10-K 1 ewtx-20231231x10k.htm 10-K
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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

(Mark One)

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES

EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023

or

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES

EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

Commission File Number: 001-40236

Edgewise Therapeutics, Inc.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Delaware

82-1725586

(State or other jurisdiction of

(I.R.S. Employer

incorporation or organization)

Identification No.)

1715 38th St.

Boulder, CO 80301

(Address of Principal Executive Offices) (Zip Code)

(720) 262-7002

(Registrant’s telephone number)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of Each Class

Trading Symbol

Name of Exchange on which registered

Common stock, par value $0.0001 per share

EWTX

Nasdaq Global Select Market

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes No

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

Smaller reporting company

Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes No

The aggregate market value of registrant’s common equity held by non-affiliates of registrant on June 30, 2023, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, was approximately $386.0 million, based upon the closing sale price of the common stock as reported on The Nasdaq Global Select Market.

As of January 31, 2024, there were 93,110,623 of the registrant’s ordinary shares outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Information required by Part III of this Form 10-K is incorporated by reference to the registrant’s proxy statement for the 2024 annual meeting of stockholders, which proxy statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after the end of the fiscal year covered by this Form 10-K.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

    

Page

PART I

Item 1. Business

5

Item 1A. Risk Factors

59

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

128

Item 1C. Cybersecurity

128

Item 2. Properties

130

Item 3. Legal Proceedings

130

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

130

PART II

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

130

Item 6. [Reserved]

132

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

132

Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

143

Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

143

Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

162

Item 9A. Controls and Procedures

162

Item 9B. Other Information

162

Item 9C. Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections

163

PART III

Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

163

Item 11. Executive Compensation

163

Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

163

Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

163

Item 14. Principal Accounting Fees and Services

163

PART IV

Item 15. Exhibit and Financial Statement Schedules

164

Item 16. Form 10-K Summary

167

2

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Annual Report on Form 10-K (Annual Report) contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. All statements other than statements of historical facts contained in this Annual Report, including statements regarding our future results of operations and financial position, business strategy, development plans, planned preclinical studies and clinical trials, future results of clinical trials, expected research and development costs, regulatory strategy, timing and likelihood of success, as well as plans and objectives of management for future operations, are forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terminology such as “may,” “will,” “could,” “would,” “should,” “likely,” “expects,” “intends,” “plans,” “anticipates,” “believes,” “estimates,” “predicts,” “projects,” “potential,” “continue” or the negative of these terms or other comparable terminology. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements about:

the safety and efficacy, and the ability of our preclinical studies and clinical trials to demonstrate the safety and efficacy, of our product candidates, and other positive results;
our ability to utilize our proprietary drug discovery platform to develop a pipeline of product candidates to address muscle diseases;
the timing, progress and results of preclinical studies and clinical trials for EDG-5506, EDG-7500, product candidates from our EDG-003 cardiometabolic discovery program and other product candidates we may develop, including statements regarding the timing of initiation and completion of studies or trials and related preparatory work, the period during which the results of the studies or trials will become available, potential registrational studies or cohorts and our research and development programs;
the timing, scope and likelihood of domestic and foreign regulatory filings and approvals, including timing of final U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA) approval of or Investigational New Drugs of EDG-5506, EDG-7500, product candidates from our EDG-003 cardiometabolic discovery program and any other future product candidates;
our ability to develop and advance our current product candidates and programs into, and successfully complete, clinical studies;
our manufacturing, commercialization, operations and marketing capabilities, relationships with other businesses and other business strategies, systems and relationships;
our plans relating to commercializing our product candidates, if approved, including the geographic areas of focus and sales strategy;
the need to hire additional personnel and our ability to attract and retain such personnel;
the size of the market opportunity for our product candidates, including our estimates of the number of patients who suffer from the diseases we are targeting and our expectations regarding the implementation of newborn screening for muscular dystrophy;
our expectations regarding the approval and use of our product candidates in combination with other drugs;
our competitive position and the success of competing product candidates and therapies that are or may become available;
our estimates of the number of patients that we will enroll in our clinical trials;
the beneficial characteristics, and the potential safety, efficacy and therapeutic effects, of our product candidates;

3

our ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approval of our product candidates, and the timing or likelihood of regulatory filings and approvals, including our expectations to maintain the Orphan Drug Designation (ODD) and Rare Pediatric Disease Designation (RPDD) for EDG-5506 and our expectation to seek special designations for our other product candidates;
our plans relating to the further development of our product candidates, including additional indications we may pursue;
existing regulations and regulatory developments in the United States, Europe and other jurisdictions;
our expectations regarding the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business;
our expectations regarding the impact of the Russia/Ukraine and Israel/Hamas conflicts on our business;
our expectations regarding the impact of instability in the U.S. banking and financial services sector and other macroeconomic trends;
our intellectual property position, including the scope of protection we are able to establish and maintain for intellectual property rights covering EDG-5506, EDG-7500, product candidates from our EDG-003 cardiometabolic discovery program and other product candidates we may develop, including the extensions of existing patent terms where available, the validity of intellectual property rights held by third parties, and our ability not to infringe, misappropriate or otherwise violate any third-party intellectual property rights;
our continued reliance on third parties to conduct additional preclinical studies and planned clinical trials of our product candidates, and for the manufacture of our product candidates for preclinical studies and clinical trials;
our relationships with patient advocacy groups, key opinion leaders, regulators, the research community and payors;
our ability to obtain, and negotiate favorable terms of, any collaboration, licensing or other arrangements that may be necessary or desirable to develop, manufacture or commercialize our product candidates;
the pricing and reimbursement of EDG-5506, EDG-7500, product candidates from our EDG-003 cardiometabolic discovery program and other product candidates we may develop, if approved;
the rate and degree of market acceptance and clinical utility of EDG-5506, EDG-7500, product candidates from our EDG-003 cardiometabolic discovery program and other product candidates we may develop;
our estimates regarding expenses, future revenue, capital requirements and needs for additional financing which may be impacted by many factors including inflation;
our financial performance;
the period over which we estimate our existing cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities will be sufficient to fund our future operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements;
the Company’s plans to regain compliance with the Nasdaq Listing Rules;
the impact of laws and regulations; and

4

our expectations regarding the period during which we will qualify as an emerging growth company under The Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 and a smaller reporting company under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about our business, the industry in which we operate and financial trends that we believe may affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects, and these forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance or development. These forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this Annual Report and are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties and assumptions described in the section titled “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Annual Report. Because forward-looking statements are inherently subject to risks and uncertainties, some of which cannot be predicted or quantified, you should not rely on these forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. The events and circumstances reflected in our forward-looking statements may not be achieved or occur and actual results could differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements. Except as required by applicable law, we do not plan to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements contained herein, whether as a result of any new information, future events or otherwise.

In addition, statements that “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based upon information available to us as of the date of this Annual Report and while we believe such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete, and our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain and you are cautioned not to unduly rely upon these statements.

PART I

Item 1. Business

Overview

Our mission is to discover new medicines that improve the lives of people facing serious muscle disease.

At Edgewise, patients are at the core of everything we do. We recognize that for patients with rare and debilitating diseases, every day without an effective treatment is a day too late and we are driven by this urgency to evolve disease knowledge with an aim to develop novel precision medicines for severe muscle diseases. Since our inception in 2017, our precision medicine muscle platform has generated several programs to address a variety of muscle diseases. We are advancing two clinical-stage programs and a number of preclinical programs.

The Company’s deep expertise in muscle physiology is driving a new generation of first-in-class therapeutics. EDG-5506 is an orally administered skeletal myosin inhibitor in multiple phase 2 clinical trials, including a pivotal cohort, in patients with either Becker, Duchenne, and Limb-Girdle muscular dystrophies or McArdle Disease. EDG-7500, currently in a Phase 1 trial, is a novel cardiac sarcomere modulator for the treatment of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and other disorders of cardiac diastolic dysfunction. We are also continuing to advance preclinical exploration, including novel cardiometabolic targets.

As a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company we are focused on the discovery, development and commercialization of innovative treatments for severe muscle diseases for which there is significant unmet medical need. Guided by our holistic drug discovery approach to targeting the muscle as an organ, we have combined our foundational expertise in muscle biology and small molecule engineering to build our proprietary, muscle focused drug discovery platform. Our platform utilizes custom-built high throughput and translatable systems that measure integrated muscle function in whole organ extracts to identify small molecule precision medicines regulating key proteins in muscle tissue, initially focused on addressing rare neuromuscular and cardiac diseases. We have developed and

5

characterized a library of novel sarcomere modulators exhibiting a broad range of pharmacological and pharmacokinetic (PK) properties regulating disease-related muscle biology.

Our lead product candidate, EDG-5506, is an orally administered allosteric, selective, fast myofiber (type II) myosin small molecule inhibitor designed to address the root cause of dystrophinopathies including Duchenne muscular dystrophy (Duchenne) and Becker muscular dystrophy (Becker). Both of these disorders are rare and often debilitating diseases, and we estimate that in the US, EU-5 and Japan there are approximately 35,000 Duchenne patients and approximately 12,000 Becker patients. There are currently no approved therapies for individuals with Becker.

As a selective fast myosin inhibitor, EDG-5506 presents a novel mechanism of action designed to selectively limit injurious stress caused by lack of dystrophin by moderating fast skeletal muscle myosin force development and thereby compensating for the absence of functional dystrophin. Our preclinical data with EDG-5506 in animal models of muscular dystrophy demonstrated that selective regulation of fast (type II) myofiber contraction protected muscle from damage, reduced systemic fibrosis and improved measures of muscle function including strength and ability to engage in physical activities, which we believe may provide evidence of a disease modifying effect. A unique observation from our preclinical work is that EDG-5506 led to pronounced prevention of cardiac fibrosis. This is a highly relevant finding, particularly if replicated in clinical observations, since cardiac myopathy is a major driver of mortality in both Duchenne and Becker. We believe EDG-5506 has potential therapeutic utility as either a standalone or combination therapy for patients suffering from rare muscular dystrophies, if approved.

We have advanced EDG-5506 through the clinic including completing a Phase 1 trial evaluating safety, tolerability, PK and pharmacodynamics of EDG-5506 in adult healthy volunteers (Phase 1a) and in adults with Becker (Phase 1b). In ARCH, an open-label, single-center trial assessing long-term safety and PK, decreases in biomarkers of muscle damage and trends toward improvement in North Star Ambulatory Assessment (NSAA) have been observed following 12 months of treatment with EDG-5506. We have completed enrollment of the Phase 2 trial cohorts, called CANYON, evaluating safety and effects on function and biomarkers of muscle damage in adult males with Becker, which has been expanded to include an additional 120 adult participants in a pivotal cohort called GRAND CANYON, which is currently enrolling. The Company is also continuing to advance the fully enrolled DUNE Phase 2 exercise challenge study, to evaluate the effect of EDG-5506 on biomarkers of muscle damage following exercise in adults with LGMD2I, Becker or McArdle disease at a single site in Denmark. In Duchenne, we are advancing our Phase 2 studies, LYNX and FOX, both assessing safety, PK and biomarkers of muscle damage in individuals with Duchenne and for the purpose to identify a dose of EDG-5506 that will reduce biomarkers of muscle damage and has the potential to provide functional benefit to patients in a Phase 3 trial. Additionally, we added a new cohort to LYNX to include children aged four to seven years with Duchenne who are not currently treated with corticosteroids.

The FDA granted EDG-5506 Fast Track designation for the treatment of Duchenne in February 2024, and Orphan Drug Designation (ODD) for the treatment of Duchenne and Becker and Rare Pediatric Disease Designation (RPDD) for the treatment of Duchenne in November 2023. The FDA previously granted Fast Track designation for EDG-5506 for the treatment of Becker. The FDA previously granted Fast Track designation for the investigation and development of EDG-5506 for the treatment of Becker.

We have also evolved a second muscle-targeted initiative that focuses on the identification of novel cardiac muscle modulators. We are initially pursuing our lead product candidate, EDG-7500, for the treatment of HCM in addition to exploring the potential of its novel mechanism in the treatment of disorders of diastolic dysfunction. In September 2023, we announced initial dosing in a Phase 1 trial of EDG-7500 which is assessing the tolerability, PK, and pharmacodynamics of EDG-7500 in healthy adults. The Company is also planning to begin single dose and multiple dose Phase 2 studies of EDG-7500 in individuals with obstructive HCM in the first half of 2024, as well as initiating an open-label extension trial in the fourth quarter of 2024 evaluating the long-term safety, tolerability, and treatment effects of EDG-7500.

Additionally, our EDG-003 discovery program is exploring the potential of other unique and novel mechanisms to address a variety of disorders, including cardiometabolic disease. We believe our programs also offer substantial opportunities for us to expand into other severe muscle diseases for which there are limited or no approved treatments.

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Our Pipeline

Using our proprietary drug discovery platform, we are developing a pipeline of precision medicine product candidates that target key muscle proteins and modulators to address a broad array of muscle diseases. We have retained global development and commercialization rights to all of our programs. Our current pipeline is summarized below.

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Our History and Team

We have assembled an experienced and highly motivated management team with a strong track record in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industry. We are focused on building a leading, patient-centric, fully integrated global muscle disease company. Members of our team have extensive expertise in muscle diseases, small molecule drug discovery and development and patient advocacy with proven track records at organizations including Alexion, Amgen, Array Biopharma, Catabasis, Cytokinetics, Genzyme, GlaxoSmithKline, Parent Project Muscular Dystrophy, Pfizer, Biogen and MyoKardia.

We were co-founded in 2017 by our Chief Scientific Officer, Alan Russell, Ph.D., Peter Thompson, M.D., who is currently a Partner at OrbiMed and Badreddin Edris, Ph.D., who is currently the Chief Operating Officer at SpringWorks Therapeutics, Inc. through funding provided by OrbiMed. Dr. Russell has extensive experience in developing novel therapeutics for diseases involving skeletal muscle, having previously served as Vice President and Head of the Muscle Metabolism Discovery Performance Unit at GlaxoSmithKline from 2010 to 2017 and as Associate Director, Muscle Biology and Therapeutics at Cytokinetics from 2002 to 2010, where he was the co-inventor of tirasemtiv and reldesemtiv, direct muscle sensitizers for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS).

We are led by Kevin Koch, Ph.D., who has been in the life science industry for over 30 years with a focus on drug discovery, translational medicine and clinical development. Dr. Koch previously served as the Senior Vice President of Drug Discovery, Chemical and Molecular Therapeutics at Biogen where he managed global drug discovery and biomarker development. Dr. Koch was a co-founder of Array BioPharma, serving as President, Chief Scientific Officer and Board member from the company’s inception in 1998 to 2013. While there, he built a fully integrated research and development team that oversaw the invention of over 20 clinical development candidates across multiple therapeutic areas, several of which are now marketed medicines. Prior to Array, Dr. Koch held senior positions at Amgen and Pfizer Central Research. Additionally, our Chief Business Officer, Behrad Derakhshan, Ph.D., our Chief Financial Officer, R.

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Michael Carruthers, our Chief Medical Officer, Joanne Donovan, M.D., Ph.D., and our General Counsel, John Moore, each have more than 15 years of experience in drug research, clinical development, regulatory affairs, manufacturing, business development and commercialization of novel medicines, particularly in a range of devastating rare diseases. Additionally, we appointed Marc Semigran, M.D., as Chief Development Officer. Dr. Semigran previously served as Chief Medical Officer and Senior Vice President of medical science at MyoKardia and as Chief Medical Officer of Renovacor. Dr. Semigran brings considerable clinical development and translational medicine experience as we advance our novel cardiac program through clinical development.

Further, we have built a scientific advisory board with experts in the field of muscle diseases affecting both children and adults. Our scientific advisors include researchers who publish widely-cited articles on the skeletal and cardiac aspects of muscular dystrophy as well as on inherited forms of cardiovascular disease. Moreover, some of our advisors lead clinical units at some of the leading muscle disease centers in the United States and are actively involved in our drug development process and programs.

As a private company, we raised $160.7 million from leading institutional investors which include OrbiMed, Novo Holdings A/S, U.S. Venture Partners (USVP), Deerfield Management, Viking Global Investors, New Leaf Ventures, Janus Henderson Investors, RA Capital Management, Cormorant Asset Management, Logos Capital, Wellington Management, CureDuchenne Ventures and an undisclosed institutional investor. We also raised $186.1 million in net proceeds from our initial public offering in March 2021, $129.2 million in net proceeds from our follow-on public offering in September 2022 (the September 2022 Offering) and $240 million in gross proceeds from our underwritten registered direct offering in January 2024 (the January 2024 Offering).

Our Strategy

Our vision is to improve the lives of patients and families suffering from severe muscle diseases by building the world’s leading muscle-focused, biopharmaceutical company. Key components of our strategy to achieve this vision include:

Engaging comprehensively with patients, their families and their physicians to develop trusted relationships, transparent communications, and become a leader in the rare muscle disease communities. By positioning ourselves as a trusted partner that moves with thoughtful urgency, we will continue to work to understand the needs of patients in order to inform our development of EDG-5506, EDG-7500 and other programs for severe muscle diseases. We continue to seek to better appreciate the burden of disease from the patient perspective, understand the current standard of care and unmet needs in managing the disease and learn what is most meaningful to patients.
Leveraging clinical and regulatory precedents and our extensive experience in severe muscle diseases to rapidly advance EDG-5506 through clinical development in muscular dystrophies.  EDG-5506 is an orally administered small molecule designed to prevent contraction-induced muscle damage in dystrophinopathies including Duchenne and Becker. EDG-5506 presents a novel mechanism of action designed to selectively limit the exaggerated muscle damage caused by the absence or loss of functional dystrophin. By minimizing the progressive muscle damage that leads to functional impairment, EDG-5506 has the potential to benefit a broad range of patients suffering from debilitating neuromuscular disorders. Its unique mechanism of action provides the potential to establish EDG-5506 as a foundational therapy in dystrophinopathies, either as a single agent therapy or in combination with available therapies and those in development. We are advancing EDG-5506 through the clinic including completing enrollment of Phase 2 trial cohorts, called CANYON, evaluating safety and effects on function and biomarkers of muscle damage in adult males with Becker, which has been expanded to include an additional 120 adult participants in a pivotal cohort called GRAND CANYON, which is currently enrolling. In Duchenne, we are advancing our Phase 2 clinical trials, LYNX, assessing safety, PK and biomarkers of muscle damage, and FOX, which includes children and adolescents previously treated with gene therapy. We are also exploring the impact that fast skeletal myosin regulation may have on other skeletal muscle disorders common in adults, including slower-onset forms of muscle myopathies such as Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD).

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Leveraging our deep expertise in muscle-disease therapeutics to expand our pipeline, advancing EDG-7500 into the clinic for the treatment of HCM and other diseases of diastolic dysfunction. EDG-7500 is a first-in-class oral, selective, cardiac sarcomere modulator intended for the treatment of HCM and other diseases of cardiac diastolic dysfunction. The compound is designed to slow early contraction velocity and improve impaired cardiac relaxation. This novel mechanism is anticipated to have a broad therapeutic index that may facilitate fixed dosing and minimize monitoring during treatment. Preclinical data of EDG-7500 support beneficial activity in animal models of both obstructive and non-obstructive HCM with diastolic benefit and minimal changes in left ventricular systolic performance in a range of preclinical experiments. We are currently enrolling a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single and multiple ascending dose Phase 1 trial evaluating safety, tolerability, PK and pharmacodynamics in healthy adults. Further, we are planning to begin a Phase 2 trial of EDG-7500 in individuals with obstructive HCM in the first half of 2024 and expect Phase 1 data in healthy volunteers and individuals with obstructive HCM in the third quarter of 2024.
Investing in our precision medicine drug discovery platform to fuel the development of novel targeted therapies to expand our pipeline into additional skeletal and cardiac muscle diseases. Building upon our success in designing small molecule inhibitors of fast skeletal myosin, we are leveraging our proprietary drug discovery platform and capabilities to create precision medicines for muscle diseases with high levels of unmet need. In addition to EDG-5506 and EDG-7500, we are also advancing our preclinical program, EDG-003, directed to cardiometabolic targets.
Integrating our scientific expertise, development capabilities and growing network of patient advocacy groups and collaborators to develop novel therapies addressing muscle diseases with the highest unmet need.  Our company was founded based on an in-depth understanding of muscle disease and integrative physiology, coupled with our strong drug discovery capabilities and a desire to improve the lives of patients with severe muscle diseases. In addition to this expertise, we have established a growing network of key stakeholders, including patient advocacy groups, healthcare professionals, key opinion leaders, research institutions, regulators and payors, to ensure our efforts remain guided by the needs of patients suffering from severe muscle diseases. We will continue to work closely with these collaborators to inform our development programs and strategies to potentially bring transformational therapies to these communities as we build a patient-centric organization.
Opportunistically evaluating strategic collaborations and asset acquisition opportunities to accelerate development and commercialization timelines as well as potentially expand our pipeline within our core therapeutic areas.  We have retained global development and commercialization rights to all of our programs and intend to maximize their commercial opportunity across global markets. We plan to collaborate on product candidates that we believe have promising utility in disease areas or patient populations that are better served by the resources or specific expertise of other biopharmaceutical companies. We currently intend to build a focused commercial organization in the United States to market any of our drug candidates that are approved. Outside the United States, we will evaluate strategic opportunities to maximize the commercial potential of our product candidates with collaborators whose development and commercial capabilities complement our own. We will also evaluate select external opportunities to strategically expand our pipeline.

Our Proprietary Drug Discovery Platform

Our precision medicine muscle platform enables the discovery and development of therapies with disease modifying potential

Muscle is the most abundant tissue in the body. Skeletal muscle alone accounts for 40% to 50% of body mass. In addition to being critical for the regulation of contraction driving the production of force, skeletal muscle also serves as an endocrine organ regulating metabolism and neuronal activities as well as the production of systemic mediators of growth, inflammation and regeneration. Skeletal muscle’s physiological role impacts multiple organ systems and is a

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complex mix of redundancies and feedback loops that require an intricate knowledge of muscle at a whole-body level in order to successfully develop drugs for muscle diseases.

We believe that our approach can overcome many of the obstacles facing skeletal and cardiac muscle drug discovery and development that have resulted in a lack of disease modifying therapies for inherited muscle disorders. Our proprietary drug discovery platform leverages our expertise in the following areas to facilitate the efficient discovery of novel therapies for neglected muscle disorders:

1.intimate familiarity with skeletal and cardiac muscle biophysics and integrated physiology providing a unique understanding of the complex integrative relationship between skeletal and cardiac muscle contraction, transcriptional regulation and vascular/nervous/metabolic system feedback in disease;
2.bespoke high-throughput whole muscle extract assays and functional modulator identification combined with biophysical and selectivity screening systems that are tailored to measure integrated muscle function enabling rapid first-in-class drug candidate identification;
3.proven in-house medicinal chemists and discovery scientists who can identify and design precision medicines that bind to unique allosteric sites on specific muscle targets; and
4.deep expertise in advanced animal models of human genetic muscle diseases to identify novel biomarkers using cutting-edge proteomics and single cell transcriptomics.

We have coupled our deep understanding of the complexities of muscle physiology with cutting-edge drug discovery expertise to create a new generation of small molecule precision medicines for the treatment of severe and debilitating muscle conditions arising from defects in the skeletal and cardiac muscle systems.

Our Programs

EDG-5506 for Treatment of Patients with Duchenne and Becker

Overview

We are developing a muscle fiber stabilizing therapy that represents a novel mechanistic approach designed to address the root cause of dystrophin deficient muscular dystrophies. EDG-5506, our most advanced product candidate, is an orally administered, allosteric, selective, fast myofiber (type II) myosin inhibitor that is designed to be inactive against slow myofiber (type I) myosin present in both skeletal muscle and the heart. Our preclinical data for EDG-5506 in animal models with muscular dystrophy demonstrated that selective regulation of fast (type II) myofiber contraction protected muscle from damage, decreased systemic fibrosis and improved measures of muscle function including strength and physical activity. EDG-5506 was evaluated in a Phase 1 clinical trial designed to assess the safety, tolerability, and PK of EDG-5506 in adult healthy volunteers (HVs) (Phase 1a) and in adults with Becker (Phase 1b). Our Phase 1a data in HVs demonstrated that EDG-5506 was generally well-tolerated and amenable to daily dosing. Our Phase 1b data in Becker individuals demonstrated proof of concept by showing a significant reduction in key biomarkers of muscle damage. We also initiated a Phase 2 clinical trial in individuals with Becker in July 2022, a potentially registrational cohort in September 2023, a Phase 2 dose-finding clinical trial in children with Duchenne in October 2022 and a Phase 2 clinical trial in children and adolescents with Duchenne who have been previously treated with gene therapy in October 2023. Type II myosin inhibition prevents muscle damage via a blockade of the biophysical stress response during normal muscle contractile activity thus stabilizing the muscle and protecting the muscle from damage. As such, it is a potentially complementary approach to dystrophin replacement strategies which stabilize muscle through the re-expression of a truncated but not fully functional dystrophin.

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Absence of dystrophin in Duchenne causes muscle fiber membrane stress when muscles contract, leading to myofiber damage. By enhancing muscle stability and decreasing muscle damage, we believe EDG-5506 has the potential to improve outcomes across a broad range of Duchenne patients when used as a single agent. EDG-5506 may also provide a synergistic or additive effect in combination with available therapies and therapies currently in development, including dystrophin replacement gene therapies.

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Disease Background

Duchenne and Becker are marked by an absence (Duchenne) or truncation (Becker) of the dystrophin protein resulting from mutations in the dystrophin gene. Approximately 65% of mutations of the Duchenne gene are deletions of one or several exons, the coding sections of an RNA transcript, or the DNA encoding it, that are ultimately translated into dystrophin protein. Approximately 10% of mutations are duplications of exons and approximately 15% are single point mutations. Dystrophin provides a structural link between the contractile elements (actin and myosin filaments) of the sarcomere and the basement membrane of the myofibers (muscle cell). Absence of dystrophin leads to myofiber membrane stress during normal sarcomere contraction resulting in an influx of calcium through the myofiber membrane resulting in hypercontraction, irreversible sarcomeric collapse and myofiber degeneration. Myofiber regeneration is possible but appears to fail over time as Duchenne/Becker patients get older and the muscle stem cell (satellite cell) machinery is exhausted. Fatty and fibrotic tissue then accumulate and replace normal muscle contractile tissue thus compromising function such that patients have progressive and permanent muscle weakness. Circumventing the loss of dystrophin’s structural function may prevent myofiber damage and preserve skeletal muscle function in Duchenne/Becker.

Duchenne and Becker are classified as orphan diseases in the United States and Europe. We estimate that Duchenne occurs in approximately one in every 3,500 to 5,000 live male births and that the patient population is approximately 12,000 to 15,000 in the United States and approximately 25,000 in Europe. Becker has a much lower incidence of approximately 1 in every 18,450 live male births. We estimate there are about 5,000 patients with Becker in the United States, with similar numbers estimated in Europe.

Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

Duchenne is a monogenic, X-linked muscle disease secondary to mutations in the dystrophin gene with mortality at a median age of approximately 30 years. Duchenne pathophysiology is driven by the absence of dystrophin which

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normally functions as a structural protein in muscle. Once myofiber degeneration is initiated, regeneration typically follows. However, in Duchenne, the regenerative process appears to fail over time as patients get older leading to fibrosis and progressive loss of muscle function with severe disability and early death.

Duchenne predominantly occurs in boys and typically presents at three to five years of age through observation of missed functional milestones and Gowers’ sign (a finding from a medical examination that identifies weakness of the proximal hip muscles) due to symmetrical, proximal weakness in selective muscle groups in combination with calf hypertrophy and CK, a plasma protein biomarker linked to muscle damage, >10 times normal. Systemically circulating biomarkers of myofiber degeneration, such as CK and troponin I are significantly elevated from birth with maximal levels at approximately two years of age. Levels decrease with time, presumably as muscle mass is lost.

Loss of Ambulation

Clinical manifestations occur in a predictable pattern of loss of functional milestones: ability to rise from the floor, ability to climb stairs, ability to walk, upper limb function and respiratory function. Typically, boys begin to lose the ability to rise from the floor between the ages of seven and nine, with the loss of the ability to climb stairs shortly thereafter and loss of ambulation as early as 10 years of age. Nearly all boys with Duchenne will require the use of a wheelchair by the time they are young teens.

Impacts on Upper Limb Function

Even while ambulant, loss of upper limb function begins around age eight and continues to decline, with Duchenne patients struggling to raise their arms above their head in their early teens, which impairs daily activities such as getting clothes on over their head independently or reaching for an object overhead. Loss of upper limb muscle function continues with disease progression, and in their teens patients may lose the ability to independently lift objects to their face, self-feed, use a phone/computer or control a motorized wheelchair. The serious disability due to the loss of key upper limb functions dramatically impacts activities of daily living in Duchenne patients still in their early teenage years.

Effects on Respiratory Function

Respiratory function decline, as measured by spirometry, occurs by age 12, and is generally relentlessly progressive. Progressive respiratory muscle impairment leads to cardiovascular issues and poor respiratory secretion clearance, hypoventilation and pulmonary infections putting patients at increased risk of hospitalization and need of continuous ventilatory support.

Cardiac Complications

The loss of dystrophin leads to cardiovascular disease in most Duchenne patients. These patients typically develop cardiac features between the ages of 10 and 15 years. The cardiac disease is generally progressive and as cardiac function worsens, patients present with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and clinical heart failure. Since Duchenne patients in their teens are non-ambulatory, identification of traditional heart failure symptoms is challenging due to relative physical inactivity. Patients with Duchenne and DCM often report a history of chest pain, palpitations, dyspnea, dizziness, and syncope. Improved care in other specialties, especially respiratory support, has reduced morbidity related to other aspects of Duchenne but elevated cardiomyopathy as a key driver of mortality.

The Real-World Burden of Duchenne

Family members and caregivers view Duchenne not just as a fatal disorder, but a disorder characterized by repeated “little deaths”. Each loss of a functional milestone is excruciating as it represents not a clinical data point to track progression, but one more conversation a parent must have with their child, explaining why they are not allowed to play on the soccer team with their peers, or if they will ever be able to hop, or skip or go to the prom. As the disease progresses, boys lose their ability to toilet, to feed, to dress, to take a bath, all the things that represent independence in a young man’s life. And these losses lead to more symptoms: contractions, pressure sores, constipation, numbness in legs and feet, and scoliosis.

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Parents and caregivers devote much of their resources and time to caring for their sons with Duchenne. All told, these “little deaths” create a family disease with lifelong impacts for all. Perhaps the hardest moment in the life of a Duchenne family comes in deciding when to tell their young boy that he has this fatal disease.

Duchenne represents a significant societal and economic burden. The economic burden associated with hospital admissions, medication, frequent doctor visits and investment in assistive devices, as well as indirect costs related to productivity losses for the caregivers and costs due to pain, anxiety and social handicap are estimated at $278 million in Germany, $154 million in Italy, $200 million in the United Kingdom, and $1.2 billion in the United States annually. The impact on parents of children with Duchenne is also quite dramatic and often requires them to stop working altogether to care for their children who progressively require more help with everyday tasks.

Becker Muscular Dystrophy

In contrast to Duchenne, Becker results from a mutation in the dystrophin gene yielding a partially functional protein. Becker patients often are diagnosed at a later age in childhood (approximately 11 years old) with similar symptoms to Duchenne of symmetrical, proximal limb weakness, notable in the quadriceps, with calf hypertrophy and elevated CK. Progression can be variable and often slower than Duchenne with mean age of loss of ambulation in the late 30’s and a select few remaining ambulatory into their 50’s or beyond. While certain Becker patients with have a mild or minimal lower limb weakness and remain relatively stable over time as measured by the NSAA, other Becker patients have a typical Becker disease course with progressive loss of lower limb function, measurable with the NSAA over a 12-month period with the majority losing ambulation at some point in their lifetime. Compared to Duchenne, Becker patients’ skeletal myopathy occurs later in childhood, and they maintain ambulation through age 16. However, Becker patients develop cardiomyopathy at a similar mean age to Duchenne (14.4 years Duchenne and 14.6 years Becker). Becker patients with cardiac failure commonly have mean life expectancy of 40 to 65 years old.

Current Treatments for Duchenne and Becker and their Limitations

There is no cure for Becker and no approved therapies on the market to treat the disease.

For Duchenne there is also no cure and for most patients, there are no satisfactory symptomatic or disease-modifying treatments. Standard of care in Duchenne includes physical therapy to maintain mobility and prevent contractures, bracing and surgery for scoliosis, medical treatment for cardiomyopathy and heart failure, respiratory therapies for ventilatory impairment, psychosocial management to support behavior and learning, glucocorticoid regimens and exon skipping therapies.

Glucocorticoids

The chronic and ongoing damage state seen in Duchenne is one of the targets of glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoid treatment with either prednisone or EMFLAZA (deflazacort), the current standard-of-care for Duchenne, has been shown to temporarily improve muscle strength, prolong the period of ambulation, and slow functional decline, including upper limb and respiratory function, characteristic of the disease. In January 2023, Santhera in collaboration with ReveraGen Biopharma, announced the acceptance of the NDA for vamorolone, a novel steroid therapy for Duchenne, by the FDA. The modest chronic benefit of steroids is weighed against the risks, and treatment is often discontinued after loss of ambulation. Sustained glucocorticoid dosing in young Duchenne patients is associated with side effects including weight gain which could lead to obesity, Cushingoid features, excessive growth of hair on the body, adverse behavior changes, growth impairment, delayed puberty, immune suppression, adrenal suppression, fractures and cataracts.

Exon Skipping Therapies

There are four FDA conditionally-approved antisense oligonucleotide (AO) therapies approved under the accelerated approval pathway, each limited to a specific mutation and a subset of the patient population: EXONDYS 51 (eteplirsen), approved for the treatment of Duchenne patients amenable to Exon 51 skipping, AMONDYS 45 (casimersen), approved for the treatment of Duchenne patients amenable to Exon 45 skipping and VYONDYS 53 (golodirsen) and VILTEPSO (vitolarsen), both approved for the treatment of Duchenne patients amenable to Exon 53

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skipping. An aggregate of approximately 29% of Duchenne patients are amenable to treatment with these therapies. The FDA labels for all four drugs state that a clinical benefit has not yet been established and that continued approval may be contingent upon the verification of such clinical benefit in confirmatory clinical trials. In addition, Translarna® (ataluren), a small molecule intended to promote ribosomal read-through to overcome the nonsense (stop) pathogenic mutations in Duchenne, was granted approval by the UK, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, Israel, South Korea and conditional approval granted by the EMA within the European Union (EU) Member States to treat Duchenne caused by a nonsense variant in ambulatory patients aged five years and older. However, Phase 3 trials have not confirmed clinical efficacy and Translarna® is not approved for treating Duchenne in the United States. EXONDYS 51, VYONDYS 53 and AMONDYS 45, in addition to requiring weekly intravenous infusions, have demonstrated a less than 1% mean increase in dystrophin in clinical trials, which we believe is a function of poor and inefficient muscle transduction. Moreover, a significant limitation of exon skipping approaches for Duchenne is the fact that each AO has been developed for skipping of a specific exon and their use is limited to a sub-set of mutations and hence only used in a subpopulation of Duchenne patients (e.g., exon 51 skipping is feasible in only up to 13% of all Duchenne patients). Other companies, such as Avidity Biosciences, Inc., Dyne Therapeutics, Inc., REGENXBIO, Inc., and Entrada Therapeutics, Inc. are working to improve on the muscle delivery aspects of AOs but suffer from the same limitations of first-generation AOs in that they will be restricted to specific, genetically defined Duchenne subsets. As all AO therapies result in the re-expression of a truncated dystrophin protein, the best treatment outcome that Duchenne patients can expect is a Becker-like disease phenotype.

Gene Therapy for Duchenne

The lack of dystrophin in patients with Duchenne has long been a target for adeno-associated virus (AAV) based gene therapy but the limited packaging capacity of AAV vectors (4.7 kilo-bases) and the large size of the dystrophin gene (2.2 mega-bases, >400 times bigger than the AAV vector itself) remain a challenge to delivering a fully functional dystrophin protein to patients. As such, the field has shifted to the use of miniaturized dystrophin or microdystrophin expression cassettes that yield a smaller, less complete version of the dystrophin protein as the therapeutic payload; current constructs express truncated dystrophin proteins that are 20% to 30% of the normal size of the full-length dystrophin protein.

Recently, several gene therapies designed to produce a minidystrophin or microdystrophin have progressed into clinical development. However, it is estimated that between 20% to 60% of patients have antibodies against AAV due to naturally acquired infections. These antibodies prevent them from receiving AAV gene therapy due to pre-existing AAV immunity to the capsid, the protein shell of the virus used for delivery, which can lead to severe and potentially deadly immune response. The duration of activity and utility/safety of these approaches in older patients is also an open question.

The question around whether gene expression can persist lifelong after a single vector administration is an area of debate across many disorders including dystrophinopathies. The long-term persistence of transgene expression is exacerbated by growth/turnover of skeletal muscle and preexisting or recall immune responses to the AAV vector capsid and/or to the transgene product itself, which can interfere with therapeutic efficacy. Furthermore, this limited durability is problematic because re-administration after the first dose is currently not possible.

In June 2023, the FDA approved Sarepta’s Biologics License Application seeking accelerated approval of their microdystrophin gene therapy, Elevidys (delandistrogene moxeparvovec), for the treatment of ambulant individuals with Duchenne four to five years of age. In October 2023, Sarepta released topline data from their Phase 3 EMBARK trial announcing the trial failed to reach its primary endpoint. Despite the miss on the primary endpoint, Sarepta filed for sBLA in December 2023 seeking label expansion for Elevidys without restrictions on age or ambulation status. Other companies focused on developing genetic based therapies for Duchenne that target dystrophin mechanisms include Pfizer Inc., Solid Biosciences Inc., Genethon, PepGen, Dyne Therapeutics, Avidity Biosciences, REGENXBIO, and Entrada Therapeutics. Gene editing treatments that are in preclinical development are also being pursued by Vertex and Sarepta Therapeutics.

Both Pfizer and Sarepta Therapeutics limited their Phase 3 patient enrollment to children aged four to seven years old, thus excluding a significant proportion of Duchenne children and adolescents. Due to weight-based dosing

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regimens, for older patients in particular, who are generally heavier, scaling up to produce enough AAV-based viral vector genomic particles or vector genomes, remains a potentially significant encumbrance and even if feasible, raises concerns relating to safety of administering higher viral loads to patients. It is important to note that multiple clinical trials have reported significant adverse events associated with systemic administration of higher doses of AAV to treat muscle diseases. Vector dilution will also be an important consideration that we believe will limit the current class of AAV-based gene therapies to the age groups studied in their respective trials. We anticipate that treatment with AAVs engineered to deliver mini or micro dystrophin in younger patients will lead to a dilution of the transcript with age and normal growth; thus, children are unlikely to express dystrophin as their disease progresses and they become symptomatic and non-ambulatory.

Delivery of minidystrophin or microdystrophin to muscles in Duchenne has been shown to be sufficient to reform the larger complex of proteins that make up the dystroglycan complex. However, the truncated nature of the shortened dystrophin protein is not capable of providing complete protection against contraction injury. As a result, we believe that the best potential therapeutic outcome is inducing a severe Becker-like phenotype (the shortest documented dystrophin protein in Becker is 50% of normal) where patients would still have significant residual skeletal muscle impairment and will thus continue to have a high degree of unmet need. What is clear is that gene therapies currently in development for Duchenne do not represent a cure for the disease.

We believe that each of the therapeutic approaches outlined above currently have significant limitations, and that there continues to be a high unmet medical need for new disease-modifying therapies for the treatment of patients with Duchenne. Moreover, with the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industry’s almost exclusive focus on Duchenne, little attention has been paid to drug development in Becker where there are no approved therapies for patients.

Our Solution: EDG-5506

Since the cloning of the dystrophin gene in 1986, researchers, clinicians, and pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies have worked relentlessly to advance the scientific and clinical understanding of Duchenne to accelerate finding a cure. At Edgewise, we have built on this foundational work through applying our understanding of muscle physiology to develop EDG-5506, a molecule that we believe has the potential to change the devastating course of Duchenne. While many of our competitors are targeting dystrophin, our orthogonal approach is focused on protecting muscle damage induced by contractions from activities of daily living.

EDG-5506 is an orally administered, allosteric, selective, fast myofiber (type II) myosin inhibitor that is designed to be inactive against slow myofiber (type I) myosin present in both skeletal muscle and the heart. We believe EDG-5506 has the potential to overcome many of the obstacles facing other therapeutics in development for the treatment of dystrophinopathies based on the following key characteristics:

Offers a novel, potentially disease modifying approach for the treatment of severe muscle diseases by blocking the structural destabilization of skeletal myofibers.  By protecting dystrophin deficient myofibers from degeneration, EDG-5506’s mechanism of action is directed towards the underlying cause of muscle degeneration in Duchenne and Becker to reduce muscle damage, prevent downstream fibrosis, allow healthy muscle contraction, and enhance physical function. Moreover, since muscle damage induced by excessive exercise in normal volunteers can reduce muscle strength through the generation of edema and fiber disruption by up to 30%, we believe that elimination of muscle damage could increase muscle strength and ultimately function in a muscular dystrophy populations where continuous muscle damage is the driver of disease progression.
Highly selective for all fast type II myofibers, thus limiting the potential for serious off-target side effects.  Our non-clinical toxicology package has not revealed any off-target or unexpected side effects, following systemic administration.

