Company Quick10K Filing
Quick10K
Ford
Closing Price ($) Shares Out (MM) Market Cap ($MM)
$9.36 3,989 $37,340
10-K 2018-12-31 Annual: 2018-12-31
10-Q 2018-09-30 Quarter: 2018-09-30
10-Q 2018-06-30 Quarter: 2018-06-30
10-Q 2018-03-31 Quarter: 2018-03-31
10-K 2017-12-31 Annual: 2017-12-31
10-Q 2017-09-30 Quarter: 2017-09-30
10-Q 2017-06-30 Quarter: 2017-06-30
10-Q 2017-03-31 Quarter: 2017-03-31
10-K 2016-12-31 Annual: 2016-12-31
10-Q 2016-09-30 Quarter: 2016-09-30
10-Q 2016-06-30 Quarter: 2016-06-30
10-Q 2016-03-31 Quarter: 2016-03-31
10-K 2015-12-31 Annual: 2015-12-31
10-Q 2015-09-30 Quarter: 2015-09-30
10-Q 2015-06-30 Quarter: 2015-06-30
10-Q 2015-03-31 Quarter: 2015-03-31
10-K 2014-12-31 Annual: 2014-12-31
10-Q 2014-09-30 Quarter: 2014-09-30
10-Q 2014-06-30 Quarter: 2014-06-30
10-Q 2014-03-31 Quarter: 2014-03-31
10-K 2013-12-31 Annual: 2013-12-31
8-K 2019-04-17 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2019-04-04 Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2019-02-15 Exit Costs
8-K 2019-01-23 Earnings, Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2019-01-23 Earnings, Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2019-01-16 Earnings, Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2019-01-15 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2019-01-03 Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2018-12-03 Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2018-11-15 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-11-14 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-11-01 Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2018-10-24 Earnings, Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-10-02 Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2018-09-14 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-09-13 Enter Agreement, Shareholder Rights, Exhibits
8-K 2018-09-06 Regulation FD
8-K 2018-09-04 Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2018-08-08 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-08-01 Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2018-07-25 Earnings, Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-07-03 Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2018-06-01 Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2018-05-16 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-05-15 Officers, Shareholder Vote
8-K 2018-05-09 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-05-01 Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2018-04-25 Earnings, Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-04-03 Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2018-03-01 Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2018-02-22 Officers, Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2018-02-07 Officers, Exhibits
8-K 2018-02-01 Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2018-01-24 Earnings, Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-01-16 Earnings, Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-01-03 Other Events, Exhibits
CBU Community Bank System 3,280
NAVI Navient 3,020
UNF UniFirst 2,940
RWT Redwood Trust 1,570
NXGN Nextgen Healthcare 1,140
KALA Kala Pharmaceuticals 268
MVC MVC Capital 163
NBIO Nascent Biotech 0
WEB web.com 0
ATXG Addentax Group 0
F 2018-12-31
Part I.
Item 1. Business.
Item 1A. Risk Factors.
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments.
Item 2. Properties.
Item 3. Legal Proceedings.
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures.
Item 4A. Executive Officers of Ford.
Part II.
Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.
Item 6. Selected Financial Data.
Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.
Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure.
Item 9A. Controls and Procedures.
Item 9B. Other Information.
Part III.
Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers of Ford, and Corporate Governance.
Item 11. Executive Compensation.
Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters.
Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence.
Item 14. Principal Accounting Fees and Services.
Part IV.
Item 15. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules.
Item 16. Form 10-K Summary.
Note 1. Presentation
Note 2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Note 3. New Accounting Standards
Note 4. Revenue
Note 5. Other Income/(Loss)
Note 6. Share-Based Compensation
Note 7. Income Taxes
Note 8. Capital Stock and Earnings per Share
Note 9. Cash, Cash Equivalents, and Marketable Securities
Note 10. Ford Credit Finance Receivables
Note 11. Ford Credit Allowance for Credit Losses
Note 12. Inventories
Note 13. Net Investment in Operating Leases
Note 14. Net Property and Lease Commitments
Note 15. Equity in Net Assets of Affiliated Companies
Note 16. Other Liabilities and Deferred Revenue
Note 17. Retirement Benefits
Note 18. Debt and Commitments
Note 19. Derivative Financial Instruments and Hedging Activities
Note 20. Redeemable Noncontrolling Interest
Note 21. Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income/(Loss)
Note 22. Variable Interest Entities
Note 23. Commitments and Contingencies
Note 24. Segment Information
Note 25. Selected Quarterly Financial Data (Unaudited)
Note 26. Subsequent Event
EX-21 f12312018exhibit21.htm
EX-23 f12312018exhibit23.htm
EX-24 f12312018exhibit24.htm
EX-31.1 f12312018exhibit311.htm
EX-31.2 f12312018exhibit312.htm
EX-32.1 f12312018exhibit321.htm
EX-32.2 f12312018exhibit322.htm

Ford Earnings 2018-12-31

F 10K Annual Report

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow

10-K 1 f1231201810-k.htm 10-K Document


 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, DC 20549

FORM 10-K

(Mark One)
 
þ
Annual report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
 
 
 
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018
 
 
 or
 
 
o
Transition report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
 
 
 
For the transition period from  __________ to __________
 
 
 
Commission file number 1-3950
 
Ford Motor Company
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

Delaware
38-0549190
(State of incorporation)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
 
 
One American Road, Dearborn, Michigan
48126
(Address of principal executive offices)
(Zip Code)
313-322-3000
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)


Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $.01 per share
 
New York Stock Exchange


Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:  None.


Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.   Yes  þ  No o

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes  o  No þ

Indicate by check mark if the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes þ   No o

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).   Yes þ   No o 

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§ 229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. þ    

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or emerging growth company.  See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.   Large accelerated filer þ    Accelerated filer o    Non-accelerated filer o Smaller reporting company o Emerging growth company o

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).   Yes  o    No  þ
 
As of June 29, 2018, Ford had outstanding 3,914,690,010 shares of Common Stock and 70,852,076 shares of Class B Stock.  Based on the New York Stock Exchange Composite Transaction closing price of the Common Stock on that date ($11.07 per share), the aggregate market value of such Common Stock was $43,335,618,411.  Although there is no quoted market for our Class B Stock, shares of Class B Stock may be converted at any time into an equal number of shares of Common Stock for the purpose of effecting the sale or other disposition of such shares of Common Stock.  The shares of Common Stock and Class B Stock outstanding at June 29, 2018 included shares owned by persons who may be deemed to be “affiliates” of Ford.  We do not believe, however, that any such person should be considered to be an affiliate.  For information concerning ownership of outstanding Common Stock and Class B Stock, see the Proxy Statement for Ford’s Annual Meeting of Stockholders currently scheduled to be held on May 9, 2019 (our “Proxy Statement”), which is incorporated by reference under various Items of this Report as indicated below.

As of January 31, 2019, Ford had outstanding 3,907,699,661 shares of Common Stock and 70,852,076 shares of Class B Stock.  Based on the New York Stock Exchange Composite Transaction closing price of the Common Stock on that date ($8.80 per share), the aggregate market value of such Common Stock was $34,387,757,017.
  
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Document
 
Where Incorporated
Proxy Statement*
 
Part III (Items 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14)
__________
*
As stated under various Items of this Report, only certain specified portions of such document are incorporated by reference in this Report.




Exhibit Index begins on page


 




FORD MOTOR COMPANY
ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
For the Year Ended December 31, 2018

 
Table of Contents
 
Page
 
Part I
 
 
Item 1
Business
 
 
Overview
 
 
Automotive Segment
 
 
Mobility Segment
 
 
Ford Credit Segment
 
 
Governmental Standards
 
 
Employment Data
 
Item 1A
Risk Factors
 
Item 1B
Unresolved Staff Comments
 
Item 2
Properties
 
Item 3
Legal Proceedings
 
Item 4
Mine Safety Disclosures
 
Item 4A
Executive Officers of Ford
 
 
Part II
 
 
Item 5
Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
 
Item 6
Selected Financial Data
 
Item 7
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
 
 
Overview
 
 
Results of Operations - 2018
 
 
Automotive Segment
 
 
Mobility Segment
 
 
Ford Credit Segment
 
 
Corporate Other
 
 
Interest on Debt
 
 
Special Items
 
 
Taxes
 
 
Results of Operations - 2017
 
 
Automotive Segment
 
 
Mobility Segment
 
 
Ford Credit Segment
 
 
Corporate Other
 
 
Interest on Debt
 
 
Special Items
 
 
Taxes
 
 
Liquidity and Capital Resources
 
 
Credit Ratings
 
 
2019 External Factors Assumptions
 
 
Outlook
 
 
Non-GAAP Financial Measure Reconciliations
 
 
2018 Supplemental Financial Information
 
 
Critical Accounting Estimates
 
 
Accounting Standards Issued But Not Yet Adopted
 
 
Aggregate Contractual Obligations
 
Item 7A
Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
 

i


Table of Contents
(continued)
Item 8
Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
 
Item 9
Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
 
Item 9A
Controls and Procedures
 
Item 9B
Other Information
 
 
Part III
 
 
Item 10
Directors, Executive Officers of Ford, and Corporate Governance
 
Item 11
Executive Compensation
 
Item 12
Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
 
Item 13
Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
 
Item 14
Principal Accounting Fees and Services
 
 
Part IV
 
 
Item 15
Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules
 
Item 16
Form 10-K Summary
 
 
Signatures
 
 
Ford Motor Company and Subsidiaries Financial Statements
 
 
 
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
 
 
Consolidated Income Statement
 
 
Consolidated Statement of Comprehensive Income
 
 
Consolidated Balance Sheet
 
 
Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows
 
 
Consolidated Statement of Equity
 
 
Notes to the Financial Statements
 
 
Schedule II — Valuation and Qualifying Accounts
 


ii


PART I.
ITEM 1. Business.

Ford Motor Company was incorporated in Delaware in 1919.  We acquired the business of a Michigan company, also known as Ford Motor Company, which had been incorporated in 1903 to produce and sell automobiles designed and engineered by Henry Ford. We are a global company based in Dearborn, Michigan. With about 199,000 employees worldwide, the Company designs, manufactures, markets, and services a full line of Ford cars, trucks, sport utility vehicles (“SUVs”), electrified vehicles, and Lincoln luxury vehicles, provides financial services through Ford Motor Credit Company LLC (“Ford Credit”), and is pursuing leadership positions in electrification, autonomous vehicles, and mobility solutions.

In addition to the information about Ford and our subsidiaries contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018 (“2018 Form 10-K Report” or “Report”), extensive information about our Company can be found at http://corporate.ford.com, including information about our management team, our brands and products, and our corporate governance principles.

The corporate governance information on our website includes our Corporate Governance Principles, Code of Ethics for Senior Financial Personnel, Code of Ethics for the Board of Directors, Code of Corporate Conduct for all employees, and the Charters for each of the Committees of our Board of Directors.  In addition, any amendments to our Code of Ethics or waivers granted to our directors and executive officers will be posted on our corporate website.  All of these documents may be accessed by going to our corporate website, or may be obtained free of charge by writing to our Shareholder Relations Department, Ford Motor Company, One American Road, P.O. Box 1899, Dearborn, Michigan 48126-1899.

Our recent periodic reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, are available free of charge at http://shareholder.ford.com. This includes recent Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, and Current Reports on Form 8-K, as well as any amendments to those reports.  Recent Section 16 filings made with the SEC by the Company or any of our executive officers or directors with respect to our Common Stock also are made available free of charge through our website.  We post each of these documents on our website as soon as reasonably practicable after it is electronically filed with the SEC. Our reports filed with the SEC also may be found on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov.

The foregoing information regarding our website and its content is for convenience only and not deemed to be incorporated by reference into this Report nor filed with the SEC.

1

Item 1. Business (Continued)

OVERVIEW

Segments.  We report our results in three operating segments that represent the primary businesses reported in our consolidated financial statements: Automotive, Mobility, and Ford Credit.

Automotive Segment. Our Automotive segment primarily includes the sale of Ford and Lincoln vehicles, service parts, and accessories worldwide, together with the associated costs to develop, manufacture, distribute, and service the vehicles, parts, and accessories. This segment includes revenues and costs related to our electrification vehicle programs. The segment includes the following regional business units: North America, South America, Europe, Middle East & Africa, and Asia Pacific (including China).

Mobility Segment. Our Mobility segment includes Ford Smart Mobility LLC (“FSM”) and our autonomous vehicles business.

Ford Credit Segment. The Ford Credit segment is comprised of the Ford Credit business on a consolidated basis, which is primarily vehicle-related financing and leasing activities.

AUTOMOTIVE SEGMENT

General

Our vehicle brands are Ford and Lincoln.  In 2018, we sold approximately 5,982,000 vehicles at wholesale throughout the world.  See “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” (“Item 7”) for a discussion of our calculation of wholesale unit volumes.

Substantially all of our vehicles, parts, and accessories are sold through distributors and dealers (collectively, “dealerships”), the substantial majority of which are independently owned.  At December 31, 2018, the approximate number of dealerships worldwide distributing our vehicle brands was as follows:
Brand
Number of Dealerships
at December 31, 2018
Ford
10,466

Ford-Lincoln (combined)
858

Lincoln
210

Total
11,534


We do not depend on any single customer or a few customers to the extent that the loss of such customers would have a material adverse effect on our business.

In addition to the products we sell to our dealerships for retail sale, we also sell vehicles to our dealerships for sale to fleet customers, including commercial fleet customers, daily rental car companies, and governments.  We also sell parts and accessories, primarily to our dealerships (which in turn sell these products to retail customers) and to authorized parts distributors (which in turn primarily sell these products to retailers). We also offer extended service contracts.

The worldwide automotive industry is affected significantly by general economic and political conditions over which we have little control.  Vehicles are durable goods, and consumers have latitude in determining whether and when to replace an existing vehicle.  The decision whether to purchase a vehicle may be affected significantly by slowing economic growth, geopolitical events, and other factors (including the cost of purchasing and operating cars, trucks, and SUVs and the availability and cost of financing and fuel).  As we have seen in the United States, Europe, and China, in particular, the number of cars, trucks, and SUVs sold may vary substantially from year to year.  Further, the automotive industry is a highly competitive business that has a wide and growing variety of product offerings from a growing number of manufacturers.

2

Item 1. Business (Continued)

Our wholesale unit volumes vary with the level of total industry demand and our share of that industry demand.  Our wholesale unit volumes also are influenced by the level of dealer inventory.  Our share is influenced by how our products are perceived in comparison to those offered by other manufacturers based on many factors, including price, quality, styling, reliability, safety, fuel efficiency, functionality, and reputation.  Our share also is affected by the timing and frequency of new model introductions.  Our ability to satisfy changing consumer preferences with respect to type or size of vehicle, as well as design and performance characteristics, affects our sales and earnings significantly.

As with other manufacturers, the profitability of our business is affected by many factors, including:

Wholesale unit volumes
Margin of profit on each vehicle sold - which in turn is affected by many factors, such as:
Market factors - volume and mix of vehicles and options sold, and net pricing (reflecting, among other factors, incentive programs)
Costs of components and raw materials necessary for production of vehicles
Costs for customer warranty claims and additional service actions
Costs for safety, emissions, and fuel economy technology and equipment
A high proportion of relatively fixed structural costs, so that small changes in wholesale unit volumes can significantly affect overall profitability

Our industry has a very competitive pricing environment, driven in part by industry excess capacity. Prior to its recent stabilization, the decline in the value of the yen over the last several years also has contributed significantly to competitive pressures in many of our markets. For the past several decades, manufacturers typically have given price discounts and other marketing incentives to maintain market share and production levels.  

Competitive Position.  The worldwide automotive industry consists of many producers, with no single dominant producer. Certain manufacturers, however, account for the major percentage of total sales within particular countries, especially their countries of origin.  Key competitors with global presence include Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, General Motors Company, Groupe PSA, Honda Motor Company, Hyundai-Kia Automotive Group, Renault-Nissan B.V., Suzuki Motor Corporation, Toyota Motor Corporation, and Volkswagen AG Group.

Seasonality.  We manage our vehicle production schedule based on a number of factors, including retail sales (i.e., units sold by our dealerships to their customers at retail) and dealer stock levels (i.e., the number of units held in inventory by our dealerships for sale to their customers). Historically, we have experienced some seasonal fluctuation in the business, with production in many markets tending to be higher in the first half of the year to meet demand in the spring and summer (typically the strongest sales months of the year).  

Backlog Orders.  We generally produce and ship our products on average within approximately 20 days after an order is deemed to become firm.  Therefore, no significant amount of backlog orders accumulates during any period.

Raw Materials.  We purchase a wide variety of raw materials from numerous suppliers around the world for use in production of our vehicles.  These materials include base metals (e.g., steel, iron castings, and aluminum), precious metals (e.g., palladium), energy (e.g., natural gas), and plastics/resins (e.g., polypropylene).  We believe we have adequate supplies or sources of availability of raw materials necessary to meet our needs.  There always are risks and uncertainties with respect to the supply of raw materials, however, which could impact availability in sufficient quantities and at cost effective prices to meet our needs.  See the “Overview” section of Item 7 for a discussion of commodity and energy price trends, and “Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk” (“Item 7A”) for a discussion of commodity price risks.

3

Item 1. Business (Continued)

Intellectual Property.  We own or hold licenses to use numerous patents, copyrights, and trademarks on a global basis. Our policy is to protect our competitive position by, among other methods, filing U.S. and international patent applications to protect technology and improvements that we consider important to the development of our business.  We have generated a large number of patents, and expect this portfolio to continue to grow as we actively pursue additional technological innovation.  We have approximately 60,000 active patents and pending patent applications globally, with an average age for patents in our active patent portfolio of just over four and a half years.  In addition to this intellectual property, we also rely on our proprietary knowledge and ongoing technological innovation to develop and maintain our competitive position.  Although we believe these patents, patent applications, and know-how, in the aggregate, are important to the conduct of our business, and we obtain licenses to use certain intellectual property owned by others, none is individually considered material to our business.  We also own numerous trademarks and service marks that contribute to the identity and recognition of our Company and its products and services globally.  Certain of these marks are integral to the conduct of our business, a loss of any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business.

Warranty Coverage, Field Service Actions, and Customer Satisfaction Actions.  We provide warranties on vehicles we sell.  Warranties are offered for specific periods of time and/or mileage, and vary depending upon the type of product and the geographic location of its sale.  Pursuant to these warranties, we will repair, replace, or adjust all parts on a vehicle that are defective in factory-supplied materials or workmanship during the specified warranty period.  In addition to the costs associated with this warranty coverage provided on our vehicles, we also incur costs as a result of field service actions (i.e., safety recalls, emission recalls, and other product campaigns), and for customer satisfaction actions.

For additional information regarding warranty and related costs, see “Critical Accounting Estimates” in Item 7 and Note 23 of the Notes to the Financial Statements.

