SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
☒ ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d)
OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
☐ TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d)
OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022
Commission File Number: 001-16715
FIRST CITIZENS BANCSHARES, INC.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
|(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)||(I.R.S. Employer Identification Number)|
|4300 Six Forks Road||Raleigh||North Carolina||27609|
|(Address of principle executive offices)||(Zip code)|
|(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)|
Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934:
|Title of each class||Trading Symbol||Name of each exchange on which registered|
|Class A Common Stock, Par Value $1||FCNCA||Nasdaq Global Select Market|
|Depositary Shares, Each Representing a 1/40th Interest in a Share of 5.375% Non-Cumulative Perpetual Preferred Stock, Series A||FCNCP||Nasdaq Global Select Market|
|5.625% Non-Cumulative Perpetual Preferred Stock, Series C||FCNCO||Nasdaq Global Select Market|
Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934:
Class B Common Stock, Par Value $1
(Title of class)
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ☐ No ☒
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding twelve months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past ninety days. Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or emerging growth company. See definition of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “non-accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
|Large accelerated filer||☒||Accelerated filer|
|Smaller reporting company|
|Emerging growth company|
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. ☒
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ☐ No ☒
The aggregate market value of the Registrant’s common equity held by non-affiliates computed by reference to the price at which the common equity was last sold as of the last business day of the Registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter was 7,873,632,647.
On February 17, 2023, there were 13,502,747 outstanding shares of the Registrant’s Class A Common Stock and 1,005,185 outstanding shares of the Registrant’s Class B Common Stock.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the Registrant’s definitive Proxy Statement for the 2023 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated by reference into Part III of this report.
* Information required by Item 10 is incorporated herein by reference to the information that appears under the headings or captions ‘Proposal 1: Election of Directors,’ ‘Corporate Governance —Service on Other Public Company Boards’ and ‘—Code of Ethics;’ ‘Committees of our Boards—Audit Committee;’ and ‘Executive Officers’ and ‘Beneficial Ownership of Our Equity Securities —Delinquent Section 16(a) Reports’ from the Registrant’s Proxy Statement for the 2023 Annual Meeting of Stockholders (“2023 Proxy Statement”).
Information required by Item 11 is incorporated herein by reference to the information that appears under the headings or captions ‘Committees of our Board—Compensation Committee Report;’ and ‘—Effect of Risk Management on Compensation;’ ‘Compensation Discussion and Analysis;’ ‘Executive Compensation;’ and ‘Director Compensation’ of the 2023 Proxy Statement.
Information required by Item 12 is incorporated herein by reference to the information that appears under the captions ‘Beneficial Ownership of Our Equity Securities—Directors and Executive Officers,’ ‘—Pledging Policy—Existing Pledge Arrangements,’ and ‘—Principal Stockholders’ of the 2023 Proxy Statement. As of December 31, 2022, the Registrant did not have any compensation plans under which equity securities of the Registrant are authorized for issuance to employees or directors to report in the Equity Compensation Plan Information table pursuant to Item 201(d) of Regulation S-K. As of December 31, 2022, the Registrant had restricted stock units (“RSUs”) outstanding covering an aggregate of 42,989 shares of its Class A common stock, which RSUs were assumed in Registrant’s merger with CIT Group Inc.
Information required by Item 13 is incorporated herein by reference to the information that appears under the headings or captions ‘Corporate Governance—Director Independence’ and ‘Transactions with Related Persons’ of the 2023 Proxy Statement.
Information required by Item 14 is incorporated by reference to the information that appears under the caption ‘Proposal 7: Ratification of Appointment of Independent Accountants—Services and Fees During 2022’ of the 2023 Proxy Statement.
GLOSSARY OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS
The following is a list of certain abbreviations and acronyms we use throughout this document. You may find it helpful to refer back to this table. We also include a Glossary of Key Terms in Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
|ACL||Allowance for Credit Losses||HQLS||High Quality Liquid Securities|
|AFS||Available for Sale||HTM||Held to Maturity|
|AOCI||Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income||IDI||Insured Depository Institution|
|ASC||Accounting Standards Codification||LIBOR||London Inter-Bank Offered Rate|
|ASU||Accounting Standards Update||LGD||Loss Given Default|
|BHC||Bank Holding Company||LOCOM||Lower of the Cost or Market Value|
|BOLI||Bank Owned Life Insurance||MD&A||Management’s Discussion and Analysis|
|bps||Basis point(s); 1 bp = 0.01%||MSRs||Mortgage Servicing Rights|
|CAB||Community Association Banking||NCCOB||North Carolina Commissioner of Banks|
|CAMT||Corporate Alternative Minimum Tax||NII||Net Interest Income|
|CCAR||Comprehensive Capital Analysis and Review||NII Sensitivity||Net Interest Income Sensitivity|
|CECL||Current Expected Credit Losses||NIM||Net Interest Margin|
|CFPB||Consumer Financial Protection Bureau||NSF||Nonsufficient Funds|
|DPA||Deferred Purchase Agreement||OREO||Other Real Estate Owned|
|DTAs||Deferred Tax Assets||PAA||Purchase Accounting Adjustments|
|ETR||Effective Tax Rate||PCA||Prompt corrective action|
|EVE Sensitivity||Economic Value of Equity Sensitivity||PCAOB||Public Company Accounting Oversight Board|
|FASB||Financial Accounting Standards Board||PCD||Purchased Credit Deteriorated|
|FCB||First-Citizens Bank & Trust Company||PD||Probability of Obligor Default|
|FDIC||Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation||QM||Qualified Mortgage|
|FHA||Federal Housing Administration||ROU||Right of Use|
|FHC||Financial Holding Company||RSU||Restricted Stock Unit|
|FHLB||Federal Home Loan Bank||SBA||Small Business Administration|
|FOMC||Federal Open Market Committee||SBA-PPP||Small Business Administration Paycheck Protection Plan|
|FRB||Federal Reserve Bank||SOFR||Secured Overnight Financing Rate|
|GAAP||Accounting Principles Generally Accepted in the U.S.||TDRs||Troubled Debt Restructuring|
|GDP||Gross Domestic Product||UPB||Unpaid Principal Balance|
|HFI||Held for Investment||VIE||Variable Interest Entity|
|HOA||Home Owner’s Association|
Item 1. Business
First Citizens BancShares, Inc. (the “Parent Company” and when including all of its subsidiaries on a consolidated basis, “BancShares,” “we,” “us,” or “our”) was incorporated under the laws of Delaware on August 7, 1986, to become the holding company of First-Citizens Bank & Trust Company (“FCB,” or the “Bank”), its banking subsidiary. FCB opened in 1898 as the Bank of Smithfield in Smithfield, North Carolina, and later changed its name to First-Citizens Bank & Trust Company.
BancShares has expanded through de novo branching and acquisitions and as of December 31, 2022, operates 550 branches in 22 states, predominantly located in the Southeast, Mid-Atlantic, Midwest, and Western United States, providing a broad range of financial services to individuals, businesses and professionals. At December 31, 2022, BancShares had total consolidated assets of $109.3 billion.
Throughout its history, the operations of BancShares have been significantly influenced by descendants of Robert P. Holding, who came to control FCB during the 1920s. Robert P. Holding’s children and grandchildren have served as members of the Board of Directors (the “Board”), as chief executive officers and in other executive management positions and, since BancShares’ formation in 1986, have remained stockholders owning a large percentage of its common stock.
The Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer, Frank B. Holding, Jr., is the grandson of Robert P. Holding. Hope Holding Bryant, Vice Chairwoman of BancShares, is Robert P. Holding’s granddaughter. Peter M. Bristow, President of BancShares, is the brother-in-law of Frank B. Holding, Jr. and Hope Holding Bryant.
BancShares provides financial services for a wide range of consumer and commercial clients. This includes retail and mortgage banking, wealth management, commercial and middle market banking, factoring and leasing. In addition to our banking operations, we provide various investment products and services through FCB’s wholly owned subsidiaries, First Citizens Investor Services, Inc. (“FCIS”) and First Citizens Asset Management, Inc. (“FCAM”). As a registered broker-dealer, FCIS provides a full range of investment products, including annuities, discount brokerage services and third-party mutual funds. As registered investment advisors, FCIS and FCAM provide investment management services and advice.
