10-K 1 fcbc20231231_10k.htm FORM 10-K fcbc20231231_10k.htm
0000859070 FIRST COMMUNITY BANKSHARES INC /VA/ false --12-31 FY 2023 0 0 1,000,000 1,000,000 0.01 0.01 25,000 25,000 0 0 1 1 50,000,000 50,000,000 27,522,547 18,502,396 24,477,471 16,225,399 1.04 30.42 1.12 30.18 1.16 29.99 1 1 0 662 548 60 84 0 1 129.57 1.45 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 False False False False Components of other operating income or expense that do not exceed 1% of total income Calculated adjustment to the ACL related to the adoption of ASU 2016-13. Includes additional reserve related to purchased deteriorated loans of $5.88 million. The recorded investment in consumer mortgage loans collateralized by residential real estate that are in the process of foreclosure according to local requirements of the applicable jurisdiction Adjustment reflects the fair value adjustments of $(15.80) million based on the Company's evaluation of the acquired loan portfolio and excludes the allowance for credit losses and deferred loans fees of $2.94 million as recorded by Surrey. Fair value is generally based on appraisals of the underlying collateral. Represents the loan balance immediately following modification Net adjustment to retained earnings related to the adoption of ASU 2016-13. Adjustment to reclass deferred tax asset $(99) thousand, goodwill $(282) thousand, federal income tax payable $(389) thousand, and state income tax payable $8 thousand. Based on prompt corrective action provisions Derived from audited financial statements Per our analysis no ACL was necessary for investment securities available for sale. Accrued interest receivable from acquired credit impaired loans of $57 thousand was reclassed to other assets and was offset by the reclass of the grossed up credit discount on acquired credit impaired loans of $57 thousand that was moved to the ACL for the purchased credit deteriorated loans. Adjustment to record the core deposit intangible on the acquired deposit accounts. Adjustment reflects the fair value adjustment based on the Company's evaluation of the time deposit portfolio. Adjustment reflects the fair value adjustment based on the Company's evaluation of stocks with other banks of $47 thousand. Changes related to the composition of the Company's directors, executive officers, and related insiders Appraisals may be adjusted by management for customized discounting criteria, estimated sales costs, and proprietary qualitative adjustments. Adjustment to record the deferred tax asset related to the fair value adjustments $(177) thousand. Adjustment to the reserve for unfunded commitments related to the adoption of ASU 2016-13. Adjustment reflects the fair value adjustments based on the Company's evaluation of the acquired premises and equipment. Effect of deferred tax assets related to the adjustment to the ACL form the adoption of ASU 2016-13 using a 23.37% tax rate. Adjustment reflects the fair value adjustment based on the Company's evaluation of the acquired investment portfolio. 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Table of Contents

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-K

 

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023

or

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

Commission file number 000-19297

   
 

FIRST COMMUNITY BANKSHARES, INC.

 
 

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

Virginia

 

55-0694814

(State or other jurisdiction

of incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

 

 

P.O. Box 989

Bluefield, Virginia 24605-0989

 

(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)

 

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (276) 326-9000

   

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class

 

Trading Symbols

 

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock, $1.00 par value

 

FCBC

 

NASDAQ Global Select

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.

☐ Yes ☑ No

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.

☐ Yes ☑ No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.

Yes ☐ No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).

Yes ☐ No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer ☐ Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer ☐ Smaller reporting company
  Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404 (b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. 

 

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.    Yes ☑ No

 

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant's executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to 240.10D-1(b).  ☐ Yes ☑ No

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).

Yes ☑ No

As of June 30, 2023, the aggregate market value of the registrant’s voting and non-voting common stock held by non-affiliates was $424.99 million.

 

As of  March 1, 2024, there were 18,470,596 shares outstanding of the registrant’s Common Stock, $1.00 par value.

 

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

 

Portions of the Proxy Statement for the Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be held on April 23, 2024, are incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K.

 

 

 

 
 

FIRST COMMUNITY BANKSHARES, INC.

2023 FORM 10-K

INDEX

 

   

Page

PART I

   
     

Item 1.

Business.

4

Item 1A.

Risk Factors.

11

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments.

17
Item 1C. Cybersecurity 17

Item 2.

Properties.

18

Item 3.

Legal Proceedings.

18

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures.

18
     

PART II

   
     

Item 5.

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.

18

Item 6.

[Reserved] 19

Item 7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

20

Item 7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.

37

Item 8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.

38

Item 9.

Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure.

94

Item 9A.

Controls and Procedures.

94

Item 9B.

Other Information.

94
Item 9C. Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections. 94
     

PART III

   
     

Item 10.

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance.

95

Item 11.

Executive Compensation.

95

Item 12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters.

95

Item 13.

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence. 95

Item 14.

Principal Accounting Fees and Services.

95
     

PART IV

   
     

Item 15.

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules.

96
  Signatures 98

 

 

 

CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

Forward-looking statements in filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission, including this Annual Report on Form 10-K and the accompanying Exhibits, filings incorporated by reference, reports to shareholders, and other communications that represent the Company’s beliefs, plans, objectives, goals, guidelines, expectations, anticipations, estimates, and intentions are made in good faith pursuant to the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These statements are not guarantees of future performance and involve certain risks, uncertainties, and assumptions that are difficult to predict. The words “may,” “could,” “should,” “would,” “believe,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “plan,” and other similar expressions identify forward-looking statements. The following factors, among others, could cause financial performance to differ materially from that expressed in such forward-looking statements:

 

  inflation, interest rate, market and monetary fluctuations;
 

the strength of the U.S. economy in general and the strength of the local economies in which we conduct operations;

 

the effects of, and changes in, trade, monetary, and fiscal policies and laws, including interest rate policies of the Federal Reserve System;

 

timely development of competitive new products and services and the acceptance of these products and services by new and existing customers;

 

the willingness of customers to substitute competitors’ products and services for the Company’s products and services and vice versa;

 

the impact of changes in financial services laws and regulations, including laws about taxes, banking, securities, and insurance;

 

the impact of the U.S. Department of the Treasury and federal banking regulators’ continued implementation of programs to address capital and liquidity in the banking system;

 

technological changes;

 

the costs and effects of cyber incidents or other failures, interruptions, or security breaches of our systems or those of third-party providers;

  the effect of changes in accounting policies and practices, as may be adopted by the regulatory agencies, as well as the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, the Financial Accounting Standards Board, and other accounting standard setters;
 

the effect of acquisitions, including, without limitation, the failure to achieve the expected revenue growth and/or expense savings from such acquisitions;

 

the sustainability of noninterest, or fee income being less than expected;

 

unanticipated regulatory or judicial proceedings;

 

changes in consumer spending and saving habits; and

 

the Company’s success at managing the risks mentioned above.

 

The list of important factors is not exclusive. If one or more of the factors affecting these forward-looking statements proves incorrect, actual results, performance, or achievements could differ materially from those expressed in, or implied by, forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and other reports we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission. Therefore, the Company cautions you not to place undue reliance on forward-looking information and statements.  The Company does not intend to update any forward-looking statements, whether written or oral, to reflect changes. These cautionary statements expressly qualify all forward-looking statements that apply to the Company including the risk factors presented in Part I, Item 1A of this report.

 

 

PART I

 

Item 1.

Business.

 

General

 

First Community Bankshares, Inc. (the “Company”), a financial holding company, was founded in 1989 and reincorporated under the laws of the Commonwealth of Virginia. The Company’s principal executive office is located in Bluefield, Virginia. The Company provides banking products and services to individual and commercial customers through its wholly owned subsidiary First Community Bank (the “Bank”), a Virginia-chartered banking institution founded in 1874. The Bank offers wealth management and investment advice through its Trust Division and wholly owned subsidiary First Community Wealth Management. Unless the context suggests otherwise, the terms “First Community,” “Company,” “we,” “our,” and “us” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K refer to First Community Bankshares, Inc. and its subsidiaries as a consolidated entity.

 

We operate 53 branches across the states of Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina, and Tennessee.  We’re committed to the passionate pursuit of excellence in community banking and we’ve set our sights on being the bank of choice, employer of choice, and investment of choice in the communities in which we operate.

 

Our  mission is to:

 

 

understand and anticipate customer and community financial needs and preferences by learning from our customers and engaging with our communities;
 

help our customers and communities achieve their financial goals and objectives by providing workable solutions delivered in a professional manner by friendly, knowledgeable people and convenient, reliable systems;

  recruit, retain, and develop talented and resourceful employees by providing competitive compensation and benefits; offering first-rate continuing education; and fostering a team environment that empowers employees, encourages growth, and recognizes and rewards achievement; and
 

allocate shareholder resources by pursuing those investments and business opportunities that provide a superior risk-assessed return.

 

Our operations are guided by a strategic plan that focuses on organic growth supplemented by strategic acquisitions of complementary financial institutions.

 

Employees and Human Capital Resources

 

As of December 31, 2023, we had 616 full-time employees and 29 part-time employees. The employees are not represented by a collective bargaining unit and we consider our relationship with our employees to be good.

 

We encourage and support the growth and development of our employees and, wherever possible, seek to fill positions by promotion and transfer from within the organization. Continual learning and career development is advanced through ongoing performance and development conversations with employees, internally developed training programs and customized corporate training engagements.

 

The safety, health and wellness of our employees is a top priority.  All employees are asked not to come to work when they experience signs or symptoms of a possible communicable illness, including COVID-19. On an ongoing basis, we further promote the health and wellness of our employees by strongly encouraging work-life balance and keeping increases in the employee portion of health care premiums as small as possible and sponsoring various wellness programs.

 

Employee retention helps us operate efficiently and achieve one of our business objectives, which is building financial partnerships. We believe our commitment to living out our core values, actively prioritizing concern for our employees’ well-being, supporting our employees’ career goals, offering competitive wages and providing valuable fringe benefits aids in retention of our top-performing employees. In addition, nearly all of our employees are stockholders of the Company through participation in our current 401(k) plan and a former employee stock ownership plan, which aligns employee and stockholder interests by providing stock ownership on a tax-deferred basis at no investment cost to our employees.  

 

Market Area

 

As of December 31, 2023, we operated 53 branch locations in Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina, and Tennessee through our sole operating segment, Community Banking.  Economic indicators in our market areas show relatively stable employment and business conditions. We serve a diverse base of individuals and businesses across a variety of industries such as education; government and health services; retail trade; construction; manufacturing; tourism; coal mining and gas extraction; and transportation.