4

Item 1. Business (Continued)

Wholesales

Wholesales consist primarily of vehicles sold to dealerships. For the majority of such sales, we recognize revenue when we ship the vehicles to our customers (i.e., the dealerships) from our manufacturing facilities. See the “Overview” section in Item 7 for additional discussion of revenue recognition practices. Wholesales in each region and in certain key markets within each region during the past three years were as follows:
 
Wholesales (a)
 
(in thousands of units)
 
2016
 
2017
 
2018
United States
2,588

 
2,566

 
2,540

Canada
313

 
308

 
295

Mexico
103

 
82

 
69

North America
3,019

 
2,967

 
2,920

Brazil
182

 
215

 
235

Argentina
101

 
115

 
86

South America
325

 
373

 
365

United Kingdom
428

 
418

 
387

Germany
283

 
277

 
313

EU21 (b)
1,387

 
1,429

 
1,439

Russia
45

 
54

 
51

Turkey
116

 
116

 
65

Europe
1,539

 
1,582

 
1,533

Middle East & Africa
161

 
119

 
109

China
1,267

 
1,215

 
731

Australia
82

 
78

 
65

India
86

 
88

 
98

ASEAN (c)
106

 
122

 
117

Asia Pacific
1,607

 
1,566

 
1,055

Total Company
6,651

 
6,607

 
5,982

_______
(a)
Wholesale unit volume includes sales of medium and heavy trucks. Wholesale unit volume includes all Ford and Lincoln badged units (whether produced by Ford or by an unconsolidated affiliate) that are sold to dealerships, units manufactured by Ford that are sold to other manufacturers, units distributed for other manufacturers, and local brand units produced by our unconsolidated Chinese joint venture Jiangling Motors Corporation, Ltd. (“JMC”) that are sold to dealerships. Vehicles sold to daily rental car companies that are subject to a guaranteed repurchase option (i.e., rental repurchase), as well as other sales of finished vehicles for which the recognition of revenue is deferred (e.g., consignments), also are included in wholesale unit volume. Revenue from certain vehicles in wholesale unit volume (specifically, Ford badged vehicles produced and distributed by our unconsolidated affiliates, as well as JMC brand vehicles) are not included in our revenue.
(b)
EU21 markets are United Kingdom, Germany, France, Italy, Spain, Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Sweden, and Switzerland.
(c)
ASEAN includes Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam.

5

Item 1. Business (Continued)

Retail Sales, Industry Volume, and Market Share

Retail sales, industry volume, and market share in each region and in certain key markets within each region during the past three years were as follows:
 
Retail Sales (a)
 
Industry Volume (b)
 
Market Share (c)
 
(in millions of units)
 
(in millions of units)
 
(as a percentage)
 
2016
 
2017
 
2018
 
2016
 
2017
 
2018
 
2016
 
2017
 
2018
United States
2.6

 
2.6

 
2.5

 
17.9

 
17.6

 
17.7

 
14.6
%
 
14.7
%
 
14.1
%
Canada
0.3

 
0.3

 
0.3

 
2.0

 
2.1

 
2.0

 
15.4

 
14.9

 
14.7

Mexico
0.1

 
0.1

 
0.1

 
1.6

 
1.6

 
1.5

 
6.2

 
5.3

 
4.8

North America
3.0

 
3.0

 
2.9

 
21.8

 
21.5

 
21.5

 
13.9

 
13.9

 
13.4

Brazil
0.2

 
0.2

 
0.2

 
2.1

 
2.2

 
2.6

 
9.2
%
 
9.6
%
 
9.2
%
Argentina
0.1

 
0.1

 
0.1

 
0.7

 
0.9

 
0.8

 
13.6

 
12.9

 
12.1

South America
0.3

 
0.4

 
0.4

 
3.7

 
4.2

 
4.5

 
8.8

 
8.9

 
8.3

United Kingdom
0.4

 
0.4

 
0.4

 
3.1

 
3.0

 
2.8

 
14.0
%
 
13.8
%
 
13.7
%
Germany
0.3

 
0.3

 
0.3

 
3.7

 
3.8

 
3.8

 
7.6

 
7.7

 
7.9

EU21 (d)
1.4

 
1.4

 
1.4

 
18.6

 
19.3

 
19.6

 
7.5

 
7.3

 
7.2

Russia
0.0

 
0.1

 
0.1

 
1.5

 
1.6

 
1.8

 
2.9

 
3.1

 
2.9

Turkey
0.1

 
0.1

 
0.1

 
1.0

 
1.0

 
0.6

 
11.4

 
11.9

 
10.9

Europe
1.5

 
1.6

 
1.5

 
20.1

 
20.9

 
20.9

 
7.7

 
7.5

 
7.2

Middle East & Africa
0.2

 
0.1

 
0.1

 
3.7

 
3.6

 
3.8

 
4.4
%
 
3.8
%
 
3.0
%
China (e)
1.3

 
1.2

 
0.8

 
27.5

 
28.2

 
26.2

 
4.6
%
 
4.2
%
 
2.9
%
Australia
0.1

 
0.1

 
0.1

 
1.2

 
1.2

 
1.2

 
6.9

 
6.6

 
6.0

India
0.1

 
0.1

 
0.1

 
3.7

 
4.1

 
4.4

 
2.4

 
2.2

 
2.2

ASEAN (f)
0.1

 
0.1

 
0.1

 
1.5

 
1.6

 
1.7

 
7.0

 
7.5

 
6.6

Asia Pacific (e)
1.6

 
1.5

 
1.1

 
43.4

 
44.8

 
43.5

 
3.7

 
3.4

 
2.5

Global
N/A

 
N/A

 
N/A

 
92.8

 
95.0

 
94.2

 
7.2
%
 
7.0
%
 
6.3
%
Total Company
6.7

 
6.6

 
6.0

 
N/A

 
N/A

 
N/A

 
N/A

 
N/A

 
N/A

______________
(a)
Retail sales represents primarily sales by dealers and is based, in part, on estimated vehicle registrations; includes medium and heavy trucks.
(b)
Industry volume is an internal estimate based on publicly-available data collected from various government, private, and public sources around the globe; includes medium and heavy trucks.
(c)
Market share represents reported retail sales of our brands as a percent of total industry volume in the relevant market or region.
(d)
EU21 markets are United Kingdom, Germany, France, Italy, Spain, Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Sweden, and Switzerland.
(e)
China and Asia Pacific market share includes Ford brand and JMC brand vehicles produced and sold by our unconsolidated affiliates.
(f)
ASEAN includes Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam.

U.S. Sales by Type

The following table shows 2018 U.S. retail sales volume and U.S. wholesales segregated by truck, SUV, and car sales. U.S. retail sales volume reflects transactions with (i) retail and fleet customers (as reported by dealers), (ii) government, and (iii) Ford management.  U.S. wholesales reflect sales to dealers.
 
U.S. Retail Sales
 
U.S. Wholesales
Trucks
1,139,079

 
1,156,022

SUVs
872,215

 
937,845

Cars
486,024

 
445,999

Total Vehicles
2,497,318

 
2,539,866


6

Item 1. Business (Continued)

MOBILITY SEGMENT

Our Mobility segment primarily includes development costs related to our autonomous vehicles and our investment in mobility through FSM. Autonomous vehicles includes self-driving systems development and vehicle integration, autonomous vehicle research and advanced engineering, autonomous vehicle transportation-as-a-service network development, user experience, and business strategy and business development teams. FSM designs and builds mobility services on its own, and collaborates with start-ups and technology companies.

FORD CREDIT SEGMENT

Our wholly-owned subsidiary Ford Credit offers a wide variety of automotive financing products to and through automotive dealers throughout the world.  The predominant share of Ford Credit’s business consists of financing our vehicles and supporting our dealers.  Ford Credit earns its revenue primarily from payments made under retail installment sale and lease contracts that it originates and purchases; interest rate supplements and other support payments from us and our subsidiaries; and payments made under dealer financing programs.

As a result of these financing activities, Ford Credit has a large portfolio of finance receivables and operating leases which it classifies into two portfolios—“consumer” and “non-consumer.”  Finance receivables and operating leases in the consumer portfolio include products offered to individuals and businesses that finance the acquisition of our vehicles from dealers for personal and commercial use.  Retail financing includes retail installment sale contracts for new and used vehicles and direct financing leases for new vehicles to retail and commercial customers, including leasing companies, government entities, daily rental companies, and fleet customers. Finance receivables in the non-consumer portfolio include products offered to automotive dealers. Ford Credit makes wholesale loans to dealers to finance the purchase of vehicle inventory, also known as floorplan financing, as well as loans to dealers to finance working capital and improvements to dealership facilities, finance the purchase of dealership real estate, and finance other dealer vehicle programs.  Ford Credit also purchases receivables generated by us and our subsidiaries, primarily related to the sale of parts and accessories to dealers and certain used vehicles from daily rental fleet companies. Ford Credit also provides financing to us for vehicles that we lease to our employees.

Ford Credit does business in the United States and Canada through business centers. Outside of the United States, Europe is Ford Credit’s largest operation. Ford Credit’s European operations are managed primarily through its United Kingdom-based subsidiary, FCE Bank plc (“FCE”). Within Europe, FCE’s largest markets are the United Kingdom and Germany, representing 58% of FCE’s finance receivables and operating leases at year-end 2018.

The following table shows Ford Credit’s financing and lease shares of new Ford and Lincoln vehicle retail sales in the United States and new Ford vehicles sold in Europe, as well as its wholesale financing shares of new Ford and Lincoln vehicles acquired by dealers in the United States and new Ford vehicles acquired by dealers in Europe:
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
2016
 
2017
 
2018
United States - Financing Share
 
 
 
 
 
Retail installment and lease share of Ford retail sales (excl. Fleet)
56
%
 
55
%
 
58
%
Wholesale
76

 
76

 
76

 
 
 
 
 
 
Europe - Financing Share (incl. Fleet)
 

 
 

 
 

Retail installment and lease share of total Ford sales
37
%
 
37
%
 
38
%
Wholesale
98

 
98

 
98


See Item 7 and Notes 10, 11, and 13 of the Notes to the Financial Statements for a detailed discussion of Ford Credit’s receivables, credit losses, allowance for credit losses, loss-to-receivables ratios, funding sources, and funding strategies. See Item 7A for discussion of how Ford Credit manages its financial market risks.

We routinely sponsor special retail and lease incentives to dealers’ customers who choose to finance or lease our vehicles from Ford Credit.  In order to compensate Ford Credit for the lower interest or lease payments offered to the retail customer, we pay the discounted value of the incentive directly to Ford Credit when it originates the retail finance or lease contract with the dealer’s customer. These programs increase Ford Credit’s financing volume and share.  See Note 2 of the Notes to the Financial Statements for information about our accounting for these programs.

7

Item 1. Business (Continued)

We have an Amended and Restated Relationship Agreement with Ford Credit, pursuant to which, if Ford Credit’s managed leverage for a calendar quarter were to be higher than 11.5:1 (as reported in its most recent periodic report), Ford Credit could require us to make or cause to be made a capital contribution to it in an amount sufficient to have caused such managed leverage to have been 11.5:1.  No capital contributions have been made pursuant to this agreement.  The agreement also allocates to Ford Credit $3 billion of commitments under our corporate credit facility. In a separate agreement with FCE, Ford Credit has agreed to maintain FCE’s net worth in excess of $500 million. No payments have been made pursuant to that agreement.

GOVERNMENTAL STANDARDS

Many governmental standards and regulations relating to safety, fuel economy, emissions control, noise control, vehicle recycling, substances of concern, vehicle damage, and theft prevention are applicable to new motor vehicles, engines, and equipment manufactured for sale.  In addition, manufacturing and other automotive assembly facilities are subject to stringent standards regulating air emissions, water discharges, and the handling and disposal of hazardous substances. The most significant of the standards and regulations affecting us are discussed below:

Vehicle Emissions Control

U.S. Requirements Federal and California Emission Standards.  The federal Clean Air Act imposes stringent limits on the amount of regulated pollutants that lawfully may be emitted by new vehicles and engines produced for sale in the United States. Pursuant to the Clean Air Act, California may establish its own vehicle emission standards, which can then be adopted by other states. Both the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) and the California Air Resources Board (“CARB”) have established tailpipe and evaporative emissions standards for light and medium duty vehicles that become increasingly stringent through the 2025 model year. Thirteen states, primarily located in the Northeast and Northwest, have adopted the California standards. Compliance with both the federal and California standards can, in some cases, be challenging.

Both federal and California regulations require motor vehicles to be equipped with on-board diagnostic (“OBD”) systems that monitor emission-related systems and components. As OBD requirements become more complex and challenging over time, they could lead to increased vehicle recalls and warranty costs. Compliance with automobile emission standards depends in part on the widespread availability of high-quality and consistent automotive fuels that the vehicles were designed to use. Fuel variables that can affect vehicle emissions include ethanol content, octane ratings, and the use of metallic-based fuel additives, among other things. Legislative, regulatory, and judicial developments related to fuel quality at both the national and state levels could affect vehicle manufacturers’ warranty costs as well as their ability to comply with vehicle emission standards.

The California vehicle emissions program also includes requirements for manufacturers to produce and deliver for sale zero-emission vehicles (“ZEVs”). The current ZEV regulations mandate substantial annual increases in the production and sale of battery-electric, fuel cell, and plug-in hybrid vehicles through the 2025 model year. By the 2025 model year, approximately 15% of a manufacturer’s total California sales volume will need to be made up of such vehicles. Compliance with ZEV rules could have a substantial adverse effect on our sales volumes and profits. We are concerned that the market and infrastructure in California may not support the large volume of advanced-technology vehicles that manufacturers will be required to produce, especially if gasoline prices remain relatively low. We also are concerned about enforcement of the ZEV mandate in other states that have adopted California’s ZEV program, where the existence of a market for such vehicles is even less certain. California is now in the process of promulgating new ZEV regulations aimed at medium- and heavy-duty vehicles, effective no earlier than the 2024 model year. These rules, which could entail significant costs and compliance challenges, are also expected to include burdensome warranty and recall requirements.

8

Item 1. Business (Continued)

European Requirements.  European Union (“EU”) directives and related legislation limit the amount of regulated pollutants that may be emitted by new motor vehicles and engines sold in the EU.  Stringent new Stage 6 emission standards took effect for vehicle registrations starting in September 2014, and a second phase introduced a new laboratory test cycle for CO2 and emissions in September 2017.  These standards drive the need for additional diesel exhaust after-treatment, which adds cost to, and potentially impacts, the diesel CO2 advantage.  The mandatory Real Driving Emission (“RDE”) rules require manufacturers to conduct on-road emission tests using portable emission analyzers. These on-road emission tests complement the laboratory-based tests. In 2017, manufacturers began to reduce the divergence between the regulatory limit that is tested in laboratory conditions and the values of RDE tests (“conformity factors”). The costs associated with conducting the RDE tests and complying with the conformity factors are significant. In December 2018, the European Court of First Instance ruled that the EU Commission must decrease this divergence to zero within the next 12 months. Such a short lead time may result in our inability to sell products in the EU if we are unable to timely satisfy any new requirements. It is unclear whether the European Commission will appeal the court’s decision or change the base regulation. Regardless of the ultimate resolution before the court, a second step for RDE to further reduce the conformity factors becomes mandatory for new vehicle type approvals by authorities starting in January 2020. The RDE in-use surveillance rules were published in November 2018, and they further increase the stringency of emission requirements by allowing third parties to conduct testing and defining a process by which those third parties may challenge a product’s compliance with authorities. The WVTA (Whole Vehicle Type Approval) Regulations are being adapted to cover increased market surveillance, and the EU Commission announced that in 2018 it will begin to discuss air quality modeling scenarios for the next steps of emission standards post Stage 6.

There is an increasing trend of city access restrictions for internal combustion engine powered vehicles, in particular in European cities that do not meet air quality limits. Depending on city and country, the conditions for access will vary (e.g., different emission limits or vehicle requirements), which indirectly impact residual values and sales of internal combustion powered vehicles prior to restrictions being agreed. There might also be a need to retrofit emission after-treatment of vehicles. There are also discussions in several European countries to ban the registration of internal combustion powered vehicles in the future as a part of their plan to meet their country specific targets as part of the Paris Accord.

Other National Requirements.  Many countries, in an effort to address air quality and climate change concerns, are adopting previous versions of European or United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (“UN-ECE”) mobile source emission regulations. Some countries have adopted more advanced regulations based on the most recent version of European or U.S. regulations; for example, in December 2016, the China Ministry of Environmental Protection (“MEP”) finalized emission regulations based on European Stage VI emission standards for light duty vehicles and U.S. evaporative emissions and OBD requirements. The China Stage VI standards incorporate two levels of stringency. Stage one is slated for implementation by July 1, 2020, and the more stringent stage two level is slated for implementation by July 1, 2023; however, the government has encouraged the more developed cities to pull-ahead implementation. The earliest implementation is expected as early as July 2019.

Canadian criteria emissions regulations are largely aligned with U.S. requirements. In October 2016, the Canadian Province of Quebec passed legislation enabling regulation of a ZEV mandate as part of its climate change plan. Final regulations were published in December 2017, and came into effect in January 2018. Quebec’s final regulations are more stringent than those in place in California and the other U.S. ZEV mandate states. In November 2018, the Province of British Columbia announced plans to introduce legislation for a ZEV mandate in the spring of 2019.

In South America, there is a mix of regulations and processes based on U.S. and EU standards. Brazil has specific regulations for light vehicle emissions (PROCONVE) and OBD based on U.S. standards and heavy vehicle emissions based on Euro V.

Not all countries have adopted appropriate fuel quality standards to accompany the stringent emission standards adopted.  This could lead to compliance problems, particularly if OBD or in-use surveillance requirements are implemented.

9

Item 1. Business (Continued)

Global Developments. In recent years, EPA and CARB have increased their focus on the use of “defeat devices.” Defeat devices are elements of design (typically embedded in software) that improperly cause the emission control system to function less effectively during normal on-road driving than during an official laboratory emissions test, without justification. They are prohibited by law in many jurisdictions, and we do not use defeat devices in our vehicles.

Regulators around the world have increased scrutiny of automakers’ emission testing, which has led to a number of defeat device settlements by various manufacturers. EPA is carrying out additional non-standard tests as part of its vehicle certification program. CARB has also been conducting extensive non-standard emission tests, which in some cases have resulted in certification delays for diesel vehicles. The EU’s accelerated efforts to finalize its RDE testing program are described above. In 2016, several European countries, including France and Germany, conducted non-standard emission tests and published the results. In some cases, this supplemental testing has triggered investigations of manufacturers for possible defeat devices. Testing is expected to continue on an ongoing basis. In addition, plaintiffs’ attorneys are pursuing consumer class action lawsuits based on alleged excessive emissions from cars and trucks, which could, in turn, prompt further investigations by regulators.

Vehicle Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas Standards

U.S. Requirements Light Duty Vehicles Federal law requires that light duty vehicles meet minimum corporate average fuel economy (“CAFE”) standards set by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (“NHTSA”). Manufacturers are subject to substantial civil penalties if they fail to meet the CAFE standard in any model year, after taking into account all available credits for the preceding three model years and expected credits for the five succeeding model years. The law requires NHTSA to promulgate and enforce separate CAFE standards applicable to each manufacturer’s fleet of domestic passenger cars, imported passenger cars, and light duty trucks.

EPA also regulates vehicle greenhouse gas (“GHG”) emissions under the Clean Air Act. Because the vast majority of GHGs emitted by a vehicle are the result of fuel combustion, GHG emission standards effectively are fuel economy standards. Thus, it is necessary for NHTSA and EPA to coordinate with each other on their fuel economy and GHG standards, respectively, to avoid potential inconsistencies.

