and transaction costs like professional fees and commissions. Upon tenant default, we may experience delays and substantial costs in enforcing our rights and protecting our investment. Our business, results of operations, cash flow and financial condition could be materially adversely affected if any of our significant tenants were to suffer a downturn in their business, become insolvent, default under their leases, and/or fail to renew on favorable terms or at all.

Risks Relating to the Real Estate Market

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A sustained shift away from in-person work environments to remote work could have an adverse effect on the overall demand for our office and multifamily apartment units.

Certain remote work practices implemented in reaction to the pandemic are still in place and have shifted employers and employees away from fully in-person work environments, and a more permanent shift of this type could have an adverse effect on the overall demand for our office space. Additionally, with increased employer flexibility to work from home, current and prospective residents may be less likely to live in dense urban centers or multifamily housing like the properties we own. If these trends continue, it could impair demand and value at our properties.

Adverse economic and geopolitical conditions impacting the industries of our tenants, in particular the retail industry, could cause reduced demand, rental rates and occupancy for our retail and office space.

As of December 31, 2023, approximately 18.2% of our commercial portfolio’s annualized rent was comprised of retail tenants. In recent years, the retail industry has faced reductions in sales revenues and increase in bankruptcies throughout the United States, due to a consumer shift to online shopping. This has reduced demand for physical retail space especially at street level, which typically commanded the highest rental rates per square foot in office properties.

The bankruptcy or insolvency of any tenant could result in the termination of such tenant’s lease and material losses to us.

The occurrence of a tenant bankruptcy or insolvency has in the past, and could in the future, diminish or terminate the income we receive from that tenant. We may also be unable to re-lease a terminated or rejected space on favorable terms or at all. Additionally, a large number of our tenants (measured by number of tenants as opposed to aggregate square footage) are smaller businesses that generally do not have the financial strength of larger corporate tenants. Smaller businesses generally experience a higher rate of failure than large businesses, and their insolvency could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flow and financial condition.

Competition may impede our ability to attract or retain tenants or re-lease space and we may be required to make rent or other concessions and/or significant capital expenditures to improve our properties in order to retain and attract tenants.

The leasing of real estate in New York City and its surrounding metropolitan area is highly competitive in rental rates, location, services and property condition. We have seen increased competition from lessors in offering concessions, short term, amenities, indoor environmental quality and sustainability certifications. See Part I, ITEM 1, “Business – Competition” for more information. Increased competition challenges our ability to lease space and maximize our effective rents.

Upon expiration of leases at our properties and with respect to our current vacant space, we may be required to make rent or other concessions to tenants, accommodate increased requests for renovations, build-to-suit remodeling and other improvements or provide additional services to our tenants. In addition, eight of our existing properties are pre-war office properties, which may require more frequent and costly maintenance to retain existing tenants or attract new tenants than newer properties. As a result, and due to the increased competition from lessors in the greater New York City area, we have made, and may have to make, significant capital or other expenditures in order to maintain the competitiveness of our properties. There can be no assurances that any such expenditure would result in higher occupancy, higher rental rates or deter existing tenants from relocating to properties owned by our competitors. If we are unable to match the competition for lack of capital or other reasons, we may fail to attract new tenants or to renew existing tenants.

We may be unable to renew leases or re-lease vacant space on favorable terms or at all as leases expire.

As of December 31, 2023, we had approximately 0.9 million rentable square feet of vacant space in our office and retail properties. In addition, leases representing 5.4% and 6.4% of the square footage of the office and retail properties in our commercial portfolio will expire in 2024 and 2025, respectively. We cannot be assured that leases scheduled to expire will be renewed or that our properties will be re-leased at net effective rental rates at or above the current average. If the terms of the renewal or re-leasing are less favorable than current terms, or we fail to re-lease such spaces at all, our business, results of operations, cash flow and financial condition will be negatively affected.

The short-term nature of multifamily leases exposes us more quickly to the effects of declining market rents, potentially making our revenue more volatile.

Generally, our multifamily leases are for twelve months or less. If the terms of the renewal or reletting are less favorable than current terms, our business, results of operations, cash flow and financial condition will be negatively affected. Given their short-term lease structure, our multifamily rental revenues are more sensitive to market declines.

Risks Relating to Our Properties

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We face various risks related to our ground leases, including those arising from breach, expiration and eminent domain proceedings, and we have no permanent economic interest in the land or improvements at such properties.

Our interests in three of our commercial office properties, 1350 Broadway, 111 West 33rd Street and 1400 Broadway, are ground leases (i.e., long-term leaseholds of the land and the improvements), rather than a fee interest in the land and the improvements. Pursuant to these ground leases, we, as tenant, perform the functions traditionally performed by owners: collect rent from our subtenants, maintain the properties and pay related expenses. We do not have a right to acquire the fee interests in these properties. The ground leases, including unilateral extension rights available to us, expire on July 31, 2050, for 1350 Broadway, December 31, 2063, for 1400 Broadway and June 10, 2077, for 111 West 33rd Street. If we are found to be in breach of any of these ground leases, the fee owner may terminate such lease, and we could lose the right to use the properties. In addition, unless we purchase the underlying fee interest in these properties or extend the terms of the ground leases on the current terms, we will lose our right to operate these properties, or continue to operate them at lower profitability. Additionally, we will not share in any increase in value of the land or improvements and will not receive any revenue from the property beyond the term of our ground leases. If the government acquires the properties under its eminent domain power, we would only be entitled to a portion of any compensation awarded. It may be more expensive for us to renew our ground leases, to the extent renewal is available at all.

We are exposed to risks associated with property development.

We have engaged, continue to engage, and may in the future engage in development activities with respect to our properties (including our Metro Tower potential development site). See Part I, ITEM 1, “Business – Overview” for more information. Development subjects us to risks beyond our control, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, including, without limitation, the availability and pricing of financing; availability and timing of zoning and other approvals; occupancy rates and rents; construction costs and delays, whether due to weather, labor conditions, material shortages or otherwise, and timely lease-up. We will fail to recover expenses and management time already incurred if we abandon any then pending development.

Significant inflation could adversely affect our business and financial results.

Increased inflation has and may in the future adversely affect us by increasing costs of properties, development and renovation. In a highly inflationary environment, we may be unable to raise rental rates at or above the rate of inflation, which could reduce our profit margins. In addition, our cost of labor and materials has and may in the future further increase. While increases in most operating expenses at our properties can be passed on to our office and retail tenants, the terms of some of our leases may limit our ability to charge our tenants for all or a portion of such increased expenses. Our inability to pass on such increased operating expenses may reduce cash flow available to service our debt and make distributions.

We may not be able to control our operating costs, or our expenses may remain constant or increase even if income from our properties decreases.

Certain costs associated with real estate investment, such as real estate taxes, insurance and maintenance costs, generally are not reduced when a property is not fully occupied, rental rates decrease or other circumstances cause a reduction in income. The terms of our leases may also limit our ability to charge our tenants for all or a portion of these expenses. Additionally, inflation has impacted and will continue to impact property operating expenses and construction costs.

We are exposed to risks from third-party property management services.

While we perform property management services for the majority of our properties, we use a third-party property management company to service our multifamily properties. If such third-party property management company does not perform in accordance with our contractual agreements and desired standards, we could be exposed to additional risks, such as costs and reputational harm.

Risks Related to Our Non-Real Estate Operations

The Observatory operations at the Empire State Building are not traditional real estate operations, and may be negatively impacted by competition, adverse weather, and changes in tourist trends.

For fiscal years ended December 31, 2021, 2022 and 2023, we derived revenues of approximately $41.5 million, $106.0 million and $129.4 million from our Observatory operations. Our revenues declined significantly in 2020, 2021 and 2022, compared to 2019, as a result of the pandemic and government mandated closures and a slow ramp-up in visitor volume after reopening in July 2020, in large part due to travel restrictions. Any future health or other economic crises, geopolitical events (including global hostilities) or currency exchange rate fluctuations could negatively impact tourist trends and visitor demand for our Observatory, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flow and
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financial condition. We are also susceptible to reductions in visitor demand due to adverse weather. We compete against existing observatories in New York City at the World Trade Center, Rockefeller Center, Hudson Yards, and One Vanderbilt, all of which may divert visitors and negatively impact our revenue.

The broadcasting operations at the Empire State Building are not traditional real estate operations, and competition and changes in the broadcasting of signals over air may subject us to additional risks.

We license the use of the Empire State Building broadcasting mast to third-party television and radio broadcasters. During the year ended December 31, 2023, we derived approximately $14.7 million of revenue (excluding tenant reimbursement income) from such broadcasting licenses and related leases, as compared with about $21 million at its peak. Competition from other broadcasting operations has had a negative impact on revenues from our broadcasting operations, and lease renewals have yielded reduced revenue, and higher operating expenses and capital expenditures. Our broadcast licensees also face a range of competition from advances in technologies and alternative methods of content delivery in their respective industries, as well as changes in consumer behavior, which may reduce the demand for over-the-air broadcast licenses. Recent government regulations may materially and adversely affect our broadcast revenue by reducing the demand for broadcast licenses through making more spectrum available for wireless broadband service providers.

The impairment of a significant portion of goodwill could negatively affect our results of operations and financial condition.

Our balance sheet included goodwill of approximately $491.5 million at December 31, 2023, consisting primarily of goodwill associated with our acquisition of the controlling interest in Empire State Building Company L.L.C. and 501 Seventh Avenue Associates L.L.C. On an annual basis and whenever circumstances indicate the carrying value or goodwill may be impaired, we are required to assess any such impairment and charge to operating earnings the resulting non-cash impairment. For example, during the pandemic, the closure of our Observatory caused us to perform such an assessment quarterly. See “Financial Statements – Note 4 Deferred Costs, Acquired Lease Intangibles and Goodwill” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information. An impairment could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.

Risks Relating to Acquisitions and Dispositions

We may be unable to identify and successfully complete acquisitions, and even if acquisitions are identified and completed, they may expose us to additional risks.

We plan to acquire new properties as we are presented with attractive opportunities, but we may face significant competition from other investors, particularly private investors who can incur more leverage. We may incur significant costs and divert management attention in connection with potential acquisitions, including ones that we are unable to complete. If we successfully identify an acquisition target and close the transaction, we may spend more than budgeted to make necessary improvements to the relevant properties and be exposed to unknown liabilities, such as environmental contamination or claims from former tenants, vendors or employees.

We may acquire properties through tax deferred contribution transactions, which could result in securityholder dilution and limit our ability to sell such assets.

In the future we may acquire properties through tax deferred contribution transactions in exchange for our partnership interests, which may result in dilution to securityholders, reduction of tax depreciation we could deduct over the tax life of the acquired properties (as compared with an acquisition paid in cash), and requirements to protect the contributors’ tax deferral through restrictions on our disposition of the acquired properties and/or maintenance and allocation of partnership debt to the contributors to maintain their tax bases. These restrictions could limit our ability to sell an asset at a time, or on terms, that would be favorable absent such restrictions.

If we are unable to sell, dispose of or refinance one or more properties in the future, we may be unable to realize our investment objectives.