As a result of BancShares’ merger (the “CIT Merger”) with CIT Group Inc. (“CIT”) and its subsidiary CIT Bank, N.A., a national banking association (“CIT Bank”), BancShares acquired a registered broker-dealer, registered investment adviser, a wide range of commercial lending, leasing, and deposit products, as well as ancillary services and products, that span various industries. BancShares now also provides commercial factoring, receivables management and secured financing services to businesses (generally manufacturers or importers of goods) that operate in various industries, including apparel, textile, furniture, home furnishings and consumer electronics. In addition, BancShares owns a fleet of railcars and locomotives that are leased to railroads and shippers.
BancShares delivers products and services to its customers through an extensive branch network and additionally operates a nationwide digital bank. Services offered at most branches include accepting deposits, cashing checks and providing for consumer and commercial cash needs. Consumer and business customers may also conduct banking transactions through various digital channels.
Statistical information regarding our business activities is found in Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
BancShares pursues growth through strategic mergers and acquisitions to enhance organizational value, strengthen its presence in existing markets, as well as expand its footprint in new markets.
On January 3, 2022 (the “Merger Date”), BancShares completed its largest acquisition to date with the merger with CIT and CIT Bank. CIT had consolidated total assets of approximately $53.2 billion at December 31, 2021. The merger with CIT is described further in the “Business Combinations” discussion below and the “Business Combinations” section of Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and Item 8. Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, Note 2 — Business Combinations included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
As a result of the CIT Merger, FCB is now a top 20 U.S. bank based on asset size with more than $100 billion in total assets. BancShares believes that the CIT Merger allowed for the combination of organizations with complementary strengths, combining FCB’s robust retail franchise and full suite of banking products with CIT’s strong market position in nationwide commercial lending and direct digital banking. The combined banking organization leverages the capabilities of both legacy banks to serve a broader spectrum of businesses and individuals, while offering convenience, scale and value.
As of December 31, 2021, BancShares managed its business and reported its financial results as a single segment. BancShares began reporting multiple segments during the first quarter of 2022 and now reports General Banking, Commercial Banking, Rail, and Corporate segments. BancShares conformed the comparative prior periods presented to reflect the new segments. The substantial majority of BancShares’ operations for historical periods prior to completion of the CIT Merger are included in the General Banking segment. The Commercial Banking and Rail segments primarily relate to operations acquired in the CIT Merger. Reportable segments are discussed further in the “Results by Business Segments” section of Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and Item 8. Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, Note 23 — Business Segment Information.
|SEGMENT||MARKETS AND SERVICES|
•Delivers services to individuals and businesses through an extensive branch network and various digital channels, including a full suite of deposit products, loans (primarily business/commercial loans and residential mortgages), and various fee-based services.
•Provides a variety of wealth management products and services to individuals and institutional clients, including brokerage, investment advisory, and trust services.
•Provides deposit, cash management and lending to homeowner associations and property management companies.
•Provides lending, leasing, capital markets and other financial and advisory services, primarily to small and middle-market companies across a variety of industries.
•Provides asset-based lending, factoring, receivables management products and supply chain financing.
•Provides equipment leasing and secured financing to railroads and shippers.
•Earning assets primarily include investment securities and interest-earning deposits at banks.
•Certain items are not allocated to operating segments and are included in Corporate. Some of the more significant and recurring items that are not allocated to operating segments include interest income on investment securities, income on bank owned life insurance (“BOLI”), a portion of interest expense primarily related to brokered deposits and corporate funding costs, mark-to-market adjustments on equity securities and foreign currency hedges, merger-related expenses, intangible assets amortization expenses, as well as certain unallocated interest income and other costs.
Our General Banking segment delivers products and services to consumers and businesses through our extensive network of branches and various digital channels. We offer a full suite of deposit products, loans, cash management, wealth, payments and various other fee-based services. We offer conforming and jumbo residential mortgage loans throughout the United States which are primarily originated through branches and retail referrals, employee referrals, internet leads, direct marketing and a correspondent lending channel. The General Banking segment also includes our nationwide digital banking, which is largely comprised of the internet banking platform we acquired in the CIT Merger (the “Direct Bank”), that delivers deposit products to consumers. We additionally have a dedicated business line that supports deposit, cash management and lending to homeowner associations and property management companies nationwide. Our General Banking segment is the primary deposit gathering business of FCB.
Revenue is generated from interest earned on loans and from fees for banking and advisory services. We source our consumer and business/commercial lending business through our branch network and industry referrals, as well as direct digital marketing efforts. We periodically purchase loans on a whole-loan basis. We source our Small Business Administration (“SBA”) loans through a network of SBA originators. We also make community development investments and loans that support the construction of affordable housing in our communities in line with our CRA initiatives.
Our Commercial Banking segment provides a range of lending, leasing, capital markets, asset management and other financial and advisory services primarily to small and middle market companies in a wide range of industries including aerospace and defense, communication, power and energy, entertainment, gaming, healthcare, industrials, maritime, real estate, restaurants, retail, services and technology. Loans offered are primarily senior secured loans collateralized by accounts receivable, inventory, machinery and equipment, transportation equipment and/or intangibles, and are often used for working capital, plant expansion, acquisitions or recapitalizations. These loans include revolving lines of credit and term loans and, depending on the nature of the collateral, may be referred to as collateral-backed loans, asset-based loans or cash flow loans. We provide senior secured loans to developers and other commercial real estate professionals. Additionally, we provide small business loans and leases, including both capital and operating leases, through a highly automated credit approval, documentation and funding process.
We provide factoring, receivable management, and secured financing to businesses that operate in several industries, including apparel, textile, furniture, home furnishings and consumer electronics. Factoring entails the assumption of credit risk with respect to trade accounts receivable arising from the sale of goods by our clients to their customers (generally retailers) that have been factored (i.e., sold or assigned to the factor). A client is the counterparty on any factoring, financing, or receivables purchasing agreement to sell trade receivables to us, and generally is a manufacturer or importer of goods. A customer is the account debtor and obligor on trade accounts receivable that have been factored with and assigned to the factor.
Revenue is generated from interest earned on loans, rent on equipment leased, fees and other revenue from lending and leasing activities, banking services, and capital markets transactions, along with commissions earned on factoring and related activities. We source our commercial lending business primarily through direct marketing to borrowers, lessees, manufacturers, vendors and distributors, and through referral sources and other intermediaries. We may periodically buy participations or syndications of loans and lines of credit and purchase loans on a whole-loan basis.
Rail offers customized leasing and financing solutions on a fleet of railcars and locomotives to railroads and shippers throughout North America. Railcar types include covered hopper cars used to ship grain and agricultural products, plastic pellets, sand, and cement; tank cars for energy products and chemicals; gondolas for coal, steel coil and mill service products; open-top hopper cars for coal and aggregates; boxcars for paper and auto parts; and centerbeams and flat cars for lumber. Revenue is generated primarily from rent on equipment leased.
The financial services industry is highly competitive. BancShares competes with national, regional and local financial services providers. In recent years, the ability of non-bank financial entities to provide services has intensified competition. Non-bank financial service providers are not subject to the same significant regulatory restrictions as traditional commercial banks. More than ever, customers have the ability to select from a variety of traditional and nontraditional alternatives. Competition is based on a number of factors including, among others, customer service, quality and range of products and services offered, price, reputation, interest rates on loans and deposits and customer convenience.
As of December 31, 2021, FCB’s primary deposit markets were North Carolina and South Carolina, which represented approximately 50.8% and 22.7%, respectively, of total FCB deposits. Deposits (based on branch location) as of December 31, 2022, in North Carolina and South Carolina represented approximately 39.7%, and 13.3%, respectively, of total deposits. FCB’s deposit market share as of June 30, 2022 in North Carolina and South Carolina was 7.3% and 9.3%, respectively, which makes FCB the fourth largest bank in both North Carolina and South Carolina based on the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) Deposit Market Share Report. The three banks larger than FCB based on deposits in North Carolina and South Carolina were Bank of America, Truist Bank and Wells Fargo. These banks collectively controlled 72.5% and 44.2% of North Carolina and South Carolina deposits, respectively. Additionally, the CIT Merger added deposits that were primarily related to the Digital Bank of $16.47 billion or 18.4% of total FCB deposits as of December 31, 2022.