In 2010, EPA and NHTSA jointly promulgated regulations establishing the “One National Program” of CAFE and GHG regulations for light duty vehicles for the 2012-2016 model years. In 2012, EPA and NHTSA jointly promulgated regulations extending the One National Program framework through the 2025 model year. These rules require manufacturers to achieve increasingly stringent standards reaching approximately 50 mpg by the 2025 model year. Each manufacturer’s specific task depends on the mix of vehicles it sells. The rules include the opportunity for manufacturers to earn credits for technologies that achieve real-world CO2 reductions and fuel economy improvements that are not captured by the EPA fuel economy test procedures. Manufacturers also can earn credits for GHG reductions not specifically tied to fuel economy, such as improvements in air conditioning systems.

The existing One National Program standards will be difficult to meet if fuel prices remain relatively low and market conditions do not drive consumers to purchase electric vehicles and other highly fuel-efficient vehicles in large numbers. We are concerned about the commercial feasibility of meeting future model year GHG and CAFE standards, particularly the 2022-2025 standards, because of the many unknowns regarding technology development, market conditions, and other factors so far into the future.

The One National Program rules provided for a midterm evaluation process under which, by April 2018, EPA and NHTSA would re-evaluate their standards for model years 2022-2025 in order to ensure that those standards are feasible and optimal in light of intervening events. In April 2018, EPA announced its intention to reconsider the GHG standards originally set for those model years, reversing a prior decision. In August 2018, the federal government issued a proposed rule to reduce the stringency of future GHG standards, identifying eight potential scenarios of alternate standards beginning with the 2021 model year. It is expected that by the second quarter of 2019, EPA and NHTSA will finalize their rulemaking for future GHG and fuel economy standards.

10

Item 1. Business (Continued)

California has asserted the right to regulate motor vehicle GHG emissions, and other states have asserted the right to adopt the California standards. Under the One National Program framework discussed above, California and the other states had agreed that compliance with the federal program would satisfy compliance with any purported state GHG requirements for the 2012-2025 model years, thereby avoiding a patchwork of potentially conflicting federal and state GHG standards. In the wake of the federal government’s decision to reconsider the model year 2022-2025 standards, California has taken the position that if there are any changes to the federal standards, it will return to enforcing its own state-specific GHG standards. In contrast, the federal government has taken the position that state GHG standards are preempted by federal law. Should California and the federal government remain at odds over GHG standards, there is significant potential for litigation, which, in turn, would give rise to regulatory uncertainty about future GHG and fuel economy standards. Such uncertainty would make it difficult for automobile manufacturers to engage in future product planning with confidence. Should California and other states be successful in enforcing state-specific motor vehicle GHG rules, the existence of separate state and federal GHG and fuel economy standards would impose significant costs on automobile manufacturers.

If any federal or state agency seeks to impose and enforce fuel economy and GHG standards that are misaligned with market conditions, we likely would be forced to take various actions that could have substantial adverse effects on our sales volumes and profits. Such actions likely would include restricting offerings of selected engines and popular options; increasing market support programs for our most fuel-efficient vehicles; and ultimately curtailing the production and sale of certain vehicles such as high-performance cars, utilities, and/or full-size light trucks in order to maintain compliance.

U.S. Requirements Heavy Duty Vehicles. EPA and NHTSA have jointly promulgated GHG and fuel economy standards for heavy duty vehicles (generally, vehicles over 8,500 pounds gross vehicle weight rating) through the 2027 model year. In our case, the standards primarily affect our heavy duty pickup trucks and vans, plus vocational vehicles such as shuttle buses and delivery trucks. As the heavy duty standards increase in stringency, it may become more difficult to comply while continuing to offer a full lineup of heavy duty trucks.

European Requirements. In December 2008, the EU approved regulation of passenger car CO2 emissions, with a 2012-2015 phase-in period, that limits the industry fleet average to a maximum of 130 grams per kilometer (“g/km”), using a sliding scale (the EU target slope) based on vehicle weight. This regulation provides different CO2 targets for each manufacturer based on the respective average vehicle weight for its fleet of vehicles initially registered in a calendar year. Limited credits are available for CO2 off-cycle technologies (“eco-innovations”), certain alternative fuels, and vehicles with CO2 emissions below 50 g/km for a period of time. A penalty system applies to manufacturers failing to meet the individual CO2 targets. Pooling agreements between manufacturers are possible under certain conditions. Starting in 2020, an EU industry target of 95 g/km has been set, for which 95% of a manufacturer’s fleet has to comply; by 2021, 100% of a manufacturer’s fleet has to comply. Outside of the EU, Switzerland, for example, has introduced similar rules, which began phasing-in in July 2012, although the stringency of the industry average emission target is significantly higher in a volatile market. We face the risk of advance premium payment requirements if, for example, unexpected market fluctuation within a quarter negatively impacts our average fleet performance.

In separate legislation, “complementary measures” have been mandated, including requirements related to fuel economy indicators, gear shift indicators, tire pressure monitoring systems, low rolling resistance tires, and more-efficient low-CO2 mobile air conditioning systems.  The EU Commission introduced in 2011 a CO2 target for commercial light duty vehicles to be at an EU industry average of 175 g/km starting in 2014 and 147 g/km starting in 2020 (with a similar 2020 ruling in Switzerland). For “multi-stage vehicles” (e.g., our Transit chassis cabs), the base manufacturer (e.g., Ford) is fully responsible for the CO2 performance of the final up-fitted vehicles.  The EU legislation for light commercial vehicles also includes a penalty system, super-credits for vehicles below 50 g/km (granted between 2014 and 2017), and limited credits for CO2 off-cycle eco-innovations, pooling, etc., similar to the passenger car CO2 regulation.

The EU is preparing to publish rules that require a reduction of CO2 by 15% for passenger cars and light commercial vans in 2025 compared to 2021, and, in 2030, by 31% for light commercial vans and 37.5% for passenger cars compared to 2021. The EU Commission will investigate the introduction of Real Driving CO2 and Life Cycle Assessment elements. Heavy duty vehicles will be addressed in a separate regulation.

11

Item 1. Business (Continued)

The United Nations developed a new technical regulation for passenger car emissions and CO2. This new world light duty test procedure (“WLTP”) is focused primarily on better aligning laboratory CO2 and fuel consumption figures with customer-reported figures. The introduction of WLTP in Europe started in September 2017 and is likely to require updates to CO2 labeling, thereby impacting taxes in countries with a CO2 tax scheme as well as the above-mentioned CO2 fleet regulations for passenger cars and light commercial vehicles. Costs associated with new or incremental testing for WLTP could be significant.

Some European countries have implemented or are considering other initiatives for reducing CO2 vehicle emissions, including fiscal measures and CO2 labeling to address country targets associated with the Paris Accord.  For example, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Spain, Portugal, and the Netherlands, among others, have introduced taxation based on CO2 emissions.  The EU CO2 requirements are likely to trigger further measures. Other countries are considering bans on internal combustion engine vehicle registrations in the future.

Other National Requirements.  The Canadian federal government has regulated vehicle GHG emissions under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, beginning with the 2011 model year. In October 2014, the Canadian federal government published the final changes to the regulation for light duty vehicles, which maintain alignment with U.S. EPA vehicle GHG standards for the 2017–2025 model years. The final regulation for 2014–2018 heavy duty vehicles was published in February 2013. The 2018 model year standards hold through the 2020 model year. Final regulations for the 2021 model year and beyond were published in May 2018 and are in line with U.S. requirements.

The China fuel consumption requirement uses a weight-based approach to establish targets, specifies year-over-year target reductions, and requires New Energy Vehicle (“NEV”) mandated volumes of plug-in hybrids, battery electric vehicles, or fuel cell vehicles to generate credits equivalent to 10% in 2019 and 12% in 2020. China has set the 2020 fuel consumption fleet average at 5.0L/100km and 4.0L/100km in 2025. The government is projecting further fuel consumption reductions in 2030 and is targeting 3.2L/100km. The fuel efficiency targets and NEV mandate will impact the costs of vehicle technology in the future.

In South America, Brazil was the first country to establish a GHG reduction policy for light duty vehicles with a spark ignition engine. Targets had to be achieved for 2017 and must be maintained through 2020. Additional tax reductions are available if further fuel efficiency targets are achieved, and penalties may be applied if the efficiency levels are not maintained. In December 2018, the next phase of the fuel efficiency program was published and it includes light duty diesel and heavy duty vehicles. Other countries in the region are considering a similar approach with the inclusion of a fuel efficiency labeling program in Argentina and Chile initiating discussions around GHG reduction.

12

Item 1. Business (Continued)

Vehicle Safety

U.S. Requirements. The National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966 (the “Safety Act”) regulates vehicles and vehicle equipment in two primary ways. First, the Safety Act prohibits the sale in the United States of any new vehicle or equipment that does not conform to applicable vehicle safety standards established by NHTSA. Meeting or exceeding many safety standards is costly, in part because the standards tend to conflict with the need to reduce vehicle weight in order to meet emission and fuel economy standards. Second, the Safety Act requires that defects related to motor vehicle safety be remedied through safety recall campaigns. A manufacturer is obligated to recall vehicles if it determines the vehicles do not comply with a safety standard. Should we or NHTSA determine that either a safety defect or noncompliance issue exists with respect to any of our vehicles, the cost of such recall campaigns could be substantial.

Other National Requirements.  The EU and many countries have established vehicle safety standards and regulations, and are likely to adopt additional or more stringent requirements in the future.  The European General Safety Regulation introduced UN-ECE regulations, which will be required for the European Type Approval process and will require the mandatory introduction of multiple active and passive safety features with limited lead time.  EU regulators also are focusing on active safety features such as lane departure warning systems, electronic stability control, and automatic brake assist.  Globally, governments generally have been adopting UN-ECE based regulations with minor variations to address local concerns.  Any difference between North American and UN-ECE based regulations can add complexity and costs to the development of global platform vehicles, and we continue to support efforts to harmonize regulations to reduce vehicle design complexity while providing a common level of safety performance; several recently launched bilateral negotiations on free trade can potentially contribute to this goal. New safety and recall requirements in China, India, and Gulf Cooperation Council countries also may add substantial costs and complexity to our global recall practice. Brazil has set mandatory safety targets and penalties are applied if these levels are not maintained, while a tax reduction may be available for over performance. In Canada, regulatory requirements are currently aligned with U.S. regulations. However, under the Canadian Motor Vehicle Safety Act the Minister of Transport has broad powers to order manufacturers to submit a notice of defect or non-compliance when the Minister considers it would be in the interest of safety. In China, a new mandatory Event Data Recorder regulation is under development that is more complex than U.S. requirements, and in China, Malaysia, and South Korea, mandatory e-Call requirements have been drafted.

New Car Assessment Programs. Organizations around the globe rate and compare motor vehicles in New Car Assessment Programs (“NCAPs”) to provide consumers with additional information about the safety of new vehicles. NCAPs use crash tests and other evaluations that are different than what is required by applicable regulations, and use stars to rate vehicle safety, with five stars awarded for the highest rating and one for the lowest. Achieving high NCAP ratings, which may vary by country or region, can add complexity and cost to vehicles.


13

Item 1. Business (Continued)

EMPLOYMENT DATA

The approximate number of individuals employed by us and entities that we consolidated as of December 31, 2017 and 2018 was as follows (in thousands):
 
2017
 
2018
North America
100

 
100

South America
14

 
12

Europe
54

 
53

Middle East & Africa
3

 
4

Asia Pacific
23

 
22

Total Automotive
194

 
191

Ford Credit
7

 
7

Mobility
1

 
1

Total Company
202

 
199


Substantially all of the hourly employees in our Automotive operations are represented by unions and covered by collective bargaining agreements.  In the United States, approximately 99% of these unionized hourly employees in our Automotive segment are represented by the International Union, United Automobile, Aerospace and Agricultural Implement Workers of America (“UAW” or “United Auto Workers”).  At December 31, 2018, approximately 55,400 hourly employees in the United States were represented by the UAW. Approximately 1% of our U.S. salaried employees are represented by unions.  Many non-management salaried employees at our operations outside of the United States also are represented by unions.

In 2018, we entered into collective bargaining agreements (covering wages, benefits, and/or other employment provisions) with unions in Argentina, Brazil, Germany, India, Mexico, Russia, Spain, and Thailand.

In 2019, we will negotiate collective bargaining agreements (covering wages, benefits, and/or other employment provisions) with unions in Brazil, France, India, Mexico, Russia, Romania, South Africa, Thailand, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

ITEM 1A. Risk Factors.

We have listed below (not necessarily in order of importance or probability of occurrence) the most significant risk factors applicable to us:

Ford’s long-term competitiveness depends on the successful execution of fitness actions. We have announced fitness redesign plans to transform the operational fitness of our business by becoming more customer centric and adopting processes that emphasize simplicity, speed and agility, efficiency, and accountability. We are working on 18 major initiatives as part of our fitness redesign efforts. In addition, to further improve our fitness and overall competitiveness, we are leveraging relationships with third parties, including the recently announced alliance with Volkswagen AG to develop commercial vans and medium-sized pickups for global markets beginning as early as 2022. The goal of the alliance is to drive scale and efficiencies and enable both companies to share investments in vehicle architectures. If our fitness actions are not successful or are delayed, we may not be able to materially lower costs in the near term or improve our competitiveness in the long term, which could have an adverse effect on our profitability.

Industry sales volume, particularly in the United States, Europe, or China, can be volatile and could decline if there is a financial crisis, recession, or significant geopolitical event.  Because we, like other manufacturers, have a high proportion of relatively fixed structural costs, relatively small changes in industry sales volume can have a substantial effect on our cash flow and profitability.  Industry vehicle sales are affected by overall economic and market conditions. If industry vehicle sales were to decline to levels significantly below our planning assumption, particularly in the United States, Europe, or China, the decline could have a substantial adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, and cash flow. For a discussion of economic trends, see the “Overview” section of Item 7.

14

Item 1A. Risk Factors (Continued)                                                                                                        

Ford’s new and existing products and mobility services are subject to market acceptance.  Although we conduct extensive market research before launching new or refreshed vehicles and introducing new services, many factors both within and outside our control affect the success of new or existing products and services in the marketplace.  It takes years to design and develop a new vehicle or change an existing vehicle. Because customers’ preferences may change quickly, our new and existing products may not generate sales in sufficient quantities and at high enough prices to be profitable. Offering vehicles and services that customers want and value can mitigate the risks of increasing price competition and declining demand, but products and services that are perceived to be less desirable (whether in terms of price, quality, styling, safety, overall value, fuel efficiency, or other attributes) can exacerbate these risks. With increased consumer interconnectedness through the internet, social media, and other media, mere allegations relating to quality, safety, fuel efficiency, corporate social responsibility, or other key attributes can negatively impact our reputation or market acceptance of our products or services, even where such allegations prove to be inaccurate or unfounded. Further, our ability to successfully grow through investments in the area of mobility and electrification depends on many factors, including advancements in technology, regulatory changes, and other factors that are difficult to predict, that may significantly affect the future of autonomous vehicles and mobility services. Rapid changes to our industry, including the introduction of new types of competitors who may possess technological innovations, increase the significance that we are able to anticipate, develop, and deliver products and services that customers desire.

Ford’s results are dependent on sales of larger, more profitable vehicles, particularly in the United States. A shift in consumer preferences away from larger, more profitable vehicles (including trucks and utilities) at levels beyond our current planning assumption—whether because of spiking fuel prices, a decline in the construction industry, government actions or incentives, or other reasons—could result in an immediate and substantial adverse effect on our results and financial condition.

Ford may face increased price competition resulting from industry excess capacity, currency fluctuations, or other factors. The global automotive industry is intensely competitive, with manufacturing capacity far exceeding current demand. According to the December 2018 report issued by IHS Automotive, the global automotive industry is estimated to have had excess capacity of about 42 million units in 2018, an increase of about 7 million units from the prior year. Industry overcapacity has resulted in many manufacturers offering marketing incentives on vehicles in an attempt to maintain and grow market share; these incentives historically have included a combination of subsidized financing or leasing programs, price rebates, and other incentives. As a result, we are not necessarily able to set our prices to offset higher costs of marketing incentives, commodity or other cost increases, or the impact of adverse currency fluctuations, including pricing advantages foreign competitors may have because of their weaker home market currencies. Continuation of or increased excess capacity, particularly for trucks and utilities, could have a substantial adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

Fluctuations in commodity prices, foreign currency exchange rates, and interest rates can have a significant effect on results. As a resource-intensive manufacturing operation, we are exposed to a variety of market risks, including the effects of changes in commodity prices, foreign currency exchange rates, and interest rates. We monitor and manage these exposures as an integral part of our overall risk management program, which recognizes the unpredictability of markets and seeks to reduce potentially adverse effects on our business. Changes in commodity prices (from tariffs or otherwise), currency exchange rates, and interest rates cannot always be predicted, hedged, or offset with price increases to eliminate earnings volatility. As a result, significant changes in commodity prices, foreign currency exchange rates, or interest rates could have a substantial adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. See the “Overview” section of Item 7 and Item 7A for additional discussion of currency, commodity price, and interest rate risks.

With a global footprint, Ford’s results could be adversely affected by economic, geopolitical, protectionist trade policies, or other events, including Brexit. With the increasing interconnectedness of global economic and financial systems, a financial crisis, natural disaster, geopolitical crisis, or other significant event in one area of the world can have an immediate and material adverse impact on markets around the world.  Recent steps taken by the U.S. government to apply and consider applying tariffs on automobiles, parts, and other products and materials have the potential to disrupt existing supply chains and impose additional costs on our business.  Further, other countries could attempt to retaliate by imposing tariffs that would increase the cost for us to import our vehicles into such countries.

15

Item 1A. Risk Factors (Continued)                                                                                                        

Concerns persist regarding the overall stability of the European Union, given the diverse economic and political circumstances of individual European countries.  These concerns have been exacerbated by Brexit. A hard Brexit, which would result in the United Kingdom losing access to free trade agreements for goods and services with the European Union and other countries, would likely result in a significant reduction in industry volumes in the United Kingdom, increased tariffs on U.K. imports and exports, and delays at the U.K. border. The total cost to us of a hard Brexit, not including currency exchange related effects, could be $500 million to $1 billion in 2019.

We have operations in various markets with volatile economic or political environments and are pursuing growth opportunities in a number of newly developed and emerging markets.  These investments may expose us to heightened risks of economic, geopolitical, or other events, including governmental takeover (i.e., nationalization) of our manufacturing facilities or intellectual property, restrictive exchange or import controls, disruption of operations as a result of systemic political or economic instability, outbreak of war or expansion of hostilities, and acts of terrorism, each of which could have a substantial adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.  Further, the U.S. government, other governments, and international organizations could impose additional sanctions that could restrict us from doing business directly or indirectly in or with certain countries or parties, which could include affiliates.

