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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
 _________________________
FORM 10-K
_________________________

(Mark One)
S    ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
OR 

    TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from              to               
 
Commission File Number:  001-37415
_________________________
Evolent Health, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
_________________________
Delaware32-0454912
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
1812 N. Moore Street,Suite 1705,Arlington,Virginia22209
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)

                           (571) 389-6000
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code
                         _________________________        

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Class A Common Stock of Evolent Health, Inc., par value $0.01 per shareEVHNew York Stock Exchange

Securities registered pursuant to section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes S No ☐

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ☐ No S

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes S No ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes S No ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company.  See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer S Accelerated filer ☐ Non-accelerated filer ☐ Smaller reporting company Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13 (a) of the Exchange Act.




Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. S

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes No  S

The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrant (based on the closing price of the shares on the New York Stock Exchange on such date) as of the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter was $3.4 billion.

As of February 15, 2024, there were 115,430,107 shares of the registrant’s Class A common stock outstanding.

Documents Incorporated by Reference

Selected portions of the Proxy Statement for the Annual Meeting of Shareholders, scheduled for June 6, 2024, have been incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K to the extent stated herein. Such proxy statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days of the registrant’s fiscal year ended December 31, 2023.
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Explanatory Note

In this Annual Report on 10-K, unless the context otherwise requires, “Evolent,” the “Company,” “we,” “our” and “us” refer to the business of Evolent Health, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries since their respective dates of acquisition, unless otherwise indicated. In October 2021, we acquired Vital Decisions, a leading provider of technology-enabled advance care planning services. In August 2022, we acquired IPG, a leader in providing surgical management solutions for musculoskeletal conditions. In January 2023, we acquired NIA, a specialty benefit management organization that focuses on managing cost and quality in the areas of radiology, musculoskeletal, physical medicine and genetics. Evolent Health LLC, a subsidiary of Evolent Health, Inc. (“Evolent Health LLC”) through which we conduct our operations, has owned all of our operating assets and substantially all of our business since inception. Evolent Health, Inc. is a holding company.

As used in this Annual Report on Form 10-K:

•“ACA” means the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act;
•“accountable care organizations,” or “ACOs,” means organizations of groups of doctors, hospitals and other health care providers which have come together voluntarily to provide coordinated care to their Medicare patients;
•“capitated arrangements” means health care payment arrangements whereby providers are paid a fixed amount of money per patient during a given period of time rather than on a per-service or per-procedure basis;
•“CMS” means the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services;
•“DGCL” means General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware;
•“EMR” means electronic medical records;
•“Evolent Health Holdings” means Evolent Health Holdings, Inc., the predecessor to Evolent Health, Inc.;
•“EVH Passport” means Justify Holdings, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company;
•“Evolent Care Partners” means Evolent Care Partners, a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company;
•“Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended;
•“founders” means the Advisory Board Company (“The Advisory Board”), and the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (“UPMC”);
•“FTC” means the United States Federal Trade Commission;
•“GAAP” means United States of America generally accepted accounting principles;
•“HIPAA” means The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act;
•“HITECH Act” means The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act;
•“IPG” means Implantable Provider Group, Inc, a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company;
•“IPO” means our initial public offering of 13.2 million shares of our Class A common stock, par value $0.01 per share (“Class A common stock”) at a public offering price of $17.00 per share in June 2015;
•“New Century Health” means NCIS Holdings, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company;
•“NIA” means National Imaging Associates, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company;
•“NYSE” means the New York Stock Exchange;
•“Offering Reorganization” means the reorganization undertaken in 2015 prior to our IPO where our predecessor, Evolent Health Holdings, Inc. merged with and into Evolent Health, Inc.;
•“partners” means our customers, unless we indicate otherwise or the context otherwise implies;
•“performance-based” means risk-based contracts with our partners wherein Evolent assumes financial responsibility for the cost of care, which may range from upside and downside gain share to all, or substantially all, of the responsibility for the cost of care within a defined scope subject to Evolent management controls and contractual protections;
•“pharmacy benefit management,” or “PBM,” means the administration of prescription drug programs, including developing and maintaining a list of medications that are approved to be prescribed, contracting with pharmacies, negotiating discounts and rebates with drug manufacturers and processing prescription drug claim payments;
•“population health” means an approach to health care that seeks to improve the health of an entire human population;
•“SEC” means the Securities and Exchange Commission;
•“Securities Act” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended;
•“third-party administration,” or “TPA,” means the processing of insurance claims or the administration of certain aspects of employee benefit plans for a separate entity;
•“True Health” means True Health New Mexico, Inc., a previously wholly-owned subsidiary of Evolent Health, Inc.;
•“TPG” means TPG Global, LLC and its affiliates including one or both of TPG Growth II BDH, LP and TPG Eagle Holdings, L.P.;
•“TRA” means the Income Tax Receivables Agreement. See “Part II – Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 11 & Note 16” for further details of the Tax Receivables Agreement;
•“UHC” means University Health Care, Inc d/b/a Passport Health Plan;
•“UR” means utilization review;


i


•“value-based care” means a health care management strategy that is focused on high-quality and cost-effective care with the goals of promoting a healthy lifestyle, enhancing the patient experience and reducing preventable hospital admissions and emergency visits;
•“VIE” means variable interest entities; and
•“Vital Decisions” means Vital Decisions, LLC, a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company.


FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS - CAUTIONARY LANGUAGE
 
Certain statements made in this report and in other written or oral statements made by us or on our behalf are “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 (“PSLRA”). A forward-looking statement is a statement that is not a historical fact and, without limitation, includes any statement that may predict, forecast, indicate or imply future results, performance or achievements, and may contain words like: “believe,” “anticipate,” “expect,” “estimate,” “aim,” “predict,” “potential,” “continue,” “plan,” “project,” “will,” “should,” “shall,” “may,” “might” and other words or phrases with similar meaning in connection with a discussion of future operating or financial performance. In particular, these include statements relating to our ability to grow our impact significantly throughout this year and beyond, future actions, trends in our businesses, prospective services, new partner additions/expansions, the adoption and launch of a unified brand, our guidance and business outlook and future performance or financial results, and the closing of pending transactions and the outcome of contingencies, such as legal proceedings. We claim the protection afforded by the safe harbor for forward-looking statements provided by the PSLRA.

These statements are only predictions based on our current expectations and projections about future events. Forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties that may cause actual results, level of activity, performance or achievements to differ materially from the results contained in the forward-looking statements. Risks and uncertainties that may cause actual results to vary materially, some of which are described within the forward-looking statements, include, among others:

risks relating to our ability to efficiently integrate NIA into our operations;
the financial information of NIA and the pro forma financial information of NIA may not be indicative of future results or our financial condition;
the significant portion of revenue we derive from our largest partners, and the potential loss, non-renewal, termination or renegotiation of our relationship or contract with any significant partner, or multiple partners in the aggregate;
our ability to terminate certain leases and recognize impairment charges in connection with our repositioning plan;
evolution of the healthcare regulatory and political framework;
uncertainty in the health care regulatory framework, including the potential impact of policy changes;
our ability to offer new and innovative products and services and our ability to keep pace with industry standards, technology and our partners’ needs;
risks related to completed and future acquisitions, investments, alliances and joint ventures, including our acquisitions of IPG and NIA, which could divert management resources, result in unanticipated costs or dilute our stockholders;
the growth and success of our partners and certain revenues from our engagements, which are difficult to predict and are subject to factors outside of our control, including governmental funding reductions and other policy changes;
risks relating to our ability to maintain profitability for our total cost of care and performance-based contracts and products, including capitation and risk-bearing contracts;
our ability to effectively manage our growth and maintain an efficient cost structure, and to successfully implement cost cutting measures;
changes in general economic conditions nationally and regionally in our markets, including increasing inflationary pressures and economic and business conditions and the impact thereof on the economy resulting from public health emergencies, epidemics, pandemics or contagious diseases;
risks related to the failure of any bank in which we deposit our funds, which could reduce the amount of cash we have available to meet our cash commitments and make additional investments;
our ability to recover the significant upfront costs in our partner relationships and develop our partner relationships over time;
our ability to attract new partners and successfully capture new opportunities;
the increasing number of risk-sharing arrangements we enter into with our partners could limit or negatively impact our profitability;
our ability to estimate the size of our target markets for our services;
our ability to maintain and enhance our reputation and brand recognition;
consolidation in the health care industry;
competition which could limit our ability to maintain or expand market share within our industry;
risks related to audits by CMS and other governmental payers and actions, including whistleblower claims under the False Claims Act;

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our ability to partner with providers due to exclusivity provisions in our contracts in some of our partner and founder contracts;
risks related to managing our offshore operations and cost reduction goals;
our ability to contain health care costs, implement increases in premium rates on a timely basis, maintain adequate reserves for policy benefits or maintain cost effective provider agreements;
our dependency on our key personnel, and our ability to attract, hire, integrate and retain key personnel;
the impact of additional goodwill and intangible asset impairments on our results of operations;
our indebtedness, our ability to service our indebtedness, and our ability to obtain additional financing on favorable terms or at all;
our ability to achieve profitability in the future;
the impact of litigation proceedings, government inquiries, reviews, audits or investigations;
material weaknesses in the future may impact our ability to conclude that our internal control over financial reporting is not effective and we may be unable to produce timely and accurate financial statements;
restrictions on the manner in which we access personal data and penalties as a result of privacy and data protection laws;
liabilities and reputational risks related to our ability to safeguard the security and privacy of confidential data;
data loss or corruption due to failures or errors in our systems and service disruptions at our data centers;
adequate protection of our intellectual property, including trademarks;
risks related to legal proceedings related to any alleged infringement, misappropriation or violation of third-party intellectual property rights;
our use of “open source” software;
our ability to protect the confidentiality of our trade secrets, know-how and other proprietary information;
our reliance on third parties and licensed technologies;
restrictions on our ability to use, disclose, de-identify or license data and to integrate third-party technologies;
our reliance on Internet infrastructure, bandwidth providers, data center providers, other third parties and our own systems for providing services to our partners;
our reliance on third-party vendors to host and maintain our technology platform;
our obligations to make material payments to certain of our pre-IPO investors for certain tax benefits we may claim in the future;
our ability to utilize benefits under the tax receivables agreement described herein;
our obligations to make payments under the tax receivables agreement that may be accelerated or may exceed the tax benefits we realize;
the terms of agreements between us and certain of our pre-IPO investors may contain different terms than comparable agreement we may enter into with unaffiliated third parties;
the conditional conversion features of the 2025 Notes and the 2029 Notes (as defined below), which, if triggered, may adversely affect our financial condition and operating results;
interest rate risk under the Credit Agreement (as defined below) and the terms of our Cumulative Series A Convertible Preferred Shares, par value $0.01 per share (“Series A Preferred Stock”);
our debt following the NIA acquisition and our ability to meet our obligations;
our ability to service our debt and pay dividends on our Series A Preferred Stock;
the potential volatility of our Class A common stock price;
the potential decline of our Class A common stock price if a substantial number of shares are sold or become available for sale, including those issuable upon conversion of our Series A Preferred Stock;
our Series A Preferred Stock has rights, preferences and privileges that are not held by and are preferential to the rights of holders of our Class A common stock, and could in the future substantially dilute the ownership interest of holders of our Class A common stock;
provisions in our certificate of incorporation and by-laws and provisions of Delaware law that discourage or prevent strategic transactions, including a takeover of us;
the ability of certain of our investors to compete with us without restrictions;
provisions in our certificate of incorporation which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers or employees; and
our intention not to pay cash dividends on our Class A common stock.

The risks included here are not exhaustive. Although we believe the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot guarantee future results, level of activity, performance or achievements. More information on potential factors that could affect our businesses and financial performance is included in “Forward Looking Statements - Cautionary Language,” “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” or similarly captioned sections of this Annual Report and the other period and current filings we make from time to time with the SEC. Moreover, we operate in a rapidly changing and competitive environment. New risk factors emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for management to predict all such risk factors.

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Further, it is not possible to assess the effect of all risk factors on our businesses or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements. Given these risks and uncertainties, investors should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements as a prediction of actual results. In addition, we undertake no obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances that occur after the date of this report except to the extent expressly required by law.

Market Data and Industry Forecasts and Projections

We use market data and industry forecasts and projections throughout this Annual Report on Form 10-K, and in particular in “Part I - Item 1. - Business.” We have obtained the market data from certain publicly available sources of information, including publicly available independent industry publications and other third-party sources. Unless otherwise indicated, statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K concerning our industry and the markets in which we operate, including our general expectations and competitive position, business opportunity and market size, growth and share, are based on information from independent industry organizations and other third-party sources (including industry publications, surveys and forecasts), data from our internal research and management estimates. We believe the data that third parties have compiled is reliable, but we have not independently verified the accuracy of this information and there is no assurance that any of the forecasted amounts will be achieved. Any forecasts are based on data (including third-party data), models and experience of various professionals and are based on various assumptions, all of which are subject to change without notice. While we are not aware of any misstatements regarding the industry data presented herein, forecasts, assumptions, expectations, beliefs, estimates and projections involve risks and uncertainties and are subject to change based on various factors, including those described under the heading “Forward-Looking Statements - Cautionary Language” and in “Part I - Item 1A. Risk Factors.”



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PART I - FINANCIAL INFORMATION

Item 1. Business

Market Opportunity

Evolent is a market leader in connecting care for people with complex conditions like cancer, cardiovascular disease, and musculoskeletal diagnoses. We work on behalf of health plans and other risk-bearing entities and payers (our customers) to support physicians and other healthcare providers (our users) in providing high quality evidence-based care to their patients. We believe adherence to evidence-based clinical pathways supports better outcomes for patients, a better experience for physicians, and lower costs for the healthcare system overall.

Specialty care represents a significant and fast-growing portion of healthcare costs in the U.S., driven in part by the pace of development of new therapies and treatments. To manage these increasing costs, some health plans and other risk-bearing entities historically deployed cost containment strategies that can limit access to care and operate in narrow silos (for example, prior authorization for radiological studies being considered independently from a comprehensive chemotherapy regimen). We believe Evolent can bring an integrated approach to a patient’s condition across multiple specialties, using technology to recommend our evidence-based clinical pathways in a way that provides rapid feedback to the provider, seeks to remove barriers to care, and aligns financial incentives with the best evidence. As a result of this approach, we have seen as much as a 30% increase in adherence to best evidence for populations that we manage.

Our Business

Our History

Evolent was founded in 2011 by members of our management team, UPMC, an integrated delivery system in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and The Advisory Board Company, to enable providers to pursue a value-based business model and evolve their competitive position and market opportunity. Since that time, we have grown both organically and through acquisitions. In October 2018, we acquired New Century Health, a national population health leader in managing specialty care for Medicare, commercial and Medicaid members under performance-based arrangements, focused primarily on oncology and cardiovascular care, initiating Evolent’s current primary strategy to pursue solutions for managing high prevalence, complex specialty care. To add to our capabilities, in October 2021, we acquired Vital Decisions, a leading provider of technology-enabled advance care planning services. In August 2022, we acquired IPG, a leader in providing surgical management solutions for musculoskeletal conditions. In January 2023, we acquired NIA, a specialty benefit management organization that focuses on managing cost and quality in the areas of radiology, musculoskeletal, physical medicine and genetics.

As of January 1, 2023, we began managing our operations and allocating resources across one segment, instead of two. We now provide a broad spectrum of specialty care management services in oncology, cardiology, musculoskeletal markets and holistic total cost of care management along with an integrated platform for health plan administration and value-based business infrastructure under one go to market package.

Our Solutions

We have three primary solutions: (i) specialty care management services, (ii) total cost of care management and (iii) administrative services. From time to time, we package our solutions under various go-to-market brand names to create product differentiation. Our partners may engage us to provide one, or multiple types of solutions, depending on their specific needs.

Specialty Care Management Services Solution

The foundation for our specialty care management services solution was our acquisition in 2018 of New Century Health, a national leader in managing specialty care for Medicare members under performance-based and technology and services arrangements. Since then, we have continued to invest in the solution to broaden, deepen, and scale its capabilities. Today we focus on the oncology, cardiology, and musculoskeletal markets, supported by diagnostics like radiology and genetic testing, with the objective of helping providers and payers deliver higher quality, more affordable care. In addition, we provide comprehensive quality management for oncology and cardiology patients from diagnosis through advance care planning services as well as identifying high quality, lowest cost of care for outpatient orthopedic surgeries.

We provide a differentiated approach by (i) assembling networks of high-performance providers, (ii) designing evidence-based clinical pathways and (iii) deploying proprietary specialty care management technology.


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(i)Assembling high-performance provider networks

We develop high-performance provider networks with tools, capabilities and incentives to align and support physicians and other healthcare providers. We develop and manage comprehensive specialty networks, provide physician engagement and support and identify provider financial incentive alignment. Key features include:

Direct contracts with specialists facilitate ease of care.
Comprehensive specialty networks include multiple downstream subspecialists.
Incentivizes financial payment for quality and cost-efficient utilization.
Minimizes “buy and bill” incentives through shared savings methodologies.
Dedicated provider operations provide staff to support practices.
Clinical response team provides clinical education on-site to practice staff.
Dedicated central call center facilitates referrals and helps to resolve claims issues.
Provides established system of ongoing provider education and training.
Increases the frequency of utilization and value of advance care planning.

(ii)Designing evidence-based clinical pathways

We design high-quality evidence-based clinical pathways to drive provider behavior towards improved quality of care at a lower cost. The transparent pathway development process for our specialty care management service solution’s health focal areas, oncology and cardiology, is designed to achieve the following objectives:

Reduce unnecessary clinical variation.
Support physician clinical decision making of evidence-based therapies.
Increase patient engagement.
Facilitate total cost-of-care management.

Our clinical pathways are based on national guidelines with independent scientific advisory boards, in-house clinical expertise with original publications and presentations at national congress. We employ a collaborative review process that is not based on denials, which includes customized clinical review based on tier 1-5 drugs and proactive monitoring response to therapy. We employ quality metrics and clinical benchmarking to continually improve our pathways. We incentivize financial payment for quality by minimizing “buy and bill” incentives and through a shared savings methodology.

(iii)Deploying proprietary specialty care management technology

Our legacy New Century Health business leverages a custom specialty care management workflow platform, CareProTM, to provide clinical decision support and manage providers to high-quality care, while aiming to achieve significant cost savings. Our technology consists of a clinical decision support portal that provides oversight of individual treatment plans for pathway adherence. Our platform integrates clinical analytics and protocols, pharmacy management, physician engagement, network management and claims payment to drive improved outcomes for partners. Key attributes include:

Decision support portal delivers specialty specific clinical experience based on assigned roles (e.g., cardiologist vs. oncologist).
Custom-built rules engine allows flexibility for multiple specialties and automated decisions based on clinical relevance, considering, for example, rigor levels based on specified payers and providers.
Workflow capability facilitates a seamless collaboration within and across organizations, connecting payers and clearing houses for systematic data exchange.
Nurse triage system leverages proprietary technology infrastructure.
Overall flexibility enables a new business launch of existing specialty within 60 days.

Total Cost of Care Management Solution

Our total cost of care management solution enables providers to manage populations they may be accountable for under value-based contracts with payers or ACO contracts with CMS. This solution seeks to reduce the total cost of care for a given population by identifying and managing high-cost patients with targeted interventions managed and coordinated through primary care physicians. The economic model of our total cost of care management solution is primarily performance-based, which we believe enhances our ability to influence provider behavior by aligning our incentives with our partners. We use, and may continue to use, different go-to-market brand names for various solution packages, depending on the markets we seek to address. These go-to-market brand names include: (i) Value Based Services, wherein we support primarily health systems in their value-based operations and (ii) Evolent Care

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Partners, wherein we offer physicians the opportunity to join Evolent’s proprietary payer contracting vehicles, scaled risk pools, and operating model.

We refer to the offerings within this solution increasingly as “Complex Care.” Core elements of this solution include: (i) population health performance, which supports the delivery of patient-centric cost-effective care and (ii) delivery network alignment, comprising the development of high performance delivery networks. We integrate change management processes and ongoing physician-led transformation into all value-based services to build engagement, integration and alignment within our partners to successfully deliver value-based care and sustain performance. We have standardized the processes described below and are able to leverage our expertise across our partner base. Through the technological and clinical integration, we achieve, our solutions are delivered as engrained components of our partners’ core operations rather than as add-on solutions.

Administrative Services

Our administrative services solution includes our integrated value-based care platform designed to help our customers manage and administer patient health in a more cost-effective manner. We have invested in our primary platform to facilitate value-based care business models for health plans called Identifi® along with our clinical solutions to offer an integrated value-based care platform.

Our comprehensive health plan administration services help regional and national payers and providers assemble the infrastructure required to operate, manage and capitalize on a variety of financial and administrative management services, such as health plan services, risk management, analytics and reporting and leadership and management. Historically, the economic model of this solution is primarily fee-based with defined service-level agreements around key operating metrics. The administrative services provided by the Company include:

Health plan services: Health plan services is a comprehensive suite of services including third-party administration, enrollment and billing support, medical and utilization management, third-party payment and program integrity support and provider network contracting services. Other health plan related services include sales and marketing, product development, actuarial, and regulatory and compliance.
Pharmacy benefit management: Our team of professionals support the prescription drug component of providers’ plan offerings and bring national buying power and dedicated resources that are tightly integrated with the care delivery model. Differentiated from what we consider to be traditional PBMs, our solution is integrated into patient care and engages population health levers including generic utilization, provider management, and utilization management to reduce pharmacy costs.
Risk management: Our risk management services provide the capabilities needed to successfully manage risk for payers, including analysis, data and operational integration with payer processes, and ongoing performance management.
Analytics and reporting: Our analytics and reporting services provide the ongoing and ad hoc analytic teams and reports required to measure, inform and improve performance, including population health analytics, market analytics, network evaluation, staffing models, physician effectiveness, clinical delivery optimization and patient engagement.
Leadership and management: Our local and national talent assist our partners in effectively managing the performance of their value-based operations.

Identifi® is our proprietary technology system that aggregates and analyzes data, manages care workflows and engages patients. Identifi® links our processes with those of our partners and other third parties to create a connected clinical delivery ecosystem, stratify patient populations, standardize clinical workflows and enable high-quality, cost-effective care. The configurable nature and broad capabilities of Identifi® help enhance the benefits our partners receive from our services and increase the effectiveness of our partners’ existing technology architecture. In addition, Identifi® provides support and value to our specialty care management services and total cost of care management customers in a limited fashion. Highlights of the capabilities of Identifi® include the following:

Data and integration services: Data from disparate sources, such as EMRs, and lab and pharmacy data, is collected, assembled, integrated and maintained to provide health care professionals with a holistic view of the patient.
Clinical and business content: Clinical and business content is applied to the integrated data to create actionable information to optimize clinical and financial performance.
EMR integration: Data and clinical insights from Identifi® are fed back into partner EMRs to improve both provider and patient satisfaction, create workflow efficiencies, promote clinical documentation and coding and provide clinical support at the point-of-care.
Applications: A suite of cloud-based applications manages the clinical, financial and operational aspects of the value-based model. Our applications scale with the clinical, financial and administrative needs of our provider partners. As additional capabilities are required by our partners, they are often deployed as applications through Identifi®.

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Sources of Revenue

The majority of our revenue is derived from recurring multi-year contracts which we believe enables us to have strong visibility into future revenue. Revenue from our Specialty Technology and Services Suite is derived from non-capitation arrangements under our specialty care management solution. Revenue from our Performance Suite includes services provided through capitation arrangements where we assume responsibility for the cost of medical claims under our scope. This revenue is derived from arrangements under our specialty care management solution and our total cost of care management solution. Administrative Services revenue is derived from recurring multi-year platform and operations contracts under our administrative services solution. Generally, for our Performance Suite, Specialty Technology and Services Suite and Administrative Services revenue, we are paid a fixed fee per member per month. Also included in our specialty care management services solution are certain services billed on a per-case basis and presented as Cases. The amount of revenue in a given contract is typically driven by: (i) the number of members that Evolent is contracted to manage, (ii) the population types being served (e.g., Medicare, Medicaid, commercial) and (iii) the depth and breadth of the services and technology applications that our partners utilize from us.

Our business model benefits from scale, as we leverage our purpose-built technology-enabled solutions and centralized resources in conjunction with the growth of our partners’ membership base. While our absolute investment in our centralized resources and technologies may increase over time, we expect it will decrease as a percentage of revenue as we are able to scale this investment across a broader group of partners. We expect to grow with current partners as they increase membership in their existing operations, through expanding the number of services we provide to our existing partners, by adding new partners and by capturing value through risk-sharing arrangements.

Significant Activities

Acquisition of Vital Decisions

On August 2, 2021, the Company, through a wholly owned subsidiary, entered into a definitive agreement for the Company to acquire Vital Decisions. On October 1, 2021, we consummated the acquisition of Vital Decisions for $46.5 million in cash and the issuance of 1.8 million shares of Class A common stock. Vital Decisions is part of Evolent’s specialty care management services solution.

Acquisition of IPG

On June 24, 2022, the Company, through a wholly owned subsidiary, entered into a definitive agreement for the Company to acquire IPG. On August 1, 2022, we consummated the acquisition of IPG for $256.5 million in cash and the issuance of 3.7 million shares of Class A common stock. IPG is part of Evolent’s specialty care management services solution. Refer to “Part II - Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 4” for additional discussion regarding the IPG transaction.

Acquisition of NIA

On November 17, 2022, Evolent Health LLC and the Company entered into a definitive agreement for the Company to acquire NIA. On January 20, 2023, we consummated the acquisition of NIA for $387.8 million in cash consideration, which was financed in part with $265.0 million in debt borrowed from affiliates of Ares Capital Corporation (“Ares”) and the proceeds from the sale of an aggregate 175,000 shares of the Company’s Series A Preferred Stock, resulting in gross proceeds of $168.0 million, and stock consideration of 8.5 million shares of Class A common stock issued to the seller. NIA is part of Evolent’s specialty care management offering. Refer to “Part II - Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 4” for additional discussion regarding the NIA acquisition.

Competitive Strengths

We believe we are well-positioned to benefit from the transformations occurring in health care payment and delivery described above. We believe this environment that rewards the better use of information to drive patient outcomes aligns with our business model, recent investments and other competitive strengths.

Early Innovator

We believe we are an innovator in the delivery of comprehensive value-based care solutions. We were founded in 2011, ahead of the implementation of the ACA and before the rapid expansion of programs, such as Medicare ACOs or Medicare bundled payment initiatives. Since our inception, we have invested a significant amount in expanding our offerings.


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Differentiated Offering by Performing More Services Utilizing An Integrated Strategy

Building off of our strength in oncology and cardiology, we believe the acquisition of NIA will accelerate our market leadership to serve the needs of large scale, national payer organizations to manage the cost and quality of care across large and complex medical specialties. NIA is a specialty benefit management company with a complementary service offering to the Company’s historic specialties. Based on feedback from our clients, we believe the market for value-based specialty care is large, fragmented and lacking a market leader to provide clinically sophisticated, technology-enabled solutions across the highest cost, highly prevalent and most complex medical specialties. The acquisitions of NIA and IPG by Evolent are part of our competitive response to this apparent unmet need. We believe our payer clients will benefit from a platform offering a broader set of specialty services in order to avoid the inefficiencies of vendor fragmentation, and we believe they prefer fewer vendors that may provide more consistent services to their membership over time.

Comprehensive End-to-End Solutions

We provide end-to-end, built-for-purpose, technology-enabled solutions for our partners to succeed in value-based payment models. We believe that offering comprehensive and integrated solutions which bring together clinical and administrative management allows payers and providers to accelerate their path to adoption of value-based care.

Depth of Market Experience

With experience across Medicare, Medicaid and commercial markets, our depth and variety of expertise allows us to serve a variety of customer types in the broad health care marketplace including health systems, providers, physicians, health plans, ACOs, delegated arrangements and other payers.

Proprietary Technology

Our integrated proprietary technology, Identifi®, allows us to deliver a connected delivery ecosystem, implement replicable clinical processes, scale our value-based services and capitalize on multiple types of value-based payment relationships.

We leverage a custom workflow platform, CareProTM, as part of our Specialty Technology and Services Suite, to provide clinical decision support and manage providers to high-quality care, while aiming to achieve significant cost savings. Our technology consists of a clinical decision support portal that provides oversight of individual treatment plans for pathway adherence. Our platform integrates clinical analytics and protocols, pharmacy management, physician engagement, network management and claims payment to drive improved outcomes for partners.

We believe we are creating scaled benefits for our partners in areas such as data analytics, administrative services and care management. We expect Identifi® and CareProTM to enable us to deliver increasing levels of efficiency to our partners.

Provider-Heritage Brand Identity

We believe our provider-heritage brand identity and origins differentiate us from our competitors in the value-based care services area. We believe our solutions resonate with potential partners seeking proven solutions that work with providers in a manner that attempts to minimize friction and foster a care team approach. Our analytical and clinical solutions are rooted in our experience in growing a provider-led, integrated delivery network over the 15-years prior to the founding of Evolent Health, Inc., and growing to become one of the largest provider-owned health plans in the country. Our unique position allows for the sharing of data across multiple payers and care delivery integration regardless of payer, which we believe is not possible with traditional, payer-siloed solutions.