As of December 31, 2022, FCB had 582 total domestic branches and offices, which included 219 in North Carolina, 126 in South Carolina and 68 in California.
On July 9, 2021, President Biden issued an Executive Order on Promoting Competition in the American Economy (the “Executive Order”), which encouraged the federal banking agencies, to review the current framework for merger oversight practices under the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended (“BHCA”) and the Bank Merger Act. The Executive Order has received significant public support from members of Congress as well as from members of the board of the FDIC and Federal Reserve and the Acting Comptroller of the Currency. The review is ongoing by the agencies, and no formal changes have been announced. The adoption of more expansive or prescriptive standards could impact our future potential acquisitions. Refer to Item 1A. Risk Factors below for additional information.
As of December 31, 2022, BancShares operated branches in Arizona, California, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Kansas, Maryland, Missouri, North Carolina, Nebraska, New Mexico, Nevada, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Washington, Wisconsin and West Virginia.
As of December 31, 2022, BancShares employed approximately 10,375 full-time staff and approximately 309 part-time staff for a total of 10,684 employees. Women and ethnically diverse associates make up approximately 61% and 33% of total employees, respectively, and our Executive Leadership Team includes three women.
Our ability to attract, retain and develop associates who align with our purpose is key to our success. BancShares’ human capital strategy is predicated on ensuring the organization has the right people with the right skills in the right places at the right time for the right cost to fulfill its mandate and strategic objectives. Our human resources team works to formalize the process of defining and deploying the mission-critical talent needed to align BancShares with the financial and strategic goals and objectives. Key human capital initiatives include scaling and developing talent, enhancing performance management and coaching, and accelerating inclusion, equity and diversity initiatives. The retention and integration of key CIT employees has been a significant initiative. The Board monitors these initiatives and associated risks primarily through its Risk Committee.
To assist with these goals, we monitor and evaluate various metrics, specifically around attraction, retention and development of talent. Our annual voluntary turnover is relatively low compared to the industry. We believe this reflects our strong corporate culture, competitive compensation and benefit structures and commitment to career development.
Compensation and Benefits
We strive to provide robust compensation and benefits to our employees. In addition to salaries, compensation and benefit programs include a 401(k) plan with employer matching opportunities, healthcare and insurance benefits, health savings and flexible spending accounts, paid time off and other employee assistance programs.
Various laws and regulations administered by regulatory agencies affect BancShares’ corporate practices, including the payment of dividends, the incurrence of debt, and the acquisition of financial institutions and other companies. Laws and regulations also affect business practices, such as the payment of interest on deposits, the charging of interest on loans, the types of business conducted and the location of offices. Certain subsidiaries of the Parent Company and FCB are subject to regulation, supervision, and examination by the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”), the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”), state regulatory agencies, and other regulatory authorities as “regulated entities.” FCB’s insurance activities are subject to licensing and regulation by state insurance regulatory agencies.
In general, numerous statutes and regulations also apply to and restrict the activities of BancShares, including limitations on the ability to pay dividends, capital requirements, reserve requirements, deposit insurance requirements and restrictions on transactions with related persons and entities controlled by related persons. The impact of these statutes and regulations is discussed below and in the accompanying consolidated financial statements.
BancShares has over $100 billion in total consolidated assets, and is now subject to certain enhanced prudential standards and enhanced oversight under the applicable transition provisions of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd-Frank Act”) by the Federal Reserve Board (“Federal Reserve” or “FRB”), and the FDIC with respect to FCB. As BancShares continues to grow, BancShares will become subject to additional regulatory requirements, based on the tailored regulatory framework applicable to banking organizations with $100 billion or more in total assets, and adopted by the federal banking agencies pursuant to the Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act (the “EGRRCPA”).
In connection with the CIT Merger, FCB established as a wholly-owned subsidiary, FC International, Inc. (“FC International”), which is a corporation chartered by the Federal Reserve pursuant to Section 25A of the Federal Reserve Act (“Edge Act”) and the Federal Reserve’s Regulation K. Edge Act corporations are international banking organizations that are authorized to engage in international banking and foreign financial transactions, and the U.S. activities of such corporations are generally limited to those that are incidental to their foreign operations. FCB established FC International for the purpose of holding the equity interests in the foreign nonbank subsidiaries (“foreign companies”) that FCB acquired in the CIT Merger. Certain of the foreign companies have been, or are in the process of being, wound-down or dissolved. The other foreign companies acquired by FCB support the railcar leasing business acquired from CIT in Canada and Mexico. FC International is subject to supervision and regulation by the Federal Reserve, including examination, reporting, capital, and Bank Secrecy Act of 1970 (“BSA”) and anti-money laundering (“AML”) requirements, pursuant to the Edge Act and the Federal Reserve’s Regulation K.
Dodd-Frank Act. The Dodd-Frank Act, enacted in 2010, significantly restructured the financial services regulatory environment; imposed significant regulatory and compliance changes on the financial services industry; increased capital, leverage and liquidity requirements for banking organizations; and expanded the scope of oversight responsibility of certain federal agencies through the creation of new oversight bodies. For example, the Dodd-Frank Act established the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (“CFPB”) with broad powers to supervise and enforce federal consumer financial protection laws.
EGRRCPA. Enacted in 2018, the EGRRCPA, while largely preserving the fundamental elements of the post-Dodd-Frank Act regulatory framework, modified certain requirements of the Dodd-Frank Act as they applied to regional and community banking organizations. Certain of the significant requirements of the Dodd-Frank Act are listed below with information regarding how they apply to BancShares following the enactment of the EGRRCPA.
•Asset Threshold for Applicability of Dodd-Frank Act Enhanced Prudential Standards and Enhanced Supervision. The Dodd-Frank Act mandated the applicability of enhanced prudential standards (including enhanced liquidity and capital requirements, enterprise-wide risk management requirements, concentration limits, resolution plans and credit exposure report requirements, etc.) and enhanced supervision of bank holding companies with $50 billion or more in assets. The EGRRCPA raised the asset threshold for mandatory applicability of enhanced prudential standards to $250 billion or more in total consolidated assets, and gives the FRB the discretion to apply any enhanced prudential standards to banking organizations with $100 billion or more in total assets on a tailored basis based on asset size and other risk-related factors to prevent or mitigate risks to the financial stability of the United States or to promote the safety and soundness of a bank holding company. In November 2019, the FRB, along with the FDIC and the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (the “OCC”), adopted a framework for tailoring the applicability of enhanced prudential standards for banking organizations with $100 billion or more in assets (the “Tailoring Rules”). The Tailoring Rules are further discussed below. Total assets are calculated based on a trailing four-quarter average. BancShares first became subject to the enhanced prudential standards in connection with the CIT Merger, and now BancShares is treated as a Category IV banking organization under the Tailoring Rules, as further discussed below.
•Capital Planning and Stress Testing. The Dodd-Frank Act mandated company-run stress tests be performed by banking organizations with $10 billion or more in total assets to ensure financial institutions have sufficient capital to absorb losses and support operations during multiple economic and bank scenarios. The EGRRCPA gave immediate relief from the Dodd-Frank Act and company-run stress testing for banking organizations with less than $250 billion in total consolidated assets. Therefore, BancShares is not subject to Dodd-Frank Act company-run stress testing (“DFAST”) until such time that it has $250 billion or more in total assets, based on a trailing four-quarter average. Notwithstanding these amendments to the stress testing requirements, bank holding companies with $100 billion or more in total consolidated assets are subject to supervisory stress testing by the FRB under the Federal Reserve’s Comprehensive Capital Analysis and Review (“CCAR”). BancShares has over $100 billion in total consolidated assets, and we are subject to biennial supervisory stress testing by the Federal Reserve under the CCAR process as a Category IV banking organization in accordance with the applicable transition provisions. BancShares, as a Category IV banking organization, is also required to develop, maintain, and submit an annual capital plan to the Federal Reserve. BancShares has made substantial progress in developing policies, programs, and systems designed to comply with capital planning and stress testing requirements.