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Targeted distribution into muscle tissue limits exposure to other organs.  EDG-5506 exhibits a high volume of distribution due to target-mediated partition into skeletal muscle. This reduces exposure of the compound to other organs such as the liver and kidney, limiting the chances of unexpected adverse effects.
Offers a mutation agnostic approach with the potential to be used for disorders resulting from genetic lesions in dystrophin or the dystroglycan complex.  EDG-5506 can potentially be used to treat all populations of Duchenne and Becker, as well as many forms of LGMD, a progressive, lethal myopathy that results from mutations of key proteins in the dystroglycan complex.
Provides a mechanistic approach to treat Duchenne that may provide additional functional benefits over genetic based therapeutics.  DNA based gene therapies or RNA based exon skipping therapeutics are designed to produce a mini- or micro-dystrophin but not a full-length dystrophin protein; therefore, the best potential therapeutic outcome for these therapies might be a Becker-like phenotype where patients would still have significant skeletal muscle impairments and high degree of unmet need.
Offers a potential treatment option to patients, regardless of therapy background, immune background, age or weight.  We are developing EDG-5506 to be used as a single agent therapy but it may also provide a synergistic or additive effect in combination with available therapies and therapies currently in development. Moreover, EDG-5506 may offer a disease modifying option for patients currently excluded from Phase 3 minidystrophin or microdystrophin gene therapy trials due to age (four to seven year old children) and those who have antibodies against AAV due to naturally acquired infections.

We believe these characteristics uniquely position EDG-5506 as a potentially new standard of care for patients with Duchenne and Becker, either as a standalone or in combination with other therapies.

An illustration of EDG-5506’s novel mechanism of action

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Background and Rationale of Our Approach

Human skeletal muscle consists of three fiber types, “slow” type I and “fast” types IIa or IIx/d, defined by the specific myosin isoform that they express. Studies have shown that fast muscle fibers are more susceptible to injury in both healthy individuals and in Duchenne. Histological studies of young Duchenne patients document distinct fiber-type

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imbalances in the co-localization of fast and embryonic myosin, a marker of regenerating muscle fibers. Similar observations have also been made in all known mammalian models of Duchenne. The control and coordination of these fiber populations is a complex process, designed to maintain physical performance even under conditions of extreme environmental and metabolic stress. Under normal conditions, skeletal muscle contractile demand is much lower than at the maximal output. Maximal activation of muscle is painful, damaging and unproductive to sustained function. We have taken advantage of this flexibility to explore an alternative therapeutic strategy to protect susceptible type II skeletal muscle fibers.

When muscle fibers undergo damage, they release internal proteins such as CK and troponin into the blood. One of the troponin subunits, TnI has a different isoform for each type of striated muscle (fast, slow and cardiac) and can be used to explore the fiber-specific source of these proteins. We evaluated Duchenne and Becker patient plasma samples using high specificity assays for fast and slow myofiber TnI and observed that fast myofiber TnI (TnI2) plasma levels are higher than slow myofiber TnI (TnI1) levels, suggesting that fast myofibers are more susceptible to loss of dystrophin function during muscle contraction. Conversely, we observed that HVs had virtually no leak from fast muscles.

Biomarkers of fast fiber turnover are elevated in Becker and Duchenne

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Using high-throughput screens of type II fast skeletal muscle myofibrils, we identified a novel structural class of myosin ATPase inhibitors that we optimized for potency, selectivity, physiochemical properties and PK, leading to the synthesis of EDG-5506. EDG-5506 acts to protect dystrophic muscle from breakdown by modulating contraction in susceptible fast muscle fibers. Our goal is to reduce contraction of susceptible muscle fibers by five to twenty percent. We believe that the reduced muscle breakdown will result in potential preservation or enhancement of physical function in Duchenne patients.

Regulating myofiber contraction in Duchenne patients is not a novel concept. Dantrolene, an inhibitor of the ryanodine receptor that modulates both fast and slow skeletal myofiber contraction was used in a small clinical trial in 1991 in Duchenne patients. Treatment was associated with a 3-fold reduction in CK and a trend favoring attenuation of decreases in function. While it is approved for treatment of malignant hyperthermia and chronic spasticity, it is not approved or used in Duchenne. Chronic treatment with dantrolene has been associated with drowsiness and the potentially serious side effect of idiosyncratic fatal hepatotoxicity, limiting its broad use. We anticipate that the high potency, fast fiber targeting and low projected dose of EDG-5506 will limit unwanted side effects. Moreover, stabilization of the sarcomere with EDG-5506 via direct decreases in contractile stress potentially provides greater muscle protection than secondary inhibition of calcium release via the ryanodine receptor.

Another corollary to our approach of selectively targeting type II fast skeletal muscle myofibrils with EDG-5506 is mavacamten (MYK461), a selective allosteric inhibitor of cardiac type I myosin ATPase. Mavacamten was approved by

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the FDA for HCM, a disorder characterized by excessive contractility and impaired relaxation of cardiomyocytes. Through selective targeting of cardiac type I myosin ATPase, mavacamten is designed to reduce cardiac muscle hypercontractility in HCM. Mavacamten’s mechanism of action further validates selective allosteric regulation of myofibers as a viable therapeutic approach to treating various muscle disorders.

Interestingly, nature has carried out one of the more critical experiments to help us understand the impact of inhibiting fast fiber myosin selectively. There are several reports describing the human phenotype of people born with genetic loss of function (LOF) of the myosin heavy chain 2 gene, MYH2 which encodes Type IIa myosin and makes up approximately 85% of the body’s fast fibers. Muscle biopsies in these patients show a heavy skewing towards slow type I muscle fibers as a result of complete lack of fast type IIa muscle fibers. These patients have mild, proximal muscle weakness with ocular muscle involvement but remain ambulatory throughout life. The observations in these patients demonstrate an ability of the body to maintain function despite complete loss of one myofiber type. Given that our goal is to partially inhibit type II fast skeletal muscle myofibrils in order to modulate force development and not completely inhibit them, as is the case in the LOF patients, it is our belief that selective fast fiber regulation with EDG-5506 will likely be well-tolerated and may protect dystrophic myofibers from degeneration and subsequently improve and/or preserve physical function.

Preclinical Data

In Vitro Biochemical and Single Muscle Fiber Assays

The inhibitory activity and specificity of EDG-5506 was measured using skeletal myofibril preparations isolated from muscle sources with uniform myosin composition. We observed that EDG-5506 inhibited fast myofibril ATPase from rabbit psoas muscle with an IC50 of 0.2 µM (A). Myosin inhibitory activity was further supported by measuring the actin-activated ATPase of purified S1 myosin motor sub-fragment. We observed that EDG-5506 inhibited the enzymatic activity of fast, but not cardiac or the more unrelated smooth muscle S1, with an IC50 of 0.11 µM and >100 µM, respectively (B and C). We also observed that EDG-5506 selectively reduced contraction in fast skeletal muscle fibers with an IC50 of 0.7 µM (D). In contrast, maximal inhibitory concentrations of EDG-5506 had no observed effect on slow skeletal or cardiac muscle fibers (E and F). In ex vivo assays using mouse muscle, we observed that EDG-5506 reduced contraction in a concentration and time-dependent manner, completely inhibiting fast extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle but only partially inhibiting mixed fast/slow soleus muscle.

EDG-5506 selectively inhibited fast skeletal muscle ATPase and contraction

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Protection of Dystrophic Skeletal Muscle from Contraction-induced Functional Decline

The inhibitory activity of EDG-5506 in live skeletal muscle ex vivo was measured in wild type (WT) mouse EDL muscle, a predominantly fast skeletal muscle in the hindlimb. We observed that the addition of EDG-5506 to isolated muscle resulted in concentration- and time-dependent decreases in maximal force. EDL muscles from dystrophic mdx mice exhibited enhanced force run-down with eccentric (lengthening) contraction. We also observed that the addition of 5 µM EDG-5506 to mdx EDL muscle for 60 minutes (enough to decrease pre-injury maximal force by 50%) decreased peak force decline closer to that observed in WT mouse muscle. Protection with EDG-5506 exhibited a concentration dependent response with 50% of maximal protection at approximately 1 µM, associated with an approximately 10% decrease in force at the time of the injury.

In situ muscle tests were next performed on intact mdx mouse TA muscle, with contraction elicited via sciatic nerve stimulation and force measured from a tendon at the ankle of the mouse under anesthesia. In this model, contracting muscle is rapidly lengthened, resulting in excessive stress that causes an amplified decrease in the ability of the muscle to contract after the injury in mdx but not normal mice. We observed that oral doses of EDG-5506 caused dose-dependent decreases in muscle force prior to lengthening injury (A). After lengthening injury, we observed that EDG-5506 prevented exaggerated force deficits, returning the injury response in mdx mice to that of a normal mouse (B). Importantly, we observed that full protection of the muscle was possible with only small decreases in force prior to injury (<10% — compare force decrease in (A) with protection in (B)).

EDG-5506 protected dystrophic skeletal muscle from contraction-induced functional decline in situ

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Protection of Dystrophic Skeletal Muscle from membrane disruption

In conjunction with exaggerated force deficits, exercise of dystrophic skeletal muscle triggers membrane disruption that results in edema, entry of extracellular calcium ions and necrosis. Fluid entry was visualized in mdx mouse muscle ex vivo and in vivo. Ex vivo imaging was performed by incubating mdx extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle with procion orange, a membrane impermeable dye. We observed that lengthening contraction of muscle led to increased uptake of the dye, which was visualized with immunofluorescence (A). We also observed that preincubation of muscles with EDG-5506 resulted in a concentration-dependent decrease in procion-positive fibers (B).

Muscle membrane leak was separately visualized in vivo by intravenous injection of Evans blue dye (EBD), which is only taken up by disrupted muscle fibers and marks them with a blue color. Mdx mice were administered vehicle or EDG-5506 daily for three weeks before EBD injection. Mice were then sacrificed 24 hours later, and blue fibers visualized after removal of the skin (C). We observed that EDG-5506 dramatically lowered the appearance of blue

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muscle fibers (examples marked with red arrows), close to that observed in healthy normal mice. We believe these observations further support EDG-5506’s ability to protect muscles from membrane disruption and edema.

EDG-5506 reduced muscle membrane disruption in mdx mice

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Protection of dystrophic skeletal muscle from exercise-induced injury

Exercise was next used to induce exaggerated muscle injury in mdx mice. Exercise in mdx mice yields membrane injury which causes muscle proteins, including CK, to leak from muscle into the circulation. Mdx mice were administered a single dose of vehicle or EDG-5506 and were physically challenged with a grip strength test device four hours later. We observed that EDG-5506 had no detrimental effect on grip strength performance (A) but that circulating CK activity after the exercise was significantly lower than that shown in disease controls (B). This study demonstrated that therapeutic muscle protection in vivo is possible without inhibiting myosin to a level that decreases strength. It is worth noting that this type of single-dose challenge experiment was not expected to demonstrate strength improvements but instead was used as a strength challenge to elicit muscle injury.

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EDG-5506 protected muscle from exercise-induced injury in mdx mice

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Improvements in strength and diaphragm fibrosis in mdx mice after eight weeks oral administration of EDG-5506

Longer term effects of EDG-5506 were assessed in young mdx mice after eight weeks of administration. EDG-5506 treated mice exhibited higher grip strength compared to vehicle treated mice. At the end of the study, continued muscle protection was observed with a rotarod exercise challenge. There was no observed difference in rotarod performance, but CK was observed to be lower in the treated groups compared to vehicle, consistent with single-dose results. While Duchenne patients exhibit extensive muscle fibrosis with age, collagen accumulation in mdx mice is generally limited to the diaphragm. Histological examination of the diaphragm using a collagen stain (picrosirius red) revealed lower staining in EDG-5506 treated mice.

Improvements in fibrosis, cardiac hypertrophy and kyphosis in the DBA/2J mdx mouse model of Duchenne

Unlike Duchenne patients, the dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse on the C57BL/10 genetic background (B10.mdx) is mildly affected by disease with limited muscle fibrosis. A more severe muscle disease is observed when the mdx mutation is crossed onto the DBA/2J genetic background (D2.mdx). This model exhibits greater muscle damage, impaired muscle regeneration, muscle wasting, and exacerbated progression of intramuscular fibrosis than age matched B10.mdx mice. Given that the DBA/2J mdx mouse phenotype better recapitulates characteristics of the human disease, we evaluated the effect of EDG-5506 on skeletal muscle fibrosis in this mouse model.

We observed that twelve weeks EDG-5506 dosing via incorporated chow at 50 ppm (roughly equivalent to 1 mg/kg per day by oral administration) in DBA/2J mdx mice starting at five weeks old, reduced fibrosis in anterior tibialis (TA) muscle and diaphragm muscles (A, B) with a trend towards lower fibrosis in the left ventricle of the heart (C).

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EDG-5506 reduced muscle fibrosis in DBA/2J mdx mice after 12 weeks treatment

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Unexpected trends in the reduction of cardiac fibrosis led us to examine DBA/2J mdx mice in two studies after longer term (12 to 15 months) dosing. At the end of the study in 15-month-old mice, we performed a whole-body examination of musculoskeletal anatomy after removing the skin in euthanized mice. Skeletal muscles were noticeably smaller in the fore and hindlimbs of DBA/2J mdx mice and kyphosis (spinal curvature) was visible when compared to control DBA 2/J mice (blue arrows). We observed that treatment with EDG-5506 for 14 months dramatically prevented muscle loss and kyphosis (green arrows). This observation is particularly meaningful as scoliosis can be observed in older Duchenne patients following loss of ambulation. Scoliosis coupled with diaphragm fibrosis drives respiratory failure and is a significant cause of death in Duchenne patients.

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EDG-5506 dramatically prevents kyphosis in DBA/2J mdx mice

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Consistent with shorter term studies, we also observed significant reductions in gastrocnemius muscle fibrosis along with significant improvements in muscle weight. Diaphragm fibrosis was not observed to be lowered with longer term treatment, but the incidence of lipid vacuole deposition was observed to be significantly lowered with treatment. Fatty tissue deposition is common in older Duchenne patients, in conjunction with fibrosis.

Improvements in cardiac fibrosis and hypertrophy in DBA/2J mdx long-term studies

Longer term dosing of DBA/2J mdx mice also demonstrated lower cardiac fibrosis compared to vehicle controls in both long term studies (A, B). We also observed a reduction in the incidence of cardiac hypertrophy (C). Observing cardiac benefit in DBA/2J mdx mice is uncommon and has not been demonstrated in long-term studies with high level AAV micro-dystrophin transduction. As the heart is not a direct target of EDG-5506, we believe the mechanism of this benefit is indirect via improvement of skeletal muscles, including the diaphragm. Given that cardiac myopathy is a common driver of mortality in both Duchenne and Becker, we believe that this is a significant and clinically relevant finding.

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Reduced cardiac fibrosis and hypertrophy in DBA/2J mdx mice following treatment with EDG-5506

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Reversible decreases in circulating muscle injury biomarkers following EDG-5506 administration in Golden Retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) dogs

Mouse models of Duchenne recapitulate many features of disease but they are enriched for fast fibers, develop only localized muscle fibrosis and do not exhibit functional deficits until relatively late in life. In contrast, dogs have muscle that has similar proportions of fast and slow fibers (approximately 50/50) compared to humans and weakness/functional deficits with age that more closely resemble Duchenne patients. Amongst the dog models of Duchenne, the GRMD dogs are the largest and most severely affected. GRMD dogs tend to be weak at birth and then stabilize at two weeks of age before progressive muscle damage, inflammation and pseudo-hypertrophy, particularly of the flexor muscles of the limbs causing physical weakness. Unlike Duchenne patients, GRMD dogs remain ambulatory and disease symptoms stabilize at six months of age, at which age their muscle histology is similar to that of a 10-year-old Duchenne patient.

Four disease-stable dystrophin deficient female GRMD dogs (seven months old) were dosed daily with vehicle for one week and then with EDG-5506 (3 mg/kg loading dose for two to three days, then 1 mg/kg daily) for two weeks before a six-day washout period. CK was reversibly decreased >50% with EDG-5506 (A).

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Circulating CK levels correlate with activity in GRMD dogs. In a follow-up study, (same dogs, 18 months of age), we tested whether administration of EDG-5506 affected activity using an activity monitor. We observed that EDG-5506 improved average daily activity by >30% (B), increased active time and decreased rest time in a reversible manner demonstrating both reduction in CK and improved physical function. To our knowledge, this is the first documented intervention to improve biomarkers and physical function in symptomatic, disease stable GRMD dogs. Our studies demonstrating consistent beneficial effects of EDG-5506 across multiple established preclinical models is differentiated and we believe speaks to the fundamental nature of our novel approach.

EDG-5506 decreased circulating injury biomarkers and improved activity in GRMD dogs

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EDG-5506 lowered disease biomarkers in Duchenne dogs as measured by SOMAscan

We used a SOMAscan aptamer-based high-throughput proteomics platform to determine if other proteins, beyond CK, change in plasma in response to treatment with EDG-5506. As expected, GRMD control plasma samples exhibited many protein differences compared to healthy dogs, reflecting the serious skeletal muscle pathology of these animals. EDG-5506 successfully restored the GRMD plasma protein signature closer to that of WT dogs, reversibly lowering elevated proteins and increasing downregulated proteins. A closer examination of proteins significantly lowered by treatment with EDG-5506 validated previous CK activity measures (muscle CK reversibly lowered 34%, p<0.05). Gene ontology (GO) term analysis also revealed decreases in cellular pathways commonly associated with dystrophic muscle including apoptotic, cellular signaling, metabolic and immune responses.

SOMAscan analysis of patient plasma has previously been used to generate a common serum protein signature for Duchenne. As such, we compared EDG-5506’s response fingerprint in GRMD to Duchenne patient data. Comparison with GRMD baseline samples revealed a set of 40 elevated and nine depleted proteins overlapping with the Duchenne patient signature. The SOMAscan analysis showed that EDG-5506 significantly and reversibly altered blood concentrations away from the Duchenne patient signature profile during the dosing period.

Preclinical Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism of EDG-5506

In all species studied to date, concentration-time profiles resulting from bolus intravenous administration are characterized by rapid distribution phase followed by mono-exponential decay. EDG-5506 displayed a terminal half-life ranging from 21 to 69 hours across species. The compound distributes to skeletal muscle, its intended therapeutic target, with high skeletal tissue to plasma ratios. Distribution to cardiac muscle is minimal and tends to be on the order of 2-fold

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plasma levels. High absolute oral bioavailability was observed across species when presented as a solution or highly dispersed suspension.

Cytochrome P450 (CYP) reaction phenotyping studies using recombinant enzymes have identified several isoforms that are involved in EDG-5506 metabolism, including CYP3A4, 2D6, and 2C19. Drug-drug interaction studies in human liver microsomes conducted at concentrations up to 30 µM did not indicate reversible inhibition of CYPs 1A2, 2B6, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4. Similarly, EDG-5506 did not display measurable inhibition in time-dependent studies in the same panel of CYPs.

EDG-5506 has been administered to mouse, rat, dog, pig and monkey by intravenous and oral administration, the intended route of administration in humans, to project human PK parameters using simple allometry.

EDG-5506 Toxicology Studies

The toxicity and safety pharmacology profile of EDG-5506 has been explored in standard good laboratory practice (GLP) safety pharmacology studies, in non-good laboratory practice exploratory and dose range studies. 13-week repeated dose toxicity studies were performed in rat and dog to support the Phase 1 first-in-human clinical trial. Additionally, a 26-week oral GLP toxicity study of EDG-5506 in rats and a 39-week oral GLP toxicity study of EDG-5506 in dogs were performed to support long-term dosing in humans. All toxicities noted were ascribed to EDG-5506 and were consistent with the known mechanism of EDG-5506 and exaggerated primary PD activity (i.e., regulation of type II fast skeletal muscle myosin). There were no unanticipated off-target toxicities noted in either rats or dogs administered EDG-5506 for up to 39 weeks. We also completed a 7-week oral juvenile toxicity study in 2022 with no unanticipated off-target toxicities noted.

EDG-5506 Formulation

In our Phase 1 clinical trial for EDG-5506, we utilized a formulation of powder for suspension in a commercially available compounding agent, SyrSpend® SF (sugar free), for once daily oral administration. SyrSpend® SF is a sweetened, suspending vehicle for use in compounded oral liquid preparations. SyrSpend® SF is composed of modified food starch, citric acid, sucralose, and sodium citrate. All ingredients are “Generally Recognized as Safe” (GRAS) or classified as “inactive ingredients” by the FDA when used in accordance with their intended purpose. We have also developed an immediate release tablet formulation for the Phase 2 trials in Becker and Duchenne. As EDG-5506 is a biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) Class 1 molecule, it can be readily formulated into solid dosage forms including tablets and capsules.

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EDG-5506 Clinical Plan

An updated overview of our near-term clinical development plan for EDG-5506 in Duchenne and Becker is shown below.

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EDG-5506 Phase 1 Clinical Trial

In October 2020, we initiated a Phase 1 randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, single and multiple ascending-dose clinical trial to evaluate the safety, tolerability and PK of EDG-5506 in adult HVs (Phase 1a) and adults with Becker (Phase 1b), to address potential differences in safety, tolerability and PK in the background of dystrophic muscle. The starting dose in the SAD was informed by the no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) from the 13-week GLP toxicology study. The Phase 1 clinical trial was carried out at a single site in San Antonio, Texas.

EDG-5506 Phase 1 Clinical Trial Schematic

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Phase 1a: Single Ascending Dose (SAD) Cohorts

In the first-in-human single ascending dose (SAD) trial, oral doses of EDG-5506 (0.5, 1.5, 5, 15, 45, 90 and 135 mg) or matching placebo were administered to 57 HVs — cohorts of eight participants were randomized to six receiving EDG-5506 and two receiving a placebo for each dose group. A single dose of EDG-5506 up to 90 mg was considered generally safe and well-tolerated. The most common AEs were dizziness and somnolence, which was seen at Grade 1 (on the Division of AIDS AE Grading Scale) except in the single dose cohort of 135 mg, where Grade II somnolence and dizziness were observed.

Our SAD demonstrated rapid absorption of EDG-5506 following a single oral dose. EDG-5506 displayed a favorable human PK profile, consistent with extensive on-target muscle distribution and a half-life of approximately 15 days. Exposures were observed to be dose proportional up to the 45 mg dose. PK modeling utilizing the SAD dataset projected that once-daily doses of 10-15 mg will achieve steady-state Ctrough drug concentrations at or above the efficacy exposure levels achieved in preclinical models of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

Phase 1a: Multiple Ascending Dose (MAD) Cohorts

The MAD enrolled 40 participants of whom 30 were randomized to EDG-5506 and 10 were randomized to placebo. Cohorts B1 and B2 received a suspension with a 4-day loading dose of EDG-5506 once-daily followed by 10 days at half of this dose (B1: 10 mg/5 mg, B2: 20 mg/10 mg). Cohorts B3 to B5 did not receive a loading dose and were administered a 20 mg suspension (B3) or a solid dosage form at doses of 20 mg (B4) and 40 mg (B5) daily for 14 days.

The study drug was well tolerated in all multi-dose cohorts (5 to 40 mg EDG-5506 given once daily for 14 days). Dizziness and somnolence were the most common AEs experienced and in all cases were mild and transient. At projected therapeutic doses, AEs generally decreased over time suggesting development of tolerance. There were no AEs of special interest, no SAEs, and no discontinuations due to AEs. In the MAD, the PKs on Day 1 were consistent with the PKs observed in the SAD part of the study.

In summary, the Phase 1a SAD/MAD demonstrated that EDG-5506 was generally well tolerated with no serious adverse events observed. PK data supports robust target engagement with achievement of muscle concentrations well above the efficacious levels observed in preclinical disease models of Duchenne.

Phase 1b: Becker Muscular Dystrophy Cohort (Cohort C1)

Cohort C1 enrolled seven adult males with Becker who were randomized to active (n=5) or placebo (n=2). EDG-5506 was administered at a dose of 20 mg once daily, in solid dosage form taken with food for 14 days. The primary endpoint was safety and tolerability, and secondary endpoints were PK, including tissue concentrations, and, importantly, multiple biomarkers of muscle damage in the setting of dystrophic muscle.

Becker patients in the Phase 1b were required to be ambulatory with no exclusions based on functional criteria. An overview of the Becker patient demographics is shown below. For the functional measures the median value for the 10 m walk run was over double the age normative value and the median rise from floor was 20 seconds with three participants being unable to complete the test (unaffected adults typically have a value of <3 seconds). Serum creatinine was approximately half of the expected range, consistent with decreased muscle mass, while serum CK was a multiple of normal values consistent with ongoing muscle damage in these individuals.

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Becker Phase 1b Patient Demographics

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EDG-5506 was well tolerated in Becker subjects. Seven of the seven subjects enrolled in the Phase 1b cohort experienced TEAEs and all were Grade 1. There were no AEs of special interest, no SAEs, and no discontinuations due to AEs. There were no AEs due to clinically significant abnormal vital signs, ECG or laboratory assessments. All participants that received either EDG-5506 or placebo experienced Grade 1 dizziness with 2 of 5 participants that received EDG-5506 reporting somnolence.

Muscle Concentrations of EDG-5506 in MAD and Becker Muscular Dystrophy Cohorts

An important goal in Phase 1 was to provide a range of compound concentrations required to achieve efficacy and translate those levels to meaningful target muscle exposures in humans. To achieve this, we focused on measuring absolute muscle concentrations in preclinical studies and then calculated a human target equivalent muscle exposure, based on relative proportions of fast muscle fibers (see figure below).

EDG-5506 Target Human Muscle Exposure Range

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As shown, EDG-5506 human muscle levels of 1,000 to 4,100 ng/g were projected to provide meaningful clinical benefit in humans based on experiments in mdx, DBA/2J mdx and GRMD. Of note, muscle concentrations in mouse studies were those required for maximal efficacy, essentially returning dystrophic muscle to a normal state.

In the MAD and Becker muscular dystrophy cohorts, muscle biopsy samples were taken at Day 14 to measure EDG-5506 levels in muscle. In Cohorts B1-B5, EDG-5506 concentrates in muscle at or above levels predicted to provide meaningful clinical benefit in humans (summarized below). Mean EDG-5506 concentration was 100-fold higher concentrations in the muscle tissue versus plasma, which we believe reflects the known high-affinity binding to myosin

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in fast muscle fibers. This observation was key as it demonstrated EDG-5506 achieves muscle concentrations believed to be needed in the clinic in order to demonstrate efficacy.

Muscle EDG-5506 Concentrations in Cohorts B1-B5 and C1

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Similar to the MAD cohorts, biopsy samples were taken from the quadriceps of Becker patients at Day 14 to measure EDG-5506 levels in muscle. EDG-5506 muscle concentrations in Becker patients were adjusted to reflect the approximately 60% fat fraction in the quadriceps of these individuals, which was further corroborated by reduced overall protein content, as measured by a standard Bradford protein assay, as well as the cohort’s overall reduced functional status. Relatedly, EDG-5506 plasma concentrations in Becker subjects were approximately two-fold higher than those in healthy volunteers at the same 20 mg dose. This observation is consistent with EDG-5506 being highly targeted to muscle, and reflective of these patient’s overall reduced muscle mass as evidenced by a mean serum creatinine level of 0.58 mg/dL, significantly below a mean value of 1.15 for an age- and sex-matched population.

Dystrophic muscle in Becker patients showed adjusted EDG-5506 levels in the range previously observed in the MAD, demonstrating a similar, high-affinity binding to myosin in fast twitch dystrophic muscles. The muscle levels reached in Becker patients were in the range where multiple preclinical studies with EDG-5506 have shown pharmacological activity in models of Duchenne.

Biomarkers of Muscle Damage in Becker Muscular Dystrophy Cohort (Cohort C1)

Muscle injury in muscular dystrophies leads to leaking of several muscle proteins into the circulation, including CK, myoglobin and TNNI2. Serial blood samples were taken from Becker participants for both biochemical analysis of biomarkers of muscle damage and proteomics using the SOMAscan to enable unbiased profiling of elevated plasma proteins and establish a unique Becker disease biomarker fingerprint.

After 14 days of treatment with EDG-5506, Becker participants had a significant and rapid decrease in circulating CK of 66%, reflecting a reduction from 5X to 1.6X of the upper limit of normal by the second week of dosing. There was also a modest, non-significant and anticipated CK decrease in the placebo group, consistent with Becker patients being confined to a Phase 1 clinical trial unit and exhibiting an overall reduced level of physical activity – this “natural” reduction in CK has previously been reported for Duchenne children confined to an in-patient setting. Importantly, following a 4-week washout, CK values rebound back to baseline levels further supporting a strong drug effect.

Additionally, myoglobin levels similarly decreased to near normal levels and aspartate transaminase (AST) dropped to within the normal range in all subjects who received EDG-5506.

Leveraging the SOMAscan 7,000 analyte set, baseline Becker patient plasma samples (n=7) were compared to baseline samples taken from healthy volunteers (n=25). To establish a unique proteomic signature for individuals

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with Becker, elevated proteins were filtered by those exhibiting a magnitude of change ≥1.5X and an adjusted p value of <0.05 relative to healthy volunteers (illustrated in red box below). This analysis is the first of its kind to characterize a unique proteomic fingerprint for individuals with Becker. Interestingly, and similar to individuals with Duchenne, the most significant elevated proteins are from muscle and metabolic pathways enriched in muscle, consistent with leaky damaged muscles.

Baseline Becker vs. Healthy Biomarker Fingerprint Analysis with SOMAscan

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Subsequently, the impact of EDG-5506 treatment on the Becker proteomic fingerprint, was examined. As anticipated, treatment of healthy individuals with 20 mg of EDG-5506 had no impact on the Becker protein signature. In comparison, Becker individuals exhibited a robust, significant and time-dependent decrease in elevated Becker biomarkers compared to placebo after only two weeks of dosing.

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Baseline Becker vs. Healthy Biomarker Fingerprint Analysis with SOMAscan

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The Becker SOMAscan signature showed that CK and TNNI2 both exhibited a robust decrease in response to EDG-5506 treatment compared to placebo treated individuals. Specifically, CK decreased by 71%, similar to the decrease observed in biochemical activity assays, while TNNI2 decreased by 83% with treatment. Interestingly, proteins that were most elevated in the Becker signature set were also those that decreased following treatment with EDG-5506. This observation suggests a broad normalization of the proteomic signature of Becker towards a more normal state following treatment with EDG-5506.

The robust reduction in muscle damage biomarkers observed in Becker suggests that EDG-5506 may normalize the excessive stress observed in dystrophic muscle, ultimately preserving muscle function and preventing disease progression in muscular dystrophies. In fact, a comparison of the consensus SOMAscan signature of consistently elevated proteins in Duchenne showed substantial overlap with those responsive to EDG-5506 treatment in Becker patients after only 14-days of dosing. As such, the positive observations in Becker are likely translatable to Duchenne based on EDG-5506’s unique mechanism of action.

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SOMAscan Comparison of Becker and Duchenne Fingerprints

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Overall, the findings for the Phase 1 clinical trial with EDG-5506 provide compelling evidence for EDG-5506 as a potentially disease modifying treatment for muscular dystrophies. Both in HVs and Becker patients, EDG-5506 was well tolerated and achieved muscle concentrations well above those predicted to demonstrate efficacy based on preclinical disease models of Duchenne. Moreover, EDG-5506 led to a robust, significant reduction in key biomarkers of muscle damage, driving CK, TNNI2, myoglobin and AST to either normal or near normal levels observed in healthy volunteers after only two weeks of EDG-5506 dosing.

EDG-5506 ARCH Open Label Data

In December 2021, we initiated our ARCH open label, single-center trial of EDG-5506 in 12 adults with Becker, including all seven participants from our Phase 1b first-in-human trial (following a 3-month washout). ARCH was designed to evaluate the safety, PK, changes in biomarkers of muscle damage such CK and fast skeletal muscle troponin I, measures of function with NSAA/NSAD, time function tests and patient-reported outcomes. The schematic below outlines the overall trial design. ARCH will continue to monitor patients for two years and is scheduled to complete in March 2024.

ARCH Trial Design – 24 Months

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The patients in ARCH had significant functional impairment and evidence of decreased muscle mass at baseline. All individuals had a decreased ability to perform functional measures such as the 10-meter walk-run or rise from floor – only half of the Becker patients were able to perform the rise from the floor at baseline. Their creatinine, which is derived directly from muscle, was decreased. Their CK was elevated, consistent with ongoing muscle damage, and the

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DXA lean body mass was also decreased, consistent with the overall decreased function and decreased muscle mass. North Star scores for these individuals ranged from 4 to 31. Baseline characteristics are summarized below, highlighting significant functional impairment and decreased muscle mass.

Becker Patient Baseline Characteristics in ARCH

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At 12 months, EDG-5506 continued to be well tolerated following escalation to the 20 mg dose, after initially receiving a 10 mg and 15 mg doses. An overview of the adverse events observed up to the 12-month timepoint can be seen in the table below.

Summary Table of AEs Observed in ARCH (at the 12 Month Timepoint)

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Consistent with prior observations, treatment with EDG-5506 led to significant decreases in key biomarkers of muscle damage. Importantly, CK and TNNI2 were reduced by an average of 37% (p=0.001) and 79% (p<0.0001) from baseline, respectively, at the participants 12-month visit.

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EDG-5506 Leads to Sustained Decrease in Key Biomarkers of Muscle Damage After 12 Months of Treatment

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After 12 months of EDG-5506 dosing, NSAA scores continued to trend in a positive direction. Nine of the twelve participants showed either a functional improvement (n=6) or exhibited stable disease (n=3) on NSAA relative to their baselines. As seen below, the NSAA scores show a consistent positive trend that diverges from trajectories observed in the natural history studies reported by Bello et al. (2016)1 and van de Velde et al. (2021)2 in which the yearly decline was -1.2 NSAA points. Overall, one-year functional results were observed to have a +0.4-point improvement on the NSAA compared to the -1.2-point anticipated natural history decline in a population of Becker patients predicted to have a relentless course of disease progression.

NSAA Stabilization Observed with EDG-5506 Treatment with Trends Toward Improvement at 12 Months

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The positive results from the 12-month ARCH trial support the hypothesis that a reduction in contraction-induced muscle damage in muscular dystrophies, associated with EDG-5506 administration, has the potential to preserve and improve muscle function while preventing disease progression in dystrophinopathies.

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Observations from ARCH identified key factors, including the optimal dosing strategy of EDG-5506, for the design of a potentially registrational trial in Becker.

Phase 2 Clinical Trial in Becker (CANYON and GRAND CANYON Trial)

In July 2022, we initiated our CANYON Phase 2 clinical trial of EDG-5506, assessing the effect of EDG-5506 over a 12-month period on safety, PK, biomarkers of muscle damage (e.g., CK, troponins, myoglobin), and functional measures in individuals with Becker aged 12 years and above. This placebo-controlled trial successfully recruited 69 individuals at approximately 14 sites in the United States, United Kingdom, and the Netherlands.

In September 2023, based on the positive observations from the ARCH trial, we amended the CANYON trial and initiated GRAND CANYON, a potentially registrational cohort in individuals with Becker. GRAND CANYON is a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of EDG-5506 in adults with Becker. Data from GRAND CANYON, if positive, could support a marketing application. The primary endpoint of GRAND CANYON is the NSAA. In addition, other functional assessments, biomarkers of muscle damage and safety will be assessed. GRAND CANYON is anticipated to recruit approximately 120 individuals with Becker, aged between 18 and 50 years old, at up to 50 sites in 10 countries. The treatment period for participants will be 18 months.

Exercise Challenge Study (DUNE Study)

In November 2022, we initiated a Phase 2 Exercise Challenge Study (DUNE), to investigate the effect of EDG-5506 on muscle injury biomarkers following exercise in individuals with LGMD2I, Becker and McArdle disease at a single site in Denmark. Dune is fully enrolled with the aim of bringing further insights into how EDG-5506 can potentially be used to treat other individuals with severe muscle diseases such as LGMD2I and McArdle disease.

Phase 2 Open-Label Extension in Becker (MESA)

In November 2023, we initiated our MESA Phase 2 open-label extension that will assess the long-term effect of EDG-5506 on safety, biomarkers and functional measures in adults and adolescents with Becker. MESA will provide continued access to EDG-5506 treatment to participants who were previously enrolled in ARCH, CANYON, GRAND CANYON and DUNE.

Phase 2 Clinical Trials in Duchenne (LYNX and FOX Studies)

In October 2023, we announced the expansion of our EDG-5506 program in Duchenne. The LYNX trial in children with Duchenne rapidly enrolled at 14 sites across the United States, with the first three cohorts over-enrolled.  Based on the safety profile observed to date, we added additional cohorts to continue dose escalation of EDG-5506.  LYNX is designed to identify a dose of EDG-5506 that will reduce biomarkers of muscle damage and has the potential to provide functional benefit to patients in a Phase 3 trial. Additionally, we added a new cohort to LYNX to include children aged four to seven years with Duchenne who are not currently treated with corticosteroids. Patients within the LYNX trial are initially dosed in placebo controlled cohorts over 12 weeks, then continue on to the open label portion of the trial for an additional 21 months.

We initiated the FOX trial, a new Phase 2 placebo-controlled trial in children and adolescents with Duchenne who have been previously treated with gene therapy. The FOX trial will assess the effect of EDG-5506 over 12 weeks on safety, PK and biomarkers of muscle damage. The trial will also explore changes in functional measures, such as the NSAA and self-reported/caregiver-reported outcomes. Approximately 24 participants, aged six to 14 years, are expected to be enrolled in the trial at multiple sites across the United States. Participants will then continue in an open-label extension portion of the trial for a total of 56 weeks to gain further insights into safety, PK, function and biomarker measures.

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Natural History Study

In 2022, we commenced an observational natural history study being conducted in collaboration with the GRASP-LGMD Consortium.

EDG-7500: A Novel Molecule for the Treatment of Patients with HCM and Other Diseases of Diastolic Dysfunction with Significant Unmet Needs

Overview

In the course of our EDG-003 cardiometabolic discovery program, a unique series of cardiac modulators with novel mechanisms of action have been identified. One of these agents, the small molecule EDG-7500, has unique properties that may lead to a novel therapeutic approach for patients with HCM. The effects of EDG-7500 on cardiac function overlap with some of the desirable attributes of the cardiac myosin inhibitors (CMIs) such as BMS’s CAMZYOS® (mavacamten) and Cytokinetics’ CK-274 (aficamten). However, there are differences in EDG-7500’s effects on cardiac function from those of CMIs that we believe have the potential to yield a potentially superior target product profile for the treatment of multiple phenotypes of HCM and may also have therapeutic benefit in sub-populations of patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF).

Disease Background and Current Treatment Limitations

HCM is the most common form of genetic heart disease, affecting approximately one in 200-500 individuals. HCM is caused by abnormal proteins in the heart, including cardiac myosin, that lead to excessive cardiac contraction. Estimates suggest there are as many as 630,000 people in the United States suffering from different forms of HCM. Over time, abnormal proteins in the heart, many of which are inherited, lead to excessive cardiac contraction, referred to as hypercontractility. This disruption in cardiac muscle contractility leads to increased stress and thickening of the walls of the major pumping chamber of the heart, the left ventricle (LV). The LV becomes less compliant and therefore less able to fill with and pump blood. This results in a decrease in the LV chamber volume. HCM patients can become extremely limited in their functional capacity and ability to perform the activities of daily living. They may also have episodic lightheadedness and loss of consciousness (syncope). In addition, these patients are at increased risk of heart failure, stroke, atrial fibrillation, and sudden cardiac arrest.

HCM can be divided into patients with obstructive disease, known as obstructive HCM (oHCM) and those with non-obstructive disease (nHCM). The pathophysiologic feature of obstruction is present in two thirds of patients with HCM, as the mitral valve comes into contact with the thickened muscle of the interventricular septum during the ejection of oxygenated blood from the heart to the systemic circulation. This creates an obstruction to blood flow exiting the heart through the LV outflow tract (LVOT) which results in a pressure gradient between the LV cavity and the systemic circulation. As a result, higher pressures are generated in the left ventricle than normal, and a pressure gradient develops between the LV cavity and the systemic circulation. This pressure gradient can be quantitatively measured by a routine clinical examination using Doppler echocardiography, the most common way oHCM is diagnosed and severity assessed. Patients with nHCM do not develop LVOT obstruction and have normal left ventricular pressures during contraction. They are characterized by the absence of a pressure gradient both at rest and following a variety of physiologic challenges, such as exertion, and non-physiologic maneuvers. Heart failure in nHCM results from diminished filling of the heart due to impaired myocardial relaxation that results from abnormal function of the same proteins that cause hypercontractility. This abnormal cardiac physiology, termed diastolic dysfunction leads to a decrease in cardiac output that is particularly severe when an HCM patient exerts themselves. oHCM patients also have LV diastolic dysfunction in addition to obstruction of blood flow in the LVOT. The clinical manifestations of oHCM and nHCM are generally similar though oHCM patients may experience more symptoms of lightheadedness and syncope.

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Abnormalities in Heart Muscle Structure and Function Lead to Severe Abnormalities in HCM

Graphic

Current Management of HCM

To determine the appropriate treatment approach, physicians use the New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional classification system to classify both obstructive and non-obstructive HCM patients into one of four categories; NYHA Class I-IV (least to most severe symptoms, respectively). The NYHA classification system is based on the degree of disease impact to the patient’s physical activity and is used to guide the physician’s choice of therapy. The majority of diagnosed HCM patients are symptomatic and are classified as NYHA class II-IV which requires active treatment. NYHA class I HCM patients generally do not require therapeutic intervention unless they meet established guideline criteria placing them at a high risk of sudden cardiac death, in which case implantation of a cardiac defibrillator may be advised. Class I HCM patients are generally under physician surveillance consisting of annual follow-up visits with their cardiologist.