 

Competition

 

The financial services industry is highly competitive and constantly evolving. We encounter strong competition in attracting and retaining deposit, loan, and other financial relationships in our market areas. We compete with other commercial banks, thrifts, savings and loan associations, credit unions, consumer finance companies, mortgage banking firms, commercial finance and leasing companies, securities firms, brokerage firms, and insurance companies. We have positioned ourselves as a regional community bank that provides an alternative to larger banks, which often place less emphasis on personal relationships, and smaller community banks, which lack the capital and resources to efficiently serve customer needs. Factors that influence our ability to remain competitive include the ability to develop, maintain, and build long-term customer relationships; the quality, variety, and pricing of products and services; the convenience of banking locations and office hours; technological developments; and industry and general economic conditions. We seek to mitigate competitive pressures with our relationship style of banking, competitive pricing, and cost efficiencies.

 

 

Supervision and Regulation

 

Overview

 

We are subject to extensive examination, supervision, and regulation under applicable federal and state laws by various regulatory agencies. These regulations are intended to protect consumers, depositors, borrowers, deposit insurance funds, and the stability of the financial system and are not for the protection of stockholders or creditors.

 

Applicable laws and regulations restrict our permissible activities and investments and impose conditions and requirements on the products and services we offer and the manner in which they are offered and sold. They also restrict our ability to repurchase stock or pay dividends, or to receive dividends from our banking subsidiary, and impose capital adequacy requirements on the Company and the Bank. The consequences of noncompliance with these laws and regulations can include substantial monetary and nonmonetary sanctions.

 

The following discussion summarizes significant laws and regulations applicable to the Company and the Bank. These summaries are not intended to be complete and are qualified in their entirety by reference to the applicable statute or regulation. Changes in laws and regulations may have a material effect on our business, financial condition, or results of operations.

 

First Community Bankshares, Inc.

 

The Company is a bank holding company registered under the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended, (“BHC Act”) and a financial holding company under the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act of 1999 (“GLB Act”). The Company elected financial holding company status in December 2006. The Company and its subsidiaries are subject to supervision, regulation, and examination by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (“Federal Reserve”). The BHC Act generally provides for umbrella regulation of financial holding companies, such as the Company, by the Federal Reserve, as well as functional regulation of financial holding company subsidiaries by applicable regulatory agencies. The Federal Reserve is granted the authority, in certain circumstances, to require reports of, examine, and adopt rules applicable to any bank holding company subsidiary.

 

The Company is also subject to the disclosure and regulatory requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, (“Exchange Act”), as administered by the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). The Company’s common stock is listed on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the trading symbol FCBC and is subject to NASDAQ’s rules for listed companies.

 

First Community Bank

 

The Bank is a Virginia chartered bank and a member of the Federal Reserve subject to supervision, regulation, and examination by the Virginia Bureau of Financial Institutions and the Federal Reserve Board. The Bank is a member of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”), and its deposits are insured by the FDIC to the extent provided by law. The regulations of these agencies govern most aspects of the Bank’s business, including requirements concerning the allowance for loan losses, lending and mortgage operations, interest rates received on loans and paid on deposits, the payment of dividends, loans to affiliates, mergers and acquisitions, capital, and the establishment of branches. Various consumer and compliance laws and regulations also affect the Bank’s operations.

 

As a member bank, the Bank is required to hold stock in the Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond ("FRB") in an amount equal to 6% of its capital stock and surplus (half paid to acquire the stock with the remainder held as a cash reserve). Member banks do not have any control over the Federal Reserve as a result of owning the stock and the stock cannot be sold or traded.

 

Permitted Activities under the BHC Act

 

The BHC Act limits the activities of bank holding companies, such as the Company, to the business of banking, managing or controlling banks and other activities the Federal Reserve determines to be closely related to banking. A bank holding company that elects treatment as a financial holding company under the GLB Act, such as the Company, may engage in a broader range of activities that are financial in nature or complementary to a financial activity and do not pose a substantial risk to the safety and soundness of depository institutions or the financial system. These activities include securities underwriting, dealing, and market making; sponsoring mutual funds and investment companies; insurance underwriting and agency; merchant banking activities; and other activities that the Federal Reserve determines to be closely related to banking.

 

In order to maintain financial holding company status, the Company and the Bank must be well-capitalized and well-managed under applicable Federal Reserve regulations and have received at least a satisfactory rating under the Community Reinvestment Act (“CRA”). See “Prompt Corrective Action” and “Community Reinvestment Act” below. If we fail to meet these requirements, the Federal Reserve may impose corrective capital and managerial requirements and place limitations or conditions on our ability to conduct activities permissible for financial holding companies. If the deficiencies persist, the Federal Reserve may require the Company to divest the Bank or divest investments in companies engaged in activities permissible only for financial holding companies.

 

 

In July 2019, the federal bank regulators adopted final rules (the “Capital Simplification Rules”) that, among other things, eliminated the standalone prior approval requirement in the Basel III Capital Rules for any repurchase of common stock. The Company is required to give the Federal Reserve prior notice of any redemption or repurchase of its own equity securities, subject to certain exemptions, if the consideration to be paid, together with the consideration paid for any repurchases or redemptions in the preceding 12 months, is equal to 10% or more of the Company’s consolidated net worth. The Federal Reserve may oppose the transaction if it believes that the transaction would constitute an unsafe or unsound practice or would violate any law or regulation. Any redemption or repurchase of preferred stock or subordinated debt remains subject to the prior approval of the Federal Reserve Board.

 

The Inflation Reduction Act of 2022 (the “IRA”) imposed a new 1% excise tax on the fair market value of stock repurchased after December 31, 2022, by publicly traded U.S. corporations. With certain exceptions, the value of stock repurchased is determined net of stock issued in the year, including shares issued pursuant to compensatory arrangements.

 

The BHC Act requires that bank holding companies obtain the Federal Reserve’s approval before acquiring direct or indirect ownership or control of more than 5% of the voting shares or all, or substantially all, of the assets of a bank. The regulatory authorities are required to consider the financial and managerial resources and future prospects of the bank holding company and the target bank, the convenience and needs of the communities to be served, and various competitive factors when approving acquisitions. The BHC Act also prohibits a bank holding company from acquiring direct or indirect control of more than 5% of the outstanding voting stock of any company engaged in a non-banking business unless the Federal Reserve determines it to be closely related to banking.

 

Capital Requirements

 

We are subject to various regulatory capital requirements administered by the Federal Reserve (the "Basel III Capital Rules").

 

Since fully phased in on January 1, 2019, Basel III Capital Rules require the Company and the Bank to maintain the following:

 

 

A minimum ratio of Common Equity Tier 1 ("CET1") to risk-weighted assets of at least 4.50%, plus a 2.50% "capital conservation buffer" that is composed entirely of CET1 capital (resulting in a minimum ratio of CET1 to risk-weighted assets of 7.00%); 

 

A minimum ratio of Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets of at least 6.00%, plus the capital conservation buffer (resulting in a minimum Tier 1 capital ratio of 8.50%);

  A minimum ratio of total capital (Tier 1 capital plus Tier 2 capital) to risk-weighted assets of at least 8.00%, plus the capital conservation buffer (resulting in a minimum total capital ratio of 10.50%); and
 

A minimum leverage ratio of 4.00%, calculated as the ratio of Tier 1 capital to average consolidated assets as reported on consolidated financial statements (known as the "leverage ratio").

 

Banking institutions that fail to meet the effective minimum ratios once the capital conservation buffer is taken into account, as detailed above, will be subject to constraints on capital distributions, including dividends and share repurchases, and certain discretionary executive compensation. The severity of the constraints depends on the amount of the shortfall and the institution’s “eligible retained income” (that is, the greater of (i) net income for the preceding four quarters, net of distributions and associated tax effects not reflected in net income and (ii) average net income over the preceding four quarters).

 

Basel III Capital Rules and the Capital Simplification Rules provide for a number of deductions from and adjustments to CET1. These include, for example, the requirement that certain deferred tax assets and significant investments in non-consolidated financial entities be deducted from CET1 to the extent that any one such category exceeds 25% of CET1. 

 

 

 

Basel III Capital Rules prescribe a standardized approach for risk weightings that expand the risk-weighting categories from the four Basel I categories (0%, 20%, 50% and 100%) to a larger and more risk-sensitive number of categories, depending on the nature of the assets, generally ranging from 0% for U.S. government and agency securities, to 600% for certain equity exposures, and resulting in higher risk weights for a variety of asset categories. In November 2019, the federal banking agencies adopted a rule revising the scope of commercial real estate mortgages subject to a 150% risk weight.

 

Management believes that the Company and the Bank's current capital levels exceed the required capital amounts to the considered well-capitalized and also meet the fully phased-in minimum capital requirements, including the related capital conservation buffers, as required by the Basel III Capital Rules as of December 31, 2023. For additional information, see Note 20, "Regulatory Requirements and Restrictions," to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8 of this report.

 

Prompt Corrective Action

 

The federal banking regulators are required to take prompt corrective action with respect to capital-deficient institutions. Agency regulations define, for each capital category, the levels at which institutions are well-capitalized, adequately capitalized, undercapitalized, significantly undercapitalized, or critically undercapitalized. An institution may be downgraded to, or deemed to be in, a capital category that is lower than indicated by its capital ratios if the appropriate federal regulators determine that it is engaging in an unsafe or unsound practice or is in an unsafe or unsound condition. A bank’s capital category is determined solely for applying prompt corrective action regulations, and the capital category may not constitute an accurate representation of the bank’s financial condition or prospects for other purposes.

 

The Bank was classified as well-capitalized under prompt corrective action regulations as of December 31, 2023. In order to be considered a well-capitalized institution under Basel III Capital Rules, an organization must not be subject to any written agreement, order, capital directive, or prompt corrective action directive and must maintain the following minimum capital ratios:

 

 

6.5% CET1 to risk-weighted assets

 

8.0% Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets

 

10.0% Total capital to risk-weighted assets

 

5.0% Tier 1 leverage ratio

 

Undercapitalized institutions are required to submit a capital restoration plan to federal banking regulators. Under the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, as amended (“FDIA”), in order for the capital restoration plan to be accepted by the appropriate federal banking agency, a bank holding company must provide appropriate assurances of performance and guarantee that its subsidiary bank will comply with its capital restoration plan, subject to certain limitations. Agency regulations contain broad restrictions on certain activities of undercapitalized institutions, including asset growth, acquisitions, establishing branches, and engaging in new lines of business. With certain exceptions, a depository institution is prohibited from making capital distributions, including dividends, and is prohibited from paying management fees to its parent holding company if the institution would be undercapitalized after such distribution or payment.

 

A significantly undercapitalized institution is subject to various requirements and restrictions, including orders to sell sufficient voting stock to become adequately capitalized, requirements to reduce total assets, and ending deposits from correspondent banks. The FDIC has limited discretion in dealing with a critically undercapitalized institution and is generally required to appoint a receiver or conservator.