•Resolution Planning. Under the Dodd-Frank Act, as amended by the EGRRCPA, bank holding companies with $250 billion or more in total consolidated assets are required to develop and maintain resolution plans (commonly referred to as “Living Wills”) to support the orderly resolution of large banking organizations. Under the regulations promulgated by the FRB and FDIC implementing the Living Wills requirement, currently only Category I, II, and III banking organizations are required to submit resolution plans. Therefore, BancShares as a Category IV banking organization is not required to submit a resolution plan under the Living Wills requirement. As further discussed below, FCB is required to submit a resolution plan under the FDIC’s resolution plan requirement for insured depository institutions (“IDIs”) with $50 billion or more in total consolidated assets under its covered insured depository institution rule (“CIDI Rule”).
•The Volcker Rule. The Volcker Rule was promulgated to implement provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act. It generally prohibits banks and their affiliates from engaging in proprietary trading and investing in and sponsoring hedge funds and private equity funds, subject to certain exemptions. The EGRRCPA exempted many financial institutions with total consolidated assets of less than $10 billion from the Volcker Rule, but it continues to apply to BancShares. However, the Volcker Rule does not significantly impact our operations as we do not have any significant engagement in such prohibited businesses.
•Ability-to-Repay and Qualified Mortgage Rule. Creditors are required to comply with mortgage reform provisions prohibiting the origination of any residential mortgages that do not meet rigorous Qualified Mortgage (“QM”) standards or Ability-to-Repay (“ATR”) standards. All mortgage loans originated by FCB meet ATR standards and a substantial majority also meet QM standards. The EGRRCPA impact on the original ATR and QM standards is only applicable to banks with less than $10 billion in total consolidated assets.
•Reciprocal Deposits are not treated as Brokered Deposits. Section 29 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act (the “FDI Act”) and the FDIC’s implementing regulations limit the ability of an IDI to accept brokered deposits unless the institution is well-capitalized under the Prompt Corrective Action (the “PCA”) under the FDI Act, or the IDI is adequately capitalized and obtains a waiver from the FDIC. IDIs that are less than well-capitalized are not able to accept brokered deposits, and are subject to restrictions on the interest rates paid on deposits. In addition, deposits that are considered “brokered” are subject to higher deposit assessments. EGRRCPA amended the FDI Act to add a limited exception under which IDIs that are well-capitalized or adequately capitalized and meet certain other criteria are able to exempt from treatment as “brokered” deposits up to $5 billion or 20 percent of the institution’s total liabilities in reciprocal deposits (defined generally as deposits received by a depository institution through a deposit placement network with the same maturity and in the same aggregate amount as deposits placed by the depository institution in other network institutions). In addition, in December 2020, the FDIC amended its regulations governing “brokered deposits” to clarify and modernize this regulatory framework. Notable aspects of the final rule include (1) the establishment of bright-line standards for determining whether an entity meets the statutory definition of “deposit broker”; (2) the identification of a number of business relationships that qualify for the “primary purpose” exception for agents to avoid being deemed a “deposit broker” for the placement of funds with depository institutions; (3) the establishment of a more transparent application process for entities that seek to rely upon the “primary purpose” exception but do not qualify for one of the identified exceptions for business relationships deemed to satisfy the “primary purpose” exception; and (4) the clarification that third parties that have an exclusive deposit-placement arrangement with one IDI are not considered a “deposit broker.” The final rule became effective April 1, 2021, with full compliance required by January 1, 2022.
First Citizens BancShares, Inc.
General. As a bank holding company registered under the BHCA, the Parent Company is subject to supervision, regulation and examination by the Federal Reserve. As a “financial holding company” (“FHC”), the Parent Company may engage in or acquire and retain the shares of a company engaged in activities that are “financial in nature” as long as the Parent Company continues to meet the eligible requirements for FHC status, including that the Parent Company and FCB each remain “well-capitalized” and “well-managed.” Activities that are “financial in nature” include securities underwriting, dealing and market making, advising mutual funds and investment companies, insurance underwriting and agency, merchant banking, and any activities that the Federal Reserve in consultation with the Secretary of the Treasury determines to be in “financial in nature,” “complementary” or “incidental” to such financial activity. The Parent Company is also registered under the bank holding company laws of North Carolina and is subject to supervision, regulation and examination by the North Carolina Commissioner of Banks (“NCCOB”).
Enhanced Prudential Standards and Enhanced Supervision. A bank holding company with total consolidated assets of $250 billion or more is subject to enhanced prudential standards under the Dodd-Frank Act, as amended by EGRRCPA, with the requirements tailored based on risk-based factors identified by the federal banking agencies. Consistent with the authority of the FRB under the Dodd-Frank Act, a bank holding company with $100 billion or more in assets, but less than $250 billion in assets is subject to certain enhanced prudential standards as implemented by the Tailoring Rules. Under the Tailoring Rules, banking organizations are grouped into four categories, based on asset size, off-balance sheet exposure, nonbank assets, weighted short-term wholesale funding, and cross-jurisdictional activities. Category I banking organizations (i.e., U.S. GSIBs) are subject to the most stringent enhanced prudential requirements, and Category IV banking organizations (i.e., between $100 billion and $250 billion in total consolidated assets, and less than $75 billion in nonbank assets, off-balance sheet exposure, cross-jurisdictional activities, and weighted short-term wholesale funding) are subject to the least stringent requirements.
BancShares has between $100 billion and $250 billion in total consolidated assets and therefore, is required to comply with certain enhanced prudential standards applicable to Category IV banking organizations, subject to the applicable transition periods. BancShares has developed policies, programs, and systems designed to meet such enhanced prudential standards, including annual capital plan submissions and supervisory stress testing by the Federal Reserve under CCAR, enhanced enterprise-wide risk management requirements, and enhanced liquidity management requirements, including liquidity stress tests and liquidity buffer requirements. In the event BancShares’ assets grow to meet or exceed the thresholds for the asset size or other risk-based factors, BancShares will be subject to other enhanced prudential standards on a tailored basis. For example, if BancShares has $50 billion or more in weighted short-term wholesale funding, it will be subject to modified liquidity coverage ratio (“LCR”) and net stable funding ratio (“NSFR”) requirements. In the event BancShares becomes a Category III banking organization, BancShares will be subject to full or reduced LCR and NSFR requirements, annual company-run capital stress testing, resolution planning requirements, annual supervisory capital stress testing under CCAR, additional risk-based capital requirements (countercyclical buffer), the supplementary leverage ratio, and additional liquidity reporting requirements.
Permitted Activities. A bank holding company is limited to managing or controlling banks, furnishing services to or performing services for its subsidiaries, and engaging in other activities the Federal Reserve determines by regulation or order to be so closely related to banking or managing or controlling banks as to be a proper incident thereto. In addition, bank holding companies that qualify and elect to be financial holding companies, such as the Parent Company, may engage in any activity, or acquire and retain the shares of a company engaged in any activity, that is either (i) financial in nature or incidental to such financial activity (as determined by the Federal Reserve in consultation with the Secretary of the Treasury) or (ii) complementary to a financial activity and does not pose a substantial risk to the safety and soundness of depository institutions or the financial system generally (as solely determined by the Federal Reserve), without prior approval of the Federal Reserve. Activities financial in nature include securities underwriting and dealing, serving as an insurance agent and underwriter and engaging in merchant banking.
Acquisitions. The Parent Company is subject to various laws that may require regulatory approval for acquisitions. For example, under the BHCA, a bank holding company must obtain approval from the Federal Reserve prior to directly or indirectly acquiring ownership or control of 5% of the voting shares or substantially all of the assets of another bank holding company or bank or prior to merging or consolidating with another bank holding company. The BHCA and other federal laws enumerate the factors the Federal Reserve must consider when reviewing the merger of bank holding companies, the acquisition of banks or the acquisition of voting securities of a bank or bank holding company. These factors include the competitive effects of the proposal in the relevant geographic markets; the financial and managerial resources and future prospects of the companies and banks involved in the transaction; the effect of the transaction on the financial stability of the United States; the organizations' compliance with anti-money laundering laws and regulations; the convenience and needs of the communities to be served; and the records of performance under the Community Reinvestment Act of 1977 of the IDI involved in the transaction.