Partnership-Driven Business Model

Our business model is predicated on strategic partnerships with leading providers and payers that are attempting to evolve two of their most critical business functions: how they deliver care and how they are compensated for it. The partnership model enables cultural alignment, integration into the provider care delivery and payment work-flow, contractual relationships and a cycle of clinical and cost improvement with shared financial benefit. In certain cases, we also agree to participate alongside our partners in risk-sharing or other support arrangements to increase our alignment of interests via performance-based relationships.

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Proven Leadership Team

We have made a significant investment in building an industry-leading management team. Our senior leadership team has extensive experience in the health care industry and a track record of delivering measurable clinical, financial and operational improvement for health care providers and payers. Our Chief Executive Officer, Seth Blackley, had served as our President since August 2011. Prior to co-founding the Company, Mr. Blackley was the Executive Director of Corporate Development and Strategic Planning at The Advisory Board from June 2007 to August 2011. Our President, Dan McCarthy, served as the New Century Health’s Chief Executive Officer since 2019 and held multiple leadership roles within Evolent since joining the Company in 2014. Prior to joining the Company, Mr. McCarthy was a leader at McKinsey & Company’s healthcare practice. Our Chief Financial Officer, John Johnson, served as the acting Chief Financial Officer for New Century Health along with various roles within the Company since 2016.

Growth Opportunities

Multiple Avenues for Growth with Our Existing, Embedded Partner Base

We have established a multi-year partnership model with multiple drivers of embedded growth through the following avenues:

growth in lives in existing covered populations;
partners expanding into new lines of value-based care to capture growth in new profit pools;
cross-selling additional solutions to existing partners; and
capturing value created through a variety of value-based arrangements by participating alongside our partners in upside risk sharing arrangements.

Ability to Capture Additional Value through Delivering Clinical Results

We are capturing only a portion of the addressable clinical and administrative dollars in the market through our current solutions. We believe there is a significant opportunity to capture an increasing portion of the medical dollar over time, namely the remainder of the premium dollar which goes to medical expenses, and we have begun to do so in certain performance-based relationships. We believe business models that allow us to participate in the medical savings through a variety of risk-sharing arrangements that align incentives to reduce costs and improve quality outcomes will enable us to grow and differentiate ourselves from other vendors. We anticipate the manner with which we partner and share in risk with health care providers will likely continue to evolve over time given the still nascent and fragmented nature of value-based care.

Expand Offerings to Meet Evolving Market Needs

There are multiple business offerings that our partners may require to operate in a value-based care environment that we do not currently provide, including but not limited to:

physician employment;
PBM expansion to include additional specialty pharmacy management capabilities;
additional Specialty Technology and Services Suite lines of business beyond oncology, cardiology and musculoskeletal, including kidney and fetal-maternal medicine care;
on-site or specialty clinic services; and
consumer engagement and digital outreach.

Selectively Pursue Strategic Acquisitions, Investments and Divestitures

We believe that the nature of our competitive landscape provides meaningful acquisition and investment opportunities. Our industry is in the early stages of its life cycle and there are multiple firms attempting to capitalize on the transformation of the care delivery model and the various forms of new profit pools. We believe that our partners will require an end-to-end solution and we believe we are well positioned to meet this demand by expanding the breadth of our offerings through not only organic growth, but also the acquisition of niche vendors and non-core portions of larger enterprises. From time to time, we may also pursue acquisition and investment opportunities of businesses related to services we currently provide or that are complementary to our technical capabilities. For example, we completed the following recent acquisitions which are expected to deepen capabilities of both Evolent and the acquired organizations, allowing cross-sell, an enhanced value proposition to partners and an opportunity to increase the margin profile of the combined organization:

On October 1, 2021, we completed the acquisition of Vital Decisions, a leading provider of technology-enabled advance care planning services.

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On August 1, 2022, we completed the acquisition of IPG, a leading technology and services company providing surgical management solutions for musculoskeletal conditions.
On January 20, 2023, we completed the acquisition of NIA (also known as “Magellan Specialty Health”), the specialty benefit management organization that focuses on managing cost and quality in the areas of radiology, musculoskeletal, physical medicine, and genetics.

As we grow, from time to time, we pursue and consummate opportunities to dispose of non-core businesses and assets.

Sales and Marketing

We market and sell our services to payers and providers throughout the United States. Our sales team works closely with our leadership team and subject matter experts to foster long-term relationships with our partners’ leadership and board of directors given the nature of our partnerships. Our dedicated business development team works closely with our partners to identify additional service opportunities on a continuous basis.

Partner Relationships

We have sought to partner with leading payers and providers in sizable markets, which we believe creates a growth cycle that benefits from the secular transition to value-based care.

Our contracts governing the relationships with our partners include key terms which may include the period of performance, revenue rates, advanced billing terms, service level agreements, termination clauses, exclusivity clauses and right of first refusal clauses. Typically, these contracts provide for a monthly payment calculated based on a specified rate multiplied by the number of members that our partners are managing. The specified rate varies depending on which market-facing solutions the partner has adopted and the number of our solutions they are utilizing. In some cases, we are responsible for paying for all, or substantially all, of the cost of care for a defined scope of health care services out of the revenue we receive. Some of our contracts allow for advance billing of our partners. In some of our contracts, a defined portion of the revenue is at risk and can be refunded to the partner if certain service levels are not attained. We monitor our compliance with the service levels to determine whether a refund will be provided and record an estimate of these refunds. In addition, certain of our contracts provide that if we fail to meet specified implementation targets, the contracts will terminate and we will be subject to financial penalties. The initial terms of New Century Health contracts, including contracts of IPG and Vital Decisions, typically are multi-year. While they typically contain year-to-year renewal provisions, we cannot assure you any or all of these contracts will be renewed in any particular year. NIA’s contracts with partners typically have stated terms of one to three years, and in certain cases contain renewal provisions (at the partner’s option) for successive terms of between one and two years (unless terminated earlier). Substantially all these contracts may be immediately terminated with cause and many of NIA’s contracts are terminable without cause by the customer or NIA either upon the giving of requisite notice and the passage of a specified period of time (typically between 30 and 180 days) or upon the occurrence of other specified events.

Although the revenue from our contracts is not guaranteed because certain of our contracts are terminable for convenience by our partners after a notice period has passed, certain partners would be required to pay us a termination fee in certain circumstances. Termination fees and the related notice period in certain of our contracts are determined based on the scope of the market-facing solutions that the partner has adopted and the duration of the contract. Most of our contracts include cure periods for certain breaches, during which time we may attempt to resolve any issues that would trigger a partner’s ability to terminate the contract. However, certain of our contracts are also terminable immediately on the occurrence of certain events. For example, some of our contracts may be terminated by the partner if we fail to achieve target performance metrics over a specified period. Certain of our contracts may be terminated by the partner immediately following repeated failures by us to provide specified levels of service over periods ranging from six months to more than a year. Certain of our contracts may be terminated immediately by the partner if we lose applicable licenses, go bankrupt, lose our liability insurance, become insolvent, file for bankruptcy or receive an exclusion, suspension or debarment from state or federal government authorities. Additionally, if a partner were to lose applicable licenses, go bankrupt, lose liability insurance, become insolvent, file for bankruptcy or receive an exclusion, suspension or debarment from state or federal government authorities, our contract with such partner could in effect be terminated. The loss, termination or renegotiation of any contract could negatively impact our results. In addition, as our partners’ businesses respond to market dynamics and financial pressures, and as our partners make strategic business decisions in respect of the lines of business they pursue and programs in which they participate, we expect that certain of our partners will, from time to time, seek to restructure their agreements with us.

The contracts may contain exclusivity or other restrictive provisions which are negotiated on an individual basis and vary depending on many factors, including the term and scope of the contract. The term of these exclusivity and other restrictive provisions typically corresponds to the term of the contract. These exclusivity or other restrictive provisions may apply to specific competitors of our partners or specific geographic areas, subject to certain exceptions. Accordingly, these exclusivity clauses may prevent us from entering into relationships with certain potential partners.


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The contracts with our partners impose other obligations on us. For example, we typically agree that all services provided under the partner contract and all employees providing such services will comply with our partner’s policies and procedures. In addition, in most instances, we have agreed to indemnify our partners against certain third-party claims, which may include claims that our services infringe the intellectual property rights of such third parties.

Competition

The market for our solutions is fragmented, competitive and characterized by rapidly evolving technology standards, customer needs and the frequent introduction of new products and services. Our competitors range from smaller niche companies to large, well-financed and technologically-sophisticated entities. Some of our competitors are more established, benefit from greater brand recognition, have larger client bases and have substantially greater financial, technical and marketing resources. The entrance or expansion of these larger companies in the managed healthcare industry (including our customers who have in-sourced or who may choose to in-source healthcare services) could increase the competitive pressures we face and could limit our ability to maintain or increase our rates. Other competitors have proprietary technology that differentiates their product and service offerings from ours. Our competitors are constantly developing products and services that may become more efficient or appealing to our existing partners and potential partners. Additionally, some health care information technology providers have begun to incorporate enhanced analytical tools and functionality into their core product and service offerings used by health care providers. Our partners may also choose to insource solution functions from us in part or in whole. Our services solutions compete based on several factors, including breadth, depth and quality of product and service offerings, ability to deliver clinical, financial and operational performance improvement using products and services, quality and reliability of services, ease of use and convenience, brand recognition and the ability to integrate services with existing technology. We also compete based on price and aligned performance relationships and are subject to pricing pressures as a result of, among other things, competition within the industry, consolidation of health care industry participants, practices of managed care organizations, government action and financial stress experienced by our partners.

Government Regulation

Our business is subject to extensive, complex and rapidly changing federal and state laws and regulations. Various federal and state agencies have discretion to issue regulations and interpret and enforce health care laws. While we believe we comply in all material respects with applicable health care and insurance laws and regulations, these regulations can vary significantly from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, and interpretation of existing laws and regulations may change periodically. Federal and state legislatures also may enact various legislative proposals that could materially impact certain aspects of our business. The following are summaries of key federal and state laws and regulations that impact our operations:

Governmental Health Care Programs & Health Care Reform

We are subject to regulation by both CMS and state agencies with respect to certain services we provide relating to Medicaid and Medicare programs. Medicare is a federal program that provides hospital and medical insurance benefits to persons age 65 and over, as well as certain other individuals. Medicaid programs are jointly funded by federal and state governments and are administered by states under an approved plan that provides hospital and other health care benefits to qualifying individuals. As we increase our exposure to Medicare and Medicaid businesses through new and existing partners, we increase our exposure to changes in government policy with respect to and regulation of the Medicaid and Medicare programs in which we and our partners participate.

Because some of our partners are participants in governmental programs, our services have in the past and may again in the future be subject to periodic surveys and audits by governmental entities or contractors for compliance with Medicare and other standards and requirements. As a result of surveys or audits, we may incur fines and penalties, and could be excluded from participating in one or more programs or institute other sanctions against us if we fail to comply with CMS regulations or Medicare and Medicaid contractual requirements.

The regulations and requirements applicable to us and other participants in Medicaid and Medicare programs are complex and subject to change. In particular, prior authorization standards and requirements, including Medicaid and Medicare programs, have come under increased scrutiny at the state and federal level. Many states have proposed, and some have passed, bills which prescribe how providers and services which meet certain approval rates become exempt from prior authorization for a period of time. Medicare Advantage Organization (“MAOs”) utilization management practices have been the focus of a 2022 report by the Department of Health and Human Services Office of Inspector General as well as new final rules by (CMS-4201-F and CMS-0057-F). CMS-4201-F, effective calendar year 2024, imposes several requirements on MAOs with respect to their use of prior authorization. CMS-0057-F further imposes stricter medical necessity decision timeframes on federal managed care programs, effective CY 2026, as well as complex technical interface requirements for Medicare and Medicaid which are to facilitate increased data sharing between managed care plans, enrollees and providers and streamline the prior authorization process.


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The U.S. Congress (“Congress”) and state and local legislatures and regulators may propose and adopt legislation or policy changes or implementations effecting additional fundamental changes with respect to Medicare and Medicaid programs. Such changes in the law, or new interpretations of existing laws, may have a significant impact on our methods and costs of doing business. Additionally, expansion of enforcement activity could adversely affect our business and financial condition. Going forward, we expect CMS, Congress, and state agencies to continue to closely scrutinize each component of the Medicare and Medicaid programs, as well as modify the terms and requirements of the programs. It is not possible to predict the outcome of this congressional or regulatory activity, either of which could adversely affect us. Similarly, we cannot predict whether pending or future federal or state legislation or court proceedings will change various aspects of the Medicaid and Medicare programs, nor can we predict the impact those changes will have on our business operations or financial results, but the effects could be materially adverse.

In addition, Congress, state legislatures and third-party payers may continue to review and assess alternative health care delivery and payment systems and may in the future propose and adopt legislation or policy changes or implementations effecting additional fundamental changes in the health care delivery system, including with respect to Medicare, and Medicaid, and exchange programs. We cannot assure you as to the ultimate content, timing, or effect of any changes, nor is it possible at this time to estimate the impact of any such potential legislation or changes. Health care reform has resulted in profound changes to the individual health insurance market and our business, and we expect these changes to continue.

Fraud, Waste and Abuse Laws

Investigating and prosecuting healthcare fraud, waste and abuse continues to be a top priority for state and federal law enforcement entities. The focus of these efforts has been directed at Medicare, Medicaid, the ACA’s Health Insurance Marketplace (“Health Insurance Marketplace”) and commercial products. Compliance with these laws may require substantial resources. We are constantly looking for ways to improve our fraud, waste and abuse detection methods. The fraud, waste and abuse laws include federal and state anti-kickback laws that generally prohibit the payment or receipt of kickbacks, bribes or other remuneration in exchange for the referral of patients or other health-related business. The United States federal health care programs’ Anti-Kickback Statute makes it unlawful for individuals or entities knowingly and willfully to solicit, offer, receive or pay any kickback, bribe or other remuneration, directly or indirectly, in exchange for or to induce the referral of an individual to a person for the furnishing or arranging for the furnishing of any item or service for which payment may be made in whole or in part under a federal health care program or the purchase, lease or order, or arranging for or recommending purchasing, leasing or ordering, any good, facility, service, or item for which payment may be made in whole or in part under a federal health care program. Penalties for violations include criminal penalties and civil sanctions such as fines, imprisonment and possible exclusion from federal health care programs. If an arrangement falls outside the safe harbors, it must be evaluated on its specific facts to assess whether regulatory authorities might take the position that one purpose of the arrangement is to induce referrals of federal health care program business. Our business arrangements may implicate the Anti-Kickback Statute, and we evaluate whether investment and compensation arrangements being developed by us on behalf of clients and providers fall within one of the safe harbors or Medicare Shared Savings Program waiver. If not, we consider the factors that regulatory authorities are likely to consider in attempting to identify the intent behind such arrangements. We also design business models that reduce the risk that any such arrangements might be viewed as abusive and trigger Anti-Kickback Statute claims.

The federal civil False Claims Act imposes liability on any person or entity who, among other things, knowingly presents, or causes to be presented, a false or fraudulent claim for payment by a federal health care program. The “qui tam” or “whistleblower” provisions of the False Claims Act allow a private individual to bring actions on behalf of the federal government alleging that the defendant has submitted a false claim to the federal government, and to share in any monetary recovery. Our activities relating to the way we sell and market our services, including our risk adjustment solution, may be subject to scrutiny under these laws.

The HIPAA health care fraud statute created a class of federal crimes, including health care fraud and false statements relating to health care matters, known as the “federal health care offenses.” The HIPAA health care fraud statute prohibits, among other things, executing a scheme to defraud any health care benefit program, while the HIPAA false statements statute prohibits, among other things, concealing a material fact or making a materially false statement in connection with the payment for health care benefits, items or services. Entities that are found to have aided or abetted in a violation of the HIPAA federal health care offenses are deemed by statute to have committed the offense and are punishable as a principal.

In addition, we may be subject to federal and state “self-referral” laws, which generally prohibit physicians from referring patients for items covered by Medicare or Medicaid to entities with which the physician has a financial relationship, unless that relationship falls within a specified exception. The Stark Law is a strict liability statute and is violated even if the parties did not have an improper intent to induce physician referrals. The Stark Law is relevant to our business because we frequently organize arrangements of various kinds under which (a) physicians and hospitals jointly invest in and own ACOs, clinically integrated networks and other entities that engage in value-based contracting with third-party payers or (b) physicians are paid by hospitals or hospital affiliates for care management, medical or other services related to value-based contracts. We evaluate when these investment and compensation arrangements create financial relationships under the Stark Law and design structures that are intended to satisfy exceptions under the Stark Law or Medicare Shared Savings Program waiver.

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Antitrust Laws

The antitrust laws are designed to prevent competitors from jointly fixing prices. However, competitors often work collaboratively to reduce the cost of health care and improve quality. To balance these competing goals, antitrust enforcement agencies have established a regulatory framework under which claims of per se price fixing can be avoided if a network of competitors (such as an ACO or clinically integrated network) is financially or clinically integrated. In this context, we evaluate the tests for financial and clinical integration that would be applied to the provider networks that we are helping to create and support, including the nature and extent of any financial risk that must be assumed to be deemed financially integrated and the types of programs that must be implemented to achieve clinical integration. However, even if a network is integrated, it is still subject to a “rule of reason” test to determine whether its activities are, on balance, pro-competitive. The key factors in the rule of reason analysis are market share and exclusivity. We focus on network size, composition and contracting policies to strengthen our partners’ position that their networks meet the rule of reason test.

Privacy and Data Security

We are subject to various federal, state and local laws and rules regarding the use, security and disclosure of protected health information, personal information, and other categories of confidential or legally protected data that we handle. Such laws and rules include, without limitation, HIPAA, the Federal Trade Commission Act, the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Financial Modernization Act of 1999 (Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act), and state privacy and security laws such as the California Privacy Rights Act. Privacy and security laws and regulations often change due to new or amended legislation, regulations or administrative interpretation. A variety of state and federal regulators enforce these laws, including but not limited to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Federal Trade Commission, state attorneys general and other state regulators.

By processing data on behalf of our partners, we are subject to specific compliance obligations under privacy and data security-related laws, including HIPAA, the HITECH Act and related state laws. We are also subject to federal and state security breach notification laws, as well as state laws regulating the processing of protected personal information, including laws governing the collection, use and disclosure of social security numbers and related identifiers. The regulations that implement HIPAA and the HITECH Act establish uniform standards governing the conduct of certain electronic health care transactions and protecting the security and privacy of individually identifiable health information maintained or transmitted by health care providers, health plans and health care clearinghouses, all of which are referred to as “covered entities,” and their “business associates” (which includes anyone who performs a service on behalf of a covered entity involving the use or disclosure of protected health information and is not a member of the covered entity’s workforce). Our partners’ health plans generally will be covered entities, and, as their business associate, they require us to contractually comply with certain aspects of these standards by entering into requisite business associate agreements.

In addition to federal regulations issued under HIPAA, several states have enacted privacy and security statutes or regulations, which we refer to as state privacy laws, that govern the use and disclosure of a person’s medical information or records and, in some cases, are more stringent than those issued under HIPAA. These state privacy laws include regulation of employers; regulation of organizations that perform certain administrative functions, such as UR, or TPA; issuance of notices of privacy practices; and reporting and providing access to law enforcement authorities. In those cases, it may be necessary to modify our operations and procedures to comply with these more stringent state privacy laws. If we fail to comply with applicable state privacy laws, we could be subject to additional sanctions.

Federal and state consumer protection laws are being applied increasingly by the FTC, Federal Communications Commission and states’ attorneys general to regulate the collection, use, storage and disclosure of personal or patient information, through websites or otherwise, and to regulate the presentation of website content and to regulate direct marketing, including telemarketing and telephonic communication. Courts may also adopt the standards for fair information practices promulgated by the FTC, which concern consumer notice, choice, security and access.

Other State Laws

State insurance laws require licenses for certain health plan administrative activities, including TPA licenses for the processing, handling and adjudication of health insurance claims and UR agent licenses for providing medical management services. Given the nature and scope of services that we provide to certain partners, we are required to maintain TPA and UR agent licenses and ensure that such licenses are in good standing on an annual basis. In addition, laws in many states govern prompt payment obligations for health care services. These laws generally define claims payment processes and set specific time frames for submission, payment, and appeal steps. Failure to meet these requirements and time frames may result in rejection, delay of claims and possible interest and regulatory penalties. The Company has also established a captive insurance company under the laws of the State of Vermont and is subject to the captive insurance laws of that state.


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Intellectual Property

Our continued growth and success depend, in part, on our ability to protect our intellectual property and proprietary technology, including our Identifi® software and CareProTM platform. We primarily protect our intellectual property through a combination of copyrights, trademarks and trade secrets, intellectual property licenses and other contractual rights (including confidentiality, non-disclosure and assignment-of-invention agreements with our employees, independent contractors, consultants and companies with which we conduct business).

However, these intellectual property rights and procedures may not prevent others from creating a competitive online presence or otherwise competing with us. We may be unable to obtain, maintain and enforce the intellectual property rights on which our business depends, and assertions by third parties that we violate their intellectual property rights could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. For additional information related to our intellectual property position see “Part I - Item 1A. Risk Factors - Risks relating to Data Protection, Privacy, Cybersecurity, Intellectual Property and Technology.”

Research and Development

Our research and development expenditures primarily consist of our strategic investment in enhancing the functionality and usability of our software, Identifi® and developing programs and processes to maximize care delivery efficiency and effectiveness. We also capitalize software development costs related to Identifi® and CareProTM. Our research and development expenditures and capitalized software development costs also include the suite of products developed primarily by New Century Health.

Human Capital Management

We believe our people differentiate our business and power our mission. As of December 31, 2023, we had approximately 4,700 global employees. None of our employees are represented by a labor union, and we are not a party to any collective bargaining agreements. Our primary human capital objective is to attract, retain and develop great talent that is committed to our mission and business objectives. We focus on the following areas to this strategy:

Talent Attraction, Selection, and Hiring
Employee Compensation and Incentives
Employee Training and Career Development
Employee Well Being
Diversity, Equity and Inclusion (“DEI”)

Talent Attraction, Selection, and Hiring

We seek to source the right talent by looking at both internal and external talent pools.

We make key investments in tools and resources to help engage and attract talent through modern recruitment practices. This includes in-bound (job postings/ referrals) and outbound (outreach to passive talent) strategies aimed at casting a wide net to engage the best talent available to us. We are rigorous in our selection process to facilitate alignment with our company values and core needs of teams. And finally, we conduct background checks and have a comprehensive onboarding program.

Employee Compensation and Incentives

We aim to attract and retain the highest caliber of health care talent. We believe in pay for performance and structure our compensation to annually incentivize and reward high performance. We periodically review and evaluate our compensation and pay practices for market competitiveness.

Employee Growth and Development

We believe the continued growth and development of our talent is critical to maintaining our success and growth as a company. We have established a global talent management approach to invest in our employees’ ongoing learning and to identify and develop talent that accelerates our business. We support a culture of growth and development through engaging and relevant resources including Evolent-exclusive live learnings and curated, on-demand content through LinkedIn Learning. These resources are available to all employees through our online learning center. We also believe in providing challenging and diverse experiences and opportunities to

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our people to help them develop and grow in their skills and impact. We rely on shared values and a leadership framework to create an environment with clear expectations and where everyone has the opportunity to develop and grow.

Additionally, we continue to deepen our internal mobility program, initially launched in 2020, aimed at retaining talent. The program gives employees the visibility and opportunity to apply for positions within their current teams as well as companywide. Our commitment to posting open vacancies across the organization on our internal jobs board allows us to identify well-qualified internal talent and assess their readiness for the next step in their career. We believe this not only benefits the personal growth of our employees but allows Evolent to retain key talent.

Employee Well-Being

Our approach to employee well-being reflects the spirit of our mission to change the health of the nation. We believe that we have a responsibility to support our people’s health and well-being. We provide our employees with benefits including medical insurance, dental, vision, paid time off, and 401k plan with company match for eligible employees. In addition, we offer fertility support, bariatric surgery, diabetes, and hypertension program offerings, as well as 100% paid pregnancy leave and parental leave. Employees and their families can access mental health resources as part of their benefits, covering a spectrum of mental wellness needs. In addition, we have an active employee listening strategy, including employee surveys, personal impact days to promote social improvement engagement, an employee relief fund, holistic wellness initiatives during the year that include yoga, cooking sessions, meditation, and wellness challenges.

Diversity, Equity and Inclusion

Evolent stands firm behind its commitment to DEI efforts, and overall non-discrimination practices. Evolent is an equal opportunity employer and works to create an environment where diverse perspectives can belong, grow, and lead regardless of gender, national origin, ethnicity, or other protected class. Our focus on building a diverse, equitable and inclusive culture has included executive coaching and development programming that supports diverse talent, leadership training in DEI throughout the organization and the hiring of a Head of Diversity, Equity and Inclusion. Additionally, we have strengthened our key talent processes (hiring, performance reviews) with the objective of supporting data-based decision making. The table below presents certain demographic data based on our latest engagement surveys for each of the respective years below (results are based on self-identification):

December 31,
202320222021
Gender (global representation)
Women68%62 %62 %
Men32%38 %38 %
Racial and ethnic minorities (U.S. representation)
Black or African American21.4%22.2 %21.8 %
Asian10.8%12.6 %13.8 %
Hispanic or Latino11.7%14.1 %12.1 %
Two or more races3.0%2.8 %2.7 %
American Indian or Alaska Native0.4%0.3 %0.2 %
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander0.4%0.4 %0.4 %
Leadership Representation (Managing Director level or above)
Women50 %48 %50 %
Racial and ethnic minorities30 %28 %29 %
Employee self-identification (U.S. representation)
LGBTQ+11.3 %8.7 %7.2 %
Veteran10.1 %2.0 %2.4 %
Disabled Individual13.9 %7.8 %4.8 %


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Information about our Executive Officers

Our executive officers as of February 22, 2024, were as follows:

NameAgePosition
Seth Blackley45Chief Executive Officer
Dan McCarthy39President
John Johnson40Chief Financial Officer
Emily Rafferty41Chief Operating Officer
Jonathan Weinberg56General Counsel
Aammaad Shams40Chief Accounting Officer

Seth Blackley is our co-founder and has served as our Chief Executive Officer since October 2020 and served as our President from August 2011 until his promotion. Prior to co-founding the Company, Mr. Blackley was the Executive Director of Corporate Development and Strategic Planning at The Advisory Board from June 2007 to August 2011. Mr. Blackley began his career as an analyst in the Washington, D.C. office of McKinsey & Company. Mr. Blackley holds a Bachelor of Arts degree in business from The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and a Master of Business Administration from Harvard Business School.

Dan McCarthy has served as our President since September 2022. Prior to his role as President, Mr. McCarthy was the New Century Health Chief Executive Officer since 2019, and prior to that held multiple leadership roles within Evolent since joining the Company in 2014. Mr. McCarthy came to Evolent from McKinsey & Company, where he was a leader in the firm's health care practice. Mr. McCarthy holds an M.B.A. from Harvard Business School, where he was a Goldsmith Fellow, and received a B.A. from Georgetown University.

John Johnson has served as our Chief Financial Officer since July 2019. Prior to his role as Chief Financial Officer, Mr. Johnson was acting Chief Financial Officer for New Century Health from March 2019 to June 2019. Prior to his New Century Health role, Mr. Johnson was Senior Vice President, Corporate Performance at Evolent Health from January 2018 to March 2019 and Vice President, Corporate Performance at Evolent Health from April 2016 to December 2017. Prior to joining the Company, Mr. Johnson was the Managing Partner at Riverbend Analytics, LLC from December 2015 until April 2016 and the Vice President of Strategy at PSA Healthcare from February 2013 until November 2015. Mr. Johnson holds a Bachelor of Arts degree in Physics from Cornell University.

Emily Rafferty has served as our Chief Operating Officer since July 2023. Prior to her role as Chief Operating Officer, Ms. Rafferty held multiple leadership roles within the Company, including President and Chief Operating Officer of Evolent Health Services, a former reporting segment of the Company, from September 2020 to June 2023, President. Market Operations and Pharmacy Services, from February 2018 to July 2019, and Senior Vice President, Advisory Services, from October 2016 to January 2018. Prior to joining the Company, Ms. Rafferty was Vice President of Provider Consulting at Optum, working closely with health systems in revenue-cycle strategy and process design, inclusive of clinical documentation improvement. Ms. Rafferty holds a B.B.A. in economics and management from University of Iowa and completed the Executive Development Program at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania.