 

 

Safety and Soundness Standards

 

Guidelines adopted by federal bank regulatory agencies establish general standards relating to internal controls and information systems, internal audit systems, loan documentation, credit underwriting, interest rate exposure, asset growth, and compensation. In general, the guidelines require, among other things, appropriate systems and practices to identify and manage risks and exposures. If an institution fails to meet safety and soundness standards, the regulatory agencies may require the institution to submit a written compliance plan describing the steps they would take to correct the situation and the time that such steps would be taken. If an institution fails to submit or implement an acceptable compliance plan, after being notified, the agency must issue an order directing action to correct the deficiency and may issue an order directing other actions, such as those applicable to undercapitalized institutions under the prompt corrective action provisions of the FDIA. An institution may be subject to judicial proceedings and civil money penalties if it fails to follow such an order.

 

Payment of Dividends

 

The Company is a legal entity that is separate and distinct from its subsidiaries. The Company’s principal source of cash flow is derived from dividends paid by the Bank. There are various restrictions by regulatory agencies related to dividends paid by the Bank to the Company and dividends paid by the Company to its shareholders. The payment of dividends by the Company and the Bank may be limited by certain factors, such as requirements to maintain capital above regulatory guideline minimums.

 

Prior FRB approval is required for the Bank to declare or pay a dividend to the Company if the total of all dividends declared in any given year exceed the total of the Bank’s net profits for that year and its retained profits for the preceding two years, less any required transfers to surplus or to fund the retirement of preferred stock. Dividends paid by the Company to shareholders are subject to oversight by the Federal Reserve. Federal Reserve policy states that bank holding companies generally should pay dividends on common stock only from income available over the past year if prospective earnings retention is consistent with the organization’s expected future needs, asset quality, and financial condition.

 

Regulatory agencies have the authority to limit or prohibit the Company and the Bank from paying dividends if the payments are deemed to constitute an unsafe or unsound practice. The appropriate regulatory authorities have stated that paying dividends that deplete a bank’s capital base to an inadequate level would be an unsafe and unsound banking practice and that banking organizations should generally pay dividends only from current operating earnings. In addition, the Bank may not declare or pay a dividend if, after paying the dividend, the Bank would be classified as undercapitalized. In the current financial and economic environment, the Federal Reserve has discouraged payout ratios that are at maximum allowable levels, unless both asset quality and capital are very strong, and has noted that bank holding companies should carefully review their dividend policy. Bank holding companies should not maintain dividend levels that undermine their ability to be a source of strength to their banking subsidiaries.

 

Source of Strength

 

Federal Reserve policy and federal law require the Company to act as a source of financial and managerial strength to the Bank. Under this requirement, the Company is expected to commit resources to support the Bank even when it may not be in a financial position to provide such resources. Because the Company is a legal entity separate and distinct from its subsidiaries, any capital loans it makes to the Bank are subordinate in right of payment to depositors and to certain other indebtedness of the Bank. In the event of the Company’s bankruptcy, any commitment by the Company to a federal bank regulatory agency to maintain the capital of the Bank will be assumed by the bankruptcy trustee and entitled to priority of payment.

 

Transactions with Affiliates

 

The Federal Reserve Act (“FRA”) and Federal Reserve Regulation W place restrictions on “covered transactions” between the Bank and its affiliates, including the Company. The term “covered transactions” includes making loans, purchasing assets, issuing guarantees, and other similar transactions. The Dodd-Frank Act expanded the definition of “covered transactions” to include derivative activities, repurchase agreements, and securities lending or borrowing activities. These restrictions limit the amount of transactions with affiliates, require certain levels of collateral for loans to affiliates, and require that all transactions with affiliates be on terms that are consistent with safe and sound banking practices. In addition, these transactions must be on terms that are substantially the same, or at least as favorable to the Bank, as those prevailing at the time for similar transactions with non-affiliates.

 

The FRA and Federal Reserve Regulation O place restrictions on loans between the Company and the Bank and their directors, executive officers, principal shareholders, affiliates, and interests of those directors, executive officers, and principal shareholders. These restrictions limit the amount of loans to one borrower and require that loans are on terms that are substantially the same as, and follow underwriting procedures that are not less stringent than, those prevailing at the time for similar loans with non-insiders. In addition, the aggregate limit of loans to all insiders, as a group, cannot exceed the Bank’s total unimpaired capital and surplus.

 

 

Deposit Insurance and Assessments

 

Substantially all of the Bank’s deposits are insured up to applicable limits by the Deposit Insurance Fund (“DIF”) of the FDIC and are subject to quarterly deposit insurance assessments to maintain the DIF. Deposit insurance premiums are assessed using a risk-based system that places FDIC-insured institutions into one of four risk categories based on capital, supervisory ratings and other factors. The assessment rate determined by considering such information is then applied to the institution's average assets minus average tangible equity to determine the institution's insurance premium. The FDIC may change assessment rates or revise its risk-based assessment system if deemed necessary to maintain an adequate reserve ratio for the DIF. The Dodd-Frank Act required that the minimum reserve ratio for the DIF increase from 1.15% to 1.35% by September 30, 2020. Under the FDIA, the FDIC may terminate deposit insurance if it determines that the institution has engaged in unsafe and unsound practices, is in an unsafe or unsound condition to continue operations, or has violated any applicable law, regulation, rule, order, or condition imposed by the FDIC.  In October 2022, the FDIC adopted a final rule to increase the initial base deposit insurance assessment rate schedules uniformly by 2 basis points beginning with the first quarterly assessment period of 2023. The increased assessment is expected to improve the likelihood that the DIF reserve ratio would reach the statutory minimum of 1.35% by the statutory deadline prescribed under the FDIC's amended restoration plan.

 

The Volcker Rule

 

A provision in the Dodd-Frank Act, known as the Volker Rule, amended the BHC Act to prohibit depository institutions and their affiliates from engaging in proprietary trading and from investing in, sponsoring, or having certain relationships with hedge funds or private equity funds. The Volcker Rule, which became effective in July 2015 and the implementing regulations of which were amended in 2019 and were subject to further amendment in 2020, does not significantly impact the operations of the Company and its subsidiaries, as we do not have any engagement in the businesses prohibited by the Volcker Rule.

 

Community Reinvestment Act

 

The CRA of 1977, as amended, requires depository institutions to help meet the credit needs of their market areas, including low-and moderate-income individuals and communities, consistent with safe and sound banking practices. Federal banking regulators periodically examine depository institutions and assign ratings based on CRA compliance. A rating of less than satisfactory may restrict certain operating activities, delay or deny certain transactions, or result in an institution losing its financial holding company status. The Bank received a rating of satisfactory in its most recent CRA examination.

 

On October 24, 2023, the FDIC, the Federal Reserve, and the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency ("OCC") issued a final rule to strengthen and modernize the CRA regulations.  The final rule is intended, among other things, to adapt to changes in the banking industry, including the expanded role of mobile and online banking, and to tailor performance standards to account for differences in bank size and business models. The final rule introduces new tests under which the performance of banks with over $2 billion in assets will be assessed. The new rule also includes data collection and reporting requirements, some of which are applicable only to banks with over $10 billion in assets. The applicability date for the majority of the provisions in the CRA regulations is January 1, 2026, and additional requirements will be applicable on January 1, 2027.  An institution’s failure to comply with the provisions of the CRA could, at a minimum, result in regulatory restrictions on its activities. We received a “Satisfactory” CRA rating in our most recently completed federal examination.

 

 Incentive Compensation

 

Federal regulatory agencies have issued comprehensive guidance intended to ensure that the incentive compensation policies of banking organizations do not undermine the safety and soundness of such organizations by encouraging excessive risk-taking. The guidance is based on the key principles that a banking organization’s incentive compensation arrangements should (1) provide incentives that do not encourage risk taking beyond the organization’s ability to effectively identify and manage risks, (2) be compatible with effective internal controls and risk management, and (3) be supported by strong corporate governance, including active and effective oversight by the organization’s board of directors.

 

Federal banking regulators periodically examine the incentive compensation arrangements of banking organizations and incorporate any deficiencies in the organization’s supervisory ratings, which can affect certain operating activities. The FRB may initiate enforcement actions if the organization’s incentive compensation arrangements or related risk management, control, or governance processes pose a risk to the organization’s safety and soundness and the organization is not taking prompt and effective measures to correct the deficiencies. The scope and content of the U.S. banking regulators’ policies on incentive compensation are continuing to develop. It cannot be determined at this time if or when a final rule will be adopted or if compliance with such a final rule will adversely affect the ability of the Company and its subsidiaries to hire, retain and motivate their key employees.

 

In October 2022, the SEC adopted a final rule directing national securities exchanges and associations, including NASDAQ, to implement listing standards that require listed companies to adopt policies mandating the recovery or “clawback” of excess incentive-based compensation earned by a current or former executive officer during the three fiscal years preceding the date the listed company is required to prepare an accounting restatement, including to correct an error that would result in a material misstatement if the error were corrected in the current period or left uncorrected in the current period.  The NASDAQ's listing standards pursuant to the SEC's rule became effective on October 2, 2023. The Company adopted a compensation recovery policy pursuant to the NASDAQ listing standards on October 24, 2023. The policy is included as Exhibit 97.1 to this Form 10-K.

 

Anti-Tying Restrictions

 

The Bank and its affiliates are prohibited from tying the provision of certain services, such as extensions of credit, to other services offered by the Company.

 

 

Consumer Protection and Privacy

 

We are subject to certain consumer laws and regulations that are designed to protect consumers in transactions with banks. These laws and regulations include the Mortgage Reform and Anti-Predatory Lending Act, the Truth in Lending Act, the Truth in Savings Act, the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, the Electronic Funds Transfer Act, the Expedited Funds Availability Act, the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, the Fair Credit Reporting Act, the Fair Debt Collections Practices Act, the Right to Financial Privacy Act, the Fair Housing Act, and various state law counterparts. These laws and regulations contain extensive customer privacy protection provisions that limit the ability of financial institutions to disclose non-public information about consumers to non-affiliated third parties and require financial institutions to disclose certain policies to consumers.

 

The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (“CFPB”) is a federal agency with broad authority to implement, examine, and enforce compliance with federal consumer protection laws that relate to credit card, deposit, mortgage, and other consumer financial products and services. The CFPB may enforce actions to prevent and remedy unfair, deceptive, or abusive acts and practices related to consumer financial products and services. The agency has authority to impose new disclosure requirements for any consumer financial product or service. The CFPB may impose a civil penalty or injunction against an entity in violation of federal consumer financial laws. The CFPB has examination and enforcement authority over all banks with more than $10 billion in assets, as well as their affiliates.   As a bank with less than $10 billion in assets, the Bank is subject to these federal consumer financial laws, but continues to be examined for compliance by the Federal Reserve, its primary federal banking regulator, not the CFPB.