Current pharmaceutical treatment is intended to decrease hypercontractility and improve diastolic filling in both oHCM and nHCM and to reduce LVOT obstruction in oHCM patients in order to achieve meaningful symptom relief. Non-vasodilating beta blockers and non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers, drugs that are indicated for broader cardiovascular disorders and do not address the underlying cause of the disease, are the first-line therapies for symptomatic oHCM and nHCM patients. Commonly prescribed beta-blockers are atenolol, propranolol, and metoprolol. Verapamil and diltiazem are calcium channel blockers used in the treatment of symptomatic oHCM and nHCM. For oHCM patients who remain symptomatic, a sodium channel blocker may also be added, typically disopyramide.

In April 2022, the FDA approved CAMZYOS (mavacamten), a CMI, for the treatment of adults with symptomatic New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class II-III oHCM to improve functional capacity and symptoms. Despite CAMZYOS efficacy, there are still limitations of this approach including a narrow therapeutic index, long terminal half-life (seven to nine days) and limited ability to rescue excessive pharmacology if it develops. As oHCM or nHCM progresses, patients have limited treatment options often requiring surgical or other invasive interventions including heart transplant.

Unmet Need in HCM

CMIs have complex pharmacology which results in potentially excessive reduction in cardiac function. CMIs largely only address excessive contractility, which can limit their efficacy in a disease where both contractility and diastolic function are abnormal. These factors lead CMIs to be difficult to dose to an efficacious maintenance dose. These factors lead to patients requiring frequent and indefinite follow-up at expert centers accompanied by specialized cardiac imaging. In addition, a significant percentage of oHCM patients do not respond to CMI and other therapies. The

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efficacy of CMIs in patients with nHCM, who have impaired relaxation and diastolic dysfunction, also remains unproven.

Limited Efficacy of Current Therapeutic Approaches to Treat oHCM

Graphic

Our Approach

EDG-7500 is a novel small molecule discovered by our company’s scientific research efforts. Unlike CMIs, EDG-7500 does not bind to the myosin motor head but instead exerts its effects independently of myosin through direct interaction with a distinct sarcomeric protein. EDG-7500 was purposefully designed to modulate the complex protein-protein interactions that control both contraction and relaxation processes within the sarcomere. Specifically, EDG-7500 is designed to speed the rate of crossbridge detachment and slows the rate of crossbridge attachment leading to the reduction of excessive residual cross-bridges during diastole, potentially enhancing relaxation and facilitating ventricular filling.

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In preclinical models, EDG-7500 has demonstrated improvement in a variety of the clinical manifestations in oHCM and nHCM. A summary table of key preclinical studies is shown below.

Summary of Key Preclinical Studies with EDG-7500

Graphic

EDG-7500: MYBPC3 A31P Feline Model of oHCM

To evaluate the role of EDG-7500 in oHCM, we used an established feline model with a MYBPC3 A31P mutation. Felines with this mutation exhibit a HCM phenotype with LVOT obstruction. Treating MYBPC3 A31P felines with dobutamine induces a significant LVOT pressure gradient. Subsequent treatment with a single 1 mg/kg dose of EDG-7500 resulted in LVOT gradient relief and improved contractility. All treated animals saw their LVOT gradient reduced below the level of veterinary clinical significance with an average reduction of >60% following a single, 1 mg/kg dose.

EDG-7500 Improves Contractility and Alleviates LVOT Gradient

Graphic

We next evaluated gradient reduction relative to EDG-7500 free fraction concentration in the feline model of oHCM by increasing exposures using doses ranging from 0.3 – 4.0 mg/kg. Treatment with EDG-7500 is associated with a modest effect on contractility with free drug levels of ~55 to 140 ng/mL, a range in which reduction of LVOT gradient below clinical significance was observed. To the best of our knowledge, the ability to remove a substantial portion of the

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gradient at levels that preserve normal systolic function is a feature that has not been observed before for an HCM drug. This data suggests the mechanism of gradient removal is decoupled from changes in LVEF. We have also observed that there is only a modest reduction in systolic contractility even at doses that are multiple folds higher than the predicted target dose.

Relationship of EDG-7500 Free Fraction Concentration and LVOT Gradient Relief

Graphic

EDG-7500: Myosin Heavy Chain R403Q Porcine Model of nHCM

To evaluate the role of EDG-7500 in nHCM, we used an established, genetically engineered porcine model with an MYH7 R403Q HCM mutation. The MYH7 R403Q pigs exhibit cardiac structural and functional abnormalities, including left ventricular hypertrophy, small cavity, and increased filling pressure leading to increased left atrial size, which are consistent with the nHCM phenotype observed in humans.

In the MYH7 R403Q porcine model of nHCM, EDG-7500 was observed to reduce hypercontractility to near wild type levels. Next, we evaluated EDG-7500’s effect on parameters of diastolic dysfunction. EDG-7500 led to an improvement in left ventricular filling and a reduction in left atrial size, both consistent with reduced filling pressures in the heart. Single doses of EDG-7500 also led to a dramatic, statistically significant improvement in diastolic relaxation, a decrease in left ventricular wall thickness at end-diastole, a measure of diastolic crossbridge engagement, and a reduction in left atrial size, a surrogate of chronic LV filling pressure.

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EDG-7500 Leads to Rapid Improvement of nHCM Cardiac Structure and Function After a Single Dose

Graphic

In summary, we have observed that EDG-7500 is a first-in-class cardiac sarcomeric protein modulator that targets the underlying pathophysiology of HCM. Preclinical data in models of both obstructed and non-obstructed HCM suggest the ability to drive a broadly effective clinical response at a low risk of decreasing left ventricular ejection fraction below normal at all doses tested. Due to EDG-7500’s self-limiting mechanism on systolic contraction, we plan to investigate fixed-dose regimens of EDG-7500 thus potentially eliminating the echo-mediated dose titration and intense follow-up requirements of current therapies.

As part of our IND-enabling work, we are completing the toxicity and safety pharmacology profile of EDG-7500 in standard GLP safety pharmacology studies, and in non-GLP exploratory and dose range studies.

EDG-7500 Phase 1 Clinical Plan

In September 2023, we announced initial dosing in a Phase 1 trial of EDG-7500 which is assessing the tolerability, PK, and pharmacodynamics of EDG-7500 in healthy adults. The Company is also planning to begin a Phase 2 trial of EDG-7500 in individuals with obstructive HCM in the first half of 2024.

Manufacturing

We currently do not own or operate any manufacturing facilities. We rely and expect to continue to rely for the foreseeable future, on third-party contract development and manufacturing organizations (CDMOs) to produce our product candidates for preclinical and clinical testing, as well as for commercial manufacture if our product candidates receive marketing approval. Our CDMOs are obligated to produce bulk drug substances and finished drug products in accordance with current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs) and all other applicable laws and regulations. We maintain agreements with our manufacturers that include confidentiality and intellectual property provisions to protect our proprietary rights related to our product candidates.

We have engaged CDMOs to manufacture EDG-5506 and EDG-7500 for preclinical and clinical use. All of our product candidates are small molecules and are manufactured in synthetic processes from readily available starting materials. Our chemistry is a convergent synthesis of under five steps and fourteen steps for EDG-5506 and EDG-7500 respectively, and appears amenable to scale up and does not currently require unusual equipment in the manufacturing process. We obtain our supplies from these CDMOs on a purchase order basis and do not have a long-term supply arrangement in place. We do not currently have arrangements in place for redundant supply. For all of our product

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candidates, we intend to identify and qualify additional manufacturers to provide the active pharmaceutical ingredient and fill-and-finish services prior to seeking regulatory approval.

Sales and Marketing

If any of our product candidates are approved, we currently intend to market and commercialize them in the United States and select international markets, either alone or in collaboration with others.

Competition

EDG-5506

Approximately 70% of patients with Duchenne are treated with corticosteroids to manage the inflammatory component of the disease. EMFLAZA (deflazacort) is an FDA-approved corticosteroid marketed by PTC Therapeutics, Inc. and prednisone is also FDA-approved and is marketed by multiple companies. In March 2022, Santhera Pharmaceuticals in collaboration with ReveraGen Biopharma, commenced the new drug application (NDA) filing as a rolling submission for vamorolone, a steroid therapy for Duchenne. In October 2023, the FDA granted Agamree (vomorolone) approval in Duchenne patients 2 years and older and Catalyst Pharmaceuticals, Inc. will be commercializing this product in the US following its North America exclusive license deal with Santhera. In addition, there are four FDA conditionally approved exon skipping drugs: EXONDYS 51 (eteplirsen), AMONDYS 45 (casimersen) and VYONDYS 53 (golodirsen), which are naked PMOs approved for the treatment of Duchenne patients amenable to Exon 51, Exon 45 and Exon 53 skipping, respectively, and are marketed by Sarepta Therapeutics, Inc., and VILTEPSO (vitolarsen), a naked PMO approved for the treatment of Duchenne patients amenable to Exon 53 skipping, which is marketed by Nippon Shinyaku Co. Ltd. In June 2022, PTC Therapeutics presented new topline results with Translarna (ataluren) for patients with nonsense mutation Duchenne, a subset of the disease that impacts between 10% and 15% of patients. It remains unclear if the data will lead to FDA approval of Translarna, for which the company plans to engage with the FDA and submit an NDA in the future. Translarna has been conditionally approved in the European Union and Brazil for ambulatory patients aged 2 years and older with Duchenne resulting from a nonsense mutation in the dystrophin gene. However, in January 2024, the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) of the EMA delivered a negative opinion on the re-examination procedure for the conditional marketing authorization of Translarna. This is expected to result in the withdrawal of Translarna from the EMA markets. In June 2023, the FDA approved Sarepta’s Biologics License Application seeking accelerated approval of their microdystrophin gene therapy, Elevidys (delandistrogene moxeparvovec), for the treatment of ambulant individuals with Duchenne. In September 2023, Sarepta released the topline data from the Elevidys confirmatory study that missed its primary endpoint of NSAA change from baseline vs. placebo. Despite the miss on the primary endpoint, Sarepta filed for sBLA in December 2023 seeking label expansion for Elevidys without restrictions on age or ambulation status. Other companies focused on developing genetic based therapies for Duchenne that target dystrophin mechanisms include Pfizer Inc., Solid Biosciences Inc., Genethon, PepGen, Dyne Therapeutics, Avidity Biosciences, REGENXBIO, and Entrada Therapeutics. Gene editing treatments that are in preclinical development are also being pursued by Vertex and Sarepta Therapeutics. We are also aware of several companies targeting non-dystrophin mechanisms for the treatment of Duchenne. In June 2022, Italfarmaco announced positive topline data from its completed Phase 3 trial with Givinostat, a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, in boys with Duchenne. Italfarmico has filed for an NDA for Duchenne and has a PDUFA date of March 21, 2024. Moreover, in June 2021, Italfarmaco released top line Phase 2 data for Givinostat in Becker. Givinostat did not show a significant difference in the primary endpoint compared to placebo. The future of this program in Becker is uncertain.

EDG-7500

Current pharmaceutical treatment is intended to improve diastolic filling in both oHCM and nHCM and reduce LVOT in oHCM patients only. The goal of current therapies is to achieve meaningful symptom relief. Non-vasodilating beta blockers and non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers are the first-line therapies for symptomatic oHCM and nHCM patients. Commonly prescribed beta-blockers are atenolol, propranolol, and metoprolol. Verapamil and diltiazem are calcium channel blockers used in the treatment of symptomatic oHCM and nHCM. For oHCM patients who remain

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symptomatic, a sodium channel blocker with negative ionotropic drug properties may also be added, typically disopyramide (either Pfizer’s Norpace, marketed by Pfizer, or a generic form marketed by several companies).

In the field of targeted precision medicines intended to address the molecular underpinnings of HCM, competitors include Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS), LianBio, Cytokinetics, Imbria Pharmaceuticals, and Celltrion. BMS markets Camzyos (mavacamten), a CMI intended for the treatment of adults with symptomatic NYHA class II-III oHCM. In April 2023, LianBio announced positive topline results from the Phase 3 EXPLORER-CN trial investigating mavacamten for the treatment of Chinese patients with symptomatic oHCM. To date, Camzyos (mavacamten) has secured marketing approvals in the US, Europe, and other countries across five continents. Cytokinetics is also developing a CMI, aficamten (CK-274), for which topline Phase 3 oHCM trial results were recently reported in December 2023. In June 2023, Cytokinetics initiated another Phase 3 active-comparator clinical trial of aficamten compared to metoprolol in symptomatic oHCM patients. BMS and Cytokinetics are also exploring their respective CMIs in ongoing Phase 3 nHCM clinical trials. Cytokinetics and BMS are also developing next generation CMIs for the treatment of symptomatic HCM, CK-271 and MYK-224, respectively. A Phase 2 oHCM clinical trial of MYK-224 is currently ongoing.

Non-CMI targeting drugs in development include IMB-101(Imbria Pharmaceuticals), a free fatty acid receptor antagonist, CT-G20 (Celltrion), an anti-arrhythmic cibenzoline succinate, and trientine dihydrochloride (Univar Solutions), a selective copper II chelator. In November 2023, Imbria announced Phase 2 nHCM topline results of IMB-101. We have limited knowledge of CT-G20’s Phase 1 oHCM trial status, while the trientine Phase 2 oHCM clinical trial is ongoing. A gene therapy approach, TN-201, a myosin binding protein C3-targeting gene therapy candidate being developed by Tenaya Therapeutics for genetic HCM, is currently in Phase 1b. We are aware of several preclinical HCM programs including: JN-210, a microRNA activating gene therapy approach being developed by Jaan Biotherapeutics; HTX-001, an antisense oligonucleotide approach being developed by Haya Therapeutics; CDR348T and CDR641L, both are non-coding RNA-based therapies being developed by Cardior Pharmaceuticals. We are also aware of several early-stage preclinical HCM assets being developed by DiNAQOR in collaboration with BioMarin Pharmaceuticals (BMN-293/DINA-001) and Lexeo Therapeutics (LX2022), both are gene therapy approaches for genetic HCM.

Intellectual Property

Our commercial success depends in part on our ability to obtain and maintain proprietary or intellectual property protection for our drug candidates, technology and know-how, to operate without infringing the proprietary or intellectual property rights of others and to prevent others from infringing our proprietary or intellectual property rights. We expect that we will seek to protect our proprietary and intellectual property position by, among other methods, pursuing and obtaining patent protection in the United States and in jurisdictions outside of the United States related to our proprietary technology, inventions, improvements and drug candidates that are important to the development and implementation of our business. We also rely on trade secrets, know-how, trademarks, continuing technological innovation and licensing opportunities to develop and maintain our proprietary and intellectual property position.

We currently, and expect that we will continue to, own or in-license patents and patent applications related to our key drug candidates. We own patents and patent applications that cover compositions of matter, methods of treating diseases such as Duchenne, Becker, LGMD and muscle spasticity disorders and combination therapies. As of February 4, 2024, we own a patent portfolio consisting of 16 patent families. We own 3 issued U.S. patents, 2 issued European patents, 3 issued Japanese patents, 1 issued Indian patent, 2 issued South African patents, 2 issued Singaporean patents, 2 issued Hong Kong patents, 11 pending non-provisional U.S. patent applications, 3 pending PCT applications and 39 pending foreign applications filed in 15 different countries and regions including Europe, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Eurasia, Israel, India, Japan, South Korea, Mexico, New Zealand, Singapore, South Africa, and Hong Kong. We own one issued U.S., one European, one South African, one Hong Kong and one Japanese patent that covers compositions of matter of EDG-5506 and methods of treatment using EDG-5506 that are expected to expire in 2039, excluding any patent term extensions. We own one PCT patent application that covers composition of matter of EDG-7500 and methods of treatment using EDG-7500. For our drug candidates, we generally pursue multilayered patent protection covering compositions of matter, methods of use and methods of manufacture. We also intend to pursue patent protection, if available, with respect to biomarkers that may be useful in selecting a patient population for use of

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our drug candidates. We intend to strengthen the patent protection of our drug candidates and technologies through additional patent application filings.

The term of individual patents depends upon the legal term for patents in the countries in which they are granted. In most countries in which we file, the patent term is generally 20 years from the earliest date of filing a non-provisional patent application. In the United States, the patent term may, in certain cases, be lengthened by patent term adjustment, which compensates a patentee for administrative delays by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) in examining and granting a patent or may be shortened if a patent is terminally disclaimed over a commonly owned patent or a patent naming a common inventor and having an earlier expiration date. Additionally, the Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984 (the Hatch-Waxman Act) permits patent term extension of up to five years beyond the expiration date of a U.S. patent as partial compensation for the length of time a drug is under regulatory review while a patent that covers the drug is in force. The length of the patent term extension is related to the length of time the drug is under regulatory review. Patent term extension cannot extend the remaining term of a patent beyond a total of 14 years from the date of product approval, only one patent applicable to each regulatory review period may be extended and only those claims covering the approved drug, a method for using it or a method for manufacturing it may be extended.

Similar provisions are available in the European Union and certain other foreign jurisdictions to extend the term of a patent that covers an approved drug. In the future, if and when our drug candidates receive approval by the FDA or foreign regulatory authorities, we expect to apply for patent term extensions on issued patents covering those products, if available. However, there is no guarantee that the applicable authorities, including the FDA in the United States, will agree with our assessment of whether such extensions should be granted, and, if granted, the length of such extensions. For more information regarding the risks related to our intellectual property, see the section titled “Risk Factors — Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property.” Expiration dates referred to above are without regard to potential patent term extension or other market exclusivity that may be available to us.

In addition to patent protection, we also rely on trade secrets, know-how, trademarks, other proprietary information and continuing technological innovation to develop and maintain our competitive position. We seek to protect and maintain the confidentiality of proprietary information to protect aspects of our business that are not amenable to, or that we do not consider appropriate for, patent protection. Although we take steps to protect our proprietary information and trade secrets, including through contractual means with our employees and consultants, third parties may independently develop substantially equivalent proprietary information and techniques or otherwise gain access to our trade secrets or disclose our technology. Thus, we may not be able to meaningfully protect our trade secrets. It is our policy to require our employees, consultants, outside scientific collaborators, sponsored researchers and other advisors to execute confidentiality agreements upon the commencement of employment or consulting relationships with us. These agreements provide that all confidential information concerning our business or financial affairs developed or made known to the individual during the course of the individual’s relationship with us is to be kept confidential and not disclosed to third parties except in specific circumstances. Our agreements with employees also provide that all inventions conceived by the employee in the course of employment with us or from the employee’s use of our confidential information are our exclusive property. However, such confidentiality agreements and invention assignment agreements can be breached, and we may not have adequate remedies for any such breach. For more information regarding the risks related to our intellectual property, see the section titled “Risk Factors — Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property.”

The patent positions of biotechnology companies like ours are generally uncertain and involve complex legal, scientific and factual questions. Our commercial success will also depend in part on not infringing upon the proprietary rights of third parties. It is uncertain whether the issuance of any third-party patent would require us to alter our development or commercial strategies, alter our drugs or processes, obtain licenses or cease certain activities. Our breach of any license agreements or our failure to obtain a license to proprietary rights required to develop or commercialize our future products may have a material adverse impact on us. If third parties prepare and file patent applications in the United States that also claim technology to which we have rights, we may have to participate in interference or derivation proceedings in the USPTO to determine priority of invention. For more information, see the section titled “Risk Factors — Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property.”

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Third Party Agreements

2020 Terminated License Agreement with The Ohio State Innovation Foundation

We exclusively licensed intellectual property from The Ohio State Innovation Foundation (OSIF) in a license agreement that was made effective November 20, 2020. Under the license agreement, we were granted an exclusive worldwide license to develop and commercialize products covered by the OSIF licensed intellectual property for the treatment, prevention or palliation of muscular dystrophies and disorders. We were obligated to make payments to OSIF aggregating up to $1.3 million per product covered by the OSIF licensed patent rights upon the achievement of specified development and regulatory approval milestones and approximately $2.3 million per product covered by the OSIF licensed patent rights upon the achievement of specified sales milestones. We were also obligated to pay low single-digit royalties to OSIF based on net sales by us and our affiliates and sublicensees of each product covered by the OSIF licensed patent rights. In addition, in the event we sublicensed the OSIF licensed patent rights, we were obligated to pay OSIF a specified portion of income we receive from sublicensing. On July 27, 2023, we provided notice to OSIF to terminate the license agreement because the licensed technology is no longer relevant to the Company’s business. The license agreement was terminated, effective October 25, 2023, and as a result we no longer have any payment obligations to OSIF. As of December 31, 2023, the Company has paid $0.7 million for license fees and milestones achieved in connection with the license agreement.

Government Regulations

Government authorities in the United States, at the federal, state, and local level, and other countries extensively regulate, among other things, the research, development, nonclinical and clinical testing, manufacture, quality control, approval, labeling, packaging, storage, record-keeping, promotion, advertising, distribution, post-approval monitoring and reporting, marketing, and export and import of products such as those we are developing. Generally, before a new drug can be marketed, considerable data must be generated, which demonstrate the drug’s quality, safety, and efficacy. Such data must then be organized into a format specific for each regulatory authority, submitted for review and approved by the regulatory authority.

U.S. Drug Development Process

In the United States, the FDA regulates drugs under the federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FDCA), and its implementing regulations. The process of obtaining regulatory approvals and the subsequent compliance with appropriate federal, state, local and foreign statutes and regulations require the expenditure of substantial time and financial resources. Failure to comply with the applicable U.S. requirements at any time during the product development process, the approval process or after approval may subject an applicant to administrative or judicial sanctions. These sanctions could include the FDA’s refusal to approve pending applications, withdrawal of an approval, a clinical hold, warning letters, product recalls, product seizures, total or partial suspension of production or distribution, injunctions, fines, refusals of government contracts, restitution, disgorgement, or civil or criminal penalties. Any agency or judicial enforcement action could have a material adverse effect on us.

The process required by the FDA before a drug may be marketed in the United States generally involves the following:

completion of nonclinical laboratory tests, animal studies, and formulation studies in accordance with FDA’s good laboratory practice requirements and other applicable regulations;
submission to the FDA of an IND application, which must become effective before human clinical trials may begin;
approval by an independent institutional review board (IRB) ethics committee, either centralized or with respect to each clinical site, before each clinical trial may be initiated;

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performance of adequate and well-controlled human clinical trials in accordance with good clinical practice (GCP) requirements to establish the safety and efficacy of the proposed drug for its intended use;
submission to the FDA of a New Drug Application (NDA) after completion of all pivotal trials;
determination by the FDA within 60 days of its receipt of an NDA to accept the filing for substantive review;
satisfactory completion of an FDA advisory committee review, if applicable;
Our royalty obligations of an FDA inspection of the manufacturing facility or facilities at which the drug is produced to assess compliance with cGMP requirements to ensure that the facilities, methods and controls are adequate to preserve the drug’s identity, strength, quality, and purity, and of selected clinical investigation sites to assess compliance with GCPs; and
FDA review and approval of the NDA to permit commercial marketing of the product for particular indications for use in the United States.

Prior to beginning the first clinical trial with a product candidate in the United States, we must submit an IND to the FDA. An IND is a request for authorization from the FDA to administer an investigational new drug product to humans. The central focus of an IND submission is on the general investigational plan and the protocol(s) for clinical studies. The IND also includes results of animal and in vitro studies assessing the toxicology, PK, pharmacology, and pharmacodynamic characteristics of the product; chemistry, manufacturing, and controls information; and any available human data or literature to support the use of the investigational product. An IND must become effective before human clinical trials may begin. The IND automatically becomes effective 30 days after receipt by the FDA, unless the FDA, within the 30-day time period, raises safety concerns or questions about the proposed clinical trial. In such a case, the IND may be placed on clinical hold and the IND sponsor and the FDA must resolve any outstanding concerns or questions before the clinical trial can begin. Submission of an IND therefore may or may not result in FDA authorization to begin a clinical trial.

Clinical trials involve the administration of the investigational product to human subjects under the supervision of qualified investigators in accordance with GCPs, which include the requirement that all research subjects provide their informed consent for their participation in any clinical trial. Clinical trials are conducted under protocols detailing, among other things, the objectives of the study, the parameters to be used in monitoring safety and the effectiveness criteria to be evaluated. A separate submission to the existing IND must be made for each successive clinical trial conducted during product development and for any subsequent protocol amendments. Furthermore, an independent IRB for each site proposing to conduct the clinical trial must review and approve the plan for any clinical trial and its informed consent form before the clinical trial begins at that site and must monitor the study until completed. Regulatory authorities, the IRB or the sponsor may suspend a clinical trial at any time on various grounds, including a finding that the subjects are being exposed to an unacceptable health risk or that the clinical trial is unlikely to meet its stated objectives. Some trials also include oversight by an independent group of qualified experts organized by the clinical trial sponsor, known as a data safety monitoring board, which may review data and endpoints at designated check points, make recommendations and/or halt the clinical trial if it determines that there is an unacceptable safety risk for subjects or other grounds, such as no demonstration of efficacy. There are also requirements governing the reporting of ongoing clinical studies and clinical trial results to public registries.

Human clinical trials are typically conducted in three sequential phases that may overlap or be combined:

Phase 1: The product candidate is initially introduced into healthy human subjects or patients with the target disease or condition. These studies are designed to test the safety, dosage tolerance, absorption, metabolism, and distribution of the investigational product in humans, the side effects associated with increasing doses, and, if possible, to gain early evidence on effectiveness. In the case of some products for severe or life-threatening diseases, especially when the product may be too inherently toxic to ethically administer to HVs, the initial human testing is often conducted in patients.

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Phase 2: The product candidate is administered to a limited patient population with a specified disease or condition to evaluate the preliminary efficacy, optimal dosages, and dosing schedule and to identify possible adverse side effects and safety risks. Multiple Phase 2 clinical trials may be conducted to obtain information prior to beginning larger and more expensive Phase 3 clinical trials.
Phase 3: The product candidate is administered to an expanded patient population to further evaluate dosage, to provide statistically significant evidence of clinical efficacy and to further test for safety, generally at multiple geographically dispersed clinical trial sites. These clinical trials are intended to establish the overall risk/benefit ratio of the investigational product and to provide an adequate basis for product approval.

Post-approval clinical trials, sometimes referred to as Phase 4 studies, may be conducted after initial marketing approval. These clinical trials are used to gain additional experience from the treatment of patients in the intended therapeutic indication. In certain instances, the FDA may mandate the performance of Phase 4 clinical trials as a condition of approval of an NDA.

The FDA or the sponsor may suspend a clinical trial at any time on various grounds, including a finding that the research subjects or patients are being exposed to an unacceptable health risk. Similarly, an IRB can suspend or terminate approval of a clinical trial at its institution if the clinical trial is not being conducted in accordance with the IRB’s requirements or if the drug has been associated with unexpected serious harm to patients. In addition, some clinical trials are overseen by an independent group of qualified experts organized by the sponsor, known as a data safety monitoring board or committee. Depending on its charter, this group may determine whether a clinical trial may move forward at designated check points based on access to certain data from the clinical trial.

During the development of a new drug, sponsors are given opportunities to meet with the FDA at certain points. These points may be prior to submission of an IND, at the end of Phase 2, and before an NDA is submitted. Meetings at other times may be requested. These meetings can provide an opportunity for the sponsor to share information about the data gathered to date, for the FDA to provide advice, and for the sponsor and the FDA to reach agreement on the next phase of development. Sponsors typically use the meetings at the end of the Phase 2 clinical trial to discuss Phase 2 clinical results and present plans for the pivotal Phase 3 clinical trials that they believe will support approval of the new drug.

Phase I, Phase II, and Phase III clinical testing may not be completed successfully within a specified period, if any all, and there can be no assurance that the data collected will support FDA approval of a product candidate. Concurrent with clinical trials, companies usually complete additional animal studies and must also develop additional information about the chemistry and physical characteristics of the drug and finalize a process for manufacturing the product in commercial quantities in accordance with cGMP requirements. The manufacturing process must be capable of consistently producing quality batches of the product candidate and, among other things, the manufacturer must develop methods for testing the identity, strength, quality, and purity of the final drug. In addition, appropriate packaging must be selected and tested, and stability studies must be conducted to demonstrate that the product candidate does not undergo unacceptable deterioration over its shelf life.

While the IND is active and before approval, progress reports summarizing the results of the clinical trials and nonclinical studies performed since the last progress report must be submitted at least annually to the FDA, and written IND safety reports must be submitted to the FDA and investigators for serious and unexpected suspected adverse events, findings from other studies suggesting a significant risk to humans exposed to the same or similar drugs, findings from animal or in vitro testing suggesting a significant risk to humans, and any clinically important increased incidence of a serious suspected adverse reaction compared to that listed in the protocol or investigator brochure.

NDA Review and Approval Process

Assuming successful completion of all required testing in accordance with all applicable regulatory requirements, the results of product development nonclinical studies and clinical trials, along with descriptions of the manufacturing process, analytical tests conducted on the chemistry of the drug, proposed labeling and other relevant information are

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submitted to the FDA as part of an NDA requesting approval to market the product. The submission of an NDA is subject to the payment of substantial user fees; a waiver of such fees may be obtained under certain limited circumstances. Additionally, no user fees are assessed on NDAs for products designated as orphan drugs, unless the product also includes a non-orphan indication.

The FDA reviews an NDA to determine, among other things, whether a product is safe and effective for its intended use and whether its manufacturing is cGMP-compliant to assure and preserve the product’s identity, strength, quality, and purity. Under the Prescription Drug User Fee Act (PDUFA), guidelines that are currently in effect, the FDA has a goal of ten months from the date of “filing” of a standard NDA for a new molecular entity to review and act on the submission. This review typically takes 12 months from the date the NDA is submitted to FDA because the FDA has approximately two months to make a “filing” decision after the application is submitted. The FDA conducts a preliminary review of all NDAs within the first 60 days after submission, before accepting them for filing, to determine whether they are sufficiently complete to permit substantive review. The FDA may request additional information rather than accept an NDA for filing. In this event, the NDA must be resubmitted with the additional information. The resubmitted application is also subject to review before the FDA accepts it for filing.

The FDA may refer an application for a novel drug to an advisory committee. An advisory committee is a panel of independent experts, including clinicians and other scientific experts, that reviews, evaluates and provides a recommendation as to whether the application should be approved and under what conditions. The FDA is not bound by the recommendations of an advisory committee, but it considers such recommendations carefully when making decisions.

Before approving an NDA, the FDA will typically inspect the facility or facilities where the product is manufactured. The FDA will not approve an application unless it determines that the manufacturing processes and facilities are in compliance with cGMP and adequate to assure consistent production of the product within required specifications. Additionally, before approving an NDA, the FDA will typically inspect one or more clinical sites to assure compliance with GCPs. If the FDA determines that the application, manufacturing process, or manufacturing facilities are not acceptable, it will outline the deficiencies in the submission and often will request additional testing or information. Notwithstanding the submission of any requested additional information, the FDA ultimately may decide that the application does not satisfy the regulatory criteria for approval.

After the FDA evaluates an NDA, it will issue an approval letter or a Complete Response Letter. An approval letter authorizes commercial marketing of the drug with prescribing information for specific indications. A Complete Response Letter indicates that the review cycle of the application is complete, and the application will not be approved in its present form. A Complete Response Letter usually describes the specific deficiencies in the NDA identified by the FDA and may require additional clinical data, such as an additional pivotal Phase 3 clinical trial or other significant and time-consuming requirements related to clinical trials, nonclinical studies, or manufacturing. If a Complete Response Letter is issued, the sponsor must resubmit the NDA, addressing all of the deficiencies identified in the letter, or withdraw the application. Even if such data and information are submitted, the FDA may decide that the NDA does not satisfy the criteria for approval.

If regulatory approval of a product is granted, such approval will be granted for particular indications and may entail limitations on the indicated uses for which such product may be marketed. For example, the FDA may approve the NDA with a risk evaluation and mitigation strategy (REMS) to ensure the benefits of the product outweigh its risks. A REMS is a safety strategy to manage a known or potential serious risk associated with a medicine and to enable patients to have continued access to such medicines by managing their safe use. It could include medication guides, physician communication plans, or elements to assure safe use, such as restricted distribution methods, patient registries, and other risk minimization tools. The FDA also may offer accelerated approval with postmarketing confirmatory trial requirements or approvals subject to other postmarketing requirements, including among other things, changes to proposed labeling or the development of adequate controls and specifications. Once approved, the FDA may withdraw the product approval if compliance with pre- and post-marketing requirements is not maintained or if problems occur after the product reaches the marketplace. The FDA may also require one or more Phase 4 post-market studies and surveillance to further assess and monitor the product’s safety and effectiveness after commercialization and may limit further marketing of the product based on the results of these post-marketing studies. In addition, new government

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requirements, including those resulting from new legislation, may be established, or the FDA’s policies may change, which could impact the timeline for regulatory approval or otherwise impact ongoing development programs.

Expedited Development and Review Programs

The FDA has a fast-track designation program that is intended to expedite or facilitate the process for reviewing new drug products that meet certain criteria. Specifically, new drugs are eligible for fast-track designation if they are intended to treat a serious or life-threatening disease or condition and demonstrate the potential to address unmet medical needs for the disease or condition. With regard to a fast-track product, the FDA may consider for review sections of the NDA on a rolling basis before the complete application is submitted, if the sponsor provides a schedule for the submission of the sections of the NDA, the FDA agrees to accept sections of the NDA and determines that the schedule is acceptable, and the sponsor pays any required user fees upon submission of the first section of the NDA.

Any product submitted to the FDA for approval, including a product with a fast-track designation, may also be eligible for other types of FDA programs intended to expedite development and review, such as priority review and accelerated approval. A product is eligible for priority review if it has the potential to provide safe and effective therapy where no satisfactory alternative therapy exists or a significant improvement in the treatment, diagnosis, or prevention of a disease compared to marketed products. The FDA will attempt to direct additional resources to the evaluation of an application for a new drug designated for priority review in an effort to facilitate the review. The FDA endeavors to review applications with priority review designations within six months of the filing date as compared to ten months for review of new molecular entity NDAs under its current PDUFA review goals.

In addition, a product may be eligible for accelerated approval. Drug products intended to treat serious or life-threatening diseases or conditions may be eligible for accelerated approval upon a determination that the product has an effect on a surrogate endpoint that is reasonably likely to predict clinical benefit, or on a clinical endpoint that can be measured earlier than irreversible morbidity or mortality, that is reasonably likely to predict an effect on irreversible morbidity or mortality or other clinical benefit, taking into account the severity, rarity, or prevalence of the condition and the availability or lack of alternative treatments. As a condition of approval, the FDA may require that a sponsor of a drug receiving accelerated approval perform adequate and well-controlled post-marketing clinical trials. In addition, the FDA currently requires pre-approval of promotional materials as a condition for accelerated approval, which could adversely impact the timing of the commercial launch of the product.

The Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act established a category of drugs referred to as “breakthrough therapies” that may be eligible to receive breakthrough therapy designation. A sponsor may seek FDA designation of a product candidate as a “breakthrough therapy” if the product is intended, alone or in combination with one or more other products, to treat a serious or life-threatening disease or condition and preliminary clinical evidence indicates that the product may demonstrate substantial improvement over existing therapies on one or more clinically significant endpoints, such as substantial treatment effects observed early in clinical development. The designation includes all of the fast-track program features, as well as more intensive FDA interaction and guidance. The breakthrough therapy designation is a distinct status from both accelerated approval and priority review, which can also be granted to the same drug if relevant criteria are met. If a product is designated as breakthrough therapy, the FDA will work to expedite the development and review of such drug. The Food and Drug Omnibus Reform Act (FDORA) made several changes to the FDA’s authorities and its regulatory framework, including, among other changes, reforms to the accelerated approval pathway, such as requiring the FDA to specify conditions for post-approval study requirements and setting forth procedures for the FDA to withdraw a product on an expedited basis for non-compliance with post-approval requirements.

Fast track designation, priority review, accelerated approval, and breakthrough therapy designation do not change the standards for approval, but may expedite the development or approval process. Even if a product qualifies for one or more of these programs, the FDA may later decide that the product no longer meets the conditions for qualification or decide that the time period for FDA review or approval will not be shortened. We may explore some of these opportunities for our product candidates as appropriate.

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Orphan Drugs

Under the Orphan Drug Act, the FDA may grant ODD, to a drug or biologic intended to treat a rare disease or condition, defined as a disease or condition with either a patient population of fewer than 200,000 individuals in the United States, or a patient population greater of than 200,000 individuals in the United States when there is no reasonable expectation that the cost of developing and making available the drug or biologic in the United States will be recovered from sales in the United States of that drug or biologic. ODD must be requested before submitting a NDA. After the FDA grants ODD, the generic identity of the therapeutic agent and its potential orphan use are disclosed publicly by the FDA.

If a product that has received ODD and subsequently receives the first FDA approval for a particular active ingredient for the disease for which it has such designation, the product is entitled to orphan product exclusivity, which means that the FDA may not approve any other applications, including a full NDA, to market the same biologic for the same indication for seven years from the approval of the NDA, except in limited circumstances, such as a showing of clinical superiority to the product with orphan drug exclusivity or if the FDA finds that the holder of the orphan drug exclusivity has not shown that it can assure the availability of sufficient quantities of the orphan drug to meet the needs of patients with the disease or condition for which the drug was designated. Orphan drug exclusivity does not prevent the FDA from approving a different drug or biologic for the same disease or condition, or the same drug or biologic for a different disease or condition. Among the other benefits of ODD are tax credits for certain research and a waiver of the NDA application user fee.

A designated orphan drug may not receive orphan drug exclusivity if it is approved for a use that is broader than the indication for which it received ODD. In addition, orphan drug exclusive marketing rights in the United States may be lost if the FDA later determines that the request for designation was materially defective or if the manufacturer is unable to assure sufficient quantities of the product to meet the needs of patients with the rare disease or condition. In view of the court decision in Catalyst Pharms., Inc. v. Becerra, 14 F.4th 1299 (11th Cir. 2021), in January 2023, the FDA published a notice in the Federal Register to clarify that while the agency complies with the court’s order in Catalyst, FDA intends to continue to apply its longstanding interpretation of the regulations to matters outside of the scope of the Catalyst order – that is, the agency will continue tying the scope of orphan-drug exclusivity to the uses or indications for which a drug is approved, which permits other sponsors to obtain approval of a drug for new uses or indications within the same orphan designated disease or condition that have not yet been approved. It is unclear how future litigation, legislation, agency decisions, and administrative actions will impact the scope of the orphan drug exclusivity.

Post-Approval Requirements

Any products manufactured or distributed by us pursuant to FDA approvals are subject to pervasive and continuing regulation by the FDA, including, among other things, requirements relating to record-keeping, reporting of adverse experiences, periodic reporting, product sampling and distribution, and advertising and promotion of the product. After approval, most changes to the approved product, such as adding new indications or other labeling claims, are subject to prior FDA review and approval. There are continuing, annual program fees for any marketed products. Drug manufacturers and their subcontractors are required to register their establishments with the FDA and certain state agencies and are subject to periodic unannounced inspections by the FDA and certain state agencies for compliance with cGMP, which impose certain procedural and documentation requirements upon us and our third-party manufacturers. Changes to the manufacturing process are strictly regulated, and, depending on the significance of the change, may require prior FDA approval before being implemented. FDA regulations also require investigation and correction of any deviations from cGMP and impose reporting requirements upon us and any third-party manufacturers that we may decide to use. Accordingly, manufacturers must continue to expend time, money, and effort in the area of production and quality control to maintain compliance with cGMP and other aspects of regulatory compliance.

The FDA may withdraw approval if compliance with regulatory requirements and standards is not maintained or if problems occur after the product reaches the market. Later discovery of previously unknown problems with a product, including adverse events of unanticipated severity or frequency, or with manufacturing processes, or failure to comply with regulatory requirements, may result in revisions to the approved labeling to add new safety information; imposition

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of post-market studies or clinical studies to assess new safety risks; or imposition of distribution restrictions or other restrictions under a REMS program. Other potential consequences include, among other things:

restrictions on the marketing or manufacturing of the product, complete withdrawal of the product from the market or product recalls;
fines, warning letters, or untitled letters;
clinical holds on post-approval or Phase IV clinical studies, if applicable;
refusal of the FDA to approve pending applications or supplements to approved applications, or suspension or revocation of product license approvals;
product seizure or detention, or refusal to permit the import or export of products;
consent decrees, corporate integrity agreements, debarment, or exclusion from federal healthcare programs;
mandated modification of promotional materials and labeling and the issuance of corrective information;
the issuance of safety alerts, Dear Healthcare Provider letters, press releases, and other communications containing warnings or other safety information about the product; or
injunctions or the imposition of civil or criminal penalties.

The FDA closely regulates the marketing, labeling, advertising, and promotion of drug products. A company can make only those claims relating to safety and efficacy that are approved by the FDA and in accordance with the provisions of the approved label. The FDA and other agencies actively enforce the laws and regulations prohibiting the promotion of off-label uses. Failure to comply with these requirements can result in, among other things, adverse publicity, warning letters, corrective advertising, and potential civil and criminal penalties. Physicians may prescribe, in their independent professional medical judgment, legally available products for uses that are not described in the product’s labeling and that differ from those tested by us and approved by the FDA. Physicians may believe that such off-label uses are the best treatment for many patients in varied circumstances. The FDA does not regulate the behavior of physicians in their choice of treatments. The FDA does, however, restrict manufacturer’s communications on the subject of off-label use of their products. The federal government has levied large civil and criminal fines against companies for alleged improper promotion of off-label use and has enjoined companies from engaging in off-label promotion. The FDA and other regulatory agencies have also required that companies enter into consent decrees or permanent injunctions under which specified promotional conduct is changed or curtailed. However, companies may share truthful and not misleading information that is otherwise consistent with a product’s FDA-approved labelling.