Jonathan Weinberg has served as our General Counsel since January 2014. Prior to joining Evolent, Mr. Weinberg was a Senior Vice President and Deputy General Counsel for Coventry Health Care, Inc. (Aetna Inc.) from 1999 to 2013, and oversaw the day-to-day management of the legal department as well as the company’s risk management department. Prior to joining Coventry, Mr. Weinberg was an associate and then partner at Epstein Becker and Green, P.C. in the firm’s health care practice, specializing in managed care issues from 1992 to 2002. Mr. Weinberg received his Bachelor of Arts in history and political science from the University of Wisconsin-Madison and his juris doctorate from the Catholic University of America.

Aammaad Shams has served as our Chief Accounting Officer since August 2022. Prior to his current role, Mr. Shams was the Company’s Controller from June 2020 to August 2022 and Assistant Corporate Controller from January 2020 to June 2020. Mr. Shams also served as Senior Director of Technical Accounting from April 2018 to June 2019 and Senior Director of Accounting from July 2019 until December 2019. Prior to joining the Company, Mr. Shams was a Director in KPMG, LLP’s Accounting Advisory Services practice from June 2015 until March 2018. Mr. Shams is a Certified Public Accountant in the Commonwealth of Virginia.


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Our executive officers are elected annually by our Board of Directors. All executive officers serve until their successors are duly chosen or elected and qualified, except in the case of earlier death, resignation or removal.

Corporate Information

Evolent began business operations in August 2011. Evolent Health, Inc., the registrant, was incorporated in the State of Delaware in December 2014. We completed our IPO in June 2015 and our Class A common stock is listed on the NYSE under the symbol “EVH”. Evolent Health, Inc. is a holding company whose principal asset is all of the Class A common units it holds in Evolent Health LLC, and its only business is to act as sole managing member of Evolent Health LLC. Substantially all of our operations are conducted through Evolent Health LLC and its consolidated subsidiaries and the financial results of Evolent Health LLC are consolidated in the financial statements of Evolent Health, Inc.

Website to Access Our Reports

Our internet website address is www.evolent.com. In addition to the information about us and our subsidiaries contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, information about us can be found on our website including information on our corporate governance principles and practices. Our Investor Relations website at ir.evolenthealth.com contains a significant amount of information about us, including financial and other information for investors. We use the investor relations page of our website for purposes of compliance with Regulation FD and as a routine channel for distribution of important information, including news releases, investor presentations, financial information and corporate governance practices. We encourage investors to visit our website, as we frequently update and post new information about our company on our website and it is possible that this information could be deemed to be material information. Our website and information included in or linked to our website are not part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

We make available, free of charge, on or through our website our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC.


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Item 1A. Risk Factors

The following summary highlights some of the principal risks that could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations. This summary is not complete and the risks summarized below are not the only risks we face. These risks are discussed more fully further below. These risks include, but are not limited to, the following:

We may be unable to efficiently integrate NIA into our operations.
The historical financial information of NIA related to the NIA acquisition may not be a reliable indicator of future results.
We derive a significant portion of our revenues from our largest partners.
The market for value-based health care in the United States is rapidly evolving.
The health care regulatory and political framework is uncertain and evolving.
If we are unable to offer new and innovative products and services or our products and services fail to keep pace our results of operations may suffer.
We have made and entered, and may in the future make and enter acquisitions, investments and alliances and joint ventures, which may be difficult to integrate, result in unanticipated costs or dilute our stockholders.
Our revenues and growth rely, in part, on our partners and revenues from our engagements, which are subject to factors outside of our control.
Failure to accurately predict our exposure under performance-based contracts could result in a reduction in profitability.
If we fail to effectively manage our growth and costs, our business could be harmed.
Public health emergencies have adversely affected, and could in the future, adversely affect our business and the business of our customers and suppliers.
Our offshore support and professional services may prove difficult to manage or may not allow us to realize our cost reduction goals.
If we lose key members of our management team or employees or are unable to attract and retain employees, our compensation costs will increase and our business and operating results will be adversely affected.
We have recorded a significant amount of goodwill, and we may never realize the full value of our intangible assets, causing us to record impairments that may negatively affect our results of operations.
We may need to obtain additional financing.
We have experienced net losses in the past and we may not achieve profitability in the future.
We are and may become subject to litigation, proceedings, government inquiries, reviews, audits or investigations.
We typically incur significant upfront costs in our partner relationships, and if we are unable to develop or grow these partner relationships over time, we are unlikely to recover these costs and our operating results may suffer.
If we do not continue to attract new partners and successfully capture new opportunities with new or existing partners, we may not achieve our financial projections, and our results of operations would be harmed.
The costs of compliance with sustainability or other environmental, social responsibility or governance laws, regulations, or policies, including investor and client-driven policies and standards, could adversely affect our business.
As we enter into an increasing number and variety of risk sharing arrangements with partners, our revenues and profitability could be limited and negatively impacted.
If the estimates and assumptions we use to determine the size of the target markets for our services are inaccurate, our future growth rate may be impacted and our business would be harmed.
Consolidation in the health care industry could have a material adverse effect on us.
We face intense competition, which could limit our ability to maintain or expand market share within our industry, and if we do not maintain or expand our market share our business and operating results will be harmed.
Increasing inflationary pressures and consumer costs may have a negative effect on our margins, profitability and results of operations.
We are subject to data privacy and protection laws.
Data loss or corruption due to failures or errors in our systems or service disruptions at our data centers may adversely affect our reputation and relationships with existing partners, which could have a negative impact on us.
Our business is subject to online security risks, and if we are unable to safeguard the security and privacy of confidential data, we may face significant liabilities and our reputation and business will be harmed.
If we are unable to obtain, maintain and enforce intellectual property protection, others may be able to develop and commercialize technology and products similar to ours, and our ability to commercialize our technology and products may be adversely affected.
If our trademarks and trade names are not adequately protected, we may not be able to build name recognition in our markets of interest and our business may be adversely affected.

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Third parties may initiate legal proceedings alleging that we are infringing or otherwise violating their intellectual property rights, the outcome of which would be uncertain and could have a material adverse effect on us.
Our use of “open source” software could adversely affect our ability to offer our services and subject us to possible litigation.
If we are unable to protect the confidentiality of our trade secrets, know-how and other proprietary information, the value of our technology and products could be adversely affected.
We do not control the intellectual property rights covering certain technologies and any loss of rights to these technologies or the rights licensed to us could prevent us from developing and/or commercializing our products.
Any restrictions on our use of, or ability to license, data, or our failure to license data and integrate third-party technologies, could have a material adverse effect on us.
We rely on Internet infrastructure, bandwidth providers, data center providers, other third parties and our own systems for providing services to our partners, and any failure or interruption in the services provided by these third parties or our own systems could expose us to litigation and negatively impact our relationships with partners, adversely affecting our brand and our business.
We rely on third-party vendors to host and maintain our technology platform.
If we identify material weaknesses in the future, we and our auditor may conclude that our internal control over financial reporting is not effective and we may be unable to produce timely and accurate financial statements.
We are required to pay certain of our pre-IPO investors for certain tax benefits we may claim in the future, and these amounts are expected to be material.
We will not be reimbursed for any payments made under the TRA in the event that any tax benefits are disallowed.
The agreements between us and certain of our pre-IPO investors were made in the context of an affiliated relationship and may contain different terms than comparable agreements with unaffiliated third parties.
The conditional conversion feature of the 2025 Notes and the 2029 Notes (each as defined below), if triggered, may adversely affect our financial condition and operating results.
We are exposed to interest rate risk, which could cause the Company’s debt service obligations to increase significantly.
Our debt following the NIA acquisition is significant and could adversely affect our business and our ability to meet our obligations.
Servicing our debt requires a significant amount of cash, and we may not have sufficient cash flow from our business to pay our debt.
Our Series A Preferred Stock has rights, preferences and privileges that are not held by, and are preferential to, the rights of holders of our Class A common stock.
The market price of our Class A common stock could decline due to the large number of shares of Class A common stock issuable upon conversion of our convertible notes or the Series A Preferred Stock, or by sales or issuances of substantial amounts of our Class A common stock.
We do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future.

Our business, operations and financial position are subject to various risks. You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below, together with all of the other information in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including the audited annual financial statements and notes thereto included elsewhere in this Form 10-K, when evaluating your investment in our securities. The risks and uncertainties described below are those that we currently believe may materially affect the Company. Additional risks and uncertainties of which we are unaware or that we currently deem immaterial also may become important factors that affect the Company. If any of the following risks are realized, our business, financial condition, operating results and prospects could be materially and adversely affected. In that event, the price of our securities could decline, and you could lose part or all of your investment. Some statements in this Form 10-K, including statements in the following risk factors, constitute forward-looking statements. Please refer to the section entitled “Forward-Looking Statements - Cautionary Language.”

Risks relating to the NIA acquisition

We may be unable to efficiently integrate NIA into our operations.

The successful integration of the NIA business and operations into those of our own, and our ability to realize the expected synergies and benefits of the NIA acquisition are subject to a number of risks and uncertainties, many of which are outside of our control. We have been and may continue to be required to devote significant management attention and resources to integrating business practices, cultures and operations of each business. The risks and uncertainties relating to integrating the two businesses, and realizing the anticipated cost synergies, include, among other things:

the challenge of integrating complex organizations, platforms, systems, operating procedures, compliance programs, technology, networks and other assets of NIA;
the difficulties harmonizing differences in the business cultures of our company and NIA;

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the inability to combine successfully our respective businesses in a manner that permits us to achieve the cost savings, revenue synergies and other anticipated benefits from the NIA acquisition;
the inability to minimize the diversion of management attention from ongoing business concerns during the process of integrating NIA into our businesses;
the inability to resolve potential conflicts that may arise relating to customer, supplier and other important relationships of our business and NIA; and
difficulties in retaining key management and other key employees.

We have incurred substantial expenses to consummate the NIA acquisition but may not realize the anticipated cost synergies, revenue synergies and other benefits to the extent expected, on the timeline expected, or at all. In addition, even if we are able to integrate the NIA business successfully, the anticipated benefits of the NIA acquisition may not be realized fully, or at all, or may take longer to realize than expected. Moreover, competition may also cause us not to fully realize the anticipated benefits of the NIA acquisition. Given the size and significance of the NIA acquisition, we may encounter difficulties in the integration of the operations of NIA and may fail to realize the full benefits and synergies of the NIA acquisition, which could adversely impact our business, results of operation and financial condition.

The historical combined financial information of NIA may not be a reliable indicator of future results.

The historical audited and unaudited financial information of NIA that was included in Amendment Nos. 1 and 2 filed with the SEC on September 26, 2023 and October 16, 2023, respectively, to our Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on January 23, 2023, and our Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on November 3, 2023 (collectively, the “NIA Historical Financial Statements”), was prepared on a carve-out basis from Centene Corporation (“Centene”), which required certain assumptions and estimates based on accounting data extracted from accounting data books that were used when preparing the consolidated financial statements of Centene.

Accordingly, the NIA Historical Financial Statements were derived from the historical accounting records of Centene, and we anticipate that significant changes will occur in NIA’s cost structure, financing and business operations as a result of our operation of it as part of our larger corporate organization. Such historical financial information may therefore not reflect what NIA’s results of operations, financial position or cash flows would have been had it been a standalone company during the periods presented, or what they would have been had NIA been operated by us as part of our larger corporate organization during the periods presented, and may not be indicative of what NIA’s results of operations, financial position or cash flows will be in the future. In addition, our accounting policies may differ from those reflected in the carve-out financial statements.

The pro forma financial information related to the NIA acquisition was prepared for informational purposes only and may not be an indication of our financial condition or results of operations in the future.

The unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial statements included in Amendment Nos. 1 and 2 filed with the SEC on September 26, 2023 and October 16, 2023, respectively, to our Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on January 23, 2023, and our Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on November 3, 2023, were presented for informational purposes only and are not necessarily indicative of what our actual financial condition or results of operations would have been had the NIA acquisition, Amendment No. 1 to the Credit Agreement (as defined below) and sale of the Series A Preferred Stock been completed on the date indicated. The assumptions used in preparing the pro forma financial information may not prove to be accurate and other factors may affect our financial condition or results of operations. Accordingly, our financial condition and results of operations in the future may not be consistent with, or evident from, such pro forma financial information.

Risks relating to our Business and Industry

We derive a significant portion of our revenues from our largest partners. The loss, termination or renegotiation of our relationship or contract with a significant partner, or multiple partners in the aggregate, could negatively impact our results.

Historically, we have relied on a limited number of partners for a substantial portion of our total revenue. Our three largest partners in terms of revenue, Cook County Health and Hospitals System, Molina Healthcare, Inc. (“Molina”) and Humana Insurance Company comprised 15.7%, 13.5% and 12.0%, respectively, of our revenue for the year ended December 31, 2023. In addition, our partnership with Centene has grown, both as a result of the NIA acquisition and from other partnership opportunities. The loss of any of these partners, or any other significant partner, pursuant to a reprocurement process or otherwise, or the non-renewal or renegotiation of any of our significant partner contracts, could adversely affect our results.

In the ordinary course of business, we engage in active discussions and renegotiations, and at times we are required to participate in reprocurement or other request for proposal (“RFP”) exercises with our partners in respect of the services we provide and the terms of our partner agreements, including our fees. Certain of our partners are subject to Medicaid health plans with state contracts that come

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up for renewal from time to time and can be subject to an RFP process. If a partner loses its contract or an RFP process it would cause the Company to lose that portion of the customer’s business. In addition, we may not successfully win new contracts or renewals of existing contracts through competitive market standard reprocurement or RFP processes. As partners’ businesses respond to market dynamics and financial pressures, and as partners make strategic business decisions in respect of the lines of business they pursue and programs in which they participate, certain of our and NIA’s partners have renegotiated or terminated, or not renewed, and we expect that in the future additional partners will, from time to time, seek to renegotiate or terminate or not renew their agreements with us. The impact of these actions have included, and in the future could include making organizational changes across our business as well as other profitability initiatives that may result in reductions in force, re-aligning of resources as well as other potential operational efficiency and cost-reduction initiatives and could result in reductions to the fees and changes to the scope of services contemplated by our original partner contracts and consequently have and could negatively impact our revenues, financial results (including potential impairments), business and prospects.

Because we rely on a limited number of partners for a significant portion of our revenues, we depend on the creditworthiness of these partners. Our partners are subject to a number of risks including reductions in payment rates from governmental payers, higher than expected health care costs and lack of predictability of financial results when entering new lines of business, particularly with high-risk populations, such as plans established under the ACA and Aged, Blind and Disabled Medicaid. If the financial condition of our partners declines, our credit risk could increase. Should one or more of our significant partners declare bankruptcy, be declared insolvent or otherwise be restricted by state or federal laws or regulation from continuing in some or all of their operations, this could adversely affect our ongoing revenues, financial results (including potential impairments), the collectability of our accounts receivable and our bad debt reserves and net income (loss).

Although we have long-term contracts with many partners, these contracts may be terminated before their term expires for various reasons, such as changes in the regulatory landscape and poor performance by us, subject to certain conditions. For example, after a specified period, certain of our contracts are terminable for convenience by the partner after a notice period has passed and, in certain cases, the partner has paid a termination fee. Certain contracts are terminable immediately upon the occurrence of certain events. For example, some contracts may be terminated by the partner if we fail to achieve target performance metrics over a specified period. Certain contracts may be terminated by the partner immediately following repeated failures by us to provide specified levels of service. Certain contracts may be terminated immediately by the partner if we lose applicable licenses, go bankrupt, lose our liability insurance or receive an exclusion, suspension or debarment from state or federal government authorities. Additionally, if a partner were to lose applicable licenses, go bankrupt, lose liability insurance, become insolvent, file for bankruptcy or receive an exclusion, suspension or debarment from state or federal government authorities, the contract with such partner could in effect be terminated. In addition, certain contracts may be terminated immediately if we become insolvent or file for bankruptcy. If any contracts with partners are terminated, we may not be able to recover all fees due under the terminated contract, which may adversely affect our operating results. In addition, certain contracts provide that if we fail to meet specified implementation targets, the contracts will terminate and we will be subject to financial penalties. While they typically contain year-to-year renewal provisions, we cannot assure that any or all of these contracts will be renewed in any particular year. We expect that future contracts will contain similar provisions to those described in this paragraph. The market for value-based health care in the United States continues to evolve, which makes it difficult to forecast demand for our products and services.

The market for value-based health care in the United States is rapidly evolving. Our future financial performance will depend in part on growth in this market and on our ability to adapt to emerging demands of this market. It is difficult to predict with any precision the future growth rate and size of our target markets.

The rapidly evolving nature of the markets in which we operate, as well as other factors that are beyond our control, reduce our ability to accurately evaluate our long-term outlook and forecast annual performance. Widespread acceptance of the value-based care model is critical to our future growth and success. A reduction in demand for our solutions caused by lack of acceptance, technological challenges, competing offerings or other factors would result in a lower revenue growth rate or decreased revenue, either of which could negatively impact our business and results of operations. For example, a significant portion of our revenue is derived from partners in the managed care industry, including risk bearing providers and national and regional managed care payers. Changes in this industry’s business practices could negatively impact our financial results. For example, if our managed care partners seek to provide services directly to their subscribers instead of contracting with us for such services, we could be adversely affected.

The health care regulatory and political framework is uncertain and evolving.

Health care laws and regulations are rapidly evolving and may change significantly in the future, including as a result of the Biden administration, which could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. We are subject to regulation by both CMS and state agencies in respect of certain services we provide relating to Medicaid and Medicare programs. Medicare is a federal program that provides hospital and medical insurance benefits to persons age 65 and over, as well as certain other individuals. Medicaid programs are jointly funded by federal and state governments and are administered by states under an approved plan that provides hospital and other health care benefits to qualifying individuals. As we increase our exposure to Medicare and Medicaid

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businesses through new and existing partners, we increase our exposure to changes in government policy with respect to and regulation of the Medicaid and Medicare programs in which we and our partners participate.

Because some of our partners are participants in governmental programs, our solutions have in the past and may again in the future be subject to periodic surveys and audits by governmental entities or contractors for compliance with Medicare and other standards and requirements. As a result of surveys or audits, we may incur fines and penalties, and could be excluded from participating in one or more programs or institute other sanctions against us if we fail to comply with CMS regulations or Medicare and Medicaid contractual requirements.

The regulations and requirements applicable to us and other participants in Medicaid and Medicare programs are complex and subject to change. In particular, prior authorization standards and requirements, including Medicaid and Medicare programs, have come under increased scrutiny at the state and federal level. Many states have proposed, and some have passed, bills which prescribe how providers and services which meet certain approval rates become exempt from prior authorization for a period of time. Medicare Advantage Organization (“MAOs”) utilization management practices have been the focus of a 2022 report by the Department of Health and Human Services Office of Inspector General as well as new final rules by (CMS-4201-F and CMS-0057-F). CMS-4201-F, effective calendar year 2024, imposes several requirements on MAOs with respect to their use of prior authorization. CMS-0057-F further imposes stricter medical necessity decision timeframes on federal managed care programs, effective CY 2026, as well as complex technical interface requirements for Medicare and Medicaid which are to facilitate increased data sharing between managed care plans, enrollees and providers and streamline the prior authorization process.

Congress and state and local legislatures and regulators may propose and adopt legislation or policy changes or implementations effecting additional fundamental changes with respect to Medicare and Medicaid programs. Such changes in the law, or new interpretations of existing laws, may have a significant impact on our methods and costs of doing business. Additionally, expansion of enforcement activity could adversely affect our business and financial condition. Going forward, we expect CMS, Congress, and state agencies to continue to closely scrutinize each component of the Medicare and Medicaid programs, as well as modify the terms and requirements of the programs. It is not possible to predict the outcome of this congressional or regulatory activity, either of which could adversely affect us. Similarly, we cannot predict whether pending or future federal or state legislation or court proceedings will change various aspects of the Medicaid and Medicare programs, nor can we predict the impact those changes will have on our business operations or financial results, but the effects could be materially adverse.

In addition, CMS, Congress, state legislatures and third-party payers may continue to review and assess alternative health care delivery and payment systems and may in the future propose and adopt legislation or policy changes or implementations effecting additional fundamental changes in the health care delivery system, including with respect to Medicare, Medicaid, and exchange programs.

Additionally, expansion of enforcement activity could adversely affect our business and financial condition. Going forward, we expect CMS and Congress to continue to closely scrutinize each component of the Medicare program as well as modify the terms and requirements of the program. It is not possible to predict the outcome of this congressional or regulatory activity, either of which could adversely affect us. Similarly, we cannot predict whether pending or future federal or state legislation or court proceedings will change various aspects of the health care delivery system, including Medicaid and Medicare programs, nor can we predict the impact those changes will have on our business operations or financial results, but the effects could be materially adverse.

Furthermore, in April 2020, Congress enacted the Families First Coronavirus Response Act, which requires Medicaid programs to keep individuals continuously enrolled through the end of the month in which the COVID-19 public health emergency (the “PHE”) is terminated. The PHE was most recently re-extended on October 13, 2022 through January 11, 2023. On January 30, 2023, President Biden stated that the PHE would terminate on May 11, 2023. Since the PHE extension ended on May 11, 2023, and Medicaid redeterminations resumed, certain of our partners have experienced a decrease of enrolled lives, which may decrease the numbers of lives on our platform and which would impact the revenues derived from such partners.

As another example of recent health care legislative changes, the Consolidated Appropriations Act (the “CAA”), enacted on December 27, 2020, contains provisions impacting group health plans, including protections for plan participants from surprise medical bills and ensuring health plan price transparency. The CAA prohibits plans from entering into services agreements that directly or indirectly restrict the plans from disclosing provider-specific costs and quality of care information. The CAA will also require certain service providers for health plans to comply with certain ERISA fee disclosure rules. In addition, effective January 1, 2022, the No Surprises Act (enacted as part of the CAA) provides protection against surprise medical bills by prohibiting plans and providers from balance billing patients for emergency care performed by out-of-network providers as well as non-emergency and ancillary services performed by out-of-network providers at in-network facilities, subject to certain notice and consent exceptions for non-emergency and ancillary services. The new law also grants additional patient protections, including requiring providers to send a good faith estimate of the expected charges for furnishing items or services to an insured patient’s health plan (or directly to an uninsured patient) before such items or services are delivered (including items or services reasonably expected to be provided in conjunction with scheduled items or

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services or that are reasonably expected to be delivered by another provider). The No Surprises Act also provides a dispute resolution process in the event the actual charges for such items and services are substantially higher than the plan’s estimate and will prohibit providers from charging patients an amount beyond the in-network cost sharing amount for services rendered by out-of-network providers, subject to certain exceptions. Several states have also enacted comprehensive surprise billing laws and the CAA defers to existing state requirements with respect to state-established payment amounts.

We are unable to predict how these changes and other health care reform initiatives from new legislation, regulation, judicial action and/or executive action, including the CAA and No Surprises Act and state laws, will ultimately impact the health care industry and what the potential impact may be on our business, financial condition, operating results and prospects.

In addition to these health care laws and regulations, we are subject to various other laws and regulations, including, among others, other aspects of state insurance laws, the Stark Law relating to self-referrals, the whistleblower provisions of the False Claims Act, anti-kickback laws, antitrust laws and the privacy and data protection laws.

Investigating and prosecuting healthcare fraud, waste and abuse continues to be a top priority for state and federal law enforcement entities. The focus of these efforts has been directed at Medicare, Medicaid, Health Insurance Marketplace and commercial products. Compliance with these laws may require substantial resources. We are constantly looking for ways to improve our fraud, waste and abuse detection methods. The fraud, waste and abuse laws include In the United States, there are federal and state anti-kickback laws that generally prohibit the payment or receipt of kickbacks, bribes or other remuneration in exchange for the referral of patients or other health-related business. In addition to these health care laws and regulations, we are subject to various other laws and regulations, including, among others, other aspects of state insurance laws, the Stark Law relating to self-referrals, the whistleblower provisions of the False Claims Act, anti-kickback laws, antitrust laws and the privacy and data protection laws. The federal civil False Claims Act imposes liability on any person or entity who, among other things, knowingly presents, or causes to be presented, a false or fraudulent claim for payment by a federal health care program. The “qui tam” or “whistleblower” provisions of the False Claims Act allow a private individual to bring actions on behalf of the federal government alleging that the defendant has submitted a false claim to the federal government, and to share in any monetary recovery. Our activities relating to the way we sell and market our services, including our risk adjustment solution, may be subject to scrutiny under these laws. The Stark Law is relevant to our business because we frequently organize arrangements of various kinds under which (a) providers and hospitals jointly invest in and own ACOs, clinically integrated networks and other entities that engage in value-based contracting with third-party payers or (b) providers are paid by hospitals or hospital affiliates for care management, medical or other services related to value-based contracts. We evaluate when these investment and compensation arrangements create financial relationships under the Stark Law and design structures that are intended to satisfy exceptions under the Stark Law or Medicare Shared Savings Program waiver. We have identified instances of noncompliance in the past and cannot guarantee that we will not identify other instances in the future, or the outcome of any regulatory investigation into any non-compliance. If we were to become subject to litigation, liabilities or penalties under these or other laws or as part of a governmental review or audit, our business could be adversely affected.

If we are unable to offer new and innovative products and services or our products and services fail to keep pace with advances in industry standards, technology and our partners’ needs, our partners may terminate or fail to renew their relationships with us and our revenue and results of operations may suffer.

Our success depends on providing high-quality products and services that health care providers use to improve clinical, financial and operational performance. If we cannot adapt to rapidly evolving industry standards, technology, including artificial intelligence, and increasingly sophisticated and varied partner needs, our existing technology could become undesirable or obsolete, which could harm our reputation. We must continue to invest significant resources in our personnel and technology, including artificial intelligence, in a timely and cost-effective manner in order to enhance our existing products and services and introduce new high-quality products and services that existing partners and potential new partners will want. Our operating results would also suffer if our innovations are not responsive to the needs of our existing partners or potential new partners, are not appropriately timed with market opportunity, are not effectively brought to market or significantly increase our operating costs. If our new or modified product and service innovations are not responsive to partner preferences, emerging industry standards or regulatory changes, are not appropriately timed with market opportunity or are not effectively brought to market, we may lose existing partners or be unable to obtain new partners and our results of operations may suffer. In addition, should any of our partners terminate their relationship with us after implementation has begun, we would not only lose our time, effort and resources invested in that implementation, but we would also have lost the opportunity to leverage those resources to build a relationship with other partners over that same period of time. In some cases, we price our services based on expectations of long-term relationships with our partners. When a partner terminates the relationship earlier than we had expected, we lose the resources invested in that relationship as well as the upside benefits we had anticipated.

We also engage third-party vendors to develop, maintain and enhance the technology we use in our solutions, and our ability to develop and implement new technologies is therefore dependent on our ability to engage suitable vendors. We may also need to license software or technology from third parties in order to maintain, expand or modify our technology-enabled services platform. However, there is no guarantee we will be able to enter into such agreements on acceptable terms or at all. The functionality of our

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services platforms depends, in part, on our ability to integrate with third-party applications and data management systems that our partners use and from which they obtain data. These third parties may terminate their relationships with us, change the features of their applications and platforms, restrict our access to their applications and platforms or alter the terms governing use of their applications, data management systems and application programming interfaces and access to those applications and platforms in an adverse manner.

We have made and entered into, and may in the future make and enter into acquisitions, investments, alliances and joint ventures, which may be difficult to integrate, divert management resources, result in unanticipated costs or dilute our stockholders.

As our business continues to grow, we may continue to acquire or invest in companies, businesses, products or technologies that complement our current products and services, enhance our market coverage or technical capabilities or offer growth opportunities. This may include acquiring or investing in companies, businesses, products or technologies that are tangential to our current business and in which we have limited or no prior operating experience. That, and other acquisitions, investments, alliances or joint ventures, have resulted and could result in new, material risks to our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects. These new risks could include increased variability in revenues and prospects associated with various risk sharing arrangements. In addition, the market price for our Class A common stock could also be affected, following the consummation of any other transaction, by factors that have not historically affected the market price for our Class A common stock.

We continuously evaluate potential acquisition targets and investments as well as opportunities to divest of non-core assets. However, there can be no assurance that any of these potential acquisitions, investments or divestitures will be consummated. Acquisitions, investments and alliances, including our acquisitions of NIA, Vital Decisions, and IPG, could result in numerous risks to our business which could negatively impact our financial condition and results of operations, including:

•    difficulty converting platforms or integrating the purchased operations, products or technologies;
•    substantial unanticipated integration costs, delays and challenges that may arise in integration;
•    the loss of key customers who are in turn subject to risks and financial dislocation in their businesses;
•    the loss of key employees, particularly those of the acquired operations;
•    difficulty retaining or developing the acquired business’ customers;
•    adverse effects on our existing business relationships with customers, suppliers, other partners, standing with regulators;
•    challenges related to the integration and operation of businesses that operate in new geographic areas and new markets or lines of business;
•    unanticipated financial losses in the acquired business, including the risk of higher-than-expected health care costs;
•    failure to realize the potential cost savings or other financial benefits or the strategic benefits of the acquisitions, including failure to consummate any proposed or contemplated transaction; and
•    liabilities, including acquired litigation, and expenses from the acquired businesses for contractual disputes with customers and other third parties, infringement of intellectual property rights, data privacy violations or other claims and failure to obtain indemnification for such liabilities or claims, and distraction of our personnel in connection with any related proceedings.