 

Cybersecurity

 

Various federal and state laws and regulations contain extensive data privacy and cybersecurity provisions, and the regulatory framework for data privacy and cybersecurity is rapidly evolving. The FRB, FDIC, and other bank regulatory agencies have adopted guidelines for safeguarding confidential, personal customer information. These guidelines require each financial institution, under the supervision and ongoing oversight of its board of directors or an appropriate committee thereof, to create, implement, and maintain a comprehensive written information security program designed to ensure the security and confidentiality of customer information, protect against any anticipated threats or hazards to the security or integrity of such information and protect against unauthorized access to or use of such information that could result in substantial harm or inconvenience to any customer. In addition, various U.S. regulators, including the FRB and the SEC, have increased their focus on cyber security through guidance, examinations, and regulations.

 

At the federal level, the GLB Act requires financial institutions to implement policies and procedures regarding the disclosure of nonpublic personal information about consumers to non-affiliated third parties. In general, the statute requires explanations to consumers on policies and procedures regarding the disclosure of such nonpublic personal information and, except as otherwise required by law, prohibits disclosing such personal information except as provided in the financial institution’s policies and procedures.

 

In addition, in November 2021, the FRB, OCC, and FDIC adopted a new regulation that, among other things, requires a banking organization to notify its primary federal regulators within 36 hours after identifying a “computer-security incident” that the banking organization believes in good faith could materially disrupt or degrade its business or operations in a manner that would, among other things, jeopardize the viability of its operations, result in customers being unable to access their deposit and other accounts, result in a material loss of revenue, profit or franchise value, or pose a threat to the financial stability of the U.S.

 

In 2023, the SEC issued a final rule that requires disclosure of material cybersecurity incidents, as well as cybersecurity risk management, strategy and governance. Under this rule, banking organizations that are SEC registrants must generally disclose information about a material cybersecurity incident within four business days of determining it is material with periodic updates as to the status of the incident in subsequent filings as necessary.

 

See Item 1A. Risk Factors for a further discussion of risks related to cybersecurity and Item 1C. Cybersecurity for a further discussion of risk management strategies and governance processes related to cybersecurity.

 

Bank Secrecy Act and Anti-Money Laundering

 

The Bank is subject to the requirements of the Bank Secrecy Act and the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act (“USA PATRIOT Act”) of 2001. The USA PATRIOT Act broadened existing anti-money laundering legislation by imposing new compliance and due diligence obligations focused on detecting and reporting money laundering transactions. These laws and regulations require the Bank to implement policies, procedures, and controls to detect, prevent, and report money laundering and terrorist financing and to verify the identity of our customers. Violations can result in substantial civil and criminal sanctions. In addition, provisions of the USA PATRIOT Act require the federal financial regulatory agencies to consider the effectiveness of a financial institution's anti-money laundering activities when reviewing mergers and acquisitions.

 

The Anti-Money Laundering Act of 2020 (“AMLA”), which amends the Bank Secrecy Act of 1970 (“BSA”), was enacted in January 2021. The AMLA is intended to be a comprehensive reform and modernization to U.S. bank secrecy and anti-money laundering laws. Among other things, it codifies a risk-based approach to anti-money laundering compliance for financial institutions; requires the development of standards for evaluating technology and internal processes for BSA compliance; expands enforcement- and investigation-related authority, including increasing available sanctions for certain BSA violations and instituting BSA whistleblower incentives and protections.

 

Office of Foreign Assets Control Regulation

 

The U.S. Department of the Treasury’s (“Treasury”) Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”) administers and enforces economic and trade sanctions against targeted foreign countries and regimes, under authority of various laws, including designated foreign countries, nationals, and others. OFAC publishes lists of specially designated targets and countries. We are responsible for, among other things, blocking accounts of, and transactions with, such targets and countries, prohibiting unlicensed trade and financial transactions with them, and reporting blocked transactions after their occurrence. Failure to comply with these sanctions could have serious legal, financial, and reputational consequences, including causing applicable bank regulatory authorities to not approve merger or acquisition transactions when regulatory approval is required or to prohibit such transactions even if approval is not required.

 

Sarbanes-Oxley Act

 

The Sarbanes-Oxley Act (“SOX Act”) of 2002 addresses a broad range of corporate governance, auditing and accounting, executive compensation, and disclosure requirements for public companies and their directors and officers. The SOX Act requires our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer to certify the accuracy of certain information included in our quarterly and annual reports. The rules require these officers to certify that they are responsible for establishing, maintaining, and regularly evaluating the effectiveness of our financial reporting and disclosure controls and procedures; that they have made certain disclosures to the auditors and to the Audit Committee of the Board of Directors about our controls and procedures; and that they have included information in their quarterly and annual filings about their evaluation and whether there have been significant changes to the controls and procedures or other factors which would significantly impact these controls subsequent to their evaluation. Section 404 of the SOX Act requires management to undertake an assessment of the adequacy and effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting and requires our auditors to attest to and report on the effectiveness of these controls.

 

 

 

Climate-Related and Other ESG Developments

 

In recent years, federal, state and international lawmakers and regulators have increased their focus on financial institutions' and other companies' risk oversight, disclosures and practices in connection with climate change and other environmental, social and governance (“ESG”) matters. For example, in March 2022, the SEC issued a proposed rule on the enhancement and standardization of climate-related disclosures for investors. The proposed rule would require public issuers, including us, to significantly expand the scope of climate-related disclosures in their SEC filings. The SEC has also announced plans to propose rules to require enhanced disclosure regarding human capital management and board diversity for public issuers.

 

Available Information

 

We file annual, quarterly, and current reports; proxy statements; and other information with the SEC. You may read and copy any document we file with the SEC at the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information that issuers file electronically with the SEC. We maintain a website at www.firstcommunitybank.com that makes available, free of charge, our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and other information, including any amendments to those reports as soon as reasonably practicable after such reports are filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. You are encouraged to access these reports and other information about our business from the Investor Relations section of our website. The Investor Relations section contains information about our Board of Directors, executive officers, and corporate governance policies and principles, which include the charters of the standing committees of the Board of Directors, the Insider Trading Policy, and the Standards of Conduct governing our directors, officers, and employees. Information on our website is not incorporated by reference in this report.

 

Item 1A.

Risk Factors.

 

The risk factors described below discuss potential events, trends, or other circumstances that could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, liquidity, access to capital resources, and, consequently, cause the market value of our common stock to decline. These risks could cause our future results to differ materially from historical results and expectations of future financial performance. If any of the risks occur and the market price of our common stock declines significantly, individuals may lose all, or part, of their investment in our Company. Individuals should carefully consider our risk factors and information included, or incorporated by reference, in this report before making an investment decision. There may be risks and uncertainties that we have not identified or that we have deemed immaterial that could adversely affect our business; therefore, the following risk factors are not intended to be an exhaustive list of all risks we face.

 

Risks Related to the Economic Environment

 

The current economic environment poses significant challenges.

 

Our financial performance is generally highly dependent on the business environment in the markets in which we operate in and of the U.S. as a whole, which includes the ability of borrowers to pay interest, repay principal on outstanding loans, the value of collateral securing those loans, and demand for loans and other products and services we offer. A favorable business environment is generally characterized by, among other factors, economic growth, efficient capital markets, low inflation, low unemployment, high business and investor confidence, and strong business earnings. Unfavorable or uncertain economic and market conditions can be caused by declines in economic growth, business activity, and investor or business confidence; limitations on the availability, or increases, in the cost of credit and capital; increases in inflation, interest rates, or employee costs; high unemployment; natural disasters; or a combination of these or other factors.

 

In recent years, economic growth and business activity across a wide range of industries has been slow and uneven. There are continuing concerns related to the level of U.S. government debt, fiscal actions that may be taken to address that debt, energy price volatility, global economic conditions, and significant uncertainty with respect to domestic and international fiscal and monetary policy. Economic and inflationary pressure on consumers and uncertainty about continuing economic improvement may result in changes in consumer and business spending, borrowing, and savings habits. There can be no assurance that these conditions will improve or that these conditions will not worsen. Such conditions could adversely affect the credit quality of the Bank’s loans and the Company’s business, financial condition, and results of operations.

 

Regulatory Risks

 

We operate in a highly regulated industry subject to examination, supervision, enforcement, and other legal actions by various federal and state governmental authorities, laws, and judicial and administrative decisions.

 

Congress and federal regulatory agencies continually review banking laws, regulations, and policies. Changes to these statutes, regulations, and regulatory policies, including changes in the interpretation or implementation, may cause substantial and unpredictable effects, require additional costs, limit the types of financial services and products offered, or allow non-banks to offer competing financial services and products. Failure to follow laws, regulations, and policies may result in sanctions by regulatory agencies and civil money penalties, which could have material adverse effects on our reputation, business, financial condition, and results of operations. We have policies and procedures designed to prevent violations; however, there is no assurance that violations will not occur. Existing and future laws, regulations, and policies yet to be adopted may make compliance more difficult or expensive; restrict our ability to originate, broker, or sell loans; further limit or restrict commissions, interest, and other charges earned on loans we originate or sell; and adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

 

The Bank’s ability to pay dividends is subject to regulatory limitations that may affect the Company’s ability to pay expenses and dividends to shareholders.

 

The Company is a legal entity that is separate and distinct from its subsidiaries. The Company depends on the Bank and its other subsidiaries for cash, liquidity, and the payment of dividends to the Company to pay operating expenses and dividends to stockholders. There is no assurance that the Bank will have the capacity to pay dividends to the Company in the future or that the Company will not require dividends from the Bank to satisfy obligations. The Bank’s dividend payment is governed by various statutes and regulations. For additional information, see “Payment of Dividends” in Item 1 of this report. The Company may not be able to service obligations as they become due if the Bank is unable to pay dividends sufficient to satisfy the Company’s obligations, including our common stock. Consequently, the inability to receive dividends from the Bank could adversely affect the Company’s financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, and prospects.

 

 

Market and Interest Rate Risk

 

We are subject to interest rate risk.

 

Interest rate risk results principally when interest-earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities reprice at differing times, when underlying rates change at different levels or in varying degrees, when there is an unequal change in the spread between two or more rates for different maturities, and when embedded options, if any, are exercised. Our earnings and cash flows are largely dependent upon net interest income. Interest rates are highly sensitive to many factors that are beyond our control, including general economic conditions and policies of various governmental and regulatory agencies, particularly, the Federal Reserve. Changes in monetary policy and interest rates could influence the interest we receive on loans and securities and the amount of interest we pay on deposits and borrowings. Further, such changes could also affect our ability to originate loans and obtain deposits and the fair value of our financial assets and liabilities. If the interest rates paid on deposits and other borrowings increase at a faster rate than the interest rates received on loans and other investments, our net interest income and earnings could be adversely affected. Conversely, if interest rates received on loans and other investments fall more quickly than interest rates paid on deposits and other borrowings, our net interest income and earnings could also be adversely affected.