U.S. Patent-Term Restoration and Marketing Exclusivity

Depending upon the timing, duration and specifics of FDA approval of any future product candidates, some of our U.S. patents may be eligible for limited patent term extension under the Hatch-Waxman Act. The Hatch-Waxman Act permits restoration of the patent term of up to five years as compensation for patent term lost during product development and FDA regulatory review process. Patent-term restoration, however, cannot extend the remaining term of a patent beyond a total of 14 years from the product’s approval date. The patent-term restoration period is generally one-half the time between the effective date of an IND or the issue date of the patent, whichever is later, and the submission date of an NDA plus the time between the submission date of an NDA or the issue date of the patent, whichever is later, and the approval of that application, except that the review period is reduced by any time during which the applicant failed to exercise due diligence. Only one patent applicable to an approved drug is eligible for the extension and the application for the extension must be submitted prior to the expiration of the patent. The USPTO, in consultation with the FDA, reviews and approves the application for any patent term extension or restoration. In the future, we may apply

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for restoration of patent term for our currently owned or licensed patents to add patent life beyond its current expiration date, depending on the expected length of the clinical trials and other factors involved in the filing of the relevant NDA.

Market exclusivity provisions under the FDCA also can delay the submission or the approval of certain applications. The FDCA provides a five-year period of non-patent marketing exclusivity within the United States to the first applicant to gain approval of a NDA for a new chemical entity. A drug is a new chemical entity if the FDA has not previously approved any other new drug containing the same active moiety, which is the molecule or ion responsible for the action of the drug substance. During the exclusivity period, the FDA may not accept for review an abbreviated new drug application (ANDA), or a 505(b)(2) NDA submitted by another company for a generic version of such drug where the applicant does not own or have a legal right of reference to all the data required for approval. However, an application may be submitted after four years if it contains a certification of patent invalidity or non-infringement. The FDCA also provides three years of marketing exclusivity for a NDA, 505(b)(2) NDA or supplement to an existing NDA if new clinical investigations, other than bioavailability studies, that were conducted or sponsored by the applicant are deemed by the FDA to be essential to the approval of the application, for example, new indications, dosages or strengths of an existing drug. This three-year exclusivity covers only the conditions of use associated with the new clinical investigations and does not prohibit the FDA from approving ANDAs for drugs containing the original active agent. Five-year and three-year exclusivity will not delay the submission or approval of a full NDA. However, an applicant submitting a full NDA would be required to conduct or obtain a right of reference to all of the preclinical studies and adequate and well-controlled clinical trials necessary to demonstrate safety and effectiveness or generate such data themselves.

Pediatric exclusivity is another type of marketing exclusivity available in the United States and provides for an additional six months of marketing exclusivity attached to another period of exclusivity if a sponsor conducts clinical trials in children in response to a written request from the FDA. The issuance of a written request does not require the sponsor to undertake the described clinical trials.

Other U.S. Regulatory Matters

Pharmaceutical manufacturers are subject to additional healthcare laws, regulation, and enforcement by the federal government and by authorities in the states and foreign jurisdictions in which they conduct their business. Such laws include, without limitation, U.S. federal anti-kickback, anti-self-referral, false claims, transparency, including the federal Physician Payments Sunshine Act, consumer fraud, pricing reporting, data privacy, data protection, and security laws and regulations, including the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), as well as similar foreign laws in the jurisdictions outside the U.S. Similar state and local laws and regulations may also restrict business practices in the pharmaceutical industry, such as state anti-kickback and false claims laws, which may apply to business practices, including but not limited to, research, distribution, sales, and marketing arrangements and claims involving healthcare items or services reimbursed by nongovernmental third-party payors, including private insurers, or by patients themselves; state laws that require pharmaceutical companies to comply with the pharmaceutical industry’s voluntary compliance guidelines and the relevant compliance guidance promulgated by the federal government, or otherwise restrict payments that may be made to healthcare providers and other potential referral sources; state laws and regulations that require drug manufacturers to file reports relating to pricing and marketing information; state and local laws which require the tracking of gifts and other remuneration and any transfer of value provided to physicians, other healthcare providers and entities; and state and local laws that require the registration of pharmaceutical sales representatives; and state and local laws governing the privacy and security of health information in some circumstances, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and often are not preempted by HIPAA, thus complicating compliance efforts.

These laws and regulations are subject to change, which can increase the resources needed for compliance and delay drug approval or commercialization. Any action brought against us for violations of these laws or regulations, even successfully defended, could cause us to incur significant legal expenses and divert our management’s attention from the operation of our business. Also, we may be subject to private “qui tam” actions brought by individual whistleblowers on behalf of the federal or state governments. Actual or alleged violation of any such laws or regulations may lead to investigations and other claims and proceedings by regulatory authorities and in certain cases, private actors, and violation of any of such laws or any other governmental regulations that apply may result in penalties, including, without

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limitation, significant administrative, civil and criminal penalties, damages, fines, disgorgement, imprisonment, additional reporting obligations, and oversight if we become subject to a corporate integrity agreement or other agreement to resolve allegations of non-compliance with these laws, the curtailment or restructuring of operations, exclusion from participation in government healthcare programs and imprisonment.

Coverage and Reimbursement

Sales of any pharmaceutical product depend, in part, on the extent to which such product will be covered by third-party payors, such as federal, state, and foreign government healthcare programs, commercial insurance, and managed healthcare organizations, and the level of reimbursement for such product by third-party payors. Significant uncertainty exists as to the coverage and reimbursement status of any newly approved product. Decisions regarding the extent of coverage and amount of reimbursement to be provided are made on a plan-by-plan basis. One third-party payor’s decision to cover a particular product does not ensure that other payors will also provide coverage for the product. As a result, the coverage determination process can require manufacturers to provide scientific details, information on cost-effectiveness, and clinical support for the use of a product to each payor separately. This can be a time-consuming process, with no assurance that coverage and adequate reimbursement will be applied consistently or obtained in the first instance. In addition, third-party payors are increasingly reducing reimbursements for pharmaceutical products and related services. The U.S. government and state legislatures have continued implementing cost-containment programs, including price controls, restrictions on coverage and reimbursement and requirements for substitution of generic products. Third-party payors are increasingly challenging the prices charged, examining the medical necessity and reviewing the cost effectiveness of pharmaceutical products, in addition to questioning their safety and efficacy. Adoption of price controls and cost-containment measures, and adoption of more restrictive policies in jurisdictions with existing controls and measures, could further limit sales of any product. Decreases in third-party reimbursement for any product or a decision by a third-party payor not to cover a product could reduce physician usage and patient demand for the product.

In international markets, reimbursement and healthcare payment systems vary significantly by country, and many countries have instituted price ceilings on specific products and therapies. For example, the European Union provides options for its member states to restrict the range of medicinal products for which their national health insurance systems provide reimbursement and to control the prices of medicinal products for human use. A member state may approve a specific price for the medicinal product, or it may instead adopt a system of direct or indirect controls on the profitability of the company placing the medicinal product on the market. Pharmaceutical products may face competition from lower-priced products in foreign countries that have placed price controls on pharmaceutical products and may also compete with imported foreign products. Furthermore, there is no assurance that a product will be considered medically reasonable and necessary for a specific indication, that it will be considered cost-effective by third-party payors, that an adequate level of reimbursement will be established even if coverage is available, or that the third-party payors’ reimbursement policies will not adversely affect the ability for manufacturers to sell products profitably.

Healthcare Reform

In the United States and certain foreign jurisdictions, there have been, and we expect there will continue to be, a number of legislative and regulatory changes to the healthcare system. In March 2010, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively, the ACA), was signed into law, which substantially changed the way healthcare is financed by both governmental and private insurers in the United States. By way of example, the ACA increased the minimum level of Medicaid rebates payable by manufacturers of brand name drugs from 15.1% to 23.1%; it required collection of rebates for drugs paid by Medicaid managed care organizations; imposed a non-deductible annual fee on pharmaceutical manufacturers or importers who sell certain “branded prescription drugs” to specified federal government programs; it implemented a new methodology under which rebates owed by manufacturers under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program are calculated for drugs that are inhaled, infused, instilled, implanted, or injected; it expanded the eligibility criteria for Medicaid programs; it created a new Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute to oversee, identify priorities in, and conduct comparative clinical effectiveness research, along with funding for such research; and it established a Center for Medicare Innovation at the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), to test innovative payment and service delivery models to lower Medicare and Medicaid spending, potentially including prescription drug spending. Since its enactment, there have been

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executive, judicial and congressional challenges to certain aspects of the ACA, and we expect there will be additional challenges and amendments to the ACA in the future.

The ACA continues to significantly impact the United States’ pharmaceutical industry. Since its enactment, there have been judicial and congressional challenges to certain aspects of the ACA. In June 2021, the United States Supreme Court held that Texas and other challengers had no legal standing to challenge the ACA, dismissing the case without specifically ruling on the constitutionality of the ACA. Accordingly, the ACA remains in effect in its current form. It is unclear how future litigation or healthcare measures promulgated by the Biden administration will impact our business, financial condition and results of operations. Complying with any new legislation or changes in healthcare regulation could be time-intensive and expensive, resulting in a material adverse effect on our business.

Other legislative changes have been proposed and adopted since the ACA was enacted. These changes include aggregate reductions to Medicare payments to providers of up to 2% per fiscal year, effective April 1, 2013, which will stay in effect through 2032, unless additional congressional action is taken. Moreover, there has recently been heightened governmental scrutiny over the manner in which manufacturers set prices for their marketed products, which has resulted in several congressional inquiries and proposed and enacted legislation designed, among other things, to bring more transparency to product pricing, to review the relationship between pricing and manufacturer patient programs, and to reform government program reimbursement methodologies for pharmaceutical products. For example, under the American Rescue Plan Act of 2021, Medicaid statutory rebates are no longer capped at 100% of the average manufacturer price. Elimination of this cap may require pharmaceutical manufacturers to pay more in rebates than it receives on the sale of products, which could have a material impact on our business. In August 2022, Congress passed the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022, which includes prescription drug provisions that have significant implications for the pharmaceutical industry and Medicare beneficiaries, including allowing the federal government to negotiate a maximum fair price for certain high-priced single source Medicare drugs, imposing penalties and excise tax for manufacturers that fail to comply with the drug price negotiation requirements, requiring inflation rebates for all Medicare Part B and Part D drugs, with limited exceptions, if their drug prices increase faster than inflation, and redesigning Medicare Part D to reduce out-of-pocket prescription drug costs for beneficiaries, among other changes. The impact of these legislative, executive, and administrative actions and any future healthcare measures and agency rules implemented by the Biden administration on us and the pharmaceutical industry as a whole is unclear. Various industry stakeholders have initiated lawsuits against the federal government asserting that the price negotiation provisions of the Inflation Reduction Act are unconstitutional. The impact of these judicial challenges and future regulations, healthcare measures and agency rules by the government on us and the pharmaceutical industry as a whole is currently unknown. The implementation of cost containment measures or other healthcare reforms may prevent us from being able to generate revenue, attain profitability, or commercialize our product candidates if approved. Complying with any new legislation and regulatory changes could be time-intensive and expensive, resulting in a material adverse effect on our business. At the state level, legislatures have increasingly passed legislation and implemented regulations designed to control pharmaceutical and biological product pricing, including price or patient reimbursement constraints, discounts, restrictions on certain product access and marketing cost disclosure and transparency measures, and, in some cases, designed to encourage importation from other countries and bulk purchasing. For example, a number of states are considering or have recently enacted state drug price transparency and reporting laws that could substantially increase our compliance burdens and expose us to greater liability under such state laws once we begin commercialization after obtaining regulatory approval for any of our products. FDA recently authorized the state of Florida to import certain prescription drugs from Canada for a period of two years to help reduce drug costs, provided that Florida’s Agency for Health Care Administration meets the requirements set forth by the FDA. Other states may follow Florida. We expect that additional state and federal healthcare reform measures will be adopted in the future, any of which could limit the amounts that federal and state governments will pay for healthcare products and services, which could affect the prices we may obtain for any of our product candidates for which we may obtain regulatory approval or the frequency with which any such product candidate, if approved, is prescribed or used.

It is possible that additional governmental action may be taken to address the COVID-19 pandemic. Furthermore, there has been increased interest by third party payors and governmental authorities in reference to pricing systems and publication of discounts and list prices.

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Foreign Regulation

In addition to regulations in the United States, we will be subject to a variety of foreign regulations governing clinical trials and commercial sales and distribution of our product candidates to the extent we choose to develop or sell any product candidates outside of the United States. The approval process varies from country to country and the time may be longer or shorter than that required to obtain FDA approval. The requirements governing the conduct of clinical trials, regulatory approval for our products, pricing and reimbursement vary greatly from country to country.

European Union Drug Development

Similar to the United States, the various phases of preclinical and clinical research in the European Union are subject to significant regulatory controls. Although the European Union (EU) Clinical Trials Directive 2001/20/EC has sought to harmonize the EU clinical trials regulatory framework, setting out common rules for the control and authorization of clinical trials in the EU, the EU Member States have transposed and applied the provisions of the directive differently. This has led to significant variations in the member state regimes. Under the current regime, before a clinical trial can be initiated, it must be approved in each of the EU countries where the trial is to be conducted by two distinct bodies: The National Competent Authority (NCA), and one or more Ethics Committees (ECs). Under the current regime all suspected unexpected serious adverse reactions to the investigated drug that occur during the clinical trial have to be reported to the NCA and ECs of the Member State where they occurred. The EU clinical trials legislation currently is undergoing a transition process mainly aimed at harmonizing and streamlining clinical-trial authorization, simplifying adverse-event reporting procedures, improving the supervision of clinical trials and increasing their transparency. The Clinical Trials Regulation EU No 536/2014 which replaced the Clinical Trials Directive entered into application on January 31, 2022, is intended to simplify the current rules for clinical trial authorization and standards of performance. For instance, there will be a streamlined application procedure via a single-entry point, a European Union portal and database.

European Union Drug Review and Approval

In the European Economic Area (EEA), which is comprised of the 27 Member States of the European Union and three European Free Trade Association States (Iceland, Liechtenstein, and Norway), medicinal products can only be commercialized after obtaining a Marketing Authorization (MA). There are two types of marketing authorizations.

The Community MA is issued by the European Commission through the Centralized Procedure, based on the opinion of the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) of the EMA, and is valid throughout the entire territory of the EEA. The Centralized Procedure is mandatory for certain types of products, such as biotechnology medicinal products, orphan medicinal products, advanced-therapy medicines such as gene therapy, somatic cell-therapy or tissue-engineered medicines and medicinal products containing a new active substance indicated for the treatment of HIV, AIDS, cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, diabetes, autoimmune and other immune dysfunctions and viral diseases. The Centralized Procedure is optional for products containing a new active substance not yet authorized in the EEA, or for products that constitute a significant therapeutic, scientific or technical innovation or which are in the interest of public health in the EU.
National MAs, which are issued by the competent authorities of the Member States of the EEA and only cover their respective territory, are available for products not falling within the mandatory scope of the Centralized Procedure. Where a product has already been authorized for marketing in a Member State of the EEA, this National MA can be recognized in another Member States through the Mutual Recognition Procedure. If the product has not received a National MA in any Member State at the time of application, it can be approved simultaneously in various Member States through the Decentralized Procedure. Under the Decentralized Procedure an identical dossier is submitted to the competent authorities of each of the Member States in which the MA is sought, one of which is selected by the applicant as the Reference Member State (RMS). The competent authority of the RMS prepares a draft assessment report, a draft summary of the product characteristics (SOPC) and a draft of the labeling and package leaflet, which are sent to the other Member States (referred to as the Member States Concerned) for their approval. If the Member States Concerned raise

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no objections, based on a potential serious risk to public health, to the assessment, SOPC, labeling or packaging proposed by the RMS, the product is subsequently granted a national MA in all the Member States (i.e., in the RMS and the Member States Concerned).

Under the above-described procedures, before granting the MA, EMA or the competent authorities of the Member States of the EEA make an assessment of the risk-benefit balance of the product on the basis of scientific criteria concerning its quality, safety and efficacy. Similar to the U.S. patent term-restoration, Supplementary Protection Certificates (SPCs) serve as an extension to a patent right in Europe for up to five years, subject to certain extension. SPCs apply to specific pharmaceutical products to offset the loss of patent protection due to the lengthy testing and clinical trials these products require prior to obtaining regulatory marketing approval. However, SPCs are not the only EU mechanism offering protection for a drug product beyond the patent expiry date. For example, under the EU exclusivity regime, an innovator company can qualify for eight years of data exclusivity, two years of market exclusivity during which generic companies can prepare and apply for marketing approval but cannot market their generic products, and an additional one year of market exclusivity for a new indication with significant clinical benefit over existing therapies.

In the EEA, marketing authorization applications for new medicinal products not authorized have to include the results of studies conducted in the pediatric population, in compliance with a pediatric investigation plan (PIP) agreed with the EMA’s Pediatric Committee (PDCO). The PIP sets out the timing and measures proposed to generate data to support a pediatric indication of the drug for which marketing authorization is being sought. The PDCO can grant a deferral of the obligation to implement some or all of the measures of the PIP until there are sufficient data to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of the product in adults. Further, the obligation to provide pediatric clinical trial data can be waived by the PDCO when these data is not needed or appropriate because the product is likely to be ineffective or unsafe in children, the disease or condition for which the product is intended occurs only in adult populations, or when the product does not represent a significant therapeutic benefit over existing treatments for pediatric patients. Once the marketing authorization is obtained in all Member States of the EU and study results are included in the product information, even when negative, the product is eligible for six months’ supplementary protection certificate extension.

Employees and Human Capital

As of December 31, 2023, we had 88 full-time employees. Of these employees, 69 are engaged in research or product development and clinical activities. None of our employees are represented by a labor union or covered by a collective bargaining agreement. We consider our relationship with our employees to be good.

Our human capital resources objectives include, as applicable, identifying, recruiting, retaining, incentivizing and integrating our existing and new employees, advisors and consultants. The principal purposes of our equity and cash incentive plans are to attract, retain and reward personnel through the granting of stock-based and cash-based compensation awards, in order to increase stockholder value and the success of our company by motivating such individuals to perform to the best of their abilities and achieve our objectives.

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Corporate Information

We were incorporated in Delaware in May 2017. Our principal executive offices are located at 1715 38th Street, Boulder, Colorado 80301. Our telephone number is (720) 262-7002. Our website address is www.edgewisetx.com. We may use our website, press releases, public conference calls and public webcasts as means of disclosing material nonpublic information and for complying with our disclosure obligations under Regulation FD. Information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website or any website is not incorporated by reference into this Form 10-K and should not be considered to be part of this Form 10-K unless expressly noted.

We may use our website (www.edgewisetx.com), press releases, public conference calls, public webcasts, Twitter and LinkedIn as means of disclosing material non-public information and for complying with our disclosure obligations under Regulation FD. We also make available on or through our website certain reports and amendments to those reports that we file with or furnish to the SEC in accordance with the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (Exchange Act). These include our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, our quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, and our current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act. We make this information available on or through our website free of charge as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file the information with, or furnish it to, the SEC. The SEC also maintains a website that contains our SEC filings. The address for the SEC website is https://www.sec.gov.

We use the Edgewise Therapeutics logo and other marks as trademarks in the United States and other countries. This periodic report contains references to our trademarks and service marks and to those belonging to other entities. Solely for convenience, trademarks and trade names referred to in this periodic report, including logos, artwork and other visual displays, may appear without the TM symbol, but such references are not intended to indicate in any way that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights or the rights of the applicable licensor to these trademarks and trade names. We do not intend our use or display of other entities’ trade names, trademarks or service marks to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, any other entity.

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Item 1A. Risk Factors

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks described below, as well as the other information in this Annual Report and in our other public filings in evaluating our business. The occurrence of any of the events or developments described below could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects. In such an event, the market price of our common stock could decline, and you may lose all or part of your investment. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial also may impair our business operations and the market price of our common stock.

Risk Factors Summary

Investing in shares of our common stock involves a high degree of risk because our business is subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, as fully described below. The principal factors and uncertainties that make investing in shares of our common stock risky include, among others:

We have a limited operating history, some of our product candidates are early in development and we have no products approved for commercial sale.
We have not generated any revenue to date, have incurred significant net losses since our inception, and expect to continue to incur significant net losses for the foreseeable future.
Our ability to generate revenue and achieve profitability depends significantly on our ability to achieve several objectives relating to the discovery, development and commercialization of our product candidates, if approved.
We will require substantial additional capital to finance our operations. If we are unable to raise such capital when needed, or on acceptable terms, we may be forced to delay, reduce and/or eliminate one or more of our research and drug development programs or future commercialization efforts.
Raising additional capital may cause dilution to our stockholders, restrict our operations or require us to relinquish rights to our technologies or product candidates.
We are substantially dependent on the success of our lead product candidate, EDG-5506.
In addition to EDG-5506, our prospects depend in part upon developing and commercializing EDG-7500 and product candidates from our EDG-003 cardiometabolic discovery program and discovering, developing and commercializing product candidates in future programs, which may fail or suffer delays that adversely affect their commercial viability.
Clinical drug development involves a lengthy and expensive process with an uncertain outcome. The clinical trials of our product candidates may not demonstrate safety and efficacy to the satisfaction of the FDA, European Medicines Agency (EMA) or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities or otherwise produce positive results and the results of preclinical studies and early clinical trials may not be predictive of future results.
Our product candidates may cause serious adverse events, toxicities or other undesirable side effects when used alone or in combination with other approved products or investigational new drugs.
The outcome of preclinical testing and early clinical trials may not be predictive of the success of later clinical trials, and the results of our clinical trials may not satisfy the requirements of the FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities.
If we experience delays or difficulties in the enrollment and/or maintenance of patients in clinical trials, our regulatory submissions or receipt of necessary marketing approvals could be delayed or prevented.

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We have limited resources and are currently focusing the majority of our efforts on developing EDG-5506 for particular indications. As a result, we may fail to capitalize on other indications or product candidates that may ultimately have proven to be more profitable.
We face significant competition and if our competitors develop and market technologies or products more rapidly than we do or that are more effective, safer or less expensive than the products we develop, our commercial opportunities will be negatively impacted.
Interim, topline and preliminary data from our clinical trials that we announce or publish may change as more patient data becomes available and are subject to audit and verification procedures that could result in material changes in the final data.
We may not be successful in our efforts to develop a proprietary drug discovery platform to build a pipeline of product candidates.
We may develop EDG-5506 and potentially other programs in combination with other therapies, which would expose us to additional risks.
The manufacture of drugs is complex, and our third-party manufacturers may encounter difficulties in production.
Changes in methods of product candidate manufacturing or formulation may result in additional costs or delay.
Our product candidates may not achieve adequate market acceptance among physicians, patients, healthcare payors and others in the medical community necessary for commercial success.
The patient population suffering from Duchenne, Becker and Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy is small and has not been established with precision.
The regulatory approval processes of the FDA, EMA and other comparable foreign regulatory authorities are lengthy, time consuming and inherently unpredictable.
Our success is highly dependent on our ability to attract and retain highly skilled executive officers and employees.
Our success depends on our ability to protect our intellectual property and our proprietary technologies.
We rely, and expect to continue to rely, on third parties to conduct our clinical trials and those third parties may not perform satisfactorily.
We contract with third parties for the production of our product candidates.
Our reliance on third parties may require us to share our trade secrets, which increases the possibility that a competitor will discover them or that our trade secrets will be misappropriated or disclosed.
If we engage in future acquisitions or strategic partnerships, this may increase our capital requirements, dilute our stockholders, cause us to incur debt or assume contingent liabilities, and subject us to other risks.
Our operations and financial results could be adversely impacted by public health pandemics, such as COVID-19 and other related outbreaks in the United States and the rest of the world.

Risks Related to Our Financial Position, Need for Additional Capital and Limited Operating History

We have a limited operating history, some of our product candidates are early in development and we have no products approved for commercial sale, which may make it difficult for you to evaluate our current business and likelihood of success and future viability.

We are a clinical stage biopharmaceutical company with a limited operating history upon which you can evaluate our business and prospects. We are developing precision medicines for rare neuromuscular diseases which

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is an unproven and highly uncertain undertaking and involves a substantial degree of risk. We commenced operations in 2017, have no products approved for commercial sale and have not generated any revenue. In July 2022, we initiated a Phase 2 clinical trial for our lead product candidate, EDG-5506, and in September 2023, we initiated a Phase 1 clinical trial of our product candidate EDG-7500. We have not yet initiated clinical trials for any other product candidate, including product candidates from our EDG-003 cardiometabolic discovery program. Since our inception in 2017, we have devoted substantially all of our focus and financial resources to discovering, identifying and developing potential product candidates, including advancing our development programs, conducting preclinical studies of our product candidates and initiating clinical trials, organizing and staffing our company, business planning, raising capital and securing related intellectual property rights.

We have not yet demonstrated our ability to obtain marketing approvals, manufacture a commercial-scale product or arrange for a third-party to do so on our behalf, or conduct sales and marketing activities necessary for successful product commercialization. As a result, it may be more difficult for investors to accurately predict our likelihood of success and viability than it could be if we had a longer operating history.

In addition, we may encounter unforeseen expenses, difficulties, complications, delays and other known and unknown factors and risks frequently experienced by clinical-stage biopharmaceutical companies in rapidly evolving fields. We also may need to transition from a company with a research and development focus to a company capable of supporting commercial activities. We have not yet demonstrated an ability to successfully overcome such risks and difficulties, or to make such a transition. If we do not adequately address these risks and difficulties or successfully make such a transition, our business will suffer.

We have not generated any revenue to date, have incurred significant net losses since our inception, and expect to continue to incur significant net losses for the foreseeable future.

We have incurred significant net losses since our inception, have not generated any revenue to date and have financed our operations principally through private placements of our convertible preferred stock and public offerings of our common stock. Our net loss was $100.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2023. As of December 31, 2023, we had an accumulated deficit of $244.8 million. We are advancing EDG-5506 and EDG-7500 in clinical development. Our other programs, including EDG-003, are in preclinical discovery and research stages. As a result, we expect that it will be several years, if ever, before we receive approval to commercialize a product and generate revenue from product sales. Even if we succeed in receiving marketing approval for and commercializing one or more of our approved product candidates, we expect that we will continue to incur substantial research and development and other expenses in order to discover, develop and market additional potential products.

We expect to continue to incur significant expenses and increasing operating losses for the foreseeable future. The net losses we incur may fluctuate significantly from quarter to quarter such that a period-to-period comparison of our results of operations may not be a good indication of our future performance, particularly since we expect our expenses to increase if and when our product candidates progress through clinical development as product candidates in later stages of clinical development generally have higher development costs than those in earlier stages, primarily due to the increased size and duration of later-stage clinical trials. The size of our future net losses will depend, in part, on the rate of future growth of our expenses and our ability to generate revenue. Our prior losses and expected future losses have had and will continue to have an adverse effect on our working capital, our ability to fund the development of our product candidates and our ability to achieve and maintain profitability and the performance of our stock.

Our ability to generate revenue and achieve profitability depends significantly on our ability to achieve several objectives relating to the discovery, development and commercialization of our product candidates, if approved.

Our business depends entirely on the successful discovery, development, regulatory approval and commercialization of product candidates. We have no products approved for commercial sale and do not anticipate generating any revenue from product sales for the next several years, if ever. Our ability to generate revenue and

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achieve profitability depends significantly on our ability, or any future collaborator’s ability, to achieve several objectives, including:

successful and timely completion of preclinical and clinical development of EDG-5506, EDG-7500, and product candidates from our EDG-003 cardiometabolic discovery program and our other future product candidates and programs;
establishing and maintaining relationships with CROs and clinical sites for the clinical development of EDG-5506, EDG-7500, product candidates from our EDG-003 cardiometabolic discovery program and any other future product candidates and programs;
the initiation and successful patient enrollment and completion of additional clinical trials on a timely basis;
acceptable frequency and severity of adverse events in the clinical trials;
the efficacy and safety profiles that are satisfactory to the FDA or any comparable foreign regulatory authority for marketing approval;
timely receipt of marketing approvals from applicable regulatory authorities for any product candidates for which we successfully complete clinical development;
complying with any required post-marketing approval commitments to applicable regulatory authorities;
developing an efficient and scalable manufacturing process for our product candidates;
establishing and maintaining commercially viable supply and manufacturing relationships with third parties that can provide adequate, in both amount and quality, products and services to support clinical development and meet the market demand for our product candidates, if approved;
successful commercial launch following any marketing approval, including the development of a commercial infrastructure, whether in-house or with one or more collaborators;
a continued acceptable safety profile following any marketing approval of our product candidates;
commercial acceptance of our product candidates by patients, the medical community and third-party payors;
timely receipt of reimbursement from applicable authorities for any product candidates for which we successfully receive regulatory approval;
satisfying any required post-marketing approval commitments to applicable regulatory authorities;
identifying, assessing and developing new product candidates;
obtaining, maintaining and expanding patent protection, trade secret protection and regulatory exclusivity, both in the United States and internationally;
protecting our rights in our intellectual property portfolio;
defending against third-party infringement claims, if any;

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entering into, on favorable terms, any collaboration, licensing or other arrangements that may be necessary or desirable to develop, manufacture or commercialize our product candidates;
obtaining coverage and adequate reimbursement by third-party payors for our products and patients’ willingness to pay in the absence of such coverage and adequate reimbursement;
obtaining additional funding to develop and potentially manufacture and commercialize our product candidates;
addressing any competing therapies and technological and market developments;
managing costs, including any unforeseen costs, that we may incur as a result of nonclinical study or clinical trial delays due to COVID-19 or other public health outbreaks or emergencies, inflation or other causes; and
attracting, hiring and retaining qualified personnel, including clinical, scientific, management and administrative personnel.

We may never be successful in achieving our objectives and, even if we do, may never generate revenue that is significant or large enough to achieve profitability. If we do achieve profitability, we may not be able to sustain or increase profitability on a quarterly or annual basis. Our failure to become and remain profitable would decrease the value of our company and could impair our ability to maintain or further our research and development efforts, raise additional necessary capital, grow our business and continue our operations.

We may also experience delays in developing a sustainable, reproducible and scalable manufacturing process or transferring that process to commercial partners, which may prevent us from completing our clinical trials or commercializing our product candidates on a timely or profitable basis, if at all. Changes in the manufacturing process or facilities will require further comparability analysis and approval by the FDA before implementation, which could delay our clinical trials and product candidate development, and could require additional clinical trials, including bridging studies, to demonstrate consistent and continued safety and efficacy.

We will require substantial additional capital to finance our operations. If we are unable to raise such capital when needed, or on acceptable terms, we may be forced to delay, reduce and/or eliminate one or more of our research and drug development programs or future commercialization efforts.

As of December 31, 2023, we had $318.4 million in cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities. We expect our current cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities will be sufficient to fund our current operating plan for at least the next 12 months. We filed on April 1, 2022, a shelf registration statement on Form S-3 with the SEC that became effective on May 5, 2022 and allows us to undertake various equity and debt offerings up to $400,000,000. On September 14, 2022, a prospectus supplement to the shelf registration statement pursuant to which we issued and sold $138.0 million of our common stock. On June 16, 2023, we entered into a Sales Agreement (Sales Agreement) with BofA Securities, Inc. (BofA Securities) under which we may offer and sell shares of common stock, having aggregate sales proceeds of up to $125,000,000 from time to time, through an “at the market offering” program (ATM Program). Effective January 19, 2024, we suspended and terminated the prospectus related to the ATM Program. On January 19, 2024, we filed an amendment to our shelf registration statement on Form S-3MEF with the SEC that increased the limit of our securities offerings by an additional $37,919,578. We then filed a prospectus supplement to the shelf registration statement on the same day pursuant to which we issued and sold $240.0 million of our common stock in the January 2024 Offering which closed on January 23, 2024. Although we do not have any availability under such shelf registration statement, we intend to in the future file a shelf registration statement for additional equity or debt offerings. Our estimate as to how long we expect our existing cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities to be able to continue to fund our operations is based on assumptions that may prove to be wrong, and we could use our available capital resources sooner than we currently expect. Changing circumstances, some of which may be beyond our control, could cause us to consume

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capital significantly faster than we currently anticipate, and we may need to seek additional funds sooner than planned.

Developing pharmaceutical products, including conducting preclinical studies and clinical trials, is a very time-consuming, expensive and uncertain process that takes years to complete. Our operations have consumed substantial amounts of cash since inception, and we expect our expenses to increase in connection with our ongoing activities, particularly as we conduct clinical trials of, and seek marketing approval for, EDG-5506, EDG-7500, product candidates from our EDG-003 cardiometabolic discovery program, as well as develop our proprietary drug discovery platform. Even if one or more of the product candidates that we develop is approved for commercial sale, we anticipate incurring significant costs associated with sales, marketing, manufacturing and distribution activities. Our expenses could increase beyond expectations if we are required by the FDA, the EMA or other regulatory agencies to perform clinical trials or preclinical studies in addition to those that we currently anticipate. Other unanticipated costs may also arise. Because the design and outcome of our planned and anticipated preclinical studies and clinical trials are highly uncertain, we cannot reasonably estimate the actual amount of resources and funding that will be necessary to successfully complete the development and commercialization of any product candidate we develop. We are not permitted to market or promote EDG-5506, EDG-7500, product candidates from our EDG-003 cardiometabolic discovery program or any other product candidate before we receive marketing approval from the FDA. We also expect to incur costs associated with operating as a public company. Our cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities will not be sufficient for us to fund any of our product candidates through regulatory approval, and we will need to raise additional capital to complete the development and commercialization of our products. Accordingly, we will need to obtain substantial additional funding in order to continue our operations.

Our future capital requirements will depend on may factors, including, but not limited to:

the scope, progress, results and costs of researching and developing our product candidates including conducting preclinical studies and clinical trials;
the costs, timing and outcome of regulatory review of our product candidates;
the number and characteristics of other product candidates that we pursue;
the costs of future activities, including product sales, medical affairs, marketing, manufacturing and distribution, for any of our product candidates for which we receive marketing approval;
the costs of manufacturing products of consistent quality and obtaining sufficient inventory to support commercial launch;
the revenue, if any, received from commercial sale of our products, should any of our product candidates receive marketing approval;
the cost and timing of hiring new employees to support our continued growth;
the costs of preparing, filing and prosecuting patent applications, maintaining and enforcing our intellectual property rights and defending intellectual property-related claims;
the effect of competing products that may limit market penetration of our products;
the ability to establish and maintain collaborations on favorable terms, if at all;
the extent to which we acquire or in-license other product candidates and technologies;

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the timing, receipt and amount of sales of, or milestone payments related to or royalties on, our current or future product candidates, if any;
our need to implement additional internal systems and infrastructure, including financial and reporting systems;
the compliance and administrative costs associated with being a public company; and
the extent to which we acquire or invest in businesses, products, or technologies, although we currently have no commitments or agreements relating to any of these types of transactions.

A change in the outcome of any of these or other factors with respect to the development of any of our product candidates could significantly change the costs and timing associated with the development of that product candidate.

We may seek additional capital due to favorable market conditions or strategic considerations even if we believe we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans. In the event that we would need to obtain additional funding, our ability to raise or access capital may be affected by macroeconomic events and disruptions to the U.S. banking and financial sectors. Failures of banks and other financial institutions, such as Silicon Valley Bank in March 2023, or issues in the broader U.S. financial system may impact the broader capital markets, and in turn, may impact our ability to access those markets. Further, a tightening of credit markets and lending standards could it make more difficult for us to raise capital through either debt or equity offerings on commercially reasonable terms or at all.

Attempting to secure additional financing may divert our management from our day-to-day activities, which may adversely affect our ability to develop our product candidates.

Our failure to raise capital as and when needed or on acceptable terms would have a negative impact on our financial condition and our ability to pursue our business strategy, and we may have to delay, reduce the scope of, suspend or eliminate one or more of our research-stage programs, clinical trials or future commercialization efforts.

Raising additional capital may cause dilution to our stockholders, restrict our operations or require us to relinquish rights to our technologies or product candidates.

Until such time, if ever, as we can generate substantial revenues, we will be required to obtain further funding through public or private equity offerings, debt financings, collaborations and licensing arrangements or other sources, which may dilute our stockholders or restrict our operating activities. As summarized in the risk factor entitled, “We will require substantial additional capital to finance our operations. If we are unable to raise such capital when needed, or on acceptable terms, we may be forced to delay, reduce and/or eliminate one or more of our research and drug development programs or future commercialization efforts.”, we have previously raised capital under our shelf registration statement that was filed on April 1, 2022 with the SEC that became effective on May 5, 2022. Although we do not have any availability under such shelf registration statement, we intend to in the future file a shelf registration statement for additional equity or debt offerings.

Adequate additional financing may not be available to us on acceptable terms, or at all. To the extent that we raise additional capital through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, your ownership interest will be diluted, and the terms may include liquidation or other preferences that adversely affect your rights as a stockholder. Debt financing and preferred equity financing, if available, may involve agreements that include covenants limiting or restricting our ability to take specific actions, such as incurring additional debt, making acquisitions, engaging in acquisition, merger or collaboration transactions, selling or licensing our assets, making capital expenditures, redeeming our stock, making certain investments, declaring dividends or encumbering our assets to secure future indebtedness. Such restrictions could adversely impact our ability to conduct our operations and execute our business plan.

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If we raise additional funds through upfront payments or milestone payments pursuant to strategic collaborations, strategic alliances or marketing, distribution, or licensing arrangements with third parties, we may have to relinquish valuable rights to our technologies, future revenue streams, research programs or product candidates or grant licenses on terms that may not be favorable to us. If we are unable to raise additional funds through equity or debt financings when needed, we may be required to delay, limit, reduce or terminate our product development or future commercialization efforts or grant rights to develop and market product candidates that we would otherwise prefer to develop and market ourselves.

Our ability to utilize our net operating loss carryforwards and certain other tax attributes to offset future taxable income may be limited.

Our net operating loss (NOL) carryforwards may be unavailable to offset future taxable income because of restrictions under U.S. tax law. Our NOLs generated in tax years ending on or prior to December 31, 2017 are only permitted to be carried forward for 20 taxable years under applicable U.S. federal tax law, and therefore could expire unused. Under tax legislation commonly referred to as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (Tax Act) as amended by the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (CARES Act), our federal NOLs generated in tax years beginning after December 31, 2017 may be carried forward indefinitely, but for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2020, the deductibility of federal NOLs generated in tax years beginning after December 31, 2017 is limited to 80% of our current year taxable income. Our state NOLs may be subject to similar or different limitations. As of December 31, 2023, we had available federal NOL carryforwards of approximately $109.4 million, of which $108.2 million do not expire, and state NOL carryforwards of approximately $114.3 million, of which $32.8 million do not expire.

In addition, under Sections 382 and 383 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (Code), if a corporation undergoes an “ownership change” (generally defined as a cumulative change in the corporation’s ownership by “5-percent shareholders” that exceeds 50 percentage points over a rolling three-year period), the corporation’s ability to use its pre-change NOLs and certain other pre-change tax attributes to offset its post-change taxable income may be limited. Similar rules may apply under state tax laws. We may have experienced such ownership changes in the past, and we may experience ownership changes in the future as a result of subsequent shifts in our stock ownership, some of which are outside our control. We have not conducted any studies to determine annual limitations, if any, that could result from such changes in the ownership of our stock. Our ability to utilize our NOLs and certain other tax attributes could be limited by an “ownership change” as described above and consequently, we may not be able to utilize a material portion of our NOLs and certain other tax attributes, which could have a material adverse effect on our cash flows and results of operations.

Changes in tax laws could have a material adverse effect on our business, cash flow, results of operations or financial conditions.

We are subject to tax laws, regulations, and policies of several taxing jurisdictions. Changes in tax laws, as well as other factors, could cause us to experience fluctuations in our tax obligations and effective tax rates and otherwise adversely affect our tax positions and/or our tax liabilities. For example, the United States recently enacted the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022, which imposes a 1% non-deductible excise tax on certain stock buybacks and a 15% alternative minimum tax on global adjusted financial statement income. In addition, beginning in 2022, the Tax Act eliminated the option to deduct research and development expenditures currently and requires taxpayers to capitalize and amortize them over five or fifteen years, and this requirement may impact our effective tax rate and our cash tax liability in future years. When and if we achieve profitability, these changes may cause us to pay federal income taxes earlier than under prior law and may increase our total federal tax liability attributable to orphan drug programs and other research and development activities. However, recently proposed tax legislation, if enacted, would restore the ability to deduct currently domestic research and development expenditures through 2025 and would retroactively restore this benefit for 2022 and 2023. Further, many countries, and organizations such as the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development have proposed implementing changes to existing tax laws, including a proposed 15% global minimum tax that has been and is being adopted by several countries, with implementation beginning in 2024. Any of these developments or changes in U.S. federal, state, or international tax laws or tax rulings could adversely affect our

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effective tax rate and our operating results. There can be no assurance that our effective tax rates, tax payments, or tax credits and incentives will not be adversely affected by these or other developments or changes in law.

Market conditions and changing circumstances, some of which may be beyond our control, could impair our ability to access our existing cash, cash equivalents and investments and to timely pay key vendors and others.

Market conditions and changing circumstances, some of which may be beyond our control, could impair our ability to access our existing cash, cash equivalents and investments and to timely pay key vendors and others. For example, on March 10, 2023, Silicon Valley Bank (SVB), where we maintain certain operating accounts, was placed into receivership with the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), which resulted in all funds held at SVB being temporarily inaccessible by SVB’s customers. If other banks and financial institutions with whom we have banking relationships enter receivership or become insolvent in the future, we may be unable to access, and we may lose, some or all of our existing cash, cash equivalents and investments to the extent those funds are not insured or otherwise protected by the FDIC. In addition, in such circumstances we might not be able to timely pay key vendors and others. We regularly maintain cash balances that are not insured or are in excess of the FDIC’s insurance limit. Any delay in our ability to access our cash, cash equivalents and investments (or the loss of some or all of such funds) or to timely pay key vendors and others could have a material adverse effect on our operations and cause us to need to seek additional capital sooner than planned.