We may be unable to integrate the operations, products, technologies or personnel gained through acquisitions or investments or integrate or complete any other such transaction without a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Transaction agreements may impose limitations on our ability, or the ability of the business to be acquired, to conduct business. Events outside our control, including operating changes or regulatory changes, could also adversely affect our ability to realize anticipated revenues, synergies, benefits and cost savings. In addition, revenues of acquired businesses or companies, prior to and after consummation of a transaction, may be less than expected. Counterparties in transactions may have contracts with customers and other business partners which may require consents from these parties in connection with a transaction. If these consents cannot be obtained, the Company may suffer a loss of potential future revenue and may lose rights that are material to its business and the business of any combined company. Any such disruptions could limit our ability to achieve the anticipated benefits of the transaction. Any integration may be unpredictable, or subject to delays or changed circumstances, and we and any targets may not perform in accordance with our expectations. See the risk factor captioned “We may be unable to efficiently integrate NIA into our operations.” for additional information concerning integrating NIA into our operations.

We have also entered into a number of joint ventures, some of which include put or call features under which we could be forced to extend purchase or buy interest from our joint venture partner. Conflicts or disagreements between us and any joint venture partner may negatively impact the benefits expected to be achieved by the joint venture or may ultimately threaten the ability of such joint venture to continue. We are also subject to additional costs, risks and uncertainties because we may be dependent upon and subject to the liability, losses or reputational damage relating to joint venture partners that are not entirely under our control. We may be required to, or may determine to, incur expenses related to our joint venture investments that we do not anticipate or that may not deliver the level of returns that we expect, in lieu of a put requirement or otherwise.

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In connection with these acquisitions, investments, alliances or joint ventures, we could incur significant costs, debt, amortization expenses related to intangible assets or large and immediate write-offs or other impairments or charges, assume liabilities or issue stock (as we have done in prior transactions, including the acquisition of NIA) that would dilute our current stockholders’ ownership.

Our revenues and the growth of our business rely, in part, on the growth and success of our partners and certain revenues from our engagements, which are difficult to predict and are subject to factors outside of our control, including governmental funding reductions and other policy changes.

We enter into agreements with our partners under which a significant portion of our fees are variable, including fees which are dependent upon the number of members that are covered by partners’ health care plans each month, expansion of partners and the services that we provide, as well as performance-based metrics. The number of members covered by a partner’s health care plan is often impacted by factors outside of our control, such as the actions of our partner or third parties. In addition, ongoing payment of fees by our partners could be negatively impacted by the general financial condition of partners. Accordingly, revenue under these agreements is unpredictable. If the number of members covered by one or more of our partners’ plans were to be reduced by a material amount, or if member enrollment numbers in new plans are lower than expected, such decrease would lead to a decrease in our expected revenue, which could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, growth forecasts of our partners are subject to significant uncertainty and are based on assumptions and estimates that may prove to be inaccurate. Even if the markets in which partners compete meet the size estimates and growth forecasted, their health plan membership could fail to grow at similar rates, if at all. In addition, a portion of the revenue under certain of our service contracts is tied to the partners’ continued participation in specified payer programs over which we have no control. If a partner ceases to participate or is disqualified from participation in any such program, this would lead to a decrease in our expected revenue under the relevant contract.

In addition, the transition to value-based care may be challenging for our partners. For example, fully-capitated or other provider risk arrangements have had a history of financial challenges for providers. Our partners may also have difficulty in value-based care if premium pricing is under pressure or if they incur selection bias in the health plans under which they assume risk and in so doing the premium, capitation amount or other risk-sharing arrangement they undertake may not adequately reflect the health status of the membership. Our partners may choose not to continue to capitalize affiliated health plans or subsidize losses to their reimbursement rates. Furthermore, revenue under our partner contracts may differ from our projections because of the termination of the contract for cause or at specified life cycle events, or because of fee reductions that are occasionally agreed to after the contract is initially signed.

Our partners derive a substantial portion of their revenue from third-party private and federal and state governmental payers, including Medicaid programs. Revenue under certain of our agreements could be negatively impacted as a result of governmental funding reductions impacting government-sponsored programs, changes in reimbursement rates, and premium pricing reductions, as well as the inability of partners to control and, if necessary, reduce health care costs, all of which are out of our control. We are unable to predict the impact on the Company’s operations of future regulations or legislation affecting Medicaid programs, or the healthcare industry in general. For example, our partners may receive less Medicaid-based revenue following the Biden administration’s termination of the PHE as a result of and state Medicaid redeterminations. Because certain partners’ revenues are highly reliant on third-party payer reimbursement funding rates and mechanisms, overall reductions of rates from such payers could adversely impact the liquidity of our partners, resulting in their inability to make payments to us on agreed payment terms. See “Risk factors-The health care regulatory and political framework is uncertain and evolving” for additional information.

Failure to accurately predict our exposure under performance-based contracts could result in a reduction in profitability for our specialty care management services solution.

We deploy our specialty care management services solution in capitation arrangements, which we call the Performance Suite, where we are paid a fixed fee per member per month and assume responsibility for the cost of medical claims under our scope. If the Company is unable to accurately predict our exposure under the health care cost risk and control associated costs, for example due to changes in the delivery system; changes in utilization patterns, including post-pandemic as we may experience increased utilization due to higher demand for elective procedures that were not performed during the pandemic; changes in the number of members seeking treatment; unforeseen fluctuations in claims backlogs; unforeseen increases in the costs of the services; the occurrence of catastrophes; regulatory changes; and changes in benefit plan design, the Company’s profitability could decline. In addition, when we enter new or less mature specialty markets, and as our products evolve, it may be difficult for us to predict our exposure under performance-based contracts and our contracts may be less profitable than we expect. We are also dependent on our customers to provide us with accurate and timely information which we cannot control. Moreover, costs of providing oncology, cardiology, radiology (including advanced imaging), musculoskeletal, physical medicine, genetics and other specialties are very hard to predict, in part as a result of rapidly changing utilization of new and existing drugs and changing diagnostic and therapeutic protocols. When generic drugs are not available or there are shortages, this has increased and in the future may increase our costs, and has impacted and in the future may impact our profitability. Further, the competitive environment for our performance-based products, and customer demands or expectations as to margin levels could result in pricing pressures which could cause us to reduce our rates. A reduction in

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performance-based contract rates which are not accompanied by a reduction in covered services or expected underlying care trend could result in a decrease of our profitability and operating margins.

If we fail to effectively manage our growth and cost structure, our business and results of operations could be harmed.

We have expanded our operations and the number of lives on our platform has grown significantly since our inception, organically as well as through acquisitions. If we do not effectively manage our growth and maintain an efficient cost structure as we continue to expand, the quality of our solutions could suffer. Our growth to date, including as a result of our acquisition of NIA, has increased the significant demands on our management, our operational and financial systems and infrastructure and other resources. We must also continue to improve our existing systems for operational and financial management, including our reporting systems, procedures and controls. These improvements require significant capital expenditures and place increasing demands on our management. We may not be successful in managing or expanding our operations or in maintaining adequate financial and operating systems and controls. For example, as we expand into and across jurisdictions, if we do not comply with local clinical licensure laws in the provision of our services, our results of operations and reputation could be harmed. If we do not successfully manage these processes, including the timely management of providers and processing of claims on behalf of our partners, care could be delayed, we could suffer reputational harm and our business and results of operations could be harmed including as a result of potential penalties under partner contracts.

The failure of any bank in which we deposit our funds could reduce the amount of cash we have available to pay distributions and make additional investments.

The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) only insures amounts up to $250,000 per depositor. It is likely that we will have cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash deposited in certain financial institutions in excess of federally insured levels. Recently, we have seen the abrupt failure of more than one regional bank. Although we did not experience any loss related to these failures, if any of the banking institutions in which we deposit funds ultimately fails, we may lose any amounts of our deposits over federally insured levels. The loss of our deposits could reduce the amount of cash we have available to distribute or invest and could result in a decline in our value.

Public health emergencies or outbreaks of epidemics, pandemics, or contagious diseases have adversely affected, and could in the future, adversely affect our business and the business of our partners.

An epidemic, pandemic or similar serious public health issue, and the measures undertaken by governmental authorities to address it, could significantly disrupt or prevent us from operating our business in the ordinary course for an extended period, and thereby, and/or along with any associated economic and/or social instability or distress, adversely affect our business and the business of our partners. The extent to which an epidemic, pandemic or similar serious public health issue could impact our business, results of operations, financial condition and liquidity or the business of our partners will depend on numerous evolving factors, known and unknown, that we cannot predict, including the duration and scope of the epidemic, pandemic or similar public health issue; government, business and individual actions that taken in response; the impact of the public health issue on national and global economic activity; disruption of the financial and labor markets, including the possibility of a national or global economic recession or depression; limitations on operations requiring employees to perform their duties in-person; and disruptions in the healthcare markets, including state Medicaid agencies. Additionally, the increased number of employees who work remotely during a public health emergency or outbreak could introduce additional operational risk, such as an increased vulnerability to cyber-attacks, and harm productivity and collaboration. In addition, the risks and uncertainties described elsewhere in this “Risk Factors” section may be exacerbated by an epidemic, pandemic or similar serious public health issue.

Our offshore support and professional services may prove difficult to manage or may not allow us to realize our cost reduction goals.

We use certain offshore resources to provide certain support and professional services, which requires technical and logistical coordination. If we are unable to maintain acceptable standards of quality in support and professional services, our attempts to reduce costs and drive growth through margin improvements in technical support and professional services may be negatively impacted, which would adversely affect our results of operations. Our offshore resources, and their ability to provide support and professional services to our domestic operations, are subject to domestic regulation at the federal, state and local levels. In certain cases, those regulations restrict or prohibit us from using our offshore resources. In addition, our ability to use offshore resources is limited by or subject to approval pursuant to certain partner contracts. As a result, we may not be able to reduce costs for our domestic operations or fully realize our margin improvement goals, which could adversely affect our results of operations.

If we lose key members of our management team or employees or are unable to attract and retain the employees we need, our compensation costs will increase and our business and operating results will be adversely affected.


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Our success depends largely upon the continued services of our key executive officers and recruitment of additional highly-skilled employees. From time to time, there may be changes in our senior management team resulting from the hiring or departure of executives, which could disrupt our business. Hiring executives with needed skills or the replacement of one or more of our executive officers or other key employees would likely involve significant time and costs and may significantly delay or prevent the achievement of our business objectives. In addition, competition for qualified talent in our industry is intense, particularly in the last several years. The market to build, retain and replace talent has become even more highly competitive, and many of the companies with which we compete for personnel have greater financial and other resources than we do.

We have faced and may continue to face difficulties attracting, hiring and retaining highly-skilled personnel with appropriate qualifications and may not be able to fill positions. To attract top talent, we have had to offer, and believe we will need to continue to offer, competitive compensation and benefits packages before we can validate the productivity of those employees. We have increased, and expect to continue to increase, our employee compensation levels in response to our competition, as necessary. In addition, the pressures of inflation have increased our costs of labor and may continue to do so.

In addition, we believe our corporate culture has been a key contributor to our success to date. With many of our employees working remotely, we may find it difficult to maintain important aspects of our culture, which could negatively affect our ability to retain and recruit personnel who are essential to our future success and could ultimately have a negative impact on our business and our ability to execute on our strategy. In order to successfully expand our business, we must effectively recruit, integrate and motivate new and retain existing employees, while maintaining the beneficial aspects of our corporate culture. All of our employees are “at-will” employees, and their employment can be terminated by us or them at any time, for any reason and without notice. We may not be able to hire new employees quickly enough to meet our needs. If we fail to effectively manage our hiring needs and successfully integrate new employees, our efficiency and ability to meet our forecasts and our employee morale, productivity and retention could suffer, and our business and results of operations could be harmed. In addition, volatility or lack of performance in our stock price may affect our ability to attract replacements should key personnel depart.

We have recorded a significant amount of goodwill, and we may never realize the full value of our intangible assets, causing us to record impairments that may negatively affect our results of operations.

The Company has one reporting unit. Our total assets include substantial goodwill and intangible assets. As of December 31, 2023, we had $1.1 billion and $0.8 billion recorded as goodwill and intangible assets on our balance sheet, respectively. Goodwill is not amortized, but is reviewed at least annually for indications of impairment, with consideration given to financial performance and other relevant factors.

While our annual goodwill impairment test is conducted annually on October 31, we have processes in place to monitor for interim triggering events. Under GAAP, we review our goodwill for impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value may not be recoverable. Intangible assets with finite lives are assessed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable. Factors that may be considered a change in circumstances indicating that the carrying value of our goodwill may not be recoverable include macroeconomic conditions, industry and market considerations, our overall financial performance including an analysis of our current and projected cash flows, revenue and earnings, a sustained decrease in our share price and other relevant entity-specific events including changes in strategy, partners or litigation. A significant change to the estimates and assumptions we use as part of the discounted cash flow analyses and market multiple analyses we use to estimate reporting unit fair values could cause the estimated fair value of our reporting unit and intangible assets to decline and increase the risk of an impairment charge to earnings. A detailed discussion of our impairment testing is included in “Part II - Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 9.”

When other indications of impairment exist, we may be required to recognize additional impairments in the future as a result of market conditions or other factors related to our performance, including changes in our forecasted results, investment strategy, interest rates or assumptions used as part of the goodwill impairment analysis. Any further impairment charges that we may record in the future could be material to our results of operations.

We may need to obtain additional financing which may not be available or, if it is available, may result in a reduction in the ownership of our stockholders.

We may need to raise additional funds in order to:

•    finance unanticipated working capital requirements;
•    develop or enhance our technological infrastructure and our existing solutions;
•    fund strategic relationships, including joint ventures and co-investments;
•    fund additional implementation engagements;
•    acquire complementary businesses, technologies, products or services; or

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•    refinance existing debt.

Additional financing may not be available on terms favorable to us, or at all. If adequate funds are unavailable or are unavailable on acceptable terms, our ability to fund our expansion strategy, take advantage of unanticipated opportunities, develop or enhance technology or services or otherwise respond to competitive pressures could be significantly limited. If we raise additional funds by issuing equity or convertible debt securities, the ownership of our then-existing stockholders may be reduced, and holders of these securities may have rights, preferences or privileges senior to those of our then-existing stockholders. In addition, any indebtedness we incur and restrictive covenants contained in the agreements related thereto could:

•    make it difficult for us to satisfy our obligations, including interest payments on any debt obligations;
•    limit our ability to obtain additional financing to operate our business;
•    require us to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flow to payments on our debt, reducing our ability to use our cash flow to fund capital expenditures and working capital and other general operational requirements;
•    limit our flexibility to plan for and react to changes in our business and the health care industry;
•    place us at a competitive disadvantage relative to our competitors;
•    limit our ability to pursue acquisitions; and
•    increase our vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions, including changes in interest rates or a downturn in our business or the economy.

The occurrence of any one of these events could cause a significant decrease in our liquidity and impair our ability to pay amounts due on any indebtedness, and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We have experienced net losses in the past and we may not achieve profitability in the future.

We have incurred significant net losses in the past and our operating expenses may increase in the future as we continue to invest to grow our business and build relationships with partners, develop our platforms and develop new solutions. These efforts may prove to be more expensive than we currently anticipate, and we may not succeed in increasing our revenue sufficiently to offset these higher expenses. In addition, as we continue to increase our partner base, we could incur increased losses due to mis-forecasted underwriting in performance-based contracts or because significant costs associated with entering into partner agreements are generally incurred upfront, while revenue under certain of our partner agreements is recognized each period in the month in which the services are delivered. As a result, we may need to raise additional capital through equity and debt financings in order to fund our operations. We may also fail to improve the gross margins of our business as anticipated. If we are unable to effectively manage these risks and difficulties as we encounter them, our business, financial condition and results of operations may suffer.

We are and may become subject to litigation, proceedings, government inquiries, reviews, audits or investigations which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We are and may become subject to litigation, proceedings, government inquiries, reviews, audits or investigations in the future, including potential claims against us by our partners, with or without merit. Some of these matters and claims may result in significant defense costs and potentially significant judgments against us, some of which we are not, or cannot be, insured against. We generally intend to defend ourselves vigorously; however, we cannot be certain of the ultimate outcomes of any claims or other matters that may arise in the future. Resolution of these types of matters against us may result in us having to pay significant fines, judgments or settlements, which, if uninsured, or if the fines, judgments and settlements exceed insured levels, could adversely impact our earnings and cash flows, thereby having a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and per share trading price of our Class A common stock. Certain litigation, proceedings, government inquiries, reviews, audits or investigations or the resolution of such matters may affect the availability or cost of some of our insurance coverage, which could adversely impact our results of operations and cash flows, expose us to increased risks that would be uninsured and adversely impact our ability to attract directors and officers.

We typically incur significant upfront costs in our partner relationships, and if we are unable to develop or grow these partner relationships over time, we are unlikely to recover these costs and our operating results may suffer.

We devote significant resources to establish relationships with our partners. Some of our partners undertake a significant and prolonged evaluation process, often to determine whether our solutions meet their unique health system needs, which has in the past resulted in extended periods of time to establish a partner relationship. Our efforts involve educating our partners about the use, technical capabilities and benefits of our solutions. Accordingly, our operating results will depend in substantial part on our ability to deliver a successful partner experience and persuade our partners to grow their relationship with us over time. If we are unable to sell additional solutions to existing partners, enter into and maintain favorable relationships with new partners or sufficiently grow our partners’ lives on platform, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. As we grow, our customer acquisition costs could outpace our build-up of recurring revenue, and we may be unable to reduce our total

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operating costs through economies of scale such that we are unable to achieve profitability. For example, some of our partnerships require significant upfront investment including, in the case of new markets, investments in infrastructure to meet readiness and operating requirements which have outpaced our revenue growth. Under the Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 606 revenue standard, certain set up costs we incur during the implementation phase may be deferred into the platform and operations phase, potentially along with associated revenues. If the economics of a partnership change such that we are unlikely to fully recover those costs, we may be required to write off a portion or all of those deferred costs and revenues and our operating results may suffer. In addition, we estimate the costs and timing for completing the transformation phase of relevant partner relationships. These estimates reflect our best judgment. Any increased or unexpected costs or unanticipated delays, including delays caused by factors outside our control, could cause our operating results to suffer.

If we do not continue to attract new partners and successfully capture new opportunities with new or existing partners, we may not achieve our financial projections, and our results of operations would be harmed.

In order to grow our business, we must continually attract new partners and successfully capture new opportunities, including by further penetrating our existing partner base. Our ability to do so depends on our ability to perform well under existing contracts and maintain our reputation, as well as the success of our sales and marketing efforts. Potential partners may seek out other options. Therefore, we must demonstrate that our products and services provide a viable solution for potential partners. If we fail to provide high-quality solutions and convince individual partners of our value proposition, we may not be able to retain existing partners, further penetrate existing partners, or attract new partners. In addition, there may be a limited-time opportunity to achieve and maintain a significant share of the market for our products and services due in part to the rapidly evolving nature of the health care and technology industries and the substantial resources available to our existing and potential competitors. If the market for our products and services declines or grows more slowly than we expect, if we fail to successfully convert new growth opportunities or if the number of individual partners that use our solutions declines or fails to increase as we expect, our revenue, results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects could be harmed.

As we enter into an increasing number and variety of risk sharing arrangements with partners, our revenues and profitability could be limited and negatively impacted.

We incorporate certain risk sharing arrangements as part of our contractual arrangements with certain partners, and we expect to enter an increasing number and variety of risk sharing arrangements in the future. As an example, as part of our strategy to support certain partners, we entered into upside and downside risk-sharing arrangements. Through our Performance Suite, we take on members from payers through performance-based arrangements where we assume risks related to pricing of contracts. We may incur losses under these arrangements if we are unable to adjust our rates if faced with increased costs related to patient care or pharmaceutical products.

As the market evolves, we expect to engage in similar and new risk sharing strategies with our partners. As of December 31, 2023, the Company had approximately $16.2 million of restricted cash and restricted investments related to risk-sharing arrangements. These arrangements have included and may include provision of letters of credit, loans, reinsurance arrangements, equity investments and other extensions of capital, where we are and may be at risk of not recovering all or a portion of any such loan or other extension of capital. These and any other potential risk sharing arrangements could limit and negatively impact our revenue, results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects.

In addition, our failure to agree on satisfactory risk sharing solutions with potential partners could negatively impact our ability to attract new partners. We may also be required to make additional capital contributions as we invest and enter into new joint ventures and strategic alliances.

If the estimates and assumptions we use to determine the size of the target markets for our services are inaccurate, our future growth rate may be impacted and our business would be harmed.

Market opportunity estimates and growth forecasts are subject to significant uncertainty and are based on assumptions and estimates that may not prove to be accurate. Our estimates and forecasts relating to the size and expected growth of the markets for our services may prove to be inaccurate. Even if the markets in which we compete meet our size estimates and forecasted growth, our business could fail to grow at similar rates, if at all.

Our estimates of the market opportunities for our solutions are based on the assumption that the strategic approaches we offer will be attractive to potential partners. Potential partners may pursue different strategic options, or none at all. In addition, our assumptions could be impacted by changes to health care laws and regulations as a result of upcoming presidential and congressional elections or otherwise. If our assumptions prove inaccurate, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.


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If we are not able to maintain and enhance our reputation and brand recognition, our business and results of operations will be harmed.

We believe that maintaining and enhancing our reputation and brand recognition is critical to our relationships with existing partners and to our ability to attract new partners. The promotion of our brands may require us to make substantial investments and we anticipate that, as our market becomes increasingly competitive, these marketing initiatives may become increasingly difficult and expensive. Our marketing activities may not be successful or yield increased revenue, and to the extent that these activities yield increased revenue, the increased revenue may not offset the expenses we incur and our results of operations could be harmed. In addition, any factor that diminishes our reputation or that of our management, including failing to meet the expectations of our partners, or any adverse publicity or litigation involving or surrounding the Company or one of our joint venture partners, investors or strategic alliance partners could make it substantially more difficult for us to attract new partners. Similarly, because our existing partners often act as references for us with prospective new partners, any existing partner that questions the quality of our work or that of our employees could impair our ability to secure additional new partners. Therefore, financial adversity of our partners’ affiliated health plans may adversely affect our reputation. In addition, negative publicity resulting from any adverse government payer audit could injure our reputation. If we do not successfully maintain and enhance our reputation and brand recognition, our business may not grow and we could lose our relationships with partners, which would harm our business, results of operations and financial condition.

The costs of compliance with sustainability or other environmental, social responsibility or governance laws, regulations, or policies, including investor and client-driven policies and standards, could adversely affect our business.

As a non–manufacturing service business, we have to date been less impacted from laws and regulations related to sustainability concerns or other environmental, social responsibility or governance (“ESG”) laws, regulations, or policies. However, we may need to incur ESG related costs indirectly in response to our customers or shareholders. Increasingly our customers and shareholders expect that we meet environmental, social responsibility, sustainability or other business policies or standards, which may be more restrictive than current laws and regulations, before they commence, or continue, doing business with us or investing in our common stock. Our compliance with these policies and related requirements could be costly, and our failure to comply could adversely affect our business relationships or reputation.

Consolidation in the health care industry could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Many health care industry participants and payers are consolidating to create larger and more integrated health care delivery systems with greater market power. We expect regulatory and economic conditions to result in additional consolidation in the health care industry in the future. As consolidation accelerates, the economies of scale of our partners’ organizations may grow. If a partner experiences sizable growth following consolidation, it may determine that it no longer needs to rely on us and may reduce its demand for our products and services. In addition, as health care providers consolidate to create larger and more integrated health care delivery systems with greater market power, these providers may try to use their market power to negotiate fee reductions for our solutions. Consolidation may also result in the acquisition or future development by our partners of products and services that compete with our solutions. Finally, if any of our partners were to be acquired or otherwise change ownership, we cannot assure you that the new owner would not seek to renegotiate or terminate their agreements with us. Any of these potential results of consolidation could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We face intense competition, which could limit our ability to maintain or expand market share within our industry, and if we do not maintain or expand our market share our business and operating results will be harmed.

The market for our solutions is fragmented, competitive and characterized by rapidly evolving technology standards, customer needs and the frequent introduction of new products and services. Our competitors range from smaller niche companies to large, well-financed and technologically-sophisticated entities.

We compete on the basis of several factors, including breadth, depth and quality of product and service offerings, ability to deliver clinical, financial and operational performance improvement through the use of products and services, quality and reliability of services, ease of use and convenience, brand recognition and the ability to integrate services with existing technology. Some of our competitors are more established, benefit from greater brand recognition, have larger client bases and have substantially greater financial, technical and marketing resources. The entrance or expansion of these larger companies in the managed healthcare industry (including our customers who have in-sourced or who may choose to in-source healthcare services) could increase the competitive pressures we face and could limit our ability to maintain or increase our rates. If this happens, our profitability could be adversely affected. In addition, if we do not adequately respond to these competitive pressures, it could cause us to be unable to maintain our current contracts or obtain new contracts. Other competitors have proprietary technology that differentiates their product and service offerings from ours. Our competitors are constantly developing products and services that may become more efficient or appealing to

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our existing partners and potential partners. Additionally, some health care information technology providers have begun to incorporate enhanced analytical tools and functionality into their core product and service offerings used by health care providers. As a result of these competitive advantages, our competitors and potential competitors may be able to respond more quickly to market forces, take advantage of acquisitions and other opportunities more readily, undertake more extensive marketing campaigns for their brands, products and services, more successfully utilize developing technology, including data analytics, artificial intelligence, and machine learning, and make more attractive offers to our existing partners and potential partners.

We also compete on the basis of price. We are subject to pricing pressures as a result of, among other things, competition within the industry, consolidation of health care industry participants, practices of managed care organizations, government action and financial stress experienced by our partners. If our pricing experiences significant downward pressure, our business will be less profitable and our results of operations will be adversely affected.

We cannot be certain that we will be able to retain our current partners or expand our partner base in this competitive environment. If we do not retain current partners or expand our partner base, or if we have to renegotiate existing contracts, our business, financial condition and results of operations will be harmed. Moreover, we expect that competition will continue to increase as a result of consolidation in both the health care information technology and health care industries. If one or more of our competitors or potential competitors were to merge or partner with another of our competitors, the change in the competitive landscape could also adversely affect our ability to compete effectively and could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our offerings could be subject to audits by CMS and other governmental payers and whistleblower claims under the False Claims Act.

We support provider-sponsored health plans with Medicare Advantage, Medicaid and exchange products, as well as health systems and provider groups participating in payer-delegated risk arrangements or in the CMS Next Generation ACO Model. We anticipate that CMS and other governmental payers will continue to review and audit the results of our services including risk adjustment offerings, with a focus on identifying possible false claims.

In addition, aspects of our review process and coding procedures could be subject to claims under the False Claims Act or Anti-Kickback Statute. Negative results of any such audit or claim could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects and could damage our reputation.

Exclusivity and right of first refusal clauses in some of our partner and founder contracts may prohibit us from partnering with certain other providers in the future, and as a result may limit our growth.

Some of our partner and founder contracts include exclusivity and right of first refusal clauses. Any founder contracts with exclusivity, right of first refusal or other restrictive provisions may limit our ability to conduct business with certain potential partners, including competitors of our founders. For example, in connection with its formation, Evolent Health LLC entered into an IP Agreement with UMPC (the “UPMC IP Agreement”), pursuant to which if we were to conduct business with certain precluded providers, it would result in the loss of the license thereunder. Partner contracts with exclusivity or other restrictive provisions may limit our ability to partner with or provide services to other providers or purchase services from other vendors within certain time periods. These exclusivity or other restrictive provisions often apply to specific competitors of our health system partners or specific geographic areas within a particular state or an entire state. Accordingly, these exclusivity clauses may prevent us from entering into relationships with potential partners and could cause our business, financial condition and results of operations to be harmed.

We have also entered into a reseller, services and non-competition agreement with an affiliate of UPMC, pursuant to which we are prohibited from providing products or services to certain third parties and in certain territories. These restrictions could cause our business, financial condition and results of operations to be harmed if we found it advantageous to provide products or services to such third parties or in such territories during the restricted period.

Inflationary pressures and rising consumer costs may have a negative effect on our margins, profitability and results of operations.

The broader U.S. economy experienced higher than expected inflationary pressures throughout 2022 related to continued supply chain disruptions, labor shortages and geopolitical instability. Inflation levels remained at elevated level through 2023. Increasing inflationary pressures may have a negative effect on our profit margins and earnings due to associated costs increases, including as a result of their impact on our customers’ and other third parties’ ability to pay. Additionally, we face an increasingly competitive labor market due to sustained labor shortages in part from the COVID-19 pandemic and are subject to inflationary pressures on employee wages and salaries which may increase labor costs. Failure to retain highly skilled employees due to wage inflation could have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations or financial condition. See the risk factor captioned “If we lose key members of our management team or employees or are unable to attract and retain the employees we need, our compensation costs will increase and our business and operating results will be adversely affected.” While we are unable to predict the direction of the

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economy or if inflation will increase or revert to normal levels, if inflation levels remain elevated for a sustained period of time, our margins, profitability and results of operations could be adversely affected.