 

Changes in the fair value of our investment securities may reduce stockholders’ equity and net income.

 

A decline in the estimated fair value of the Company's investment portfolio may result in a decline in stockholders’ equity, book value per common share, and tangible book value per common share. Unrealized losses are recorded even though the securities are not sold or held for sale. If a debt security is never sold and no credit impairment exists, the decrease is recovered at the security’s maturity. Equity securities have no stated maturity; therefore, declines in fair value may or may not be recovered over time. We conduct quarterly reviews of our securities portfolio to determine if unrealized losses are temporary or other than temporary. No assurance can be given that we will not need to recognize a credit loss for the decline in fair value in the future. Additional credit loss provision may materially affect our financial condition and earnings. For additional information, see Note 1, “Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies,” and Note 3, “Debt Securities,” to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8 of this report.

 

The repeal of the federal prohibitions on payment of interest on demand deposits could increase our interest expense.

 

All federal prohibitions on the ability of financial institutions to pay interest on demand deposit accounts were repealed as part of the Dodd-Frank Act. We do not know what interest rates other institutions may offer as market interest rates begin to increase. Our interest expense will increase and net interest margin will decrease if we offer interest on demand deposits to attract additional customers or maintain current customers, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

 

Credit Risk

 

Our accounting estimates and risk management processes rely on analytical and forecasting models.

 

The processes we use to estimate probable loan losses and to measure the fair value of financial instruments, as well as the processes used to estimate the effects of changing interest rates and other market measures on our financial condition and results of operations, depend upon analytical and forecasting models. These models reflect assumptions that may not be accurate, particularly in times of market stress or other unforeseen circumstances. Even if these assumptions are adequate, the models may prove to be inadequate or inaccurate because of other flaws in their design or their implementation. If the models we use for interest rate risk and asset/liability management are inadequate, we may incur increased or unexpected losses upon changes in market interest rates or other market measures. If the models used for determining probable loan losses are inadequate, the allowance for credit losses may not be sufficient to cover actual loan losses and an increase in the loan loss provision could materially and adversely affect our operating results. Federal regulatory agencies regularly review our loans and allowance for credit losses as an integral part of the examination process. There is no assurance that we will not, or that regulators will not require us to, increase our allowance in future periods, which could materially and adversely affect our earnings and profitability. If the models we use to measure the fair value of financial instruments are inadequate, the fair value of such financial instruments may fluctuate unexpectedly or may not accurately reflect what we could realize upon the sale or settlement of such financial instruments. Any such failure in our analytical or forecasting models could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. For additional information, see "Fair Value Measurements" and "Allowance for Credit Losses" in the "Critical Accounting Policies" section in Part II, Item 7 and Note 1, "Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies," to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8 of this report.

 

 

We are subject to credit risk associated with the financial condition of other financial institutions

 

Credit risk is the risk of not collecting payments pursuant to the contractual terms of loans, leases and investment securities. Financial institutions are interrelated as a result of trading, clearing, counterparty, and other relationships. We have exposure to different industries and counterparties, and we routinely execute transactions with counterparties in the financial services industry, including brokers and dealers, commercial banks, investment banks, investment companies, and other institutional clients. Our ability to engage in routine funding transactions could be adversely affected by the failure, actions, and commercial soundness of other financial institutions. These transactions may expose us to credit risk if our counterparty or client defaults on their contractual obligation. Our credit risk may increase if the collateral we hold cannot be realized or liquidated at prices sufficient to recover the full amount of the loan or derivative exposure due to us. In the event of default, we may be required to provide collateral to secure the obligation to the counterparties. In the event of a bankruptcy or insolvency proceeding involving one of such counterparties, we may experience delays in recovering the assets posted as collateral or may incur a loss to the extent that the counterparty was holding collateral in excess of the obligation to such counterparty. Losses from routine funding transactions could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

 

 Our commercial loan portfolio may expose us to increased credit risk.

 

Commercial business and real estate loans generally have a higher risk of loss because loan balances are typically larger than residential real estate and consumer loans and repayment is usually dependent on cash flows from the borrower’s business or the property securing the loan. Our commercial business loans are primarily made to small business and middle market customers. As of December 31, 2023, commercial business and real estate loans totaled $1.66 billion, or 64.59%, of our total loan portfolio. As of the same date, our largest outstanding commercial business loan was $15.74 million and largest outstanding commercial real estate loan was $14.71 million. Commercial construction loans generally have a higher risk of loss due to the assumptions used to estimate the value of property at completion and the cost of the project, including interest. If the assumptions and estimates are inaccurate, the value of completed property may fall below the related loan amount. As of December 31, 2023, commercial construction loans totaled $105.95 million, or 4.12% our total loan portfolio. As of the same date, our largest outstanding commercial construction loan was $20.59 million. Losses from our commercial loan portfolio could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

 

Operational Risks

 

We face strong competition from other financial institutions, financial service companies, and organizations that offer services similar to our offerings.

 

Our larger competitors may have substantially greater resources and lending limits, name recognition, and market presence that allow them to offer products and services that we do not offer and to price loans and deposits more aggressively than we do. The expansion of non-bank competitors, which may have fewer regulatory constraints and lower cost structures, has intensified competitive pressures on core deposit generation and retention. For additional information, see "Competition" in Item 1 of this report. Our success depends, in part, on our ability to attract and retain customers by adapting our products and services to evolving customer needs and industry and economic conditions. Failure to perform in any of these areas could weaken our competitive position, reduce deposits and loan originations, and adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, and prospects.

 

Liquidity risk could impair our ability to fund operations.

 

Liquidity is essential to our business and the inability to raise funds through deposits, borrowings, equity and debt offerings, or other sources could have a materially adverse effect on our liquidity. Company specific factors such as a decline in our credit rating, an increase in the cost of capital from financial capital markets, a decrease in business activity due to adverse regulatory action or other company specific event, or a decrease in depositor or investor confidence may impair our access to funding with acceptable terms adequate to finance our activities. General factors related to the financial services industry such as a severe disruption in financial markets, a decrease in industry expectations, or a decrease in business activity due to political or environmental events may impair our access to liquidity.  Additionally, negative news about us or the banking industry in general could negatively impact market and/or customer perceptions of our company, which could lead to a loss of depositor confidence and an increase in deposit withdrawals, particularly among those with uninsured deposits. Furthermore, as we and other regional banking organizations experienced in 2023, the failure of other financial institutions may cause deposit outflows as customers spread deposits among several different banks so as to maximize their amount of FDIC insurance, move deposits to banks deemed "too big to fail" or remove deposits from the banking system entirely. As of December 31, 2023, approximately 18.37% of our deposits were uninsured and we rely on these deposits for liquidity. A failure to maintain adequate liquidity could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

We may require additional capital in the future that may not be available when needed.

 

We may need to raise additional capital to strengthen our capital position, increase our liquidity, satisfy obligations, or pursue growth objectives. Our ability to raise additional capital depends on current conditions in capital markets, which are outside our control, and our financial performance. Certain economic conditions and declining market confidence may increase our cost of funds and limit our access to customary sources of capital, such as borrowings with other financial institutions, repurchase agreements, and availability under the FRB’s Discount Window. Events that limit access to capital markets and the inability to obtain capital may have a materially adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and market value of common stock. We cannot provide any assurance that additional capital will be available, on acceptable terms or at all, in the future.

 

We may experience future goodwill impairment.
 

We test goodwill for impairment annually, or more frequently if events or circumstances indicate there may be impairment, using either a quantitative or qualitative assessment. If we determine that the carrying amount of a reporting unit is greater than its fair value, a goodwill impairment charge is recognized for the difference, but limited to the amount of goodwill allocated to that reporting unit. Unfavorable or uncertain economic and market conditions may trigger additional impairment charges that may cause an adverse effect on our earnings and financial position. For additional information, see “Goodwill” in the “Critical Accounting Policies” section in Part II, Item 7 and Note 1, “Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies,” and Note 8, “Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets,” to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8 of this report.

 

 

We may be required to pay higher FDIC insurance premiums or special assessments.

 

Our deposits are insured up to applicable limits by the DIF of the FDIC and we are subject to deposit insurance assessments to maintain the DIF. For additional information, see “Deposit Insurance and Assessments” in Item 1 of this report. We are unable to predict future insurance assessment rates; however, deterioration in our risk-based capital ratios or adjustments to base assessment rates may result in higher insurance premiums or special assessments. The deterioration of banking and economic conditions and financial institution failures deplete the FDIC’s DIF and reduce the ratio of reserves to insured deposits. If the DIF is unable to meet funding requirements, increases in deposit insurance premium rates or special assessments may be required. Future assessments, increases, or required prepayments related to FDIC insurance premiums may negatively affect our financial condition and results of operations.

 

Our operational capabilities depend on internal and third-party systems which could fail, be breached or otherwise be compromised.

 

We rely on electronic communications and information systems, including those provided by third-party service providers, to conduct our business operations. Risks associated with our reliance on internal and third-party technology include cybersecurity incidents, operational failures and service interruptions, misconduct by our employees or those of third parties, and reputational damages. First Community Bank cannot be certain that we will receive timely notification from our third parties of cyberattacks or other cybersecurity breaches affecting their systems. Like other financial institutions, First Community Bank experiences malicious cyber activity directed at our vendors and other service providers. There is no guarantee that the measures the Company takes will provide absolute security or recoverability given that the techniques used in cyberattacks are complex and frequently change and are difficult to anticipate. Our employees and third parties may expose the Company to risk as a result of human error, misconduct, malfeasance, or a failure or breach of systems and infrastructure. For example, the Company’s ability to conduct business may be adversely affected by any significant disruptions, including to third parties service providers. Our third-party service providers include large entities with significant market presence in their respective fields; therefore, their services could be difficult to replace quickly if there are operational failures or service interruptions.

 

We face cybersecurity risks which could result in the disclosure of confidential information, adversely affect the Company’s operations, cause reputational damage, and create significant legal and financial exposure.