Real estate investments are relatively difficult to sell quickly. Return of capital and realization of gains from an investment generally will occur upon disposition or refinancing. In addition, the Code imposes restrictions on the ability of a REIT to dispose of properties that are not applicable to other types of real estate companies. We may be unable to realize our investment objectives by sale, other disposition or refinancing at attractive prices within any given period of time.

We may incur taxable capital gain on the disposition of assets due to the failure of use or compliance with a Section 1031 exchange program.

From time to time we may dispose of properties in transactions that are intended to qualify as “like kind exchanges” under Section 1031 of the Code. It is possible that the qualification of a transaction as a like-kind exchange could be
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successfully challenged and determined to be currently taxable. In such case, our taxable income and earnings and profits would increase. In some circumstances, we may be required to pay additional dividends or, in lieu of that, corporate income tax, possibly including interest and penalties. As a result, we may be required to borrow funds to pay additional dividends or taxes, and any payment of taxes could cause us to have less cash available to distribute to our shareholders. In addition, if a like-kind exchange was later to be determined to be taxable, we may be required to amend our tax returns for the applicable year in question, including any information reports we sent our shareholders. We could also be subject to significant indemnity obligations if the applicable property was subject to a tax protection agreement.

Risks Relating to Our Indebtedness and Liquidity

Our debt, the cost of our debt and limitations in our loan documents could adversely affect us.

As of December 31, 2023, we had total debt outstanding of approximately $2.2 billion inclusive of total mortgages of approximately $877.4 million with no maturity before November 2024. See “Financial Statements – Note 5 Debt” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information. Our organizational documents do not limit the debt we may incur, and we may incur significant additional debt to finance future acquisition and development activities. Our current and potential levels of debt, and the limitations in our loan documents could have significant adverse consequences to our cash flow and our ability to service and refinance our debt. We may be forced to dispose of one or more of our properties, possibly on disadvantageous terms. We may default on our debt obligations, in which case the lenders may accelerate our debt obligations and foreclose on any mortgaged properties. Our default on one debt with cross-default provisions could result in a default on other debt. In addition, our revolving credit facility and related term loan bear interest at a variable rate. We may incur indebtedness in the future that also bears interest at a variable rate or may be required to refinance our debt at higher rates. If any one of these events were to occur, our results of operations, cash flow, financial condition, and ability to service debt and to make distributions could be adversely affected.

Our debt includes restrictions on our financial and operational flexibility and distributions.

Our debt instruments may restrict our financial and operational flexibility. For example, our lockbox and cash management agreements may require income from our properties to be deposited directly into lockbox accounts controlled by our lenders from which we receive cash after funding of defined operating and capital costs. As a result, we may be forced to borrow additional funds in order to make distributions. Additionally, many of our debt instruments contain financial covenants that impact how we run our business, including required ratios for debt-to-assets, adjusted EBITDA to consolidated fixed charges or debt service. Our partnership agreement may restrict our ability to pay dividends if we fail to pay the cumulative distributions on preferred units. See Part II, ITEM 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Liquidity and Capital Resources” for more information.

Mortgages expose us to foreclosure and loss of our investment in a mortgaged property.

Mortgage and other secured debt increases our risk of property losses because defaults may result in foreclosure. For tax purposes, a foreclosure generally is treated as a sale of the property for a purchase price equal to the outstanding debt. If such debt exceeds our tax basis in the property, we will recognize taxable income on foreclosure, but not receive any cash. Foreclosures could also trigger our obligations under tax protection agreements with certain legacy investors to indemnify them for certain taxes upon sale of specific properties where they had embedded phantom taxable income (or the failure to maintain certain levels of indebtedness). See “Financial Statements – Note 11 Related Party Transactions – Tax Protection Agreements” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for more information.

High mortgage rates and/or unavailability of mortgage debt may make it difficult for us to finance or refinance properties, which could reduce the number of properties we can acquire, our net income and the amount of cash distributions we can make.

If mortgage debt is unavailable at reasonable rates, we may not be able to finance the purchase of properties. If we place mortgage debt on properties, we may be unable to refinance the properties when the loans become due at comparable terms. This may result in reduced cash flows and hinder our ability to make distributions, and to raise more capital by issuing more stock or by borrowing more money. In addition, to the extent we are unable to refinance loans, we will have fewer debt guarantee opportunities available to offer under our tax protection agreements, which could trigger our related indemnification obligation.

Our growth depends on external sources of capital that are outside of our control.

Because of the distribution requirements to maintain our status as a REIT (See Part I, ITEM 1, “Business - Our Tax Status”), we may not be able to fund future capital needs, including any acquisition financing, from operating cash flow and may need to rely on third-party sources. Our access to third-party sources of capital depends, in part, on general economic and
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market conditions, including the cost and availability of credit, government action or inaction and its effect on the state of the capital markets, the market’s perception of our growth potential, as well as our then current financial condition. Absent needed capital, we may not be able to acquire or develop properties when opportunities exist, satisfy our debt obligations or make cash distributions to our securityholders necessary to maintain our qualification as a REIT.

Risks Related to the COVID-19 Pandemic

The COVID-19 pandemic had, and any future public health crisis could have, serious adverse effects on our and our tenants’ businesses, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition, and on local, national, and global economic activity.

The COVID-19 pandemic impacted the entire U.S., including New York and Connecticut where our properties are located. Any future public health crisis could have significant impacts on how people live, work, and travel in ways that have affected and may in the future affect our properties. Recovery from pandemic travel impacts is not yet completed, our visitor volume at the Empire State Building Observatory has not yet fully returned, and we cannot predict when we may achieve visitor volume comparable to 2019 when approximately two-thirds of our visitors were international. During 2020, 2021, 2022 and 2023, visitor volume was 0.5 million, 0.8 million, 2.2 million and 2.6 million, respectively, compared to 3.5 million in 2019. Our change in operations of the Empire State Building Observatory to focus on capacity controls to maximize the customer experience, require reservations to control overcrowding and staffing costs, and our increase of per visitor pricing may cause our future Observatory results to differ from previous Observatory results.

Amongst the impacts the COVID-19 pandemic had, and any future public health crisis could have, is a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition due to, among other factors:

downturn in national and/or local economies that decreases prospects, demand, occupancy and rental rates for our office, multifamily and retail space, all with an adverse impact on the value or price of our assets;
delays, cost increases and/or cancellations of planned capital projects;
potential impairment of our ability to comply with existing debt agreements, to pay down, refinance, or extend maturing debt, and to incur new debt;
changes in the number of domestic and international tourists to our markets;
volatility and downward pressure on the market price of our Class A common stock and publicly traded partnership units, which may also reduce our access to capital and/or our equity currency for new acquisitions; and
reduction of our cash flows and our ability to pay dividends, with potential impairment of REIT qualification, and business continuity.

Risks Relating to Disaster Recovery and Business Continuity

Natural disasters and physical climate risk could adversely impact our area and business.

Our properties are concentrated in the New York metropolitan area. Natural disasters and physical climate risk including earthquakes, storms, storm surges, tornados, floods, extreme temperatures, and hurricanes, could cause significant damage or limit access to our properties and the surrounding area. Physical climate risk, including rising sea levels, storm surges, and extreme temperature fluctuations, could adversely impact the coastal metropolitan areas in which we operate. These conditions could result in declining demand for our commercial and multifamily properties, compromise our ability to operate the buildings, make insurance less affordable or available, and increase the cost of energy and utilities at our properties. Also, certain of our properties could not be rebuilt to their existing height or size under current land use laws. In that event, we may have to upgrade such property to meet code requirements. Our disaster recovery and business continuity plans may not be adequate to address these risks.

Some of our potential losses may not be covered by insurance.

Our insurance may not be adequate to cover all losses to which we are subject. Business interruption insurance generally does not include coverage for damages from a pandemic. In addition, our insurance policies include substantial self-insurance and deductibles and co-payments for certain events. See Part I, ITEM 1, “Business – Insurance” for further information. If we experience a loss that is uninsured or exceeds our policy limits, we could incur significant costs and loss of capital or property. If the damaged property is subject to recourse debt, we would continue to be liable for the debt, regardless of the property condition. Our debt instruments contain customary covenants to maintain insurance, including terrorism insurance. While we do not believe it is likely, our lenders or ground lessors could take the position that a total or partial exclusion for losses due to terrorist acts is a breach that would accelerate debt repayment or recapture ground lease positions. In addition, if they were to prevail in requiring additional coverage, it could result in substantially higher premiums. In the future, we may be unable to obtain insurance with insurers that satisfy the rating requirements in our agreements, which could give rise to a default under such agreements and/or impair our ability to refinance.
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We may incur significant costs to comply with environmental laws, and environmental contamination may impair our ability to lease and/or sell real estate.

Under various federal, state and/or local laws, ordinances and regulations, as a current or former owner or operator of real property, we may be liable for costs and damages resulting from the presence or release of hazardous substances, waste, or petroleum products at, on, in, under or from such property, including costs for investigation or remediation, natural resource damages, or third-party liability for personal injury or property damage. These laws often impose liability without regard to whether the owner or operator knew of, or was responsible for, the presence or release of such materials, and the liability may be joint and several. Some of our properties have been or may be impacted by contamination arising from current or prior uses of the property or adjacent properties for commercial, industrial or other purposes. Such contamination may arise from spills of petroleum or hazardous substances or releases from tanks used to store such materials. For example, a portion of the Metro Tower site is currently used for automobile parking and was formerly leased to a fueling facility, and we have post-closing obligations related to our Westport properties sold in 2023 related to remediation of storage tank and soil contamination. See Part I, ITEM 1, "Business - Environmental Matters" for further information.

We also may be liable for the costs of remediating contamination at off-site disposal or treatment facilities when we arrange for disposal or treatment of hazardous substances at such facilities, without regard to whether we comply with environmental laws in doing so. The presence of contamination or the failure to remediate contamination on our properties may adversely affect our ability to attract and/or retain tenants, and our ability to develop or sell or borrow against those properties. In addition to potential liability for cleanup costs, private plaintiffs may bring claims for personal injury, property damage or for similar reasons. Environmental laws also may create liens on contaminated sites in favor of the government for damages and costs it incurs to address such contamination. Moreover, if contamination is discovered on our properties, environmental laws may impose restrictions on the manner in which that property may be used or how businesses may be operated on that property.

In addition, our properties are subject to various federal, state and local environmental and health and safety laws and regulations. Noncompliance with these laws and regulations could subject us or our tenants to liability. These liabilities could affect a tenant’s ability to make rental payments to us. Moreover, changes in laws could increase the potential costs of compliance with such laws and regulations or increase liability for noncompliance. This may result in significant unanticipated expenditures. We sometimes require our tenants to comply with environmental and health and safety laws and regulations and to indemnify us for any related liabilities in our leases with them. But in the event of the bankruptcy or inability of any of our tenants to satisfy such obligations, we may be required to satisfy such obligations.

In addition, we may become subject to new compliance requirements and/or new costs or taxes associated with natural resource or energy usage and related emissions (such as a carbon tax), which could increase our operating costs. See "We may incur significant costs to comply with environmental laws, in particular New York City’s Local Law 97" in this section.