Risks Related to Data Protection Privacy, Cybersecurity, Intellectual Property and Technology

We are subject to data privacy and protection laws governing the collection, use, disclosure and security of health information, which may impose restrictions on the manner in which we access personal data and subject us to penalties if we are unable to fully comply with such laws.

As described below, we are required to comply with numerous federal and state laws and regulations that regulate health information that we may obtain, process or access in connection with the provision of our services. These laws and regulations, including their interpretation by governmental agencies, are subject to frequent change and could have a negative impact on our business.

HIPAA protects the privacy and security of protected health information and requires covered organizations adopt standards for the exchange of electronic protected health information. Further, the privacy regulations under HIPAA also provide patients with rights related to understanding and controlling how their protected health information is used and disclosed. As a provider of services to entities subject to HIPAA, we are directly subject to certain provisions of the regulations as a “Business Associate”. If we are unable to satisfy privacy and security obligations under HIPAA regulations, we could be found to have breached our contracts with our customers. Moreover, we may be subject to investigation by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office for Civil Rights (“OCR”) for potential HIPAA noncompliance. Penalties for HIPAA noncompliance includes civil and criminal penalties that could have a material adverse effect on us. In addition, OCR performs compliance audits of Business Associates in order to proactively enforce the HIPAA privacy and security standards. OCR has become an increasingly active regulator and has signaled its intention to continue this trend. OCR has the discretion to impose penalties without being required to attempt to resolve violations through informal means; further, OCR may require companies to enter into resolution agreements and corrective action plans which impose ongoing compliance requirements. OCR enforcement activity can result in financial liability and reputational harm, and responses to such enforcement activity can consume significant internal resources.
The HITECH Act, enacted as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, also known as the “Stimulus Bill,” effective February 22, 2010, set forth health information security breach notification requirements and increased penalties for violation of HIPAA. The HITECH Act requires individual notification for all breaches, media notification of breaches for over 500 individuals and at least annual reporting of all breaches to the Department of Health and Human Services. Failure to comply with the HITECH Act could result in fines and penalties that could have a material adverse effect on us.
Numerous other federal and state laws that may apply to us restrict the use of and protect the privacy and security of personal information, as well as employee personal information. These include state medical privacy laws, state social security number protection laws and federal and state consumer protection laws. These various laws in many cases are not preempted by HIPAA and may be subject to varying interpretations by the courts and government agencies, creating complex compliance issues for us and our partners and potentially exposing us to additional expense, adverse publicity and liability, any of which could adversely affect our business.
Federal and state consumer protection laws are increasingly being applied by the FTC and states’ attorneys general to regulate the collection, use, storage and disclosure of personal information, through websites or otherwise, and to regulate the presentation of website content. The FTC in particular is increasingly scrutinizing the collection, use, and disclosure of health information and any corresponding marketing and advertising efforts, as well as any other uses that attempt to monetize health information.

There is ongoing concern from privacy advocates, regulators and others regarding data protection and privacy issues, and the number of jurisdictions with data protection and privacy laws have been increasing. Also, there are ongoing public policy discussions regarding whether the standards for de-identified, anonymous or pseudonymized health information are sufficient to adequately protect patient privacy. These discussions may lead to further restrictions on the use or disclosure of such information. There can be no assurance that these initiatives or future initiatives will not adversely affect our ability to access and use data or to develop or market current or future services.

The security measures that we and our third-party vendors and subcontractors have in place to address privacy and data protection laws may not protect our facilities and systems from security breaches, acts of vandalism or theft, computer viruses, misplaced or lost data, programming and human errors or other similar events. As the cyber threat landscape continues to evolve, third-party threat actors have become increasingly sophisticated and adept at evading cybersecurity protections, and the frequency and scope of security incidents has increased. Under the HITECH Act, as a business associate we may also be liable for privacy and security breaches and failures of our subcontractors. Even though we provide for protections through our agreements with our subcontractors, we still have limited control over their actions and practices. A breach of privacy or security of protected health information by a subcontractor may

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result in an enforcement action, including criminal and civil liability, against us. Enforcement actions against us could be costly and could interrupt regular operations, which may adversely affect our business.

Data loss or corruption due to failures or errors in our systems or service disruptions at our data centers may adversely affect our reputation and relationships with existing partners, which could have a negative impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Because of the large amount of data that we collect and manage, it is possible that hardware failures or errors in our systems could result in data loss or corruption or cause the information that we collect to be incomplete or contain inaccuracies that our partners regard as significant. Complex software such as ours may contain errors or failures that are not detected until after the software is introduced or updates and new versions are released. We continually introduce new software and updates and enhancements to our existing software. Despite testing by us, we may discover defects or errors in our software. In addition, we may encounter defects or errors in connection with the integration of software and technology we acquire. Any defects or errors could expose us to risk of liability to partners and the government and could cause delays in the introduction of new products and services, result in increased costs and diversion of development resources, require design modifications, decrease market acceptance or partner satisfaction with our products and services or cause harm to our reputation.

Furthermore, our partners might use our software together with products from other companies. As a result, when problems occur, it might be difficult to identify the source of the problem. Even when our software does not cause these problems, the existence of these errors might cause us to incur significant costs, divert the attention of our technical personnel from our product development efforts, impact our reputation and lead to significant partner relations problems.

Our business is subject to online security risks, and if we are unable to safeguard the security and privacy of confidential data, we may face significant liabilities and our reputation and business will be harmed.

Our services involve the collection, storage and analysis of confidential information, including intellectual property and personal information of employees, health providers and others, as well as protected health information of our partners’ patients. Because of the extreme sensitivity of this information, the security and privacy features of our computer, network, and communications systems infrastructure are very important. In certain cases, we provide such information to third parties, for example, to the service providers who provide hosting services for our technology platform, and we may be unable to control the use of such information or the security and privacy protections employed by such third parties. We may be required to expend significant capital and other resources to protect against security breaches and/or privacy incidents or to alleviate problems caused by security breaches and/or privacy incidents. Despite our implementation of security and privacy measures designed to help ensure data security and compliance with applicable laws and rules, our facilities and systems, and those of our third-party vendors, are vulnerable to threats. Furthermore, our increased use of mobile and cloud technologies, including as a result of the shift to work-from-home arrangements as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, and the conflict between Russia and Ukraine, have heightened these cybersecurity and privacy risks, including risks from cyber-attacks such as phishing, spam emails, hacking, social engineering, and malicious software including harmful malware and ransomware. Threat actors regularly attempt to gain access to our information and infrastructure through various techniques. These threats include cyber-attacks, the use of harmful malware or ransomware, security breaches, acts of vandalism or theft (including by employees), computer viruses, misplaced or lost data, programming and/or human errors, power outages, protected health information leakage from implementing third-party technology to process and share data, hardware failures or other similar events. To date we have not experienced a cybersecurity incident that has resulted in any material impact on our business strategy, results of operations, financial condition or on our ability to service our partners or run our business. However, past and future incidents, including if we are unable to effectively resolve breaches in a timely manner, could result in damage to the market perception of the effectiveness of our security and privacy measures and we could lose sales and partners, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, operations, and financial results. A cyber-attack that bypasses our, or our third-party vendors’, security systems successfully could require us to expend significant resources to remediate any damage, and prevent future occurrences, interrupt our operations, damage our reputation and our relationship with our partners, expose us or other third parties to a risk of loss or misuse of confidential information, reduce demand for our products and services or subject us to significant liability through litigation as well as regulatory action.

Cyber-attacks continue to evolve in sophistication and volume and may remain undetected for an extended period. In addition, techniques used to obtain unauthorized access to information or to sabotage information technology systems change frequently. We have seen, and will continue to see, industry-wide vulnerabilities, such as the Log4j vulnerability reported in December 2021, which have and could in the future affect our or other parties’ systems. We expect to continue to experience such vulnerabilities in the future.

The costs of attempting to protect against cybersecurity risks and the costs of responding to cyber-attacks are significant. This could require us to expend significant resources to continue to modify or enhance our protective measures and to remediate any damage. While we maintain insurance covering certain security and privacy damages and claim expenses, we may not carry insurance or

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maintain coverage sufficient to compensate for all liability and such insurance may not be available for renewal on acceptable terms or at all, and in any event, insurance coverage would not address the reputational damage that could result from a security incident.

New data security and privacy laws and regulations are being enacted rapidly. The scope and applicability of these laws are inconsistent, uncertain, and subject to evolving court and regulatory interpretation. As such, we may not be able to timely comply with such requirements, and such requirements may not be compatible with our current processes. For example, the FTC recently announced that it will begin enforcing the Health Breach Notification Rule, which it enforced three times last year. These enforcements included multi-year consent orders that imposed strict reporting and compliance obligations in addition to fines, in one case, in the amount of $1.5 million. Additionally, many states (including California, Utah, Colorado, Virginia, Connecticut, Washington, and several others) have passed laws that regulate how covered businesses collect, use, and disclose personal information. These laws impose data minimization and retention requirements and grant consumers broad rights with respect to their personal information, including opt out and deletion rights. Evaluating and updating our processes in light of these laws could be time consuming and expensive, and the failure to timely implement required changes could subject us to liability for noncompliance, including potential liability in the form of consumer class action lawsuits in certain states.

If we are unable to obtain, maintain and enforce intellectual property protection for our technology and products or if the scope of our intellectual property protection is not sufficiently broad, others may be able to develop and commercialize technology and products substantially similar to ours, and our ability to successfully commercialize our technology and products may be adversely affected.

Our business depends on proprietary technology and content, including software, databases, confidential information and know-how, the protection of which is crucial to the success of our business. We rely on a combination of trademark, trade-secret and copyright laws and confidentiality procedures and contractual provisions to protect our intellectual property rights in our proprietary technology and content. We may, over time, increase our investment in protecting our intellectual property through additional trademark, patent and other intellectual property filings that could be expensive and time-consuming. Effective trademark, trade-secret and copyright protection is expensive to develop and maintain, both in terms of initial and ongoing registration requirements and the costs of defending our rights. These measures, however, may not be sufficient to offer us meaningful protection. If we are unable to protect our intellectual property and other proprietary rights, our competitive position and our business could be harmed, as third parties may be able to commercialize and use technologies and software products that are substantially the same as ours without incurring the development and licensing costs that we have incurred. Any of our owned or licensed intellectual property rights could be challenged, invalidated, circumvented, infringed or misappropriated, our trade secrets and other confidential information could be disclosed in an unauthorized manner to third parties, or our intellectual property rights may not be sufficient to permit us to take advantage of current market trends or otherwise to provide us with competitive advantages, which could result in costly redesign efforts, discontinuance of certain offerings or other competitive harm.

Monitoring unauthorized use of our intellectual property is difficult and costly. From time to time, we seek to analyze our competitors’ products and services, and may in the future seek to enforce our rights against potential infringement. However, the steps we have taken to protect our proprietary rights may not be adequate to prevent infringement or misappropriation of our intellectual property. We may not be able to detect unauthorized use of, or take appropriate steps to enforce, our intellectual property rights. Any inability to meaningfully protect our intellectual property rights could result in harm to our ability to compete and reduce demand for our technology and products. Moreover, our failure to develop and properly manage new intellectual property could adversely affect our market positions and business opportunities. Also, some of our products and services rely on technologies and software developed by or licensed from third parties, and we may not be able to maintain our relationships with such third parties or enter into similar relationships in the future on reasonable terms or at all.

We may also be required to protect our proprietary technology and content in an increasing number of jurisdictions, a process that is expensive and may not be successful, or which we may not pursue in every location. In addition, effective intellectual property protection may not be available to us in every country, and the laws of some foreign countries may not be as protective of intellectual property rights as those in the United States. Additional uncertainty may result from changes to intellectual property legislation enacted in the United States and elsewhere, and from interpretations of intellectual property laws by applicable courts and agencies. Accordingly, despite our efforts, we may be unable to obtain and maintain the intellectual property rights necessary to provide us with a competitive advantage. Our failure to obtain, maintain and enforce our intellectual property rights could therefore have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

If our trademarks and trade names are not adequately protected, we may not be able to build name recognition in our markets of interest and our business may be adversely affected.

The registered or unregistered trademarks or trade names that we own or license may be challenged, infringed, circumvented, declared generic, lapsed or determined to be infringing on or dilutive of other marks. We may not be able to protect our rights in these trademarks and trade names, which we need in order to build name recognition with potential partners. In addition, third parties may in the future file for registration of trademarks similar or identical to our trademarks. If they succeed in registering or developing

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common law rights in such trademarks, and if we are not successful in challenging such third-party rights, we may not be able to use these trademarks to commercialize our technologies or products in certain relevant countries. If we are unable to establish name recognition based on our trademarks and trade names, we may not be able to compete effectively and our business may be adversely affected.

Third parties may initiate legal proceedings alleging that we are infringing or otherwise violating their intellectual property rights, the outcome of which would be uncertain and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our commercial success depends on our ability to develop and commercialize our services and use our proprietary technology without infringing the intellectual property or proprietary rights of third parties. Intellectual property disputes can be costly to defend and may cause our business, operating results and financial condition to suffer. As the market for health care in the United States expands and more patents are issued, the risk increases that there may be patents issued to third parties that relate to our solutions of which we are not aware or that we must challenge to continue our operations as currently contemplated. Whether merited or not, we may face allegations that we, our partners, our licensees or parties indemnified by us have infringed or otherwise violated the patents, trademarks, copyrights or other intellectual property rights of third parties. Such claims may be made by competitors seeking to obtain a competitive advantage or by other parties. Additionally, in recent years, individuals and groups have begun purchasing intellectual property assets for the purpose of making claims of infringement and attempting to extract settlements from companies like ours. We may also face allegations that our employees have misappropriated the intellectual property or proprietary rights of their former employers or other third parties. It may be necessary for us to initiate litigation to defend ourselves in order to determine the scope, enforceability and validity of third-party intellectual property or proprietary rights, or to establish our respective rights. Regardless of whether claims that we are infringing patents or other intellectual property rights have merit, such claims can be time-consuming, divert management’s attention and financial resources and can be costly to evaluate and defend. Results of any such litigation are difficult to predict and may require us to stop commercializing or using our products or technology, obtain licenses, modify our services and technology while we develop non-infringing substitutes or incur substantial damages, settlement costs or face a temporary or permanent injunction prohibiting us from marketing or providing the affected products and services. If we require a third-party license, it may not be available on reasonable terms or at all, and we may have to pay substantial royalties, upfront fees or grant cross-licenses to intellectual property rights for our products and services. We may also have to redesign our products or services so they do not infringe third-party intellectual property rights, which may not be possible or may require substantial monetary expenditures and time, during which our solutions may not be available for commercialization or use. Even if we have an agreement to indemnify us against such costs, the indemnifying party may be unable to uphold its contractual obligations. If we cannot or do not obtain a third-party license to the infringed technology on reasonable terms or at all, or obtain similar technology from another source, our revenue and earnings could be adversely impacted.

From time to time, we have been and may be subject to legal proceedings and claims in the ordinary course of business with respect to intellectual property. We are not currently subject to any claims from third parties asserting infringement of their intellectual property rights. Some third parties may be able to sustain the costs of complex litigation more effectively than we can because they have substantially greater resources. Even if resolved in our favor, litigation or other legal proceedings relating to intellectual property claims may cause us to incur significant expenses and could distract our technical and management personnel from their normal responsibilities. In addition, there could be public announcements of the results of hearings, motions or other interim proceedings or developments, and if securities analysts or investors perceive these results to be negative, it could have a material adverse effect on the price of our Class A common stock. Moreover, any uncertainties resulting from the initiation and continuation of any legal proceedings could have a material adverse effect on our ability to raise the funds necessary to continue our operations. Assertions by third parties that we violate their intellectual property rights could therefore have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our use of “open source” software could adversely affect our ability to offer our services and subject us to possible litigation.

We use open source software in connection with our solutions. Companies that incorporate open source software into their products have, from time to time, faced claims challenging the use of open source software and/or compliance with open source license terms. As a result, we could be subject to suits by parties claiming ownership of what we believe to be open source software or claiming noncompliance with open source licensing terms. Some open source software licenses require users who distribute software containing open source software to publicly disclose all or part of the source code to such software and/or make available any derivative works of the open source code, which could include valuable proprietary code of the user, on unfavorable terms or at no cost. While we monitor the use of open source software and try to ensure that none is used in a manner that would require us to disclose our proprietary source code or that would otherwise breach the terms of an open source agreement, such use could inadvertently occur, in part because open source license terms are often ambiguous. Any requirement to disclose our proprietary source code or pay damages for breach of contract could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations and could help our competitors develop products and services that are similar to or better than ours.


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If we are unable to protect the confidentiality of our trade secrets, know-how and other proprietary information, the value of our technology and products could be adversely affected.

We may not be able to protect our trade secrets, know-how and other proprietary information adequately. Although we use reasonable efforts to protect this proprietary information and technology, our employees, consultants and other parties may unintentionally or willfully disclose our information or technology to competitors. Enforcing a claim that a third-party illegally obtained and is using any of our proprietary information or technology is expensive and time-consuming, and the outcome is unpredictable. In addition, courts outside the United States are sometimes less willing to protect trade secrets, know-how and other proprietary information. We rely, in part, on non-disclosure, confidentiality and invention assignment agreements with our employees, consultants and other parties to protect our trade secrets, know-how and other intellectual property and proprietary information. These agreements may not be self-executing, or they may be breached and we may not have adequate remedies for such breach. Moreover, third parties may independently develop similar or equivalent proprietary information or otherwise gain access to our trade secrets, know-how and other proprietary information.

We depend on certain technologies that are licensed to us. We do not control the intellectual property rights covering these technologies and any loss of our rights to these technologies or the rights licensed to us could prevent us from developing and/or commercializing our products.

We are a party to a number of license agreements under which we are granted rights to intellectual property that is important to our business, and we expect that we may need to enter into additional license agreements in the future. We are party to an intellectual property and development services license agreement between Evolent and UPMC, or the UPMC IP Agreement, and a technology license agreement with UPMC (the “UPMC Technology Agreement”). Under the UPMC IP Agreement, certain of UPMC’s proprietary analytics models and know-how are licensed to Evolent on a nonexclusive basis from UPMC; pursuant to the UPMC Technology Agreement, UPMC’s proprietary technology platform, associated know-how and the Identifi® trademark are licensed to Evolent on an irrevocable, non-exclusive basis from UPMC; in each case, subject to certain ongoing territorial, time and use restrictions. Evolent’s rights to use these technologies and know-how and employ the software claimed in the licensed technologies are subject to the continuation of and our compliance with the terms of those licenses. Our existing license agreements impose, and we expect that future license agreements will impose on us, various exclusivity obligations. If we fail to comply with our obligations under these agreements, the applicable licensor may have the right to terminate our license, in which case we may not be able to develop or commercialize the products or technologies covered by the license.

Disputes may arise between us and our licensors regarding intellectual property rights subject to a license agreement, including:

the scope of rights granted under the license agreement and other interpretation-related issues;
whether and the extent to which our technology and processes infringe on intellectual property of the licensor that is not subject to the license agreement;
our obligations with respect to the use of the licensed technology in relation to our services and technologies, and which activities satisfy those obligations;
whether our activities are in compliance with the restrictions placed upon our rights to use the licensed technology by our licensors; and
the ownership of inventions and know-how resulting from the joint creation or use of intellectual property by our licensors and us and our partners.

If disputes over intellectual property rights that we have licensed prevent or impair our ability to maintain our current licensing arrangements on acceptable terms, we may be unable to obtain equivalent replacement licensing arrangements or to successfully develop and commercialize the affected products and technologies.

The risks described elsewhere pertaining to our intellectual property rights also apply to the intellectual property rights that we license, and any failure by us or our licensors to obtain, maintain and enforce these rights could have a material adverse effect on our business. In some cases, we do not have control over the prosecution, maintenance or enforcement of the intellectual property rights that we license, and may not have sufficient ability to consult and input into the prosecution and maintenance process with respect to such intellectual property, and our licensors may fail to take the steps we feel are necessary or desirable in order to obtain, maintain and enforce the licensed intellectual property rights and, as a result, our ability to retain our competitive advantage with respect to our products and technologies may be materially affected.

Any restrictions on our use of, or ability to license, data, or our failure to license data and integrate third-party technologies, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We depend upon licenses from third parties for some of the technology and data used in our applications, and for some of the technology platforms upon which these applications are built and operate, including under the UPMC IP Agreement and the UPMC

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Technology Agreement. We expect that we may need to obtain additional licenses from third parties in the future in connection with the development of our products and services. In addition, we obtain a portion of the data that we use from government entities, public records and from our partners for specific partner engagements. We believe that we have all rights necessary to use the data that is incorporated into our products and services. However, we cannot assure you that our licenses for information will allow us to use that information for all potential or contemplated applications and products. In addition, certain of our services depend on maintaining our data and analytics platform, which is populated with data disclosed to us by our partners with their consent. If these partners revoke their consent for us to maintain, use, de-identify and share this data, consistent with applicable law, our data assets could be degraded.

In the future, data providers could withdraw their data from us or restrict our usage for any reason, including if there is a competitive reason to do so, if legislation is passed restricting the use of the data or if judicial interpretations are issued restricting use of the data that we currently use in our products and services. In addition, data providers could fail to adhere to our quality control standards in the future, causing us to incur additional expense to appropriately utilize the data. If a substantial number of data providers were to withdraw or restrict their data, or if they fail to adhere to our quality control standards, and if we are unable to identify and contract with suitable alternative data suppliers and integrate these data sources into our service offerings, our ability to provide products and services to our partners would be materially adversely impacted, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We also integrate into our proprietary applications and use third-party software to maintain and enhance, among other things, content generation and delivery, and to support our technology infrastructure. Some of this software is proprietary and some is open source software. These technologies may not be available to us in the future on commercially reasonable terms or at all and could be difficult to replace once integrated into our own proprietary applications. Most of these licenses can be renewed only by mutual consent and may be terminated if we breach the terms of the license and fail to cure the breach within a specified period of time. Our inability to obtain, maintain or comply with any of these licenses could delay development until equivalent technology can be identified, licensed and integrated, which would harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Most of our third-party licenses are non-exclusive and our competitors may obtain the right to use any of the technology covered by these licenses to compete directly with us. Our use of third-party technologies exposes us to increased risks, including, but not limited to, risks associated with the integration of new technology into our solutions, the diversion of our resources from development of our own proprietary technology and our inability to generate revenue from licensed technology sufficient to offset associated acquisition and maintenance costs. In addition, if our data suppliers choose to discontinue support of the licensed technology in the future, we might not be able to modify or adapt our own solutions.

We rely on Internet infrastructure, bandwidth providers, data center providers, other third parties and our own systems for providing services to our partners, and any failure or interruption in the services provided by these third parties or our own systems could expose us to litigation and negatively impact our relationships with partners, adversely affecting our brand and our business.

Our ability to deliver our solutions, particularly our cloud-based solutions, is dependent on the development and maintenance of the infrastructure of the Internet and other telecommunications services by third parties. This includes maintenance of a reliable network connection with the necessary speed, data capacity and security for providing reliable Internet access and services and reliable telephone and facsimile services. As a result, our information systems require an ongoing commitment of significant resources to maintain and enhance existing systems and develop new systems in order to keep pace with continuing changes in information technology, emerging cybersecurity risks and threats, evolving industry and regulatory standards and changing preferences of our partners.

Our services are designed to operate without interruption in accordance with our service level commitments. However, we have experienced limited interruptions in these systems in the past, including server failures that temporarily slow down the performance of our services, and we may experience more significant interruptions in the future. We rely on internal systems as well as third-party vendors, including bandwidth and telecommunications equipment providers, to provide our services. We do not maintain redundant systems or facilities for some of these services. Interruptions in these systems, whether due to system failures, computer viruses, physical or electronic break-ins or other catastrophic events, could affect the security or availability of our services and prevent or inhibit the ability of our partners to access our services. These systems may be at greater risk of interruption as a result of increased use of mobile and cloud technologies, including as a result of the shift to work from home arrangements as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.

In the event of a catastrophic event with respect to one or more of these systems or facilities, we may experience an extended period of system unavailability, which could result in substantial costs to remedy those problems or negatively impact our relationship with our partners, our business, results of operations and financial condition. To operate without interruption, both we and our service providers must guard against:

damage from fire, power loss and other natural disasters;

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telecommunications failures;
software and hardware errors, failures and crashes;
security breaches, computer viruses and similar disruptive problems; and
other potential interruptions.

Any disruption in the network access, telecommunications or co-location services provided by third-party vendors or any failure of or by third-party vendors’ systems or our own systems to handle current or higher volume of use could significantly harm our business. We exercise limited control over our third-party vendors, which increases our vulnerability to problems with services they provide. Any errors, failures, interruptions or delays experienced in connection with these third-party technologies and information services or our own systems could negatively impact our relationships with partners and adversely affect our business and could expose us to third-party liabilities. Although we maintain insurance for our business, the coverage under our policies may not be adequate to compensate us for all losses that may occur. In addition, we cannot provide assurance that we will continue to be able to obtain adequate insurance coverage at an acceptable cost.

The reliability and performance of our Internet connection may be harmed by increased usage or by denial-of-service attacks. The Internet has experienced a variety of outages and other delays as a result of damages to portions of its infrastructure, and it could face outages and delays in the future. These outages and delays could reduce the level of Internet usage as well as the availability of the Internet to us for delivery of our Internet-based services.

We rely on third-party vendors to host and maintain our technology platform.

We rely on third-party vendors to host and maintain our technology platform, including our primary platform to facilitate value-based care business models for health plans, Identifi®. Our ability to offer our services and operate our business is therefore dependent on maintaining our relationships with third-party vendors and entering into new relationships to meet the changing needs of our business. Any deterioration in our relationships with such vendors or our failure to enter into agreements with vendors in the future could harm our business, results of operations and financial condition. Despite precautions taken at our vendors’ facilities, the occurrence of a natural disaster, a decision to close the facilities without adequate notice or other unanticipated problems, including relating to the public health emergencies, could result in lengthy interruptions in our service. These service interruption events could cause our platform to be unavailable to our partners and impair our ability to deliver services and to manage our relationships with new and existing partners, which in turn could materially affect our results of operations.

If our vendors are unable or unwilling to provide the services necessary to support our business, or if our agreements with such vendors are terminated, our operations could be significantly disrupted. Certain vendor agreements may be unilaterally terminated by the licensor for convenience, and if such agreements are terminated, we may not be able to enter into similar relationships in the future on reasonable terms or at all. We may also incur substantial costs, delays and disruptions to our business in transitioning such services to ourselves or other third-party vendors. In addition, third-party vendors may not be able to provide the services required in order to meet the changing needs of our business.

Risks Relating to Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

If we identify material weaknesses in the future, we and our auditor may conclude that our internal control over financial reporting is not effective and we may be unable to produce timely and accurate financial statements, any of which could adversely impact our investors’ confidence and our stock price.

Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting. The Company’s internal control over financial reporting includes policies and procedures that provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external reporting purposes in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.

A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that a reasonable possibility exists that a material misstatement of our annual or interim financial statements would not be prevented or detected on a timely basis.

Our efforts to design and implement an effective control environment may not be sufficient to identify or prevent future material weaknesses or significant deficiencies from occurring. Any newly identified material weakness could result in a misstatement of our financial statements or disclosures that would result in a material misstatement of our annual or interim consolidated financial statements that would not be prevented or detected. A control system, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable assurance that the control system’s objectives will be met. Because of the inherent limitations in all control systems, no evaluation of controls can provide absolute assurance that misstatements due to error or fraud will not occur or that all control issues and all instances of fraud will be detected. In addition, if we identify future material weaknesses in our internal controls over financial

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reporting or if we are unable to comply with the demands that are placed upon us as a public company, including the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, in a timely manner, we may be unable to accurately report our financial results, or report them within the timeframes required by the SEC. We also could become subject to investigations by the NYSE, the SEC or other regulatory authorities.

In addition, our continuing growth and expansion in dispersed markets, such as our acquisitions of IPG during the third quarter of 2022, NIA in the first quarter of 2023, and other businesses we may acquire in the future, may place significant additional pressure on our system of internal control over financial reporting and require us to update our internal control over financial reporting to integrate such acquisitions.

Risks Relating to Our Structure

We are required to pay certain of our pre-IPO investors for certain tax benefits we may claim in the future, and these amounts are expected to be material.

Under an exchange agreement we entered into at the time of our IPO, in connection with our implementation of an “Up-C” structure (which was collapsed on December 26, 2019), we granted TPG, The Advisory Board and Ptolemy Capital (together, the “Investor Stockholders”) an exchange right that allowed for receipt of newly-issued shares of the Company’s Class A common stock in exchange (a “Class B Exchange”) for an equal number of shares of the Company’s Class B common stock (which were subsequently canceled) and an equal number of Evolent Health LLC’s Class B common units. Class B common units received by the Company from relevant Investor Stockholders were simultaneously exchanged for an equivalent number of Class A common units of Evolent Health LLC, and Evolent Health LLC cancelled the Class B common units it received in the Class B Exchanges, resulting in an increase in the Company’s economic interest in Evolent Health LLC.