Ford’s production, as well as Ford’s suppliers’ production, could be disrupted by labor disputes, natural or man-made disasters, financial distress, production difficulties, or other factors.  A work stoppage or other limitation on production could occur at Ford’s or its suppliers’ facilities for any number of reasons, including as a result of disputes under existing collective bargaining agreements with labor unions or in connection with negotiation of new collective bargaining agreements, as a result of labor disputes in response to potential restructuring actions (e.g., plant closures), as a result of supplier financial distress or other production constraints or difficulties, or for other reasons. Many components used in our vehicles are available only from a single supplier and therefore cannot be re-sourced quickly or inexpensively to another supplier (due to long lead times, new contractual commitments that may be required by another supplier before ramping up to provide the components or materials, etc.). Such single-source suppliers also could threaten to disrupt our production as leverage in negotiations. A significant disruption to our production schedule could have a substantial adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.    

Ford’s ability to maintain a competitive cost structure could be affected by labor or other constraints. Substantially all of the hourly employees in our Automotive operations in the United States and Canada are represented by unions and covered by collective bargaining agreements.  These agreements provide guaranteed wage and benefit levels throughout the contract term and some degree of income security, subject to certain conditions. As a practical matter, these agreements may restrict our ability to close plants and divest businesses. A substantial number of our employees in other regions are represented by unions or government councils, and legislation or custom promoting retention of manufacturing or other employment in the state, country, or region may constrain as a practical matter our ability to sell or close manufacturing or other facilities.

Pension and other postretirement liabilities could adversely affect Ford’s liquidity and financial condition. We have defined benefit retirement plans in the United States that cover many of our hourly and salaried employees. We also provide pension benefits to non-U.S. employees and retirees, primarily in Europe. In addition, we and certain of our subsidiaries sponsor plans to provide other postretirement benefits (“OPEB”) for retired employees (primarily health care and life insurance benefits). See Note 17 of the Notes to the Financial Statements for more information about these plans. These benefit plans impose significant liabilities on us and could require us to make additional cash contributions, which could impair our liquidity. If our cash flows and capital resources were insufficient to meet any pension or OPEB obligations, we could be forced to reduce or delay investments and capital expenditures, suspend dividend payments, seek additional capital, or restructure or refinance our indebtedness.

Economic and demographic experience for pension and other postretirement benefit plans (e.g., discount rates or investment returns) could be worse than Ford has assumed. The measurement of our obligations, costs, and liabilities associated with benefits pursuant to our pension and other postretirement benefit plans requires that we estimate the present value of projected future payments to all participants. We use many assumptions in calculating these estimates, including assumptions related to discount rates, investment returns on designated plan assets, and demographic experience (e.g., mortality and retirement rates). We generally remeasure these estimates at each year end and recognize any gains or losses associated with changes to our plan assets and liabilities in the year incurred. To the extent actual results are less favorable than our assumptions, we may recognize a substantial remeasurement loss in our results. For discussion of our assumptions, see “Critical Accounting Estimates” in Item 7 and Note 17 of the Notes to the Financial Statements.

16

Item 1A. Risk Factors (Continued)                                                                                                        

Ford’s vehicles could be affected by defects that result in delays in new model launches, recall campaigns, or increased warranty costs. Government safety standards require manufacturers to remedy defects related to vehicle safety through safety recall campaigns, and a manufacturer is obligated to recall vehicles if it determines that the vehicles do not comply with a safety standard. NHTSA’s enforcement strategy has shifted to a significant increase in civil penalties levied and the use of consent orders requiring direct oversight by NHTSA of certain manufacturers’ safety processes, a trend that could continue. Should we or government safety regulators determine that a safety or other defect or a noncompliance exists with respect to certain of our vehicles prior to the start of production, the launch of such vehicle could be delayed until such defect is remedied. The cost of recall and customer satisfaction actions to remedy defects in vehicles that have been sold could be substantial, particularly if the actions relate to global platforms or involve defects that are identified years after production (e.g., Takata airbag inflators). Such recall and customer satisfaction actions may relate to defective components we receive from suppliers, and our ability to recover from the suppliers may be limited by the suppliers’ financial condition. Furthermore, launch delays, recall actions, and increased warranty costs could adversely affect our reputation or market acceptance of our products as discussed above under “Ford’s new and existing products and mobility services are subject to market acceptance.”

Ford may need to substantially modify its product plans to comply with safety, emissions, fuel economy, and other regulations that may change in the future. The worldwide automotive industry is governed by a substantial amount of government regulation, which often differs by state, region, and country. Government regulation has increased, and proposals for additional regulation are advanced, primarily out of concern for the environment (including concerns about global climate change and its impact), vehicle safety, and energy independence. For example, as discussed above under “Item 1. Business - Governmental Standards,” in the United States the CAFE standards for light duty vehicles increase sharply to approximately 50 mpg by the 2025 model year; EPA’s parallel CO2 emission regulations impose similar standards. California’s ZEV rules also mandate steep increases in the sale of electric vehicles and other advanced technology vehicles through the 2025 model year; the ZEV mandate is now being expanded to include medium- and heavy-duty vehicles, and even more burdensome regulations are likely to follow. In addition, many governments regulate local product content and/or impose import requirements as a means of creating jobs, protecting domestic producers, and influencing the balance of payments.

We are continuing to make changes to our product cycle plan to improve the fuel economy of our petroleum-powered vehicles and to offer more electrified vehicles with lower GHG emissions. There are limits on our ability to achieve fuel economy improvements over a given time frame, however, primarily relating to the cost and effectiveness of available technologies, consumer acceptance of new technologies and changes in vehicle mix, willingness of consumers to absorb the additional costs of new technologies, the appropriateness (or lack thereof) of certain technologies for use in particular vehicles, the widespread availability (or lack thereof) of supporting infrastructure for new technologies, and the human, engineering, and financial resources necessary to deploy new technologies across a wide range of products and powertrains in a short time. The current fuel economy, CO2, and ZEV standards will be difficult to meet if fuel prices remain relatively low and market conditions do not drive consumers to purchase electric vehicles and other highly fuel-efficient vehicles in large numbers.

Increased scrutiny of automaker emission testing by regulators around the world has led to new regulations, more stringent enforcement programs, requests for field actions, and/or delays in regulatory approvals. The cost to comply with existing government regulations is substantial and additional regulations or changes in consumer preferences that affect vehicle mix could have a substantial adverse impact on our financial condition and results of operations. In addition, a number of governments, as well as non-governmental organizations, publicly assess vehicles to their own protocols. The protocols could change aggressively, and any negative perception regarding the performance of our vehicles subjected to such tests could reduce future sales. Court decisions arising out of consumer and investor litigation could give rise to de facto changes in the interpretation of existing emission laws and regulations, thereby imposing new burdens on manufacturers. For more discussion of the impact of standards on our global business, see the “Governmental Standards” discussion in “Item 1. Business” above.

17

Item 1A. Risk Factors (Continued)                                                                                                        

Ford could experience unusual or significant litigation, governmental investigations, or adverse publicity arising out of alleged defects in products, perceived environmental impacts, or otherwise. We spend substantial resources ensuring that we comply with governmental safety regulations, mobile and stationary source emissions regulations, and other standards. Compliance with governmental standards, however, does not necessarily prevent individual or class actions, which can entail significant cost and risk. In certain circumstances, courts may permit tort claims even where our vehicles comply with federal and/or other applicable law. Furthermore, simply responding to actual or threatened litigation or government investigations of our compliance with regulatory standards, whether related to our products or business or commercial relationships, may require significant expenditures of time and other resources. Litigation also is inherently uncertain, and we could experience significant adverse results. In addition, adverse publicity surrounding an allegation may cause significant reputational harm that could have a significant adverse effect on our sales.

Ford’s receipt of government incentives could be subject to reduction, termination, or clawback. We receive economic benefits from national, state, and local governments in various regions of the world in the form of incentives designed to encourage manufacturers to establish, maintain, or increase investment, workforce, or production. These incentives may take various forms, including grants, loan subsidies, and tax abatements or credits. The impact of these incentives can be significant in a particular market during a reporting period. For example, most of our manufacturing facilities in South America are located in Brazil, where the state or federal governments have historically offered, and continue to offer, significant incentives to manufacturers to encourage capital investment, increase manufacturing production, and create jobs. As a result, the performance of our South American operations has been impacted favorably by government incentives to a substantial extent. In Brazil, however, the federal government has levied assessments against us concerning our calculation of federal incentives we received, and certain states have challenged the grant to us of tax incentives by the State of Bahia. A decrease in, expiration without renewal of, or other cessation or clawback of government incentives for any of our business units, as a result of administrative decision or otherwise, could have a substantial adverse impact on our financial condition and results of operations. See Note 2 of the Notes to the Financial Statements for discussion of our accounting for government incentives, and “Item 3. Legal Proceedings” for a discussion of tax proceedings in Brazil and the potential requirement for us to post collateral.

Operational systems, security systems, and vehicles could be affected by cyber incidents.  We rely on information technology networks and systems, including in-vehicle systems and mobile devices, some of which are managed by suppliers, to process, transmit, and store electronic information that is important to the operation of our business and our vehicles. Despite security measures, we are at risk for interruptions, outages, and breaches of: (i) operational systems (including business, financial, accounting, product development, consumer receivables, data processing, or manufacturing processes); (ii) facility security systems; and/or (iii) in-vehicle systems or mobile devices. Such cyber incidents could materially disrupt operational systems; result in loss of trade secrets or other proprietary or competitively sensitive information; compromise the privacy of personal information of customers, employees, or others; jeopardize the security of our facilities; affect the performance of in-vehicle systems; and/or impact the safety of our vehicles. A cyber incident could be caused by malicious third parties using sophisticated, targeted methods to circumvent firewalls, encryption, and other security defenses, including hacking, fraud, trickery, or other forms of deception. We, our suppliers, and our dealers have been the target of these types of attacks in the past and such attacks are likely to occur in the future. The techniques used for attacks by third parties change frequently and may become more sophisticated, which may cause cyber incidents to be difficult to detect for long periods of time. Our networks and in-vehicle systems may also be affected by computer viruses or breaches due to the negligence or misconduct of employees, contractors, and/or others who have access to our networks and systems. A significant cyber incident could harm our reputation and/or subject us to regulatory actions or litigation, and a significant cyber incident involving us or one of our suppliers could impact our production capability.

We are subject to laws, rules, and regulations in the United States and other countries relating to the collection, use, and security of personal information of customers, employees, or others, including laws that may require us to notify regulators and affected individuals of a data security breach. Regulatory actions seeking to impose significant penalties and/or legal actions could be brought against us in the event of a data breach or perceived or actual non-compliance with data protection or privacy requirements. Among these requirements is the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”), which came into effect on May 25, 2018.

18

Item 1A. Risk Factors (Continued)                                                                                                        

Ford Credit’s access to debt, securitization, or derivative markets around the world at competitive rates or in sufficient amounts could be affected by credit rating downgrades, market volatility, market disruption, regulatory requirements, or other factors. Ford Credit’s ability to obtain unsecured funding at a reasonable cost is dependent on its credit ratings or its perceived creditworthiness. Ford Credit’s ability to obtain securitized funding under its committed asset-backed liquidity programs and certain other asset-backed securitization transactions is subject to having a sufficient amount of assets eligible for these programs, as well as Ford Credit’s ability to obtain appropriate credit ratings and, for certain committed programs, derivatives to manage the interest rate risk. Over time, and particularly in the event of any credit rating downgrades, market volatility, market disruption, or other factors, Ford Credit may reduce the amount of receivables it purchases or originates because of funding constraints. The potential phase out of LIBOR is one such risk that could cause market volatility or disruption. In July 2017 the chief executive of the United Kingdom Financial Conduct Authority (the “FCA”), which regulates LIBOR, announced that the FCA intends to stop compelling banks to submit rates for the calculation of LIBOR after 2021. It is unknown whether any banks will continue to voluntarily submit rates for the calculation of LIBOR after 2021 or whether LIBOR will continue to be published by its administrator based on these submissions or on any other basis. It is not possible to predict the effect of these changes, other reforms, or the establishment of alternative reference rates, but the potential phase out of LIBOR could adversely affect Ford Credit’s access to the capital markets and cost of funding.  In addition, Ford Credit may be limited in the amount of receivables it purchases or originates in certain countries or regions if the local capital markets, particularly in developing countries, do not exist or are not adequately developed. Similarly, Ford Credit may reduce the amount of receivables it purchases or originates if there is a significant decline in the demand for the types of securities it offers or Ford Credit is unable to obtain derivatives to manage the interest rate risk associated with its securitization transactions. A significant reduction in the amount of receivables Ford Credit purchases or originates would significantly reduce its ongoing profits and could adversely affect its ability to support the sale of Ford vehicles.

Ford Credit could experience higher-than-expected credit losses, lower-than-anticipated residual values, or higher-than-expected return volumes for leased vehicles. Credit risk is the possibility of loss from a customer’s or dealer’s failure to make payments according to contract terms. Credit risk (which is heavily dependent upon economic factors including unemployment, consumer debt service burden, personal income growth, dealer profitability, and used car prices) has a significant impact on Ford Credit’s business. The level of credit losses Ford Credit may experience could exceed its expectations and adversely affect its financial condition and results of operations. In addition, Ford Credit projects expected residual values (including residual value support payments from Ford) and return volumes for the vehicles it leases. Actual proceeds realized by Ford Credit upon the sale of returned leased vehicles at lease termination may be lower than the amount projected, which would reduce the profitability of the lease transaction. Among the factors that can affect the value of returned lease vehicles are the volume of vehicles returned, economic conditions, marketing programs, and quality or perceived quality, safety, fuel efficiency, or reliability of the vehicles. Actual return volumes may be influenced by these factors, as well as by contractual lease-end values relative to auction values. Each of these factors, alone or in combination, has the potential to adversely affect Ford Credit’s profitability if actual results were to differ significantly from Ford Credit’s projections. See “Critical Accounting Estimates” in Item 7 for additional discussion.

Ford Credit could face increased competition from banks, financial institutions, or other third parties seeking to increase their share of financing Ford vehicles. No single company is a dominant force in the automotive finance industry. Most of Ford Credit’s competitors in the United States use credit aggregation systems that permit dealers to send, through standardized systems, retail credit applications to multiple finance sources to evaluate financing options offered by these sources. Also, direct on-line or large dealer group financing options provide consumers with alternative finance sources and/or increased pricing transparency. All of these financing alternatives drive greater competition based on financing rates and terms. Competition from such institutions and alternative finance sources could adversely affect Ford Credit’s profitability and the volume of its retail business. In addition, Ford Credit may face increased competition on wholesale financing for Ford dealers.

Ford Credit could be subject to new or increased credit regulations, consumer or data protection regulations, or other regulations. As a finance company, Ford Credit is highly regulated by governmental authorities in the locations in which it operates, which can impose significant additional costs and/or restrictions on its business.  In the United States, for example, Ford Credit’s operations are subject to regulation and supervision under various federal, state, and local laws, including the federal Truth-in-Lending Act, Consumer Leasing Act, Equal Credit Opportunity Act, and Fair Credit Reporting Act.

19

Item 1A. Risk Factors (Continued)                                                                                                        

The Dodd-Frank Act directs federal agencies to adopt rules to regulate the finance industry and the capital markets and gives the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (“CFPB”) broad rule-making and enforcement authority for a wide range of consumer financial protection laws that regulate consumer finance businesses, such as Ford Credit’s automotive financing business. Exercise of these powers by the CFPB may increase the costs of, impose additional restrictions on, or otherwise adversely affect companies in the automotive finance business. The CFPB has authority to supervise and examine the largest nonbank automotive finance companies, such as Ford Credit, for compliance with consumer financial protection laws.

ITEM 1B.  Unresolved Staff Comments.

None.

ITEM 2. Properties.

Our principal properties include manufacturing and assembly facilities, distribution centers, warehouses, sales or administrative offices, and engineering centers.

We own substantially all of our U.S. manufacturing and assembly facilities. Our facilities are situated in various sections of the country and include assembly plants, engine plants, casting plants, metal stamping plants, transmission plants, and other component plants. Most of our distribution centers are leased (we own approximately 40% of the total square footage, and lease the balance). The majority of the warehouses that we operate are leased, although many of our manufacturing and assembly facilities contain some warehousing space. Substantially all of our sales offices are leased space. Approximately 90% of the total square footage of our engineering centers and our supplementary research and development space is owned by us.

In addition, we maintain and operate manufacturing plants, assembly facilities, parts distribution centers, and engineering centers outside of the United States. We own substantially all of our non-U.S. manufacturing plants, assembly facilities, and engineering centers. The majority of our parts distribution centers outside of the United States are either leased or provided by vendors under service contracts.

We and the entities that we consolidated as of December 31, 2018 use eight regional engineering, research, and development centers, and 61 manufacturing and assembly plants as shown in the table below:
 
Automotive Business Units
 
Plants
North America
 
32
South America
 
8
Europe
 
15
Middle East & Africa
 
2
Asia Pacific
 
4
Total
 
61
 
Included in the number of plants shown above are plants that are operated by us or our consolidated joint ventures that support our Automotive segment. The significant consolidated joint ventures and the number of plants each owns are as follows:

Ford Lio Ho Motor Company Ltd. (“FLH”) — a joint venture in Taiwan among Ford (70% partner), the Lio Ho Group (25% partner), and individual shareholders (5% ownership in aggregate) that assembles a variety of Ford vehicles sourced from Ford.  In addition to domestic assembly, FLH imports Ford brand built-up vehicles from the Asia Pacific region, Europe, and the United States. The joint venture operates one plant in Taiwan.

Ford Sollers Netherlands B.V. (“Ford Sollers”) — a 50/50 joint venture between Ford and Sollers PJSC (“Sollers”), in which Ford has control. The joint venture primarily is engaged in manufacturing a range of Ford passenger cars and light commercial vehicles for sale in Russia, and has an exclusive right to manufacture, assemble, and distribute certain Ford vehicles in Russia through the licensing of certain trademarks and intellectual property rights. The joint venture operates three manufacturing facilities and one engine plant in Russia. We have begun a strategic review of the joint venture with our joint venture partner to evaluate options regarding the joint venture.

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Item 2. Properties (Continued)

Ford Vietnam Limited — a joint venture between Ford (75% partner) and Diesel Song Cong One Member Limited Liability Company (a subsidiary of the Vietnam Engine and Agricultural Machinery Corporation, which in turn is majority owned (87.43%) by the State of Vietnam represented by the Ministry of Industry and Trade) (25% partner). Ford Vietnam Limited assembles and distributes a variety of Ford passenger and commercial vehicle models.  The joint venture operates one plant in Vietnam.

In addition to the plants that we operate directly or that are operated by our consolidated joint ventures, additional plants that support our Automotive segment are operated by unconsolidated joint ventures of which we are a partner.  These plants are not included in the number of plants shown in the table above.  The most significant of the automotive unconsolidated joint ventures are as follows:

AutoAlliance (Thailand) Co., Ltd. (“AAT”) — a 50/50 joint venture between Ford and Mazda that owns and operates a manufacturing plant in Rayong, Thailand. AAT produces Ford and Mazda products for domestic and export sales.

Changan Ford Automobile Corporation, Ltd. (“CAF”) — a 50/50 joint venture between Ford and Chongqing Changan Automobile Co., Ltd. (“Changan”). CAF operates five assembly plants, an engine plant, and a transmission plant in China where it produces and distributes an expanding variety of Ford passenger vehicle models.