As the owner or operator of real property, we may also incur liability based on various building conditions. For example, environmental site assessments and investigations have identified asbestos or asbestos-containing material (“ACM”) in certain of our properties, and it is possible that other properties that we currently own or operate or those we acquire or operate in the future contain, may contain, or may have contained, ACM. See “Financial Statements – Note 9 Commitments and Contingencies – Asset Retirement Obligations” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for more information. Environmental and health and safety laws require that ACM be properly managed and maintained and may impose fines or penalties on owners, operators or employers for non-compliance with those requirements. These requirements include special precautions, such as removal, abatement or air monitoring, if ACM would be disturbed during maintenance, redevelopment or demolition of a building, potentially resulting in substantial costs. In addition, we may be subject to liability for personal injury or property damage sustained as a result of releases of ACM into the environment. Additionally, our properties may contain or develop harmful mold or suffer from other indoor air quality issue, such as inadequate ventilation and contamination, which could lead to liability for adverse health effects or property damage or costs for remediation. Any liability or increased cost from the environmental risks mentioned in this section could materially and adversely affect our operations.

We acquire real estate from time to time, which carries the risk that a property we acquire may subject us to potential environmental liability as a result of the condition of the land or actions taken on the property before we acquired it. This potential environmental liability may be unknown to us at the time we acquire the property and as a result can be impossible to predict.

We may incur significant costs to comply with environmental laws, in particular New York City’s Local Law 97.

We may become subject to new compliance requirements and/or new costs or taxes associated with natural resource or energy or utility usage and related emissions (such as a “carbon tax”), which could increase our operating costs. In particular, as the owner of large commercial and multifamily buildings in New York City, we are subject to Local Law 97 passed by the New York City Council in April 2019, which for each such building establishes annual limits for greenhouse gas emissions, requires
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yearly emissions reports beginning in May 2025 for full calendar year 2024, and imposes penalties for emissions above such limits. While we are actively working to reduce our carbon emissions, there can be no assurance that we will be able to operate within the limits of Local Law 97, or that the costs of compliance and/or penalties will not be material. Based upon our present understanding of the law and calculations related thereto, we expect to pay no fine on any building in our commercial portfolio in the 2024-2029 first period of enforcement.

Risks Relating to Human Capital Management

The departure of any of our key personnel could materially and adversely affect us.

Our success depends on the efforts of key personnel, particularly Anthony E. Malkin, our Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, whose leadership and national industry reputation benefits us in many ways. He has led the acquisition, operation and repositioning of our assets for more than two decades. Other members of our senior management team also have strong industry reputations and experience, which aid us in attracting, identifying and taking advantage of opportunities. The loss of the services of one or more members of our senior management team could materially and adversely affect us.

ESRT's Chairman and Chief Executive Officer has outside business interests that take his time and attention away from us, which could materially and adversely affect us.

Under his employment agreement, Mr. Malkin has agreed to (a) devote a majority of his business time and attention to our business and (b) during, and for a time after, his employment with us to refrain from competition with us. Mr. Malkin is also permitted to devote time to his other investments to the extent such activities do not materially interfere with the performance of his duties to us. He owns interests in properties and businesses, including properties and businesses that were not contributed to us in the formation transactions, some of which are now supervised by our Company. As a result, Mr. Malkin and his affiliates have had, and may in the future have, management and fiduciary obligations that could conflict with his responsibilities to our Company. For example, in February 2023 we closed on the disposition of our retail assets located at 69-97 and 103-107 Main Street in Westport, Connecticut, to an entity affiliated with Mr. Malkin. See “Financial Statements – Note 11 Related Party Transactions” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information. We may choose to moderate or omit enforcement of our rights under his employment agreement to maintain our relationship with him given his knowledge of our business, relationships with our customers, and significant equity ownership in us, and this could have a material adverse effect on our business.

Our failure to maintain satisfactory labor relations could materially and adversely affect us.

As of December 31, 2023, we have collective bargaining agreements that cover 429 employees, or 64% of our workforce, that service our portfolio. Our inability to negotiate acceptable renewals as existing agreements expire could result in strikes or work stoppages and disrupt our operations. In any such event for any extended period of time, we would likely engage temporary replacement workers, which would result in increased operating costs.

Risks Relating to Legal Compliance, Sustainability and Cybersecurity

We face risks associated with our tenants being designated “Prohibited Persons” by OFAC and similar requirements.

The Office of Foreign Assets Control of the U.S. Department of the Treasury (“OFAC”) maintains a list of persons designated as terrorists or who are otherwise blocked or banned (“Prohibited Persons”) from conducting business or engaging in transactions in the U.S. and thereby restricts our doing business with such persons. In addition, our leases, loans and other agreements may require us to comply with OFAC and related requirements, and any failure to do so may result in a breach of such agreements. If a tenant or other party with whom we conduct business is designated a Prohibited Person, we may be required to terminate the arrangement or face penalties. Any such termination could result in a loss of revenue or otherwise negatively affect our business.

We may incur significant costs to comply with the ADA and similar laws.

Under the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (the “ADA”), all public accommodations must meet federal requirements related to access and use by disabled persons. We have incurred and could again in the future be required to incur costs to bring any non-compliant property into compliance and to make modifications to our properties upon any renovation, any of which could involve substantial costs and material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition. See Part I, ITEM 1, “Business – Americans with Disabilities Act” for more information.

We may become subject to litigation, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition.

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In the past we have been, and in the future we may become, subject to litigation, including claims relating to our operations, offerings, and otherwise in the ordinary course of business. Some of these claims may result in significant defense costs and potentially significant judgments against us, some of which are not, or cannot be, insured against. We generally intend to defend ourselves vigorously; however, we cannot be certain of the ultimate outcomes of any claims that may arise in the future. Certain litigation or its resolution may affect the availability or cost of our insurance coverage, which could adversely impact our financial condition, expose us to increased uninsured risks, and/or adversely impact our ability to attract officers and directors. See “Financial Statements – Note 9 Commitments and Contingencies” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Increasing attention to sustainability matters may impact our business.

Increasing attention to sustainability matters, including those related to climate change, and increasing societal, investor and legislative pressure on companies to address sustainability matters may result in increased costs, greater litigation risks, negative impacts on our access to capital markets, and damage to our reputation. For example, policy and other responses to climate change, such as climate and energy legislation and carbon mandates, enhanced environmental reporting requirements, increasingly stringent building and energy codes, as well as technology and market changes from the transition to a low-carbon economy has and may continue to impact our business and results of operations.

In addition, organizations that provide information to investors on corporate governance and related matters have developed ratings processes for evaluating companies on their approach to sustainability matters, including climate change and transitional and physical climate-related risks. Such ratings are used by some investors to inform their investment and voting decisions. Unfavorable sustainability ratings may lead to negative investor sentiment toward us and to the diversion of investment to other industries, which could have a negative impact on our stock price and our access to and costs of capital.

We publicly announced our achievement of carbon neutrality in 2022 and our commitment to a 2030 net zero carbon emissions target for the Empire State Building and a 2035 net zero carbon emissions target for the balance of our portfolio, defined as the goal of 80% operational emissions reduction in partnership with the grid. We have implemented numerous comprehensive sustainability-focused initiatives focused on energy, emissions, water, and waste reduction along with indoor environmental quality, well-being, and healthy buildings. These aspirations, targets and objectives reflect our current plans and aspirations and are not guarantees that we will be able to achieve them. In addition, these efforts are impacted by our tenants’ willingness and ability to collaborate in reporting sustainability metrics and meeting sustainability goals. Our efforts to accomplish and accurately report on these goals and objectives present operational, regulatory, reputational, financial, legal, and other risks, any of which could have a material negative impact on us, including on our reputation and stock price.

The standards for tracking, rating, and reporting on sustainability matters are relatively new, have not been harmonized and continue to evolve rapidly at a global scale. Our selection of disclosure frameworks that seek to align with various voluntary reporting standards may change from time to time and may result in a lack of comparative data from period to period. In addition, our processes and controls may not always align with evolving voluntary standards for identifying, measuring, and reporting sustainability metrics, our interpretation of reporting standards may differ from those of others, and such standards may change over time, any of which could result in significant revisions to our goals or reported progress in achieving such goals. Our failure or perceived failure to pursue or fulfill our announced aspirations and targets or to satisfy various reporting standards within the timelines we announce, or at all, could have a negative impact on investor sentiment, ratings outcomes for evaluating our approach to sustainability matters, stock price, and cost of capital and expose us to government enforcement actions and private litigation, among other possible material adverse impacts.

Cyberattacks and any failure to comply with related laws could negatively impact us.

We rely extensively on technology, both internal and outsourced, to process transactions and manage our business, making our business increasingly at risk from cyberattacks. These threats, which continue to increase in number, intensity and sophistication, include malware, ransomware, computer viruses, phishing, unauthorized access, and other vectors used by hackers, terrorists, foreign governments, and other actors. Cyber threats and attacks on our Company have included and could in the future include internal and external attempts to gain unauthorized access to our data and computer systems to disrupt our operations or the operations of our tenants and residents, destroy property, or steal confidential information. There is no guarantee that our controls or measures to prevent or mitigate such attacks will be successful. A cyberattack could compromise the confidential information of our employees, tenants, residents, customers, and vendors, and disrupt our business operations and relationships. Such a security breach could require us to expend significant resources to remediate any damage that result. Additionally, such a breach may subject us to litigation, damages, penalties, fines, governmental investigations and enforcement actions or termination of leases. These consequences could damage our reputation with tenants, residents, customers, and investors, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business. Any compromise of our security could also result in a violation of applicable privacy laws (e.g., Observatory customer data, Company employee data, or residential data at multifamily properties), which could result in negative legal consequences as well as significant damage to our financial condition, reputation, business, records, and confidence of our business partners in our business relationships. New laws and regulations related to data privacy and security pose increasingly complex compliance challenges and costs across multiple jurisdictions, which could negatively impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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The adoption of, or changes, in rent control or rent stabilization regulations and eviction regulations in our markets could have an adverse effect on our operations and property values.

A growing number of state and local governments have enacted and may continue to consider enacting and/or expanding rent control or rent stabilization regulations, which have limited and could continue to limit in broadening ways our ability to raise rents or charge certain fees, either of which could have a retroactive effect. We continue to see increases in governments considering or being urged by advocacy groups to consider rent forgiveness, rent control or rent stabilization regulations or expand coverage of existing regulations in our markets. These regulations may also make changes to and/or expand eviction and other tenants’ rights regulations that may limit our ability to enforce residents’ or tenants’ contractual rental obligations (such as eviction moratoriums), pursue collections or charge certain fees, which could have an adverse impact on our operations and property values.

Government housing regulations may limit opportunities at the multifamily properties in which we invest, and failure to comply with resident qualification requirements may result in financial penalties or loss of benefits.

We own, and may acquire additional equity interests in properties that benefit from governmental programs intended to provide housing to individuals with low or moderate incomes. These governmental programs typically provide mortgage insurance, favorable financing terms, tax credits or rental assistance payments to property owners. As a condition of the initial receipt and potential extensions of assistance under these programs, the properties must comply with various requirements, which typically limit rents to pre-approved amounts and impose restrictions on resident incomes. Failure to comply with these requirements and restrictions may result in financial penalties or loss of benefits. In addition, we will typically need to obtain the approval of the applicable government agency in order to acquire or dispose of a significant interest in or manage such property. We may not always receive such approval.