Our operations and financial results could be adversely impacted by public health pandemics, such as COVID-19 and other related outbreaks in the United States and the rest of the world.

Disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic impacted our productivity, resulted in increased operational expenses, certain adjustments to the operations of our clinical trial, delays in the enrollment of new patients at our clinical trial site, and delays in certain supply chain activities and collecting and analyzing data from patients in our clinical trial.

To the extent we may experience any disruptions directly or indirectly through our contractors or partners as a result of any ongoing pandemic, outbreaks or other public health emergencies or disruptions, including any resurgence in COVID-19 cases in the future, that could severely impact our business and clinical trials, including:

further delays or difficulties in enrolling and retaining patients in our clinical trials or those conducted by third parties and further incurrence of additional costs as a result of preclinical study and clinical trial delays and adjustments;
challenges related to ongoing and increased operational expenses related to pandemics or public health emergencies or disruptions;
delays or difficulties in clinical site initiation, including difficulties in recruiting clinical site investigators and clinical site staff;
delays, difficulties or increased costs to comply with COVID-19 or other public health related protocols at our leased facilities and clinical sites;
diversion of healthcare resources away from the conduct of clinical trials, including the diversion of hospitals serving as our clinical trial sites and hospital staff supporting the conduct of clinical trials;
interruption of key clinical trial activities, such as clinical trial site monitoring, due to limitations on travel imposed or recommended by federal or state governments, employers and others;
delays in receiving approval from local regulatory authorities to initiate our planned clinical trials;

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delays in preclinical and clinical sites receiving the supplies and materials needed to conduct our clinical trials;
interruption in global shipping that may affect the transport of clinical trial materials, such as investigational drug product used in our clinical trials;
changes in regulations as part of a response to the COVID-19 pandemic or other public health emergencies or disruptions which may require us to change the ways in which our clinical trials are conducted, or to discontinue the clinical trials altogether, or which may result in unexpected costs;
delays in necessary interactions with regulators, ethics committees and other important agencies and contractors due to limitations in employee resources or forced furlough of government or contractor personnel;
refusal of the FDA to accept data from clinical trials in affected geographies outside the United States; and
increased competition for contract research organizations (CROs), suppliers and vendors.

Additionally, certain third parties with whom we engage, including our collaborators, contract organizations, third-party manufacturers, suppliers, clinical trial sites, regulators and other third parties with whom we conduct business may adjust their operations in light of the COVID-19 pandemic or other public health emergencies. If these third parties experience shutdowns or continued business disruptions, our ability to conduct our business in the manner and on the timelines presently planned could be materially and negatively impacted. For example, we experienced delays in trial initiation for our Phase 1 clinical trial of EDG-5506 and switched from an international third-party manufacturer to a third-party manufacturer based in the United States to minimize manufacturing supply chain disruptions as a result of COVID-19. Changing our third-party manufacturer could result in delays in our manufacturing supply chain which could delay or otherwise impact our development of EDG-5506 and result in increased costs related to EDG-5506. Additionally, certain preclinical studies for our discovery research programs are conducted by CROs, which could be discontinued or delayed as a result of the pandemic. We could also experience delays if our suppliers are delayed in delivering raw materials to our third-party manufacturers. For example, we experienced delays in enrolling patients for our Phase 1 clinical trial for EDG-5506. In addition, our clinical trial sites could experience delays in collecting, receiving, and analyzing data from patients enrolled in our clinical trial for EDG-5506 due to limited staff at such sites, limitation or suspension of on-site visits by patients, or patients’ reluctance to visit the clinical trial sites during the pandemic. As a result, research and development expenses and general and administrative expenses may vary significantly if there is an increased impact from COVID-19 or other public health emergencies on the costs and timing associated with the conduct of our clinical trial and other related business activities.

In the event of a resurgence of COVID-19 or other public health emergencies, we could be required to develop and implement additional clinical trial policies and procedures designed to help protect subjects from such diseases. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the FDA has issued various COVID-19 related guidance documents for sponsors and manufacturers, many of which have expired or were withdrawn with the expiration of the COVID-19 public health emergency declaration on May 11, 2023, although some COVID-19 related guidance documents continue in effect.

Any continued and prolonged public health crisis, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, could have a material negative impact on our business, financial condition and operating results.

To the extent the COVID-19 pandemic or other public health emergencies or outbreaks adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results, it may also have the effect of heightening many of the risks described in this “Risk Factors” section.

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Risks Related to the Discovery, Development and Commercialization of Our Product Candidates

We are substantially dependent on the success of our lead product candidate, EDG-5506. If we are unable to complete further development of, obtain approval for and commercialize EDG-5506 for one or more indications in a timely manner, our business will be harmed.

Our future success is dependent on our ability to timely and successfully complete clinical trials, obtain marketing approval for and successfully commercialize EDG-5506, our lead product candidate. We are investing the majority of our efforts and financial resources in the research and development of EDG-5506. EDG-5506 is in advanced clinical trials in patients with Becker, Duchenne, and Limb-Girdle muscular dystrophies as well as McArdle Disease.

EDG-5506 will require additional clinical development, expansion of manufacturing capabilities, marketing approval from government regulators, substantial investment and significant marketing efforts before we can generate any revenues from product sales. We are not permitted to market or promote EDG-5506, or any other product candidate before we receive marketing approval from the FDA and comparable foreign regulatory authorities, and we may never receive such marketing approvals.

The success of EDG-5506 will depend on several factors, including the following:

the successful and timely completion of our ongoing nonclinical studies and clinical trial of EDG-5506;
the initiation and successful patient enrollment and completion of additional clinical trials of EDG-5506 on a timely basis;
maintaining and establishing relationships with CROs and clinical sites for the clinical development of EDG-5506;
the frequency and severity of adverse events in clinical trials;
demonstrating efficacy, safety and tolerability profiles that are satisfactory to the FDA, EMA or any comparable foreign regulatory authority for marketing approval;
the timely receipt of marketing approvals for EDG-5506 from applicable regulatory authorities;
maintaining the ODD and RPDD for EDG-5506;
the extent of any required post-marketing approval commitments to applicable regulatory authorities;
the maintenance of existing or the establishment of new supply arrangements with third-party drug product suppliers and manufacturers for clinical development and, if approved, commercialization of EDG-5506;
obtaining and maintaining patent protection, trade secret protection and regulatory exclusivity, both in the United States and internationally;
protecting our rights in our intellectual property portfolio;
our ability to expand EDG-5506 into multiple indications;
the successful launch of commercial sales following any marketing approval;
a continued acceptable safety profile following any marketing approval;

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the actual market-size, ability to identify patients and the demographics of patients eligible for our product candidates, which may be different than expected;
commercial acceptance by patients, the medical community and third-party payors, particularly since the product candidates we develop may be novel;
our ability to compete or combine with other therapies; and
addressing any delays, necessary adjustments and additional costs in nonclinical study and clinical trials resulting from factors related to the COVID-19 pandemic.

We do not have complete control over many of these factors, including certain aspects of clinical development and the regulatory submission process, potential threats to our intellectual property rights and the manufacturing, marketing, distribution and sales efforts of any future collaborator. If we are not successful with respect to one or more of these factors in a timely manner or at all, we could experience significant delays or an inability to successfully commercialize EDG-5506, which would materially harm our business. If we do not receive marketing approvals for EDG-5506, we may not be able to continue our operations.

In addition to EDG-5506, our prospects depend in part upon developing and commercializing EDG -7500 and product candidates from our EDG-003 cardiometabolic discovery program and discovering, developing and commercializing product candidates in future programs, which may fail or suffer delays that adversely affect their commercial viability.

Our future operating results are dependent on our ability to successfully develop, obtain regulatory approval for and commercialize EDG-7500, product candidates from our research program currently focused on cardiometabolic indications, or EDG-003, and our lead product candidate, EDG-5506. EDG-7500 is currently in a Phase 1 trial. We have paused the development of EDG-5440, having completed IND-enabling studies, given the favorable profile of EDG-5506 to date. However, research and development related to novel therapeutics is inherently risky. A product candidate can unexpectedly fail at any stage of preclinical and/or clinical development. The historical failure rate for product candidates is high due to risks relating to safety, efficacy, clinical execution, changing standards of medical care and other unpredictable variables. The results from preclinical testing or early clinical trials of a product candidate may not be predictive of the results that will be obtained in later stage clinical trials of the product candidate.

The success of other product candidates we may develop will depend on many factors, including the following:

generating sufficient data to support the initiation or continuation of clinical trials;
obtaining regulatory permission to initiate clinical trials;
contracting with the necessary parties to conduct clinical trials;
successful enrollment of patients in, and the completion of, clinical trials on a timely basis;
the timely manufacture of sufficient quantities of a product candidate for use in clinical trials;
adverse events in clinical trials; and
addressing any delays in our research programs resulting from factors related to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Even if we successfully discover and advance any other product candidates into clinical development, their success will be subject to all of the clinical, regulatory and commercial risks described elsewhere in this “Risk Factors” section. Accordingly, we cannot assure you that we will ever be able to discover, develop, obtain regulatory approval of, commercialize, or generate significant revenue from any product candidates.

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Clinical drug development involves a lengthy and expensive process with an uncertain outcome. The clinical trials of our product candidates may not demonstrate safety and efficacy to the satisfaction of the FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities or otherwise produce positive results and the results of preclinical studies and early clinical trials may not be predictive of future results. We may incur additional costs or experience delays in completing, or ultimately be unable to complete, the development and commercialization of our product candidates.

Although we have announced positive results from our preclinical studies and clinical trials, our product candidates’ risk of failure is high and it is impossible to predict when or if EDG-5506, EDG-7500, product candidates from our EDG-003 cardiometabolic discovery program or any other product candidate that we develop will prove effective or safe in humans or will receive marketing approval. Before obtaining marketing approval from the FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities for the sale of our product candidates, we must complete preclinical development and extensive clinical trials to demonstrate with substantial evidence the safety and efficacy of such product candidates.

Clinical testing is expensive, difficult to design and implement, can take many years to complete and its ultimate outcome is uncertain. We cannot guarantee that any of our clinical trials will be conducted as planned or completed on schedule, or at all. Clinical trials can fail at any stage of testing and failure may result from a multitude of factors, including, among other things, flaws in study design, dose selection issues, placebo effects, patient enrollment criteria and failure to demonstrate favorable safety or efficacy traits. The outcome of preclinical studies and early-stage clinical trials may not be predictive of the success of later clinical trials. For example, our product candidates may fail to show the desired safety and efficacy in clinical development despite positive results in preclinical studies or having successfully advanced through initial clinical trials. We may also discover that the half-life of our product candidates renders them unsuitable for the therapeutic applications we have chosen. As a result, we cannot assure you that any clinical trials that we conduct will demonstrate consistent or adequate efficacy and safety to support marketing approval.

Many companies in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries have suffered significant setbacks in late-stage clinical trials even after achieving promising results in preclinical testing and earlier-stage clinical trials, and we cannot be certain that we will not face similar setbacks. Moreover, preclinical and clinical data are often susceptible to varying interpretations and analyses, and many companies that have believed their product candidates performed satisfactorily in preclinical studies and clinical trials have nonetheless failed to obtain marketing approval of their drugs. Furthermore, the failure of any of our product candidates to demonstrate safety and efficacy in any clinical trial could negatively impact the perception of our other product candidates and/or cause the FDA or other regulatory authorities to require additional testing before approving any of our product candidates.

We have experienced delays in completing our ongoing clinical trial and may experience additional delays in initiating or completing additional clinical trials including delays as a result of COVID-19. We may also experience numerous unforeseen events during, or as a result of, clinical trials that could delay or prevent receipt of marketing approval or our ability to commercialize our product candidates, including:

receipt of feedback from regulatory authorities that requires us to modify the design of our clinical trials;
clinical trial observations or results that require us to modify the design of our clinical trials;
negative or inconclusive clinical trial results that may require us to conduct additional clinical trials or abandon certain drug development programs;
obtaining approval from one or more institutional review boards (IRB);
the number of patients required for clinical trials being larger than anticipated, enrollment in these clinical trials being slower than anticipated or participants dropping out of these clinical trials at a higher rate than anticipated;

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any failure or delay in reaching an agreement with CROs and clinical trial sites, the terms of which can be subject to extensive negotiation and may vary significantly among different CROs and trial sites;
the suspension or termination of our clinical trials for various reasons, including non-compliance with regulatory requirements or a finding that our product candidates have undesirable side effects or other unexpected characteristics or risks;
changes to clinical trial protocol;
clinical sites deviating from trial protocol or dropping out of a trial;
the cost of clinical trials of our product candidates being greater than anticipated;
the supply or quality of our product candidates or other materials necessary to conduct clinical trials of our product candidates being insufficient or inadequate;
subjects experiencing severe or unexpected drug-related adverse effects;
selection of clinical end points that require prolonged periods of clinical observation or analysis of the resulting data;
a facility manufacturing our product candidates or any of their components being ordered by the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities to temporarily or permanently shut down due to violations of cGMPs, regulations or other applicable requirements, or infections or cross-contaminations of product candidates in the manufacturing process;
any changes to our manufacturing process that may be necessary or desired;
third-party clinical investigators losing the licenses or permits necessary to perform our clinical trials, not performing our clinical trials on our anticipated schedule or consistent with the clinical trial protocol, good clinical practices (GCP) or other regulatory requirements;
third-party contractors not performing data collection or analysis in a timely or accurate manner;
third-party contractors becoming debarred or suspended or otherwise penalized by the FDA or other government or regulatory authorities for violations of regulatory requirements, in which case we may need to find a substitute contractor, and we may not be able to use some or all of the data produced by such contractors in support of our marketing applications; and
regulators revising the requirements for approving our product candidates.

If we are required to conduct additional clinical trials or other testing of our product candidates beyond those that we currently contemplate, if we are unable to successfully complete clinical trials of our product candidates or other testing in a timely manner, if the results of these trials or tests are not positive or are only modestly positive or if there are safety concerns, we may incur unplanned costs, be delayed in seeking and obtaining marketing approval, if we receive such approval at all, receive more limited or restrictive marketing approval, be subject to additional post-marketing testing requirements or have the drug removed from the market after obtaining marketing approval.

Moreover, in the future, principal investigators for our clinical trials may serve as scientific advisors or consultants to us from time to time and receive compensation in connection with such services. Under certain circumstances, we may be required to report some of these relationships to the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities. The FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authority may conclude that a financial relationship between us and a principal investigator has created a conflict of interest or otherwise affected

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interpretation of the study. The FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authority may therefore question the integrity of the data generated at the applicable clinical trial site and the utility of the clinical trial itself may be jeopardized. This could result in a delay in approval, or rejection, of our marketing applications by the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authority, as the case may be, and may ultimately lead to the denial of marketing approval of one or more of our product candidates.

If we experience delays in the completion of, or termination of, any clinical trial of our product candidates, the commercial prospects of our product candidates will be harmed, and our ability to generate product revenues from any of these product candidates will be delayed. Moreover, our product development costs will also increase if we experience delays in preclinical studies or clinical trials or in obtaining marketing approvals. We do not know whether any of our preclinical studies or clinical trials will begin as planned, will need to be restructured or will be completed on schedule, or at all. We may also determine to change the design or protocol of one or more of our clinical trials, which could result in increased costs and expenses and/or delays. Any delays in completing our clinical trials will increase our costs, slow down our product candidate development and approval process and jeopardize our ability to commence product sales and generate revenues.

In addition, many of the factors that cause, or lead to, termination or suspension of, or a delay in the commencement or completion of, clinical trials may also ultimately lead to the denial of regulatory approval of a product candidate. Any delays to our clinical trials that occur as a result could shorten any period during which we may have the exclusive right to commercialize our product candidates and our competitors may be able to bring products to market before we do, and the commercial viability of our product candidates could be significantly reduced. Any of these occurrences may harm our business, financial condition and prospects significantly.

Our product candidates may cause serious adverse events, toxicities or other undesirable side effects when used alone or in combination with other approved products or investigational new drugs that may result in a safety profile that could prevent regulatory approval, prevent market acceptance, limit their commercial potential or result in significant negative consequences.

We are developing novel biologically active small molecules for muscle related diseases. As a result, there is uncertainty as to the safety profile of product candidates we may develop. In addition, our product candidates may be used in combination with certain other therapies, including corticosteroids, which may have undesirable side effects. If our product candidates are associated with undesirable side effects or have unexpected characteristics in preclinical studies or clinical trials when used alone or in combination with other approved products or investigational new drugs we may need to interrupt, delay or abandon their development or limit development to more narrow uses or subpopulations in which the undesirable side effects or other characteristics are less prevalent, less severe or more acceptable from a risk-benefit perspective. Treatment-related side effects could also affect patient recruitment or the ability of enrolled subjects to complete the trial or result in potential product liability claims. Any of these occurrences may prevent us from achieving or maintaining market acceptance of the affected product candidate and may harm our business, financial condition and prospects significantly.

Patients in our ongoing and planned clinical trials may in the future suffer other adverse events or other side effects not observed in our preclinical studies or previous clinical trials. For example, in the single ascending dose trial for EDG-5506, dose limiting somnolence was observed at the 135 mg level. In addition, in the MAD trial for EDG-5506, the most common adverse events were dizziness and somnolence, all of which were mild and transient. In the Phase 1b clinical trial, the most common adverse event was dizziness, which was mild and transient and was consistent with observations from the ARCH trial of EDG-5506 in adults with Becker. EDG-5506 or other product candidates may be used in pediatric populations for which safety concerns may be particularly scrutinized by regulatory agencies. In addition, if EDG-5506 is studied in combination with other therapies, it may exacerbate adverse events associated with the therapy. Patients treated with EDG-5506 or our other product candidates may also be undergoing other therapies which can cause side effects or adverse events that are unrelated to our product candidate but may still impact the success of our clinical trials. The inclusion of critically ill patients in our clinical trials may result in deaths or other adverse medical events due to other therapies or medications that such patients may be using or due to the gravity of such patients’ illnesses, which could occur either during the course of our clinical trials or after participating in such clinical trials.

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If further serious adverse events or other side effects are observed in any of our current or future clinical trials, we may have difficulty recruiting patients to the clinical trials, patients may drop out of our trials, or we may be required to abandon the trials or our development efforts of that product candidate altogether. We, the FDA, EMA, other comparable regulatory authorities or an IRB may suspend clinical trials of a product candidate at any time for various reasons, including a belief that subjects in such trials are being exposed to unacceptable health risks or adverse side effects. Some potential therapeutics developed in the biotechnology industry that initially showed therapeutic promise in early-stage trials have later been found to cause side effects that prevented their further development. Even if the side effects do not preclude the product candidate from obtaining or maintaining marketing approval, undesirable side effects may inhibit market acceptance due to its tolerability versus other therapies. Any of these developments could materially harm our business, financial condition and prospects. Further, if any of our product candidates obtains marketing approval, toxicities associated with such product candidates previously not seen during clinical testing may also develop after such approval and lead to a requirement to conduct additional clinical safety trials, additional contraindications, warnings and precautions being added to the drug label, significant restrictions on the use of the product or the withdrawal of the product from the market. We cannot predict whether our product candidates will cause toxicities in humans that would preclude or lead to the revocation of regulatory approval based on preclinical studies or early stage clinical trials.

The outcome of preclinical testing and early clinical trials may not be predictive of the success of later clinical trials, and the results of our clinical trials may not satisfy the requirements of the FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities.

We will be required to demonstrate with substantial evidence through well-controlled clinical trials that our product candidates are safe and effective for use in a diverse population before we can seek marketing approvals for their commercial sale. Success in preclinical studies and early-stage clinical trials does not mean that future clinical trials will be successful. Although we have announced positive results from our preclinical studies and clinical trials, we do not know whether EDG-5506 or EDG-7500 will perform in current or future clinical trials as EDG-5506 has performed in preclinical studies or earlier clinical trials, nor do we know whether any product candidate in our EDG-003 cardiometabolic discovery program will perform in current or future preclinical studies or future clinical trials as it has in prior preclinical studies. Product candidates in clinical trials may fail to demonstrate sufficient safety and efficacy to the satisfaction of the FDA, EMA and other comparable foreign regulatory authorities despite having progressed through preclinical studies. Regulatory authorities may also limit the scope of later-stage trials until we have demonstrated satisfactory safety, which could delay regulatory approval, limit the size of the patient population to which we may market our product candidates, or prevent regulatory approval.

In some instances, there can be significant variability in safety and efficacy results between different clinical trials of the same product candidate due to numerous factors, including changes in trial protocols, differences in size and type of the patient populations, differences in and adherence to the dose and dosing regimen and other trial protocols and the rate of dropout among clinical trial participants. Patients treated with our product candidates may also be undergoing other therapies and may be using other approved products or investigational new drugs, which can cause side effects or adverse events that are unrelated to our product candidates. As a result, assessments of efficacy can vary widely for a particular patient, and from patient to patient and site to site within a clinical trial. This subjectivity can increase the uncertainty of, and adversely impact, our clinical trial outcomes.

We do not know whether any clinical trials we may conduct will demonstrate consistent or adequate efficacy and safety sufficient to obtain approval to market any of our product candidates.

If we experience delays or difficulties in the enrollment and/or maintenance of patients in clinical trials, our regulatory submissions or receipt of necessary marketing approvals could be delayed or prevented.

We may not be able to initiate or continue clinical trials for our product candidates if we are unable to locate and enroll a sufficient number of eligible patients to participate in these trials to such trial’s conclusion as required by the FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities. Patient enrollment is a significant factor in

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the timing of clinical trials. Our ability to enroll eligible patients may be limited or may result in slower enrollment than we anticipate.

We completed enrollment of our open-label ARCH trial and DUNE Phase 2 exercise challenge study of EDG-5506 at a single clinical trial site. Our other Phase 2 clinical trials are being conducted at multiple sites. We have initiated an industry-sponsored, global, prospective registry investigating the natural history of adults with Becker aged 18 years and older. However, we may not be successful in achieving our goal of establishing natural history reference data points and identifying future eligibility for recruitment into our planned registrational trial in Becker.

We are developing product candidates for severe muscle diseases with limited patient pools from which to draw for clinical trials. Such trials may be difficult to enroll and the lack of data on these patients may negatively impact the approvability of EDG-5506. We also may encounter difficulties in identifying and enrolling subjects with a stage of disease appropriate for our planned clinical trials and monitoring such subjects adequately during and after treatment. We may not be able to initiate or continue clinical trials if we are unable to locate a sufficient number of eligible subjects to participate in the clinical trials required by the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities. In addition, the process of finding and diagnosing subjects may prove costly. Further, the treating physicians in our clinical trials may also use their medical discretion in advising patients enrolled in our clinical trials to withdraw from our studies to try alternative therapies.

We expect patient enrollment to be affected because our competitors have ongoing clinical trials for programs that are under development for the same indications as our product candidates, and patients who would otherwise be eligible for our clinical trials could instead enroll in clinical trials of our competitors’ programs. Patient enrollment for our current or any future clinical trials may be affected by other factors, including:

size and nature of the patient population;
perceived risks and benefits of novel, unproven approaches;
severity of the disease under investigation;
availability and efficacy of approved drugs for the disease under investigation;
patient eligibility criteria for the trial in question as defined in the protocol;
perceived risks and benefits of the product candidate under study;
clinicians’ and patients’ perceptions as to the potential advantages of the product candidate being studied in relation to other available therapies, including any new products that may be approved or other product candidates being investigated for the indications we are investigating;
patient referral practices of physicians;
the ability to monitor patients adequately during and after treatment;
the activities of key opinion leaders (KOLs) and patient advocacy groups;
proximity and availability of clinical trial sites for prospective patients; and
the risk that patients enrolled in clinical trials will drop out of the trials before completion or, because they may have an advanced disease, will not survive the full terms of the clinical trials.

Our inability to enroll a sufficient number of patients for our clinical trials would result in significant delays or may require us to abandon one or more clinical trials altogether. Enrollment delays in our clinical trials may

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result in increased development costs for our product candidates and jeopardize our ability to obtain marketing approval for the sale of our product candidates. Furthermore, even if we are able to enroll a sufficient number of patients for our clinical trials, we may have difficulty maintaining participation in our clinical trials through the treatment and any follow-up periods.

We have limited resources and are currently focusing the majority of our efforts on developing EDG-5506 for particular indications. As a result, we may fail to capitalize on other indications or product candidates that may ultimately have proven to be more profitable.

We are currently focusing the majority of our resources and efforts on developing EDG-5506 and EDG-7500. As a result, because we have limited resources, we may forgo or delay the pursuit of opportunities for other indications or with other product candidates that may have greater commercial potential, including product candidates from our EDG-003 cardiometabolic discovery program. In addition, while we currently have multiple compounds in our programs, we are focusing our efforts on select product candidates from each of these programs to develop as lead product candidates in each program. Our resource allocation decisions may cause us to fail to capitalize on viable commercial drugs or profitable market opportunities. Our spending on current and future research and development activities for EDG-5506, EDG-7500 and our EDG-003 cardiometabolic discovery program may not yield any commercially viable products. If we do not accurately evaluate the commercial potential or target markets for EDG-5506, EDG-7500 or the product candidates we are currently researching, such as those from our EDG-003 cardiometabolic discovery program, we may relinquish valuable rights to our product candidates or programs through collaboration, licensing or other strategic arrangements in cases in which it would have been more advantageous for us to retain sole development and commercialization rights to such product candidate or program.

We face significant competition and if our competitors develop and market technologies or products more rapidly than we do or that are more effective, safer or less expensive than the products we develop, our commercial opportunities will be negatively impacted.

The biotechnology and biopharmaceutical industries are characterized by rapidly advancing technologies, intense competition and a strong emphasis on proprietary and novel products and product candidates. Our competitors have developed, are developing or may develop products, product candidates and processes competitive with our product candidates. Any product candidates that we successfully develop and commercialize will compete with existing therapies and new therapies that may become available in the future. We believe that a significant number of products are currently under development, and may become commercially available in the future, for the treatment of conditions for which we may attempt to develop product candidates.

We have competitors both in the United States and internationally, including major multinational pharmaceutical companies, established biotechnology companies, specialty pharmaceutical companies, emerging and start-up companies, universities and other research institutions. We also compete with other organizations to recruit management, scientists and clinical development personnel, which could negatively affect our level of expertise and our ability to execute our business plan. We will also face competition in establishing clinical trial sites, enrolling subjects for clinical trials and in identifying and in-licensing new product candidates.

With EDG-5506, we expect to face competition from existing products and products in development. Approximately 70% of patients with Duchenne are treated with corticosteroids to manage the inflammatory component of the disease. EMFLAZA (deflazacort) is an FDA-approved corticosteroid marketed by PTC Therapeutics, Inc. and prednisone is also FDA-approved and is marketed by multiple companies. In March 2022, Santhera Pharmaceuticals in collaboration with ReveraGen Biopharma, commenced the new drug application (NDA) filing as a rolling submission for vamorolone, a steroid therapy for Duchenne. In October 2023, the FDA granted Agamree (vomorolone) approval in Duchenne patients 2 years and older and Catalyst Pharmaceuticals, Inc. will be commercializing this product in the US following its North America exclusive license deal with Santhera. In addition, there are four FDA conditionally approved exon skipping drugs: EXONDYS 51 (eteplirsen), AMONDYS 45 (casimersen) and VYONDYS 53 (golodirsen), which are naked PMOs approved for the treatment of Duchenne patients amenable to Exon 51, Exon 45 and Exon 53 skipping, respectively, and are marketed by Sarepta Therapeutics, Inc., and VILTEPSO (vitolarsen), a naked PMO approved for the treatment of Duchenne

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patients amenable to Exon 53 skipping, which is marketed by Nippon Shinyaku Co. Ltd. In June 2022, PTC Therapeutics presented new topline results with Translarna (ataluren), for patients with nonsense mutation Duchenne, a subset of the disease that impacts between 10% and 15% of patients. It remains unclear if the data will lead to FDA approval of Translarna, for which the company plans to engage with the FDA and submit an NDA in the future. Translarna has been conditionally approved in the European Union and Brazil for ambulatory patients aged 2 years and older with Duchenne resulting from a nonsense mutation in the dystrophin gene. However, in January 2024, the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) of the EMA delivered a negative opinion on the re-examination procedure for the conditional marketing authorization of Translarna. This is expected to result in the withdrawal of Translarna from the EMA markets. In June 2023, the FDA approved Sarepta’s Biologics License Application seeking accelerated approval of their microdystrophin gene therapy, Elevidys (delandistrogene moxeparvovec), for the treatment of ambulant individuals with Duchenne. In September 2023, Sarepta released the topline data from the Elevidys confirmatory study that missed its primary endpoint of NSAA change from baseline vs. placebo. Despite the miss on the primary endpoint, Sarepta filed for sBLA in December 2023 seeking label expansion for Elevidys without restrictions on age or ambulation status. Other companies focused on developing genetic based therapies for Duchenne that target dystrophin mechanisms include Pfizer Inc., Solid Biosciences Inc., Genethon, PepGen, Dyne Therapeutics, Avidity Biosciences, REGENXBIO, and Entrada Therapeutics. Gene editing treatments that are in preclinical development are also being pursued by Vertex and Sarepta Therapeutics.

We are also aware of several companies targeting non-dystrophin mechanisms for the treatment of Duchenne. In June 2022, Italfarmaco announced positive topline data from its completed Phase 3 trial with Givinostat, a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, in boys with Duchenne. Italfarmico has filed for an NDA for Duchenne and has a PDUFA date of March 21, 2024. Moreover, in June 2021, Italfarmaco released top line Phase 2 data for Givinostat in Becker. Givinostat did not show a significant difference in the primary endpoint compared to placebo. The future of this program in Becker is uncertain.

With EDG-7500, we expect to face competition from existing products and products in development. Current pharmaceutical treatment is intended to improve diastolic filling in both oHCM and nHCM and reduce LVOT in oHCM patients only. The goal of current therapies is to achieve meaningful symptom relief. Non-vasodilating beta blockers and non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers are the first-line therapies for symptomatic oHCM and nHCM patients. Commonly prescribed beta-blockers are atenolol, propranolol, and metoprolol. Verapamil and diltiazem are calcium channel blockers used in the treatment of symptomatic oHCM and nHCM. For oHCM patients who remain symptomatic, a sodium channel blocker with negative ionotropic drug properties may also be added, typically disopyramide (either Pfizer’s Norpace, marketed by Pfizer, or a generic form marketed by several companies).

In the field of targeted precision medicines intended to address the molecular underpinnings of HCM, competitors include Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS), LianBio, Cytokinetics, Imbria Pharmaceuticals, and Celltrion. BMS markets Camzyos (mavacamten), a CMI intended for the treatment of adults with symptomatic NYHA class II-III oHCM. In April 2023, LianBio announced positive topline results from the Phase 3 EXPLORER-CN trial investigating mavacamten for the treatment of Chinese patients with symptomatic oHCM. To date, Camzyos (mavacamten) has secured marketing approvals in the US, Europe, and other countries across five continents. Cytokinetics is also developing a CMI, aficamten (CK-274), for which topline Phase 3 oHCM trial results were recently reported in December 2023. In June 2023, Cytokinetics initiated another Phase 3 active-comparator clinical trial of aficamten compared to metoprolol in symptomatic oHCM patients. BMS and Cytokinetics are also exploring their respective CMIs in ongoing Phase 3 nHCM clinical trials. Cytokinetics and BMS are also developing next generation CMIs for the treatment of symptomatic HCM, CK-271 and MYK-224, respectively. A Phase 2 oHCM clinical trial of MYK-224 is currently ongoing.

Non-CMI targeting drugs in development include IMB-101(Imbria Pharmaceuticals), a free fatty acid receptor antagonist, CT-G20 (Celltrion), an anti-arrhythmic cibenzoline succinate, and trientine dihydrochloride (Univar Solutions), a selective copper II chelator. In November 2023, Imbria announced Phase 2 nHCM topline results of IMB-101. We have limited knowledge of CT-G20’s Phase 1 oHCM trial status, while the trientine Phase 2 oHCM clinical trial is ongoing. A gene therapy approach, TN-201, a myosin binding protein C3-targeting gene therapy candidate being developed by Tenaya Therapeutics for genetic HCM, is currently in Phase 1b. We are aware of several preclinical HCM

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programs including: JN-210, a microRNA activating gene therapy approach being developed by Jaan Biotherapeutics; HTX-001, an antisense oligonucleotide approach being developed by Haya Therapeutics; CDR348T and CDR641L, both are non-coding RNA-based therapies being developed by Cardior Pharmaceuticals. We are also aware of several early-stage preclinical HCM assets being developed by DiNAQOR in collaboration with BioMarin Pharmaceuticals (BMN-293/DINA-001) and Lexeo Therapeutics (LX2022), both are gene therapy approaches for genetic HCM.

Many of these current and potential competitors have significantly greater financial, manufacturing, marketing, drug development, technical and human resources and commercial expertise than we do. Large pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, in particular, have extensive experience in clinical testing, obtaining regulatory approvals, recruiting patients and manufacturing biotechnology products. These companies also have significantly greater research and marketing capabilities than we do and may also have products that have been approved or are in late stages of development, and collaborative arrangements in our target markets with leading companies and research institutions. Established pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies may also invest heavily to accelerate discovery and development of novel compounds or to in-license novel compounds that could make the product candidates that we develop obsolete. Smaller or early-stage companies may also prove to be significant competitors, particularly through collaborative arrangements with large and established companies, as well as in acquiring technologies complementary to, or necessary for, our programs. As a result of all of these factors, our competitors may succeed in obtaining approval from the FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities or in discovering, developing and commercializing products in our field before we do.

Our commercial opportunity could be reduced or eliminated if our competitors develop and commercialize products that are safer, more effective, have fewer side effects, are more convenient, have a broader label, are marketed more effectively, are more widely reimbursed or are less expensive than any products that we may develop. Our competitors also may obtain marketing approval from the FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities for their products more rapidly than we may obtain approval for ours, which could result in our competitors establishing a strong market position before we are able to enter the market. Even if the product candidates we develop achieve marketing approval, they may be priced at a significant premium over competitive products if any have been approved by then, resulting in reduced competitiveness. Technological advances or products developed by our competitors may render our technologies or product candidates obsolete, less competitive or not economical. If we are unable to compete effectively, our opportunity to generate revenue from the sale of our products we may develop, if approved, could be adversely affected.

Interim, topline and preliminary data from our clinical trials that we announce or publish may change as more patient data becomes available and are subject to audit and verification procedures that could result in material changes in the final data.

From time to time, we may publicly disclose preliminary, interim or topline data from our clinical trials. For example, on June 26, 2023, we announced positive 12-month interim results from the ARCH open label trial of EDG-5506 in adults with Becker. These interim updates are based on a preliminary analysis of then-available data, and the results and related findings and conclusions are subject to change following a more comprehensive review of the data related to the particular study or trial. We also make assumptions, estimations, calculations and conclusions as part of our analyses of data, and we may not have received or had the opportunity to fully and carefully evaluate all data. As a result, the topline results that we report may differ from future results of the same studies, or different conclusions or considerations may qualify such results, once additional data have been received and fully evaluated. Topline data also remain subject to audit and verification procedures that may result in the final data being materially different from the preliminary data we previously published. As a result, topline data should be viewed with caution until the final data are available. In addition, we may report interim analyses of only certain endpoints rather than all endpoints. Interim data from clinical trials that we may complete are subject to the risk that one or more of the clinical outcomes may materially change as patient enrollment continues and more patient data becomes available. Adverse changes between interim data and final data could significantly harm

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our business and prospects. Further, additional disclosure of interim data by us or by our competitors in the future could result in volatility in the price of our common stock.

Further, others, including regulatory agencies, may not accept or agree with our assumptions, estimates, calculations, conclusions or analyses or may interpret or weigh the importance of data differently, which could impact the value of the particular program, the approvability or commercialization of the particular product candidate or product and our company in general. In addition, the information we choose to publicly disclose regarding a particular study or clinical trial is based on what is typically extensive information, and you or others may not agree with what we determine is material or otherwise appropriate information to include in our disclosure. If the preliminary or topline data that we report differ from late, final or actual results, or if others, including regulatory authorities, disagree with the conclusions reached, our ability to obtain approval for, and commercialize, EDG-5506, EDG-7500, product candidates from our EDG-003 cardiometabolic discovery program or any other product candidates may be harmed, which could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We may not be successful in our efforts to develop a proprietary drug discovery platform to build a pipeline of product candidates.

A key element of our strategy is to leverage our proprietary drug discovery platform and our ability to design small molecule inhibitors of fast skeletal myosin to expand our pipeline of product candidates. We are leveraging our proprietary drug discovery platform and capabilities to create precision medicines for muscle diseases with high levels of unmet need. In order to do so, we must continue to invest in our proprietary drug discovery platform and development capabilities. Although our research and development efforts to date have resulted in a pipeline of product candidates, these product candidates may not be safe and effective. In addition, although we expect that our proprietary drug discovery platform will allow us to develop a diverse pipeline of product candidates across multiple therapeutic areas, we may not prove to be successful at doing so. Furthermore, we may also find that the uses of our proprietary drug discovery platform are limited because alternative uses of our therapeutics prove not to be safe or effective. Even if we are successful in building our pipeline, the potential product candidates that we identify may not be suitable for clinical development, including as a result of being shown to have harmful side effects or other characteristics that indicate that they are unlikely to be products that will receive marketing approval or achieve market acceptance. Further, because our product candidates and development programs are based on our proprietary drug discovery platform, adverse developments with respect to one of our programs may have a significant adverse impact on the actual or perceived likelihood of success and value of our other programs.

In addition, the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries are characterized by rapidly advancing technologies. Our future success will depend in part on our ability to maintain a competitive position with our approach. If we fail to stay at the forefront of technological change in utilizing our proprietary drug discovery platform to create and develop product candidates, we may be unable to compete effectively. Our competitors may render our approach obsolete or limit the commercial value of our product candidates, by advances in existing technological approaches or the development of new or different approaches, potentially eliminating the advantages in our drug discovery process that we believe we derive from our research approach and proprietary technologies. By contrast, adverse developments with respect to other companies that attempt to use a similar approach to our approach may adversely impact the actual or perceived value of our proprietary drug discovery platform and potential of our product candidates. If any of these events occur, we may be forced to abandon our development efforts for a program or programs, which would have a material adverse effect on our business and could potentially cause us to cease operations.

We may develop EDG-5506 and potentially other programs in combination with other therapies, which would expose us to additional risks.

We may develop EDG-5506 and potentially other programs, in combination with one or more currently approved therapies or therapies in development. Patients may not be able to tolerate EDG-5506 or any other product candidates in combination with other therapies or dosing of EDG-5506 in combination with other therapies may have unexpected consequences. Even if any of our product candidates were to receive marketing approval or

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be commercialized for use in combination with other existing therapies, we would continue to be subject to the risks that the FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities could revoke approval of the therapy used in combination with any of our product candidates, or safety, efficacy, manufacturing or supply issues could arise with these existing therapies. In addition, it is possible that existing therapies with which our product candidates are approved for use could themselves fall out of favor. This could result in the need to identify other combination therapies for our product candidates, or our own products being removed from the market or being less successful commercially.

We may also evaluate our product candidates in combination with one or more other therapies that have not yet been approved for marketing by the FDA, EMA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities. We will not be able to market and sell any product candidate in combination with any such unapproved therapies that do not ultimately obtain marketing approval.

If the FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities do not approve or revoke their approval of these other therapies, or if safety, efficacy, commercial adoption, manufacturing or supply issues arise with the therapies we may choose to evaluate in combination with EDG-5506 or any other product candidate, we may be unable to obtain approval of or successfully market any one or all of the product candidates we develop.

Additionally, if the third-party providers of therapies or therapies in development used in combination with our product candidates are unable to produce sufficient quantities for clinical trials or for commercialization of our product candidates, or if the cost of combination therapies are prohibitive, our development and commercialization efforts would be impaired, which would have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.

The manufacture of drugs is complex, and our third-party manufacturers may encounter difficulties in production. If any of our third-party manufacturers encounter such difficulties, our ability to provide adequate supply of our product candidates for clinical trials or our products for patients, if approved, could be delayed or prevented.

Manufacturing drugs, especially in large quantities, is complex and may require the use of innovative technologies. Each lot of an approved drug product must undergo thorough testing for identity, strength, quality, purity and potency. Manufacturing drugs requires facilities specifically designed for and validated for this purpose, as well as sophisticated quality assurance and quality control procedures. Slight deviations anywhere in the manufacturing process, including filling, labeling, packaging, storage and shipping and quality control and testing, may result in lot failures or product recalls. When changes are made to the manufacturing process, we may be required to provide preclinical and clinical data showing the comparable quality and efficacy of the products before and after such changes. If our third-party manufacturers are unable to produce sufficient quantities for clinical trials or for commercialization as a result of these challenges, or otherwise, our development and commercialization efforts would be impaired, which would have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.

Changes in methods of product candidate manufacturing or formulation may result in additional costs or delay.

As product candidates progress through preclinical and clinical trials to marketing approval and commercialization, it is common that various aspects of the development program, such as manufacturing methods and formulation, are altered along the way in an effort to optimize yield and manufacturing batch size, minimize costs and achieve consistent quality and results. For example, we may introduce an alternative formulation of EDG-5506 for our Phase 2 clinical trials. We will also explore alternate formulations for use with pediatric patients, particularly Duchenne patients, who may have difficulty taking adult formulations. Such changes carry the risk that they will not achieve these intended objectives. Any of these changes could cause our product candidates to perform differently and affect the results of planned clinical trials or other future clinical trials conducted with the altered materials. This could delay completion of clinical trials, require the conduct of bridging clinical trials or the repetition of one or more clinical trials, increase clinical trial costs, delay approval of our product candidates and jeopardize our ability to commercialize our product candidates, if approved, and generate revenue.