Changan Ford Mazda Engine Company, Ltd. (“CFME”) — a joint venture among Ford (25% partner), Mazda (25% partner), and Changan (50% partner).  CFME is located in Nanjing, and produced engines for Ford until November 2018 and continues to produce engines for Mazda vehicles manufactured in China. Ford and Mazda entered into an equity transfer agreement pursuant to which Ford sold its interest in CFME to Mazda effective as of January 29, 2019.

Ford Otomotiv Sanayi Anonim Sirketi (“Ford Otosan”) — a joint venture in Turkey among Ford (41% partner), the Koc Group of Turkey (41% partner), and public investors (18%) that is the sole supplier to us of the Transit, Transit Custom, and Transit Courier commercial vehicles for Europe and is our sole distributor of Ford vehicles in Turkey. Ford Otosan also manufactures the Cargo truck for the Turkish and certain export markets and certain engines and transmissions, as well as certain components mainly for the Transit for supply to other regions. The joint venture owns three plants, a parts distribution depot, and a research and development center in Turkey.

Getrag Ford Transmissions GmbH (“GFT”) — a 50/50 joint venture with Magna PT International GmbH (formerly Getrag International GmbH), a German company belonging to Magna Powertrain GmbH. GFT operates plants in Halewood, England; Cologne, Germany; Bordeaux, France; and Kechnec, Slovakia to produce, among other things, manual transmissions for our Europe business unit.  

JMC — a publicly-traded company in China with Ford (32% shareholder) and Jiangling Holdings, Ltd. (41% shareholder) as its controlling shareholders.  Jiangling Holdings, Ltd. is a 50/50 joint venture between Changan and Jiangling Motors Company Group.  The public investors in JMC own 27% of its total outstanding shares.  JMC assembles Ford Transit, Ford Everest, Ford Territory, Ford engines, and non-Ford vehicles and engines for distribution in China and in other export markets. JMC operates two assembly plants and one engine plant in Nanchang, and is constructing a new passenger vehicle assembly plant in Nanchang. JMC also operates a plant in Taiyuan that assembles heavy duty trucks and engines.

The facilities described above are, in the opinion of management, suitable and adequate for the manufacture and assembly of our and our joint ventures’ products.

The furniture, equipment, and other physical property owned by our Ford Credit operations are not material in relation to the operations’ total assets.

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ITEM 3. Legal Proceedings.

The litigation process is subject to many uncertainties, and the outcome of individual matters is not predictable with assurance. See Note 23 of the Notes to the Financial Statements for a discussion of loss contingencies. Following is a discussion of our significant pending legal proceedings:

PRODUCT LIABILITY MATTERS

We are a defendant in numerous actions in state and federal courts within and outside of the United States alleging damages from injuries resulting from (or aggravated by) alleged defects in our vehicles. In many, no monetary amount of damages is specified or the specific amount alleged is the jurisdictional minimum. Our experience with litigation alleging a specific amount of damages suggests that such amounts, on average, bear little relation to the actual amount of damages, if any, that we will pay in resolving such matters.

In addition to pending actions, we assess the likelihood of incidents that likely have occurred but not yet been reported to us. We also take into consideration specific matters that have been raised as claims but have not yet proceeded to litigation. Individual product liability matters which, if resolved unfavorably to the Company, likely would involve a significant cost would be described herein. Currently there are no such matters to report.

ASBESTOS MATTERS

Asbestos was used in some brakes, clutches, and other automotive components from the early 1900s. Along with other vehicle manufacturers, we have been the target of asbestos litigation and, as a result, are a defendant in various actions for injuries claimed to have resulted from alleged exposure to Ford parts and other products containing asbestos. Plaintiffs in these personal injury cases allege various health problems as a result of asbestos exposure, either from component parts found in older vehicles, insulation or other asbestos products in our facilities, or asbestos aboard our former maritime fleet. We believe that we are targeted more aggressively in asbestos suits because many previously-targeted companies have filed for bankruptcy, or emerged from bankruptcy relieved of liability for such claims.

Most of the asbestos litigation we face involves individuals who claim to have worked on the brakes of our vehicles. We are prepared to defend these cases and believe that the scientific evidence confirms our long-standing position that there is no increased risk of asbestos-related disease as a result of exposure to the type of asbestos formerly used in the brakes on our vehicles. The extent of our financial exposure to asbestos litigation remains very difficult to estimate and could include both compensatory and punitive damage awards. The majority of our asbestos cases do not specify a dollar amount for damages; in many of the other cases the dollar amount specified is the jurisdictional minimum, and the vast majority of these cases involve multiple defendants, sometimes more than one hundred. Many of these cases also involve multiple plaintiffs, and often we are unable to tell from the pleadings which plaintiffs are making claims against us (as opposed to other defendants). Annual payout and defense costs may become significant in the future. Our accrual for asbestos matters includes probable losses for both asserted and unasserted claims.

ENVIRONMENTAL MATTERS

We have received notices under various federal and state environmental laws that we (along with others) are or may be a potentially responsible party for the costs associated with remediating numerous hazardous substance storage, recycling, or disposal sites in many states and, in some instances, for natural resource damages. We also may have been a generator of hazardous substances at a number of other sites. The amount of any such costs or damages for which we may be held responsible could be significant.

We have one environmental legal proceeding to which a governmental authority is a party and in which we believe there is the possibility of monetary sanctions in excess of $100,000:

Notice of Violation to Ford Chicago Assembly Plant.  On August 17, 2015, U.S. EPA issued a notice of violation to our Chicago Assembly Plant. EPA alleges that the plant violated several requirements related to its air permit.  Monetary sanctions, if any, have not yet been determined.

22

Item 3. Legal Proceedings (Continued)

CLASS ACTIONS

In light of the fact that very few of the purported class actions filed against us in the past have ever been certified by the courts as class actions, in general we list those actions that (i) have been certified as a class action by a court of competent jurisdiction (and any additional purported class actions that raise allegations substantially similar to an existing and certified class), and (ii) likely would involve a significant cost if resolved unfavorably to the Company. At this time, other than as described below, we have no such purported class actions filed against us.

In re: Takata Airbag Product Liability Litigation; Economic Loss Track Cases Against Ford Motor Company.  On July 16, 2018, Ford entered into a settlement agreement related to a consumer economic loss class action pending before the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Florida.  The first case was originally filed on October 27, 2014, against Ford, Takata, and several other automotive manufacturers, and was brought by consumers who own or owned vehicles equipped with Takata airbag inflators.  Additional cases were subsequently filed in courts throughout the United States and consolidated into a multidistrict case before the Florida court, which also included personal injury claims and claims by automotive recyclers.  Ford’s July 16 settlement relates only to the consumer economic loss matters. In these cases, Plaintiffs allege that Ford vehicles equipped with Takata airbags are defective and that Ford did not disclose this defect to consumers. Plaintiffs allege that they suffered several forms of economic damages as a result of purchasing vehicles with defective airbags. The settlement is for $299 million, which is subject to certain discounts, and court approval. On December 20, 2018, the court overruled all objections and entered a final order approving the settlement. Several objectors have filed notices of appeal of the trial court’s order.

OTHER MATTERS

Brazilian Tax Matters.  Two Brazilian states and the Brazilian federal tax authority currently have outstanding substantial tax assessments against Ford Brazil related to state and federal tax incentives Ford Brazil receives for its operations in the Brazilian state of Bahia.  All assessments have been appealed to the relevant administrative court of each jurisdiction.  Our appeals with the State of São Paulo and the federal tax authority remain at the administrative level. In the State of Minas Gerais, where three cases are pending, one remains at the administrative level and two have been appealed to the judicial court.  To proceed with an appeal within the judicial court system, an appellant may be required to post collateral. To date we have not been required to post any collateral.

The state assessments are part of a broader conflict among various states in Brazil. The federal legislature enacted laws designed to encourage the states to end that conflict, and in 2017 the states reached an agreement on a framework for resolution. Ford Brazil continues to pursue a resolution under the framework and expects the amount of any remaining assessments by the states to be resolved under that framework. The federal assessments are outside the scope of the legislation.

Transit Connect Customs Ruling. On March 8, 2013, U.S. Customs and Border Protection (“CBP”) ruled that Transit Connects imported as passenger wagons and later converted into cargo vans are subject to the 25% duty applicable to cargo vehicles, rather than the 2.5% duty applicable to passenger vehicles. As a result of the ruling, CBP is requiring Ford to pay the 25% duty upon importation of Transit Connects that will be converted to cargo vehicles, and is seeking the difference in duty rates for prior imports. Our protest of the ruling within CBP was denied, and we filed a challenge in the U.S. Court of International Trade (“CIT”). On August 9, 2017, the CIT ruled in our favor. On October 6, 2017, CBP filed a notice of appeal to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. If we prevail on appeal, we will receive a refund of the contested amounts paid, plus interest.

European Competition Law Matter.  On October 5, 2018, FCE Bank plc received a notice from the Italian Competition Authority (the “ICA”) concerning an alleged violation of Article 101 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. The ICA alleges that FCE Bank plc and other parties engaged in anti-competitive practices in relation to the automotive finance market in Italy.  On January 9, 2019, FCE Bank plc received a decision from the ICA, which included an assessment of a fine against FCE Bank plc in the amount of about $50 million.  FCE Bank plc plans to appeal the decision and the fine, with the ultimate resolution of the matter potentially taking several years.  

Emissions Certification. The Company has become aware of a potential concern involving its U.S. emissions certification process. The potential concern does not involve the use of defeat devices in our products. On February 18, 2019, we voluntarily disclosed this matter to the Environmental Protection Agency, and we will fully cooperate with any inquiries. Because this matter is preliminary, we cannot predict the outcome, and cannot provide assurance that it will not have a material adverse effect on us.


23


ITEM 4. Mine Safety Disclosures.

Not applicable.

ITEM 4A. Executive Officers of Ford.

Our executive officers are as follows, along with each executive officer’s position and age at February 1, 2019:
Name
 
 
Position
 
Position
Held Since
 
Age
William Clay Ford, Jr. (a)
 
Executive Chairman and Chairman of the Board
 
September 2006
 
61
James P. Hackett (b)
 
President and Chief Executive Officer
 
May 2017
 
63
James D. Farley, Jr.
 
President, Global Markets (c)
 
June 2017
 
56
Joseph R. Hinrichs
 
President, Global Operations (c)
 
June 2017
 
52
Marcy Klevorn
 
President, Mobility (c)
 
June 2017
 
59
Bob Shanks
 
Chief Financial Officer (c)
 
April 2012
 
66
Hau Thai-Tang
 
Chief Product Development and Purchasing Officer (c)
 
June 2017
 
52
Bradley M. Gayton
 
Chief Administrative Officer and General Counsel (c)
 
June 2017
 
55
Kiersten Robinson
 
Chief Human Resources Officer (c)
 
April 2018
 
48
Cathy O’Callaghan
 
Vice President, Controller and Chief Financial Officer, Global Markets
 
June 2018
 
50
____________
(a)
Also a Director, Chair of the Office of the Chairman and Chief Executive, Chair of the Finance Committee, and a member of the Sustainability Committee of the Board of Directors.
(b)
Also a Director and member of the Office of the Chairman and Chief Executive and the Finance Committee of the Board of Directors.
(c)
Certain executive officers’ titles changed January 1, 2019 without any change in their responsibilities.

Except as noted below, each of the officers listed above has been employed by Ford or its subsidiaries in one or more capacities during the past five years.  Prior to becoming President and Chief Executive Officer of Ford, James P. Hackett was the Chief Executive Officer of Steelcase Inc. until March 2014; a member of Ford’s Board of Directors from 2013 to 2016; and the chairman of Ford Smart Mobility LLC from March 2016 to May 2017.

Under our by-laws, executive officers are elected by the Board of Directors at an annual meeting of the Board held for this purpose or by a resolution to fill a vacancy.  Each officer is elected to hold office until a successor is chosen or as otherwise provided in the by-laws.


24


PART II.

ITEM 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.

Our Common Stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange in the United States under the symbol F.

The table below shows the dividends we paid per share of Common and Class B Stock, for each quarterly period in 2017 and 2018:
 
2017
 
2018
 
First
Quarter
 
Second
Quarter
 
Third
Quarter
 
Fourth
Quarter
 
First
Quarter
 
Second
Quarter
 
Third
Quarter
 
Fourth
Quarter
Dividends per share of Ford Common and Class B Stock
$
0.20

 
$
0.15

 
$
0.15

 
$
0.15

 
$
0.28

 
$
0.15

 
$
0.15

 
$
0.15

 
As of January 31, 2019, stockholders of record of Ford included approximately 116,764 holders of Common Stock and 3 holders of Class B Stock.

In 2018, we repurchased shares of Ford Common Stock from our employees or directors related to certain exercises of stock options, in accordance with our various compensation plans. We also repurchased shares through a modest anti-dilutive share repurchase program to offset the dilutive effect of share-based compensation granted during 2018 and the shares issued in the Autonomic transaction described in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2018. The program authorized repurchases of up to 28.5 million shares of Ford Common Stock. We repurchased 8,015,658 shares and 8,000,0000 shares of Ford Common Stock during the first and third quarters of 2018, respectively.

25


ITEM 6. Selected Financial Data.

The following table sets forth selected financial data for each of the last five years (dollar amounts in millions, except for per share amounts):
SUMMARY OF INCOME
2014
 
2015
 
2016
 
2017
 
2018
Total revenues
$
144,077

 
$
149,558

 
$
151,800

 
$
156,776

 
$
160,338

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Income before income taxes
$
1,280

 
$
10,179

 
$
6,784

 
$
8,159

 
$
4,345

Provision for/(Benefit from) income taxes
21

 
2,854

 
2,184

 
402

 
650

Net income
1,259

 
7,325

 
4,600

 
7,757

 
3,695

Less: Income/(Loss) attributable to noncontrolling interests
(1
)
 
(2
)
 
11

 
26

 
18

Net income attributable to Ford Motor Company
$
1,260

 
$
7,327

 
$
4,589

 
$
7,731

 
$
3,677

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Earnings Per Share Attributable to Ford Motor Company Common and Class B Stock
Average number of shares of Ford Common and Class B Stock outstanding (in millions)
3,912

 
3,969

 
3,973

 
3,975

 
3,974

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic income
$
0.32

 
$
1.85

 
$
1.16

 
$
1.94

 
$
0.93

Diluted income
0.32

 
1.83

 
1.15

 
1.93

 
0.92

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash dividends declared
0.50

 
0.60

 
0.85

 
0.65

 
0.73

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
BALANCE SHEET DATA AT YEAR-END
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Total assets
$
209,227

 
$
225,491

 
$
238,510

 
$
258,496

 
$
256,540

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Automotive debt
$
13,824

 
$
12,839

 
$
15,907

 
$
15,931

 
$
13,547

Ford Credit debt
104,712

 
119,417

 
126,464

 
137,757

 
140,066

Other debt
635

 
598

 
599

 
599

 
600

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total equity
$
25,077

 
$
29,223

 
$
29,746

 
$
35,606

 
$
35,966

 


26


ITEM 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

OVERVIEW

Non-GAAP Financial Measures That Supplement GAAP Measures

We use both generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) and non-GAAP financial measures for operational and financial decision making, and to assess Company and segment business performance. The non-GAAP measures listed below are intended to be considered by users as supplemental information to their equivalent GAAP measures, to aid investors in better understanding our financial results. We believe that these non-GAAP measures provide useful perspective on underlying business results and trends, and a means to assess our period-over-period results. These non-GAAP measures should not be considered as a substitute for, or superior to, measures of financial performance prepared in accordance with GAAP. These non-GAAP measures may not be the same as similarly titled measures used by other companies due to possible differences in method and in items or events being adjusted.

Company Adjusted EBIT (Most Comparable GAAP Measure: Net Income Attributable to Ford) – Earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT) includes non-controlling interests and excludes interest on debt (excl. Ford Credit Debt), taxes, and pre-tax special items. This non-GAAP measure is useful to management and investors because it allows users to evaluate our operating results relative to other companies in our industry. Pre-tax special items consist of (i) pension and OPEB remeasurement gains and losses, (ii) significant personnel and dealer-related costs stemming from our efforts to match production capacity and cost structure to market demand and changing model mix, and (iii) other items that we do not necessarily consider to be indicative of earnings from ongoing operating activities.  When we provide guidance for adjusted EBIT, we do not provide guidance on a net income basis because the GAAP measure will include potentially significant special items that have not yet occurred and are difficult to predict with reasonable certainty prior to year-end, including pension and OPEB remeasurement gains and losses.

Company Adjusted EBIT Margin (Most Comparable GAAP Measure: Company Net Income Margin) – Company Adjusted EBIT margin is Company adjusted EBIT divided by Company revenue. This non-GAAP measure is useful to management and investors because it allows users to evaluate our operating results relative to other companies in our industry.

Adjusted Earnings Per Share (Most Comparable GAAP Measure: Earnings Per Share) – Measure of Company’s diluted net earnings per share adjusted for impact of pre-tax special items (described above) and tax special items. The measure provides investors with useful information to evaluate performance of our business excluding items not indicative of the underlying run rate of our business. When we provide guidance for adjusted earnings per share, we do not provide guidance on an earnings per share basis because the GAAP measure will include potentially significant special items that have not yet occurred and are difficult to predict with reasonable certainty prior to year-end, including pension and OPEB remeasurement gains and losses.

Adjusted Effective Tax Rate (Most Comparable GAAP Measure: Effective Tax Rate) – Measure of Company’s tax rate excluding pre-tax special items (described above) and tax special items. The measure provides an ongoing effective rate which investors find useful for historical comparisons and for forecasting. When we provide guidance for adjusted effective tax rate, we do not provide guidance on an effective tax rate basis because the GAAP measure will include potentially significant special items that have not yet occurred and are difficult to predict with reasonable certainty prior to year-end, including pension and OPEB remeasurement gains and losses.

Company Adjusted Operating Cash Flow (Most Comparable GAAP Measure: Net Cash Provided By / (Used In) Operating Activities) – Measure of Company’s operating cash flow excluding Ford Credit’s operating cash flows. The measure contains elements management considers operating activities, including Automotive and Mobility capital spending, Ford Credit distributions to its parent, and settlement of derivatives. The measure excludes cash outflows for funded pension contributions, separation payments, and other items that are considered operating cash outflows under U.S. GAAP. This measure is useful to management and investors because it is consistent with management’s assessment of the Company’s operating cash flow performance. When we provide guidance for Company adjusted operating cash flow, we do not provide guidance for net cash provided by/(used in) operating activities because the GAAP measure will include items that are difficult to quantify or predict with reasonable certainty, including cash flows related to the Company's exposures to foreign currency exchange rates and certain commodity prices (separate from any related hedges), Ford Credit's operating cash flows, and cash flows related to special items, including separation payments, each of which individually or in the aggregate could have a significant impact to our net cash provided by/(used in) our operating activities.

27

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

Adjusted Cash Conversion (Most Comparable GAAP Measure: Net Cash Provided By / (Used In) Operating Activities divided by Net Income Attributable to Ford (“cash conversion”)) – Company Adjusted Cash Conversion is Company adjusted operating cash flow divided by Adjusted EBIT.  This non-GAAP measure is useful to management and investors because it allows users to evaluate how much of Ford's Adjusted EBIT is converted into cash flow.