Risks Related to ESRT's REIT Status, Our Organization and Structure

If we are treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, we will be subject to entity-level U.S. federal income tax, and ESRT will cease to qualify as a REIT.

We believe we qualify as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes and as such are generally not subject to U.S. federal income tax on our income. Instead, each of our securityholders, including ESRT, is required to include in income its allocable share of our income. We are treated as a publicly traded partnership under the Code and accordingly will be treated and taxed as such a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes unless we meet certain requirements, in particular, that at least 90% of our gross income be derived from qualifying sources income, which generally includes rental income, interest, dividends, and other income from passive sources. We believe we satisfy this test, but the IRS could challenge us. If the IRS were successful in treating us as a corporation, we would be subject to U.S. federal, state and local corporate income tax, which would significantly reduce our cash available to pay debt service and distributions, could have adverse tax consequences on holders of OP units, and would disqualify ESRT from REIT status.

You may be allocated more taxable income than the distributions you receive from us.

So long as we remain eligible to be treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, we generally are not subject to U.S. federal income tax. Rather, each holder of our OP units is required to take into account its allocable share of items of our income, gain, loss, deduction and credit for our taxable year ending within or with the taxable year of such holder in computing such holder's U.S. federal income tax liability, regardless of whether the holder has received any distributions from us. It is possible that the tax liability of such holder could exceed our cash distributions to such holder for the year, thus requiring an out-of-pocket tax payment by the holder.

Your ability to deduct certain losses allocated from us may be subject to limitations.

Your ability to utilize any tax losses or deductions generated by us may be limited under the “at risk” limitation in Section 465 of the Code, the passive activity loss limitation in Section 469 of the Code, the basis limitation of Section 704(d) of the Code, the suspension of miscellaneous itemized deductions in Section 67 of the Code, the limitation on excess business losses in Section 461 of the Code, and/or other provisions of the Code. These limitations may, among other things, prevent a holder from utilizing allocations of loss and deduction from us against income from other sources. The passive activity loss rules are applied separately with respect to items of income and loss of each partnership held by a holder. Furthermore, your ability to utilize certain specific items of deduction may be limited under certain provisions of the Code. The application of these limitations depends on the exact nature of our current and future operations and the individual tax positions of such holders. Holders of OP units should consult with their tax advisor regarding these provisions.

Participants may recognize taxable gain resulting from a reduction in their allocable share of our liabilities.

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We may elect to pay down our secured debt or refinance such debt with unsecured debt, which may reduce the amount of our liabilities allocable to a holder of OP units. In addition, certain commitments in ESRT’s tax protection agreements could reduce the share of liabilities available to be allocated to holders of OP units due to our obligation to offer to the tax-protected parties opportunities to guarantee certain debt. Over time, depreciation, capital improvements and debt amortization and repayment, among other things, may also reduce the share of our liabilities allocated to a holder of OP units. Any such reductions in the share of our liabilities that exceeds the holder's U.S. federal income tax basis in its OP units is treated as taxable gain from sale or exchange of such units. Holders of our OP units should consult their tax advisors with regard to the foregoing.

Failure of ESRT to qualify as a REIT would have a material adverse effect on us.

We must rely on ESRT, as our general partner, to manage our affairs and business. ESRT is subject to certain risks that may affect its financial and other conditions, including particularly adverse consequences if it fails to qualify as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes. ESRT's qualification as a REIT is governed by highly technical and complex provisions of the Code for which there are only limited judicial or administrative interpretations and depends on various facts and circumstances that are not entirely within its control. In addition, legislation, new regulations, administrative interpretations or court decisions may significantly change the relevant tax laws and/or the U.S. federal income tax consequences of qualifying as a REIT. Thus, while we and ESRT intend to operate so that ESRT will qualify as a REIT, there can be no assurance that ESRT will so qualify for any particular year. These considerations also might restrict the types of assets that we can acquire in the future. If, with respect to any taxable year, ESRT fails to maintain its qualification as a REIT and does not qualify under statutory relief provisions, it could not deduct distributions to shareholders in computing its taxable income and would have to pay U.S. federal income tax on its taxable income at regular corporate rates and thus reduce funds available for distribution and debt service, and ESRT would not be required to make distributions until it re-qualified as a REIT which would not be permitted for the four taxable years following its disqualification, unless it gained relief under relevant statutory provisions.

To enable ESRT to comply with REIT requirements, we may have to forego and/or liquidate attractive investments.

To qualify as a REIT (and avoid certain taxes to which it would be subject notwithstanding its status as a REIT), ESRT must meet, on an ongoing basis, certain tests regarding the nature and diversification of its assets and its income. Because substantially all of ESRT's assets consists of our OP units, and substantially all of ESRT's income consists of income allocations with respect to such units, ESRT's ability to satisfy these tests will depend on the composition of our assets and income. Similarly, in order to be treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, we must meet certain annual tests relating to the sources of our gross income. In order to meet these tests and to allow ESRT to meet these tests, we may be required to forego investments that we otherwise would make or to liquidate from our commercial portfolio otherwise attractive investments. In addition, we may be required to make distributions to ESRT at disadvantageous times or when we do not have funds readily available for distribution. These actions could have the effect of reducing our income and amounts available for
distribution to our securityholders.

To allow ESRT to comply with REIT distribution requirements, we may be required to borrow funds during unfavorable market conditions or may be subject to tax.

ESRT intends to distribute its net income to securityholders in a manner intended to satisfy the REIT 90% distribution requirement (See Part I, ITEM 1, “Business – Our Tax Status”) and to avoid U.S. federal income tax and the 4% nondeductible excise tax. Our partnership agreement provides that we will make sufficient distributions to ESRT to enable it to satisfy these distribution requirements. Any failure to do so will incur substantial entity level tax and/or disqualification as a REIT with the adverse tax consequences and limits on re-qualification described above in this Risk Factors section. In addition, our taxable income may exceed our net income as determined by GAAP because, for example, realized capital losses will be deducted in determining our GAAP net income, but may not be deductible in computing our taxable income. In addition, we may incur nondeductible capital expenditures or be required to make debt or amortization payments, or the effect of limitations on interest (subject to an exception for an electing real property trade or business) and net operating loss deductibility under the current law, could cause our taxable income to exceed our net income as determined by GAAP. As a result, we may generate less cash flow than taxable income in a particular year and be required to use cash reserves, incur debt or liquidate assets at rates or times that we regard as unfavorable in order to allow ESRT to satisfy such REIT requirements and avoid such taxes.

Specific transactions or tax elections may cause you to recognize gain or otherwise affect your investment.

As a general matter, per the terms of our partnership agreement, ESRT is not required to take into account tax consequences to the other holders of OP units other than ESRT in deciding whether to cause us to undertake specific transactions or make tax elections that could cause you to recognize gain. Consequently, we could enter into transactions that result in additional taxable income allocations to you at any time, and your share of our liabilities could be reduced at any time.

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We cannot match the transferor of particular Series 60, Series 250, or Series ES OP units with each transferee of such OP units, so we have adopted certain income tax accounting positions that could subject us to challenge by the IRS.

Because we cannot match the transferor of particular Series 60, Series 250, or Series ES OP units with each transferee of such OP units, we have adopted certain depreciation, amortization and other tax accounting positions that may not conform with all aspects of existing Treasury Regulations. A successful challenge to those positions could adversely affect the amount of tax benefit available or taxable income allocated to holders of such operating partnership units. It also could affect the timing of certain tax benefits or the amount of gain on the sale of such OP units and could have a negative impact on their value or result in audits of and adjustments to the tax returns of holders of such units. In addition, our taxable income and losses are determined and apportioned among investors using conventions we regard as consistent with applicable law. As a result, if you transfer your OP units, you may be allocated income, gain, loss and deduction realized by us after the date of transfer.
Similarly, a transferee may be allocated income, gain, loss and deduction realized by us prior to the date of the transfer and, in certain circumstances, even if such a transferee receives no distributions. A transferee may also bear the cost of withholding tax imposed with respect to income allocated to a transferor through a reduction in the cash distributed to the transferee.

If we are unable to continue to lease the Empire State Building Observatory to a TRS or to maintain our broadcast licenses, in each case in a manner consistent with the IRS ruling that ESRT has received, we would be required to restructure our operations in a manner that could adversely affect the value of our OP units.

To treat income from our Observatory and broadcast facilities as qualified REIT income, we rely upon private letter rulings that such income is qualifying rent for our REIT qualification. See Part I, ITEM 1, “Business – Our Tax Status.” We are entitled to rely upon these private letter rulings only to the extent that we did not misstate or omit a material fact in the ruling request and that we continue to operate in accordance with the material facts described in such request, and no assurance can be given that we will always be able to do so. If we were not able to treat the rent that our Company receives from Observatory TRS as qualifying income for purposes of the REIT gross income tests applicable to ESRT, we would be required to restructure the manner in which we operate the Observatory, which would likely require us to cede operating control of the Observatory by leasing the Observatory to an affiliate or third-party operator. If we were not able to treat the license fees that our Company will receive from the license agreements described above as qualifying income for purposes of the REIT gross income tests, we would be required to enter into the license agreements described above through a TRS, which would cause the license fees to be subject to U.S. federal income tax and accordingly reduce the amount of our cash flow available to be distributed to our securityholders. In either case, if we are not able to appropriately restructure our operations in a timely manner, we would likely realize significant income that does not qualify for the REIT gross income tests, which could cause ESRT to fail to qualify as a REIT.

Our state and local taxes could increase due to property tax rate changes, reassessment and/or changes in state and local tax laws, which could materially and adversely affect us.

We are required to pay state and local taxes on our properties. From time to time changes in state and local tax laws or regulations are enacted, which may result in an increase in our tax liability. A shortfall in tax revenues for states and municipalities in which we operate may lead to an increase in the frequency and size of such changes. In particular, the federal government has recently limited the ability of individuals to deduct state and local taxes on their federal tax returns, potentially leading many high-tax states to make significant changes to their own state and local tax laws. In addition, the pandemic has left many state and local governments with reduced tax revenue, which may lead such governments to increase taxes or otherwise make significant changes to their state and local tax laws. If such changes occur, we may be required to pay additional taxes on our assets or income. The real property taxes on our properties may increase as property tax rates change or as our properties are assessed or reassessed by taxing authorities. Therefore, the amount of property taxes we pay in the future may increase substantially from what we have paid in the past. If the property taxes we pay increase, our financial condition could be materially and adversely affected.

U.S. federal, state and local legislative, judicial or regulatory tax changes could have a material adverse effect on our shareholders and us.

The present U.S. federal income tax treatment of REITs and their shareholders may be modified, possibly with retroactive effect, by legislative, judicial or administrative action at any time, which could affect the U.S. federal income tax treatment of an investment in us. The U.S. federal income tax rules dealing with REITs are constantly under review by persons involved in the legislative process, the IRS and the U.S. Department of the Treasury, which results in statutory changes as well as frequent revisions to regulations and interpretations. We cannot predict how changes in the tax laws might affect our investors or us. Revisions in U.S. federal income tax laws and interpretations thereof could significantly and negatively affect ESRT’s ability to qualify as a REIT and the tax considerations relevant to an investment in us, or could cause us to change our investments and commitments.