 

First Community Bank and its customers, regulators, and other third parties, including other financial services institutions and companies engaged in data processing, have been subject to and are likely to continue to be the target of cyberattacks, such as denial of service attacks, hacking, malware or ransomware intrusion, data corruption attempts, terrorist activities, or identity theft. Cyberattacks may expose security vulnerabilities in the Company’s systems or the systems of third parties or other security measures that could result in the unauthorized gathering, monitoring, misuse, release, loss, or destruction of confidential, proprietary, or sensitive information. A cyberattack could also damage the Company’s systems by introducing material disruptions to the Company’s or the Company’s customers’ or other third parties’ network access or business operations. As cyber threats continue to evolve, the Company may be required to expend significant additional resources to continue to modify or enhance the Company’s protective measures or to investigate and remediate any information security vulnerabilities or incidents. Despite efforts to ensure the integrity of the Company’s systems and implement controls, processes, policies and other protective measures, the Company may not be able to anticipate all security breaches, nor may the Company be able to implement sufficient preventive measures against such security breaches, which may result in material losses or other adverse consequences.


Even the most advanced internal control environment may be vulnerable to compromise. Persistent attackers may succeed in penetrating defenses given enough resources, time, and motive. The techniques used by cyber criminals change frequently and may not be recognized until launched or well after a breach has occurred. In addition, the existence of cyberattacks or security breaches at third-party vendors with access to the Company’s data may not be disclosed to the Company in a timely manner.

 

A successful penetration or circumvention of system security could cause serious negative consequences, including loss of customers and business opportunities; costs associated with maintaining business relationships after an attack or breach; significant disruption to the Company’s operations and business; misappropriation, exposure or destruction of the Company’s confidential information, intellectual property, funds and those of the Company’s customers; damage to the Company’s or the Company’s customers’ or third parties’ computers or systems; or a violation of applicable privacy laws and other laws. This could result in litigation exposure, regulatory fines, penalties, loss of confidence in the Company’s security measures, reputational damage, reimbursement or other compensatory costs, and additional compliance costs, which could adversely impact the Company’s results of operations, liquidity, and financial condition. In addition, the Company may not have adequate insurance coverage to compensate for losses from a cybersecurity event.

 

We continue to encounter technological change and must effectively anticipate and implement new technology.

 

The financial services industry continues to experience rapid technological change with the introduction of new, and increasingly complex, technology-driven products and services. The effective use of technology increases operational efficiency that enables financial institutions to meet rapidly evolving customer demands. Our future success depends, in large part, on our ability to provide products and services that satisfactorily meet the financial needs of our customers, as well as to realize additional efficiencies in our operations. We may fail to use technology-driven products and services effectively to better serve our customers and increase operational efficiency or sufficiently invest in technology solutions and upgrades to ensure systems are operating properly. Further, many of our competitors have substantially greater resources to invest in technology, which may adversely affect our ability to compete.

 

We may be subject to claims and litigation pertaining to intellectual property.

 

Banking and other financial services companies, such as the Company, rely on technology companies to provide information technology products and services necessary to support the Company’s day-to-day operations. Technology companies often enter into litigation based on allegations of patent infringement or other violations of intellectual property rights. In addition, patent holding companies seek to monetize patents they have purchased or otherwise obtained. Competitors of the Company’s vendors, or other individuals or companies, have from time to time claimed to hold intellectual property sold to the Company by its vendors. Such claims may increase in the future as the financial services sector becomes more reliant on information technology vendors. The plaintiffs in these actions often seek injunctions and substantial damages.

 

 

Regardless of the scope or validity of such patents or other intellectual property rights, or the merits of any claims by potential or actual litigants, the Company may have to engage in protracted litigation. Such litigation is often expensive, time consuming, disruptive to the Company’s operations, and distracting to management. If the Company is found to have infringed on one or more patents or other intellectual property rights, it may be required to pay substantial damages or royalties to a third party. In certain cases, the Company may consider entering into licensing agreements for disputed intellectual property, although no assurance can be given that such licenses can be obtained on acceptable terms or that litigation will not occur. These licenses may also significantly increase the Company’s operating expenses. If legal matters related to intellectual property claims were resolved against the Company or settled, the Company could be required to make payments in amounts that could have a material adverse effect on its business, financial condition, and results of operations.

 

Risks Related to Our Common Stock

 

The market price of our common stock may be volatile.

 

Stock price volatility may make it more difficult for our stockholders to resell their common stock when desired. Our common stock price may fluctuate significantly due to a variety of factors that include the following:

 

 

actual or expected variations in quarterly results of operations;

 

recommendations by securities analysts;

 

operating and stock price performance of comparable companies, as deemed by investors;

 

news reports relating to trends, concerns, and other issues in the financial services industry;

 

perceptions in the marketplace about our Company or competitors;

 

new technology used, or services offered, by competitors;

 

significant acquisitions or business combinations, strategic partnerships, joint ventures, or capital commitments by, or involving, our Company or competitors;

 

failure to integrate acquisitions or realize expected benefits from acquisitions;

 

changes in government regulations; and

 

geopolitical conditions, such as acts or threats of terrorism or military action.

 

General market fluctuations; industry factors; political conditions; and general economic conditions and events, such as economic slowdowns, recessions, interest rate changes, or credit loss trends, could also cause our common stock price to decrease regardless of operating results.

 

The trading volume in our common stock is less than that of other larger financial services companies.

 

Although our common stock is listed for trading on the NASDAQ, the trading volume in our common stock is less than that of other, larger financial services companies. A public trading market having the desired characteristics of depth, liquidity, and orderliness depends on the presence in the marketplace of willing buyers and sellers of our common stock at any given time. This presence depends on the individual decisions of investors and general economic and market conditions over which we have no control. Given the lower trading volume of our common stock, significant sales of our common stock or the expectation of these sales could cause our stock price to fall.

 

We may not continue to pay dividends on our common stock in the future.

 

Our common stockholders are only entitled to receive dividends when declared by our Board of Directors from funds legally available for such payments. Although we have historically declared cash dividends on our common stock, we are not required to do so, and may reduce or eliminate our common stock dividend in the future. This could adversely affect the market price of our common stock. As a financial holding company, the Company’s ability to declare and pay dividends is dependent on certain federal regulatory considerations, including the guidelines of the Federal Reserve about capital adequacy and dividends. For additional information, see “Payment of Dividends” in Item 1 of this report.

 

General Risks

 

We are subject to environmental liability risk associated with lending activities.

 

A significant portion of our loan portfolio is secured by real property. In the ordinary course of business, we foreclose on and take title to properties that secure certain loans. Hazardous or toxic substances could be found on properties we own. If substances are present, we may be liable for remediation costs, personal injury claims, and property damage and our ability to use or sell the property would be limited. We have policies and procedures in place that require environmental reviews before initiating foreclosure actions on real property; however, these reviews may not detect all potential environmental hazards. Environmental laws that require us to incur substantial remediation costs, which could materially reduce the affected property’s value, and other liabilities associated with environmental hazards could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

 

 

Potential acquisitions may disrupt our business and dilute stockholder value.

 

We may seek merger or acquisition partners that are culturally similar, have experienced management, and possess either significant market presence or the potential for improved profitability through financial management, economies of scale, or expanded services. Risks inherent in acquiring other banks, businesses, and banking branches may include the following:

 

 

potential exposure to unknown or contingent liabilities of the target company;

 

exposure to potential asset quality issues of the target company;

 

difficulty, expense, and delays of integrating the operations and personnel of the target company;

 

potential disruption to our business;

 

potential diversion of management’s time and attention;

 

loss of key employees and customers of the target company;

 

difficulty in estimating the value of the target company;

 

potential changes in banking or tax laws or regulations that may affect the target company;

 

unexpected costs and delays;

 

the target company’s performance does not meet our growth and profitability expectations;

 

limited experience in new markets or product areas;

 

increased time, expenses, and personnel as a result of strain on our infrastructure, staff, internal controls, and management; and

 

potential short-term decreases in profitability.

 

We regularly evaluate merger and acquisition opportunities and conduct due diligence activities related to possible transactions with other financial institutions and financial services companies. As a result, merger or acquisition discussions and, in some cases, negotiations may take place and future mergers or acquisitions involving the payment of cash or the issuance of debt or equity securities may occur at any time. Acquisitions typically involve goodwill, a purchase premium over the acquired company’s book and market values; therefore, dilution of our tangible book value and net income per common share may occur. If we are unable to realize revenue increases, cost savings, geographic or product presence growth, or other projected benefits from acquisitions, our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.

 

Attractive acquisition opportunities may not be available in the future.

 

We expect banking and financial companies, which may have significantly greater resources, to compete for the acquisition of financial service businesses. This competition could increase the price of potential acquisitions that we believe are attractive. If we fail to receive proper regulatory approval, we will not be able to consummate an acquisition. Our regulators consider our capital, liquidity, profitability, regulatory compliance, level of goodwill and intangible assets, and other factors when considering acquisition and expansion proposals. Future acquisitions may be dilutive to our earnings and equity per share of our common stock.

 

We may lose members of our management team and have difficulty attracting skilled personnel.

 

Our success depends, in large part, on our ability to attract and retain key employees. Competition for the best people can be intense. The unexpected loss of key personnel could have a material adverse impact on our business due to the loss of certain skills, market knowledge, and industry experience and the difficulty of promptly finding qualified replacement personnel. Certain existing and proposed regulatory guidance on compensation may also negatively affect our ability to retain and attract skilled personnel.

 

Our internal controls and procedures may fail or be circumvented.

 

We review our internal controls over financial reporting quarterly and enhance controls in response to these assessments, internal and external audit, and regulatory recommendations. A control system, no matter how well conceived and operated, includes certain assumptions and can only provide reasonable assurance that the objectives of the control system are met. These controls may be circumvented by individual acts, collusion, or management override. Any failure or circumvention related to our controls and procedures or failure to follow regulations related to controls and procedures could have a material adverse effect on our business, reputation, results of operations, and financial condition.

 

We are subject to environmental, social and governance ("ESG") risks that could adversely affect the Company's results of operations, reputation, and the market price of its securities.

 
The Company is subject to a variety of risks arising from ESG matters. ESG matters include environmental and climate change activism, diversity activism, and racial and social justice issues. Such matters may involve our personnel, customers, or third parties with whom we do business. Risks arising from ESG matters may adversely affect, among other things, the Company’s reputation and the market price of our securities.  Further, the Company may be exposed to negative publicity based on the identity and activities of our shareholders, those to whom we lend and with which we otherwise do business, and the public’s view of the approach and requirements of our state or federal regulators, customers, and business partners with respect to ESG matters. Any such negative publicity could arise through traditional media or electronic social media platforms. The Company’s relationships and reputation with its existing and prospective customers and third parties with which we do business could be damaged if we were to become the subject of any such negative publicity. This, in turn, could have an adverse effect on the Company’s ability to attract and retain customers and employees and could have a negative impact on the market price for our securities.
 