Status Requirements. To maintain FHC status, a FHC and all of its depository institution subsidiaries must be well-capitalized and well-managed. A depository institution subsidiary is considered to be well-capitalized if it satisfies the requirements for this status under applicable Federal Reserve capital requirements. A depository institution subsidiary is considered well managed if it received a composite rating and management rating of at least “satisfactory” in its most recent examination. As a Category IV banking organization, BancShares will transition from the Federal Reserve’s RFI rating system to the rating system for large financial institutions (“LFI”), referred to as the LFI rating system. Under the LFI rating system, the FRB assigns ratings based on three supervisory components: (i) capital planning and positions, (ii) liquidity risk management and positions, and (iii) governance and controls. The LFI rating system scale differs from the RFI rating system scale. The LFI rating system has a four-category, non-numeric rating scale with no single composite rating or scoring. The four rating categories are “Broadly Meets Expectations,” “Conditionally Meets Expectations,” “Deficient-1” and “Deficient-2.” A banking organization must receive at least “Conditionally Meets Expectations” for each of the component ratings to be considered “well managed.” If a FHC ceases to meet these capital and management requirements, the Federal Reserve may impose limitations or conditions on the conduct of its activities.
Capital Requirements. The Federal Reserve imposes certain capital requirements on bank holding companies under the BHCA, including a minimum leverage ratio and minimum ratios of “qualifying” capital to risk-weighted assets. The metrics utilized to measure regulatory capital include the Tier 1 leverage ratio and the total, Tier 1, and common equity Tier 1 risk based capital ratios (collectively, the “Regulatory Capital Ratios”). Federal banking agencies approved regulatory capital guidelines (“Basel III”) aimed at strengthening previous capital requirements for banking organizations. Basel III became effective for BancShares on January 1, 2015 and the associated capital conservation buffers of 2.5% were fully phased in by January 1, 2019. The capital conservation buffer is designed to absorb losses during periods of economic stress. Additionally, federal banking agencies have developed PCA well-capitalized thresholds for Regulatory Capital Ratios. The following table includes the Basel III requirements and PCA well-capitalized thresholds for the Regulatory Capital Ratios.
|Basel III Minimums||Basel III Conservation Buffers||Basel III Requirements||PCA Well-Capitalized Thresholds|
|Regulatory Capital Ratios|
|Total risk-based capital||8.00 ||%||2.50 ||%||10.50 ||%||10.00 ||%|
|Tier 1 risk-based capital||6.00 ||2.50 ||8.50 ||8.00 |
|Common equity Tier 1||4.50 ||2.50 ||7.00 ||6.50 |
|Tier 1 leverage||4.00 ||— ||4.00 ||5.00 |
Failure to meet regulatory capital requirements may result in certain actions by federal banking agencies that could have a direct material effect on the consolidated financial statements of BancShares and constraints on capital distributions and discretionary executive compensation. As of December 31, 2022, the Regulatory Capital Ratios of BancShares exceeded the applicable Basel III requirements and the well-capitalized thresholds as further addressed under “Stockholders’ Equity and Capital Adequacy” in Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
As a result of the CIT Merger, BancShares will be subject to the Federal Reserve’s stress capital buffer (“SCB”) requirement, which is set through CCAR stress testing. On January 19, 2021, the Federal Reserve finalized regulatory amendments related to the SCB requirements for Category IV banking organizations to be consistent with the Tailoring Rules. The SCB reflects losses under the severely adverse scenario of the CCAR supervisory stress tests. The Federal Reserve calculates a SCB as the greater of (i) the difference between the firm’s starting and minimum projected Common Equity Tier 1 (“CET1”) Risk-Based Capital Ratio under the severely adverse scenario in the supervisory stress test, plus the sum of dollar amount of the firm’s planned common stock dividends for each of the fourth through seventh quarters of the planning horizon as a percentage of risk-weighted assets, or (ii) 2.5 percent. The SCB calculated by the Federal Reserve replaces the static 2.5 percent capital conservation buffer required by Basel III. As noted above, the CCAR supervisory stress tests are distinct from DFAST, and BancShares will not be subject to DFAST requirements until it has $250 billion or more in total consolidated assets, pursuant to the EGRRCPA.
Source of Strength. Under the Dodd-Frank Act, bank holding companies are required to act as a source of financial and managerial strength to their subsidiary banks. Under this requirement, the Parent Company is expected to commit resources to support FCB, including times when the Parent Company may not be in a financial position to provide such resources. Any capital loans made by a bank holding company to any of its subsidiary banks are subordinate in right of payment to depositors and to certain other indebtedness of such subsidiary banks. In the event of a bank holding company’s bankruptcy, any commitment by the bank holding company to a federal bank regulatory agency to maintain the capital of a subsidiary bank will be assumed by the bankruptcy trustee and entitled to priority of payment.
Safety and Soundness. The federal bank regulatory agencies have adopted guidelines prescribing safety and soundness standards. These guidelines establish general standards relating to internal controls and information systems, internal audit systems, loan documentation, credit underwriting, interest rate exposure, asset growth and compensation, fees and benefits. In general, the guidelines require, among other things, appropriate systems and practices to identify and manage the risk and exposures specified in the guidelines. There are a number of obligations and restrictions imposed on bank holding companies and their subsidiary banks by law and regulatory policy that are designed to minimize potential loss to the depositors of such depository institutions and to the FDIC insurance fund in the event of a depository institution default. As noted above, BancShares became a Category IV banking organization and is subject to enhanced prudential standards and enhanced supervision under the Tailoring Rules subject to the applicable transition periods.
Limits on Dividends and Other Payments. The Parent Company is a legal entity, separate and distinct from its subsidiaries. Revenues of the Parent Company primarily result from dividends received from FCB. There are various legal limitations applicable to the payment of dividends by FCB to the Parent Company and to the payment of dividends by the Parent Company to its stockholders. The payment of dividends by FCB or the Parent Company may be limited by certain factors, such as requirements to maintain capital above regulatory guidelines. Bank regulatory agencies have the authority to prohibit FCB or the Parent Company from engaging in an unsafe or unsound practice in conducting their business. The payment of dividends, depending on the financial condition of FCB or the Parent Company, could be deemed to constitute such an unsafe or unsound practice. BancShares became a Category IV banking organization and is required to submit a capital plan annually to the Federal Reserve in accordance with the applicable transition provisions. The annual capital plan will include planned capital distributions over a specified forecasting horizon. BancShares is subject to biennial supervisory capital stress testing under the Federal Reserve’s CCAR process. The SCB would replace the static 2.5% component of the capital conservation buffer with a capital buffer that is based on supervisory stress test results and the Parent Company’s planned capital distributions. As discussed above, BancShares’ SCB would be calculated as the greater of (i) the difference between BancShares’ starting and minimum projected CET1 capital ratios under the severely adverse scenario in the supervisory stress test plus four quarters of planned common stock dividends as a percentage of risk-weighted assets and (ii) 2.5 percent. BancShares’ supervisory stress testing results under CCAR could impact the ability of the Parent Company to declare dividends or make other capital distributions, including common share repurchases.
Additionally, under the FDI Act, IDIs, such as FCB, are prohibited from making capital distributions, including the payment of dividends, if, after making such distributions, the institution would become “undercapitalized” as such term is used in the statute. Additionally, under Basel III capital guidelines, banking institutions with a Regulatory Capital Ratio above the Basel III minimum, but below the Basel III requirement will face constraints on dividends, equity repurchases and compensation based on the amount of the shortfall. Based on FCB’s current financial condition, the Parent Company currently does not expect these provisions to have any material impact on its ability to receive dividends from FCB. The Parent Company’s non-bank subsidiaries pay dividends to the Parent Company periodically on a non-regulated basis.
Crypto-Asset Related Activities. On August 16, 2022, the FRB released supervisory guidance (“SR 22-6”) encouraging all banking organizations supervised by the agency to notify its lead supervisory point of contact at the Federal Reserve prior to engaging in any crypto-asset related activity. Prior to engaging in any such activities, the banking organization is expected to ensure that the activities are legally permissible under relevant state and federal laws, and ensure that the banking organization has adequate systems, risk management, and controls to ensure that the activities are conducted in a safe and sound manner consistent with applicable laws, including consumer protection laws. On April 7, 2022, the FDIC issued a financial institution letter also requiring its supervised institutions to provide notice and obtain supervisory feedback prior to engaging in any crypto-related activities. BancShares does not engage in any such activities.