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Our product candidates may not achieve adequate market acceptance among physicians, patients, healthcare payors and others in the medical community necessary for commercial success.

Even if our product candidates receive regulatory approval, they may not gain adequate market acceptance among physicians, patients, third-party payors and others in the medical community. The degree of market acceptance of any of our approved product candidates will depend on a number of factors, including:

the efficacy and safety profile as demonstrated in clinical trials compared to alternative treatments;
the timing of market introduction of the product candidate as well as competitive products;
the clinical indications for which a product candidate is approved;
restrictions on the use of product candidates in the labeling approved by regulatory authorities, such as boxed warnings or contraindications in labeling, or a risk evaluation and mitigation strategy, if any, which may not be required of alternative treatments and competitor products;
the potential and perceived advantages of our product candidates over alternative treatments;
the cost of treatment in relation to alternative treatments;
the availability of an approved product candidate for use as a combination therapy;
relative convenience and ease of administration;
the willingness of the target patient population or their caregivers to try new therapies and of physicians to prescribe these therapies;
the availability of coverage and adequate reimbursement by third-party payors, including government authorities;
patients’ willingness to pay for these therapies in the absence of such coverage and adequate reimbursement;
the effectiveness of sales and marketing efforts;
support from KOLs and patient advocacy groups;
unfavorable publicity relating to our product candidates; and
the approval of other new therapies for the same indications.

If any of our product candidates are approved but do not achieve an adequate level of acceptance by physicians, hospitals, healthcare payors and patients, we may not generate or derive sufficient revenue from that product candidate and our financial results could be negatively impacted.

The patient population suffering from Duchenne, Becker and Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) is small and has not been established with precision. If the actual number of patients is smaller than we estimate, our revenue and ability to achieve profitability may be adversely affected. Because the target patient populations of our programs are small and the addressable patient population may be even smaller, we must be able to successfully identify patients and capture a significant market share to achieve profitability and growth.

Duchenne and Becker are rare, genetic neuromuscular disorders. We estimate that Duchenne occurs in approximately 35,000 patients in the US, EU (5) and Japan. Becker has a much lower incidence of approximately 1

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in every 18,450 live male births. We estimate that Becker occurs in approximately 12,000 patients in the US, EU (5) and Japan. The approximate global prevalence of LGMDs as a group is estimated to be from 0.56 to 5.75 per 100,000. Our estimates of the size of these patient populations are based on published studies. Given the small number of patients who have the diseases that we are targeting, it is critical to our ability to grow and become profitable that we continue to successfully identify patients with these rare diseases. The effort to identify patients with diseases we seek to treat is in early stages, and we cannot accurately predict the number of patients for whom treatment might be possible. Various factors may decrease the market size of our product and product candidates, including the severity of the disease, patient demographics and the response of patients’ immune systems to our product candidates. If the results of these studies or our analysis of them do not accurately reflect the relevant patient population, our assessment of the market may be inaccurate, making it difficult or impossible for us to meet our revenue goals, or to obtain and maintain profitability.

The effort to identify patients with diseases we seek to treat is in early stages and we cannot accurately predict the number of patients for whom treatment might be possible. A newborn screening initiative was put into place with the goal of identifying and providing care for every child born with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and achieving Recommended Uniform Screening Panel (RUSP) status. An Ohio newborn screening (NBS) pilot developed a process to determine who should have genetic testing. A newborn screening pilot program in New York State tested this and other aspects of a comprehensive newborn screening program at a large scale. The pilot was completed in October 2021 and screened more than 36,000 babies born in New York State over two years. Four babies were confirmed to have Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy, and one baby was identified as a carrier female. Two other pilot programs have been successfully conducted. In June 2022, Parent Project Muscular Dystrophy (PPMD), a nonprofit organization leading the fight to end Duchenne, announced that the organization submitted a nomination package to add Duchenne to the RUSP to the Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and Children (ACHDNC), initiating the review process. The review process typically takes more than a year and requires two key votes of experts in NBS to move forward. In February 2023, the first key vote took place and the ACHDNC decided that more information was needed before proceeding to the second vote. Work is ongoing to provide the required additional information. However, the ACHDNC may decide that the algorithm developed for accurately detecting muscular dystrophy is not scalable or cost-effective, thus not appropriate for national and state level implementation. In addition, the ACHDNC may decide not to add Duchenne to the RUSP for other reasons. Furthermore, even if Duchenne is added to the RUSP, states may not be able to effectively implement a NBS program. This could reduce the identifiable patient population for the diseases we seek to treat and result in our therapies not being able to be initiated early in the course of the disease.

Additionally, the potentially addressable patient population for each of our product candidates may be limited or may not be amenable to treatment with our product candidates, and new patients may become increasingly difficult to identify or gain access to, which would adversely affect our results of operations and our business. Further, even if we obtain significant market share for our product candidates, because the potential target populations are very small, we may never achieve profitability despite obtaining such significant market share.

We may not be successful in augmenting our product pipeline through acquisitions and in-licenses.

We intend to evaluate select external opportunities to strategically expand our pipeline. While we plan to leverage our leadership team’s prior business development experience as we evaluate potential in-licensing and acquisition opportunities to expand our portfolio, we may not be able to identify suitable licensing or acquisition opportunities, and even if we do, we may not be able to successfully secure such licensing and acquisition opportunities. The licensing or acquisition of third-party intellectual property rights is a competitive area, and several more established companies may pursue strategies to license or acquire third-party intellectual property rights that we may consider attractive or necessary. These companies may have a competitive advantage over us due to their size, capital resources and greater clinical development and commercialization capabilities. In addition, companies that perceive us to be a competitor may be unwilling to assign or license rights to us. We also may be unable to license or acquire third-party intellectual property rights on terms that would allow us to make an appropriate return on our investment, or at all. If we are unable to successfully license or acquire additional product candidates to expand our portfolio, our pipeline, competitive position, business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects may be materially harmed.

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Any product candidates we develop may become subject to unfavorable third-party coverage and reimbursement practices, as well as pricing regulations.

The availability and extent of coverage and adequate reimbursement by third-party payors including government health administration authorities, private health coverage insurers, managed care organizations and other third-party payors is essential for most patients to be able to afford expensive treatments. The initial targets in our pipeline are indications with small patient populations. For product candidates that are designed to treat smaller patient populations to be commercially viable, the reimbursement for such product candidates must be higher, on a relative basis, to account for the lack of volume. Accordingly, we will need to implement a coverage and reimbursement strategy for any approved product candidate that accounts for the smaller potential market size.

Sales of any of our product candidates that receive marketing approval will depend substantially, both in the United States and internationally, on the extent to which the costs of such product candidates will be covered and reimbursed by third-party payors. If reimbursement is not available, or is available only to limited levels, we may not be able to successfully commercialize our product candidates. Even if coverage is provided, the approved reimbursement amount may not be high enough to allow us to establish or maintain pricing sufficient to realize an adequate return on our investment. Coverage and reimbursement may impact the demand for, or the price of, any product candidate for which we obtain marketing approval. If coverage and reimbursement are not available or reimbursement is available only to limited levels, we may not successfully commercialize any product candidate for which we obtain marketing approval.

There is significant uncertainty related to third-party payor coverage and reimbursement of newly approved products. In the United States, for example, principal decisions about reimbursement for new products are typically made by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), an agency within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). CMS decides whether and to what extent a new product will be covered and reimbursed under Medicare, and private third-party payors often follow CMS’s decisions regarding coverage and reimbursement to a substantial degree. However, one third-party payor’s determination to provide coverage for a product candidate does not assure that other payors will also provide coverage for the product candidate or at the same level of reimbursement. As a result, the coverage determination process is often time-consuming and costly. This process will require us to provide scientific and clinical support for the use of our products to each third-party payor separately, with no assurance that coverage and adequate reimbursement will be applied consistently or obtained in the first instance.

Increasingly, third-party payors are requiring that drug companies provide them with predetermined discounts from list prices and are challenging the prices charged for medical products. Further, such payors are increasingly challenging the price, examining the medical necessity and reviewing the cost effectiveness of medical product candidates. There may be especially significant delays in obtaining coverage and reimbursement for newly approved drugs. Third-party payors may limit coverage to specific product candidates on an approved list, known as a formulary, which might not include all FDA-approved drugs for a particular indication. We may need to conduct expensive pharmaco-economic studies to demonstrate the medical necessity and cost effectiveness of our products. Nonetheless, our product candidates may not be considered medically necessary or cost effective. We cannot be sure that coverage and reimbursement will be available for any product that we commercialize and, if reimbursement is available, what the level of reimbursement will be.

Outside the United States, the commercialization of therapeutics is generally subject to extensive governmental price controls and other market regulations, and we believe the increasing emphasis on cost containment initiatives in Europe, Canada and other countries has and will continue to put pressure on the pricing and usage of therapeutics such as our product candidates. In many countries, particularly the countries of the European Union (EU), medical product prices are subject to varying price control mechanisms as part of national health systems. In these countries, pricing negotiations with governmental authorities can take considerable time after a product receives marketing approval. To obtain reimbursement or pricing approval in some countries, we may be required to conduct a clinical trial that compares the cost-effectiveness of our product candidate to other available therapies. In general, product prices under such systems are substantially lower than in the United States. Other countries allow companies to fix their own prices for products but monitor and control company profits.

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Additional foreign price controls or other changes in pricing regulation could restrict the amount that we are able to charge for our product candidates. Accordingly, in markets outside the United States, the reimbursement for our products may be reduced compared with the United States and may be insufficient to generate commercially reasonable revenue and profits.

If we are unable to establish or sustain coverage and adequate reimbursement for any product candidates from third-party payors, the adoption of those products and sales revenue will be adversely affected, which, in turn, could adversely affect the ability to market or sell those product candidates, if approved. Coverage policies and third-party payor reimbursement rates may change at any time. Even if favorable coverage and reimbursement status is attained for one or more products for which we receive regulatory approval, less favorable coverage policies and reimbursement rates may be implemented in the future.

Our business entails a significant risk of product liability and if we are unable to obtain sufficient insurance coverage, such inability could have an adverse effect on our business and financial condition. If product liability lawsuits are brought against us, we may incur substantial liabilities and may be required to limit commercialization of our products.

Our business exposes us to significant product liability risks inherent in the development, testing, manufacturing and marketing of therapeutic treatments. We currently have product liability insurance that we believe is appropriate for our stage of development and may need to obtain higher levels prior to marketing any of our product candidates, if approved. Any insurance we have or may obtain may not provide sufficient coverage against potential liabilities. Furthermore, clinical trial and product liability insurance is becoming increasingly expensive. As a result, we may be unable to obtain sufficient insurance at a reasonable cost to protect us against losses caused by product liability claims that could have an adverse effect on our business and financial condition. Also, our insurance policies may have various exclusions, and we may be subject to a product liability claim for which we have no coverage. We may have to pay any amounts awarded by a court or negotiated in a settlement that exceed our coverage limitations or that are not covered by our insurance, and we may not have, or be able to obtain, sufficient capital to pay such amounts. Even if our agreements with any future corporate collaborators entitle us to indemnification against losses, such indemnification may not be available or adequate should any claim arise.

We may be sued if any of our product candidates cause or are perceived to cause injury or are found to be otherwise unsuitable during clinical testing, manufacturing, marketing, or sale post-approval. Any such product liability claims may include allegations of defects in manufacturing, defects in design, a failure to warn of dangers inherent in the product, negligence, strict liability, or a breach of warranties. Claims could also be asserted under state consumer protection laws. If we cannot successfully defend ourselves against product liability claims, we may incur substantial liabilities or be required to limit testing and commercialization of our products. Even successful defense would require significant financial and management resources.

Regardless of the merits or eventual outcome, liability claims may result in:

delays in the development of our product candidates;
FDA, EMA or other regulatory authority investigation of the safety and effectiveness of our products, our manufacturing processes and facilities or our marketing programs;
decreased or interrupted demand for our products;
injury to our reputation;
withdrawal of clinical trial participants and inability to continue clinical trials;
initiation of investigations by regulators;
costs to defend the related litigation;

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a diversion of management’s time and our resources;
substantial monetary awards to trial participants or patients;
product recalls, withdrawals or labeling, marketing, or promotional restrictions;
loss of revenue;
exhaustion of any available insurance and our capital resources; and
the inability to commercialize any products.

Risks Related to Regulatory Approval and Other Legal Compliance Matters

The regulatory approval processes of the FDA, EMA and other comparable foreign regulatory authorities are lengthy, time consuming and inherently unpredictable. If we are ultimately unable to obtain regulatory approval of our product candidates, we will be unable to generate product revenue and our business will be substantially harmed.

Our product candidates are and will continue to be subject to extensive governmental regulations relating to, among other things, research, testing, development, manufacturing, safety, efficacy, approval, recordkeeping, reporting, labeling, storage, packaging, advertising and promotion, pricing, marketing and distribution of drugs. Rigorous preclinical testing and clinical trials and an extensive regulatory approval process must be successfully completed in the United States and in many foreign jurisdictions before a new drug can be approved for marketing. Obtaining approval by the FDA, EMA and other comparable foreign regulatory authorities is costly, unpredictable, typically takes many years following the commencement of clinical trials and depends upon numerous factors, including the type, complexity and novelty of the product candidates involved. In addition, approval policies, regulations or the type and amount of clinical data necessary to gain approval may change during the course of a product candidate’s clinical development and may vary among jurisdictions, which may cause delays in the approval or the decision not to approve an application. Regulatory authorities have substantial discretion in the approval process and may refuse to accept any application or may decide that our data are insufficient for approval and require additional preclinical, clinical or other data. Even if we eventually complete clinical testing and receive approval for our product candidates, the FDA, EMA and other comparable foreign regulatory authorities may approve our product candidates for a more limited indication or a narrower patient population than we originally requested or may impose other prescribing limitations or warnings that limit the product’s commercial potential. We have not submitted for, or obtained, regulatory approval for any product candidate, and it is possible that none of our product candidates will ever obtain regulatory approval. Further, development of our product candidates and/or regulatory approval may be delayed for reasons beyond our control. We cannot provide any assurance that any product candidate we may develop will progress through required clinical testing and obtain the regulatory approvals necessary for us to begin selling them.

We have not conducted, managed or completed large-scale or pivotal clinical trials nor managed the regulatory approval process with the FDA or any other regulatory authority. Applications for our product candidates could fail to receive regulatory approval for many reasons, including the following:

the FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities may disagree with the design, implementation or results of our clinical trials;
the FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities may determine that our product candidates are not safe and effective, are only moderately effective or have undesirable or unintended side effects, toxicities or other characteristics that preclude our obtaining marketing approval or prevent or limit commercial use;
the population studied in the clinical trial may not be sufficiently broad or representative to assure efficacy and safety in the full population for which we seek approval;

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the FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities may disagree with our interpretation of data from preclinical studies or clinical trials;
we may be unable to demonstrate to the FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities that our product candidate’s risk-benefit ratio for its proposed indication is acceptable;
the FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities may fail to approve the manufacturing processes, test procedures and specifications or facilities of third-party manufacturers with which we contract for clinical and commercial supplies; and
the approval policies or regulations of the FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities may significantly change in a manner rendering our clinical data insufficient for approval.

This lengthy approval process, as well as the unpredictability of the results of clinical trials, may result in our failing to obtain regulatory approval to market any of our product candidates, which would significantly harm our business, results of operations and prospects. Any delay or failure in seeking or obtaining required approvals would have a material and adverse effect on our ability to generate revenue from any particular product candidates we are developing and for which we are seeking approval. Furthermore, any regulatory approval to market a drug may be subject to significant limitations on the approved uses or indications for which we may market, promote and advertise the drug or the labeling or other restrictions. In addition, the FDA has the authority to require a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) plan as part of approving an NDA, or after approval, which may impose further requirements or restrictions on the distribution or use of an approved drug. These requirements or restrictions might include limiting prescribing to certain physicians or medical centers that have undergone specialized training, limiting treatment to patients who meet certain safe-use criteria and requiring treated patients to enroll in a registry. These limitations and restrictions may significantly limit the size of the market for the drug and affect reimbursement by third-party payors.

We are also subject to numerous foreign regulatory requirements governing, among other things, the conduct of clinical trials, manufacturing and marketing authorization, pricing and third-party reimbursement. The foreign regulatory approval process varies among countries, and generally includes all of the risks associated with FDA and EMA approval described above as well as risks attributable to the satisfaction of local regulations in foreign jurisdictions. Moreover, the time required to obtain approval may differ from that required to obtain FDA approval.

The FDA, EMA and other comparable foreign regulatory authorities may not accept data from trials conducted in locations outside of their jurisdiction.

Our ongoing clinical trials are being undertaken in the United States. We may choose to conduct additional clinical trials internationally. The acceptance of study data by the FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authority from clinical trials conducted outside of their respective jurisdictions may be subject to certain conditions. In cases where data from United States clinical trials are intended to serve as the basis for marketing approval in the foreign countries outside the United States, the standards for clinical trials and approval may be different. There can be no assurance that any United States or foreign regulatory authority would accept data from trials conducted outside of its applicable jurisdiction. If the FDA, EMA or any applicable foreign regulatory authority does not accept such data, it would result in the need for additional trials, which would be costly and time-consuming and delay aspects of our business plan, and which may result in our product candidates not receiving approval or clearance for commercialization in the applicable jurisdiction.

Obtaining and maintaining regulatory approval of our product candidates in one jurisdiction does not mean that we will be successful in obtaining regulatory approval of our product candidates in other jurisdictions.

Obtaining and maintaining regulatory approval of our product candidates in one jurisdiction does not guarantee that we will be able to obtain or maintain regulatory approval in any other jurisdiction. For example, even if the FDA or EMA grants marketing approval of a product candidate, comparable regulatory authorities in foreign jurisdictions must also approve the manufacturing, marketing and promotion and reimbursement of the product candidate in those countries. Complying with new requirements and changes in other foreign regulations that apply to clinical trials and drug development activities can delay our clinical trials and regulatory approval time lines in the EU and other foreign jurisdictions. For example, the Clinical Trials Regulation EU No. 536/2014

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entered into application on January 31, 2022 and is intended to simplify the current rules for clinical trial authorization and standards of performance in EU. Complying with such new legislation or changes in healthcare regulation could be time-intensive and expensive, resulting in a material adverse effect on our business.

However, a failure or delay in obtaining regulatory approval in one jurisdiction may have a negative effect on the regulatory approval process in others. Approval procedures vary among jurisdictions and can involve requirements and administrative review periods different from those in the United States, including additional preclinical studies or clinical trials as clinical trials conducted in one jurisdiction may not be accepted by regulatory authorities in other jurisdictions. In many jurisdictions outside the United States, a product candidate must be approved for reimbursement before it can be approved for sale in that jurisdiction. In some cases, the price that we intend to charge for our products is also subject to approval.

Obtaining foreign regulatory approvals and establishing and maintaining compliance with foreign regulatory requirements could result in significant delays, difficulties and costs for us and could delay or prevent the introduction of our products in certain countries. If we or any future collaborator fail to comply with the regulatory requirements in international markets or fail to receive applicable marketing approvals, our target market will be reduced and our ability to realize the full market potential of our potential product candidates will be harmed.

The regulatory approval processes for product candidates that target rare diseases, including Duchenne, Becker and LGMD are uncertain.

Due to the lack of precedent, broad discretion of regulatory authorities, and a multitude of unique factors that impact the regulatory approval process, the likelihood of the approval of any of our product candidates that target rare diseases, such as Duchenne, Becker and LGMD is uncertain, and we may not be able to anticipate, prepare for or satisfy requests or requirements from regulatory authorities, including completing and submitting planned Investigational New Drug (IND) and NDA for our product candidates, in a timely manner, or at all. For example, Duchenne is a rare disease for which there are only two FDA approved therapeutics. In addition, no therapies are currently approved for Becker in the United States or the EU. Further, the FDA may determine, after evaluation of our data and analyses, that such data and analyses do not support an NDA submission, filing or approval. Due to this lack of predictability, we may not have the resources necessary to meet regulatory requirements and successfully complete a potentially protracted, expensive and wide-ranging approval process for commercialization of product candidates for rare diseases.

Even if our product candidates receive regulatory approval, they will be subject to significant post-marketing regulatory requirements and oversight.

Any regulatory approvals that we may receive for our product candidates will require the submission of reports to regulatory authorities and on-going surveillance to monitor the safety and efficacy of the product candidate, may contain significant limitations related to use restrictions for specified age groups, warnings, precautions or contraindications, and may include burdensome post-approval study or risk management requirements and regulatory inspection. For example, the FDA may require a REMS in order to approve our product candidates, which could entail requirements for a medication guide, physician training and communication plans or additional elements to ensure safe use, such as restricted distribution methods, patient registries and other risk minimization tools. In addition, if the FDA or foreign regulatory authorities approve our product candidates, the manufacturing processes, labeling, packaging, distribution, adverse event reporting, storage, advertising, promotion, import, export and recordkeeping for our product candidates will be subject to extensive and ongoing regulatory requirements. These requirements include submissions of safety and other post-marketing information and reports, registration, as well as on-going compliance with cGMPs and GCPs for any clinical trials that we conduct post-approval. In addition, manufacturers of drug products and their facilities are subject to continual review and periodic, unannounced inspections by the FDA and other regulatory authorities for compliance with cGMP regulations and standards. If we or a regulatory agency discover previously unknown problems with a product, such as adverse events of unanticipated severity or frequency, or problems with the facilities where the product is manufactured, a regulatory agency may impose restrictions on that product, the manufacturing facility or us, including requiring recall or withdrawal of the product from the market or suspension of manufacturing. In

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addition, failure to comply with FDA, EMA and other comparable foreign regulatory requirements may subject our company to administrative or judicially imposed sanctions, including:

delays in or the rejection of product approvals;
restrictions on our ability to conduct clinical trials, including full or partial clinical holds on ongoing or planned trials;
restrictions on the products, manufacturers or manufacturing process;
warning or untitled letters;
civil and criminal penalties;
injunctions;
suspension or withdrawal of regulatory approvals;
product seizures, detentions or import bans;
voluntary or mandatory product recalls and publicity requirements;
total or partial suspension of production; and
imposition of restrictions on operations, including costly new manufacturing requirements.

The occurrence of any event or penalty described above may inhibit our ability to commercialize our product candidates, if approved, and generate revenue. Furthermore, non-compliance by us or any future collaborator with regulatory requirements, including safety monitoring and with requirements related to the development of products for the pediatric population can also result in significant financial penalties.

Further, the FDA’s or other ex-U.S. regulators’ policies may change, and additional government regulations may be enacted that could prevent, limit or delay regulatory approval of our product candidates. If the Supreme Court reverses or curtails the Chevron doctrine, which gives deference to regulatory agencies in litigation against FDA and other agencies, more companies may bring lawsuits against FDA to challenge longstanding decisions and policies of FDA, which could undermine FDA’s authority, lead to uncertainties in the industry, and disrupt FDA’s normal operations, which could delay FDA’s review of our marketing applications. If we are slow or unable to adapt to changes in existing requirements or the adoption of new requirements or policies, or if we are not able to maintain regulatory compliance, we may lose any marketing approval that we may have obtained, which would adversely affect our business, prospects and ability to achieve or sustain profitability.

We may not be able to obtain orphan drug designation or obtain or maintain orphan drug exclusivity for our product candidates and, even if we do, that exclusivity may not prevent the FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities, from approving competing products.

Regulatory authorities in some jurisdictions, including the United States and the EU, may designate drugs for relatively small patient populations as orphan drugs. Under the Orphan Drug Act, the FDA may designate a product as an orphan drug if it is a drug intended to treat a rare disease or condition, which is generally defined as a patient population of fewer than 200,000 individuals annually in the United States, or a patient population greater than 200,000 in the United States where there is no reasonable expectation that the cost of developing the drug will be recovered from sales in the United States. However, there can be no assurances that we will be able to obtain orphan designations for our product candidates.

In the United States, orphan drug designation entitles a party to financial incentives such as opportunities for grant funding towards clinical trial costs, tax advantages and user-fee waivers. In addition, if a product that has orphan drug designation subsequently receives the first FDA approval for the disease for which it has such designation, the product is entitled to orphan drug exclusivity. Orphan drug exclusivity in the United States

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provides that the FDA may not approve any other applications, including a full NDA, to market the same drug for the same indication for seven years, except in limited circumstances. The applicable exclusivity period is 10 years in Europe. The European exclusivity period can be reduced to six years if a drug no longer meets the criteria for orphan drug designation or if the drug is sufficiently profitable so that market exclusivity is no longer justified.

The FDA granted EDG-5506 Fast Track designation for the treatment of Duchenne in February 2024, and ODD for the treatment of Duchenne and Becker and RPDD for the treatment of Duchenne in November 2023. The FDA previously granted Fast Track designation for the investigation and development of EDG-5506 for the treatment of Becker. We may seek orphan drug designation for other product candidates. Even after obtaining orphan drug designation, we may not be able to obtain or maintain orphan drug exclusivity for that product candidate. We may not be the first to obtain marketing approval of any product candidate for which we have obtained orphan drug designation for the orphan-designated indication due to the uncertainties associated with developing pharmaceutical products. In addition, exclusive marketing rights in the United States may be limited if we seek approval for an indication broader than the orphan-designated indication or may be lost if the FDA later determines that the request for designation was materially defective or if we are unable to ensure that we will be able to manufacture sufficient quantities of the product to meet the needs of patients with the rare disease or condition. Further, even after obtaining orphan drug exclusivity for a product, that exclusivity may not effectively protect the product from competition because different drugs with different active moieties may be approved for the same condition. Even after an orphan drug is approved, the FDA can subsequently approve the same drug with the same active moiety for the same condition if the FDA concludes that the later drug is clinically superior in that it is shown to be safer, more effective or makes a major contribution to patient care or the manufacturer of the product with orphan exclusivity is unable to maintain sufficient product quantity. Orphan drug designation neither shortens the development time or regulatory review time of a drug nor gives the product candidate any advantage in the regulatory review or approval process or entitles the product candidate to priority review. In view of the court decision in Catalyst Pharms., Inc. v. Becerra, 14 F.4th 1299 (11th Cir. 2021), in January 2023, the FDA published a notice in the Federal Register to clarify that while the agency complies with the court’s order in Catalyst, FDA intends to continue to apply its longstanding interpretation of the regulations to matters outside of the scope of the Catalyst order – that is, the agency will continue tying the scope of orphan-drug exclusivity to the uses or indications for which a drug is approved, which permits other sponsors to obtain approval of a drug for new uses or indications within the same orphan designated disease or condition that have not yet been approved. It is unclear how future litigation, legislation, agency decisions, and administrative actions will impact the scope of the orphan drug exclusivity.

Where appropriate, we plan to secure approval from the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities through the use of accelerated registration pathways. If we are unable to obtain such approval, we may be required to conduct additional preclinical studies or clinical trials beyond those that we contemplate, which could increase the expense of obtaining, and delay the receipt of, necessary marketing approvals. Even if we receive accelerated approval from the FDA, if our confirmatory trials do not verify clinical benefit, or if we do not comply with rigorous post-marketing requirements, the FDA may seek to withdraw accelerated approval.

Where possible, we plan to pursue accelerated development strategies in areas of high unmet need. We may seek an accelerated approval pathway for our one or more of our product candidates. Under the accelerated approval provisions in the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, and the FDA’s implementing regulations, the FDA may grant accelerated approval to a product candidate designed to treat a serious or life-threatening condition that provides meaningful therapeutic benefit over available therapies upon a determination that the product candidate has an effect on a surrogate endpoint or intermediate clinical endpoint that is reasonably likely to predict clinical benefit. The FDA considers a clinical benefit to be a positive therapeutic effect that is clinically meaningful in the context of a given disease, such as irreversible morbidity or mortality. For the purposes of accelerated approval, a surrogate endpoint is a marker, such as a laboratory measurement, radiographic image, physical sign, or other measure that is thought to predict clinical benefit, but is not itself a measure of clinical benefit. An intermediate clinical endpoint is a clinical endpoint that can be measured earlier than an effect on irreversible morbidity or mortality that is reasonably likely to predict an effect on irreversible morbidity or mortality or other clinical benefit. The accelerated approval pathway may be used in cases in which the advantage of a new drug over available therapy may not be a direct therapeutic advantage but is a clinically important

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improvement from a patient and public health perspective. If granted, accelerated approval is usually contingent on the sponsor’s agreement to conduct, in a diligent manner, additional post-approval confirmatory studies to verify and describe the drug’s clinical benefit. If such post-approval studies fail to confirm the drug’s clinical benefit, the FDA may withdraw its approval of the drug. The Food and Drug Omnibus Reform Act reformed the accelerated approval pathway, such as requiring the FDA to specify conditions for post-approval study requirements and setting forth procedures for the FDA to withdraw a product on an expedited basis for non-compliance with post-approval requirements.

Prior to seeking such accelerated approval, we will seek feedback from the FDA and will otherwise evaluate our ability to seek and receive such accelerated approval. There can be no assurance that after our evaluation of the feedback and other factors we will decide to pursue or submit an NDA for accelerated approval or any other form of expedited development, review or approval. Similarly, there can be no assurance that after subsequent FDA feedback we will continue to pursue or apply for accelerated approval or any other form of expedited development, review or approval, even if we initially decide to do so. Furthermore, if we decide to submit an application for accelerated approval or under another expedited regulatory designation (e.g., breakthrough therapy designation), there can be no assurance that such submission or application will be accepted or that any expedited development, review or approval will be granted on a timely basis, or at all. The FDA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities could also require us to conduct further studies prior to considering our application or granting approval of any type. A failure to obtain accelerated approval or any other form of expedited development, review or approval for our product candidate would result in a longer time period to commercialization of such product candidate, could increase the cost of development of such product candidate and could harm our competitive position in the marketplace.

We may face difficulties from changes to current regulations and future legislation.

Existing regulatory policies may change, and additional government regulations may be enacted that could prevent, limit or delay regulatory approval of our product candidates. We cannot predict the likelihood, nature or extent of government regulation that may arise from future legislation or administrative action, either in the United States or abroad. If we are slow or unable to adapt to changes in existing requirements or the adoption of new requirements or policies, or if we are not able to maintain regulatory compliance, we may lose any marketing approval that we may have obtained, and we may not achieve or sustain profitability.

We also cannot predict the likelihood, nature or extent of government regulation that may arise from future legislation or administrative or executive action, either in the United States or abroad. For example, certain policies of the current U.S. administration may impact our business and industry, which could impose significant burdens on, or otherwise materially delay, the FDA’s ability to engage in routine regulatory and oversight activities such as implementing statutes through rulemaking, issuance of guidance, and review and approval of marketing applications. It is difficult to predict how current and future legislation, executive actions, and litigation, including the executive orders referenced below, will be implemented, and the extent to which they will impact our business, our clinical development, and the FDA’s and other agencies’ ability to exercise their regulatory authority, including FDA’s pre-approval inspection and timely review of any regulatory filings or applications we submit to the FDA. If these executive actions impose constraints on FDA’s ability to engage in oversight and implementation activities in the normal course or constraints on our business operations, including operations of our contractors, our business may be negatively impacted.

For example, in March 2010, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively, the ACA), was passed, which substantially changed the way healthcare is financed by both the government and private insurers, and continues to significantly impact the U.S. pharmaceutical industry. Since its enactment, there have been judicial and congressional challenges to certain aspects of the ACA. In June 2021, the United States Supreme Court held that Texas and other challengers had no legal standing to challenge the ACA, dismissing the case without specifically ruling on the constitutionality of the ACA. Accordingly, the ACA remains in effect in its current form. It is unclear how this Supreme Court decision, future litigation, or healthcare measures promulgated by the Biden administration will impact our business, financial condition and results of operations. On January 28, 2021, President Biden issued an

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executive order to initiate a special enrollment period for purposes of obtaining health insurance coverage through the ACA marketplace. The executive order also instructs certain governmental agencies to review and reconsider their existing policies and rules that limit access to healthcare, including among others, reexamining Medicaid demonstration projects and waiver programs that include work requirements, and policies that create unnecessary barriers to obtaining access to health insurance coverage through Medicaid or the ACA. Complying with any new legislation or changes in healthcare regulation could be time-intensive and expensive, resulting in a material adverse effect on our business.

In addition, other legislative changes have been proposed and adopted in the United States since the ACA was enacted. These changes included aggregate reductions to Medicare payments to providers of up to 2% per fiscal year, effective April 1, 2013, which will remain in effect through 2032, unless additional congressional action is taken. In January 2013, President Obama signed into law the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012, which, among other things, reduced Medicare payments to several providers, and increased the statute of limitations period for the government to recover overpayments to providers from three to five years. These laws may result in additional reductions in Medicare and other healthcare funding, which could have a material adverse effect on customers for our drugs, if approved, and accordingly, our financial operations.

Moreover, there has been heightened governmental scrutiny recently over the manner in which drug manufacturers set prices for their marketed products, which has resulted in several congressional inquiries and proposed and enacted federal and state legislation designed to, among other things, bring more transparency to product pricing, review the relationship between pricing and manufacturer patient programs, and reform government program reimbursement methodologies for drug products. For example, the American Rescue Plan Act of 2021 eliminated the statutory cap on Medicaid Drug Rebate Program rebates that manufacturers pay to state Medicaid programs. Elimination of this cap may require pharmaceutical manufacturers to pay more in rebates than it receives on the sale of products, which could have a material impact on our business. In July 2021, the Biden administration released an executive order, “Promoting Competition in the American Economy,” with multiple provisions aimed at increasing competition for prescription drugs. In August 2022, Congress passed the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022, which includes prescription drug provisions that have significant implications for the pharmaceutical industry and Medicare beneficiaries, including allowing the federal government to negotiate a maximum fair price for certain high-priced single source Medicare drugs, imposing penalties and excise tax for manufacturers that fail to comply with the drug price negotiation requirements, requiring inflation rebates for all Medicare Part B and Part D drugs, with limited exceptions, if their drug prices increase faster than inflation, and redesigning Medicare Part D to reduce out-of-pocket prescription drug costs for beneficiaries, among other changes. Various industry stakeholders, including pharmaceutical companies, the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, and the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, have initiated lawsuits against the federal government asserting that the price negotiation provisions of the Inflation Reduction Act are unconstitutional. The impact of these judicial challenges, legislative, executive, and administrative actions and any future healthcare measures and agency rules implemented by the government on us and the pharmaceutical industry as a whole is unclear. The implementation of cost containment measures, including the prescription drug provisions under the Inflation Reduction Act, as well as other healthcare reforms may prevent us from being able to generate revenue, attain profitability, or commercialize our product candidates if approved.

At the state level, legislatures have increasingly passed legislation and implemented regulations designed to control pharmaceutical product pricing, including price or patient reimbursement constraints, discounts, restrictions on certain product access and marketing cost disclosure and transparency measures, and, in some cases, designed to encourage importation from other countries and bulk purchasing. A number of states are considering or have recently enacted state drug price transparency and reporting laws that could substantially increase our compliance burdens and expose us to greater liability under such state laws once we begin commercialization after obtaining regulatory approval for any of our products. For example, FDA recently authorized the state of Florida to import certain prescription drugs from Canada for a period of two years to help reduce drug costs, provided that Florida’s Agency for Health Care Administration meets the requirements set forth by the FDA. Other states may follow Florida. We are unable to predict the future course of federal or state healthcare measures in the United States directed at broadening the availability of healthcare and containing or lowering the cost of healthcare. These

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and any further changes in the law or regulatory framework that reduce our revenue or increase our costs could also have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We expect that the ACA, as well as other healthcare reform measures that may be adopted in the future, may result in more rigorous coverage criteria and in additional downward pressure on the price that we receive for any approved product. Any reduction in reimbursement from Medicare or other government programs may result in a similar reduction in payments from private payors. The implementation of cost containment measures or other healthcare reforms may prevent us from being able to generate revenue, attain profitability or commercialize our product candidates.

Legislative and regulatory proposals have been made to expand post-approval requirements and restrict sales and promotional activities for biotechnology products. We cannot be sure whether additional legislative changes will be enacted, or whether FDA regulations, guidance or interpretations will be changed, or what the impact of such changes on the marketing approvals of our product candidates, if any, may be. In addition, increased scrutiny by Congress of the FDA’s approval process may significantly delay or prevent marketing approval, as well as subject us to more stringent product labeling and post-marketing testing and other requirements.

The regulatory framework for privacy and personal information security issues worldwide is rapidly evolving and is likely to remain uncertain for the foreseeable future. The U.S. federal and various state, local and foreign government bodies and agencies have adopted or are considering adopting laws and regulations limiting, or laws and regulations regarding, the collection, distribution, use, disclosure, storage, security and other processing of personal information.

Additionally, the collection and use of health data and other personal data is governed in the EU by the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which extends the geographical scope of EU data protection law to entities and operations outside of the EU under certain conditions and imposes substantial obligations upon companies and new rights for individuals, and by certain EU member state-level legislation. Failure to comply with the GDPR may result in fines up to €20,000,000 or up to 4% of the total worldwide annual turnover of the preceding financial year, whichever is higher, and other administrative penalties. The GDPR increases our responsibility and liability in relation to applicable personal data that we or our CROs and other contractors and service providers may process, and we may be required to put in place additional measures in an effort to comply with the GDPR and with other laws and regulations in the EU, including those of EU member states, relating to privacy and data protection. These efforts may require substantial efforts and incurring significant costs. If our efforts to comply with the GDPR or other applicable EU laws and regulations are not successful, or are perceived to be unsuccessful, it could adversely affect our business in the EU. Further, the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) invalidated the EU-U.S. Privacy Shield, which had enabled the transfer of personal data from the EU to the U.S. for companies that had self-certified to the Privacy Shield in July 2020. The CJEU decision also raised questions about the continued validity of one of the primary alternatives to the EU-U.S. Privacy Shield, namely the European Commission’s standard contractual clauses (SCCs), and EU regulators have issued additional guidance regarding considerations and requirements that we and other companies must consider and undertake when using the SCCs. EU regulators have released updated standard contractual clauses that are required to be implemented. The CJEU’s decision and other regulatory guidance or developments otherwise may impose additional obligations with respect to the transfer of personal data from the EU, United Kingdom (UK) and Switzerland to the U.S., and we may be required to engage in additional contractual negotiations relating to the new SCCs or otherwise, each of which could restrict our activities in those jurisdictions, limit our ability to provide our products and services in those jurisdictions, or increase our costs and obligations and impose limitations upon our ability to efficiently transfer personal data from the EU, UK and Switzerland to the U.S.

Further, the exit of the UK from the EU has created uncertainty with regard to data protection regulation in the UK. The UK has implemented legislation similar to the GDPR, referred to as the UK GDPR, which provides for fines of up to the greater of £17.5 million or 4% of global turnover. On June 28, 2021, the European Commission issued an adequacy decision in respect of the UK’s data protection framework, allowing personal data transfers from EU member states to the UK to continue without requiring additional contractual or other measures in order to lawfully transfer personal data between the territories. This decision is subject to renewal after four years,

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however, and may be revisited by the European Commission at any time. In the medium and longer terms, however, the relationship between the UK and EU in relation to aspects of data protection law remains unclear, including with respect to cross-border data transfers, which exposes us to further compliance risk. The UK also has issued its own standard contractual clauses, similar to the SCCs, that are required to be implemented. We may incur liabilities, expenses, costs, and other operational losses relating to the GDPR, the UK GDPR, and other laws and regulations in the EU and UK relating to privacy and data protection, including those of applicable EU member states in connection with any measures we take to comply with them.

In the United States, a broad variety of data protection laws and regulations may apply to our activities such as state data breach notification laws, state personal data privacy laws (for example, the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018 (CCPA)), state health information privacy laws, and federal and state consumer protection laws. A range of enforcement agencies exist at both the state and federal levels that can enforce these laws and regulations. For example, the CCPA requires covered businesses that process personal information of California residents to disclose their data collection, use and sharing practices. Further, the CCPA provides California residents with new data privacy rights (including the ability to opt out of certain disclosures of personal data), imposes new operational requirements for covered businesses, provides for civil penalties for violations as well as a private right of action for data breaches and statutory damages (that is expected to increase data breach class action litigation and result in significant exposure to costly legal judgements and settlements). Aspects of the CCPA and its interpretation and enforcement remain uncertain. In addition, the CCPA was expanded on January 1, 2023, when the California Privacy Rights Act of 2020 (CPRA) became operative. The CPRA, among other things, gives California residents the ability to limit use of certain sensitive personal information, establishes restrictions on the retention of personal information, expand the types of data breaches subject to the CCPA’s private right of action, provides for increased penalties for CPRA violations concerning California residents under the age of 16, and establishes a new California Privacy Protection Agency to implement and enforce the new legislation. Although there are limited exemptions for clinical trial data under the CCPA, the CCPA and other similar laws could impact our business activities, depending on their interpretation. Additionally, other state legislatures have enacted or are currently contemplating, and may pass, their own data privacy and security laws, with potentially greater penalties and more rigorous compliance requirements relevant to our business. Many of these laws are comprehensive privacy statutes that impose obligations similar to the CCPA. For example, Colorado has enacted a Colorado Privacy Act (CPA) in June 2021 that went into effect on July 1, 2023, with enforcement commencing on the same date. The Colorado Attorney General released its rules implementing the CPA on March 15, 2023. Connecticut, Utah and Virginia have also enacted legislation similar to the CCPA and the CPA that have taken effect in 2023; Florida, Montana, Oregon, and Texas have enacted similar legislation that takes effect in 2024; Delaware, Iowa, New Jersey and Tennessee have enacted similar legislation that will take effect in 2025; and Indiana has enacted similar legislation that will take effect in 2026.