Adjusted Debt to EBITDA (Most Comparable GAAP Measure: Total Company Debt to Net income attributable to Ford) – This financial leverage ratio is commonly used to assess a company’s ability to repay its debt. This measure is useful to management and investors because it helps to assess how long we would need to operate at our current level to repay our debt (excl. Ford Credit’s debt). When we provide guidance for adjusted debt to EBITDA, we do not provide guidance for the most comparable GAAP measure because the GAAP measure will include potentially significant special items that have not yet occurred and are difficult to predict with reasonable certainty prior to year-end, including pension and OPEB remeasurement gains and losses. For more information, see the definitions of Adjusted Debt and Adjusted EBITDA.

Adjusted Debt (Most Comparable GAAP Measure: Total Company Debt) – Measure of total company debt (excl. Ford Credit), adjusted to include unamortized discount/premium and issuance costs (excl. Ford Credit), operating lease minimum commitments, and net pension liabilities excluding prepaid assets.

Adjusted EBITDA (Most Comparable GAAP Measure: Net income attributable to Ford) – Measure of Company Adjusted EBIT (see definition), excluding Ford Credit EBT and equity in net income/(loss) of affiliated companies, and further adjusted to include certain non-pension related special items, depreciation and tooling amortization (excl. Ford Credit), operating lease expense, and certain pension costs.

Adjusted ROIC – Adjusted Return on Invested Capital (“ROIC”) provides management and investors with useful information to evaluate the Company’s after-cash tax operating return on its invested capital for the period presented. Adjusted net operating profit after cash tax measures operating results less special items, interest on debt (excl. Ford Credit Debt), and certain pension/OPEB costs. Average invested capital is the sum of average balance sheet equity, debt (excl. Ford Credit Debt), and net pension/OPEB liability. When we provide guidance for adjusted ROIC, we do not provide guidance on an unadjusted ROIC basis because it will include potentially significant special items that have not yet occurred and are difficult to predict with reasonable certainty prior to year-end.

Ford Credit Managed Receivables (Most Comparable GAAP Measure: Net Finance Receivables plus Net Investment in Operating Leases) – Measure of Ford Credit’s total net receivables, excluding unearned interest supplements and residual support, allowance for credit losses, and other (primarily accumulated supplemental depreciation). The measure is useful to management and investors as it closely approximates the customer’s outstanding balance on the receivables, which is the basis for earning revenue.

Ford Credit Managed Leverage (Most Comparable GAAP Measure: Financial Statement Leverage) – Ford Credit’s debt-to-equity ratio adjusted (i) to exclude cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities (other than amounts related to insurance activities), and (ii) for derivative accounting. The measure is useful to investors because it reflects the way Ford Credit manages its business. Cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities are deducted because they generally correspond to excess debt beyond the amount required to support operations and on-balance sheet securitization transactions. Derivative accounting adjustments are made to asset, debt, and equity positions to reflect the impact of interest rate instruments used with Ford Credit’s term-debt issuances and securitization transactions. Ford Credit generally repays its debt obligations as they mature, so the interim effects of changes in market interest rates are excluded in the calculation of managed leverage.

Revenue

Our Automotive segment revenue is generated primarily by sales of vehicles, parts, and accessories. Revenue is recorded when control is transferred to our customers (generally, our dealers and distributors). For the majority of sales, this occurs when products are shipped from our manufacturing facilities. This is not the case, however, with respect to vehicles produced for sale to daily rental car companies with an obligation to repurchase the vehicle for a guaranteed amount, exercisable at the option of the customer. These vehicles are accounted for as operating leases, with lease revenue and profits recognized over the term of the lease. Proceeds from the sale of vehicles at auction are recognized in revenue upon transfer of control of the vehicle to the buyer.

28

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

Most of the vehicles sold by us to our dealers and distributors are financed at wholesale by Ford Credit. Upon Ford Credit originating the wholesale receivable related to a dealer’s purchase of a vehicle, Ford Credit pays cash to the relevant Automotive legal entity in payment of the dealer’s obligation for the purchase price of the vehicle. The dealer then pays the wholesale finance receivable to Ford Credit when it sells the vehicle to a retail customer.

Our Ford Credit segment revenue is generated primarily from interest on finance receivables, net of certain deferred origination costs that are included as a reduction of financing revenue, and such revenue is recognized over the term of the receivable using the interest method. Also, revenue from operating leases is recognized on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease. Income is generated to the extent revenues exceed expenses, most of which are interest, depreciation, and operating expenses.

Transactions between our Automotive and Ford Credit segments occur in the ordinary course of business. For example, we offer special retail financing and lease incentives to dealers’ customers who choose to finance or lease our vehicles from Ford Credit. The cost for these incentives is included in our estimate of variable consideration at the later of the date the related vehicle sales to our dealers are recorded or the date the incentive program is both approved and communicated. In order to compensate Ford Credit for the lower interest or lease payments offered to the retail customer, we pay the discounted value of the incentive directly to Ford Credit when it originates the retail finance or lease contract with the dealer’s customer. Ford Credit recognizes the incentive amount over the life of retail finance contracts as an element of financing revenue and over the life of lease contracts as a reduction to depreciation. See Note 1 of the Notes to the Financial Statements for a more detailed discussion of transactions between our Automotive and Ford Credit segments.

Costs and Expenses

Our income statement classifies our Automotive segment total costs and expenses into two categories: (i) cost of sales, and (ii) selling, administrative, and other expenses. We include within cost of sales those costs related to the development, manufacture, and distribution of our vehicles, parts, and accessories. Specifically, we include in cost of sales each of the following: material costs (including commodity costs); freight costs; warranty, including product recall costs; labor and other costs related to the development and manufacture of our products; depreciation and amortization; and other associated costs. We include within selling, administrative, and other expenses labor and other costs not directly related to the development and manufacture of our products, including such expenses as advertising and sales promotion costs.

Certain of our costs, such as material costs, generally vary directly with changes in volume and mix of production. In our industry, production volume often varies significantly from quarter to quarter and year to year. Quarterly production volumes experience seasonal shifts throughout the year (including peak retail sales seasons and the impact on production of model changeover and new product launches). Annual production volumes are heavily impacted by external economic factors, including the pace of economic growth and factors such as the availability of consumer credit and cost of fuel.

As a result, we analyze the profit impact of certain cost changes holding constant present-year volume and mix and currency exchange, in order to evaluate our cost trends absent the impact of varying production and currency exchange levels. We analyze these cost changes in the following categories:

Contribution Costs – these costs typically vary with production volume. These costs include material, commodity, warranty, and freight and duty costs.

Structural Costs – these costs typically do not have a directly proportionate relationship to production volume. These costs include manufacturing, engineering, spending-related, advertising and sales promotion, administrative and selling, and pension and OPEB costs.

While contribution costs generally vary directly in proportion to production volume, elements within our structural costs category are impacted to differing degrees by changes in production volume. We also have varying degrees of discretion when it comes to controlling the different elements within our structural costs. For example, depreciation and amortization expense largely is associated with prior capital spending decisions. On the other hand, while labor costs do not vary directly with production volume, manufacturing labor costs may be impacted by changes in volume, for example when we increase overtime, add a production shift, or add personnel to support volume increases. Other structural costs, such as advertising or engineering costs, do not necessarily have a directly proportionate relationship to production volume. Our structural costs generally are within our discretion, although to varying degrees, and can be adjusted over time in response to external factors.

29

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

We consider certain structural costs to be a direct investment in future growth and revenue. For example, increases in structural costs are necessary to grow our business and improve profitability, invest in new products and technologies, respond to increasing industry sales volume, and grow our market share.

Cost of sales and Selling, administrative, and other expenses for full-year 2018 were $147.7 billion. Our Automotive segment’s material and commodity costs make up the largest portion of these costs and expenses, representing in 2018 about two-thirds of the total amount. Structural costs are the largest piece of the remaining balance. Although material costs are our largest absolute cost, our margins can be affected significantly by changes in any category of costs.

Key Economic Factors and Trends Affecting the Automotive Industry

Currency Exchange Rate Volatility. The U.S. Federal Reserve raised its policy interest rate four times in 2018, for a total of nine increases since the tightening cycle began in late 2015. Central banks in other developed markets have also initiated or signaled the end of an extended period of monetary policy easing.  The related shifts in capital flows have contributed to increased volatility for both developed and emerging market currencies globally. Emerging markets also face differing inflation backdrops and, in some cases, political instability, contributing to unpredictable movements in the value of their exchange rates.  This condition was demonstrated by significant devaluations of currency values in Turkey and Argentina in 2018. In addition to direct impacts on the financial flows of global automotive companies, currency movements can also impact pricing of vehicles exported to overseas markets, most notably in the case of the Japanese yen. In most markets, exchange rates are market-determined, and all are impacted by many different macroeconomic and policy factors, and thus likely to remain volatile.  However, in some markets, exchange rates are heavily influenced or controlled by governments.

Excess Capacity. According to IHS Automotive, an automotive research firm, the estimated automotive industry global production capacity for light vehicles of about 137 million units exceeded global production by about 42 million units in 2018.  In North America and Europe, two regions where a significant share of industry revenue is earned, excess capacity as a percent of production was an estimated 22% and 24%, respectively, in 2018.  In China, the auto industry also witnessed excess capacity at 78% of production in 2018, as manufacturers compete to capitalize on China’s future market potential.  According to production capacity data projected by IHS Automotive, global excess capacity conditions could continue for several years at an average of about 47 million units per year during the period from 2019 to 2024.
 
Pricing Pressure. Excess capacity, coupled with a proliferation of new products being introduced in key segments, will keep pressure on manufacturers’ ability to increase prices.  In North America, the industry restructuring of the past few years has allowed manufacturers to better match production with demand, although Japanese and Korean manufacturers also have capacity located outside of the region directed to North America.  In the future, Chinese and Indian manufacturers are expected to enter U.S. and European markets, further intensifying competition.  Over the long term, intense competition and excess capacity will continue to put downward pressure on inflation-adjusted prices for similarly-contented vehicles in the United States and contribute to a challenging pricing environment for the automotive industry.  In Europe, the excess capacity situation has been exacerbated by the lack of reductions in existing capacity, such that negative pricing pressure is expected to continue for the foreseeable future.
 
Commodity and Energy Price Changes. The price of oil declined since late 2018, driven by reduced expectations for near-term demand growth in China and continued robust supply despite an extended agreement among oil-producing nations to maintain modest output reductions. Oil prices are expected to remain volatile, and on a lower long-term trend than in prior cycles. Prices for other commodities have been similarly volatile, with some retreat from recent peaks for many commodities used in the manufacturing of our vehicles, while steel and aluminum have seen additional upward pressure related to the imposition of tariffs, which affected domestic prices in 2018 as well. 
 
Vehicle Profitability. Our financial results depend on the profitability of the vehicles we sell, which may vary significantly by vehicle line. In general, larger vehicles tend to command higher prices and be more profitable than smaller vehicles, both across and within vehicle segments. For example, in North America, our larger, more profitable vehicles had an average contribution margin that was about 140% of our total average contribution margin across all vehicles, whereas our smaller vehicles had significantly lower contribution margins. In addition, government regulations aimed at reducing emissions and increasing fuel efficiency (e.g., ZEV mandates and low emission zones) may increase the cost of vehicles by more than the perceived benefit to the consumer. Given the backdrop of excess capacity, these regulations could dampen contribution margins.

30

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

Trade Policy. To the extent governments in various regions erect or intensify barriers to imports, or implement currency policy that advantages local exporters selling into the global marketplace, there can be a significant negative impact on manufacturers based in other markets.  While we believe the long-term trend will support the growth of free trade, we have noted with concern recent developments in a number of regions.  The imposition of tariffs on steel and aluminum coming into the United States in 2018 had a direct negative impact on costs for manufacturers in the U.S. market. In Asia Pacific, a weak yen significantly reduces the cost of exports into the United States, Europe, and other global markets by Japanese manufacturers, and, over a period of time, contribute to other countries pursuing weak currency policies by intervening in the exchange rate markets.  This is particularly likely in other Asian countries, such as South Korea.  We will continue to monitor and address developing issues around trade policy. 

Other Economic Factors. Although in recent months interest rates have risen, mature market government bond yields and inflation have remained lower than expected.  At the same time, government deficits and debt remain at high levels in many major markets.  The eventual implications of higher government deficits and debt, with potentially higher long-term interest rates, may drive a higher cost of capital over our planning period.  Higher interest rates and/or taxes to address the higher deficits also may impede real growth in gross domestic product and, therefore, vehicle sales over our planning period.

31

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

RESULTS OF OPERATIONS - 2018

COMPANY

The chart below shows our full year 2018 net income attributable to Ford and Company adjusted EBIT by segment.

a2018coresults7d.jpg

Net income attributable to Ford and Company adjusted EBIT were driven by our Automotive and Ford Credit segments. Mobility and Corporate Other, as expected, were losses.
The year-over-year decline in net income was primarily due to the lower Automotive EBIT, the larger mark-to-market adjustment for global pension and OPEB plans due to adverse financial market conditions that occurred late in 2018, and personnel separation-related actions in North America, South America, and Europe.
The lower Automotive EBIT fully explains the $2.6 billion decline in Company adjusted EBIT, compared with 2017.
Ford Credit generated a full year 2018 EBT of $2.6 billion, $317 million higher than a year ago, and its best EBT in eight years. Ford Credit’s EBT improvement was led by favorable lease residual performance and favorable volume and mix. This was offset by unfavorable derivatives market valuation.
The chart below shows our full year 2018 key metrics for the Company compared to a year ago.

32

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

a2018cometrics7.jpg

For full year 2018, revenue grew 2% to $160.3 billion.
Net income attributable to Ford for full year 2018 was $3.7 billion or $0.92 diluted earnings per share of Common and Class B stock, a decrease of $4.1 billion or $1.01 per share compared with 2017. Company adjusted EBIT for full year 2018 was $7 billion or $1.30 diluted adjusted earnings per share, down $2.6 billion or $0.48 per share compared with 2017.
Net income margin was 2.3% and Company adjusted EBIT margin was 4.4% for full year 2018, down 2.6 percentage points and 1.7 percentage points, respectively, from 2017.

33

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

AUTOMOTIVE SEGMENT

In general, we measure year-over-year change in Automotive segment EBIT using the causal factors listed below, with net pricing and cost variances calculated at present-year volume and mix and exchange:

Market Factors (exclude the impact of unconsolidated affiliate wholesales):
Volume and Mix – primarily measures EBIT variance from changes in wholesale volumes (at prior-year average contribution margin per unit) driven by changes in industry volume, market share, and dealer stocks, as well as the EBIT variance resulting from changes in product mix, including mix among vehicle lines and mix of trim levels and options within a vehicle line
Net Pricing – primarily measures EBIT variance driven by changes in wholesale prices to dealers and marketing incentive programs such as rebate programs, low-rate financing offers, special lease offers, and stock adjustments on dealer inventory

Cost:
Contribution Costs – primarily measures EBIT variance driven by per-unit changes in cost categories that typically vary with volume, such as material costs (including commodity and component costs), warranty expense, and freight and duty costs
Structural Costs – primarily measures EBIT variance driven by absolute change in cost categories that typically do not have a directly proportionate relationship to production volume. Structural costs include the following cost categories:
Manufacturing, Including Volume-Related consists primarily of costs for hourly and salaried manufacturing personnel, plant overhead (such as utilities and taxes), and new product launch expense.
These costs could be affected by volume for operating pattern actions such as overtime, line-speed, and shift schedules
Engineering consists primarily of costs for engineering personnel, prototype materials, testing, and outside engineering services
Spending-Related consists primarily of depreciation and amortization of our manufacturing and engineering assets, but also includes asset retirements and operating leases
Advertising and Sales Promotions includes costs for advertising, marketing programs, brand promotions, customer mailings and promotional events, and auto shows
Administrative and Selling includes primarily costs for salaried personnel and purchased services related to our staff activities and selling functions, as well as associated information technology costs
Pension and OPEB consists primarily of past service pension costs and other postretirement employee benefit costs

Other includes a variety of items, such as parts and services profits, royalties, government incentives, and compensation-related changes. Other also includes:
Exchange – primarily measures EBIT variance driven by one or more of the following: (i) transactions denominated in currencies other than the functional currencies of the relevant entities, (ii) effects of converting functional currency income to U.S. dollars, (iii) effects of remeasuring monetary assets and liabilities of the relevant entities in currencies other than their functional currency, or (iv) results of our foreign currency hedging
Beginning in 2018, in our discussion of Asia Pacific EBIT, Other includes the equity income from our China JVs. In prior periods, the impact of our equity income from our China JVs was spread across each causal factor

In addition, definitions and calculations used in this Report include:

Wholesales and Revenue – wholesale unit volumes include all Ford and Lincoln badged units (whether produced by Ford or by an unconsolidated affiliate) that are sold to dealerships, units manufactured by Ford that are sold to other manufacturers, units distributed by Ford for other manufacturers, and local brand units produced by our China joint venture, Jiangling Motors Corporation, Ltd. (“JMC”), that are sold to dealerships. Vehicles sold to daily rental car companies that are subject to a guaranteed repurchase option (i.e., rental repurchase), as well as other sales of finished vehicles for which the recognition of revenue is deferred (e.g., consignments), also are included in wholesale unit volumes. Revenue from certain vehicles in wholesale unit volumes (specifically, Ford badged vehicles produced and distributed by our unconsolidated affiliates, as well as JMC brand vehicles) are not included in our revenue

Industry Volume and Market Share – based, in part, on estimated vehicle registrations; includes medium and heavy duty trucks

SAAR – seasonally adjusted annual rate

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

The chart below shows our full year 2018 Automotive segment EBIT by region.

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North America more than explained the Automotive segment’s full year 2018 profitability. Automotive EBIT benefited from the largest improvement in market factors since 2015. This benefit was more than offset by commodity and currency headwinds, higher net product costs as we enter a major product refresh cycle, higher warranty costs, and Ford-specific challenges in China and Europe. Compared to 2017, the decline in Automotive EBIT was essentially due to China and Europe.
In 2018, we incurred headwinds of about $3.3 billion in four areas. These impacts are not indicative, for the most part, of the ongoing run rate of the business. Our full year 2018 results reflect (i) about $750 million in tariff-related effects, (ii) about $1.1 billion of increased commodity cost unrelated to tariff effects, (iii) about $750 million of unfavorable exchange net of pricing, and (iv) about $775 million of cost related to the Takata recalls announced last year in North America.
About $1.9 billion of the headwinds described above was reflected in North America’s full year 2018 EBIT, which declined $450 million year over year. This reflects the strong improvements we delivered in North America resulting from the continued focus on high-margin products.
South America was affected by about $400 million of these headwinds, which excludes other inflationary effects, yet it delivered a full year EBIT improvement of $75 million compared to 2017.
Asia Pacific was affected by about $400 million of the headwinds described above, yet the region delivered a much deeper EBIT decline of $1.8 billion compared to 2017 primarily due to lower JV income in China.
Europe was affected by about $600 million of the headwinds, yet saw a year-over-year EBIT decline of $765 million despite the strongest product refresh among all our regions in 2018.