As of December 31, 2019, all of the Class B common units held by the Investor Stockholders and certain other stockholders had been exchanged (together with an equal number of shares) for our Class A common stock. These exchanges resulted in increases in the tax basis of our share of the assets of Evolent Health LLC that otherwise would not have been available to the Company. In addition, we expect that certain net operating losses (“NOLs”) will be available to us as a result of the transactions as described in “Part II - Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 16 - “Income Taxes.” These increases in tax basis and NOLs may reduce the amount of tax that we may otherwise be required to pay in the future, although the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) may challenge all or a part of the tax basis increases and NOLs, and a court could sustain such a challenge.

We have entered into the TRA, related to the tax basis step-up of the assets of Evolent Health LLC and certain NOLs of the former members of Evolent Health LLC, with the Investor Stockholders and certain of our other investors (the “TRA Holders”). Pursuant to the TRA, we will pay the TRA Holders 85% of the amount of the cash savings, if any, in U.S. federal, state and local and non-U.S. income tax that we realize as a result of increases in tax basis resulting from exchanges of Class B common units for shares of our Class A common stock (calculated assuming that any post-IPO transfer of Class B common units (other than the exchanges) had not occurred) as well as certain other benefits attributable to payments under the TRA itself.

The TRA also requires us to pay 85% of the amount of the cash savings, if any, in U.S. federal, state and local and non-U.S. income tax that we realize as a result of the utilization of the NOLs of Evolent Health Holdings and an affiliate of TPG attributable to periods prior to our IPO and the deduction of any imputed interest attributable to our payment obligations under the TRA.

The payments that we make under the TRA could be substantial. As of December 31, 2023, we recorded a TRA liability of $107.9 million including $17.6 million of potential future payments under the TRA related to the future utilization of the pre-IPO NOLs described above and $90.3 million of potential future payments related to the tax basis step-up of the assets of Evolent Health LLC in connection with the exchanges that occurred with our completed secondary offerings and private sales. The actual amount we will be required to pay under the TRA may be materially greater than these amounts, as potential future payments will vary as a consequence of our tax position, the relevant tax basis analysis, our ability to generate sufficient future taxable income in order to be able to benefit from the aforementioned tax attributes, the character and timing of our taxable income and the income tax rates applicable at the time we realize cash savings attributable to our recognition and utilization of the aforementioned tax attributes. Payments under the TRA are not conditioned on our existing investors’ continued ownership of any of our equity.

We will not be reimbursed for any payments made under the TRA in the event that any tax benefits are disallowed.

If the IRS successfully challenges the tax basis increases resulting from the Class B Exchanges or the existence or amount of the pre-IPO NOLs at any point in the future after payments are made under the TRA, we will not be reimbursed for any payments we had made under the TRA (although future payments under the TRA, if any, would be netted against any unreimbursed payments to reflect

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the result of any such successful challenge by the IRS). As a result, in certain circumstances, we could be required to make payments under the TRA in excess of our cash tax savings.

We may not be able to realize all or a portion of the tax benefits that resulted from the exchanges of Class B common units for our Class A common stock or from the utilization of NOLs previously held by Evolent Health Holdings and an affiliate of TPG and from payments made under the TRA.

Our ability to realize the tax benefits that we expect to be available as a result of the increases in tax basis created by the Class B Exchanges and by the payments made pursuant to the TRA, and our ability to utilize the pre-IPO NOLs of Evolent Health Holdings and an affiliate of TPG and the interest deductions imputed under the TRA all depend on a number of assumptions, including that we earn sufficient taxable income each year during the period over which such deductions are available and that there are no adverse changes in applicable law or regulations. If our actual taxable income is insufficient or there are adverse changes in applicable law or regulations, we may be unable to realize all or a portion of these expected benefits and our cash flows and stockholders’ equity could be negatively affected. Please refer to the discussion in “Part II - Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 16 - Income Taxes” for additional information.

In certain cases, payments by us under the TRA may be accelerated or significantly exceed the tax benefits we realize in respect of the tax attributes subject to the TRA.

The TRA provides that upon certain changes of control, or if, at any time, we elect an early termination of the TRA or are in material breach of our obligations under the TRA, we would be required to make an immediate payment equal to the present value of the anticipated future tax benefits to certain current or former shareholders. Such payment would be based on certain valuation assumptions and deemed events set forth in the TRA, including the assumption that we have sufficient taxable income to fully utilize such tax benefits. The benefits would be payable even though, in certain circumstances, no tax basis step-up deductions and no NOLs are actually used at the time of the accelerated payment under the TRA. Accordingly, payments under the TRA may be made years in advance of the actual realization, if any, of the anticipated future tax benefits and may be significantly greater than the benefits we realize in respect of the tax attributes subject to the TRA. In these situations, our obligations under the TRA could have a substantial negative impact on our liquidity. We may not be able to finance our obligations under the TRA and any indebtedness we incur may limit our subsidiaries’ ability to make distributions to us to pay these obligations. In addition, our obligations under the TRA could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing certain mergers, asset sales, other forms of business combinations or other changes of control that could be in the best interests of holders of our Class A common stock.

The agreements between us and certain of our pre-IPO investors were made in the context of an affiliated relationship and may contain different terms than comparable agreements with unaffiliated third parties.

The contractual agreements that we have with certain of our pre-IPO investors were negotiated in the context of an affiliated relationship in which representatives of such pre-IPO investors and their affiliates comprised a significant portion of our board of directors. As a result, the financial provisions, and the other terms of these agreements, such as covenants, contractual obligations on our part and on the part of such pre-IPO investors and termination and default provisions, may be less favorable to us than terms that we might have obtained in negotiations with unaffiliated third parties in similar circumstances, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Risks Relating to Indebtedness and our Series A Preferred Stock

The conditional conversion feature of the 2025 Notes and 2029 Notes, if triggered, may adversely affect our financial condition and operating results.

In October 2018, the Company issued $172.5 million aggregate principal amount of its 1.50% Convertible Senior Notes due 2025 (the “2025 Notes”), and in December 2023, the Company issued $402.5 million aggregate principal amount of its 3.50% Convertible Senior Notes due 2029 (the “2029 Notes”). In the event the conditional conversion feature of the 2025 Notes or 2029 Notes is triggered, holders of such notes will be entitled to convert such notes during specified periods at their option. If one or more holders elect to convert their notes, unless we elect to satisfy our conversion obligation by delivering solely shares of our Class A common stock (other than paying cash in lieu of delivering any fractional share), we would be required to settle a portion or all of our conversion obligation through the payment of cash, which could adversely affect our liquidity. In addition, even if holders do not elect to convert their notes, we could be required under applicable accounting rules to reclassify all or a portion of the outstanding principal of the 2025 Notes or 2029 Notes, as applicable, as a current rather than long-term liability, which would result in a material reduction of our net working capital.


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We may not have the ability to raise the funds necessary to settle conversions of our notes in cash, to repurchase our notes for cash upon a fundamental change or to pay the redemption price for any notes we redeem, and our future debt may contain limitations on our ability to pay cash upon conversion or repurchase of the notes.

Holders of our notes have the right to require us to repurchase all or a portion of their notes upon the occurrence of a fundamental change (as defined in the indentures governing the notes) at a fundamental change repurchase price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the notes to be repurchased, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any. In addition, upon conversion of the notes, unless we elect to satisfy our conversion obligation by delivering solely shares of our Class A common stock (other than paying cash in lieu of delivering any fractional shares), we would be required to settle a portion or all of our conversion obligation through the payment of cash. However, we may not have enough available cash or be able to obtain financing at the time we are required to make repurchases of notes surrendered therefore or notes that are being redeemed or converted.

In addition, our ability to repurchase the notes or to pay cash upon redemptions or conversions of the notes may be limited by law, by regulatory authority, or by other agreements governing our future indebtedness. Our failure to repurchase notes at a time when the repurchase is required by the applicable indenture or to pay any cash payable on future conversions of the notes as required by the applicable indenture would constitute a default under the applicable indenture. A default under either of the indentures or the occurrence of a fundamental change itself could also lead to a default under agreements governing our existing and future indebtedness. If the repayment of the related indebtedness were to be accelerated after any applicable notice or grace periods, we may not have sufficient funds to repay the indebtedness and repurchase the notes or make cash payments upon conversions thereof.

Changes in the accounting treatment for convertible debt securities that may be settled in cash, such as the notes offered hereby, could have a material effect on our reported financial results.

In August 2020, the Financial Accounting Standards Board published an Accounting Standards Update (“ASU 2020-06”), which amends the accounting standards for convertible debt instruments that may be settled entirely or partially in cash upon conversion. ASU 2020-06 eliminates requirements to separately account for liability and equity components of such convertible debt instruments and eliminates the ability to use the treasury stock method for calculating diluted earnings per share for convertible instruments whose principal amount may be settled using shares. Instead, ASU 2020-06 requires (i) the entire amount of the security to be presented as a liability on the balance sheet and (ii) application of the “if-converted” method for calculating diluted earnings per share. Under the “if-converted” method, diluted earnings per share will generally be calculated assuming that the 2025 Notes and the 2029 Notes were converted solely into shares of Class A common stock at the beginning of the reporting period, unless the result would be anti-dilutive, which could adversely affect our diluted earnings per share. However, if the principal amount of the convertible debt security being converted is required to be paid in cash and only the excess is permitted to be settled in shares, the if-converted method will produce a similar result as the “treasury stock” method prior to the adoption of ASU 2020-06 for such convertible debt security. Because we will be permitted to settle conversions of the notes in cash, shares of common stock, or a combination thereof, the “if-converted” method for calculating diluted earnings per share is expected to be required with respect to the 2025 Notes and 2029 Notes. Further amendments to these accounting standards may require us to reflect the notes in a manner that adversely affects our reported diluted earnings per share.

We are exposed to interest rate risk under the Credit Agreement and the terms of our Series A Preferred Stock, which could cause the Company’s debt service obligations to increase significantly.

We are exposed to market risk from changes in interest rates. Interest under all Credit Facilities under our Credit Agreement (including the Credit Facilities) and under the terms of our Series A Preferred Stock is based on the Secured Overnight Funding Rate (“SOFR”), a floating rate, subject to a minimum rate. The Federal Reserve has raised, and may in the future further raise, interest rates to combat the effects of recent high inflation. Any further increase in the SOFR will increase the Company’s debt service obligations, which could have a negative impact on the Company’s cash flow, financial position or operating results, including cash available for servicing the Company’s indebtedness, or result in increased borrowing costs in the future.

Our debt following the NIA acquisition is significant and could adversely affect our business and our ability to meet our obligations.

We have $612.5 million of principal amount of indebtedness outstanding as of December 31, 2023. In addition, we have 175,000 shares of Series A Preferred Stock outstanding.

This significant amount of debt, preferred stock and other cash needs could have important consequences to us, including:

requiring a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to make payments on this debt, thereby limiting the cash we have available to fund future growth opportunities, such as capital expenditures and acquisitions;
restrictive covenants in our debt arrangements and the arrangements governing our Series A Preferred Stock, which could limit our operations and borrowing;

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increasing our vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions and limiting our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and industry, due to the need to use our cash to service our outstanding debt and Series A Preferred Stock;
placing us at a competitive disadvantage relative to our competitors that are not as highly leveraged and that may therefore be more able to invest in their business or use their available cash to pursue other opportunities, including acquisitions; and
limiting our ability to borrow additional funds as needed or take advantage of business opportunities as they arise.

In addition, our actual cash requirements in the future may be greater than expected. Our cash flow from operations may not be sufficient to repay all of our outstanding debt as it becomes due and satisfy obligations with respect to our Series A Preferred Stock, and we may not be able to borrow money, sell assets or otherwise raise funds on acceptable terms, or at all, to refinance our debt or Series A Preferred Stock.

Servicing our debt and paying dividends on our Series A Preferred Stock requires a significant amount of cash, and we may not have sufficient cash flow from our business to service our debt and make necessary capital expenditures.

Our ability to make scheduled payments of the principal of, to pay interest or dividends on or to refinance our indebtedness or our Series A Preferred Stock depends on our future performance, which is subject to economic, financial, competitive and other factors beyond our control. Our business may not generate cash flow from operations in the future sufficient to service our debt and make necessary capital expenditures. If we are unable to generate such cash flow, we may be required to adopt one or more alternatives, such as selling assets, restructuring debt or obtaining additional equity capital on terms that may be onerous or highly dilutive to our stockholders. Our ability to refinance our indebtedness will depend on the capital markets and our financial condition at such time. We may not be able to engage in any of these activities or engage in these activities on desirable terms, which could result in a default on our obligations and have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.

Restrictive covenants in our Credit Agreement and in the Investors Rights Agreement we entered into in connection with the closing of the NIA acquisition, on January 20, 2023, with the Purchasers named in Schedule I thereto (the “Investors Rights Agreement”) may interfere with our ability to access the revolving credit facility under the Credit Agreement, or to obtain new financing or to engage in other business activities.

Our Credit Agreement and the Investors Rights Agreement impose significant operating and financial restrictions on us. These restrictions limit our ability and/or the ability of certain of our subsidiaries to, among other things:

incur or guarantee additional debt;
incur certain liens;
merge or consolidate;
transfer or sell assets;
make certain investments;
pay dividends and make other distributions on, or redeem or repurchase, capital stock; and
enter into transactions with affiliates.

In addition, pursuant to our Credit Agreement and Investors Rights Agreement, we are required to comply with certain financial covenants consisting of a minimum liquidity test, and a total secured leverage test. As a result of these restrictions, we will be limited as to how we conduct our business and we may be unable to raise additional debt or equity financing to compete effectively or to take advantage of new business opportunities. The terms of any future indebtedness we may incur could include more restrictive covenants. We cannot assure you that the Company will be able to maintain compliance with these covenants in the future and, if it fails to do so, that it will be able to obtain waivers from the lenders and/or amend the covenants. The Company’s failure to comply with the restrictive covenants described above as well as the terms of any future indebtedness could result in an event of default, which, if not cured or waived, could result in it being required to repay these borrowings before their due date and the lenders would be entitled to foreclose on collateral. If the Company is forced to refinance these borrowings on less favorable terms or cannot refinance these borrowings, our results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected. In addition, we may be unable to access future borrowings under our revolving facility if we are unable to satisfy the applicable conditions precedent.


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Risks Relating to Ownership of Our Class A Common Stock

We expect that our stock price will be volatile and may fluctuate or decline significantly.

The trading price of our Class A common stock has been and may continue to be volatile and subject to wide price fluctuations in response to various factors, including:

economic and political conditions or events;
market conditions in the broader stock market in general, or in our industry in particular, including as a result of public health emergencies, inflationary pressures, and an uncertain macroeconomic environment due in part to the conflict between Russia and Ukraine and the war between Israel and Hamas;
actual or anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly financial reports and results of operations;
our ability to satisfy our ongoing capital needs and unanticipated cash requirements;
indebtedness incurred in the future;
introduction of new products and services by us or our competitors;
business developments of our partners;
issuance of new or changed securities analysts’ reports or recommendations;
sales of large blocks of our stock;
additions or departures of key personnel;
regulatory developments; and
litigation and governmental investigations.

These and other factors may cause the market price and demand for our Class A common stock to fluctuate substantially, which may limit or prevent investors from readily selling their shares of Class A common stock, including any shares of Class A common stock they receive upon conversion of our convertible notes, and may otherwise negatively affect the liquidity of our Class A common stock. In addition, in the past, when the market price of a stock has been volatile, holders of that stock have instituted securities class action litigation against the company that issued the stock. We are, and from time to time may become, subject to such litigation, and we could incur substantial costs defending a lawsuit. Such a lawsuit could also divert the time and attention of our management from our business.

The trading market for our Class A common stock will also be influenced by the research and reports that industry or securities analysts publish about us or our business. If one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrades our stock, or if our results of operations do not meet their expectations, our stock price could decline.

Our Series A Preferred Stock has rights, preferences and privileges that are not held by, and are preferential to, the rights of holders of our Class A common stock, which could adversely affect our liquidity and financial condition, and could in the future substantially dilute the ownership interest of holders of our Class A common stock.

In connection with the consummation of the NIA acquisition, we issued 175,000 shares of Series A Preferred Stock to Ares (through one or more of its funds and managed accounts).

The Series A Preferred Stock ranks senior to the Company’s Class A common stock and all future series of the Company’s preferred stock with respect to dividends and distributions on liquidation. Regular dividends on the Series A Preferred Stock will be paid quarterly in cash in arrears at a rate per annum equal to Adjusted Term SOFR (as defined in the Certificate of Designation of the Series A Preferred Stock filed by the Company with the Delaware Secretary of State on January 19, 2023 (the “Certificate of Designation”)) plus 6.00%. The liquidation preference of the Series A Preferred Stock will increase on the last day of each calendar quarter by the amount of any accrued and unpaid regular dividends that have not been paid in cash on the relevant dividend payment date. The regular dividend rate will also increase by 2.00% per annum upon the occurrence and during the continuance of certain triggering events, including a breach of the protective covenants contained in the Investors Rights Agreement or the Company’s failure to pay any regular dividends in cash. Holders of Series A Preferred Stock are also entitled to participate in and receive any dividends declared or paid on the Class A Common Stock on an as-converted basis.

Under various circumstances defined in the Certificate of Designation, (a) holders of shares of the Series A Preferred Stock may be entitled to convert such shares into shares of our Class A common stock, or (b) we may require all holders of such shares to convert such shares to shares of our Class A common stock. In addition, upon the occurrence of a refinancing or replacement of the entirety of the indebtedness under the Credit Agreement prior to its maturity that is provided solely by lenders who are not affiliates or approved funds of Ares Capital Management LLC, we will be required to redeem all shares of Series A Preferred Stock then outstanding for cash at a redemption price per share equal to 165.00% of the then-current liquidation preference of the Series A Preferred Stock, plus

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all accrued and unpaid dividends on the Series A Preferred Stock being redeemed, plus, solely in the event such refinancing or replacement is consummated prior to January 20, 2025, the aggregate amount of regular dividends per share which would have otherwise been payable on the Series A Preferred Stock from the date of redemption until January 20, 2025. If the Company undergoes a Change of Control (as defined in the Credit Agreement), the Company will be required to redeem all shares of Series A Preferred Stock then outstanding for cash at a price per share equal to the greater of (x) 150.00% of the then-current liquidation preference per share of the Series A Preferred Stock, if such redemption occurs prior to January 20, 2025, and 135.00% of the then-current liquidation preference per share of the Series A Preferred Stock, if such redemption occurs on or after January 20, 2025, and (y) the value of the Class A Common Stock issuable upon conversion of a share of Series A Preferred Stock, which value shall be determined based on the value attributed to the Class A Common Stock in connection with such Change of Control.

The share repurchase obligations could adversely affect our liquidity and reduce the amount of cash available for working capital, capital expenditures, growth opportunities, acquisitions, and other general corporate purposes. Our obligations to the holders of Series A Preferred Stock could also limit our ability to obtain additional financing and increase our borrowing costs, which could have an adverse effect on our financial condition. The preferential rights could also result in divergent interests between the holders of Series A Preferred Stock and holders of shares of our Class A common stock. Any conversion of Series A Preferred Stock into Class A common stock would dilute the ownership interest of existing holders of our Class A common stock, and any sales in the public market of the Class A common stock issuable upon such conversion could adversely affect prevailing market prices of our Class A common stock.

The market price of our Class A common stock could decline due to the large number of shares of Class A common stock issuable upon conversion of our convertible notes or the Series A Preferred Stock, or by sales or issuances of substantial amounts of our Class A common stock.

The market price of our Class A common stock could decline as a result of sales of a large number of the shares of our Class A common stock issuable upon the conversion of our convertible notes or the Series A Preferred Stock, or the perception that such conversions and sales could occur. These sales, or the possibility that these sales may occur, may also make it more difficult for us to raise additional capital by selling equity or equity-linked securities in the future, at a time and price that we deem appropriate. As of February 15, 2024, 115.4 million shares of our Class A common stock were outstanding. Up to a maximum of 6.8 million shares of our Class A common stock is reserved for issuance upon the conversion of our convertible notes and 4.4 million shares are reserved for issuance upon the conversion of our Series A Preferred Stock. Similarly, sales or issuances of substantial amounts of our Class A common stock in the public market by us or by our stockholders into the public market could cause the market price of our Class A common stock to decrease significantly. We issued 8.5 million shares of our Class A common stock to Centene in connection with the closing of the NIA acquisition, which were subsequently sold to affiliates of FMR LLC. Such shares are subject to lock-up obligations, subject to certain exceptions, for a fifteen-month period following the closing; provided, that Magellan Health, Inc. will be permitted to sell one-third of such shares following the nine-month anniversary of the closing of the NIA acquisition and an additional one-third of such shares following the twelve-month anniversary of the closing of the NIA acquisition. In addition, we agreed to provide Magellan Health, Inc. with registration rights. See the risk factor captioned “We have made and entered, and may in the future make and enter into acquisitions, investments, alliances and joint ventures, which may be difficult to integrate, divert management resources, result in unanticipated costs or dilute our stockholders.”

Some provisions of Delaware law, our second amended and restated certificate of incorporation, as amended and our third amended and restated by-laws and certain of our contracts may deter third parties from acquiring us.

Among other things, our second amended and restated certificate of incorporation, as amended, and our third amended and restated by-laws:

prohibit stockholder action by written consent;
authorize the issuance of “blank check” preferred stock that could be issued by our board of directors to increase the number of outstanding shares of capital stock, making a takeover more difficult and expensive;
prohibit cumulative voting in the election of directors, which would otherwise allow less than a majority of stockholders to elect director candidates;
provide that special meetings of the stockholders may be called only by or at the direction of the board of directors, the chairman of our board or the chief executive officer; and
require advance notice to be given by stockholders for any stockholder proposals or director nominees.

In addition, Section 203 of the DGCL may affect the ability of an “interested stockholder” to engage in certain business combinations, for a period of three years following the time that the stockholder becomes an “interested stockholder.” We have elected in our second

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amended and restated certificate of incorporation, as amended, not to be subject to Section 203 of the DGCL. Nevertheless, our second amended and restated certificate of incorporation, as amended, contains provisions that have the same effect as Section 203 of the DGCL, except that they provide that each of TPG, UPMC and The Advisory Board and their transferees will not be deemed to be “interested stockholders,” and accordingly are not subject to such restrictions.

These and other provisions could have the effect of discouraging, delaying or preventing a transaction involving a change in control of our company or could make it more difficult for stockholders to elect directors of their choosing or to cause us to take other corporate actions that they desire. Provisions in certain of our contracts may also deter third parties from acquiring us. In addition, certain partners would have the right to terminate if we are acquired by certain competitors.

Our second amended and restated certificate of incorporation, as amended, designates courts in the State of Delaware as the sole and exclusive forum for certain types of actions and proceedings that may be initiated by our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers or employees.

Our second amended and restated certificate of incorporation, as amended, provides that, subject to limited exceptions, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware is the sole and exclusive forum for (a) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, (b) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors, officers or other employees to us or our stockholders, (c) any action asserting a claim against us arising pursuant to any provision of the DGCL, our second amended and restated certificate of incorporation, as amended, or our third amended and restated by-laws, (d) any action to interpret, apply, enforce or determine the validity of our second amended and restated certificate of incorporation, as amended, or third amended and restated by-laws or (e) any other action asserting a claim against us that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine. We refer to each of these proceedings as a covered proceeding. In addition, our second amended and restated certificate of incorporation, as amended, provides that if any action the subject matter of which is a covered proceeding is filed in a court other than the specified Delaware courts without the approval of our board of directors, which we refer to as a foreign action, the claiming party will be deemed to have consented to (1) the personal jurisdiction of the specified Delaware courts in connection with any action brought in any such courts to enforce the exclusive forum provision described above and (2) having service of process made upon such claiming party in any such enforcement action by service upon such claiming party’s counsel in the foreign action as agent for such claiming party. Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in shares of our capital stock will be deemed to have notice of and to have consented to these provisions. These provisions may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers or other employees, which may discourage such lawsuits against us and our directors, officers and employees. Alternatively, if a court were to find these provisions of our second amended and restated certificate of incorporation, as amended, inapplicable to, or unenforceable in respect of, one or more of the specified types of actions or proceedings, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such matters in other jurisdictions, which could adversely affect our business and financial condition.

We do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our Class A common stock in the foreseeable future.

We currently intend to retain our future earnings, if any, for the foreseeable future to fund the development and growth of our business. We do not intend to pay any dividends to holders of our Class A common stock. As a result, capital appreciation in the price of our Class A common stock, if any, will be your only source of gain on an investment in our Class A common stock. See “Part II - Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities - Dividends” for a discussion of our dividend policy.

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

Not applicable.

Item 1C. Cybersecurity

Risk Management and strategy

We have developed processes for assessing, identifying and managing material risks from cybersecurity threats. We maintain an enterprise risk management program, which includes management of material risks from cybersecurity threats alongside other Company risks as part of our overall risk assessment process. Our cybersecurity strategy includes defense in depth and zero trust based controls intended to protect our information technology systems. We maintain an enterprise information and cybersecurity program. As part of this program, we employ a range of tools and services to inform our assessment, identification and management of material risks from cybersecurity threats, which include, from time to time, monitoring emerging data protection laws and implementing responsive changes to our processes; undertaking periodic reviews of our partner facing policies and statements related to cybersecurity; conducting cybersecurity management and incident training for employees involved in our systems and processes that

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handle sensitive data; conducting phishing email simulations for employees and contractors with access to corporate email systems; requiring employees, as well as third-parties who provide services on our behalf, to treat information and data with care; and employing a cyber risk management and quantification system customized to our environment.

We maintain an incident response plan that includes processes to triage, assess severity for, escalate, contain, investigate and remediate material cybersecurity incidents, as well as to comply with potentially applicable legal obligations. As part of the above processes, we periodically engage with assessors, consultants, auditors, and other third-parties, including by periodically annually having a third-party/an independent Qualified Security Assessor review our cybersecurity program to help identify areas for improvement and/or compliance. Our risk management processes also address cybersecurity threat risks associated with our use of third party service providers.

For a discussion of whether and how any risks from cybersecurity threats, including as a result of any previous cybersecurity incidents, have materially affected or are reasonably likely to materially affect the Company, including our business strategy and results of operations, see “Risk Factors – “Risks Related to Data Protection Privacy, Cybersecurity, Intellectual Property and Technology” which is incorporated by reference into this Item 1C.

In the three most recently completed fiscal years, we have not experienced any material cybersecurity incidents and the expenses we have incurred from cybersecurity incidents were immaterial. This includes penalties and settlements, of which there were none.

Governance

The Compliance and Regulatory Affairs Committee of the Board (the “Compliance and Regulatory Affairs Committee”) provides oversight of risks from cybersecurity threats. The Compliance and Regulatory Affairs Committee receives updates from our Chief Information Security Officer (“CISO”) and other members of management to, among other items, review material cybersecurity incidents, review key metrics on our cybersecurity program and related risk management programs, and discuss our cybersecurity programs and goals. The Compliance and Regulatory Affairs Committee updates the full Board on matters relating to cybersecurity. The Audit Committee of the Board provides an additional layer of cybersecurity oversight on specific financial matters.

Our management disclosure and compliance committees, which include representatives from our legal, financial and accounting and information technology (“IT”) teams, meet at least quarterly to monitor potential risks and review procedures and controls relating to cybersecurity. Management periodically assesses such risks and assists in the implementation of policies and procedures related to cybersecurity risk oversight in conjunction with the Compliance and Regulatory Affairs Committee.

Our CISO is responsible for assessing and managing the Company’s material risks from cybersecurity threats. Our CISO has served in this role for the past four years, and has more than 25 years of experience in the aggregate in various roles involving managing information security, technology infrastructure, IT operations and developing cybersecurity strategy, and is a Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP).

Our CISO is informed about and monitors the prevention, detection, mitigation and remediation of cybersecurity incidents through the management of and participation in the cybersecurity risk management and strategy process described above, including the operation of our incident response plan. As discussed above, our CISO reports to the Compliance and Regulatory Affairs Committee, about the risks from cybersecurity threats among other cybersecurity related matters, and meets regularly with our Chief Technology Officer.

Item 2. Properties

Our corporate headquarters and executive officers are located in Arlington, Virginia, where we occupy approximately 8,500 square feet of office space effective January 1, 2024 with a new 7-year lease. We also lease offices throughout the United States, and in Pune, India and Manila, Philippines. We lease all of our facilities and we do not own any real property. As provided in “Part II – Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 12 - Leases,” the total rental expense on operating leases, net of sublease income, was $14.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2023.

Item 3. Legal Proceedings

The discussion of legal proceedings included within “Part II – Item 8. Financial Statements - Note 11 - Commitments and Contingencies - Litigation Matters” is incorporated by reference into this Item 1.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.