Additionally, state and foreign laws may apply generally to the privacy and security of information we maintain, and may differ from each other in significant ways, thus complicating compliance efforts and potentially requiring us to undertake additional measures to comply with them. With the GDPR, CCPA, CPRA, CPA and other laws, regulations and other obligations relating to privacy and data protection imposing new and relatively burdensome obligations, and with substantial uncertainty over the interpretation and application of these and other obligations, we may face challenges in addressing their requirements and in making necessary changes to our policies and practices, and may incur significant costs and expenses in an effort to do so. Additionally, if third parties we work with, such as vendors or service providers, violate applicable laws or regulations or our policies, such violations may also put our or our customers’ data at risk and could in turn have an adverse effect on our business. Any failure or perceived failure by us or our service providers to comply with our applicable policies or notices relating to privacy or data protection, our contractual or other obligations to third parties, or any of our other legal obligations relating to privacy or data protection, may result in governmental investigations or enforcement actions, litigation, claims and other proceedings, harm our reputation, and could result in significant liability.

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Inadequate funding for the FDA, the SEC and other government agencies could hinder their ability to hire and retain key leadership and other personnel, prevent new products and services from being developed or commercialized in a timely manner or otherwise prevent those agencies from performing normal business functions on which the operation of our business may rely, which could negatively impact our business.

The ability of the FDA to review and approve new products can be affected by a variety of factors, including government budget and funding levels, ability to hire and retain key personnel and accept the payment of user fees, and statutory, regulatory, and policy changes. Average review times at the agency have fluctuated in recent years as a result. In addition, government funding of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and other government agencies on which our operations may rely, including those that fund research and development activities is subject to the political process, which is inherently fluid and unpredictable.

Disruptions at the FDA and other agencies, including delays or disruptions due to the COVID-19 pandemic or other public health emergencies, travel restrictions, staffing shortages, may also slow the time necessary for new drugs to be reviewed and/or approved by necessary government agencies, which would adversely affect our business. For example, in 2018 and 2019, the U.S. government shut down several times and certain regulatory agencies, such as the FDA and the SEC, had to furlough critical employees and stop critical activities. If any prolonged government shutdown or disruption occurs, including due to any public health emergencies, resurgence in COVID-19 cases, travel restrictions, or COVID-19-related policies, staffing shortages, it could significantly impact the ability of the FDA and other regulatory authorities to timely review and process our regulatory submissions and provide feedback on our clinical development plans, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and our anticipated timelines. Further, future government shutdowns or disruptions to normal operations could impact our ability to access the public markets and obtain necessary capital in order to properly capitalize and continue our operations.

Our relationships with healthcare professionals, clinical investigators, CROs and third-party payors in connection with our current and future business activities may be subject to federal and state healthcare fraud and abuse laws, false claims laws, transparency laws, government price reporting, and health information privacy and security laws, which could expose us to significant losses, including, among other things, criminal sanctions, civil penalties, contractual damages, exclusion from governmental healthcare programs, reputational harm, administrative burdens and diminished profits and future earnings.

Healthcare providers and third-party payors play a primary role in the recommendation and prescription of any product candidates for which we obtain marketing approval. Our current and future arrangements with healthcare professionals, clinical investigators, CROs, third-party payors and customers may expose us to broadly applicable fraud and abuse and other healthcare laws and regulations that may constrain the business or financial arrangements and relationships through which we research, as well as market, sell and distribute our products for which we obtain marketing approval. Restrictions under applicable federal and state healthcare laws and regulations may include the following:

the federal Anti-Kickback Statute prohibits, among other things, persons and entities from knowingly and willfully soliciting, offering, receiving or providing remuneration, directly or indirectly, in cash or in kind, to induce or reward, or in return for, either the referral of an individual for, or the purchase, order or recommendation of, any good or service, for which payment may be made under a federal healthcare program such as Medicare and Medicaid;
the federal false claims laws, including the civil False Claims Act, which can be enforced by private citizens through civil whistleblower or qui tam actions, and civil monetary penalties laws, prohibit individuals or entities from, among other things, knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, to the federal government, claims for payment that are false or fraudulent or making a false statement to avoid, decrease or conceal an obligation to pay money to the federal government;
the federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), prohibits, among other things, executing or attempting to execute a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program or making false statements relating to healthcare matters;

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HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (HITECH) and their implementing regulations, also imposes obligations, including mandatory contractual terms, on covered entities, which are health plans, healthcare clearinghouses, and certain health care providers, as those terms are defined by HIPAA, and their respective business associates and their subcontractors, with respect to safeguarding the privacy, security and transmission of individually identifiable health information;
the federal Physician Payments Sunshine Act requires applicable manufacturers of covered drugs, devices, biologics and medical supplies for which payment is available under Medicare, Medicaid or the Children’s Health Insurance Program, with specific exceptions, to annually report to CMS information regarding payments and other transfers of value made to covered recipients, including physicians (defined to include doctors, dentists, optometrists, podiatrists and chiropractors), certain non-physician healthcare professionals (such as nurse practitioners and physician assistants, among others), and teaching hospitals as well as information regarding ownership and investment interests held by physicians; and
analogous state and foreign laws and regulations, such as state anti-kickback and false claims laws, may apply to sales or marketing arrangements and claims involving healthcare items or services reimbursed by non-governmental third-party payors, including private insurers; state laws that require pharmaceutical companies to comply with the pharmaceutical industry’s voluntary compliance guidelines and the relevant compliance regulations promulgated by the federal government and may require drug manufacturers to report information related to payments and other transfers of value to physicians and other healthcare providers, marketing expenditures, or drug pricing; state and local laws that require the registration of pharmaceutical sales and medical representatives; state laws that govern the privacy and security of health information in some circumstances, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and often are not preempted by HIPAA, thus complicating compliance efforts.

Efforts to ensure that our current and future business arrangements with third parties will comply with applicable healthcare and data privacy laws and regulations will involve substantial ongoing costs and may require us to undertake or implement additional policies or measures. We may face claims and proceedings by private parties, and claims, investigations and other proceedings by governmental authorities, relating to allegations that our business practices do not comply with current or future statutes, regulations or case law involving applicable fraud and abuse or other healthcare laws and regulations, and it is possible that courts or governmental authorities may conclude that we have not complied with them, or that we may find it necessary or appropriate to settle any such claims or other proceedings. In connection with any such claims, proceedings, or settlements, we may be subject to significant penalties, including civil, criminal and administrative penalties, damages, fines, disgorgement, imprisonment, exclusion from participation in government funded healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid, integrity oversight and reporting obligations, contractual damages, reputational harm, diminished profits and future earnings and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations. Defending against any such actions can be costly, time-consuming and may require significant financial and personnel resources. Therefore, even if we are successful in defending against any such actions that may be brought against us, our business may be impaired. Further, if any of the physicians or other healthcare providers or entities with whom we expect to do business is found to be not in compliance with applicable laws, they may be subject to criminal, civil or administrative sanctions, including exclusions from government funded healthcare programs.

Our employees, independent contractors, consultants, commercial collaborators, principal investigators, CROs, suppliers and vendors may engage in misconduct or other improper activities, including noncompliance with regulatory standards and requirements.

We are exposed to the risk that our employees, independent contractors, consultants, commercial collaborators, principal investigators, CROs, suppliers and vendors may engage in misconduct or other improper activities. Misconduct by these parties could include failures to comply with FDA regulations, provide accurate information to the FDA, comply with federal and state health care fraud and abuse laws and regulations, accurately report financial information or data or disclose unauthorized activities to us. In particular, research, sales, marketing and business arrangements in the health care industry are subject to extensive laws and regulations

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intended to prevent fraud, misconduct, kickbacks, self-dealing and other abusive practices. These laws and regulations may restrict or prohibit a wide range of pricing, discounting, marketing and promotion, sales commission, customer incentive programs and other business arrangements. Misconduct by these parties could also involve the improper use of information obtained in the course of clinical trials, which could result in regulatory sanctions and serious harm to our reputation. We have adopted a code of conduct but it is not always possible to identify and deter misconduct by these parties, and the precautions we take to detect and prevent this activity may not be effective in controlling unknown or unmanaged risks or losses or in protecting us from governmental investigations or other actions or lawsuits stemming from a failure to comply with these laws or regulations. If any such actions are instituted against us, and we are not successful in defending ourselves or asserting our rights, those actions could have a significant impact on our business, including the imposition of significant penalties, including civil, criminal and administrative penalties, damages, fines, disgorgement, imprisonment, exclusion from participation in government funded healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid, integrity oversight and reporting obligations, contractual damages, reputational harm, diminished profits and future earnings and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations.

If we fail to comply with environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, we could become subject to fines or penalties or incur costs that could have a material adverse effect on our business.

We are subject to numerous environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, including those governing laboratory procedures and the handling, use, storage, treatment and disposal of hazardous materials and wastes. Our operations involve the use of hazardous and flammable materials, including chemicals and biological materials. Our operations also produce hazardous waste products. We generally contract with third parties for the disposal of these materials and wastes. We cannot eliminate the risk of contamination or injury from these materials. In the event of contamination or injury resulting from our use of hazardous materials, we could be held liable for any resulting damages, and any liability could exceed our resources. We also could incur significant costs associated with civil or criminal fines and penalties.

Although we maintain workers’ compensation insurance to cover us for costs and expenses, we may incur due to injuries to our employees resulting from the use of hazardous materials, this insurance may not provide adequate coverage against potential liabilities. We do not maintain insurance for environmental liability or toxic tort claims that may be asserted against us in connection with our storage or disposal of hazardous and flammable materials, including chemicals and biological materials.

In addition, we may incur substantial costs in order to comply with current or future environmental, health and safety laws and regulations. These current or future laws and regulations may impair our research, development or commercialization efforts. Failure to comply with these laws and regulations also may result in substantial fines, penalties or other sanctions.

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Our business activities may be subject to the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and similar anti-bribery and anti-corruption laws of other countries in which we operate, as well as U.S. and certain foreign export controls, trade sanctions, and import laws and regulations. Compliance with these legal requirements could limit our ability to compete in foreign markets and subject us to liability if we violate them.

Our business activities are subject to the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended (FCPA), the U.S. domestic bribery statute contained in 18 U.S.C. § 201, the U.S. Travel Act, and similar anti-bribery or anti-corruption laws, regulations or rules of other countries in which we operate. These laws generally prohibit companies and their employees, agents, representatives, business partners, and third-party intermediaries from, directly or indirectly, offering, promising, giving or authorizing others to give anything of value, either directly or indirectly, to recipients in the public or private sector in order to influence official action or otherwise obtain or retain business. Our business is heavily regulated and therefore involves significant interaction with public officials, including officials of non-U.S. governments. Additionally, in many other countries, hospitals are owned and operated by the government, and doctors and other hospital employees would be considered foreign officials under the FCPA. Recently, the SEC and DOJ have increased their FCPA enforcement activities with respect to biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies.

We sometimes leverage third parties to assist with the conduct of our business abroad. We, our employees, agents, representatives, business partners and our third-party intermediaries may have direct or indirect interactions with officials and employees of government agencies or state-owned or affiliated entities and may be held liable for the corrupt or other illegal activities of these employees, agents, representatives, business partners or third-party intermediaries even if we do not explicitly authorize such activities. We cannot assure you that all of our employees, agents, representatives, business partners and third-party intermediaries will not take actions in violation of applicable law for which we may be ultimately held responsible. As we increase our international sales and business, our risks under these laws may increase.

These laws also require that we make and keep books and records that accurately and fairly reflect the transactions of the corporation and to devise and maintain an adequate system of internal accounting controls and compliance procedures designed to prevent violations of anti-corruption laws. There is no certainty that all of our employees, agents, representatives, business partners and third-party intermediaries, or those of our affiliates, will comply with applicable laws and regulations, for which we may be ultimately held responsible.

Violations of these laws and regulations could result in whistleblower complaints, fines, severe civil or criminal sanctions, settlements, prosecution, enforcement actions, damages, adverse media coverage, investigations, loss of export privileges, disgorgement, and other remedial measures and prohibitions on the conduct of our business including our ability to offer our products in one or more countries. Responding to any investigation or action will likely result in a materially significant diversion of management’s attention and resources and significant defense costs and other professional fees. As a general matter, investigations, enforcement actions and sanctions could damage our reputation, our brand, our international activities, our ability to attract and retain employees and our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition.

In addition, our products may be subject to U.S. and foreign export controls, trade sanctions and import laws and regulations. Governmental regulation of the import or export of our products, or our failure to obtain any required import or export authorization for our products, when applicable, could harm our international sales and adversely affect our revenue. Compliance with applicable regulatory requirements regarding the export of our products may create delays in the introduction of our products in international markets or, in some cases, prevent the export of our products to some countries altogether. Furthermore, U.S. export control laws and economic sanctions prohibit the shipment of certain products and services to countries, governments, and persons targeted by U.S. sanctions. If we fail to comply with export and import regulations and such economic sanctions, penalties could be imposed, including fines and/or denial of certain export privileges. Moreover, any new export or import restrictions, new legislation or shifting approaches in the enforcement or scope of existing regulations, or in the countries, persons, or products targeted by such regulations, could result in decreased use of our products by, or in our decreased ability to export our products to, existing or potential customers with international operations. Any

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decreased use of our products or limitation on our ability to export or sell our products would likely adversely affect our business.

Risks Related to Employee Matters, Managing Our Growth and Other Risks Related to Our Business

Our success is highly dependent on our ability to attract and retain highly skilled executive officers and employees.

To succeed, we must recruit, retain, manage and motivate qualified clinical, scientific, technical and management personnel, and we face significant competition for experienced personnel. We are highly dependent on the principal members of our management and scientific and medical staff, particularly Alan Russell, our Co-Founder and Chief Scientific Officer. Additionally, wage inflation may interfere with our ability to hire or retain personnel. If we do not succeed in attracting and retaining qualified personnel, particularly at the management level, it could adversely affect our ability to execute our business plan and harm our operating results. In particular, the loss of one or more of our executive officers could be detrimental to us if we cannot recruit suitable replacements in a timely manner. We do not maintain “key person” insurance for any of our executives or other employees. We could in the future have difficulty attracting and retaining experienced personnel and may be required to expend significant financial resources in our employee recruitment and retention efforts.

Many of the other biotechnology companies that we compete against for qualified personnel have greater financial and other resources, different risk profiles and a longer history in the industry than we do. They also may provide higher compensation, more diverse opportunities and better prospects for career advancement. Some of these characteristics may be more appealing to high-quality candidates than what we have to offer. If we are unable to continue to attract and retain high-quality personnel, the rate and success at which we can discover, develop and commercialize our product candidates will be limited and the potential for successfully growing our business will be harmed.

Additionally, we rely on our scientific founders and other scientific and clinical advisors and consultants to assist us in formulating our research, development and clinical strategies. These advisors and consultants are not our employees and may have commitments to, or consulting or advisory contracts with, other entities that may limit their availability to us. In addition, these advisors and consultants typically will not enter into non-compete agreements with us. If a conflict of interest arises between their work for us and their work for another entity, we may lose their services. Furthermore, our advisors may have arrangements with other companies to assist those companies in developing products or technologies that may compete with ours. In particular, if we are unable to maintain consulting relationships with our scientific founders or if they provide services to our competitors, our development and commercialization efforts will be impaired and our business will be significantly harmed.

If we are unable to establish sales or marketing capabilities or enter into agreements with third parties to sell or market our product candidates, we may not be able to successfully sell or market our product candidates that obtain regulatory approval.

We currently do not have and have never had a marketing or sales team. In order to commercialize any product candidates, if approved, we must build marketing, sales, distribution, managerial and other non-technical capabilities or make arrangements with third parties to perform these services for each of the territories in which we may have approval to sell or market our product candidates. We may not be successful in accomplishing these required tasks.

Establishing an internal sales or marketing team with technical expertise and supporting distribution capabilities to commercialize our product candidates will be expensive and time-consuming and will require significant attention of our executive officers to manage. Any failure or delay in the development of our internal sales, marketing and distribution capabilities could adversely impact the commercialization of any of our product candidates that we obtain approval to market, if we do not have arrangements in place with third parties to provide such services on our behalf. Alternatively, if we choose to collaborate, either globally or on a territory-by-territory basis, with third parties that have direct sales forces and established distribution systems, either to augment our own sales force and distribution systems or in lieu of our own sales force and distribution systems, we will be required to negotiate and enter into arrangements with such third parties relating to the proposed collaboration and

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such arrangements may prove to be less profitable than commercializing the product on our own. If we are unable to enter into such arrangements when needed, on acceptable terms, or at all, we may not be able to successfully commercialize any of our product candidates that receive regulatory approval, or any such commercialization may experience delays or limitations. If we are unable to successfully commercialize our approved product candidates, either on our own or through collaborations with one or more third parties, our future product revenue will suffer, and we may incur significant additional losses.

In order to successfully implement our plans and strategies, we will need to grow the size of our organization, and we may experience difficulties in managing this growth.

As of December 31, 2023, we had 88 full-time employees. Of these employees, 69 are engaged in research or product development and clinical activities. In order to successfully implement our development and commercialization plans and strategies, we expect to need additional managerial, operational, sales, marketing, financial and other personnel. Future growth would impose significant added responsibilities on members of management, including:

identifying, recruiting, integrating, maintaining and motivating additional employees;
managing our internal development efforts effectively, including the clinical, FDA, EMA and other comparable foreign regulatory agencies’ review process for EDG-5506, EDG-7500, product candidates from our EDG-003 cardiometabolic discovery program and any other product candidates, while complying with any contractual obligations to contractors and other third parties we may have; and
improving our operational, financial and management controls, reporting systems and procedures.

Our future financial performance and our ability to successfully develop and, if approved, commercialize EDG-5506, EDG-7500, product candidates from our EDG-003 cardiometabolic discovery program and other product candidates will depend, in part, on our ability to effectively manage any future growth, and our management may also have to divert a disproportionate amount of its attention away from day-to-day activities in order to devote a substantial amount of time to managing these growth activities.

We currently rely, and for the foreseeable future will continue to rely, in substantial part on certain independent organizations, advisors and consultants to provide certain services, including key aspects of our research and development, clinical development and manufacturing. We cannot assure you that the services of independent organizations, advisors and consultants will continue to be available to us on a timely basis when needed, or that we can find qualified replacements. In addition, if we are unable to effectively manage our outsourced activities or if the quality or accuracy of the services provided by third-party service providers is compromised for any reason, our clinical trials may be extended, delayed or terminated, and we may not be able to obtain marketing approval of EDG-5506, EDG-7500, product candidates from our EDG-003 cardiometabolic discovery program and any other product candidates or otherwise advance our business. We cannot assure you that we will be able to manage our existing third-party service providers or find other competent outside contractors and consultants on economically reasonable terms, or at all.

If we are not able to effectively expand our organization by hiring new employees and/or engaging additional third-party service providers, we may not be able to successfully implement the tasks necessary to further develop and commercialize EDG-5506, EDG-7500, product candidates from our EDG-003 cardiometabolic discovery program and other product candidates and, accordingly, may not achieve our research, development and commercialization goals.

Our computer systems, or those of any of our CROs, manufacturers, other contractors or consultants or potential future collaborators, may fail or suffer security or data privacy breaches or incidents or other unauthorized or improper access to, use of, or destruction of our proprietary or confidential data, employee data, or personal data, which could result in additional costs, loss of revenue, significant liabilities, harm to our brand and material disruption of our operations.

Despite the implementation of security measures in an effort to protect systems that store our information, given their size and complexity and the increasing amounts of information maintained on our internal information

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technology systems, and those of our third-party CROs, other contractors (including sites performing our clinical trials) and consultants, these systems are potentially vulnerable to breakdown or other damage or interruption from service interruptions, system malfunction, natural disasters, terrorism, war and telecommunication and electrical failures, as well as security breaches and incidents from inadvertent or intentional actions by our employees, contractors, consultants, business partners, and/or other third parties, or from cyber-attacks by malicious third parties (including supply chain cyber-attacks or the deployment of harmful malware, ransomware, denial-of-service attacks, social engineering and other means to affect service reliability and threaten the confidentiality, integrity and availability of information), which may compromise our system infrastructure or lead to the loss, destruction, alteration, prevention of access to, disclosure, or dissemination of, or damage or unauthorized access to, our data (including trade secrets or other confidential information, intellectual property, proprietary business information, and personal information) or data that is processed or maintained on our behalf, or other assets, which could result in financial, legal, business and reputational harm to us. For example, in 2019, one of our CROs experienced a cybersecurity breach which resulted in unauthorized access to certain of our preclinical data. Additionally, in 2023, one of our CROs experienced a cyber-attack for which an investigation found that no unauthorized access to Edgewise data occurred in connection with this event. We have received phishing attacks, and companies have, in general, experienced an increase in phishing and social engineering attacks from third parties in connection with the increase in remote working, which has increased these and other cybersecurity risks. Additionally, cybersecurity researchers have warned of heightened risks of cyberattacks in connection with the Russia-Ukraine and Israel-Hamas military conflicts. Any disruption or security incident resulting in any loss, destruction, unavailability, alteration, disclosure, disruption or dissemination of, or damage or unauthorized access to, our applications, any other data processed or maintained on our behalf or other assets, or for it to be believed or reported that any of these occurred, could cause us to incur liability, financial harm and reputational damage and could contribute to delays in the development and commercialization of our product candidates. We cannot assure you that our data protection efforts and our investment in information technology, or the efforts or investments of CROs, consultants or other third parties, will prevent significant breakdowns in systems or will prevent, or have prevented, other cyber incidents that could disrupt our programs and operations and the development of our product candidates or result in loss, destruction, unavailability, alteration or dissemination of, or damage or unauthorized access to, our data and other data processed or maintained on our behalf or other assets, any of which could have a material adverse effect upon our reputation, business, operations or financial condition. Any such event that leads to loss, damage, or unauthorized access to, or use, alteration, or disclosure, dissemination, or other processing of, personal information, including personal information regarding our clinical trial subjects or employees, or the perception that any such event has occurred, could harm our reputation directly, compel us to comply with federal and/or state breach notification laws and foreign law equivalents, subject us to mandatory corrective action, and otherwise subject us to liability under laws and regulations that protect the privacy and security of personal information, which could result in significant legal and financial exposure and reputational damages that could potentially have an adverse effect on our business.

Notifications and follow-up actions related to a security breach or incident could impact our reputation and cause us to incur significant costs, including legal expenses and remediation costs. For example, the loss, corruption or unavailability of clinical trial data from completed or future clinical trials could result in delays in our regulatory approval efforts and significantly increase our costs to recover or reproduce the impacted data. We expect to incur significant costs in an effort to detect and prevent security breaches and incidents, and we may face increased costs and requirements to expend substantial resources in the event of an actual or perceived security breach or incident. We also rely on third parties to manufacture our product candidates, and similar events relating to their infrastructure and systems could also have a material adverse effect on our business.

Our insurance policies may not be adequate to compensate us for the potential losses arising from any such disruption in or, failure or security breach or incident of or impacting our systems or third-party systems where information important to our business operations or commercial development is stored. In addition, such insurance may not be available to us in the future on economically reasonable terms, or at all. Further, our insurance may not cover all claims made against us and could have high deductibles in any event, and defending a suit, regardless of its merit, could be costly and divert management attention.

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Our operations are vulnerable to interruption by fire, earthquakes, power loss, telecommunications failure, terrorist activity, pandemics and other events beyond our control, which could harm our business.

Our facilities are located in Boulder, Colorado. We have not undertaken a systematic analysis of the potential consequences to our business and financial results from a major flood, blizzard, fire, earthquake, power loss, terrorist activity, pandemics or other disasters and do not have a recovery plan for such disasters. In addition, we do not carry sufficient insurance to compensate us for actual losses from interruption of our business that may occur, and any losses or damages incurred by us could harm our business. Also, our contract development and manufacturing organizations’ (CDMOs) and suppliers’ facilities are located in multiple locations where other natural disasters or similar events which could severely disrupt our operations, could expose us to liability and could have a material adverse effect on our business. The occurrence of any of these business disruptions could seriously harm our operations and financial condition and increase our costs and expenses.

Our business may become subject to economic, political, regulatory and other risks associated with international operations directly or indirectly. A variety of risks associated with marketing our product candidates internationally could materially adversely affect our business.

Our business is subject to risks associated with business operations we conduct internationally, as well as indirect impacts from our relationships with collaborators, partners, or contractors who conduct business internationally. We may seek regulatory approval of our product candidates outside of the United States and, accordingly, we expect that we will be subject to additional risks related to operating in foreign countries if we obtain the necessary approvals, including:

differing regulatory requirements and reimbursement regimes in foreign countries, including changes in existing regulatory requirements and implementation of new regulatory requirements or policies that impact our clinical development and business operations in foreign countries;
foreign regulatory authorities may disagree with the design, implementation or results of our clinical trials or our interpretation of data from preclinical studies or clinical trials;
approval policies or regulations of foreign regulatory authorities may significantly change in a manner rendering our clinical data insufficient for approval;
unexpected changes in tariffs, trade barriers, price and exchange controls and other regulatory requirements;
economic weakness, including inflation, or political instability in particular foreign economies and markets;
compliance with tax, employment, immigration and labor laws for employees living or traveling abroad;
foreign taxes, including withholding of payroll taxes;
foreign currency fluctuations, which could result in increased operating expenses and reduced revenue, and other obligations incident to doing business in another country;
difficulties staffing and managing foreign operations;
workforce uncertainty in countries where labor unrest is more common than in the United States;
potential liability under the FCPA or comparable foreign regulations;

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challenges enforcing our contractual and intellectual property rights, especially in those foreign countries that do not respect and protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as the United States;
impact of the COVID-19 pandemic or other public health concerns on our ability to produce our product candidates and conduct clinical trials in foreign countries;
production or supply shortages or other disruptions resulting from any events affecting raw material supply or manufacturing capabilities abroad, including, but not limited to, impacts due to the ongoing Ukraine-Russia war, addition of certain suppliers or companies to the Unverified List or other export restrictions under the Export Administration Regulations, implementation of other export controls, restrictions or sanctions that can impact the supply chain, our business, or business operations of our suppliers, contractors or partners; and
business interruptions resulting from geo-political actions, including war, such as the ongoing war in Ukraine and the Israel-Hamas war, other regional or geo-political conflicts, and terrorism.

In particular, there is currently significant uncertainty about the future relationship between the United States and various other countries, most significantly China, with respect to trade policies, treaties, tariffs, taxes, and other limitations on cross-border operations. The U.S. government has and continues to make significant additional changes in U.S. trade policy and may continue to take future actions that could negatively impact U.S. trade. For example, legislation has been introduced in Congress to limit certain U.S. biotechnology companies from using equipment or services produced or provided by select Chinese biotechnology companies, and others in Congress have advocated for the use of existing executive branch authorities to limit those Chinese service providers’ ability to engage in business in the U.S. We cannot predict what actions may ultimately be taken with respect to trade relations between the United States and China or other countries, what products and services may be subject to such actions or what actions may be taken by the other countries in retaliation. If we are unable to obtain or use services from existing service providers or become unable to export or sell our products to any of our customers or service providers, our business, liquidity, financial condition, and/or results of operations would be materially and adversely affected.

These and other risks associated with our international operations may materially adversely affect our ability to attain or maintain profitable operations.

Inflation in the global economy could negatively impact our business and results of operations. 

General inflation in the United States, Europe and other geographies has risen to levels not experienced in recent decades. General inflation, including rising prices for our trial drug supply, CROs, CDMOs and rising salaries negatively impact our business by increasing our operating expenses. To the extent general inflation results in rising interest rates and has other adverse effects on the market, it may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property

Our success depends on our ability to protect our intellectual property and our proprietary technologies.

Our commercial success depends in part on our ability to obtain and maintain patent protection and trade secret protection for our product candidates, proprietary technologies and their uses as well as our ability to operate without infringing upon the proprietary rights of others. We generally seek to protect our proprietary position by filing patent applications in the United States and abroad related to our product candidates, proprietary technologies and their uses that are important to our business. We also seek to protect our proprietary position by acquiring or in-licensing relevant issued patents or pending applications from third parties.

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Pending patent applications cannot be enforced against third parties practicing the technology claimed in such applications unless, and until, patents issue from such applications, and then only to the extent the issued claims cover the technology. There can be no assurance that our patent applications or the patent applications of any licensor will result in additional patents being issued or that issued patents will afford sufficient protection against competitors with similar technology, nor can there be any assurance that the patents issued will not be infringed, designed around or invalidated by third parties.

Even issued patents may later be found invalid or unenforceable or may be modified or revoked in proceedings instituted by third parties before various patent offices or in courts. The degree of future protection for our and any licensor’s proprietary rights is uncertain. Only limited protection may be available and may not adequately protect our rights or permit us to gain or keep any competitive advantage. These uncertainties and/or limitations in our ability to properly protect the intellectual property rights relating to our product candidates could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

We cannot be certain that the claims in our U.S. pending patent applications, corresponding international patent applications and patent applications in certain foreign territories, or that of any licensor, will be considered patentable by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), courts in the United States or by the patent offices and courts in foreign countries, nor can we be certain that issued claims will not be found invalid or unenforceable if challenged.

The patent application process is subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, and there can be no assurance that we or any of our potential future collaborators will be successful in protecting our product candidates by obtaining and defending patents. These risks and uncertainties include the following:

the USPTO and various foreign governmental patent agencies require compliance with a number of procedural, documentary, fee payment and other provisions during the patent process, the noncompliance with which can result in abandonment or lapse of a patent or patent application, and partial or complete loss of patent rights in the relevant jurisdiction;
patent applications may not result in any patents being issued;
patents may be challenged, invalidated, modified, revoked, circumvented, found to be unenforceable or otherwise may not provide any competitive advantage;
our competitors, many of whom have substantially greater resources than we do and many of whom have made significant investments in competing technologies, may seek or may have already obtained patents that will limit, interfere with or eliminate our ability to make, use and sell our potential product candidates;
there may be significant pressure on the U.S. government and international governmental bodies to limit the scope of patent protection both inside and outside the United States for disease treatments that prove successful, as a matter of public policy regarding worldwide health concerns; and
countries other than the United States may have patent laws less favorable to patentees than those upheld by U.S. courts, allowing foreign competitors a better opportunity to create, develop and market competing product candidates.

The patent prosecution process is also expensive and time-consuming, and we and any licensor may not be able to file and prosecute all necessary or desirable patent applications at a reasonable cost or in a timely manner or in all jurisdictions where protection may be commercially advantageous. It is also possible that we or any licensor will fail to identify patentable aspects of our research and development output before it is too late to obtain patent protection.

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In addition, although we enter into non-disclosure and confidentiality agreements with parties who have access to patentable aspects of our research and development output, such as our employees, outside scientific collaborators, CROs, third-party manufacturers, consultants, advisors and other third parties, any of these parties may breach such agreements and disclose such output before a patent application is filed, thereby jeopardizing our ability to seek patent protection.

Given the amount of time required for the development, testing and regulatory review of new product candidates, patents protecting such candidates might expire before or shortly after such candidates are commercialized. As a result, our intellectual property may not provide us with sufficient rights to exclude others from commercializing products similar or identical to ours.

If the scope of any patent protection we obtain is not sufficiently broad, or if we lose any of our patent protection, our ability to prevent our competitors from commercializing similar or identical product candidates would be adversely affected.

The patent position of biopharmaceutical companies generally is highly uncertain, involves complex legal and factual questions, and has been the subject of much litigation in recent years. As a result, the issuance, scope, validity, enforceability and commercial value of our patent rights are highly uncertain. Our pending and future patent applications and those of any licensor may not result in patents being issued which protect our product candidates or which effectively prevent others from commercializing competitive product candidates.

Moreover, the coverage claimed in a patent application can be significantly reduced before the patent is issued, and its scope can be reinterpreted after issuance. Even if patent applications we own or in-license currently or in the future issue as patents, they may not issue in a form that will provide us with any meaningful protection, prevent competitors or other third parties from competing with us, or otherwise provide us with any competitive advantage. Any patents that we own or in-license may be challenged or circumvented by third parties or may be narrowed or invalidated as a result of challenges by third parties. Consequently, we do not know whether our product candidates will be protectable or remain protected by valid and enforceable patents. Our competitors or other third parties may be able to circumvent our patents or the patents of any licensors by developing similar or alternative technologies or products in a non-infringing manner which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

The issuance of a patent is not conclusive as to its inventorship, scope, validity or enforceability, and our patents or the patents of any licensor may be challenged in the courts or patent offices in the United States and abroad. We may be subject to a third-party pre-issuance submission of prior art to the USPTO, or become involved in opposition, derivation, revocation, reexamination, post-grant review (PGR) and inter partes review (IPR), or other similar proceedings challenging our owned patent rights. An adverse determination in any such submission, proceeding or litigation could reduce the scope of, or invalidate or render unenforceable, our patent rights, allow third parties to commercialize our product candidates and compete directly with us, without payment to us, or result in our inability to manufacture or commercialize products without infringing third-party patent rights. Moreover, our patents or the patents of any licensor may become subject to post-grant challenge proceedings, such as oppositions in a foreign patent office, that challenge our priority of invention or other features of patentability with respect to our patents and patent applications and those of any licensor. Such challenges may result in loss of patent rights, loss of exclusivity or in patent claims being narrowed, invalidated or held unenforceable, which could limit our ability to stop others from using or commercializing similar or identical technology and products, or limit the duration of the patent protection of our product candidates. Such proceedings also may result in substantial cost and require significant time from our scientists and management, even if the eventual outcome is favorable to us. In addition, if the breadth or strength of protection provided by our patents and patent applications or the patents and patent applications of any licensor is threatened, regardless of the outcome, it could dissuade companies from collaborating with us to license, develop or commercialize current or future product candidates.

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Intellectual property rights do not necessarily address all potential threats to our competitive advantage.

The degree of future protection afforded by our intellectual property rights is uncertain because intellectual property rights have limitations and may not adequately protect our business or permit us to maintain our competitive advantage. For example:

others may be able to develop products that are similar to our product candidates but that are not covered by the claims of the patents that we own or license;
we or any licensor or collaborators might not have been the first to make the inventions covered by the patent applications that we own or license;
we or any licensor or collaborators might not have been the first to file patent applications covering certain of our inventions;
others may independently develop similar or alternative technologies or duplicate any of our technologies without infringing our intellectual property rights;
it is possible that the pending patent applications we own or license will not lead to issued patents;
our competitors might conduct research and development activities in countries where we do not have patent rights and then use the information learned from such activities to develop competitive products for sale in our major commercial markets;
we may not develop additional proprietary technologies that are patentable;
the patents of others may have an adverse effect on our business; and
we may choose not to file a patent in order to maintain certain trade secrets or know-how, and a third-party may subsequently file a patent covering such intellectual property.

Should any of these events occur, it could significantly harm our business, results of operations and prospects.

Our commercial success depends significantly on our ability to operate without infringing the patents and other proprietary rights of third parties. Claims by third parties that we infringe their proprietary rights may result in liability for damages or prevent or delay our developmental and commercialization efforts.

Our commercial success depends in part on avoiding infringement of the patents and proprietary rights of third parties. However, our research, development and commercialization activities may be subject to claims that we infringe or otherwise violate patents or other intellectual property rights owned or controlled by third parties. Other entities may have or obtain patents or proprietary rights that could limit our ability to make, use, sell, offer for sale or import our product candidates and products that may be approved in the future, or impair our competitive position. There is a substantial amount of litigation, both within and outside the United States, involving patent and other intellectual property rights in the biopharmaceutical industry, including patent infringement lawsuits, oppositions, reexaminations, IPR proceedings and PGR proceedings before the USPTO and/or corresponding foreign patent offices. Numerous third-party U.S. and foreign issued patents and pending patent applications exist in the fields in which we are developing product candidates. There may be third-party patents or patent applications with claims to materials, formulations, methods of manufacture or methods for treatment related to the use or manufacture of our product candidates.

There are numerous U.S. and foreign issued patents and pending patent applications owned by third-parties in the fields in which we are developing our product candidates. Because patent applications are maintained as confidential for a certain period of time, until the relevant application is published, we may be unaware of third-

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party patents that may be infringed by commercialization of any of our product candidates, and we cannot be certain that we were the first to file a patent application related to a product candidate or technology. Moreover, because patent applications can take many years to issue, there may be currently-pending patent applications that may later result in issued patents that our product candidates may infringe. In addition, identification of third-party patent rights that may be relevant to our technology is difficult because patent searching is imperfect due to differences in terminology among patents, incomplete databases and the difficulty in assessing the meaning of patent claims. There is also no assurance that there is not prior art of which we are aware, but which we do not believe is relevant to our business, which may, nonetheless, ultimately be found to limit our ability to make, use, sell, offer for sale or import our products that may be approved in the future, or impair our competitive position. In addition, third parties may obtain patents in the future and claim that use of our technologies infringes upon these patents. Any claims of patent infringement asserted by third parties would be time consuming and could:

result in costly litigation that may cause negative publicity;
divert the time and attention of our technical personnel and management;
cause development delays;
prevent us from commercializing any of our product candidates until the asserted patent expires or is held finally invalid or not infringed in a court of law;
require us to develop non-infringing technology, which may not be possible on a cost-effective basis;
subject us to significant liability to third parties; or
require us to enter into royalty or licensing agreements, which may not be available on commercially reasonable terms, or at all, or which might be non-exclusive, which could result in our competitors gaining access to the same technology.

Although no third-party has asserted a claim of patent infringement against us as of the date of this periodic report, others may hold proprietary rights that could prevent our product candidates from being marketed. For example, we are aware of an issued patent that claims a method of treatment based upon a general mode of action. These claims could be alleged to cover EDG-5506 in certain treatment indications. While we believe that these patents are difficult to enforce and that we would have valid defenses to these claims of patent infringement, we cannot be certain that we would prevail in any dispute and we cannot be certain how an adverse determination would affect our business.

It is possible that a third party may assert a claim of patent infringement directed at any of our product candidates. Any patent-related legal action against us claiming damages and seeking to enjoin commercial activities relating to our products, treatment indications, or processes could subject us to significant liability for damages, including treble damages if we were determined to willfully infringe, and require us to obtain a license to manufacture or market our product candidates. Defense of these claims, regardless of their merit, would involve substantial litigation expense and would be a substantial diversion of employee resources from our business. We cannot predict whether we would prevail in any such actions or that any license required under any of these patents would be made available on commercially acceptable terms, if at all. Moreover, even if we or our future strategic partners were able to obtain a license, the rights may be nonexclusive, which could result in our competitors gaining access to the same intellectual property. In addition, we cannot be certain that we could redesign our product candidates, treatment indications, or processes to avoid infringement, if necessary. Accordingly, an adverse determination in a judicial or administrative proceeding, or the failure to obtain necessary licenses, could prevent us from developing and commercializing our product candidates, which could harm our business, financial condition and operating results. In addition, intellectual property litigation, regardless of its outcome, may cause negative publicity and could prohibit us from marketing or otherwise commercializing our product candidates and technology.

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Parties making claims against us may be able to sustain the costs of complex patent litigation more effectively than we can because they have substantially greater resources. Furthermore, because of the substantial amount of discovery required in connection with intellectual property litigation or administrative proceedings, there is a risk that some of our confidential information could be compromised by disclosure. In addition, any uncertainties resulting from the initiation and continuation of any litigation could have a material adverse effect on our ability to raise additional funds or otherwise have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects.

We may in the future pursue invalidity proceedings with respect to third-party patents. The outcome following legal assertions of invalidity is unpredictable. Even if resolved in our favor, these legal proceedings may cause us to incur significant expenses and could distract our technical and management personnel from their normal responsibilities. In addition, there could be public announcements of the results of hearings, motions or other interim proceedings or developments and if securities analysts or investors perceive these results to be negative, it could have a substantial adverse effect on the price of our common stock. Such proceedings could substantially increase our operating losses and reduce the resources available for development activities or any future sales, marketing or distribution activities. We may not have sufficient financial or other resources to conduct such proceedings adequately. Some of these third parties may be able to sustain the costs of such proceedings more effectively than we can because of their greater financial resources. Uncertainties resulting from the initiation and continuation of patent proceedings could compromise our ability to compete in the marketplace. If we do not prevail in the patent proceedings the third parties may assert a claim of patent infringement directed at our product candidates.

We may not be successful in obtaining or maintaining necessary rights to our product candidates through acquisitions and in-licenses.

Many pharmaceutical companies, biotechnology companies, and academic institutions may have patents and patent applications potentially relevant to our business. We may find it necessary or prudent to obtain licenses to such patents from such third-party intellectual property holders, for example, in order to avoid infringing these third-party patents. We entered into a license agreement with The Ohio State Innovation Foundation pursuant to which we acquired the exclusive right to certain patents and patent applications in the field of muscular diseases/disorders; on July 27, 2023, we provided notice to the Ohio State Innovation Foundation to terminate the license agreement because the licensed technology is no longer relevant to the Company’s business. The license agreement was terminated, effective October 25, 2023. We may also require licenses from third parties for certain technologies for use with future product candidates. We may be unable to acquire or in-license any compositions, methods of use, processes or other third-party intellectual property rights from third parties that we identify as necessary for our product candidates. The licensing and acquisition of third-party intellectual property rights is a competitive area, and a number of more established companies may pursue strategies to license or acquire third-party intellectual property rights that we may consider attractive or necessary. These established companies may have a competitive advantage over us due to their size, capital resources and greater clinical development and commercialization capabilities. In addition, companies that perceive us to be a competitor may be unwilling to assign or license rights to us. We also may be unable to license or acquire third-party intellectual property rights on terms that would allow us to make an appropriate return on our investment or at all. If we are unable to successfully obtain rights to required third-party intellectual property rights or maintain the existing intellectual property rights we have, we may have to abandon development of the relevant program or product candidate, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.