Subsidiary Bank - FCB
General. FCB is a state-chartered bank, subject to supervision and examination by, and the regulations and reporting requirements of, the FDIC and the NCCOB. Deposit obligations are insured by the FDIC to the maximum legal limits. As an IDI with $100 billion or more in total consolidated assets, FCB is subject to certain additional requirements under the FDIC’s regulations (e.g., Resolution Plans under the CIDI Rule, additional reporting in the Call Report using FFIEC Form 031 rather than Form 041). FCB is also subject to enforcement, supervisory and examination authorities of the CFPB.
FDIC Deposit Insurance Assessment Rates. As an IDI, FCB is required to pay the FDIC premiums for deposit insurance. On October 18, 2022, the FDIC adopted a final rule to increase initial base deposit insurance assessment rate schedules by 2 points, beginning in the first quarterly assessment period of 2023. This price increase will be instituted to account for extraordinary growth in insured deposits during the first and second quarters of 2020 which caused the Depositors Insurance Fund (“DIF”) reserve ratio to decline below the statutory minimum of 1.35%. The increased assessment rate schedules will remain in effect until the reserve ratio meets or exceeds 2 percent, absent further action by the FDIC.
Capital Requirements. The Basel III and PCA well-capitalized thresholds for the Regulatory Capital Ratios are described above in the Parent Company “Capital Requirements” discussion. Failure to meet regulatory capital requirements may result in certain actions by federal banking agencies that could have a direct material effect on the consolidated financial statements of FCB. As of December 31, 2022, the Regulatory Capital Ratios of FCB exceeded the applicable Basel III requirements and the well-capitalized thresholds as further addressed under “Stockholders’ Equity and Capital Adequacy” in Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
Although FCB is unable to control the external factors influencing its business, by maintaining high levels of balance sheet liquidity, prudently managing interest rate exposures, ensuring capital positions remain strong and actively monitoring asset quality, FCB seeks to minimize the potentially adverse risks of unforeseen and unfavorable economic trends and to take advantage of favorable economic conditions and opportunities when appropriate.
Covered Insured Depository Institution Contingency Planning Requirements. Under the FDIC’s CIDI Rule, an IDI with $50 billion or more in total assets is required to submit periodically to the FDIC a contingency plan for the resolution of the institution in the event of its failure (“Resolution Plan”). The FDIC requires the Resolution Plan to ensure that the FDIC, as receiver, would be able to resolve the institution pursuant to the receivership provisions of the FDI Act. In April 2019, the FDIC issued an advance notice of proposed rulemaking to amend the CIDI Rule, and suspended the requirement to submit Resolution Plans until further notice. In January 2021, the FDIC announced that it would resume Resolution Plan requirements for IDIs with $100 billion in assets. On June 25, 2021, the FDIC issued a policy statement, describing a new framework for the implementation of the CIDI Rule. The FDIC has stated that it will provide covered IDIs with 12 months advance notice prior to the submission deadline of its Resolution Plan.
FCB has not previously submitted a Resolution Plan under the CIDI Rule. FCB has been informed by the FDIC that it will be required to submit its first Resolution Plan under the CIDI Rule once notified by the FDIC.
Transactions with Affiliates. Pursuant to Sections 23A and 23B of the Federal Reserve Act, Regulation W and Regulation O, the authority of FCB to engage in transactions with related parties or “affiliates” or to make loans to insiders is limited. Loan transactions with an affiliate generally must be collateralized and certain transactions between FCB and its affiliates, including the sale of assets, the payment of money or the provision of services, must be on terms and conditions that are substantially the same, or at least as favorable to FCB, as those prevailing for comparable nonaffiliated transactions. In addition, FCB generally may not purchase securities issued or underwritten by affiliates.
FCB receives management fees from its subsidiaries and the Parent Company for expenses incurred for performing various functions on their behalf. These fees are charged to each company based upon the estimated cost for usage of services by that company. The fees are eliminated from the consolidated financial statements.
Community Reinvestment Act. FCB is subject to the requirements of the Community Reinvestment Act of 1977 (“CRA”). The CRA imposes on financial institutions an affirmative and ongoing obligation to meet the credit needs of the local communities, including low- and moderate-income (“LMI”) neighborhoods. If FCB receives a rating from the Federal Reserve of less than “satisfactory” under the CRA, restrictions would be imposed on our operating activities. In addition, in order for a FHC, like the Parent Company, to commence any new activity permitted by the BHCA or to acquire any company engaged in any new activity permitted by the BHCA, each IDI subsidiary of the FHC must have received a rating of at least “satisfactory” in its most recent examination under the CRA. FCB currently has a “satisfactory” CRA rating.
On May 5, 2022, the FRB, FDIC, and OCC issued a joint notice of proposed rulemaking to revise the regulations implementing the CRA. Under the proposal, the agencies would evaluate bank performance across the varied activities they conduct and communities in which they operate, and tailor CRA evaluations and data collection to bank size and type. Further, the agencies would also emphasize smaller value loans and investments that can have high impact and be more responsive to the needs of LMI communities, and would update CRA assessment areas to include activities associated with online and mobile banking, branchless banking, and hybrid models. Additionally, the proposal would adopt a metrics-based approach to CRA evaluations of retail lending and community development financing, including public benchmarks, and clarify eligible CRA activities, such as affordable housing, that are focused on LMI, underserved, and rural communities.
As part of the CIT Merger, BancShares adopted a community benefit plan, developed in collaboration with representatives of community reinvestment organizations, for the combined bank. Under the Community Benefit Plan, FCB will invest $16 billion in the communities served by FCB, including $2.5 billion in home purchase mortgage loans focusing on LMI and minority borrowers in majority-minority (“MM”) geographies and $5 million in discounts or subsidies on home purchase and home improvement loans to borrowers in MM census tracts in the combined bank’s footprint in California.
Anti-Money Laundering and the United States Department of the Treasury’s Office of Foreign Asset Control (“OFAC”) Regulation. Governmental policy in recent years has been aimed at combating money laundering and terrorist financing. The BSA and subsequent laws and regulations require financial institutions to take steps to prevent the use of their systems to facilitate the flow of illegal or illicit money or terrorist funds and to report certain activity to the government. The USA PATRIOT Act of 2001 (“Patriot Act”) significantly expanded AML and financial transparency laws and regulations by imposing new compliance and due diligence obligations, including standards for verifying customer identification at account opening and maintaining expanded records, as well as rules promoting cooperation among financial institutions, regulators and law enforcement entities in identifying persons who may be involved in terrorism or money laundering. These rules were expanded to require new customer due diligence and beneficial ownership requirements in 2018.
An institution subject to the BSA, such as FCB (and FC International), in addition to maintaining a written BSA/AML compliance program, must also provide AML training to employees, designate an AML compliance officer and annually audit the AML program to assess its effectiveness. The United States has imposed economic sanctions on transactions with certain designated foreign countries, nationals and others. As these rules are administrated by OFAC, these are generally known as the OFAC rules. Failure of a financial institution to maintain and implement adequate BSA, AML and OFAC programs, or to comply with all the relevant laws and regulations, could have serious legal and reputational consequences, including material fines and sanctions. FCB has implemented a program designed to facilitate compliance with the full extent of the applicable BSA and OFAC related laws, regulations and related sanctions.
On January 1, 2021, Congress passed the National Defense Authorization Act, which enacted the most significant overhaul of the BSA and related anti-money laundering laws since the Patriot Act. Notable amendments include (1) significant changes to the collection of beneficial ownership information and the establishment of a beneficial ownership registry, which requires corporate entities (generally, any corporation, LLC, or other similar entity with 20 or fewer employees and annual gross income of $5 million or less) to report beneficial ownership information to FinCEN (which will be maintained by FinCEN and made available upon request to financial institutions); (2) enhanced whistleblower provisions, which provide that one or more whistleblowers who voluntarily provide original information leading to the successful enforcement of violations of the AML laws in any judicial or administrative action brought by the Secretary of the Treasury or the Attorney General resulting in monetary sanctions exceeding $1 million (including disgorgement and interest but excluding forfeiture, restitution, or compensation to victims) will receive not more than 30% of the monetary sanctions collected and will receive increased protections; (3) increased penalties for violations of the BSA; (4) improvements to existing information sharing provisions that permit financial institutions to share information relating to Suspicious Activity Reports (SARs) with foreign branches, subsidiaries, and affiliates (except those located in China, Russia, or certain other jurisdictions) for the purpose of combating illicit finance risks; and (5) expanded duties and powers of FinCEN. Many of the amendments require the Treasury Department and FinCEN to promulgate rules. On September 29, 2022, FinCEN issued final regulations implementing the amendments with respect to beneficial ownership.