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

The charts on the following pages provide full year 2018 key metrics and the change in full year 2018 EBIT compared with full year 2017 by causal factor for our Automotive segment and its regional business units: North America, South America, Europe, Middle East & Africa, and Asia Pacific (including China).

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

MOBILITY SEGMENT

Our Mobility segment primarily includes development costs related to our autonomous vehicles and our investment in mobility through Ford Smart Mobility LLC (“FSM”). Autonomous vehicles includes self-driving systems development and vehicle integration, autonomous vehicle research and advanced engineering, autonomous vehicle transportation-as-a-service network development, user experience, and business strategy and business development teams. FSM designs and builds mobility services on its own, and collaborates with start-ups and technology companies.

The chart below shows the Mobility segment’s full year 2018 EBIT compared with a year ago.

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

FORD CREDIT SEGMENT

In general, we measure year-over-year changes in Ford Credit’s EBT using the causal factors listed below:

Volume and Mix:
Volume primarily measures changes in net financing margin driven by changes in average managed receivables at prior period financing margin yield (defined below in financing margin) at prior period exchange rates. Volume changes are primarily driven by the volume of new and used vehicle sales and leases, the extent to which Ford Credit purchases retail installment sale and lease contracts, the extent to which Ford Credit provides wholesale financing, the sales price of the vehicles financed, the level of dealer inventories, Ford-sponsored special financing programs available exclusively through Ford Credit, and the availability of cost-effective funding
Mix primarily measures changes in net financing margin driven by period over period changes in the composition of Ford Credit’s average managed receivables by product and by country or region

Financing Margin:
Financing margin variance is the period-to-period change in financing margin yield multiplied by the present period average managed receivables at prior period exchange rates. This calculation is performed at the product and country level and then aggregated. Financing margin yield equals revenue, less interest expense and scheduled depreciation for the period, divided by average managed receivables for the same period
Financing margin changes are driven by changes in revenue and interest expense. Changes in revenue are primarily driven by the level of market interest rates, cost assumptions in pricing, mix of business, and competitive environment. Changes in interest expense are primarily driven by the level of market interest rates, borrowing spreads, and asset-liability management

Credit Loss:
Credit loss is the change in the provision for credit losses at prior period exchange rates. For analysis purposes, management splits the provision for credit losses into net charge-offs and the change in the allowance for credit losses
Net charge-off changes are primarily driven by the number of repossessions, severity per repossession, and recoveries. Changes in the allowance for credit losses are primarily driven by changes in historical trends in credit losses and recoveries, changes in the composition and size of Ford Credit’s present portfolio, changes in trends in historical used vehicle values, and changes in economic conditions. For additional information, refer to the “Critical Accounting Estimates - Allowance for Credit Losses” section of Item 7 of Part II of our 2018 Form 10-K Report

Lease Residual:
Lease residual measures changes to residual performance at prior period exchange rates. For analysis purposes, management splits residual performance primarily into residual gains and losses, and the change in accumulated supplemental depreciation
Residual gain and loss changes are primarily driven by the number of vehicles returned to Ford Credit and sold, and the difference between the auction value and the depreciated value (which includes both base and accumulated supplemental depreciation) of the vehicles sold. Changes in accumulated supplemental depreciation are primarily driven by changes in Ford Credit’s estimate of the expected auction value at the end of the lease term, and changes in Ford Credit’s estimate of the number of vehicles that will be returned to it and sold. For additional information, refer to the “Critical Accounting Estimates - Accumulated Depreciation on Vehicles Subject to Operating Leases” section of Item 7 of Part II of our 2018 Form 10-K Report

Exchange:
Reflects changes in EBT driven by the effects of converting functional currency income to U.S. dollars

Other:
Primarily includes operating expenses, other revenue, insurance expenses, and other income at prior period exchange rates
Changes in operating expenses are primarily driven by salaried personnel costs, facilities costs, and costs associated with the origination and servicing of customer contracts
In general, other income changes are primarily driven by changes in earnings related to market valuation adjustments to derivatives (primarily related to movements in interest rates) and other miscellaneous items

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

In addition, the following definitions and calculations apply to Ford Credit when used in this Report:

Cash (as shown on the Funding Structure, Liquidity Sources, and Leverage charts) – Cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities, excluding amounts related to insurance activities

Earnings Before Taxes (EBT) – Reflects Ford Credit’s income before income taxes

Return on Equity (ROE) (as shown on the Key Metrics chart) – Reflects return on equity calculated by annualizing net income for the period and dividing by monthly average equity for the period

Securitizations (as shown on the Public Term Funding Plan chart) – Public securitization transactions, Rule 144A offerings sponsored by Ford Credit, and widely distributed offerings by Ford Credit Canada

Term Asset-Backed Securities (as shown on the Funding Structure chart) – Obligations issued in securitization transactions that are payable only out of collections on the underlying securitized assets and related enhancements

Total Debt (as shown on the Leverage chart) – Debt on Ford Credit’s balance sheet. Includes debt issued in securitizations and payable only out of collections on the underlying securitized assets and related enhancements. Ford Credit holds the right to receive the excess cash flows not needed to pay the debt issued by, and other obligations of, the securitization entities that are parties to those securitization transactions

Total Net Receivables (as shown on the Total Net Receivables Reconciliation To Managed Receivables chart) – Includes finance receivables (retail and wholesale) sold for legal purposes and net investment in operating leases included in securitization transactions that do not satisfy the requirements for accounting sale treatment. These receivables and operating leases are reported on Ford Credit’s balance sheet and are available only for payment of the debt issued by, and other obligations of, the securitization entities that are parties to those securitization transactions; they are not available to pay the other obligations of Ford Credit or the claims of Ford Credit’s other creditors

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

The charts below provide full year 2018 key metrics and the change in full year 2018 EBT compared with full year 2017 by causal factor for the Ford Credit segment.

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

CORPORATE OTHER

Corporate Other primarily includes corporate governance expenses, interest income (excluding interest earned on our extended service contract portfolio that is included in our Automotive segment) and portfolio gains and losses from our cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities, and foreign exchange derivatives gains and losses associated with intercompany lending. Corporate governance expenses are primarily administrative, delivering benefit on behalf of the global enterprise and are not allocated to specific Automotive business units or operating segments. These include expenses related to setting and directing global policy, providing oversight and stewardship, and promoting the Company’s interests. Our full year 2018 Corporate Other results were a $373 million loss, compared with a $457 million loss a year ago. The year-over-year improvement was driven by higher interest income and net gains on cash equivalents and marketable securities, offset partially by an increase in corporate governance costs.

INTEREST ON DEBT

Interest on Debt consists of interest expense on Automotive and Other debt. Full year 2018 interest expense on Automotive and Other debt was $1.2 billion, $38 million higher than a year ago, reflecting primarily higher foreign debt interest expense.

SPECIAL ITEMS

In Note 24 of the Notes to the Financial Statements, special items are reflected as a separate reconciling item, as opposed to being allocated among the Automotive, Mobility, and Ford Credit segments. This reflects the fact that management excludes these items from its review of operating segment results for purposes of measuring segment profitability and allocating resources.

Our pre-tax and tax special items were as follows:

a2018specials7a.jpg

TAXES

Our provision for income taxes for full year 2018 was $650 million, resulting in an effective tax rate of 15.0%. Our full year 2018 adjusted effective tax rate, which excludes special items, was 9.7%.


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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

RESULTS OF OPERATIONS - 2017

COMPANY

The chart below shows our full year 2017 net income attributable to Ford and Company adjusted EBIT by segment.

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In 2017, net income attributable to Ford and Company adjusted EBIT were driven by our Automotive and Ford Credit segments. Mobility and Corporate Other, as expected, were losses.
Company adjusted EBIT consisted of Automotive EBIT of $8.1 billion, a strong EBT of $2.3 billion in the Ford Credit segment, a loss of $299 million in the Mobility segment, and a loss of $457 million in Corporate Other.
Ford Credit’s full year 2017 EBT was $431 million higher than 2016, led primarily by receivables growth, lease residual performance, and financing margin. The improvement in lease residual performance was driven by higher than expected auction values.

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

The chart below shows our full year 2017 key metrics for the Company compared with full year 2016.

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Company revenue for full year 2017 was $156.8 billion, $5 billion higher than 2016.
Net income attributable to Ford for full year 2017 was $7.7 billion or $1.93 diluted earnings per share of Common and Class B stock, an increase of $3.1 billion or $0.78 per share compared with 2016, due to the significantly lower remeasurement loss on pension and OPEB plans and favorable tax planning actions.
Company adjusted EBIT for full year 2017 was $9.6 billion, a decrease of $1.7 billion from 2016, more than explained by North America and Europe.
Our diluted adjusted earnings per share of Common and Class B Stock was $1.78, up $0.02 per share compared with 2016 due to favorable tax planning actions.
Net income margin was 4.9% and Company adjusted EBIT margin was 6.1% for full year 2017, up 1.9 percentage points and down 1.4 percentage points, respectively, from 2016.

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

AUTOMOTIVE SEGMENT

The chart below shows our full year 2017 Automotive segment EBIT by region.

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Full year 2017 Automotive EBIT was driven by North America. In total, our Automotive operations outside North America were slightly profitable and $641 million lower than in 2016 driven largely by expected Brexit effects in Europe.
The $2 billion year-over-year decline in full year 2017 Automotive segment EBIT was primarily explained by higher commodities and adverse exchange. All other factors about offset. Higher commodities were driven by metals, primarily steel, and adverse exchange was driven by the sterling, reflecting Brexit effects of about $600 million, along with the Canadian dollar, Chinese renminbi, and Argentine peso. Favorable market factors were driven by improved mix in all regions, excluding South America, and higher net pricing in all regions, except Asia Pacific, reflecting negative industry pricing in China.
North America’s full year 2017 EBIT was $1.3 billion lower than 2016. The decrease was driven by higher commodities, mainly steel and other metals; Expedition/Navigator launch effects, reflecting lower volume and higher costs, both product and structural costs, offset partially by favorable net pricing; and adverse exchange driven primarily by the Canadian dollar.
South America’s full year 2017 EBIT improved $324 million compared to 2016 due to higher industry volume and favorable net pricing. This was partially offset by unfavorable cost performance due to the effects of high inflation and higher product costs net of efficiencies, driven by the all-new EcoSport.
Europe’s full year 2017 EBIT was $951 million lower than in 2016 driven by Brexit effects, reflecting the weaker sterling and lower U.K. industry, offset partially by favorable net pricing in the United Kingdom; higher commodities, mainly steel and other metals; Fiesta launch effects, reflecting lower volume and higher costs, both product and structural costs, offset partially by favorable net pricing; and higher warranty costs.

Middle East & Africa’s full year 2017 EBIT improved $39 million compared to 2016. Favorable cost performance and exchange, reflecting the stronger South African rand and euro, offset lower volume.
Asia Pacific’s full year 2017 EBIT was $53 million lower than in 2016 due to market performance in China and unfavorable exchange.

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

MOBILITY SEGMENT

The chart below shows the Mobility segment’s full year 2017 EBIT compared with full year 2016.

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

FORD CREDIT SEGMENT

The charts below provide full year 2017 key metrics and the change in full year 2017 EBT compared with full year 2016 by causal factor for the Ford Credit segment.

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

CORPORATE OTHER

Our full year 2017 Corporate Other results were a $457 million loss, a $41 million lower loss compared with 2016. This year-over-year improvement was driven by higher interest income, offset partially by higher corporate governance expenses.

INTEREST ON DEBT

Our full year 2017 interest expense on Automotive and Other debt was $1.2 billion, $239 million higher than in 2016, reflecting primarily higher average U.S. and foreign debt balances.

SPECIAL ITEMS

Our pre-tax and tax special items were as follows:

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TAXES

Our provision for income taxes for full year 2017 was $402 million, resulting in an effective tax rate of 4.9%, both lower than 2016, reflecting benefits for foreign tax credits expected to be realized in the foreseeable future, non-U.S. restructuring, and the impact of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017.

Our full year 2017 adjusted effective tax rate, which excludes special items, was 15.4%, reflecting the same benefits from foreign tax credits mentioned above.


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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES

At December 31, 2018, total balance sheet cash, cash equivalents, marketable securities, and restricted cash (including Ford Credit) was $34.1 billion.

We analyze our balance sheet on a “Company” basis which excludes Ford Credit. The key balance sheet metrics that we consider are: (i) Company cash, which includes cash equivalents, marketable securities, and restricted cash, excluding Ford Credit’s cash, cash equivalents, marketable securities, and restricted cash; and (ii) Company liquidity, which includes Company cash, less restricted cash, and total available committed credit lines.

Company excluding Ford Credit

a2018balance7.jpg

Liquidity. One of our key priorities is to maintain a strong balance sheet, while at the same time having resources available to invest in and grow our business. Based on our planning assumptions, we believe we have sufficient liquidity and capital resources to continue to invest in new products and services, pay our debts and obligations as and when they come due, pay a regular dividend, and provide protection within an uncertain global economic environment.
 
At December 31, 2018, we had $23.1 billion of Company cash, with 90% held by consolidated entities domiciled in the United States. To be prepared for an economic downturn, we target to have an ongoing Company cash balance at or above $20 billion. We expect to have periods when we will be above or below this amount due to:  (i) future cash flow expectations, such as for investments in future opportunities, capital investments, debt maturities, pension contributions, or restructuring requirements, (ii) short-term timing differences, and (iii) changes in the global economic environment.

Our Company cash investments primarily include U.S. Department of Treasury obligations, federal agency securities, bank time deposits with investment-grade institutions, investment-grade corporate securities, investment-grade commercial paper, and debt obligations of a select group of non-U.S. governments, non-U.S. governmental agencies, and supranational institutions. The average maturity of these investments is approximately one year and adjusted based on market conditions and liquidity needs. We monitor our Company cash levels and average maturity on a daily basis.

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

In addition to our target for Company cash, we also target to maintain a corporate credit facility, discussed below, for our Automotive business of about $10 billion to protect against exogenous shocks. We assess the appropriate long-term target for total Company liquidity, which includes Company cash and the Automotive portion of the corporate credit facility, to be at or above $30 billion, which is an amount we believe is sufficient to support our business priorities and to protect our business. At December 31, 2018, we had $34.2 billion of Company liquidity. We may reduce our Company cash and liquidity targets over time, based on improved operating performance and changes in our risk profile.

Changes in Company Cash. In 2018, we began reporting Company adjusted operating cash flow, which includes Automotive, Mobility, Corporate Other, and Interest on Debt cash flows, as well as Ford Credit distributions. Prior to 2018, Ford Credit distributions were reported as a non-operating cash flow.

In managing our business, we classify changes in Company cash into operating and other items. Operating items include: Company adjusted EBIT excluding Ford Credit, capital spending, depreciation and tooling amortization, changes in working capital, Ford Credit distributions, and all other and timing differences. Non-operating items include: separation payments, other transactions with Ford Credit, acquisitions and divestitures, changes in Automotive and Other debt, contributions to funded pension plans, and shareholder distributions.

With respect to “Changes in working capital,” in general we carry relatively low Automotive segment trade receivables compared with our trade payables because the majority of our Automotive wholesales are financed (primarily by Ford Credit) immediately upon sale of vehicles to dealers, which generally occurs shortly after being produced. In addition, our inventories are lean because we build to order, not for inventory. In contrast, our Automotive trade payables are based primarily on industry-standard production supplier payment terms generally ranging between 30 days to 45 days. As a result, our cash flow tends to improve as wholesale volumes increase, but can deteriorate significantly when wholesale volumes drop sharply. These working capital balances generally are subject to seasonal changes that can impact cash flow. For example, we typically experience cash flow timing differences associated with inventories and payables due to our annual summer and December shutdown periods when production, and therefore inventories and wholesale volumes, are usually at their lowest levels, while payables continue to come due and be paid. The net impact of this typically results in cash outflows from changes in our working capital balances during these shutdown periods.

In 2018, our cash flow was lower than 2017 primarily driven by lower EBIT. In 2019, we expect improved cash flow versus 2018.

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

Changes in Company cash excluding Ford Credit are summarized below:

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Capital spending was $7.7 billion in 2018 and is projected to be about the same in 2019. As we redesign our business, the ongoing amount of capital spending to support product development, growth, and infrastructure is expected to be about $7 billion annually through 2022.

Full year 2018 working capital was about $900 million negative, reflecting primarily higher inventory.

All other and timing differences were negative $1.1 billion, reflecting primarily interest payments on Automotive and Other debt, cash taxes, and assorted timing differences.

Shareholder distributions were about $3.1 billion in 2018.

At December 31, 2018, our cash conversion rate was 409%, and our adjusted cash conversion rate was 40%.

Available Credit Lines. Total committed Company credit lines excluding Ford Credit at December 31, 2018 were $11.9 billion, consisting of $10.4 billion of our corporate credit facility and $1.5 billion of local credit facilities. At December 31, 2018, the utilized portion of the corporate credit facility was $27 million, representing amounts utilized for letters of credit. At December 31, 2018, the utilized portion of the local credit facilities was $735 million.

Lenders under our corporate credit facility have commitments to us totaling $13.4 billion, with 75% of the commitments maturing on April 30, 2023 and 25% of the commitments maturing on April 30, 2021. We have allocated $3 billion of commitments to Ford Credit on an irrevocable and exclusive basis to support its liquidity. We would guarantee any borrowings by Ford Credit under the corporate credit facility.
 
The corporate credit facility is unsecured and free of material adverse change conditions to borrowing, restrictive financial covenants (for example, interest or fixed-charge coverage ratio, debt-to-equity ratio, and minimum net worth requirements), and credit rating triggers that could limit our ability to obtain funding. The corporate credit facility contains a liquidity covenant that requires us to maintain a minimum of $4 billion in aggregate of domestic cash, cash equivalents, and loaned and marketable securities and/or availability under the facility. If our senior, unsecured, long-term debt does not maintain at least two investment grade ratings from Fitch, Moody’s, and S&P, the guarantees of certain subsidiaries will be required.

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

Debt. As shown in Note 18 of the Notes to the Financial Statements, at December 31, 2018, Company debt excluding Ford Credit was $14.1 billion, including Automotive debt of $13.5 billion. Both balances were about $2.4 billion lower than at December 31, 2017, reflecting primarily foreign and U.S. debt repayments and exchange.

U.S. Department of Energy (“DOE”) Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturer (“ATVM”) Incentive Program. See Note 18 of the Notes to the Financial Statements for information regarding the ATVM loan.

Leverage. We manage Company debt (excluding Ford Credit) levels with a leverage framework to maintain investment grade credit ratings through a normal business cycle. The leverage framework includes a ratio of total company debt (excluding Ford Credit) adjusted to include unamortized discount/premium and issuance costs (excluding Ford Credit), operating lease minimum commitments and net pension liabilities excluding prepaid assets, divided by Company Adjusted EBIT, excluding Ford Credit EBT, and further adjusted to include depreciation and tooling amortization (excluding Ford Credit), operating lease expense, and certain pension costs. At December 31, 2018, our ratio of Company debt to net income attributable to Ford was 41.9:1, and our ratio of adjusted debt to EBITDA was 3.2:1.

Ford Credit’s leverage is calculated as a separate business as described in the Liquidity - Ford Credit Segment section of Item 2. Ford Credit is self-funding and its debt, which is used to fund its operations, is separate from our Automotive and Other debt.