We may be involved in lawsuits to protect or enforce our patents or any licensor’s patents, which could be expensive, time consuming and unsuccessful. Further, our issued patents or any licensor’s patents could be found invalid or unenforceable if challenged in court.

Competitors may infringe our intellectual property rights. To prevent infringement or unauthorized use, we may be required to file infringement claims, which can be expensive and time-consuming. In addition, in a patent infringement proceeding, a court may decide that a patent we own or in-license is not valid, is unenforceable and/or is not infringed. If we or any of our potential future collaborators were to initiate legal proceedings against a

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third-party to enforce a patent directed at one of our product candidates, the defendant could counterclaim that our patent or the patent of any licensor is invalid and/or unenforceable in whole or in part. In patent litigation in the United States, defendant counterclaims alleging invalidity and/or unenforceability are commonplace. Grounds for a validity challenge include an alleged failure to meet any of several statutory requirements, including lack of novelty, obviousness, lack of sufficient written description, non-enablement, or obviousness-type double patenting. Grounds for an unenforceability assertion could include an allegation that someone connected with prosecution of the patent withheld relevant information from the USPTO or made a misleading statement during prosecution.

Third parties may also raise similar invalidity claims before the USPTO or patent offices abroad, even outside the context of litigation. Such mechanisms include re-examination, PGR, IPR, derivation proceedings, and equivalent proceedings in foreign jurisdictions (e.g., opposition proceedings). The outcome following legal assertions of invalidity and/or unenforceability is unpredictable. With respect to the validity question, for example, we cannot be certain that there is no invalidating prior art, of which we, any licensor, and the patent examiners are unaware during prosecution. There is also no assurance that there is not prior art of which we are aware, but which we do not believe affects the validity or enforceability of a claim in our patents and patent applications or the patents and patent applications of any licensor, which may, nonetheless, ultimately be found to affect the validity or enforceability of a claim. If a third-party were to prevail on a legal assertion of invalidity or unenforceability, we would lose at least part, and perhaps all, of the patent protection on our technology or proprietary drug discovery platform, or any product candidates that we may develop. Such a loss of patent protection would have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

In addition, if the breadth or strength of protection provided by our patents and patent applications or the patents and patent applications of any licensor is threatened, it could dissuade companies from collaborating with us to license, develop or commercialize current or future product candidates.

Even if resolved in our favor, litigation or other legal proceedings relating to our intellectual property rights may cause us to incur significant expenses, and could distract our technical and management personnel from their normal responsibilities. In addition, there could be public announcements of the results of hearings, motions or other interim proceedings or developments and if securities analysts or investors perceive these results to be negative, it could have a substantial adverse effect on the price of our common stock. Such litigation or proceedings could substantially increase our operating losses and reduce the resources available for development activities or any future sales, marketing or distribution activities. We may not have sufficient financial or other resources to conduct such litigation or proceedings adequately. Some of our competitors may be able to sustain the costs of such litigation or proceedings more effectively than we can because of their greater financial resources. Uncertainties resulting from the initiation and continuation of patent litigation or other proceedings could compromise our ability to compete in the marketplace. Furthermore, because of the substantial amount of discovery required in connection with intellectual property litigation or other legal proceedings relating to our intellectual property rights, there is a risk that some of our confidential information could be compromised by disclosure during this type of litigation or other proceedings.

In addition, the issuance of a patent does not give us the right to practice the patented invention. Third parties may have blocking patents that could prevent us from marketing our own patented product and practicing our own patented technology.

In Europe, as of June 1, 2023, European applications and patents may be subjected to the jurisdiction of the Unified Patent Court (UPC). Also, European applications now have the option, upon grant of a patent, of becoming a Unitary Patent which is subject to the jurisdiction of the UPC. This may be a significant change in European patent practice. As the UPC is a new court system, there is no precedent for the court, increasing the uncertainty of any litigation. As a single court system can invalidate a European patent, we, where applicable may opt out of the UPC, and as such, each European patent would need to be challenged in each individual country.

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Intellectual property litigation may lead to unfavorable publicity that harms our reputation and causes the market price of our common shares to decline.

During the course of any intellectual property litigation, there could be public announcements of the initiation of the litigation as well as results of hearings, rulings on motions, and other interim proceedings in the litigation. If securities analysts or investors regard these announcements as negative, the perceived value of our existing products, programs or intellectual property could be diminished. Accordingly, the market price of shares of our common stock may decline. Such announcements could also harm our reputation or the market for our future products, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.

Derivation proceedings may be necessary to determine priority of inventions, and an unfavorable outcome may require us to cease using the related technology or to attempt to license rights from the prevailing party.

Derivation proceedings provoked by third parties or brought by us or declared by the USPTO may be necessary to determine the priority of inventions with respect to our patents or patent applications or those of any licensor. An unfavorable outcome could require us to cease using the related technology or to attempt to license rights to it from the prevailing party. Our business could be harmed if the prevailing party does not offer us a license on commercially reasonable terms. Our defense of derivation proceedings may fail and, even if successful, may result in substantial costs and distract our management and other employees. In addition, the uncertainties associated with such proceedings could have a material adverse effect on our ability to raise the funds necessary to continue our clinical trials, continue our research programs, license necessary technology from third parties or enter into development or manufacturing partnerships that would help us bring our product candidates to market.

Changes in U.S. patent law, or laws in other countries, could diminish the value of patents in general, thereby impairing our ability to protect our product candidates.

As is the case with other pharmaceutical companies, our success is heavily dependent on intellectual property, particularly patents. Obtaining and enforcing patents in the pharmaceutical industry involve a high degree of technological and legal complexity. Therefore, obtaining and enforcing pharmaceutical patents is costly, time consuming and inherently uncertain. Changes in either the patent laws or in the interpretations of patent laws in the United States and other countries may diminish the value of our intellectual property and may increase the uncertainties and costs surrounding the prosecution of patent applications and the enforcement or defense of issued patents. We cannot predict the breadth of claims that may be allowed or enforced in our patents or in third-party patents. In addition, Congress or other foreign legislative bodies may pass patent reform legislation that is unfavorable to us.

For example, the U.S. Supreme Court has ruled on several patent cases in recent years, either narrowing the scope of patent protection available in certain circumstances or weakening the rights of patent owners in certain situations. In addition to increasing uncertainty with regard to our ability to obtain patents in the future, this combination of events has created uncertainty with respect to the value of patents, once obtained. Depending on decisions by the U.S. Congress, the U.S. federal courts, the USPTO, or similar authorities in foreign jurisdictions, the laws and regulations governing patents could change in unpredictable ways that would weaken our ability to obtain new patents or to enforce our existing patent and the patents we might obtain or license in the future.

We may be subject to claims challenging the inventorship or ownership of our patents and other intellectual property.

We may also be subject to claims that former employees or other third parties have an ownership interest in our patents or other intellectual property. Litigation may be necessary to defend against these and other claims challenging inventorship or ownership. If we fail in defending any such claims, in addition to paying monetary damages, we may lose valuable intellectual property rights. Such an outcome could have a material adverse effect on our business. Even if we are successful in defending against such claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and distraction to management and other employees.

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Patent terms may be inadequate to protect our competitive position on our product candidates for an adequate amount of time.

Patents have a limited lifespan. In the United States, if all maintenance fees are timely paid, the natural expiration of a patent is generally 20 years from its earliest U.S. non-provisional filing date. Various extensions may be available, but the life of a patent, and the protection it affords, is limited. Even if patents covering our product candidates are obtained, once the patent life has expired, we may be open to competition from competitive products. Given the amount of time required for the development, testing and regulatory review of new product candidates, patents protecting such candidates might expire before or shortly after such candidates are commercialized. As a result, our patent portfolio may not provide us with sufficient rights to exclude others from commercializing products similar or identical to ours.

If we do not obtain patent term extension for our product candidates, our business may be materially harmed.

Depending upon the timing, duration and specifics of FDA marketing approval of our product candidates, one or more of our U.S. patents or those of any licensor may be eligible for limited patent term restoration under the Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984 (Hatch-Waxman Amendments). The Hatch- Waxman Amendments permit a patent restoration term of up to five years as compensation for patent term lost during product development and the FDA regulatory review process. A maximum of one patent may be extended per FDA approved product as compensation for the patent term lost during the FDA regulatory review process. A patent term extension cannot extend the remaining term of a patent beyond a total of 14 years from the date of product approval and only those claims covering such approved drug product, a method for using it or a method for manufacturing it may be extended. Patent term extension may also be available in certain foreign countries upon regulatory approval of our product candidates. However, we may not be granted an extension because of, for example, failing to apply within applicable deadlines, failing to apply prior to expiration of relevant patents or otherwise failing to satisfy applicable requirements. Moreover, the applicable time period or the scope of patent protection afforded could be less than we request. If we are unable to obtain patent term extension or restoration or the term of any such extension is less than we request, our competitors may obtain approval of competing products following our patent expiration, and our revenue could be reduced, possibly materially. Further, if this occurs, our competitors may take advantage of our investment in development and trials by referencing our clinical and preclinical data and launch their product earlier than might otherwise be the case.

We may not be able to protect our intellectual property rights throughout the world.

Filing, prosecuting and defending patents in all countries throughout the world would be prohibitively expensive, and our intellectual property rights in some countries outside the United States can be less extensive than those in the United States. In addition, the laws of some foreign countries do not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as federal and state laws in the United States. Consequently, we may not be able to prevent third parties from practicing our inventions in all countries outside the United States or from selling or importing products made using our inventions in and into the United States or other jurisdictions. Competitors may use our technologies in jurisdictions where we have not obtained patent protection to develop their own products and, further, may export otherwise infringing products to territories where we have patent protection, but enforcement is not as strong as that in the United States. These products may compete with our product candidates, and our patents, the patents of any licensors, or other intellectual property rights may not be effective or sufficient to prevent them from competing.

Many companies have encountered significant problems in protecting and defending intellectual property rights in foreign jurisdictions. The legal systems of many foreign countries do not favor the enforcement of patents and other intellectual property protection, which could make it difficult for us to stop the infringement of our patents or any future licensors’ patents or marketing of competing products in violation of our proprietary rights. Proceedings to enforce our patent rights in foreign jurisdictions could result in substantial costs and divert our efforts and attention from other aspects of our business, could put our patents or the patents of any licensors at risk of being invalidated or interpreted narrowly and our patent applications or the patent applications of any licensor at risk of not issuing and could provoke third parties to assert claims against us. We may not prevail in any lawsuits

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that we initiate, and the damages or other remedies awarded, if any, may not be commercially meaningful. Accordingly, our efforts to enforce our intellectual property rights around the world may be inadequate to obtain a significant commercial advantage from the intellectual property that we develop or license.

Many countries have compulsory licensing laws under which a patent owner may be compelled to grant licenses to third parties. In addition, many countries limit the enforceability of patents against government agencies or government contractors. In these countries, the patent owner may have limited remedies, which could materially diminish the value of such patent. If we are forced to grant a license to third parties with respect to any patents relevant to our business, our competitive position may be impaired, and our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may be adversely affected.

Geo-political actions in the United States and in foreign countries could increase the uncertainties and costs surrounding the prosecution or maintenance of our patent applications or those of any current or future licensors and the maintenance, enforcement or defense of our issued patents or those of any current or future licensors. For example, the United States and foreign government actions related to Russia’s invasion of Ukraine may limit or prevent filing, prosecution and maintenance of patent applications in Russia. Government actions may also prevent maintenance of issued patents in Russia. These actions could result in abandonment or lapse of our patents or patent applications, resulting in partial or complete loss of patent rights in Russia. If such an event were to occur, it could have a material adverse effect on our business. In addition, a decree was adopted by the Russian government in March 2022, allowing Russian companies and individuals to exploit inventions owned by patentees that have citizenship or nationality in, are registered in, or have predominately primary place of business or profit-making activities in the United States and other countries that Russia has deemed unfriendly without consent or compensation. Consequently, we would not be able to prevent third parties from practicing our inventions in Russia or from selling or importing products made using our inventions in and into Russia. Accordingly, our competitive position may be impaired, and our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may be adversely affected.

In Europe, as of June 1, 2023, European applications and patents may be subjected to the jurisdiction of the Unified Patent Court (UPC). Also, European applications now have the option, upon grant of a patent, of becoming a Unitary Patent which is subject to the jurisdiction of the UPC. This may be a significant change in European patent practice. As the UPC is a new court system, there is no precedent for the court, increasing the uncertainty of any litigation. As a single court system can invalidate a European patent, we, where applicable may opt out of the UPC, and as such, each European patent would need to be challenged in each individual country.

Obtaining and maintaining our patent protection depends on compliance with various procedural, documentary, fee payment and other requirements imposed by regulations and governmental patent agencies, and our patent protection could be reduced or eliminated for non-compliance with these requirements.

Periodic maintenance fees, renewal fees, annuity fees and various other governmental fees on patents and/or applications will be due to the USPTO and various foreign patent offices at various points over the lifetime of our patents and/or applications and those of any licensors. We have systems in place to remind us to pay these fees, and we rely on our outside patent annuity service to pay these fees when due. Additionally, the USPTO and various foreign patent offices require compliance with a number of procedural, documentary, fee payment and other similar provisions during the patent application process. We employ reputable law firms and other professionals to help us comply, and in many cases, an inadvertent lapse can be cured by payment of a late fee or by other means in accordance with rules applicable to the particular jurisdiction. However, there are situations in which noncompliance can result in abandonment or lapse of the patent or patent application, resulting in partial or complete loss of patent rights in the relevant jurisdiction. If such an event were to occur, it could have a material adverse effect on our business.

If our trademarks and trade names are not adequately protected, then we may not be able to build name recognition in our markets of interest and our business may be adversely affected.

We intend to use registered or unregistered trademarks or trade names to brand and market ourselves and our products. Our trademarks or trade names may be challenged, infringed, circumvented or declared generic or

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determined to be infringing on other marks. We may not be able to protect our rights to these trademarks and trade names, which we need to build name recognition among potential partners or customers in our markets of interest. At times, competitors may adopt trade names or trademarks similar to ours, thereby impeding our ability to build brand identity and possibly leading to market confusion. In addition, there could be potential trade name or trademark infringement claims brought by owners of other registered trademarks or trademarks that incorporate variations of our registered or unregistered trademarks or trade names. Over the long term, if we are unable to establish name recognition based on our trademarks and trade names, then we may not be able to compete effectively, and our business may be adversely affected. Our efforts to enforce or protect our proprietary rights related to trademarks, trade secrets, domain names, copyrights or other intellectual property may be ineffective and could result in substantial costs and diversion of resources and could adversely affect our financial condition or results of operations.

If we are unable to protect the confidentiality of our trade secrets, our business and competitive position would be harmed.

In addition, we rely on the protection of our trade secrets, including unpatented know-how, technology and other proprietary information to maintain our competitive position. Although we have taken steps to protect our trade secrets and unpatented know-how, including entering into confidentiality agreements with third parties, and confidential information and inventions agreements with employees, consultants and advisors, we cannot provide any assurances that all such agreements have been duly executed, and any of these parties may breach the agreements and disclose our proprietary information, including our trade secrets, and we may not be able to obtain adequate remedies for such breaches. Enforcing a claim that a party illegally disclosed or misappropriated a trade secret is difficult, expensive and time-consuming, and the outcome is unpredictable. In addition, some courts inside and outside the United States are less willing or unwilling to protect trade secrets.

Moreover, third parties may still obtain this information or may come upon this or similar information independently, and we would have no right to prevent them from using that technology or information to compete with us. If any of these events occurs or if we otherwise lose protection for our trade secrets, the value of this information may be greatly reduced, and our competitive position would be harmed. If we do not apply for patent protection prior to such publication or if we cannot otherwise maintain the confidentiality of our proprietary technology and other confidential information, then our ability to obtain patent protection or to protect our trade secret information may be jeopardized.

We may be subject to claims that we or our employees have wrongfully used or disclosed alleged confidential information or trade secrets.

We have entered into and may enter in the future into non-disclosure and confidentiality agreements to protect the proprietary positions of third parties, such as outside scientific collaborators, CROs, third-party manufacturers, consultants, advisors, potential partners, lessees of shared multi-company property and other third parties. We may become subject to litigation where a third-party asserts that we or our employees inadvertently or otherwise breached the agreements and used or disclosed trade secrets or other information proprietary to the third parties. Defense of such matters, regardless of their merit, could involve substantial litigation expense and be a substantial diversion of employee resources from our business. We cannot predict whether we would prevail in any such actions. Moreover, intellectual property litigation, regardless of its outcome, may cause negative publicity and could prohibit us from marketing or otherwise commercializing our product candidates and technology. Failure to defend against any such claim could subject us to significant liability for monetary damages or prevent or delay our developmental and commercialization efforts, which could adversely affect our business. Even if we are successful in defending against these claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and be a distraction to our management team and other employees.

Parties making claims against us may be able to sustain the costs of complex intellectual property litigation more effectively than we can because they have substantially greater resources. Furthermore, because of the substantial amount of discovery required in connection with intellectual property litigation, there is a risk that some of our confidential information could be compromised by disclosure. In addition, any uncertainties resulting from the initiation and continuation of any litigation could have a material adverse effect on our ability to raise

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additional funds or otherwise have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, financial condition and prospects.

We may be subject to claims that we have wrongfully hired an employee from a competitor or that we or our employees have wrongfully used or disclosed alleged confidential information or trade secrets of their former employers.

As is common in the pharmaceutical industry, in addition to our employees, we engage the services of consultants to assist us in the development of our product candidates. Many of these consultants, and many of our employees, were previously employed at, or may have previously provided or may be currently providing consulting services to, other pharmaceutical companies including our competitors or potential competitors. We may become subject to claims that we, our employees or a consultant inadvertently or otherwise used or disclosed trade secrets or other information proprietary to their former employers or their former or current clients. Litigation may be necessary to defend against these claims. If we fail in defending any such claims, in addition to paying monetary damages, we may lose valuable intellectual property rights or personnel, which could adversely affect our business. Even if we are successful in defending against these claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and be a distraction to our management team and other employees.

Our rights to develop and commercialize our technology and product candidates may be subject, in part, to the terms and conditions of licenses granted to us by others.

We entered into a license agreement with The Ohio State Innovation Foundation pursuant to which we acquired the exclusive right to certain patents and patent applications in the field of muscular diseases/disorders. On July 27, 2023, we provided notice to the Ohio State Innovation Foundation to terminate the license agreement because the licensed technology is no longer relevant to the Company’s business. The license agreement was terminated, effective October 25, 2023. We may enter into additional license agreements in the future with others to advance our research or allow commercialization of product candidates. These and other licenses may not provide exclusive rights to use such intellectual property and technology in all relevant fields of use and in all territories in which we may wish to develop or commercialize our technology and products in the future.

In addition, subject to the terms of any such license agreements, we may not have the right to control the preparation, filing, prosecution, maintenance, enforcement, and defense of patents and patent applications covering the technology that we license from third parties. In such an event, we cannot be certain that these patents and patent applications will be prepared, filed, prosecuted, maintained, enforced, and defended in a manner consistent with the best interests of our business. If any licensors fail to prosecute, maintain, enforce, and defend such patents, or lose rights to those patents or patent applications, the rights we have licensed may be reduced or eliminated, and our right to develop and commercialize any of our products that are subject of such licensed rights could be adversely affected.

Any licensor may have relied on third-party consultants or collaborators or on funds from third parties such that any licensor are not the sole and exclusive owners of the patents we in-licensed. If other third parties have ownership rights to our in-licensed patents, they may be able to license such patents to our competitors, and our competitors could market competing products and technology. This could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, business, financial conditions, results of operations, and prospects.

It is possible that we may be unable to obtain additional licenses at a reasonable cost or on reasonable terms, if at all. Even if we are able to obtain a license, it may be non-exclusive, thereby giving our competitors access to the same technologies licensed to us. In that event, we may be required to expend significant time and resources to redesign our technology, product candidates, or the methods for manufacturing them or to develop or license replacement technology, all of which may not be feasible on a technical or commercial basis. If we are unable to do so, we may be unable to develop or commercialize the affected product candidates, which could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects significantly. We cannot provide any assurances that third-party patents do not exist which might be enforced against our current technology, manufacturing methods, product candidates, or future methods or products resulting in either an injunction prohibiting our manufacture or future sales, or, with respect to our future sales, an obligation on our part to pay royalties and/or other forms of compensation to third parties, which could be significant.

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If we fail to comply with our obligations in the agreements under which we license intellectual property rights from third parties or otherwise experience disruptions to our business relationships with any licensors, we could lose license rights that are important to our business.

Disputes may arise between us and future licensors or potential licensors regarding intellectual property subject to a license agreement, including:

the scope of rights granted under the license agreement and other interpretation-related issues;
whether and the extent to which our technology and processes infringe on intellectual property of the licensor that is not subject to the licensing agreement;
our right to sublicense patents and other rights to third parties;
our diligence obligations under the license agreement and what activities satisfy those diligence obligations;
our right to transfer or assign the license;
the inventorship and ownership of inventions and know-how resulting from the joint creation or use of intellectual property by any licensors and us and our partners; and
the priority of invention of patented technology.

In addition, the agreements under which we license intellectual property or technology from third parties are complex, and certain provisions in such agreements may be susceptible to multiple interpretations. The resolution of any contract interpretation disagreement that may arise could narrow what we believe to be the scope of our rights to the relevant intellectual property or technology, or increase what we believe to be our financial or other obligations under the relevant agreement, either of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects. Moreover, if disputes over intellectual property that we have licensed prevent or impair our ability to maintain our current licensing arrangements on commercially acceptable terms, we may be unable to successfully develop and commercialize the affected product candidates, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial conditions, results of operations, and prospects.

In spite of our best efforts, any licensor or potential licensors might conclude that we have materially breached our license agreements and might therefore terminate the license agreements, thereby removing our ability to develop and commercialize products and technology covered by these license agreements. If these in-licenses are terminated, or if the underlying patents fail to provide the intended exclusivity, competitors would have the freedom to seek regulatory approval of, and to market, products identical to ours. This could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, business, financial conditions, results of operations, and prospects.

The patent protection and patent prosecution for some of our product candidates may be dependent on third parties.

While we normally seek to obtain the right to control prosecution, maintenance and enforcement of the patents relating to our product candidates, there may be times when the filing and prosecution activities for patents relating to our product candidates are controlled by any licensors or collaboration partners. If any licensors or collaboration partners fail to prosecute, maintain and enforce such patents and patent applications in a manner consistent with the best interests of our business, including by payment of all applicable fees for patents covering our product candidates, we could lose our rights to the intellectual property or our exclusivity with respect to those rights, our ability to develop and commercialize those product candidates may be adversely affected and we may not be able to prevent competitors from making, using and selling competing products. In addition, even where we have the right to control patent prosecution of patents and patent applications we have licensed to and from third parties, we may still be adversely affected or prejudiced by actions or inactions of our licensees, any licensors and their counsel that took place prior to the date upon which we assumed control over patent prosecution.

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Intellectual property discovered through government funded programs may be subject to federal regulations such as “march-in” rights, certain reporting requirements and a preference for U.S.-based companies. Compliance with such regulations may limit our exclusive rights and limit our ability to contract with non-U.S. manufacturers.

We have in-licensed patent applications that were generated through the use of U.S. government funding or grants, and may acquire or license in the future intellectual property rights that have been generated through the use of U.S. government funding or grants. Pursuant to the Bayh-Dole Act of 1980, the U.S. government has certain rights in inventions developed with government funding. These U.S. government rights include a non-exclusive, non-transferable, irrevocable worldwide license to use inventions for any governmental purpose. In addition, the U.S. government has the right, under certain limited circumstances, to require us to grant exclusive, partially exclusive, or non-exclusive licenses to any of these inventions to a third-party if it determines that: (1) adequate steps have not been taken to commercialize the invention; (2) government action is necessary to meet public health or safety needs; or (3) government action is necessary to meet requirements for public use under federal regulations (also referred to as “march-in rights”). If the U.S. government exercised its march-in rights in our future intellectual property rights that are generated through the use of U.S. government funding or grants, we could be forced to license or sublicense intellectual property developed by us or that we license on terms unfavorable to us, and there can be no assurance that we would receive compensation from the U.S. government for the exercise of such rights. The U.S. government also has the right to take title to these inventions if the grant recipient fails to disclose the invention to the government or fails to file an application to register the intellectual property within specified time limits. Intellectual property generated under a government funded program is also subject to certain reporting requirements, compliance with which may require us to expend substantial resources. In addition, the U.S. government requires that any products embodying any of these inventions or produced through the use of any of these inventions be manufactured substantially in the United States. This preference for U.S. industry may be waived by the federal agency that provided the funding if the owner or assignee of the intellectual property can show that reasonable but unsuccessful efforts have been made to grant licenses on similar terms to potential licensees that would be likely to manufacture substantially in the United States or that under the circumstances domestic manufacture is not commercially feasible. This preference for U.S. industry may limit our ability to contract with non-U.S. product manufacturers for products covered by such intellectual property.

Risks Related to Our Dependence on Third Parties

We rely, and expect to continue to rely, on third parties to conduct our clinical trials and those third parties may not perform satisfactorily, including failing to meet deadlines for the completion of such trials, research and studies, which may harm our business.

We do not have the ability to independently conduct our clinical trials. We currently rely on third parties, such as CROs, clinical data management organizations, medical institutions and clinical investigators, to conduct our current and planned clinical trials of EDG-5506 and EDG-7500 and we expect to continue to rely upon third parties to conduct additional clinical trials for EDG-5506 and other product candidates. Third parties have a significant role in the conduct of our clinical trials and the subsequent collection and analysis of data. These third parties are not our employees, and except for remedies available to us under our agreements with such third parties, we have limited ability to control the amount or timing of resources that any such third-party will devote to our clinical trials. The third parties we rely on for these services may also have relationships with other entities, some of which may be our competitors. Some of these third parties may terminate their engagements with us at any time. If we need to enter into alternative arrangements with a third-party, it would delay our drug development activities.

Our reliance on these third parties for such drug development activities will reduce our control over these activities but will not relieve us of our regulatory responsibilities. For example, we will remain responsible for ensuring that each of our clinical trials is conducted in accordance with the general investigational plan and protocols for the trial. Moreover, the FDA requires us to comply with GCP standards, regulations for conducting, recording and reporting the results of clinical trials to assure that data and reported results are reliable and accurate and that the rights, integrity and confidentiality of trial participants are protected. The EMA also requires us to comply with similar standards. Regulatory authorities enforce these GCP requirements through periodic inspections of trial sponsors, principal investigators and trial sites. If we or any of our CROs fail to comply with applicable GCP requirements, the clinical data generated in our clinical trials may be deemed unreliable and the

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FDA, EMA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may require us to perform additional clinical trials before approving our marketing applications. We cannot assure you that upon inspection by a given regulatory authority, such regulatory authority will determine that any of our clinical trials substantially comply with GCP regulations. In addition, our clinical trials must be conducted with product produced under current cGMP regulations. Our failure to comply with these regulations may require us to repeat clinical trials, which would delay the marketing approval process.

If these third parties do not successfully carry out their contractual duties, meet expected deadlines or conduct our clinical trials in accordance with regulatory requirements or our stated protocols, we will not be able to obtain, or may be delayed in obtaining, marketing approvals for our product candidates and will not be able to, or may be delayed in our efforts to, successfully commercialize our product candidates.

We also expect to rely on third parties to store and distribute drug supplies for our clinical trials. Any performance failure on the part of our distributors could delay clinical development or marketing approval of our product candidates or commercialization of our products, producing additional losses and depriving us of potential product revenue.

We contract with third parties for the production of our product candidates for preclinical studies and, in the case of EDG-5506, our ongoing clinical trials, and expect to continue to do so for additional clinical trials and ultimately for commercialization. This reliance on third parties increases the risk that we will not have sufficient quality and quantities of our product candidates or such quantities at an acceptable cost, which could delay, prevent or impair our development or commercialization efforts.

We do not currently have the infrastructure or internal capability to manufacture supplies of our product candidates for use in development and commercialization. We rely, and expect to continue to rely, on third-party manufacturers for the production of our product candidates for preclinical studies and clinical trials under the guidance of members of our organization. We will be relying on a single third-party manufacturer and we currently have no alternative manufacturer in place. Changing our third-party manufacturer could result in delays in our manufacturing supply chain which could delay or otherwise impact our development of EDG-5506 and result in increased costs related to EDG-5506. We do not have long-term supply agreements, and we purchase our required drug product on a purchase order basis, which means that aside from any binding purchase orders we have from time to time, our supplier could cease supplying to us or change the terms on which it is willing to continue supplying to us at any time. If we were to experience an unexpected loss of supply of EDG-5506 or any other product candidates for any reason, whether as a result of manufacturing, supply or storage issues or otherwise, we could experience delays, disruptions, suspensions or terminations of, or be required to restart or repeat, any pending or ongoing clinical trials.

We expect to continue to rely on third-party manufacturers for the commercial supply of any of our product candidates for which we obtain marketing approval. We may be unable to maintain or establish required agreements with third-party manufacturers or to do so on acceptable terms. Even if we are able to establish agreements with third-party manufacturers, reliance on third-party manufacturers entails additional risks, including:

the failure of the third-party to manufacture our product candidates according to our schedule and specifications, or at all, including if our third-party contractors give greater priority to the supply of other products over our product candidates or otherwise do not satisfactorily perform according to the terms of the agreements between us and them;
the termination or nonrenewal of arrangements or agreements by our third-party contractors at a time that is costly or inconvenient for us;
the breach by the third-party contractors of our agreements with them;
the failure of third-party contractors to comply with applicable regulatory requirements, including cGMPs;

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the failure of the third-party to manufacture our product candidates according to our specifications;
the mislabeling of clinical supplies, potentially resulting in the wrong dose amounts being supplied or active drug or placebo not being properly identified;
clinical supplies not being delivered to clinical sites on time, leading to clinical trial interruptions, or of drug supplies not being distributed to commercial vendors in a timely manner, resulting in lost sales; and
the misappropriation of our proprietary information, including our trade secrets and know-how.

We do not have complete control over all aspects of the manufacturing process of our CDMOs and are dependent on these CDMOs for compliance with cGMP regulations for manufacturing both active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) and finished drug products. We are in the process of developing our supply chain for each of our product candidates and intend to put in place framework agreements under which CDMOs will generally provide us with necessary quantities of API and drug product on a project-by-project basis based on our development needs. As we advance our product candidates through development, we will consider our lack of redundant supply for the API and drug product for each of our product candidates to protect against any potential supply disruptions. However, we may be unsuccessful in putting in place such framework agreements or protecting against potential supply disruptions.

Third-party manufacturers may not be able to comply with cGMP regulations or similar regulatory requirements outside of the United States. If our CDMOs cannot successfully manufacture material that conforms to our specifications and the strict regulatory requirements of the FDA, EMA or others, they will not be able to secure and/or maintain marketing approval for their manufacturing facilities. In addition, we do not have control over the ability of our CDMOs to maintain adequate quality control, quality assurance and qualified personnel. If the FDA, EMA or a comparable foreign regulatory authority does not approve these facilities for the manufacture of our product candidates or if it withdraws any such approval in the future, we will need to find alternative manufacturing facilities, and those new facilities would need to be inspected and approved by FDA, EMA or comparable regulatory authority prior to commencing manufacturing, which would significantly impact our ability to develop, obtain marketing approval for or market our product candidates, if approved. Our failure, or the failure of our third-party manufacturers, to comply with applicable regulations could result in sanctions being imposed on us, including fines, injunctions, civil penalties, delays, suspension or withdrawal of approvals, license revocation, seizures or recalls of product candidates or drugs, operating restrictions and criminal prosecutions, any of which could significantly and adversely affect supplies of our product candidates or drugs and harm our business and results of operations.

Our current and anticipated future dependence upon others for the manufacture of our product candidates may adversely affect our future profit margins and our ability to commercialize any product candidates that receive marketing approval on a timely and competitive basis.

Our reliance on third parties may require us to share our trade secrets, which increases the possibility that a competitor will discover them or that our trade secrets will be misappropriated or disclosed.

Because we currently rely on third parties in the course of our business, we may share our proprietary technology and confidential information, including trade secrets, with them. We seek to protect our proprietary technology, in part, by entering into confidentiality agreements, and, if applicable, material transfer agreements, collaborative research agreements, consulting agreements or other similar agreements with our collaborators, advisors, employees and consultants prior to beginning research or disclosing proprietary information. These agreements typically limit the rights of the third parties to use or disclose our confidential information. Despite the contractual provisions employed when working with third parties, the need to share trade secrets and other confidential information increases the risk that such trade secrets become known by our competitors, are intentionally or inadvertently incorporated into the technology of others or are disclosed or used in violation of these agreements. Given that our proprietary position is based, in part, on our know-how and trade secrets and despite our efforts to protect our trade secrets, a competitor’s discovery of our proprietary technology and

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confidential information or other unauthorized use or disclosure would impair our competitive position and may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

If we engage in future acquisitions or strategic partnerships, this may increase our capital requirements, dilute our stockholders, cause us to incur debt or assume contingent liabilities, and subject us to other risks.

From time to time, we evaluate various acquisition opportunities and strategic partnerships, including licensing or acquiring complementary products, intellectual property rights, technologies or businesses. Any potential acquisition or strategic partnership may entail numerous risks, including:

increased operating expenses and cash requirements;
the assumption of additional indebtedness or contingent liabilities;
the issuance of our equity securities;
assimilation of operations, intellectual property and products of an acquired company, including difficulties associated with integrating new personnel;
the diversion of our management’s attention from our existing programs and initiatives in pursuing such a strategic merger or acquisition;
retention of key employees, the loss of key personnel and uncertainties in our ability to maintain key business relationships;
risks and uncertainties associated with the other party to such a transaction, including the prospects of that party and their existing products or product candidates and marketing approvals; and
our inability to generate revenue from acquired technology and/or products sufficient to meet our objectives in undertaking the acquisition or even to offset the associated acquisition and maintenance costs.

In addition, if we undertake acquisitions or pursue partnerships in the future, we may issue dilutive securities, assume or incur debt obligations, incur large one-time expenses and acquire intangible assets that could result in significant future amortization expense.

If we decide to establish collaborations, but are not able to establish those collaborations on commercially reasonable terms, we may have to alter our development and commercialization plans.

Our drug development programs and the potential commercialization of our product candidates will require substantial additional cash to fund expenses. We may seek to selectively form collaborations to expand our capabilities, potentially accelerate research and development activities and provide for commercialization activities by third parties. In addition, we intend to explore strategic partnering and collaboration opportunities to out-license rights to our research programs and drug candidates for indications in which we are unlikely to pursue development and commercialization. In parallel, we will also evaluate select external opportunities to strategically expand our portfolio. Any of these relationships may require us to incur non-recurring and other charges, increase our near- and long-term expenditures, issue securities that dilute our existing stockholders, or disrupt our management and business.

We would face significant competition in seeking appropriate collaborators and the negotiation process is time-consuming and complex. Whether we reach a definitive agreement for a collaboration will depend, among other things, upon our assessment of the collaborator’s resources and expertise, the terms and conditions of the proposed collaboration and the proposed collaborator’s evaluation of a number of factors. Those factors may include the design or results of clinical trials, the likelihood of approval by the FDA, EMA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities, the potential market for the subject product candidate, the costs and complexities of

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manufacturing and delivering such product candidate to patients, the potential of competing drugs, the existence of uncertainty with respect to our ownership of intellectual property and industry and market conditions generally. The potential collaborator may also consider alternative product candidates or technologies for similar indications that may be available to collaborate on and whether such collaboration could be more attractive than the one with us for our product candidate. Further, we may not be successful in our efforts to establish a collaboration or other alternative arrangements for product candidates because they may be deemed to be at too early of a stage of development for collaborative effort and third parties may not view them as having the requisite potential to demonstrate safety and efficacy.

In addition, there have been a significant number of recent business combinations among large pharmaceutical companies that have resulted in a reduced number of potential future collaborators. Even if we are successful in entering into a collaboration, the terms and conditions of that collaboration may restrict us from entering into future agreements on certain terms with potential collaborators.

If and when we seek to enter into collaborations, we may not be able to negotiate collaborations on a timely basis, on acceptable terms, or at all. If we are unable to do so, we may have to curtail the development of a product candidate, reduce or delay its development program or one or more of our other development programs, delay its potential commercialization or reduce the scope of any sales or marketing activities, or increase our expenditures and undertake development or commercialization activities at our own expense. If we elect to increase our expenditures to fund development or commercialization activities on our own, we may need to obtain additional capital, which may not be available to us on acceptable terms or at all. If we do not have sufficient funds, we may not be able to further develop our product candidates or bring them to market and generate product revenue.

We may enter into collaborations with third parties for the development and commercialization of product candidates. If those collaborations are not successful, we may not be able to capitalize on the market potential of these product candidates.

If we enter into any collaboration arrangements with any third parties, we will likely have limited control over the amount and timing of resources that our collaborators dedicate to the development or commercialization of our product candidates. Our ability to generate revenues from these arrangements will depend on our collaborators’ abilities and efforts to successfully perform the functions assigned to them in these arrangements. Collaborations involving our product candidates would pose numerous risks to us, including the following:

collaborators have significant discretion in determining the efforts and resources that they will apply to, and the manner in which they perform their obligations under, these collaborations and may not perform their obligations as expected;
collaborators may deemphasize or not pursue development and commercialization of our product candidates or may elect not to continue or renew development or commercialization programs based on clinical trial results, changes in the collaborators’ strategic focus, including as a result of a business combination or sale or disposition of a business unit or development function, or available funding or external factors such as an acquisition that diverts resources or creates competing priorities;
collaborators may delay clinical trials, provide insufficient funding for a clinical trial program, stop a clinical trial or abandon a product candidate, repeat or conduct new clinical trials or require a new formulation of a product candidate for clinical testing;
collaborators could independently develop, or develop with third parties, products that compete directly or indirectly with our product candidates if the collaborators believe that competitive products are more likely to be successfully developed or can be commercialized under terms that are more economically attractive than ours;
a collaborator with marketing and distribution rights to multiple products may not commit sufficient resources to the marketing and distribution of our product relative to other products;

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we may grant exclusive rights to our collaborators that would prevent us from collaborating with others;
collaborators may not properly obtain, maintain, defend or enforce our intellectual property rights or may use our proprietary information and intellectual property in such a way as to invite litigation or other intellectual property related proceedings that could jeopardize or invalidate our proprietary information and intellectual property or expose us to potential litigation or other intellectual property related proceedings;
disputes may arise between the collaborators and us that result in the delay or termination of the research, development or commercialization of our product candidates or that result in costly litigation or arbitration that diverts management attention and resources;
collaborations may be terminated and, if terminated, may result in a need for additional capital to pursue further development or commercialization of the applicable product candidates;
collaboration agreements may not lead to development or commercialization of product candidates in the most efficient manner or at all;
collaborators may not provide us with timely and accurate information regarding development progress and activities under the collaboration or may limit our ability to share such information, which could adversely impact our ability to report progress to our investors and otherwise plan our own development of our product candidates;
collaborators may own or co-own intellectual property covering our products that results from our collaborating with them, and in such cases, we would not have the exclusive right to develop or commercialize such intellectual property; and
a collaborator’s sales and marketing activities or other operations may not be in compliance with applicable laws resulting in civil or criminal proceedings.

We also collaborate with a network of experts who advise and support our development efforts. In the future, such experts may not collaborate with us which could affect our ability to develop our product candidates and proprietary drug discovery platform as such experts potentially provide us with access to ideas to address the needs of muscle diseases.

Risks Related to the Securities Markets and Ownership of Our Common Stock

An active, liquid and orderly trading market may not continue to be developed or sustained for our common stock and as a result it may be difficult for you to sell your shares of our common stock.

Prior to our initial public offering (IPO), no market for shares of our common stock existed. The trading market for our common stock on The Nasdaq Global Select Market was previously limited and an active trading market for our shares may not be sustained. The lack of an active market may also reduce the fair market value of your shares. Furthermore, an inactive market may also impair our ability to raise capital by selling shares of our common stock and may impair our ability to enter into strategic collaborations or acquire companies, technologies or other assets by using our shares of common stock as consideration.

The price of our stock has been and may continue to be volatile, and you could lose all or part of your investment.

The trading price of our common stock has been and may continue to be highly volatile and subject to wide fluctuations in response to various factors, some of which we cannot control. The stock market in general, and pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies in particular, have experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of these companies.

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Broad market and industry factors may negatively affect the market price of our common stock, regardless of our actual operating performance. In addition to the factors discussed in this “Risk Factors” section and elsewhere in this periodic report, these factors include:

the timing and results of preclinical studies and clinical trials of our product candidates, those conducted by third parties or those of our competitors;
the success of competitive products or announcements by potential competitors of their product development efforts;
regulatory actions with respect to our products or our competitors’ products;
actual or anticipated changes in our growth rate relative to our competitors;
regulatory or legal developments in the United States and other countries;
developments or disputes concerning patent applications, issued patents or other proprietary rights;
the recruitment or departure of key personnel;
announcements by us or our competitors of significant acquisitions, strategic collaborations, joint ventures, collaborations or capital commitments;
actual or anticipated changes in estimates as to financial results, development timelines or recommendations by securities analysts;
fluctuations in the valuation of companies perceived by investors to be comparable to us;
market conditions in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology sector;
changes in the structure of healthcare payment systems;
share price and volume fluctuations attributable to inconsistent trading volume levels of our shares;
announcement or expectation of additional financing efforts;
sales of our common stock by us, our insiders or our other stockholders;
the impact of any natural disasters or public health emergencies, such as the COVID-19 pandemic; and
general economic, political, industry and market conditions including the impact of increasing inflation.

The realization of any of the above risks or any of a broad range of other risks, including those described in this “Risk Factors” section, could have a dramatic and adverse impact on the market price of our common stock.

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Our operating results may fluctuate significantly, which makes