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Our tax protection agreements could limit our ability either to sell certain properties or to engage in a strategic transaction, or to reduce our level of indebtedness, which could materially and adversely affect us.

In connection with the formation transactions, we and ESRT entered into a tax protection agreement with certain Malkin family members, including Anthony E. Malkin and Peter L. Malkin, pursuant to which we have agreed to indemnify the Malkin Group and one additional third-party investor in Metro Center, and in connection with our sale of a 9.9% fully diluted interest in ESRT to QIA in 2016, we agreed, subject to certain minimum thresholds and conditions, to indemnify QIA, in each case, against certain tax liabilities that may arise from certain property transactions. See “Financial Statements – Note 11 Related Party Transactions – Excluded Properties and Businesses” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information. If we were to trigger such tax indemnification obligations, we would be required to pay the resulting tax liability to the Malkin Group, the additional third-party investor in Metro Center and/or QIA, as applicable. These obligations may restrict our ability to engage in a strategic transaction, require us to maintain more or different debt, and/or inhibit our disposing of a property that we might judge to be otherwise be in the best interest of the securityholders.

Holders of ESRT’s Class B common stock have a significant vote in ESRT matters.

As part of our formation, we sought to give each contributing investor an option to hold equity interests which would allow such investor to vote on Company matters in proportion to such investor’s economic ownership in the consolidated entity, whether such investor elected taxable Class A common stock in ESRT or tax-deferred operating partnership units in our Company. Thus, the original investors were offered the opportunity to contribute their interests to us in exchange for a mix of one share of Class B common stock in ESRT and 49 operating partnership units in us for each 50 operating partnership units in us to which an investor was otherwise entitled. Each outstanding share of Class B common stock, when accompanied by 49 operating partnership units, entitles the holder thereof to 50 votes on all matters on which holders of Class A common stock in ESRT are entitled to vote, including the election of directors. Holders of ESRT Class B common stock may have interests that differ from holders of ESRT Class A common stock and our securityholders, including by reason of their interest in us, and may accordingly vote as a stockholder in ways that may not be consistent with the interests of holders of ESRT Class A common stock and our securityholders. This significant voting influence over certain matters may have the effect of delaying, preventing or deterring a change of control of ESRT, or could deprive holders of ESRT Class A common stock or our securityholders of an opportunity to receive a premium for their Class A common stock or units, as applicable, as part of a sale of ESRT.

The concentration of our voting power may adversely affect the ability of new investors to influence our policies.

As of December 31, 2023, ESRT’s Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Anthony E. Malkin, together with the Malkin Group, has the right to vote 40,859,706 shares of ESRT’s common stock, which represents approximately 19.3% of the voting power of ESRT’s outstanding common stock. Consequently, Mr. Malkin has the ability to influence the outcome of matters presented to our securityholders, including the election of ESRT’s Board and approval of significant corporate transactions, including business combinations, consolidations and mergers and the determination of our day-to-day corporate and management policies.

As of December 31, 2023, QIA had a 11.03% fully diluted interest in ESRT, which represented 18.45% of the outstanding Class A common stock of ESRT. Pursuant to the terms of ESRT’s stockholders agreement with QIA, QIA generally has the right (but not the obligation) to maintain its fully diluted economic interest in ESRT by purchasing additional shares of ESRT’s Class A common stock when we or ESRT issue additional common equity securities from time to time. While QIA has agreed to limit its voting power on all matters presented to ESRT’s securityholders to no more than 9.9% of    total number of votes entitled to be cast, QIA has also agreed to vote its shares in favor of the election of all director nominees recommended by ESRT’s Board. The interests of Mr. Malkin and QIA could conflict with or differ from your interests as a holder of our operating partnership units, and these large securityholders may exercise their right as securityholders to restrict our ability to take certain actions that may otherwise be in the best interests of our securityholders. This concentration of voting power might also have the effect of delaying or preventing a change of control that our securityholders may view as beneficial.

Tax consequences to holders of our operating partnership units upon a sale or refinancing of our properties may cause the interests of certain members of ESRT’s senior management team to differ from your own.

As a result of the unrealized built-in gain attributable to a property at the time of contribution, some holders of operating partnership units, including our Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Anthony E. Malkin, and our Chairman Emeritus, Peter L. Malkin, may suffer different and more adverse tax consequences than other holders of operating partnership units upon the sale or refinancing of the properties owned by us, including disproportionately greater allocations of items of taxable income and gain upon a realization event. As those holders will not receive a correspondingly greater distribution of cash proceeds, they may have different objectives regarding the appropriate pricing, timing, transaction structure and other material terms of any sale, exchange or refinancing of certain properties, or whether to sell, exchange or refinance such properties at all. As a result, the effect of certain transactions on Messrs. Malkin may influence their decisions affecting these
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properties and may cause such members of ESRT’s senior management team to attempt to delay, defer or prevent a transaction that might otherwise be in the best interests of our other securityholders, or to structure such transactions in ways that would mitigate the above tax consequences to Messrs. Malkin. Additionally, in connection with the formation transactions, we and ESRT entered into a tax protection agreement with Messrs. Malkin pursuant to which we and ESRT have agreed to indemnify the Malkin Group and one additional third-party investor in Metro Center against certain tax liabilities if those tax liabilities arise from a transaction involving one of four properties. Refer to “Financial Statements – Note 11 Related Party Transactions – Excluded Properties and Businesses” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for more information. As a result of entering into the tax protection agreement, Messrs. Malkin may have an incentive to cause us to enter into transactions from which they may personally benefit.

Conflicts of interest exist or could arise in the future between ESRT’s securityholders and OP unit holders.

Conflicts of interest exist or could arise in the future as a result of the relationships between ESRT and its affiliates, on the one hand, and our Company or any partner thereof, on the other. For example, a potential acquisition or disposition opportunity could be opportunistic to the REIT while tax disadvantageous to certain OP holders. ESRT’s directors and officers have duties to ESRT and its shareholders under applicable Maryland law in connection with their management of ESRT. At the same time, ESRT, as our general partner has fiduciary duties and obligations to us and our limited partners under Delaware law and our partnership agreement. ESRT’s fiduciary duties and obligations to us as general partner may come into conflict with the duties of ESRT’s directors and officers to ESRT, which may impede business decisions that could benefit our securityholders. Pursuant to our partnership agreement, our limited partners have agreed that in the event of a conflict in the duties owed by ESRT's directors and officers to ESRT and ESRT's securityholders and the fiduciary duties owed by ESRT, in its capacity as general partner of us, to such limited partners, ESRT will fulfill its fiduciary duties to such limited partners by acting in the best interests of ESRT's securityholders.

ESRT’s rights and the rights of ESRT’s securityholders to take action against ESRT’s directors and officers are limited, which could limit your recourse in the event of actions not in your best interest.

ESRT’s charter limits the liability of its present and former directors and officers to ESRT and its securityholders for money damages to the maximum extent permitted under Maryland law. Under current Maryland law, ESRT’s present and former directors and officers will not have any liability to ESRT or its securityholders for money damages other than liability resulting from (1) actual receipt of an improper benefit or profit in money, property or services or (2) active and deliberate dishonesty by the director or officer that was established by a final judgment and is material to the cause of action. Additionally, our partnership agreement provides for certain limitations on liability and indemnification obligations for us and our directors and officers and certain present and former members, managers, shareholders, directors, limited partners, general partners, officers or controlling persons of our predecessor. As a result, we and our securityholders may have limited rights against all such persons, which could limit your recourse in the event of actions not in your best interest.

Limits on changes in control may discourage takeover attempts beneficial to securityholders.

Provisions in our partnership agreement and ESRT’s charter may delay or prevent a change of control over the Company or ESRT, or a tender offer, even if such action might be beneficial to our securityholders. Certain provisions in our partnership agreement may delay or make more difficult unsolicited acquisitions of us or changes of control, including, among others: redemption rights of qualifying parties; transfer restrictions on operating partnership units; ESRT’s ability, as general partner, in some cases, to amend the partnership agreement and to cause us to issue units with terms that could delay, defer or prevent a merger or other change of control without the consent of the limited partners; the right of the limited partners to consent to transfers of the general partnership interest and mergers or other transactions involving us under specified circumstances; and a redemption premium payable to the holders of our preferred units if we decide, at our option, to redeem preferred units for cash upon the occurrence of certain fundamental transactions, such as a change of control.

Certain provision’s in ESRT’s charter also may delay or prevent a change in control of ESRT, and by extension of us, including ownership restrictions, which generally limit (i) ownership to 9.8% in value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of the outstanding shares of ESRT capital stock or more than 9.8% in value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of the outstanding shares of ESRT common stock, except where waived by ESRT’s Board in its sole discretion, as it did with QIA, and (ii) ownership to the extent such ownership would result in ESRT owning (directly or indirectly) an interest in one of our tenants if the income derived by us from such tenant would reasonably be expected to equal or exceed the lesser of 1% of our gross income or an amount that would cause us to fail to satisfy any of the REIT gross income tests. Shares owned in violation of the ownership limit are subject to the loss of rights to distributions and voting and other penalties. Additionally, ESRT’s Board could establish a class or series of preferred stock that could, depending on the terms of such series, delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change of control. These limitations could have the effect of discouraging a takeover or other transaction in which our securityholders might receive a premium for their securities or which holders might believe to be otherwise in their best interests.

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Risks Related to our Traded OP Units

Our cash available for distribution may not be sufficient to make distributions at expected levels, and the market price of our securities could be adversely affected by our level of cash distributions.

We intend to make distributions to our securityholders. All dividends and distributions will be made at the discretion of our sole general partner, ESRT, acting through its Board, and will depend on our earnings, financial condition, maintenance of ESRT’s REIT qualification and other factors as ESRT’s Board may deem relevant from time to time. If sufficient cash is not available for distribution from our operations, we may have to fund distributions from working capital or to borrow to provide funds for such distribution, or to reduce the amount of such distribution. We cannot assure you that our distributions will be made or sustained. Our failure to meet the market’s expectations with regard to future earnings and cash distributions likely would adversely affect the market price of ESRT’s Class A common stock and our traded OP units.

Changes in market conditions could adversely affect the market price of ESRT's Class A Common Stock and our traded OP Units.

As with other publicly traded equity securities, the value of ESRT's Class A Common Stock and our traded OP units depends on various market conditions, which may change from time to time. In addition to the current economic environment and future volatility in the securities and credit markets, the following market conditions may affect the value of ESRT's Class A Common Stock and our traded OP units:

the general reputation of REITs and the attractiveness of our equity securities in comparison to other equity securities, including securities issued by other real estate-based companies;
our financial performance; and
general stock market conditions.

The market value of our common stock is based on a number of factors, including, but not limited to, the market’s perception of the current and future value of our assets, our growth potential and our current and potential future earnings and distributions.

The future exercise of registration rights may adversely affect the market price of our securities.