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

Ford Credit Segment

Funding Overview. Ford Credit’s primary funding objective is to be well capitalized with a strong balance sheet and ample liquidity to support its financing activities and growth under a variety of market conditions, including short-term and long-term market disruptions. Ford Credit’s funding strategy remains focused on diversification, and it plans to continue accessing a variety of markets, channels, and investors.

Ford Credit’s liquidity profile continues to be diverse, robust, and focused on maintaining liquidity levels that meet its business and funding requirements. Ford Credit annually stress tests its balance sheet and liquidity to ensure that it continues to meet its financial obligations through economic cycles.

Funding Sources. Ford Credit’s funding sources include primarily unsecured debt and securitization transactions (including other structured financings). Ford Credit issues both short-term and long-term debt that is held by both institutional and retail investors, with long-term debt having an original maturity of more than 12 months. Ford Credit sponsors a number of securitization programs that can be structured to provide both short-term and long-term funding through institutional investors in the United States and international capital markets.

Ford Credit obtains short-term unsecured funding from the sale of demand notes under its Ford Interest Advantage program, through its Retail Deposit program at FCE Bank plc (“FCE”), and by issuing unsecured commercial paper in the United States and other international markets. At December 31, 2018, the principal amount outstanding of Ford Interest Advantage notes, which may be redeemed at any time at the option of the holders thereof without restriction, and FCE Deposits was $6 billion. At December 31, 2018, the principal amount outstanding of Ford Credit’s unsecured commercial paper was $4 billion, which primarily represents issuance under its commercial paper program in the United States. Ford Credit maintains multiple sources of readily available liquidity to fund the payment of its unsecured short-term debt obligations.

Funding Portfolio. The chart below shows the trends in funding for Ford Credit’s managed receivables:

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Managed receivables of $155 billion as of December 31, 2018 were funded primarily with term debt and term asset-backed securities. Securitized funding as a percent of managed receivables was 39%. Ford Credit targets a mix of securitized funding between 35% and 40%. The calendarization of the funding plan will result in quarterly fluctuations of the securitized funding percentage.

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

Public Term Funding Plan. The chart below shows Ford Credit’s issuances for full-year 2016, 2017, and 2018, and its planned issuances for full-year 2019, excluding short-term funding programs:

a2018fcfunding7a.jpg

Ford Credit’s total unsecured public term funding plan is categorized by currency of issuance.

In 2018, Ford Credit completed $27 billion of public term funding. For 2019, Ford Credit projects full-year public term funding in the range of $27 billion to $33 billion. Ford Credit plans to continue issuing its eurocurrency-denominated (e.g., euro and sterling) public unsecured debt from the United States.

Through February 15, 2019, Ford Credit has completed $4 billion of public term issuances.

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

Liquidity. The chart below shows Ford Credit’s liquidity sources and utilization:

a2018fcliquidity7.jpg

Ford Credit’s liquidity available for use will fluctuate quarterly based on factors including near-term debt maturities, receivable growth, and timing of funding transactions. Ford Credit targets liquidity of about $25 billion. At December 31, 2018, Ford Credit’s liquidity available for use was $27.3 billion, $2.2 billion lower than year-end 2017.

Ford Credit’s sources of liquidity include cash, committed asset-backed facilities, unsecured credit facilities, and the corporate credit facility allocation.

Ford Credit’s balance sheet is inherently liquid because of the short-term nature of its finance receivables, investment in operating leases, and cash. Ford Credit ensures its cumulative debt maturities have a longer tenor than its cumulative asset maturities. This positive maturity profile is intended to provide Ford Credit with additional liquidity after all of its assets have been funded.

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

Leverage. Ford Credit uses leverage, or the debt-to-equity ratio, to make various business decisions, including evaluating and establishing pricing for finance receivable and operating lease financing, and assessing its capital structure.

The chart below shows the calculation of Ford Credit’s financial statement leverage and managed leverage:

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Ford Credit believes that managed leverage is useful to its investors because it reflects the way Ford Credit manages its business. Ford Credit deducts cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities (excluding amounts related to insurance activities) because they generally correspond to excess debt beyond the amount required to support its operations and amounts to support on-balance sheet securitization transactions. Ford Credit makes derivative accounting adjustments to its assets, debt, and equity positions to reflect the impact of interest rate instruments Ford Credit uses in connection with its term-debt issuances and securitization transactions. The derivative accounting adjustments related to these instruments vary over the term of the underlying debt and securitized funding obligations based on changes in market interest rates. Ford Credit generally repays its debt obligations as they mature. As a result, Ford Credit excludes the impact of these derivative accounting adjustments on both the numerator and denominator in order to exclude the interim effects of changes in market interest rates.

Ford Credit plans its managed leverage by considering prevailing market conditions and the risk characteristics of its business. At December 31, 2018, Ford Credit’s financial statement leverage was 9.4:1, and managed leverage was 8.8:1. Ford Credit targets managed leverage in the range of 8:1 to 9:1.


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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

Total Company

Pension Plan Contributions and Strategy. Our strategy is to reduce the risk of our funded defined benefit pension plans, including minimizing the volatility of the value of our pension assets relative to pension liabilities and the need for unplanned use of capital resources to fund the plans. The strategy reduces balance sheet, cash flow, and income exposures and, in turn, reduces our risk profile. We have made significant progress in implementing this strategy over the last several years. For example, we have limited liability growth by closing our funded plans to new participants and have reduced plan deficits through discretionary contributions. Going forward, we expect to:

Limit our pension contributions to offset ongoing service cost or meet regulatory requirements, if any;
Continue progressively re-balancing assets to more fixed income investments, with a target asset allocation of about 80% fixed income investments and 20% growth assets, which will provide a better matching of plan assets to the characteristics of the liabilities, thereby reducing our net exposure; and
Evaluate strategic actions to reduce pension liabilities, such as plan design changes, curtailments, or settlements

a2018pension7a.jpg

Worldwide, our defined benefit pension plans were underfunded by $6.3 billion at December 31, 2018, an improvement of $300 million from December 31, 2017, primarily as a result of higher discount rates, demographics, and contributions offsetting lower asset returns. Of the $6.3 billion underfunded status at year-end 2018, about $6 billion is associated with our unfunded plans. These are “pay as you go,” with benefits paid from general Company cash. These unfunded plans primarily include certain plans in Germany, and U.S. defined benefit plans for senior management.

The U.S. weighted-average discount rate increased 69 basis points to 4.29% at year-end 2018 from 3.60% at year-end 2017. The non-U.S. weighted average discount rate increased 15 basis points to 2.48% at year-end 2018 from 2.33% at year-end 2017.
Asset returns in 2018 for our U.S. plans were negative 3.7%, reflecting fixed income losses as long-term interest rates increased. The fixed income mix in our U.S. plans at year-end 2018 was 78%, two percentage points higher than year-end 2017. Asset returns for our non-U.S. plans were negative 0.1%, reflecting varied results by market. The fixed income mix in our non-U.S. plans at year-end 2018 was 83%, three percentage points higher than year-end 2017.

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

In 2018, we contributed about $400 million (most of which were mandatory contributions) to our global funded pension plans, a decrease of about $1 billion compared with 2017. The contributions in 2017 included a pull-ahead of about $500 million of 2018 planned funding into the fourth quarter of 2017 to achieve a cash tax benefit. During 2019, we expect to contribute about $650 million (including $140 million in discretionary contributions in the United States) from Company cash to our global funded pension plans. We also expect to make about $350 million of benefit payments to participants in unfunded plans, for a combined total of about $1 billion. Based on current assumptions and regulations, we do not expect to have a legal requirement to fund our major U.S. plans in 2019. After 2019, we expect contributions to our global funded plans of about $500 million to $650 million per year, limited to ongoing service cost. Our global funded plans are now fully funded in aggregate, which is an important milestone demonstrating the effectiveness of our de-risking strategy and our commitment to a strong balance sheet.

For a detailed discussion of our pension plans, see Note 17 of the Notes to the Financial Statements.

Return on Invested Capital. We analyze total Company performance using an adjusted Return on Invested Capital (“ROIC”) financial metric based on an after-tax rolling five-year average, which we believe is appropriate given our industry’s product and investment cycles. The following table contains the calculation of our ROIC for the years shown:

a2018adjroic7b.jpg



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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

CREDIT RATINGS

Our short-term and long-term debt is rated by four credit rating agencies designated as nationally recognized statistical rating organizations (“NRSROs”) by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission: DBRS, Fitch, Moody’s, and S&P.

In several markets, locally-recognized rating agencies also rate us. A credit rating reflects an assessment by the rating agency of the credit risk associated with a corporate entity or particular securities issued by that entity. Rating agencies’ ratings of us are based on information provided by us and other sources. Credit ratings are not recommendations to buy, sell, or hold securities, and are subject to revision or withdrawal at any time by the assigning rating agency. Each rating agency may have different criteria for evaluating company risk and, therefore, ratings should be evaluated independently for each rating agency.

There have been no rating actions taken by these NRSROs since the filing of our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended September 30, 2018.

The following chart summarizes certain of the credit ratings and outlook presently assigned by these four NRSROs:
 
NRSRO RATINGS
 
Ford
 
Ford Credit
 
NRSROs
 
Issuer
Default /
Corporate /
Issuer Rating
 
Long-Term Senior Unsecured
 
Outlook / Trend
 
Long-Term Senior Unsecured
 
Short-Term
Unsecured
 
Outlook / Trend
 
Minimum Long-Term Investment Grade Rating
DBRS
BBB
 
BBB
 
Stable
 
BBB
 
R-2M
 
Stable
 
BBB (low)
Fitch
BBB
 
BBB
 
Stable
 
BBB
 
F2
 
Stable
 
BBB-
Moody’s
N/A
 
Baa3
 
Negative
 
Baa3
 
P-3
 
Negative
 
Baa3
S&P
BBB
 
BBB
 
Negative
 
BBB
 
A-2
 
Negative
 
BBB-


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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

2019 EXTERNAL FACTORS ASSUMPTIONS

Based on the current environment, we have assumed the following for 2019:

a2018extfactorassumptions7c.jpg

For 2019 GDP, we project continued growth globally and across our major markets. Relative to 2018, we expect a deterioration in the rate of growth in the United States, Europe, and China, but we do not expect a recession to occur in the United States during the year.

We expect global industry volume in 2019 to be about flat compared with 2018. This includes a decline in the United States, although industry sales will still be strong on an absolute basis, with retail down slightly and fleet down more (mainly rentals). We expect Europe industry volume to be about flat, and, in China, we expect industry volume to be down modestly with a strong second half of the year.

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

OUTLOOK

Based on our current assumptions, our Company guidance for 2019 includes the following:

a2018outlook7e.jpg

For 2019, we see the potential for year-over-year improvement in the key metrics shown above, including our revenue to be greater than $160.3 billion, adjusted EBIT margin to be greater than 4.4%, adjusted ROIC to be greater than 7.1%, adjusted cash conversion to be greater than 40%, and adjusted debt to EBITDA to be lower than 3.2:1.

We also expect Company adjusted operating cash flow to be stronger and Automotive EBIT to improve. From a business unit perspective, we expect North America, China, and Europe, where results were lower in 2018, to lead the potential EBIT improvement. Drivers of this would be the favorable effects of new products, fitness initiatives as they gain greater traction, and a turnaround, at least in part, of the major factors that led to our lower China performance in 2018.

Offsetting these positive effects, in part, will be higher investments in Mobility – both for our autonomous vehicle business and mobility services development – as well as lower, though still strong, EBT at Ford Credit, reflecting lower volume and financing margin and higher operating costs.

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

Cautionary Note on Forward-Looking Statements

Statements included or incorporated by reference herein may constitute “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements are based on expectations, forecasts, and assumptions by our management and involve a number of risks, uncertainties, and other factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those stated, including, without limitation:

Ford’s long-term competitiveness depends on the successful execution of fitness actions;
Industry sales volume, particularly in the United States, Europe, or China, can be volatile and could decline if there is a financial crisis, recession, or significant geopolitical event;
Ford’s new and existing products and mobility services are subject to market acceptance;
Ford’s results are dependent on sales of larger, more profitable vehicles, particularly in the United States;
Ford may face increased price competition resulting from industry excess capacity, currency fluctuations, or other factors;
Fluctuations in commodity prices, foreign currency exchange rates, and interest rates can have a significant effect on results;
With a global footprint, Ford’s results could be adversely affected by economic, geopolitical, protectionist trade policies, or other events, including Brexit;
Ford’s production, as well as Ford’s suppliers’ production, could be disrupted by labor disputes, natural or man-made disasters, financial distress, production difficulties, or other factors;
Ford’s ability to maintain a competitive cost structure could be affected by labor or other constraints;
Pension and other postretirement liabilities could adversely affect Ford’s liquidity and financial condition;
Economic and demographic experience for pension and other postretirement benefit plans (e.g., discount rates or investment returns) could be worse than Ford has assumed;
Ford’s vehicles could be affected by defects that result in delays in new model launches, recall campaigns, or increased warranty costs;
Ford may need to substantially modify its product plans to comply with safety, emissions, fuel economy, and other regulations that may change in the future;
Ford could experience unusual or significant litigation, governmental investigations, or adverse publicity arising out of alleged defects in products, perceived environmental impacts, or otherwise;
Ford’s receipt of government incentives could be subject to reduction, termination, or clawback;
Operational systems, security systems, and vehicles could be affected by cyber incidents;
Ford Credit’s access to debt, securitization, or derivative markets around the world at competitive rates or in sufficient amounts could be affected by credit rating downgrades, market volatility, market disruption, regulatory requirements, or other factors;
Ford Credit could experience higher-than-expected credit losses, lower-than-anticipated residual values, or higher-than-expected return volumes for leased vehicles;
Ford Credit could face increased competition from banks, financial institutions, or other third parties seeking to increase their share of financing Ford vehicles; and
Ford Credit could be subject to new or increased credit regulations, consumer or data protection regulations, or other regulations.

We cannot be certain that any expectation, forecast, or assumption made in preparing forward-looking statements will prove accurate, or that any projection will be realized. It is to be expected that there may be differences between projected and actual results. Our forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of their initial issuance, and we do not undertake any obligation to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future events, or otherwise. For additional discussion, see “Item 1A. Risk Factors” above.


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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

NON-GAAP FINANCIAL MEASURE RECONCILIATIONS

The following charts show our Non-GAAP financial measure reconciliations for: Adjusted EBIT, Adjusted Earnings Per Share, Adjusted Effective Tax Rate, Adjusted Operating Cash Flow, Adjusted Cash Conversion, Adjusted Debt to EBITDA, and Ford Credit Managed Receivables. The GAAP reconciliation for Ford Credit Managed Leverage can be found in the Ford Credit Segment section of “Liquidity and Capital Resources.”

a2018netincomerecon7b.jpg

a2018epsrecon7b.jpg

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

a2018efftaxraterecon7a.jpg

a2018adjopcfadjcashconv7.jpg

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

a2018adjdebtebitdarecon7f.jpg

a2018netrecrecon7a.jpg


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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

2018 SUPPLEMENTAL FINANCIAL INFORMATION

The tables below provide supplemental consolidating financial information and other financial information. Company excluding Ford Credit includes our Automotive and Mobility reportable segments, Corporate Other, Interest on Debt, and Special Items. Eliminations, where presented, primarily represent eliminations of intersegment transactions and deferred tax netting.

Selected Income Statement Information. The following table provides supplemental income statement information (in millions):
 
 
For the year ended December 31, 2018
 
 
Company excluding Ford Credit
 
 
 
 
 
 
Automotive
 
Mobility
 
Other (a)
 
Subtotal
 
Ford Credit
 
Consolidated
Revenues
 
$
148,294

 
$
26

 
$

 
$
148,320

 
$
12,018

 
$
160,338

Total costs and expenses
 
145,691

 
758

 
1,223

 
147,672

 
9,463

 
157,135

Interest expense on Automotive debt
 

 

 
1,171

 
1,171

 

 
1,171

Interest expense on Other debt
 

 

 
57

 
57

 

 
57

Other income/(loss), net
 
2,724

 
58

 
(579
)
 
2,203

 
44

 
2,247

Equity in net income of affiliated companies
 
95

 

 

 
95

 
28

 
123

Income/(loss) before income taxes
 
5,422

 
(674
)
 
(3,030
)
 
1,718

 
2,627

 
4,345

Provision for/(Benefit from) income taxes
 
705

 
(162
)
 
(296
)
 
247

 
403

 
650

Net income/(Loss)
 
4,717

 
(512
)
 
(2,734
)
 
1,471

 
2,224

 
3,695

Less: Income/(Loss) attributable to noncontrolling interests
 
18

 

 

 
18

 

 
18

Net income/(Loss) attributable to Ford Motor Company
 
$
4,699

 
$
(512
)
 
$
(2,734
)
 
$
1,453

 
$
2,224

 
$
3,677


(a) Other includes Corporate Other, Interest on Debt, and Special Items

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Continued)

Selected Balance Sheet Information. The following tables provide supplemental balance sheet information (in millions):
 
 
December 31, 2018
Assets
 
Company excluding Ford Credit
 
Ford Credit
 
Eliminations
 
Consolidated
Cash and cash equivalents
 
$
7,111

 
$
9,607

 
$

 
$
16,718

Marketable securities
 
15,925

 
1,308

 

 
17,233

Ford Credit finance receivables, net
 

 
54,353

 

 
54,353

Trade and other receivables, less allowances
 
3,698

 
7,497

 

 
11,195

Inventories
 
11,220

 

 

 
11,220

Other assets
 
2,567

 
1,363

 

 
3,930

Receivable from other segments
 
1,054

 
2,470

 
(3,524
)
 

   Total current assets
 
41,575

 
76,598

 
(3,524
)
 
114,649

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ford Credit finance receivables, net
 

 
55,544

 

 
55,544

Net investment in operating leases
 
1,705

 
27,414

 

 
29,119

Net property
 
35,986

 
192

 

 
36,178

Equity in net assets of affiliated companies
 
2,595

 
114

 

 
2,709

Deferred income taxes
 
12,293

 
216

 
(2,097
)
 
10,412

Other assets
 
6,343

 
1,586

 

 
7,929

Receivable from other segments
 
166

 
14

 
(180
)
 

   Total assets
 
$
100,663

 
$
161,678

 
$
(5,801
)
 
$
256,540

Liabilities
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Payables
 
$
20,426

 
$
1,094

 
$

 
$
21,520

Other liabilities and deferred revenue
 
18,868

 
1,688

 

 
20,556

Automotive debt payable within one year
 
2,314

 

 

 
2,314

Ford Credit debt payable within one year
 

 
51,179

 

 
51,179

Payable to other segments
 
3,524

 

 
(3,524
)
 

   Total current liabilities
 
45,132

 
53,961

 
(3,524
)
 
95,569

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Other liabilities and deferred revenue
 
22,491

 
1,097

 

 
23,588

Automotive long-term debt
 
11,233

 

 

 
11,233

Ford Credit long-term debt
 

 
88,887

 

 
88,887

Other long-term debt
 
600

 

 

 
600

Deferred income taxes
 
99

 
2,595

 
(2,097
)
 
597

Payable to other segments
 
17