Consumer Laws and Regulations. FCB is also subject to certain laws and regulations designed to protect consumers in transactions with banks. These laws include the Truth in Lending Act (“TILA”), the Truth in Savings Act, the Electronic Funds Transfer Act, the Expedited Funds Availability Act, the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act, Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, the Fair Credit Reporting Act, the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act, the Fair Housing Act and the Servicemembers Civil Relief Act. The laws and related regulations mandate certain disclosures and regulate the manner in which financial institutions transact business with certain customers. FCB must comply with these consumer protection laws and regulations in its relevant lines of business.
To promote fairness and transparency for mortgages, credit cards, and other consumer financial products and services, the CFPB is responsible for interpreting and enforcing federal consumer financial laws, as defined by the Dodd-Frank Act, that, among other things, govern the provision of deposit accounts along with mortgage origination and servicing. Some federal consumer financial laws enforced by the CFPB include the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, TILA, the Truth in Savings Act, the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (“RESPA”), the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act, and the Fair Credit Reporting Act. The CFPB is also authorized to prevent any institution under its authority from engaging in an unfair, deceptive, or abusive act or practice in connection with consumer financial products and services.
Under TILA, as implemented by Regulation Z, mortgage lenders are required to make a reasonable and good faith determination based on verified and documented information that a consumer applying for a mortgage loan has a reasonable ability to repay the loan according to its terms. Mortgage lenders are required to determine consumers’ ability to repay in one of two ways. The first alternative requires the mortgage lender to consider the following eight underwriting factors when making the credit decision: (1) current or reasonably expected income or assets; (2) current employment status; (3) the monthly payment on the covered transaction; (4) the monthly payment on any simultaneous loan; (5) the monthly payment for mortgage-related obligations; (6) current debt obligations, alimony, and child support; (7) the monthly DTI ratio or residual income; and (8) credit history. Alternatively, the mortgage lender can originate QMs, which are entitled to a presumption that the creditor making the loan satisfied the ATR requirements. In general, a QM is a mortgage loan without negative amortization, interest-only payments, balloon payments, or terms exceeding 30 years. In addition, to be a QM the points and fees paid by a consumer cannot exceed 3% of the total loan amount.
On December 10, 2020, the CFPB issued two final rules related to QM loans. The first rule replaces the strict 43% DTI threshold for QM loans and provides that, in addition to existing requirements, a loan receives a conclusive presumption that the consumer had the ability to repay if the APR does not exceed the average prime offer rate for a comparable transaction by 1.5 percentage points or more as of the date the interest rate is set. Further, a loan receives a rebuttable presumption that the consumer had the ability to repay if the APR exceeds the average prime offer rate for a comparable transaction by 1.5 percentage points or more but by less than 2.25 percentage points. The second rule creates a new category of “seasoned” QMs for loans that meet certain performance requirements. That rule allows a non-QM loan or a “rebuttable presumption” QM loan to receive a safe harbor from ATR liability at the end of a “seasoning” period of at least 36 months as a “seasoned QM” if it satisfies certain product restrictions, points-and-fees limits, and underwriting requirements, and the loan meets the designated performance and portfolio requirements during the “seasoning period.” The mandatory compliance date under the first final rule was July 1, 2021, but subsequently was delayed by the CFPB to October 1, 2022. The second final rule will apply to covered transactions for which institutions receive an application after the compliance date for the first final rule.
Additionally, the CFPB has the authority to take supervisory and enforcement action against banks and other financial services companies under the agency’s jurisdiction that fail to comply with federal consumer financial laws. As an IDI with total assets of more than $10 billion, FCB is subject to the CFPB’s supervisory and enforcement authorities. The Dodd-Frank Act also permits states to adopt stricter consumer protection laws and state attorneys general to enforce consumer protection rules issued by the CFPB. As a result of these aspects of the Dodd-Frank Act, FCB operates in a stringent consumer compliance environment. The CFPB has been active in bringing enforcement actions against banks and other financial institutions to enforce consumer financial laws. The federal financial regulatory agencies, including the FDIC and states attorneys general, also have become increasingly active in this area with respect to institutions over which they have jurisdiction.
Pursuant to the Dodd-Frank Act, the FDIC has backup enforcement authority over a depository institution holding company, such as the Parent Company, if the conduct or threatened conduct of such holding company poses a risk to the DIF, although such authority may not be used if the holding company is generally in sound condition and does not pose a foreseeable and material risk to the DIF. The Dodd-Frank Act may have a material impact on BancShares’ operations, particularly through increased compliance costs resulting from possible future consumer and fair lending regulations. Refer to Item 1A. Risk Factors below for a more extensive discussion of this topic.
Other Regulations applicable to the Parent Company and FCB
Privacy, Data Protection, and Cybersecurity. We are subject to a number of U.S. federal, state, local and foreign laws and regulations relating to consumer privacy and data protection. Under privacy protection provisions of the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act of 1999 (“GLBA”) and its implementing regulations and guidance, we are limited in our ability to disclose certain non-public information about consumers to nonaffiliated third parties. Financial institutions, such as us, are required by statute and regulation to notify consumers of their privacy policies and practices and, in some circumstances, allow consumers to prevent disclosure of certain personal information to a nonaffiliated third party. In addition, such financial institutions must appropriately safeguard their customers’ nonpublic, personal information.
Consumers must be notified in the event of a data breach under applicable state laws. The changing privacy laws in the United States, Europe and elsewhere, including the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018, (the “CCPA”), which became effective on January 1, 2020, applies to for-profit businesses that conduct business in California and meet certain revenue or data collection thresholds. The CCPA gives consumers the right to request disclosure of information collected about them, and whether that information has been sold or shared with others, the right to request deletion of personal information (subject to certain exceptions), the right to opt out of the sale of the consumer’s personal information, and the right not to be discriminated against for exercising these rights. The CCPA contains several exemptions, including for information that is collected, processed, sold or disclosed pursuant to the GLBA. In November 2020, voters in the State of California approved the California Privacy Rights Act (“CPRA”), a ballot measure that amends and supplements the CCPA by creating the California Privacy Protection Agency, a watchdog privacy agency with the authority to issue regulations and guidance and to enforce the CCPA. The CPRA also modifies the CCPA by expanding both the scope of businesses covered by the law and certain rights relating to personal information and its use, collection, and disclosure by covered businesses. The California Privacy Protection Agency has issued proposed rules which would implement the CPRA but has not yet made them final or stated when final rules are likely to be enacted. Similar laws have and may be adopted by other states where BancShares does business. For instance, on October 25, 2022, the New York State Department of Financial Services issued a proposed rule that would, among other things, amend its cybersecurity regulation to create new tiers of regulated entities with tailored regulatory requirements, establish enhanced governance requirements, and require additional cybersecurity controls.
In addition, multiple other states, Congress and regulators outside the United States are considering similar laws or regulations which could create new individual privacy rights and impose increased obligations on companies handling personal data. For example, on November 23, 2021, the federal financial regulatory agencies published a final rule that will impose upon banking organizations and their service providers new notification requirements for significant cybersecurity incidents (the “Cybersecurity Rule”). Specifically, the Cybersecurity Rule requires banking organizations to notify their primary federal regulator as soon as possible and no later than 36 hours after the discovery of a “computer-security incident” that rises to the level of a “notification incident” within the meaning attributed to those terms by the Cybersecurity Rule. Banks’ service providers are required under the Cybersecurity Rule to notify any affected bank to or on behalf of which the service provider provides services “as soon as possible” after determining that it has experienced an incident that materially disrupts or degrades, or is reasonably likely to materially disrupt or degrade, covered services provided to such bank for as much as four hours. The Cybersecurity Rule took effect on April 1, 2022 and banks and their service providers were required to be in compliance with the rule by May 1, 2022.
Federal banking agencies, including the FDIC, have adopted guidelines for establishing information security standards and cybersecurity programs for implementing safeguards under the supervision of the board of directors. These guidelines, along with related regulatory materials, increasingly focus on risk management and processes related to information technology and the use of third parties in the provision of financial services.