In August 2016, ESRT entered into a registration rights agreement with QIA in connection with its purchase of ESRT’s Class A common stock, which requires ESRT, subject to certain conditions, to maintain an effective shelf registration statement with the SEC providing for the resale of QIA’s shares. The current registration statement filed on July 31, 2023, registers up to 29,894,869 shares. If QIA decides to sell all or a substantial portion of its shares, or there is market perception that it may intend to do so, it could have a material adverse impact on the market price of ESRT's Class A common stock and our traded OP units.

Future issuances of debt or equity securities or preferred units may be dilutive to current securityholders and may materially adversely affect the market price of our traded securities.

In the future, we or ESRT may issue debt or equity securities or make other borrowings. ESRT’s Board, without stockholder approval, has the power under its charter to cause ESRT to issue additional shares of capital stock or debt securities, and we may also issue additional operating partnership units without the consent of our securityholders. Upon liquidation, holders of our debt securities, preferred units and other loans and preferred shares will receive a distribution of our available assets before holders of shares of ESRT’s common stock. We or ESRT are not required to offer any such additional debt or equity securities to existing ESRT securityholders or our securityholders, as applicable, on a preemptive basis. Therefore, additional shares of ESRT common stock issuances, directly or through convertible or exchangeable securities (including operating partnership units), warrants or options, will dilute the holdings of ESRT’s existing common securityholders and such issuances or the perception of such issuances may reduce the market price of shares of ESRT’s common stock or our traded OP units. Additionally, ESRT’s preferred units or shares, if issued, would likely have a preference on distribution payments, periodically or upon liquidation, which could limit ESRT’s ability to make distributions to holders of shares of its common stock.


ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

As of December 31, 2023, we did not have any unresolved comments from the staff of the SEC.

    
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ITEM 1C. CYBERSECURITY

Risk Management and Strategy

We regularly assess risks from cybersecurity threats, monitor our information systems for potential vulnerabilities and test those systems pursuant to our cybersecurity policies and procedures, which are integrated into the Company’s overall risk management framework. To protect our information systems from cybersecurity threats, we use various security tools that help us identify, escalate, investigate, resolve, and recover from security incidents in a timely manner.

We partner with third parties to implement and assess the effectiveness of our cybersecurity prevention and response systems and processes. We have a Managed Security Services provider (MSSP) that provides a 24 x 7 x 365 Security Operations Center (SOC) and works with our information technology (IT) team to employ a variety of monitoring technologies to detect and be alerted to potential cyber threats, as well as establish and implement procedures for the mitigation and remediation of any cybersecurity incidents. We conduct an annual penetration test, regular phishing tests, and annual cybersecurity training for our employees.

Additionally, the management team of the Company has developed a cyber incident response plan to deploy in the event of a cyber threat. This plan is reviewed and updated at least annually and tested from time to time through tabletop exercises involving management and other key personnel, and may also include participation from ESRT's Board and outside experts. As part of regular business continuity planning, department heads are required to consider key technology systems used by their respective teams and the impact to the Company and other stakeholders in the event that such systems become compromised or unavailable. Additionally, we monitor and identify cybersecurity risks posed by third-party vendors who provide software and/or hardware to the Company or otherwise have access to our Company systems and have a cyber review process that is part of vendor onboarding.

To date, cybersecurity threats, including as a result of any previous cybersecurity incidents, have not materially affected and we believe are not reasonably likely to materially affect the Company, including our business strategy, results of operations or financial condition. Refer to the risk factor captioned “Cyberattacks and any failure to comply with related laws could negatively impact us.” in Part I, ITEM 1A. “Risk Factors” for additional description of cybersecurity risks and potential related impacts on the Company.

Governance

ESRT's Board of Directors oversees our risk management process, including with respect to cybersecurity risks, directly and through its committees. The Audit Committee of ESRT's Board oversees our risk management program, which focuses on the most significant risks we face in the short-, intermediate-, and long-term timeframe. Audit Committee meetings include discussions of specific risk areas throughout the year, including, among others, those relating to cybersecurity, and reports on our enterprise risk profile on a quarterly basis. Our Chief Technology Officer is responsible for leading the assessment and management of cybersecurity risks and reports at least quarterly or more frequently as needed to the Audit Committee on cybersecurity strategy and risks.


26


ITEM 2. PROPERTIES

Summary of Office, Retail, and Multifamily Portfolio

As of December 31, 2023, our office and retail portfolio was comprised of approximately 8.6 million rentable square feet of office space and 0.7 million rentable square feet of retail space and was approximately 86.3% occupied and 90.6% leased, yielding approximately $536.0 million of annualized rent. We have 11 office properties and our retail properties are comprised of retail space at the base of our New York City office and multifamily properties, and five standalone retail properties predominantly located in Manhattan. All properties are located in dynamic retail corridors with convenient access to mass transportation, a diverse tenant base and high pedestrian traffic. Our real estate segment includes all activities related to the ownership, management, operation, acquisition, repositioning and disposition of all of our real estate assets other than the 86th and 102nd floor observatories at the Empire State Building, which are operated by our Observatory segment.

The tables below present an overview as of December 31, 2023.
 Annualized
RentableRent per
SquarePercentPercentAnnualizedOccupiedNumber of
Property NameLocation or Sub-Market
Feet (1)
Occupied (2)
Leased (3)
Rent (4)
Square Foot (5)
Leases (6)
Office - Manhattan
The Empire State BuildingPenn Station -Times Sq. South2,713,783 84.6 %91.8 %$149,146,291 $64.98 144 
One Grand Central PlaceGrand Central1,241,235 85.2 %90.7 %64,495,396 61.01 148 
1400 Broadway (7)
Penn Station -Times Sq. South917,281 100.0 %100.0 %51,543,523 56.19 20 
111 West 33rd Street (8)
Penn Station -Times Sq. South639,496 94.2 %95.7 %40,779,657 67.68 21 
250 West 57th StreetColumbus Circle - West Side472,707 80.6 %84.5 %23,990,288 62.98 28 
501 Seventh AvenuePenn Station -Times Sq. South461,209 88.4 %88.4 %20,432,035 50.09 19 
1359 BroadwayPenn Station -Times Sq. South456,004 83.5 %91.4 %22,376,656 58.75 32 
1350 Broadway (9)
Penn Station -Times Sq. South372,599 85.5 %86.4 %19,076,631 59.90 50 
1333 BroadwayPenn Station -Times Sq. South296,349 84.4 %94.4 %14,545,148 58.12 13 
Office - Manhattan7,570,663 87.3 %92.1 %406,385,625 61.47 475 
Office - Greater New York Metropolitan Area
First Stamford Place (10)
Stamford, CT781,731 78.7 %82.3 %26,691,177 43.38 48 
Metro CenterStamford, CT281,510 70.9 %70.9 %10,914,848 54.71 20 
Office - Greater New York Metropolitan Area1,063,241 76.6 %79.3 %37,606,025 46.15 68 
Total/Weighted Average Office Properties8,633,904 86.0 %90.5 %443,991,650 59.79 543 
Retail Properties
112 West 34th Street (8)
Penn Station -Times Sq. South93,057 100.0 %100.0 %24,825,569 266.78 
The Empire State BuildingPenn Station -Times Sq. South90,670 71.9 %76.4 %7,032,389 107.93 10 
One Grand Central PlaceGrand Central68,733 99.4 %99.4 %8,977,805 131.41 12 
1333 BroadwayPenn Station -Times Sq. South67,001 100.0 %100.0 %10,155,485 151.57 
250 West 57th StreetColumbus Circle - West Side65,526 91.4 %91.4 %9,111,860 152.07 
10 Union SquareUnion Square58,006 91.9 %91.9 %8,181,304 153.49 10 
27


1542 Third AvenueUpper East Side56,135 100.0 %100.0 %2,542,042 45.28 
1010 Third AvenueUpper East Side38,235 100.0 %100.0 %3,460,188 90.50 
501 Seventh AvenuePenn Station -Times Sq. South35,859 50.8 %59.6 %1,310,333 71.94 
1350 Broadway (9)
Penn Station -Times Sq. South30,710 77.8 %77.8 %5,962,833 249.70 
1359 BroadwayPenn Station -Times Sq. South29,247 83.0 %100.0 %1,668,652 68.73 
561 10th Avenue (11)
Hudson Yards28,266 100.0 %100.0 %2,007,748 71.03 
77 West 55th StreetMidtown25,388 100.0 %100.0 %1,978,407 77.93 
1400 Broadway (7)
Penn Station -Times Sq. South17,879 78.2 %78.2 %1,538,836 110.07 
298 Mulberry Street (12)
NoHo10,365 100.0 %100.0 %1,802,507 173.90 
Williamsburg Retail (13)
Brooklyn6,538 100.0 %100.0 %1,158,422 177.183
345 East 94th Street (14)
Upper East Side3,700 100.0 %100.0 %263,134 71.12 
Total/Weighted Average Retail Properties725,315 90.4 %92.1 %91,977,514 140.27 85 
Portfolio Total9,359,219 86.3 %90.6 %$535,969,164 $66.32 628 


(1)Excludes (i) 189,148 square feet of space across the Company's portfolio attributable to building management use and tenant amenities and (ii) 83,190 square feet of space attributable to the Company's Observatory.
(2)Based on leases signed and commenced as of December 31, 2023.
(3)Includes occupied space plus leases signed but not commenced as of December 31, 2023.
(4)Represents annualized base rent and current reimbursement for operating expenses and real estate taxes.
(5)Represents annualized rent under leases commenced as of December 31, 2023 divided by occupied square feet.
(6)Represents the number of leases at each property or on a portfolio basis. If a tenant has more than one lease, whether or not at the same property, but with different expirations, the number of leases is calculated equal to the number of leases with different expirations.
(7)Denotes a ground leasehold interest in the property with a remaining term, including unilateral extension rights available to the Company, of approximately 40 years (expiring December 31, 2063).
(8)Denotes a ground leasehold interest in the property with a remaining term, including unilateral extension rights available to the Company, of approximately 54 years (expiring June 10, 2077).
(9)Denotes a ground leasehold interest in the property with a remaining term, including unilateral extension rights available to the Company, of approximately 27 years (expiring July 31, 2050).
(10)First Stamford Place consists of three buildings.
(11)Does not include the square footage related to the 417 residential units at this property.
(12)Does not include the square footage related to the 96 residential units at this property.
(13)Does not include the square footage related to the 6 residential units at this property.
(14)Does not include the square footage related to the 208 residential units at this property.