Certain investors have begun to consider the steps taken and resources allocated by financial institutions and other commercial organizations with respect to ESG matters when making investment decisions. Certain investors are beginning to incorporate the business risks of ESG regulation and activism and the adequacy of companies’ responses to these into their investment decisions. These shifts in investing priorities may result in adverse effects on the market price of the Company’s securities.

 

The U.S. Congress, state legislatures and federal and state regulatory agencies, as well as certain stock exchanges, continue to propose numerous initiatives related to ESG matters. Similar and even more expansive initiatives are expected under the current administration, including potentially increasing supervisory expectations with respect to banks’ risk management practices, accounting practices, and credit portfolio concentrations management practices. The lack of empirical data surrounding the credit and other financial risks posed by ESG regulation and activism render it impossible to predict how specifically ESG matters may impact the Company’s financial condition and results of operations.

 

 

Specifically, environmental activism may adversely impact the economic viability of many of the Company’s deposit and loan customers in our West Virginia and southwestern Virginia markets. We have customers who operate in carbon-intensive industries like coal, oil and gas that are exposed to climate activism risks and those risks created by a transition to a less carbon-dependent economy, as well as customers who operate in low-carbon industries that may be subject to risks associated with new technologies. Further, the effects of climate change activism may negatively impact regional and local economic activity, which could impact the economies of the communities the Company serves and in which we operate. The Company’s business, reputation and ability to attract and retain employees and customers may also be harmed if our response to ESG activism is perceived to be excessive or insufficient.

 

Federal and state banking regulators and supervisory authorities, investors and other stakeholders have increasingly viewed financial institutions as a tool to effect ESG activism, both directly and with respect to their customers, which may result in financial institutions coming under increased pressure regarding the disclosure and management of ESG matters. Given that ESG matters could impose systemic risks upon the financial sector, either via disruptions in economic activity resulting from activism, the Company faces increasing focus on our resilience to ESG risks. Ongoing legislative or regulatory uncertainties and changes regarding ESG risk management and practices may result in higher regulatory, compliance, credit and reputational risks and costs.

 

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments.

 

None.

 

Item 1C.

Cybersecurity

 

Cybersecurity Risk Management and Strategy

 

Cybersecurity risks for financial institutions have significantly increased in recent years in part because of the proliferation of new technologies to facilitate and conduct financial transactions. The Company maintains a comprehensive risk-based cybersecurity program to identify, measure, manage, and disclose material cybersecurity risks. The Company utilizes the Federal Financial Institution Examination Council’s ("FFIEC") Cybersecurity Assessment Tool ("CAT") as a diagnostic test to help identify the Company’s cyber risk level and determine the maturity of our cybersecurity program. The CAT is supplemented by an annual self-assessment and external audits and reviews, the results of which drive the development and implementation of the Company’s cybersecurity strategy to ensure that cyber risk management practices are aligned with the risk profile of the Company. 

 

The Company uses the Center for Internet Security ("CIS") Critical Security Controls framework to balance cybersecurity risk exposure with investment in mitigation strategies. This framework provides a prescriptive, prioritized set of cybersecurity safeguards that fully align with those of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the International Standards Organization 27000 series, and the requirements and guidance from applicable regulatory authorities, including the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council.

 

The Company’s cybersecurity strategy is enabled by people, processes, and technology that provide multilayered defenses including advanced capabilities for early and rapid cyber threat identification, detection, protection, response, and recovery. The Company employs a team of dedicated, skilled talent to operationalize the cybersecurity strategy. The internal team is supported by arrangements with a third party to provide continuous endpoint monitoring and incident response. 

 

The Company’s entire workforce receives mandatory cybersecurity training that includes quarterly social engineering exercises and informative online courses assigned based on assessed skill gaps. The Company also provides cyber risk awareness guidance to customers and promotes customer cyber hygiene through periodic communications. The Company conducts scenario-driven test exercises simulating impacts and consequences developed through analysis of real-world cybersecurity incidents as well as known and anticipated cyber threats. These exercises are designed to assess the viability of the Company’s incident response and management programs and provide the basis for continuous improvement.

 

The Company actively monitors and evaluates threats, events, and the performance of its business operations and continually adapts its risk mitigation activities accordingly. To that end, the Company maintains a comprehensive vulnerability management program that includes regular internal scans of the entire network to identify and measure the severity of security vulnerabilities, a team of dedicated network engineers who are responsible for fixing identified vulnerabilities within pre-defined timeframes based on severity, and at least annual independent network penetration testing by a qualified third party.  

 

Cyber risk monitoring also includes the Company’s arrangements with and exposure to third party service providers. We identify the criticality of our third-party service providers, in part, by determining their use of and access to confidential customer information. We conduct comprehensive cybersecurity reviews on all third parties that have access to confidential information. Our third-party reviews make use of technology that provides significant visibility into third party organizations, in real time, to assess third party compliance with a host of globally recognized IT security standards and frameworks and the likelihood of a cyberattack on a third party.

 

The Company also maintains a robust firewall system and firewall management program to restrict inbound and outbound network traffic. A dedicated team of network engineers manages firewall rulesets and monitors firewall health and alerting.

 

The risks from cybersecurity threats have not materially affected the Company’s business strategy, results of operations, or financial condition. Although the Company has invested substantial resources to manage and reduce cybersecurity risk, it is not possible to eliminate this risk. The Company obtains insurance that protects against certain losses, expenses, and damages associated with cybersecurity risk. See Item 1A, “Risk Factors,” for additional information regarding cybersecurity risk.
 
Cybersecurity Governance

 

The Company’s Board of Directors devotes significant time and attention to its oversight of cybersecurity risk. Select members of the Board serve on the Information Systems Steering Committee ("ISSC"), which is responsible for approving IT strategic plans and all IT-related policies and for oversight of the information security program, among other matters. To fulfill its responsibilities, the ISSC receives periodic reports on the cybersecurity risk management program, including information security risks and incidents, emerging threats, and both internal and independent audit reports on the effectiveness of the control environment. 

 

 

Executive leadership is responsible for management of the cybersecurity program. The IT Security Director supervises daily operations of the cybersecurity program and reports directly to the Chief Risk Officer ("CRO"). The CRO chairs the Information Security Sub-Committee ("Sub-Committee"), a management committee that meets at least monthly to receive regular updates on the status of the cybersecurity risk management program and strategic cyber initiatives. The Sub-Committee’s actions and activities are reviewed by the ISSC at least quarterly. The Company has a management level Change Control Board ("CCB") which is responsible for reviewing and approving actions of the vulnerability management team, changes to hardware/software including the introduction of new hardware/software, and changes to firewall rulesets. The IT Security Director serves as a voting member of the CCB. Additionally, the Company has a Cyber Incident Response Team ("CIRT") which includes key members of management including the CRO and IT Security Director. The CIRT manages significant cyber-specific events with escalation up to executive leadership and the Board. 

 

Item 2.

Properties.

 

We own our corporate headquarters located at One Community Place, Bluefield, Virginia. As of December 31, 2023, the Bank provided financial services through a network of  branch locations in West Virginia (17 branches), Virginia (23 branches), North Carolina (11 branches), and Tennessee (2 branches). We own all of the branch locations with the exception of two branch locations which are leased; one location in West Virginia and the other in North Carolina.  As of December 31, 2023, there were no mortgages or liens against any properties. We believe that our properties are suitable and adequate to serve as financial services facilities. A list of all branch and ATM locations is available on our website at www.firstcommunitybank.com. Information contained on our website is not part of this report. For additional information, see Note 7, “Premises, Equipment, and Leases,” to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8 of this report.

 

Item 3.

Legal Proceedings.

 

We are currently a defendant in various legal actions and asserted claims in the normal course of business. Although we are unable to assess the ultimate outcome of each of these matters with certainty, we are of the belief that the resolution of these actions should not have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.

 

 

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures.

 

None.

 

PART II

 

Item 5.

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.

 

Market Information and Holders

 

Our common stock is traded on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol FCBC. As of March 1, 2024, there were 3,619 record holders and 18,470,596 outstanding shares of our common stock.

 

Purchases of Equity Securities

 

We repurchased 768,079 shares of our common stock in 2023, 706,117 shares of our common stock in 2022, and 949,386 shares in 2021.  

 

The following table provides information about purchases of our common stock made by us or on our behalf by any affiliated purchaser, as defined in Rule 10b-18(a)(3) under the Exchange Act, during the periods indicated:

 

    Total Number of Shares Purchased     Average Price Paid per Share     Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of a Publicly Announced Plan     Maximum Number of Shares that May Yet be Purchased Under the Plan(1)  
                                 

October 1-31, 2023

    138,100     $ 30.65       138,100       2,553,900  

November 1-30, 2023

    42,900       33.96       42,900       2,511,000  

December 1-31, 2023

    8,500       34.12       8,500       2,502,500  

Total

    189,500     $ 31.55       189,500          

 


(1)

In September 2023, the Board of Directors approved a repurchase plan to repurchase 2,700,000 shares and terminated the share repurchase plan adopted in January, 2021.  The 2021 plan would have expired December 2023.  The timing, price, and quantity of purchases under the repurchase plan are at the discretion of management and the repurchase plan may be discontinued, suspended or restarted at any time depending on the facts and circumstances.

 

 

Stock Performance Graph

 

The following graph, compiled by S&P Global Market Intelligence (“S&P Global”), compares the cumulative total shareholder return on our common stock for the five years ended December 31, 2023, with the cumulative total return of the S&P 500 Index, the NASDAQ Composite Index, and S&P Global’s Asset Size & Regional Peer Group. The Asset Size & Regional Peer Group consists of 47 bank holding companies with total assets between $1 billion and $5 billion that are located in the Southeast Region of the United States and traded on NASDAQ, the OTC Bulletin Board, and pink sheets. The cumulative returns assume that $100 was originally invested on December 31, 2018, and that all dividends are reinvested.

 

fcbgraph01.jpg

 

   

Year Ended December 31,

 
   

2018

   

2019

   

2020

   

2021

   

2022

   

2023

 
                                                 

First Community Bankshares, Inc.