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PART II

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Market and Dividend Information

Market Information

Our Class A common stock is traded on the NYSE under the symbol “EVH.”

Holders

As of February 15, 2024, there were 84 holders of record of our Class A common stock. The number of record holders does not include individuals or entities who beneficially own shares and whose shares are held of record by a broker, bank, or other nominee, but does include each such broker, bank, or other nominee as one record holder.

Dividends

Series A Preferred Stock

For the year ended December 31, 2023 the Series A Preferred stockholders were paid dividends in the amount of $18.8 million. We expect to continue to pay dividends to the Series A Preferred stockholders pursuant to the terms of the Securities Purchase Agreement we entered into on January 20, 2023 with the purchasers listed on Schedule I thereto (the “Securities Purchase Agreement”).
Common Stock

We have not declared or paid any cash dividends on our common stock. We do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our Class A common stock for the foreseeable future. The timing and amount of future cash dividends on our Class A common stock, if any, is periodically evaluated by our board of directors and would depend on, among other factors, our current and expected earnings, financial condition, projected cash flows and anticipated financing needs.

Performance Graph

The following graph compares the cumulative total stockholder return on our Class A common stock for the 5-years ended December 31, 2023, to the cumulative total returns of the NASDAQ Health Care Index and the NYSE Composite Index over the same
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period. This graph assumes an investment of $100 at the closing price of the markets on December 31, 2018, in our Class A common stock, the NASDAQ Health Care Index and the NYSE Composite Index, and assumes the reinvestment of dividends, if any.
The comparisons shown in the following graph are based upon historical data. We caution that the stock price performance shown in the graph below is not necessarily indicative of, nor is it intended to forecast, the potential future performance of our Class A common stock.

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Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities, Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer or Affiliated Purchases or Other Stockholder Matters

None.

Item 6. Reserved

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

The following Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (“MD&A”) is intended to help the reader understand the Company’s financial condition and results of operations. The MD&A is provided as a supplement to, and should be read in conjunction with, our consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements presented in “Part II – Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” as well as “Part I - Item 1A. Risk Factors.”

INTRODUCTION
 
Business Overview

We are a market leader in connecting care for people with complex conditions like cancer, cardiovascular disease, and musculoskeletal diagnoses. We work on behalf of health plans and other risk-bearing entities and payers (our customers) to support physicians and other healthcare providers (our users) in providing high quality evidence-based care to their patients. We believe adherence to evidence-based clinical pathways supports better outcomes for patients, a better experience for physicians, and lower costs for the healthcare system overall.

Specialty care represents a significant and fast-growing portion of healthcare costs in the U.S., driven in part by the pace of development of new therapies and treatments. To manage these increasing costs, some health plans and other risk-bearing entities historically deployed cost containment strategies that can limit access to care and operate in narrow silos (for example, prior authorization for radiological studies being considered independently from a comprehensive chemotherapy regimen). We believe Evolent can bring an integrated approach to a patient’s condition across multiple specialties, using technology to recommend our evidence-based clinical pathways in a way that provides rapid feedback to the provider, seeks to remove barriers to care, and aligns
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financial incentives with the best evidence. As a result of this approach, we have seen as much as a 30% increase in adherence to best evidence for populations that we manage.

We were an early innovator in value-based care, founded in 2011 by members of our management team, UPMC, an integrated delivery system based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and The Advisory Board Company.

Segment Update

The Company made organizational changes, including re-evaluating its reportable segments, as a result of growth in our value-based specialty care business, both organically and through acquisitions. Effective during the three months ended March 31, 2023, the Company changed its reportable segments to reflect changes in the way its chief operating decision maker evaluates the performance of its operations, develops strategy and allocates capital resources. Specifically, the Company collapsed its previous two segments, Evolent Health Services and Clinical Solutions into one segment. The Company's historical disclosures have been recast to be consistent with the current presentation.

All of our revenue is recognized in the United States and substantially all of our long-lived assets are located in the United States.

Recent Events

Impact of Inflation

We experience pricing pressures in the form of competitive prices in addition to rising costs for certain inflation-sensitive operating expenses such as labor, employee benefits and facility leases. We do not believe these impacts were material to our revenues or net income during the year ended December 31, 2023. However, significant sustained inflation driven by the macroeconomic environment or other factors could negatively impact our margins, profitability and results of operations in future periods.

Customers

The following table summarizes those partners who represented at least 10.0% of our consolidated revenue:

For the Year Ended December 31,
20232022
Cook County Health and Hospitals Systems15.7%22.4%
Humana Insurance Company12.0%*
Molina Healthcare, Inc.13.5%*
Florida Blue Medicare, Inc.10.4%11.5%
————————
*     Represents less than 10.0% of the respective balance

Transactions

The Company has undertaken several transactions, some of which may impact year-to-year comparisons. The following is a discussion of certain of those transactions.

Acquisition of NIA

On November 17, 2022, the Company entered into a definitive agreement for the Company to acquire NIA. On January 20, 2023, we consummated the acquisition of NIA for $387.8 million in cash consideration, which was financed in part with $265.0 million in debt borrowed from affiliates of Ares and the proceeds from the sale of an aggregate 175,000 shares of the Company’s Series A Preferred Stock, resulting in gross proceeds of $168.0 million, and stock consideration of 8.5 million shares of Class A common stock issued to the seller. NIA is part of Evolent’s Specialty Technology and Services Suite. Refer to “Part II - Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 4” for additional discussion regarding the NIA acquisition.

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Credit Agreement Amendment

On August 1, 2022 (the “IPG Closing Date”), the Company entered into a credit agreement, by and among the Company, Evolent Health LLC, as the borrower (the “Borrower”), certain subsidiaries of the Company, as guarantors, the lenders from time to time party thereto, and Ares, as administrative agent, collateral agent and revolver agent (the “Existing Credit Agreement” and as modified by the Amendment (defined below), the “Credit Agreement”), pursuant to which the lenders agreed to extend credit to the Borrower in the form of (i) initial term loans in an aggregate principal amount of $175.0 million (the “Initial Term Loan Facility”) and (ii) revolving credit commitments in an aggregate principal amount of $50.0 million (the “Initial Revolving Facility”), the availability of which shall be determined by reference to the lesser of $50.0 million and a borrowing base calculation. The Borrowers borrowed full amount under the Initial Term Loan Facility and the Initial Revolving Facility on the IPG Closing Date. A closing fee of (a) 2.00% of the aggregate amount of the commitments in respect of the Initial Term Loan Facility and (b) 2.00% of the aggregate amount of the commitments in respect of the Initial Revolving Facility was paid as of the IPG Closing Date.

On January 20, 2023, (“the NIA Closing Date”), the Company entered into Amendment No. 1 to the Credit Agreement (the “Amendment”), pursuant to which the lenders agreed to extend credit to the Borrower in the form of (i) additional revolving commitments in an aggregate principal amount equal to $25.0 million (the “Incremental Revolving Facility” and together with the Initial Revolving Facility, the “Revolving Facility”), and (ii) additional term loans in an aggregate principal amount equal to $240.0 million (the “Incremental Term Loan Facility” and together with the Initial Term Loan Facility, the “Term Loan Facility”; the Revolving Facility and the Term Loan Facility are collectively referred to herein as the “Credit Facilities”). The Borrowers borrowed the full amount under the Incremental Term Loan Facility and the Incremental Revolving Facility on the NIA Closing Date to finance, together with the proceeds from the sale of the Series A Preferred Stock, the cash consideration payable in connection with the NIA acquisition on the NIA Closing Date and pay transaction fees and expenses. A closing fee of (a) 3.00% of the aggregate amount of the commitments in respect of the Incremental Term Loan Facility and (b) 3.00% of the aggregate amount of the commitments in respect of the Incremental Revolving Facility was paid as of the NIA Closing Date. Refer to “Part II - Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 10.”

Series A Preferred Stock

In connection with the consummation of the acquisition of NIA, on January 20, 2023, we entered into a Securities Purchase Agreement pursuant to which the Company offered and sold an aggregate 175,000 shares of Series A Preferred Stock, at a purchase price of $960.00 per share, resulting in total gross proceeds to us of $168.0 million. The proceeds from the offer and sale of the Series A Preferred Stock were used, together with the proceeds from the Incremental Revolving Facility and Incremental Term Loan Facility, to finance the cash consideration payable for the acquisition of NIA and pay transaction fees and expenses. Refer to “Part II - Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 13” for additional discussion regarding the sale of Series A Preferred Stock.

Redemption of 2024 Notes

On August 2, 2023, the Company issued a notice of redemption to the holders of its outstanding 3.50% Convertible Senior Notes due 2024 (the “2024 Notes”), pursuant to which it redeemed the outstanding 2024 Notes for cash at a price of 100% of the principal amount of the 2024 Notes, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on October 13, 2023 (the “Redemption Date”). Prior to the Redemption Date, holders of the 2024 Notes were entitled to convert to shares of the Company’s Class A Common Stock at a rate of 55.6153 shares per $1,000 principal amount of 2024 Notes.

During the year ended December 31, 2023, holders of the 2024 Notes converted $23.3 million in aggregate principal amount of such notes to 1.3 million shares of the Company’s Class A common stock and repaid the remaining $1.0 million balance in cash, satisfying all of the Company’s remaining obligations under the 2024 Notes on the Redemption Date.

Issuance of 2029 Notes

In December 2023, the Company issued $402.5 million aggregate principal amount of its 2029 Notes in a private placement to qualified institutional buyers within the meaning of Rule 144A of the Securities Act. The 2029 Notes were issued at an issue price of 100.00% of par for net proceeds of approximately $390.2 million, after deducting fees and expenses. We incurred $11.6 million of debt issuance costs in connection with the 2029 Notes. The Company used the net proceeds to prepay interest and prepayment premiums on outstanding borrowings and pay interest and prepayment premiums under its Term Loan Facility. Refer to “Part II – Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data – Note 10” for additional discussion regarding the 2029 Notes.
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Repayment of Credit Agreement

During the year ended December 31, 2023, the Company prepaid $37.5 million under the Revolving Facility and $415.0 million of the Term Loan Facility that was utilized to acquire IPG and NIA. The total amount paid to Ares under the Credit Agreement in connection with the prepayment was $434.8 million, which included $415.0 million of principal, $9.1 million in accrued interest and $10.7 million in prepayment premium. As of December 31, 2023, there is $37.5 million outstanding under the Company’s Revolving Facility.

Repositioning Costs

During the second quarter of 2023, the Company implemented a broad set of repositioning initiatives designed to further align the Company’s assets and talent towards the value-based specialty care opportunity, with the intent of streamlining its operations and supporting the goal of realizing long-term sustainable earnings growth (the “2023 Repositioning Plan’). These initiatives include making organizational changes across the business that resulted in severance, terminated benefits and related payroll taxes and dedicated employee costs associated with recent acquisitions as well as third-party professional fees. Dedicated employee costs primarily include project management and technology staff costs needed to migrate acquired businesses to Evolent’s integrated technology platform and costs related to the consolidation of brands, internal operations, strategies, processes and platforms. Dedicated employee costs are limited to employees that will have no role in ongoing operations and have no planned role at Evolent once the repositioning activities are completed. Professional services costs primarily relate to services provided by a third-party vendor to review our operating model and organizational design in order to improve our profitability, create value through our solutions and invest in strategic opportunities in future periods. Office space consolidation includes early termination penalties and associated expenses.

As of December 31, 2023, the Company estimates total repositioning charges of $45.0 million to be incurred during the life of the 2023 Repositioning Plan which will be recorded in selling, general and administrative expenses on the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss). The repositioning program is anticipated to be substantially complete by the first half of 2024.

The following table provides a summary of our total costs associated with our repositioning plans for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, by major type of cost (in thousands):

For the Year Ended December 31, 2023Total Amount Expected to be Incurred in the 2023 Repositioning Plan
Severance and termination benefits$8,564 $10,562 
Dedicated employee costs6,900 8,929 
Professional services12,910 15,174 
Office space consolidation6,862 $10,362 
Total$35,236 $45,027 

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

We have identified the accounting policies below as critical to the understanding of our results of operations and our financial condition. In applying these critical accounting policies in preparing our financial statements, management must use critical assumptions, estimates and judgments concerning future results or other developments, including the likelihood, timing or amount of one or more future events. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions. On an ongoing basis, we evaluate our assumptions, estimates and judgments based upon historical experience and various other information that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. For a detailed discussion of other significant accounting policies, see “Part II - Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 2.”
Goodwill
We recognize the excess of the purchase price plus the fair value of any non-controlling interests in the acquiree over the fair value of identifiable net assets acquired as goodwill. Goodwill is not amortized, but is reviewed at least annually for indications of impairment, with consideration given to financial performance and other relevant factors. We perform impairment tests of goodwill at a reporting
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unit level. We perform impairment tests between annual tests if an event occurs, or circumstances change, that we believe would more likely than not reduce the fair value of a reporting unit below its carrying amount.
Our goodwill impairment analysis first assesses qualitative factors to determine whether events or circumstances existed that would lead the Company to conclude it is more likely than not that the fair value of our reporting unit is below its carrying amount. Qualitative factors include macroeconomic, industry and market considerations, overall financial performance, industry, legal and other relevant events and factors affecting the reporting unit. Additionally, as part of this assessment, we may perform a quantitative analysis to support the qualitative factors above by applying sensitivities to assumptions and inputs used in measuring our reporting unit’s fair value.
If the Company determines that it is more likely than not that the fair value of our reporting unit is below the carrying amount, a quantitative goodwill assessment is required. In the quantitative evaluation, the fair value is determined and compared to the carrying value. If the fair value is greater than the carrying value, then the carrying value is deemed to be recoverable and no further action is required. If the fair value estimate is less than the carrying value, goodwill is considered impaired for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the reporting unit’s fair value and a charge is reported in goodwill impairment on our consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss). We use both a discounted cash flow analysis and market multiple analysis in order to estimate our reporting units fair value. The discounted cash flow analysis relies on significant judgement and assumptions about expected future cash flows, weighted-average cost of capital, discount rates, expected long-term growth rates and operating margins. These assumptions are based on estimates of future revenue and earnings after considering such factors as general economic and market conditions which drive key assumptions of revenue growth rates, operating margins, capital expenditures and working capital requirements. The weighted average cost of capital is based on market-based factors/inputs but also considers the specific risk characteristics of the reporting unit’s cash flow forecast. A significant change to these estimates and assumptions could cause the estimated fair values of our reporting unit and intangible assets to decline and increase the risk of an impairment charge to earnings. Intangible assets with finite lives are assessed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable.
On October 31, 2023, the Company performed its annual goodwill impairment review for fiscal year 2023. In addition, the Company underwent organizational changes which required a reassessment of reporting units. As a result, the Company determined it has one reporting unit due to the economic similarity of the services provided to our partners. Based on our qualitative assessment, we did not identify sufficient indicators of impairment that would suggest the fair value of our reporting unit was below its respective carrying values. As a result, a quantitative goodwill impairment analysis was not required.

Revenue Recognition
Contracts with Multiple Performance Obligations
Our contracts with customers may contain multiple performance obligations, primarily when the partner has requested both administrative services and other services such as our specialty care management or total cost of care management services as these services are distinct from one another. When a contract has multiple performance obligations, we allocate the transaction price to each performance obligation based on the relative standalone selling price using the expected cost margin approach. This approach requires estimates regarding both the level of effort it will take to satisfy the performance obligation as well as fees that will be received under the variable pricing model. We also take into consideration customer demographics, current market conditions, the scope of services and our overall pricing strategy and objectives when determining the standalone selling price.
Principal vs Agent
We use third parties to assist in satisfying our performance obligations. In order to determine whether we are the principal or agent in the arrangement, we review each third-party relationship on a contract-by-contract basis. As we integrate goods and services provided by third parties into our overall service, we control the services provided to the customer prior to its delivery. As such, we are the principal and we will recognize revenue on a gross basis. In certain cases, we do not control the services from third parties before it is delivered to the customer, thereby recognizing revenue on a net basis.

Income Taxes
Significant management judgment is required in determining our provision for income taxes, our deferred tax assets and liabilities and any valuation allowance recorded against our net deferred tax assets. We estimate our actual current tax expense, including permanent charges and benefits, and temporary differences resulting from differing treatment of items, such as deferred revenue for tax and book accounting purposes. These temporary differences result in deferred tax assets and liabilities, which are included within our consolidated balance sheets.
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We assess the likelihood that our deferred tax assets will be recovered from future taxable income by considering both positive and negative evidence relating to their recoverability. If we believe that it is more likely than not that these deferred tax assets will not be recovered, we establish a valuation allowance. To the extent that we increase a valuation allowance in a period, we include an expense in the consolidated statement of operations in the period in which such determination is made.
In assessing the need for a valuation allowance, we considered all available evidence, including recent operating results, projections of future taxable income, our ability to utilize loss and credit carryforwards, and the feasibility of tax planning strategies. A significant piece of objective negative evidence evaluated for jurisdictions in a net deferred tax asset position was cumulative pre-tax losses over the three years ended December 31, 2023.
We account for uncertainty in income taxes by recognizing a tax position only when it is more likely than not that the tax position, based on its technical merits, will be sustained upon ultimate settlement with the applicable tax authority. The tax benefit to be recognized is the largest amount of tax benefit that is greater than fifty percent likely of being realized upon ultimate settlement with the applicable tax authority that has full knowledge of all relevant information.
Our gross unrecognized benefits are $2.6 million as of December 31, 2023. Our evaluation of uncertain tax positions is based on factors including, but not limited to, changes in facts or circumstances, changes in tax law, effectively settled issues under audit, and new audit activity. If actual settlements differ from these estimates, or we adjust these estimates in future periods, we may need to recognize additional tax benefits or charges that could materially impact our financial position and results of operations.
Reserve for Claims and Performance-based Arrangements
Reserves for performance-based arrangements and claims reflect actual payments under performance-based arrangements and the ultimate cost of claims that have been incurred but not reported, including expected development on reported claims, those that have been reported but not yet paid (reported claims in process), and other medical care expenses and services payable that are primarily composed of accruals for incentives and other amounts payable to health care professionals and facilities. The Company uses actuarial principles and assumptions that are consistently applied in each reporting period and recognizes the actuarial best estimate of the ultimate liability along with a margin for adverse deviation. This approach is consistent with actuarial standards of practice that the liabilities be adequate under moderately adverse conditions.
The process of estimating reserves involves a considerable degree of judgment by the Company and, as of any given date, is inherently uncertain. The methods for making such estimates and for establishing the resulting liability are continually reviewed, and adjustments are reflected in current results of operations in the period in which they are identified as experience develops or new information becomes known.
Business Combinations
Companies acquired during each reporting period are reflected in the results of the Company effective from their respective dates of acquisition through the end of the reporting period. The Company allocates the fair value of purchase consideration to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed based on their estimated fair values at the acquisition date. Our estimates of fair value are based upon assumptions believed to be reasonable but which are inherently uncertain and unpredictable and, as a result, actual results may differ from estimates. Critical estimates used to value certain identifiable assets include, but are not limited to, expected long-term revenues, future expected operating expenses, cost of capital, and appropriate discount rates.
The excess of the fair value of purchase consideration over the fair value of the assets acquired and liabilities assumed in the acquired entity is recorded as goodwill. If the Company obtains new information about facts and circumstances that existed as of the acquisition date during the measurement period, which may be up to one year from the acquisition date, the Company may record adjustments to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed, with the corresponding offset to goodwill. Upon the conclusion of the measurement period or final determination of the values of assets acquired or liabilities assumed, whichever comes first, any subsequent adjustments are recorded to the Company's consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss).
For contingent consideration recorded as a liability, the Company initially measures the amount at fair value as of the acquisition date and adjusts the liability, if needed, to fair value each reporting period. Changes in the fair value of contingent consideration, other than measurement period adjustments, are recognized as a change in fair value of contingent consideration on the Company's consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss). Acquisition-related expenses and post-acquisition restructuring costs are recognized separately from the business combination and are expensed as incurred.
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Adoption of New Accounting Standards
In August 2020, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (the “FASB”) issued ASU 2020-06, Accounting for Convertible Instruments and Contracts in an Entity’s Own Equity. The ASU simplifies the accounting for certain financial instruments with characteristics of liabilities and equity, including convertible instruments and contracts in an entity’s own equity. Specifically, the ASU removes the separation models for convertible debt with a cash conversion feature or convertible instruments with a beneficial conversion feature and no longer permits the use of the treasury stock method from calculating earnings per share. As a result, after adopting the ASU’s guidance, we will not separately present in equity an embedded conversion feature of such debt. Instead, we will account for a convertible debt instrument wholly as debt unless (i) a convertible instrument contains features that require bifurcation as a derivative or (ii) a convertible debt instrument was issued at a substantial premium. Additionally, the ASU removes certain conditions for equity classification related to contracts in an entity’s own equity (e.g., warrants) and amends certain guidance related to the computation of earnings per share for convertible instruments and contracts on an entity’s own equity. The Company adopted the standard using a modified retrospective method as of January 1, 2022, with adjustments which reduced additional paid-in capital by $106.2 million and increased retained earnings by $39.8 million and increased the net carrying amount of the 2024 Notes and 2025 Notes by $25.1 million and $41.3 million, respectively.
In October 2021, the FASB issued ASU 2021-08, Business Combinations (Topic 805): Accounting for Contract Assets and Contract Liabilities from Contracts with Customers. This ASU clarifies that an acquirer of a business should recognize and measure contract assets and contract liabilities in a business combination in accordance with ASC Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers. The Company adopted this standard starting in the first quarter of 2023, which did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.

RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Evolent Health, Inc. is a holding company and its principal asset is all of the Class A common units in Evolent Health LLC, which has owned all of our operating assets and substantially all of our business since inception. The financial results of Evolent Health LLC are consolidated in the financial statements of Evolent Health, Inc.

Key Components of our Results of Operations

Revenue

Our revenue contracts are typically multi-year arrangements with customers to provide solutions designed to lower the medical expenses of our partners and include our total cost of care management and specialty care management services solutions, provide comprehensive health plan operations and claims processing services, and also include transition or run-out services to customers.

Our performance obligation in these arrangements is to provide an integrated suite of services, including access to our platform that is customized to meet the specialized needs of our partners and providers. Generally, we will apply the series guidance to the performance obligation as we have determined that each time increment is distinct. We primarily utilize a variable fee structure for these services that typically includes a monthly payment that is calculated based on a specified per member per month rate, multiplied by the number of members that our partners are managing under a value-based care arrangement or a percentage of plan premiums. Our arrangements may also include other variable fees related to service level agreements, shared medical savings arrangements and other performance measures. Variable consideration is estimated using the most likely amount based on our historical experience and best judgment at the time.

We also deploy our services in capitation arrangements under our specialty care management solution and total cost of care solution, which we call the “Performance Suite.” Capitation arrangements under the Performance Suite may include performance-based arrangements and/or gainshare features. We occasionally use third parties to assist in satisfying our performance obligations. In order to determine whether we are the principal or agent in the arrangement, we review each third-party relationship on a contract-by- contract basis. As we integrate goods and services provided by third parties into our overall service, we control the services provided to the customer prior to its delivery. As such, we are the principal and we will recognize revenue on a gross basis. In certain cases, we act as an agent and do not control the services from third parties before it is delivered to the customer, thereby recognizing revenue on a net basis.

Due to the nature of our arrangements, certain estimates may be constrained if it is probable that a significant reversal of revenue will occur when the uncertainty is resolved. We recognize revenue from services over time using the time elapsed output method. Fixed consideration is recognized ratably over the contract term. In accordance with the series guidance, we allocate variable consideration to the period to which the fees relate.

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Contracts with Multiple Performance Obligations
Our contracts with customers may contain multiple performance obligations, primarily when the partner has requested both administrative services and other services such as our specialty care management or total cost of care management services as these services are distinct from one another. When a contract has multiple performance obligations, we allocate the transaction price to each performance obligation based on the relative standalone selling price using the expected cost margin approach. This approach requires estimates regarding both the level of effort it will take to satisfy the performance obligation as well as fees that will be received under the variable pricing model. We also take into consideration customer demographics, current market conditions, the scope of services and our overall pricing strategy and objectives when determining the standalone selling price.
Cost of Revenue (exclusive of depreciation and amortization)

Our cost of revenue includes direct expenses and shared resources that perform services in direct support of our partners. Costs consist primarily of claims expense, employee-related expenses (including compensation, benefits and stock-based compensation), expenses for TPA support and other services, as well as other professional fees. In certain cases, our cost of revenue also includes claims and capitation payments to providers and payments for pharmaceutical treatments and other health care expenditures through performance-based arrangements.

Selling, General and Administrative Expenses

Our selling, general and administrative expenses consist of employee-related expenses (including compensation, benefits and stock-based compensation) for selling and marketing, corporate development, finance, legal, human resources, corporate information technology, professional fees and other corporate expenses associated with these functional areas. Selling, general and administrative expenses also include costs associated with our centralized infrastructure and research and development activities to support our network development capabilities, claims processing services, including PBM administration, technology infrastructure, clinical program development and data analytics.

Depreciation and Amortization Expense

Depreciation and amortization expenses consist of the amortization of intangible assets associated with the step up in fair value of Evolent Health LLC’s assets and liabilities for the Offering Reorganization, amortization of intangible assets recorded as part of our various business combinations and asset acquisitions and depreciation of property and equipment, including the amortization of capitalized software.

Lives on Platform and PMPM Fees

Performance Suite Lives on Platform are calculated by summing monthly members covered for specialty care services for contracts not under ASO arrangements, plus members managed by Complex Care in risk arrangements and divided by the number of months in the period. Specialty Technology and Services Suite Lives on Platform are calculated by summing monthly members covered for oncology, cardiology, musculoskeletal, advanced imaging and other diagnostics specialty care services for contracts under ASO arrangements divided by the number of months in the period. Administrative Services Lives on Platform are calculated by summing monthly members covered for administrative services implementation and core performance services divided by the number of months in the period. Cases are calculated by summing the number of individuals receiving services through our surgery management and advanced care planning programs in a given period. Members covered for more than one category are counted in each category.

Performance Suite Average PMPM fee is defined as revenue pertaining to our Performance Suite during the period reported divided by Performance Suite Lives on Platform for the period divided by the number of months in the period. Specialty Technology and Services Suite Average PMPM fee is defined as revenue pertaining to the Specialty Technology and Services Suite during the period reported divided by Specialty Technology and Services Suite Lives on Platform for the period divided by the number of months in the period. Administrative Services Average PMPM fee is defined as revenue pertaining to the Administrative Services during the period reported divided by the Administrative Services Lives on Platform for the period divided by the number of months in the period. Revenue per Case is calculated by the revenue pertaining to surgery management and advanced care planning programs divided by the number of cases for a given period.

Average Unique Members are calculated by summing members covered by our Performance Suite, Specialty Technology and Services Suite and Administrative Services. In cases where partners cross between multiple solutions, we only capture members from the solution with the maximum number of members.

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Management uses Lives on Platform, PMPM fees, Cases, Revenue per Case and Average Unique Members because we believe that they provide insight into the unit economics of our services. We believe that these measures are also useful to investors because they allow further insight into the period over period operational performance.

Due to our change in segments during the first quarter of 2023, the Company changed its presentation of Lives on Platform to reflect the membership that corresponds to quarterly revenue. The Company recast periods prior to the first quarter of 2023 to reflect the current presentation of Lives on Platform, PMPM fees and Revenue per Case. The current Performance Suite maps to the prior disclosure of the Clinical Solutions Performance Suite. The current Specialty Technology and Services Suite maps to the prior disclosure of the Clinical Solutions New Century Health Technology and Services Suite. The current Administrative Services maps to the prior disclosure of Evolent Health Services segment. There has been no change in the presentation of Cases from prior period.

Consolidated Results

(in thousands, except percentages)For the Year Ended December 31,Change Over Prior PeriodFor the Year Ended December 31,Change Over Prior Period
20232022$%20222021$%
Revenue$1,963,896 $1,352,013 $611,883 45.3%$1,352,013 $907,957 $444,056 48.9%
Expenses
Cost of revenue 1,503,426 1,035,429 467,997 45.2%1,035,429 657,551 377,878 57.5%
Selling, general and administrative expenses358,110 269,269 88,841 33.0%269,269 219,499 49,770 22.7%
Depreciation and amortization expenses123,415 67,195 56,220 83.7%67,195 60,037 7,158 11.9%
Loss on disposal of non-strategic assets8,107 — 8,107 100.0%— — — —%
Right-of-use assets impairment24,065 — 24,065 100.0%— — — —%
Change in fair value of contingent consideration17,984 (23,522)41,506 176.5%(23,522)13,281 (36,803)(277.1)%
Total operating expenses2,035,107 1,348,371 686,736 50.9%1,348,371 950,368 398,003 41.9%
Operating income (loss)$(71,211)$3,642 $(74,853)(2,055.3)%$3,642 $(42,411)$46,053 108.6%
Cost of revenue as a % of revenue76.6 %76.6 %76.6 %72.4 %
Selling, general and administrative expenses as a % of revenue18.2 %19.9 %19.9 %24.2 %


Comparison of the Results for Year Ended December 31, 2023 to 2022

Revenue

Total revenue increased by $611.9 million, or 45.3%, to $1,963.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, as compared to 2022. This increase includes $318.0 million from our acquisitions of and launches of new integrated products with NIA and IPG. Total growth in the Performance Suite and Specialty Technology and Services Suite was $406.0 million from the addition of new partners
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and expansion with existing partners, partially offset by a reduction in nationwide Medicaid members as a result of the end of the public health emergency. Growth was also offset in part by a $111.3 million decline in Administrative Services revenue.