Tenant Diversification
As of December 31, 2023, our office and retail portfolios were leased to a diverse tenant base consisting of approximately 628 leases. Our tenants represent a broad array of industries as follows:
Diversification by Industry
Percent (1)
Arts and entertainment3.2 %
Broadcast1.0 %
Consumer goods15.8 %
Finance, insurance, real estate16.9 %
Government entity2.1 %
Healthcare1.8 %
Legal services5.2 %
Non-profit4.2 %
Professional services (not including legal services)9.2 %
Retail18.2 %
28


Technology, media and advertising18.0 %
Others4.4 %
Total100.0 %
(1) Based on annualized rent.
The following table sets forth information regarding the 20 largest tenants in our commercial portfolio based on annualized rent as of December 31, 2023.
WeightedPercent of
AverageTotalPortfolioPercent of
RemainingOccupiedRentablePortfolio
LeaseLeaseSquareSquareAnnualizedAnnualized
Tenant Property
Expiration (1)
Term (2)
Feet (3)
Feet (4)
Rent (5)
Rent (6)
LinkedIn Empire State Building Aug. 2036 12.7 years 501,409 5.4 %$33,465,435 6.2 %
Flagstar Bank 1400 Broadway Aug. 2039 15.7 years 313,109 3.3 %18,285,046 3.4 %
Centric Brands Inc. Empire State Building Oct. 2028 4.8 years 221,365 2.4 %11,952,833 2.2 %
PVH Corp. 501 Seventh Avenue Oct. 2028 4.8 years 237,281 2.5 %11,519,383 2.1 %
Sephora 112 West 34th Street Jan. 2029 5.1 years 11,334 0.1 %10,533,585 2.0 %
Target 112 West 34th St., 10 Union Sq. Jan. 2038 14.1 years 81,340 0.9 %9,341,224 1.7 %
Coty Inc. Empire State Building Jan. 2030 6.1 years 156,187 1.7 %8,497,458 1.6 %
Macy's 111 West 33rd Street May 2030 6.4 years 131,117 1.4 %8,451,562 1.6 %
Urban Outfitters 1333 Broadway Sept. 2029 5.8 years 56,730 0.6 %8,185,595 1.5 %
Li & Fung 1359 Broadway, ESB Oct. 2027 - Oct. 2028 4.5 years 149,061 1.6 %7,954,806 1.5 %
Footlocker 112 West 34th Street Sept. 2031 7.8 years 34,192 0.4 %7,745,828 1.4 %
Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. Empire State Building Dec. 2025 2.0 years 119,226 1.3 %7,578,004 1.4 %
HNTB Corporation Empire State Building Feb. 2029 5.2 years 105,143 1.1 %7,000,733 1.3 %
Institutional Capital Network, Inc.One Grand Central PlaceFeb. 2024 - Oct. 2035 10.6 years 94,331 1.0 %6,351,680 1.2 %
The Michael J. Fox Foundation 111 West 33rd Street Nov. 2029 5.9 years 86,492 0.9 %6,267,495 1.2 %
Shutterstock Empire State Building Apr. 2029 5.3 years 104,386 1.1 %6,096,096 1.1 %
Fragomen 1400 Broadway Feb. 2035 11.2 years 107,680 1.2 %5,959,656 1.1 %
Burlington Merchandising Corp. 1400 Broadway Jan. 2038 14.1 years 102,898 1.1 %5,932,832 1.1 %
ASCAP 250 West 57th Street Aug. 2034 10.7 years 87,943 0.9 %5,384,628 1.0 %
Duane Reade Empire State Building, 1350 Broadway May 2025 - Sept. 2027 2.5 years 39,142 0.4 %4,941,165 0.9 %
  Total2,740,366 29.3 %$191,445,044 35.5 %
(1)Expiration dates are per lease and do not assume exercise of renewal or extension options. For tenants with more than two leases, the lease expiration is shown as a range.
(2)Represents the weighted average remaining lease term, based on annualized rent.
(3)Based on leases signed and commenced as of December 31, 2023.
(4)Represents the percentage of rentable square feet of the Company's office and retail portfolios in the aggregate.
(5)Represents annualized base rent and current reimbursement for operating expenses and real estate taxes.
(6)Represents the percentage of annualized rent of the Company's office and retail portfolios in the aggregate.

Lease Expirations
The following table sets forth new and renewal leases entered into at our properties, the weighted average annualized cash rent per square foot for new and renewal leases executed during the year, the previous weighted average annualized cash rent prior to the renewal or re-leasing of these leases and the percent increase (decrease) in mark-to-market rent.
Year Ended December 31,
202320222021
New and renewal leases entered into during the year (square feet)950,746 1,118,579 1,005,630 
Weighted average annualized cash rent per square foot for new and renewal leases executed during the year$65.30 $59.42 $57.55 
Weighted average annualized cash rent per square foot for previous leases $61.25 $58.58 $58.04 
Increase (decrease) in mark-to-market rent6.6 %1.4 %(0.8)%
29



The following tables set forth a summary schedule of expirations for leases in place as of December 31, 2023 plus available space for each of the ten calendar years beginning with the year ended December 31, 2023 at the office and retail properties in our commercial portfolio. The information set forth in the table assumes that tenants exercise no renewal options and all early termination rights.

Office and Retail Portfolio
Percent of
RentablePortfolio Annualized
NumberSquareRentablePercent of Rent Per
of LeasesFeetSquare FeetAnnualizedAnnualized Rentable
Year of Lease Expiration
Expiring (1)
Expiring (2)
Expiring
Rent (3)
Rent Square Foot
Available— 875,777 9.4 %$— — %$— 
Signed leases not commenced28 402,268 4.3 %— — %— 
Fourth quarter 2023(4)
15 143,627 1.5 %7,522,786 1.4 %52.38 
202489 509,671 5.4 %30,075,202 5.6 %59.01 
202585 594,946 6.4 %40,363,625 7.5 %67.84 
202672 628,943 6.7 %37,384,704 7.0 %59.44 
202787 713,569 7.6 %47,192,095 8.8 %66.14 
202863 945,077 10.1 %52,486,474 9.8 %55.54 
202950 981,952 10.5 %73,521,837 13.7 %74.87 
203038 745,546 8.0 %50,024,340 9.3 %67.10 
203123 174,491 1.9 %20,214,026 3.8 %115.85 
203229 368,694 3.9 %26,223,606 4.9 %71.13 
203329 329,711 3.5 %21,332,708 4.0 %64.70 
Thereafter48 1,944,947 20.8 %129,627,759 24.2 %66.65 
Total656 9,359,219 100.0 %$535,969,162 100.0 %$66.32 

Manhattan Office Properties (5)

Percent of
RentablePortfolio Annualized
NumberSquareRentablePercent of Rent Per
of LeasesFeetSquare FeetAnnualizedAnnualized Rentable
Year of Lease Expiration
Expiring (1)
Expiring (2)
Expiring
Rent (3)
Rent Square Foot
Available— 597,862 7.9 %$— — %$— 
Signed leases not commenced20 362,213 4.8 %— — %— 
Fourth quarter 2023(4)
12 124,643 1.6 %7,044,490 1.7 %56.52 
202476 431,339 5.7 %25,204,397 6.2 %58.43 
202567 495,292 6.5 %32,205,906 7.9 %65.02 
202657 485,929 6.4 %29,511,170 7.3 %60.73 
202771 600,450 7.9 %36,782,006 9.1 %61.26 
202847 854,943 11.3 %47,465,773 11.7 %55.52 
202935 738,291 9.8 %44,821,337 11.0 %60.71 
203027 599,150 7.9 %37,243,747 9.2 %62.16 
203112 86,541 1.1 %6,076,449 1.5 %70.21 
203221 334,698 4.4 %23,105,190 5.7 %69.03 
203315 141,599 1.9 %8,587,282 2.1 %60.65 
Thereafter35 1,717,713 22.8 %108,337,878 26.6 %63.07 
Total495 7,570,663 100.0 %$406,385,625 100.0 %$61.47 

30





Greater New York Metropolitan Area Office Properties
Percent of
RentablePortfolio Annualized
NumberSquareRentablePercent of Rent Per
of LeasesFeetSquare FeetAnnualizedAnnualized Rentable
Year of Lease Expiration
Expiring (1)
Expiring (2)
Expiring
Rent (3)
Rent Square Foot
Available— 220,593 20.7 %$— — %$— 
Signed leases not commenced27,802 2.5 %— — %— 
Fourth quarter 2023(4)
2,540 0.2 %63,701 0.2 %25.08 
202452,728 5.0 %2,222,975 5.9 %42.16 
202513 76,903 7.2 %3,597,773 9.6 %46.78 
202671,784 6.8 %3,508,404 9.3 %48.87 
202710 58,730 5.5 %2,801,695 7.5 %47.70 
202811 84,915 8.0 %3,735,230 9.9 %43.99 
2029128,271 12.1 %5,907,668 15.7 %46.06 
203078,033 7.3 %3,562,425 9.5 %45.65 
203116,560 1.6 %843,885 2.2 %50.96 
2032(6)
— — %6,180 — %— 
2033151,754 14.3 %7,494,005 19.9 %49.38 
Thereafter92,628 8.8 %3,862,084 10.3 %41.69 
Total71 1,063,241 100.0 %$37,606,025 100.0 %$46.15 

Retail Properties
Percent of
RentablePortfolio Annualized
NumberSquareRentablePercent of Rent Per
of LeasesFeetSquare FeetAnnualizedAnnualized Rentable
Year of Lease Expiration
Expiring (1)
Expiring (2)
Expiring
Rent (3)
Rent Square Foot
Available— 57,322 7.9 %$— — %$— 
Signed leases not commenced12,253 1.7 %— — %— 
Fourth quarter 2023(4)
16,444 2.3 %414,595 0.5 %25.21 
202425,604 3.5 %2,647,830 2.9 %103.41 
202522,751 3.1 %4,559,946 5.0 %200.43 
202671,230 9.8 %4,365,130 4.7 %61.28 
202754,389 7.5 %7,608,394 8.3 %139.89 
20285,219 0.7 %1,285,471 1.4 %246.31 
202910 115,390 15.9 %22,792,832 24.8 %197.53 
203068,363 9.4 %9,218,168 10.0 %134.84 
203171,390 9.8 %13,293,692 14.5 %186.21 
203233,996 4.7 %3,112,236 3.4 %91.55 
203311 36,358 5.0 %5,251,421 5.7 %144.44 
Thereafter11 134,606 18.7 %17,427,798 18.8 %129.47 
Total90 725,315 100.0 %$91,977,514 100.0 %$140.27 

(1)If a tenant has more than one lease, whether or not at the same property, but with different expirations, the number of leases is calculated equal to the number of leases with different expirations.
(2)Excludes (i) 189,148 rentable square feet across the Company's portfolio attributable to building management use and tenant amenities and (ii)
31


83,190 square feet of space attributable to the Company's Observatory.
(3)Represents annualized base rent and current reimbursement for operating expenses and real estate taxes.
(4)Represents leases that are included in occupancy as of December 31, 2023 and expire on December 31, 2023.
(5)Excludes (i) retail space in our Manhattan office properties and (ii) the Empire State Building broadcasting licenses and Observatory operations.
(6)Represents a telecom lease with no square footage.

Portfolio Transaction Activity
On February 1, 2023, we closed on the sale of 69-97 and 103-107 Main Street in Westport, Connecticut at a gross asset valuation of $40.0 million. Refer to "Financial Statements - Note 11 Related Party Transactions" in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
On April 5, 2023, we closed on the sale of 500 Mamaroneck Avenue in Harrison, New York at a gross asset valuation of $53.0 million.
On September 14, 2023, we closed on the acquisition of a Williamsburg retail property located on the corner of North 6th Street and Wythe Avenue in Brooklyn, New York, for a purchase price of $26.4 million.
Refer to "Financial Statements - Note 3 Acquisitions and Dispositions" in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.


ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

Refer to “Financial Statements - Note 9 Commitments and Contingencies” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for a description of any pending legal proceedings.

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURE

Not applicable.

32


PART II

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Market Information
We have four series of partnership units ("OP Units") - Series PR OP Units, Series ES OP Units, Series 60 OP Units and Series 250 OP Units. The Series ES OP Units, Series 60 OP Units and Series 250 OP Units (together, the "traded OP units") are listed on the NYSE Arca, Inc. exchange ("NYSE Arca") under the symbols "ESBA," "OGCP," and "FISK," respectively. The Series PR OP Units are not listed on any exchange and are not traded.
On February 22, 2024, the last sales price for our Series ES OP Units on the NYSE Arca was $9.98 per share. On February 22, 2024, the last sales price for our Series 60 OP Units on the NYSE Arca was $9.75 per share. On February 22, 2024, the last sales price for our Series 250 OP Units on the NYSE Arca was $9.60 per share.
Holders
As of February 22, 2024, we had approximately 574 registered holders of Series PR OP Units, 1,225 registered holders of Series ES OP Units, 357 registered holders of Series 60 OP Units and 279 registered holders of Series 250 OP Units. Certain shares and OP Units are held in "street" name and accordingly, the number of beneficial owners of such shares and OP Units is not known or included in the foregoing totals.
Distributions
ESRT intends to pay regular quarterly dividends to holders of its Class A common stock and Class B common stock, at least to the extent of its taxable income or as required to maintain its qualification as a REIT. Any distributions we or ESRT pay in the future will depend upon our taxable income, actual results of operations, economic conditions and other factors that could differ materially from our current expectations. Our actual results of operations will be affected by a number of factors, including the revenue we receive from our properties, our operating expenses, interest expense, the ability of our tenants to meet their obligations and unanticipated expenditures.
We declared dividends of $0.035 per share for each quarter of 2023, which equates to an annualized rate of $0.14 per share.
We and ESRT's Board will continue regular reviews of our dividend and capital allocation policies. Distributions declared by us will be authorized by ESRT's Board in its sole discretion out of funds legally available therefore and will be dependent upon a number of factors, including restrictions under applicable law, our capital requirements and the distribution requirements necessary to maintain ESRT's qualification as a REIT. See ITEM 1A, "Risk Factors," and ITEM 7, "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Conditions and Results of Operations," of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, for information regarding the sources of funds used for dividends and for a discussion of factors, if any, which may adversely affect our ability to make distributions to our securityholders.
Securities Authorized For Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plans
On May 16, 2019, the shareholders approved the Empire State Realty Trust, Inc. Empire State Realty OP, L.P. 2019 Equity Incentive Plan (the “2019 Plan”). The 2019 Plan provides for grants to directors, employees and consultants of our Company and ESRT, including options, restricted stock, restricted stock units, stock appreciation rights, performance awards, dividend equivalents and other equity-based awards, including LTIP units. An aggregate of approximately 11.0 million shares of our common stock are authorized for issuance under awards granted pursuant to the 2019 Plan. Following adoption by our shareholders of the 2019 Plan, we agreed not to issue any new equity awards under the First Amended and Restated Empire State Realty Trust, Inc. and Empire State Realty OP, L.P. 2013 Equity Incentive Plan ("2013 Plan", and collectively with the 2019 Plan, "the Plans"), which we adopted upon our IPO in 2013. The shares of Class A common stock underlying any awards under the 2019 Plan and the 2013 Plan that are forfeited, canceled or otherwise terminated, other than by exercise, will be added back to the shares of Class A common stock available for issuance under the 2019 Plan. For a further discussion of the Plans, see "Financial Statements - Note 10 Capital" in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
The following table presents certain information about our equity compensation plans as of December 31, 2023:
33


Plan CategoryNumber of securities to be issued upon exercise of outstanding options, warrants and rightsWeighted-average exercise price of outstanding options, warrants and rightsNumber of securities remaining available for future issuance under equity compensation plans (excluding securities reflected in the first column of this table)
Equity compensation plans approved by securityholders (1)
N/AN/A4,162,516 (2)
Equity compensation plans not approved by securityholders— — — 
TotalN/AN/A4,162,516 
______________

(1)These consist of the Empire State Realty Trust, Inc. Empire State Realty OP, L.P. 2019 Equity Incentive Plan and the First Amended and Restated Empire State Realty Trust, Inc. and Empire State Realty OP, L.P. 2013 Equity Incentive Plan.
(2)The number of securities remaining available for future issuance consists of shares remaining available for issuance under the Empire State Realty Trust, Inc. Empire State Realty OP, L.P. 2019 Equity Incentive Plan adjusted for awards that have been forfeited, canceled or otherwise terminated, other than by exercise under the Empire State Realty Trust, Inc. Empire State Realty OP, L.P. 2019 Equity Incentive Plan and the First Amended and Restated Empire State Realty Trust, Inc. and Empire State Realty OP, L.P. 2013 Equity Incentive Plan.

As of December 31, 2023, we have issued 1,147,005 shares of restricted stock and 15,052,177 LTIP units under the Plans since 2013.

Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities Use of Proceeds from Registered Securities
Not applicable.
Repurchases of Equity Securities Stock and Publicly Traded Operating Partnership Unit Repurchase Program
ESRT's Board of Directors authorized the repurchase of up to $500 million of ESRT's Class A common stock and our Series ES, Series 250 and Series 60 operating partnership units during the period from January 1, 2022 through December 31, 2023. Upon expiration of this program, ESRT's Board of Directors authorized the repurchase of up to $500 million of ESRT's Class A common stock and our Series ES, Series 250 and Series 60 operating partnership units during the period from January 1, 2024 through December 31, 2025. Under the program, ESRT may purchase its Class A common stock and we may purchase our Series ES, Series 250 and Series 60 operating partnership units in accordance with applicable securities laws from time to time in the open market or in privately negotiated transactions. The timing, manner, price and amount of any repurchases will be determined by us and will be subject to stock price, availability, trading volume, general market conditions, and applicable securities laws. The authorization does not obligate ESRT or us to acquire any particular amount of securities, and the program may be suspended or discontinued at ESRT's and our discretion without prior notice. At December 31, 2023, ESRT had used approximately $103.3 million of the authorized repurchase amount for the 2022-2023 period.

There were no repurchases of equity securities in the three-month period ended December 31, 2023 under this repurchase program. See "Financial Statements - Note 10 Capital" in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. There have also been no repurchases of equity securities yet under the new repurchase program.

ITEM 6. [RESERVED]

Not applicable.

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ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Unless the context otherwise requires or indicates, references in this section to "we," "our," and "us" refer to Empire State Realty OP, L.P. and its consolidated subsidiaries. The following discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 2023 and 2022 and for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021 and the notes related thereto which are included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
    
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Exchange Act. We intend these forward-looking statements to be covered by the safe harbor provisions for forward-looking statements contained in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 and are including this statement for purposes of complying with those safe harbor provisions. You can identify forward-looking statements by the use of forward-looking terminology such as “aims," "anticipates," "approximately," "believes," "contemplates," "continues," "estimates," "expects," "forecasts," "hope," "intends," "may," "plans," "seeks," "should," "thinks," "will," "would" or the negative of these words and phrases. In particular, statements pertaining to our capital resources, portfolio performance, dividend policy and results of operations contain forward-looking statements. Likewise, all of our statements regarding anticipated growth in our portfolio from operations, acquisitions and anticipated market conditions, demographics and results of operations are forward-looking statements.

Forward-looking statements are subject to substantial risks and uncertainties, many of which are difficult to predict and are generally beyond our control, and you should not rely on them as predictions of future events. Forward-looking statements depend on assumptions, data or methods which may be incorrect or imprecise, and we may not be able to realize them. We do not guarantee that the transactions and events described will happen as described (or that they will happen at all).

Many important factors could cause actual results and future events to differ materially from those set forth or contemplated in the forward-looking statements, including, among other things: (i) economic, market, political and social impact of, and uncertainty relating to, any catastrophic events, including pandemics, epidemics or other outbreaks of disease, climate-related risks such as natural disasters and extreme weather events, terrorism and other armed hostilities, as well as cybersecurity threats and technology disruptions; (ii) a failure of conditions or performance regarding any event or transaction described herein; (iii) resolution of legal proceedings involving the Company; (iv) reduced demand for office, multifamily or retail space, including as a result of the changes in the use of office space and remote work; (v) changes in our business strategy; (vi) a decline in Observatory visitors due to changes in domestic or international tourism, including due to health crises, geopolitical events, currency exchange rates, and/or competition from other observatories; (vii) defaults on, early terminations of, or non-renewal of, leases by tenants; (viii) increases in the Company’s borrowing costs as a result of changes in interest rates and other factors; (ix) declining real estate valuations and impairment charges; (x) termination of our ground leases; (xi) limitations on our ability to pay down, refinance, restructure or extend our indebtedness or borrow additional funds; (xii) decreased rental rates or increased vacancy rates; (xiii) difficulties in executing capital projects or development projects successfully or on the anticipated timeline or budget; (xiv) difficulties in identifying and completing acquisitions; (xv) impact of changes in governmental regulations, tax laws and rates and similar matters; (xvi) our failure to qualify as a REIT; (xvii) incurrence of taxable capital gain on disposition of an asset due to failure of use or compliance with a 1031 exchange program; and (xviii) failure to achieve sustainability metrics and goals, including as a result of tenant collaboration, and impact of governmental regulation on our sustainability efforts. For a further discussion of these and other factors that could impact the Company's future results, performance or transactions, see the section entitled “Risk Factors” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

While forward-looking statements reflect the Company's good faith beliefs, they do not guarantee future performance. Any forward-looking statement speaks only as of the date on which it was made, and we assume no obligation to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statement to reflect changes in underlying assumptions or factors, new information, data or methods, future events, or other changes after the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, except as required by applicable law. Prospective investors should not place undue reliance on any forward-looking statements, which are based only on information currently available to the Company (or to third parties making the forward-looking statements).    
Overview     

2023 Highlights
Net income attributable to the Company of $80.1 million.
Core FFO of $245.8 million.
Signed a total of 950,746 rentable square feet of new, renewal and expansion leases.
Completed the acquisition of a retail asset located in Williamsburg, Brooklyn in the third quarter.
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Completed the dispositions of retail assets located in Westport, Connecticut in the first quarter, and an office asset located in Harrison, New York in the second quarter.

Results of Operations
Overview
The discussion below relates to the financial condition and results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022. For a discussion of our 2021 financial results as compared to our 2022 financial results, please see our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022.
Year Ended December 31, 2023 Compared to the Year Ended December 31, 2022
The following table summarizes the historical results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022 (amounts in thousands):
Years Ended December 31,
20232022Change%
Real Estate SegmentObservatory SegmentTotalReal Estate SegmentObservatory SegmentTotal
Revenues:
Rental revenue $597,319 $— $597,319 $591,048 $— $591,048 $6,271 1.1 %
Observatory revenue— 129,366 129,366 — 105,978 105,978 23,388 22.1 %
Lease termination fees— — — 20,032 — 20,032 (20,032)(100.0)