    100.00       101.42       73.86       118.56       124.63       141.73  

S&P 500 Index

    100.00       131.49       155.68       200.37       164.08       207.21  

NASDAQ Composite Index

    100.00       136.69       198.10       242.03       163.28       236.17  

S&P Global Asset & Regional Peer Group(1)

    100.00       120.00       96.19       137.45       130.50       128.73  

 


(1) Includes the following institutions: American National Bankshares Inc.; Auburn National Bancorporation, Inc.; BankFirst Capital Corporation; BayFirst Financial Corp.; Burke & Herbert Financial Services Corp.; C&F Financial Corporation; Capital City Bank Group, Inc.; CapStar Financial Holdings, Inc.; Carter Bankshares, Inc.; Chesapeake Financial Shares, Inc.; Citizens Bancorp Investment, Inc.; Citizens Holding Company; CoastalSouth Bancshares, Inc.; Colony Bankcorp, Inc.; Dogwood State Bank; Eagle Financial Services, Inc.; F&M Bank Corp.; FineMark Holdings, Inc.; First Community Bankshares, Inc.; First Community Corporation;  First National Corporation; First US Bancshares, Inc.; Freedom Financial Holdings, Inc.; FVCBankcorp, Inc.; HomeTrust Bancshares, Inc.; John Marshall Bancorp, Inc.; MainStreet Bancshares, Inc.; MetroCity Bankshares, Inc.; Morris State Bancshares, Inc.; Mountain Commerce Bancorp, Inc.; MVB Financial Corp.; National Bankshares, Inc.; NewtekOne, Inc.; Oakworth Capital, Inc.; Old Point Financial Corporation; Peoples Bancorp of North Carolina, Inc.; Primis Financial Corp.; Skyline Bankshares, Inc.; South Atlantic Bancshares, Inc.; Southern First Bancshares, Inc.;  Southern States Bancshares, Inc.; Summit Financial Group, Inc.; United Bancorporation of Alabama, Inc.; USCB Financial Holdings, Inc.; Uwharrie Capital Corp.; Virginia National Bankshares Corporation; White River Bancshares, Co.

 

Item 6.

Reserved

 

 

Item 7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

 

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (“MD&A”) is intended to help the reader understand our financial condition, changes in financial condition, and results of operations. MD&A contains forward-looking statements and should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements, accompanying notes, and other financial information included in this report.

 

Executive Overview

 

First Community Bankshares, Inc. is a financial holding company, headquartered in Bluefield, Virginia, that provides banking products and services through its wholly owned subsidiary First Community Bank (the “Bank”), a 150 year-old Virginia-chartered banking institution. Unless the context suggests otherwise, the terms “First Community,” “Company,” “we,” “our,” and “us” refer to First Community Bankshares, Inc. and its subsidiaries as a consolidated entity.  As of December 31, 2023, the Bank operated 53 branches in Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina and Tennessee. Our primary source of earnings is net interest income, the difference between interest earned on assets and interest paid on liabilities, which is supplemented by fees for services, commissions on sales, and various deposit service charges. We fund our lending and investing activities primarily through the retail deposit operations of our branch banking network supplemented by retail and wholesale repurchase agreements and Federal Home Loan Bank (“FHLB”) borrowings. We invest our funds primarily in loans to retail and commercial customers and various investment securities.

 

 

The Bank offers trust management, estate administration, and investment advisory services through its Trust Division and wholly owned subsidiary First Community Wealth Management (“FCWM”). The Trust Division manages inter vivos trusts and trusts under will, develops and administers employee benefit and individual retirement plans, and manages and settles estates. Fiduciary fees for these services are charged on a schedule related to the size, nature, and complexity of the account. Revenues consist primarily of commissions on assets under management and investment advisory fees. As of December 31, 2023, the Trust Division and FCWM managed and administered $1.49 billion in combined assets under various fee-based arrangements as fiduciary or agent.

 

On April 21, 2023, the Company completed the acquisition of Surrey Bancorp.  Total assets of $466.25 million were acquired in the transaction.  In addition the Company issued 2.99 million common shares in the transaction.  The purchase transaction created $14.38 million in goodwill and $12.7 million in other intangible assets. The Company completed the sale of its Emporia, Virginia branch to Benchmark Community Bank on September 16, 2022, which resulted in a gain of $1.66 million. The Company had no acquisition and divestiture activity during 2021.    For additional information, see Note 2, “Acquisitions and Divestitures,” to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of this report.

 

 

Critical Accounting Policies

 

Our consolidated financial statements are prepared in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) in the U.S. and prevailing practices in the banking industry. Our accounting policies, as presented in Note 1, “Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies,” to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of this report are fundamental in understanding MD&A and the disclosures presented in Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data,” of this report. Management may be required to make significant estimates and assumptions that have a material impact on our financial condition or operating performance. Due to the level of subjectivity and the susceptibility of such matters to change, actual results could differ significantly from management’s assumptions and estimates. Based on the valuation techniques used and the sensitivity of financial statement amounts to the methods, assumptions, and estimates used, we have identified the allowance for loan losses and goodwill as the accounting areas that require the most subjective or complex judgments or are the most susceptible to change.

 

Allowance for Credit Losses or "ACL"

 

The ACL reflects management’s estimate of losses that will result from the inability of our borrowers to make required loan payments. Management uses a systematic methodology to determine its ACL for loans held for investment and certain off-balance-sheet credit exposures. Management considers the effects of past events, current conditions, and reasonable and supportable forecasts on the collectability of the loan portfolio. The Company’s estimate of its ACL involves a high degree of judgment; therefore, management’s process for determining expected credit losses may result in a range of expected credit losses. It is possible that others, given the same information, may at any point in time reach a different reasonable conclusion. The Company’s ACL recorded in the balance sheet reflects management’s best estimate of expected credit losses. The Company recognizes in net income the amount needed to adjust the ACL for management’s current estimate of expected credit losses. See Note 1 – "Basis of Presentation - Significant Accounting Policies" in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further detailed descriptions of our estimation process and methodology related to the ACL. See also Note 6 — "Allowance for Credit Losses" in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, “Allowance for Credit Losses” in this MD&A. 

 

The Company uses a number of economic variables to estimate the allowance for credit losses, with the most significant driver being a forecast of the national unemployment rate. In the December 31, 2023, estimate, the Company assumed an unemployment forecast range of  4.0% to 4.3%, compared to the range of 3.9% to 4.8% utilized in the December 31, 2022, estimate.  Based on a sensitivity analysis as of December 31, 2023, an increase of 1% in the unemployment forecast would result in an increase in the allowance for credit losses of approximately 9.00%. 
 

Business Combinations

 

The Company accounts for business combinations using the acquisition method of accounting as outlined in using Topic 805 of the Financial Accounting Standards Board’s (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”). Under this method, all identifiable assets acquired, including purchased loans, and liabilities assumed are recorded at fair value. Any excess of the purchase price over the fair value of net assets acquired is recorded as goodwill. In instances where the price of the acquired business is less than the net assets acquired, a gain on the purchase is recorded. Fair values are assigned based on quoted prices for similar assets, if readily available, or appraisals by qualified independent parties for relevant asset and liability categories. Certain financial assets and liabilities are valued using discount models that apply current discount rates to streams of cash flow. Valuation methods require assumptions, which can result in alternate valuations, varying levels of goodwill or bargain purchase gains, or amortization expense or accretion income. Management must make estimates for the useful or economic lives of certain acquired assets and liabilities that are used to establish the amortization or accretion of some intangible assets and liabilities, such as core deposits. Fair values are subject to refinement for up to one year after the closing date of the acquisition as additional information about the closing date fair values becomes available. Acquisition and divestiture activities are included in the Company’s consolidated results of operations from the closing date of the transaction. Acquisition and divestiture related costs are recognized in noninterest expense as incurred.

 

 

Goodwill 

 

Goodwill is tested for impairment annually, on October 31st, or more frequently if events or circumstances indicate there may be impairment.  We have one reporting unit, Community Banking.  If we elect to perform a qualitative assessment, we evaluate factors such as macroeconomic conditions, industry and market considerations, overall financial performance, changes in stock price, and progress towards stated objectives in determining if it is more likely than not that the fair value of our reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. If we conclude that it is more likely than not that the fair value of our reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, a quantitative test is performed; otherwise, no further testing is required. The quantitative test consists of comparing the fair value of our reporting unit to its carrying amount, including goodwill. If the fair value of our reporting unit is greater than its book value, no goodwill impairment exists. If the carrying amount of our reporting unit is greater than its calculated fair value, a goodwill impairment charge is recognized for the difference. We performed a quantitative assessment for the annual test on October 31, 2023, which resulted in no goodwill impairment. For additional information, see Note 8, “Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets,” to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of this report.

 

Non-GAAP Financial Measures

 

In addition to financial statements prepared in accordance with GAAP, we use certain non-GAAP financial measures that provide useful information for financial and operational decision making, evaluating trends, and comparing financial results to other financial institutions. The non-GAAP financial measures presented in this report include certain financial measures presented on a fully taxable equivalent (“FTE”) basis. While we believe certain non-GAAP financial measures enhance the understanding of our business and performance, they are supplemental and not a substitute for, or more important than, financial measures prepared in accordance with GAAP and may not be comparable to those reported by other financial institutions. The reconciliations of non-GAAP to GAAP measures are presented below.

 

We believe FTE basis is the preferred industry measurement of net interest income and provides better comparability between taxable and tax exempt amounts. We use this non-GAAP financial measure to monitor net interest income performance and to manage the composition of our balance sheet. FTE basis adjusts for the tax benefits of income from certain tax exempt loans and investments using the federal statutory income tax rate of 21%. The following table reconciles net interest income and margin, as presented in our consolidated statements of income, to net interest income on a FTE basis for the periods indicated:

 

   

Year Ended December 31,

 
   

2023

   

2022

   

2021

 

(Amounts in thousands)

                       

Net interest income, GAAP

  $ 127,684     $ 112,663     $ 102,474  

FTE adjustment(1)

    454       451       439  

Net interest income, FTE

  $ 128,138     $ 113,114     $ 102,913  
                         

Net interest margin, GAAP

    4.43 %     3.90 %     3.65 %

FTE adjustment(1)

    0.02 %     0.02 %     0.02 %

Net interest margin, FTE

    4.44 %     3.92 %     3.67 %

 


(1)

FTE basis of 21%.

 

 

Performance Overview

 

Highlights of our results of operations in 2023, and financial condition as of December 31, 2023, include the following:

 

 

Annual net income for 2023 of $48.02 million, or $2.72 per diluted common share, was an increase of $1.36 million, or 2.91%, compared to 2022.  

  Net interest income increased $15.02 million compared to 2022, as increases in benchmark interest rates have improved net interest margin.
  Interest and fees on loans increased $22.16 million from the same period of 2022 and is attributable to both an increase in yield and an increase in average balance compared to the yield and average balance of the prior year. The Company acquired Surrey Bancorp on April 21, 2023, adding approximately $239.08 million in loans.  Interest income on deposits in banks decreased $1.28 million to $2.48 million, primarily due to a significant decrease in the average balance compared to 2022.
  Net interest margin of 4.44% is an increase of 52 basis points over the same period of 2022.  The yield on earning assets increased 79 basis points primarily driven by increased earnings on loans.
  Provision for credit losses increased $1.41