The following table represents Evolent’s revenue disaggregated by end-market (in thousands):
For the Year Ended December 31,
20232022
Medicaid$785,053 $559,362 
Medicare708,853 458,413 
Commercial and other469,990 334,238 
Total$1,963,896 $1,352,013 

The following table represents the Company’s Lives on Platform, Cases, Average PMPM fees, Revenue per Case and Average Unique Members for the year ended December 31, 2023 and 2022 (Lives on Platform in thousands):

Average Lives on Platform/ CasesAverage PMPM Fees / Revenue per Case
For the Year Ended December 31,For the Year Ended December 31,
2023202220232022
Performance Suite4,236 2,363 $23.90 $38.02 
Specialty Technology and Services Suite69,494 14,860 0.36 0.39 
Administrative Services1,831 2,100 13.48 21.56 
Cases61 39 2,575 2,133 
Average Unique Members41,340 16,223 

Changes in average PMPM fees for the year ending December 31, 2023 as compared to 2022 were driven primarily by Medicaid redeterminations in the second half of 2023, changes in the mix of services provided, including a higher percentage of services in the Medicaid line of business, and the launch in 2023 of the Performance Suite for advanced imaging with a lower average PMPM fee.

Cost of Revenue

Cost of revenue increased by $468.0 million, or 45.2%, to $1,503.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, as compared to 2022, principally as a result of the 45.3% growth in our revenue compared to the year ended December 31, 2022. The increase included approximately $344.1 million from higher claims cost from acquisitions and transition from ASO to risk based contracts for certain customers. This claims cost was offset in part by lower claims cost for contracts that are less than three years old, which we refer to as the maturation of our Performance Suite. Cost of revenue also included $91.0 million of higher personnel costs due to increased headcount from our acquisitions, employee benefit, bonus accruals for employees and severance payments to former employees and $58.3 million of surgical management costs at IPG. These increases were offset in part by a decrease of $8.9 million in professional fees due primarily to the termination of external staffing contracts and other customer focused services and a decrease of $13.8 million from a decrease in TPA fees from the wind down of contracts. Approximately $1.7 million and $4.4 million of total personnel costs in costs of revenue was attributable to stock-based compensation expense for the year ended December 31, 2023, and 2022, respectively. Cost of revenue represented 76.6% of total revenue for both the year ended December 31, 2023, and 2022, respectively. Our cost of revenue increased as a percentage of our total revenue due to a change in the mix of our service offerings with the rapid growth of our Performance Suite solutions. We expect our cost of revenue to decrease as a percentage of total revenue over the longer-term subject to the composition of our growth.

Selling, General and Administrative Expenses

Selling, general, and administrative expenses increased by $88.8 million, or 33.0%, to $358.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, as compared to 2022, principally as a result of our IPG and NIA acquisitions and increased employee costs across the organization. The increase was primarily driven by the NIA transition services administration fee of $30.0 million, higher personnel fees due to increased headcount from the acquisition of NIA and expected benefit accruals to employees of $22.7 million, higher stock compensation of $9.2 million due to the achievement and change in projected achievement of certain performance measurements,
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higher bad debt expense of $2.3 million due to collection timing from our customers, technology services due to higher headcount of $3.9 million, $1.5 million of severance costs and acquisition costs of $15.1 million.

Approximately $38.8 million and $29.6 million of total personnel costs were attributable to stock-based compensation expense for the year ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. Acquisition and severance costs accounted for approximately $16.6 million and $24.9 million of total selling, general and administrative expenses for the year ended December 31, 2023, and 2022, respectively. Selling, general and administrative expenses represented 18.2% and 19.9% of total revenue for the year ended December 31, 2023, as compared to 2022, respectively. While our selling, general and administrative expenses are expected to grow as our business continues to grow, we expect them to decrease as a percentage of our total revenue over the long-term due to fixed cost leverage and the scalability of our enterprise.

Depreciation and Amortization Expenses

Depreciation and amortization expenses increased $56.2 million, or 83.7%, to $123.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, as compared to 2022 due primarily to $51.5 million of amortization of intangible assets acquired through our acquisitions and $6.4 million of accelerated amortization of trade name intangibles due to our consolidation of trade names under Evolent. We expect depreciation and amortization expenses to increase in future periods as we continue to capitalize internal-use software and amortize intangible assets resulting from asset acquisitions and business combinations.

Right-of-Use Asset Impairment

During the year ended December 31, 2023, the Company decommissioned its Chicago, IL lease and wrote off the associated right-of-use asset, recognizing an impairment charge of $24.1 million in right-of-use assets impairment on the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss). There were no such impairments in 2022.

Change in Fair Value of Contingent Consideration

We recorded a loss (gain) on change in fair value of contingent consideration of $18.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, related to the liabilities acquired as a result of the acquisitions of NIA in January 2023 and IPG in August 2022 combined with $7.9 million related to Evolent Care Partners earn out, and $(23.5) million for the year ended December 31, 2022, primarily related to liabilities acquired as a result of the acquisition of Vital Decisions and IPG. See “Part II - Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 19” in this Form 10-K for more information related to changes in the fair value of contingent consideration.

Comparison of the Results for Year Ended December 31, 2022 to 2021

Revenue

Total revenue increased by $444.1 million, or 48.9%, to $1,352.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2022, as compared to 2021. This increase is primarily due to $79.3 million from our acquisitions of IPG and Vital Decisions and $364.8 million from the addition of new partners and expansion with existing partners.

The following table represents Evolent’s revenue disaggregated by end-market (in thousands):
For the Year Ended December 31,
20222021
Medicaid$559,362 $421,069 
Medicare458,413 407,331 
Commercial and other334,238 79,557 
Total$1,352,013 $907,957 

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The following table represents the Company’s Lives on Platform, Cases, PMPM fees, Revenue per Case and Average Unique Members for the year ended December 31, 2022 and 2021 (Lives on Platform in thousands):

Average Lives on Platform/ CasesAverage PMPM Fees / Revenue per Case
For the Year Ended December 31,For the Year Ended December 31,
2022202120222021
Performance Suite2,363 1,441 $38.02 $31.87 
Specialty Technology and Services Suite14,860 10,837 0.39 0.33 
Administrative Services2,100 1,649 21.56 15.66 
Cases39 2,133 1,057 
Average Unique Members16,223 12,313 

Cost of Revenue

Cost of revenue increased by $377.9 million, or 57.5%, to $1,035.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2022, as compared to 2021, principally as a result of the growth in our revenue generating services. The increase included approximately $253.8 million from higher claims cost from acquisitions and transition from ASO to risk based contracts for certain customers, $33.6 million of higher personnel costs due to increased headcount, employee benefits and bonus accruals for employees, $22.1 million in higher professional fees primarily due to costs incurred for contracts that went live during the year and third-party service fees for existing customers, $40.9 million of surgical management costs at IPG and $12.3 million of severance costs. Approximately $4.4 million and $2.3 million of total personnel costs in costs of revenue was attributable to stock-based compensation expense for the year ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. Cost of revenue represented 76.6% and 72.4% of total revenue for the year ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. Our cost of revenue increased as a percentage of our total revenue due to a change in the mix of our service offerings with the rapid growth of our Performance Suite solutions. We expect our cost of revenue to decrease as a percentage of total revenue over the longer-term subject to the composition of our growth.

Selling, General and Administrative Expenses

Selling, general, and administrative expenses increased by $49.8 million, or 22.7%, to $269.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2022, as compared to 2021, principally as a result of acquisitions and employee costs across all business units. The increase was primarily driven by higher personnel fees due to increased headcount and expected benefit accruals to employees of $33.1 million, higher stock compensation of $15.2 million due to the achievement and change in projected achievement of certain performance measurements, technology services due to higher headcount of $9.1 million, $1.5 million of severance costs and acquisition costs of $7.5 million, offset, in part by lower professional fees from cost savings initiatives of $9.6 million and the termination of certain leases of $3.9 million. Approximately $29.6 million and $14.4 million of total personnel costs were attributable to stock-based compensation expense for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. Acquisition and severance costs accounted for approximately $24.9 million and $4.4 million of total selling, general and administrative expenses for the year ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. Selling, general and administrative expenses represented 19.9% and 24.2% of total revenue for the year ended December 31, 2022, as compared to 2021, respectively. While our selling, general and administrative expenses are expected to grow as we integrate IPG operations, we expect them to decrease as a percentage of our total revenue over the long-term due to cost saving initiatives completed in the fourth quarter of 2021 and higher operating performance.

Depreciation and Amortization Expenses

Depreciation and amortization expenses increased $7.2 million, or 11.9%, to $67.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2022, as compared to 2021 due primarily to amortization of intangible assets acquired through our asset acquisitions and business combinations. We expect depreciation and amortization expenses to increase in future periods as we continue to capitalize internal-use software and amortize intangible assets resulting from asset acquisitions and business combinations.

Change in Fair Value of Contingent Consideration

We recorded a loss on change in fair value of contingent consideration of $(23.5) million for the year ended December 31, 2022, related to the liabilities acquired as a result of the acquisitions of Vital Decisions in October 2021 and IPG in August 2022, and $13.3 million for the twelve months ended December 31, 2021, related to liabilities acquired as a result of the acquisition of Vital Decisions in 2021.
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Discussion of Non-Operating Results

Interest Expense

Our interest expense in the year ended December 31, 2023 is primarily attributable to our Credit Agreement with Ares as well as the 2024 Notes and 2025 Notes. We recorded interest expense (including amortization of deferred financing costs) of approximately $54.2 million, $15.6 million and $25.4 million for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively. The increase in interest expense for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to 2022 and 2021, is driven primarily by interest expense incurred on our Loans to fund the NIA and IPG acquisitions, offset by decreases of $8.7 million and $2.8 million during the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2023 due to the exchange of our 2024 Notes in August 2022 and September 2023 and $8.7 million during the year ended December 31, 2022 due to the exchange of our 2025 Notes in December 2021. We expect interest expense to decrease in future periods after we repaid our floating rate Term Loan Facility offset by issuance of our 2029 Notes. In addition, we are focused on deleveraging the balance sheet in the long-term thereby decreasing interest expense. See “Part II - Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 10” in this Form 10-K for more information related to interest expense by debt issuance.

Gain from Equity Method Investees

The Company allocated its proportional share of the investees’ earnings and losses each reporting period. The Company’s proportional share of the gain from these investments was approximately $1.3 million, $4.6 million and $13.2 million for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively. The change in gain from equity method investees for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to 2022 and 2021 is driven primarily by runout from the sale of our Florida equity investee’s membership during the three months ended March 31, 2021.

Gain from Transfer of Membership

During the year ended December 31, 2021, EVH Passport earned a cash payment from Molina in the amount of $46.0 million based on the number of enrollees above a certain threshold in the dual eligible special needs plan business and Molina's Medicaid plan following the open enrollment period for plan year 2021. 50% of the payment was received during the year ended December 31, 2021, and the remaining 50% was received in the first quarter of 2022.

Loss on Repayment of Long-Term Debt, Net

On August 11, 2022, the Company entered into exchange agreements with certain holders of the 2024 Notes. Pursuant to the agreements, these holders exchanged $92.8 million in aggregate principal amount of such notes for shares of the Company’s Class A common stock. On August 17 and 18, 2022, the Company consummated the exchanges and issued an aggregate of 5,394,165 shares of Class A common stock to the holders. The August 2022 exchanges of the 2024 Notes resulted in a $10.2 million loss on repayment of debt, net, on the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss).

During the year ended December 31, 2023, the Company repaid $415.0 million of the Term Loan Facility that was utilized to acquire IPG and NIA and recorded a loss on repayment/extinguishment of long-term debt of $21.0 million comprised of $10.7 million in prepayment premium and $10.3 million of acceleration of amortization of deferred financing costs.

Change in Tax Receivables Agreement Liability

Due to the reduction in the Company’s valuation allowance primarily resulting from deferred tax liabilities established as part of the NIA acquisition, the Company has recorded the remaining TRA liability of $62.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, resulting in a total TRA liability of $107.9 million as of December 31, 2023.

Benefit from Income Taxes

An income tax provision for (benefit from) of $(89.4) million, $(43.4) million and $0.5 million was recognized for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively, which resulted in effective tax rates of 44.2%, 69.9% and (1.6)%, respectively.

Dividends and Accretion of Series A Preferred Stock

We pay quarterly regular cash dividends on the Series A Preferred Stock at a rate per annum equal to Adjusted Term SOFR (as defined in the Certificate of Designation) plus 6.00%. In addition, we accrete deferred financing costs and the redemption value in excess of par value in additional paid-in-capital on the consolidated balance sheets. The Company paid $18.8 million of dividends and accreted $10.4 million of deferred issuance costs and redemption value during the year ended December 31, 2023.

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REVIEW OF CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL CONDITION

Liquidity and Capital Resources

The Company reported net loss attributable to common shareholders of Evolent Health, Inc. of $(142.3) million, $(19.2) million and $(37.6) million for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively. As of December 31, 2023, the Company had $192.8 million of cash and cash equivalents and $30.6 million in restricted cash and restricted investments.

We believe our current cash and cash equivalents will be sufficient to meet our working capital and capital expenditure requirements for at least the next twelve months. Our future capital requirements will depend on many factors, including our rate of revenue growth, the expansion of our sales and marketing activities and the timing and extent of our spending to support our investment efforts and expansion into other markets. We may also seek to invest in, or acquire complementary businesses, applications or technologies, which may require us to seek sources of financing.

Cash Flows

The following summary of cash flows (in thousands) has been derived from our financial statements included in “Part II - Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows:”
For the Year Ended December 31,
  202320222021
Net cash and restricted cash provided by (used in) operating activities$142,582 $(11,553)$38,747 
Net cash and restricted cash used in investing activities(415,544)(259,115)(15,786)
Net cash and restricted cash provided by (used in) financing activities281,340 131,541 (29,548)

Operating Activities

Cash flows from operating activities primarily represent inflows and outflows associated with our operations. Primary activities include net income from operations adjusted for non-cash transactions, working capital changes and changes in other assets and liabilities.

Cash flows provided by operating activities of $142.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2023 were affected by increases in accounts receivable from our acquisition of NIA of $51.8 million and timing of our partner and vendor payments including lower cash receipts from certain performance-based customers including Cook County Health and Hospitals System totaling $142.7 million, which is then offset by higher reserve for claims and performance-based arrangements of $204.3 million. In addition, accrued liabilities were impacted by an increase in expected contingent consideration payments of $18.0 million.

Cash flows used in operating activities of $11.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2022 were primarily due to our net loss of $19.2 million, non-cash items including depreciation and amortization expenses of $67.2 million, stock-based compensation expense of $34.0 million, deferred tax benefit of $(45.6) million, amortization of contract cost assets of $23.1 million, loss on extinguishment of debt of $10.2 million, change in fair value of contingent consideration of $(23.5) million and change in our tax receivable liability of $46.0 million. Our operating cash outflows were affected by the timing of our customer and vendor payments primarily driven by increases in accounts receivables from Cook County Health and Hospitals System of approximately $99.2 million, reduction of our accrued liabilities due to a decrease in expected IPG and Vital Decisions contingent consideration payments of $25.7 million and an increase in reserves for liabilities related to payments to providers and pharmacies under performance-based arrangements related to its total cost of care and specialty care management services of $28.4 million.

Cash flows from operating activities of $38.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 were primarily due to our net loss of $37.6 million, a loss on the repayment and termination of our Credit Agreement and 2021 Notes of $21.3 million, a loss on disontinued operations of $6.8 million, gain on the transfer of memberships of $45.9 million, and non-cash items including depreciation and amortization expenses of $60.0 million, stock-based compensation expense of $16.7 million and change in fair value of contingent consideration and indemnification asset of $13.3 million. Our operating cash inflows were affected by the timing of our customer and vendor payments. In addition to these non-cash items, increases in accounts receivables and contract cost assets and reductions in reserves for claims and performance-based arrangements contributed and accrued liabilities approximately $28.9 million to our cash outflows. Those cash outflows were offset, in part by higher accounts payable and accrued compensation and employee benefits of approximately $10.8 million.

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Investing Activities

Cash flows used in investing activities of $415.5 million in the year ended December 31, 2023 were primarily attributable to $388.2 million paid for the acquisition of NIA and $28.7 million of investments in internal-use software and purchases of property and equipment.

Cash flows used in investing activities of $259.1 million in the year ended December 31, 2022 were primarily attributable to $248.1 million paid for the acquisition of IPG, $9.2 million paid for a purchase price adjustment related to our disposal of True Health and $38.4 million of investments in internal-use software and purchases of property and equipment, offset in part, by $31.0 million from the transfer of membership and release of EVH Passport escrow and $5.6 million from returns from our equity method investments.

Cash flows used in investing activities of $15.8 million in the year ended December 31, 2021 were primarily attributable to cash flows of $46.5 million for the acquisition of Vital Decisions and $25.0 million of investments in internal-use software and purchases of property and equipment offset, in part by, $43.0 million from the transfer of membership and release of EVH Passport escrow and returns of investment on equity method investments of $14.2 million.

Financing Activities

Cash flows provided by financing activities of $281.3 million in the year ended December 31, 2023, were primarily related to $647.5 million received from our Credit Facilities and 2029 Notes and $168.0 million from the issuance of preferred equity, offset in part, by $464.2 million of cash outflows related to the payment on our Credit Facilities, $46.9 million from the payment of contingent consideration, $18.8 million of preferred dividends paid on our Series A Preferred Stock and $15.3 million from withholding taxes paid in respect of vested restricted stock units that were net settled.

Cash flows provided by financing activities of $131.5 million in the year ended December 31, 2022, were primarily related to $219.7 million received from our Credit Agreement, offset in part, by $59.4 million of cash outflows related to claims processing services on behalf of partners and $18.3 million from taxes withheld for restricted stock unit vesting.

Cash flows used in financing activities of $29.5 million in the year ended December 31, 2021, were primarily related to the repayment and termination of our Credit Agreement and settlement of our outstanding warrant agreements with Ares of $98.4 million, offset, in part, by a $61.2 million increase in net working capital balances held on behalf of our partners for claims processing services and a $13.3 million increase from cash proceeds from stock option exercises.

Contractual and Other Obligations

We believe that the amount of cash and cash equivalents on hand and cash flows from operations will be adequate for us to execute our business strategy and meet anticipated requirements for lease obligations, capital expenditures working capital and debt service for the next twelve months. Our estimated known contractual obligations (in thousands) as of December 31, 2023, were as follows:

20242025-20262027-20282029+Total
Operating leases for facilities$12,572 $17,955 $15,005 $16,033 $61,565 
Purchase obligations related to vendor contracts13,143 8,797 935 — 22,875 
Convertible notes interest payments16,401 30,763 28,175 14,088 89,427 
Convertible notes principal repayment— 172,500 — 402,500 575,000 
Contingent consideration83,600 — — — 83,600 
Total known contractual obligations$125,716 $230,015 $44,115 $432,621 $832,467 

In addition, as of December 31, 2023, we had $37.5 million of aggregate principal amount in a secured revolving credit facility which will mature in 2029. The interest rate for the secured revolving credit facility will be calculated, at the option of the borrowers at either the Adjusted Term SOFR Rate (as defined in the Credit Agreement) plus 4.00%, or the base rate plus 3.00%.

Also, as of December 31, 2023, we had 175,000 shares of the Series A Preferred Stock outstanding. Regular dividends on the Series A Preferred Stock are paid quarterly in cash in arrears at a rate per annum equal to Adjusted Term SOFR (as defined in the Certificate of Designation) plus 6.00%. The regular dividend rate will also increase by 2.0% per annum upon the occurrence and during the continuance of certain triggering events.




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Accounts Receivable, net

Accounts receivable are recorded and carried at the original invoiced amount less an allowance for any potential uncollectible amounts. During the year ended December 31, 2023, accounts receivable, net, increased primarily due to the timing of cash receipts from certain customers including an increase of $101.4 million from Cook County Health and Hospitals System combined with $28.1 million of receivables acquired as part of the NIA acquisition.

Restricted Cash and Restricted Investments

Restricted cash and restricted investments of $30.6 million is carried at cost and includes cash held on behalf of other entities for pharmacy and claims management services of $12.3 million, collateral for letters of credit required as security deposits for facility leases of $2.1 million, amounts held with financial institutions for risk-sharing arrangements of $16.2 million as of December 31, 2023. See “Part II - Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 2” for further details of the Company’s restricted cash balances.

Prepaid Expenses and Other Current Assets

Prepaid expenses and other current assets are carried at cost and includes prepaid expenses and non-trade accounts receivable. During the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, prepaid insurance increased as a result of higher premiums and the acquisition of NIA.

Goodwill and Intangible Assets

We recognize the excess of the purchase price, plus the fair value of any non-controlling interests in the acquiree, over the fair value of identifiable net assets acquired as goodwill. Identified intangible assets are recorded at their estimated fair values at the date of acquisition and are amortized over their respective estimated useful lives using a method of amortization that reflects the pattern in which the economic benefits of the intangible assets are used. As part of our acquisition of NIA in January 2023 we added $404.0 million of intangible assets and $395.2 million of goodwill. As part of our acquisition of IPG in August 2022, we added $195.7 million of intangible assets and $296.6 million of goodwill. See “Part II - Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 4” for further details of the Company’s additions of goodwill and intangible assets.

Tax Receivables Agreement

In connection with the Offering Reorganization, we entered into the TRA with the holders of Class B common units. The agreement requires us to pay to such holders 85% of the cash savings, if any, in U.S. federal, state and local, and foreign income tax (as applicable) we realize as a result of any deductions attributable to the increase in tax basis following the Class B Exchanges or deductions attributable to imputed interest or future increases in tax basis following payments made under the TRA. Additionally, pursuant to the same agreement we will pay the former stockholders of Evolent Health Holdings 85% of the amount of the cash savings, if any, in U.S. federal, state and local, and foreign income tax that we realize as a result of the utilization of the NOLs of Evolent Health Holdings (and the affiliate of TPG) attributable to periods prior to the Offering Reorganization, approximately $79.3 million, as well as deductions attributable to imputed interest on any payments made under the agreement. Payments under the TRA are due within 100 days of filing the Company’s annual U.S. federal income tax return. The Company recorded a TRA liability of $107.9 million as of December 31, 2023. See “Part II - Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 16” for further details of the Company’s TRA.

Uses of Capital

Our principal uses of cash are in the operation and expansion of our business, payment of interest on our convertible debt and secured borrowings and payment of preferred dividends. The Company does not anticipate paying a cash dividend on our Class A common stock in the foreseeable future.

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Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

We are exposed to market risks in the ordinary course of our business. Market risk represents the risk of loss that may impact our financial position due to adverse changes in financial market prices and rates.

Interest Rate Risk

As of December 31, 2023, the Company had cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash and restricted investments of $223.5 million, which consisted of bank deposits with FDIC participating banks of $220.3 million and bank deposits in international banks of $3.2 million.

Changes in interest rates affect the interest earned on our cash and cash equivalents (including restricted cash). We do not enter into investments for trading or speculative purposes and have not used any derivative financial instruments to manage our interest rate risk exposure.

As of December 31, 2023, we had $575.0 million of aggregate principal amount of convertible notes outstanding, which are fixed rate instruments and not subject to fluctuations in interest rates. In addition, as of December 31, 2023, we have $37.5 million of aggregate principal amount in a secured revolving credit facility and $175.0 million of Series A Preferred Stock outstanding, all of which are floating rate instruments based on the SOFR and subject to fluctuations in interest rates. In the case of (a) the revolving loan, interest is calculated at either the Adjusted Term SOFR Rate (as defined in the Certificate of Designation) plus 4.00%, or the base rate plus 3.00% and (b) the Series A Preferred Stock, dividends are to be paid quarterly in cash in arrears at a rate per annum equal to Adjusted Term SOFR (as defined in the Certificate of Designation) plus 6.00%. For every 1% increase in SOFR, the Company would record additional interest expense of $0.4 million per annum and preferred dividends of $1.8 million per annum.

Refer to the discussion in “Part II - Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 10” for additional information on our long-term debt.

Foreign Currency Exchange Risk

We have foreign currency risks related to our operating expenses denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar, primarily the Indian Rupee and the Philippine Peso. In general, we are a net payer of currencies other than the U.S. dollar. Accordingly, changes in exchange rates, and in particular a strengthening of the U.S. dollar, may, in the future, negatively affect our operating results as expressed in U.S. dollars. At this time, we have not entered into, but in the future, we may enter into, derivatives or other financial instruments in an attempt to hedge our foreign currency exchange risk. It is difficult to predict the effect hedging activities would have on our results of operations. We recognized a foreign currency translation loss of $0.1 million, $0.8 million and $0.1 million for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively.


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Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

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REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
To the shareholders and the Board of Directors of Evolent Health, Inc.

Opinion on the Financial Statements

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Evolent Health, Inc. and subsidiaries (the "Company") as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, the related consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss), changes in mezzanine and shareholders' equity, and cash flows, for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2023, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the "financial statements"). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2023, and 2022, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2023, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

We have also audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the Company's internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control — Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission and our report dated February 22, 2024, expressed an unqualified opinion on the Company's internal control over financial reporting.

Basis for Opinion

These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company's financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

Critical Audit Matter

The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current-period audit of the financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that (1) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.

Reserve for Claims and Performance-Based Arrangements — Refer to Note 22 to the financial statements

Critical Audit Matter Description

The Company records reserves for the ultimate cost of claims that have been incurred but not reported, including expected development on reported claims, those that have been reported but not yet paid (reported claims in process), and other medical care expenses and services payable that are primarily payable to healthcare professionals and facilities. The Company uses actuarial principles and assumptions that are consistently applied in each reporting period and recognizes the actuarial best estimate of the ultimate liability along with a margin for adverse deviation. The liability is primarily calculated using completion factors developed by comparing the claim incurred date to the date claims were paid. Key assumptions include current payment experience, trend factors, and completion factors. Completion factors are impacted by several key items including changes in (1) electronic (auto-adjudication) versus manual claim processing, (2) provider claims submission rates, (3) membership, and (4) the mix of products. The Company uses historical completion factors combined with an analysis of current trends and operational factors to develop current estimates of completion factors. The Company estimates the liability for claims incurred in each month by applying the current estimates of completion factors to the current paid claims data. This approach implicitly assumes that historical completion rates will be a useful indicator for the current period.

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For more recent months, and for newer lines of business where there is insufficient paid claims history to develop completion factors, the Company expects to rely more heavily on medical cost trends and expected loss ratio analyses that reflect expected claim payment patterns and other relevant operational considerations or authorization analyses. For each reporting period, the Company compares key assumptions used to establish the liability to actual experience. When actual experience differs from these assumptions, the liability is adjusted through current period net income. Additionally, the Company evaluates expected future developments and emerging trends that may impact key assumptions. The process used to determine this liability requires the Company to make critical accounting estimates that involve considerable judgment, reflecting the variability inherent in forecasting future claim payments. These estimates are highly sensitive to changes in the Company's key assumptions, specifically completion factors and medical cost trends.

We identified the reserve for claims and performance-based arrangements as a critical audit matter because the development of the reserve involves significant estimation by management. This required a high degree of auditor judgment and an increased extent of effort, including the need to involve our actuarial specialists.

How the Critical Audit Matter Was Addressed in the Audit

Our audit procedures related to the reserve for claims and performance-based arrangements included the following, among others:
We obtained an understanding, evaluated the design and tested the operating effectiveness of the Company’s controls over the process for estimating the liability. This included testing management review controls over the assumptions and data used in supporting the measurement of the liability.
With the assistance of our actuarial specialists, we evaluated the reasonableness of the actuarial methods and assumptions used by management to estimate the liability by comparing them with historical experience, consistency with generally accepted actuarial methodologies used within the industry, and observable healthcare trend levels within the markets the Company operates.
With the assistance of our actuarial specialists, we used the Company’s underlying claims and membership data to develop an independent range of estimates and compared management’s recorded liability to our range.
We tested the underlying data that served as the basis for the actuarial analysis, including claims lag triangles and membership data, to test that the inputs to the actuarial estimate were complete and accurate.
We performed a retrospective review in which we compared the total liability at the end of the prior year to actual paid claims in the current year.
Additionally, we evaluated management’s disclosures surrounding the reserve for claims and performance-based arrangements.



/s/ Deloitte & Touche LLP

McLean, Virginia
February 22, 2024

We have served as the Company's auditor since 2019.


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EVOLENT HEALTH, INC.
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(in thousands, except share data)
December 31,