Climate-Related Regulation and Risk Management. In recent years the federal banking agencies have increased their focus on climate-related risks impacting the operations of banks, the communities they serve and the broader financial system. Accordingly, the agencies have begun to enhance their supervisory expectations regarding the climate risk management practices of larger banking organizations, such as BancShares, including by encouraging such banks to: ensure that management of climate-related risk exposures has been incorporated into existing governance structures; evaluate the potential impact of climate-related risks on the bank’s financial condition, operations and business objectives as part of its strategic planning process; account for the effects of climate change in stress testing scenarios and systemic risk assessments; revise expectations for credit portfolio concentrations based on climate-related factors; consider investments in climate-related initiatives and lending to communities disproportionately impacted by the effects of climate change; evaluate the impact of climate change on the bank’s borrowers and consider possible changes to underwriting criteria to account for climate-related risks to mortgaged properties; incorporate climate-related financial risk into the bank’s internal reporting, monitoring and escalation processes; and prepare for the transition risks to the bank associated with the adjustment to a low-carbon economy and related changes in laws, regulations, governmental policies, technology, and consumer behavior and expectations.
On October 21, 2021, the Financial Stability Oversight Council published a report identifying climate-related financial risk as an “emerging threat” to financial stability. On December 16, 2021, the OCC issued proposed principles for climate-related financial risk management for national banks with more than $100 billion in total assets. On March 30, 2022 and December 2, 2022, the FDIC and FRB issued their own proposed principles, respectively, for climate risk management by larger banking organizations. The regulators have also indicated that all banks, regardless of their size, may have material exposures to climate-related financial and other risks that require prudent management. The FRB, as the last agency to issue proposed guidance, indicated that it will work with the other two agencies in issuing any final guidance. The proposed principles in the guidance would cover the following areas: strategic planning; governance; policies, procedures, and limits; data, risk measurement and reporting; risk management; and scenario analysis. The proposed guidance would also suggest how climate-related financial risks can be addressed in specific prudential risk areas including liquidity, credit, other financial risks, operational, legal and compliance, and other non-financial risks. If adopted as final guidance, BancShares as a banking organization with $100 billion or more in total assets will be expected to implement the principles under the guidance to demonstrate to the FRB (and the FDIC) that BancShares and FCB are operating in a safe and sound manner. In addition, states in which we conduct business have taken, or are considering taking, similar actions on climate-related financial risks.
Compensation. Our compensation practices are subject to oversight by the Federal Reserve and, with respect to some of our subsidiaries, by other financial regulatory agencies. The federal banking regulators have issued joint guidance on executive compensation designed to ensure that the incentive compensation policies of banking organizations take into account risk factors and are consistent with the safety and soundness of the organization. The guidance also provides that supervisory findings with respect to incentive compensation will be incorporated into the organization’s supervisory ratings, which can affect its ability to make acquisitions or other corporate decisions. The guidance further provides that the regulators may pursue enforcement actions against a banking organization if its incentive compensation and related risk management, control or governance processes pose a risk to the organization’s safe and sound practices. In addition, the Dodd-Frank Act requires the federal banking regulators and the SEC to issue regulations requiring covered financial institutions to prohibit incentive compensation arrangements that encourage inappropriate risks by providing compensation that is excessive or that could lead to material financial loss to the institution. In October 2022, the SEC adopted final rules implementing the incentive-based compensation recovery (“clawback”) provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act. The final rules direct stock exchanges to require listed companies to implement clawback policies to recover incentive-based compensation from current or former executive officers in the event of certain financial restatements and to disclose their clawback policies and their actions under those policies. It is anticipated that most registrants will have until late 2023 or early 2024 to adopt and implement or adjust their policies as applicable.
Other Regulated Subsidiaries
As noted above, certain subsidiaries of the Parent Company and FCB are subject to regulation, supervision, and examination by the SEC, FINRA, state regulatory agencies, and other regulatory authorities as “regulated entities.”
FCB’s insurance activities are subject to licensing and regulation by state insurance regulatory agencies. Each of CIT's insurance subsidiaries acquired by FCB in the CIT Merger is also licensed and regulated in the states in which the subsidiaries conduct insurance business. The extent of such regulation varies, but most jurisdictions have laws and regulations governing the financial aspects and business conduct of insurers. State laws in the U.S. grant insurance regulatory authorities broad administrative powers with respect to, among other things: licensing companies and agents to transact business; establishing statutory capital and reserve requirements and the solvency standards that must be met and maintained; regulating certain premium rates; reviewing and approving policy forms; regulating unfair trade and claims practices, including through the imposition of restrictions on marketing and sales practices, distribution arrangements and payment of inducements; approving changes in control of insurance companies; restricting the payment of dividends and other transactions between affiliates; and regulating the types, amounts and valuation of investments. CIT’s Vermont insurance captive subsidiary (acquired in the CIT Merger) is required to file reports, generally including detailed annual financial statements, with the insurance regulatory authority, and its operations and accounts are subject to periodic examination by such authorities.
Specialty business operations that were under CIT’s Commercial Finance Division prior to the CIT Merger, and specifically the Rail, Maritime, and other equipment financing operations, are subject to various laws, rules, and regulations administered by authorities in jurisdictions where business is conducted. In the United States, equipment financing and leasing operations, including for railcars, ships, and other equipment, are subject to rules and regulations relating to safety, operations, maintenance, and mechanical standards promulgated by various federal and state agencies and industry organizations, including the U.S. Department of Transportation, the Federal Railroad Administration, the Association of American Railroads, the Maritime Administration, the U.S. Coast Guard, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. In addition, state agencies regulate some aspects of rail and maritime operations with respect to health and safety matters.
The Parent Company does not have its own separate Internet website. However, on FCB’s investor relations website (www.ir.firstcitizens.com), we make available BancShares’ Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports, free of charge, as soon as reasonably practicable after they are electronically filed with or furnished to the SEC. Interested parties may also directly access the SEC’s website (www.sec.gov), which contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information electronically filed by BancShares. Except as specifically incorporated by reference into this Annual Report on Form 10-K, information on those websites is not part of this report.
Item 1A. Risk Factors
Risk Factor Summary
We are subject to a number of risks and uncertainties that could have a material impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations and cash flows. As a financial services organization, certain elements of risk are inherent in our transactions and operations and are present in the business decisions we make. We encounter risks as part of the normal course of our business, and our success is dependent on our ability to identify, understand and manage the risks presented by our business activities. We categorize risks into the following areas, and the principal risks and uncertainties that management believes make an investment in us speculative or risky are summarized within their respective areas:
•Strategic Risks: The risks to our earnings or capital arising from our business decisions or improper implementation of those decisions.
▪We may be adversely affected by risks associated with completed, pending or any potential future acquisitions.
▪Our future results will suffer if we do not effectively manage our expanded operations following the CIT Merger.
•Operational Risks: The risks of loss resulting from inadequate or failed processes, people and systems or from external events.
▪We face significant operational risks in our businesses and may fail to maintain appropriate operational infrastructure and oversight.
▪A cyberattack, information or security breach, or a technology outage of ours or of a third party could adversely affect our ability to conduct our business, manage our exposure to risk, result in the disclosure or misuse of confidential customer or employee data or proprietary information, and increase our costs to maintain and update our operational and security systems and infrastructure. This could adversely impact our results of operations, liquidity and financial condition, as well as cause us legal or reputational harm.
•Credit Risks: The risks that a borrower, obligor, or counterparty will fail to perform on an obligation or that our risk management processes will fail or be insufficient.
▪If we fail to effectively manage credit risk, our business and financial condition will suffer.
▪Our allowance for credit losses may prove to be insufficient to absorb losses in our loan portfolios.
•Market Risks: The risks to our financial condition resulting from adverse movements in domestic and international macroeconomic and political conditions, as well as economic output levels, interest and inflation rates, employment levels, prices of commodities, consumer confidence levels, and changes in consumer spending, international trade policy, and fiscal and monetary policy.
▪Unfavorable economic or political conditions, as considered through a range of metrics, have and could continue to adversely affect our business.
▪Failure to effectively manage our interest rate risk could adversely affect us.
•Liquidity Risks: The risks that we will be unable to meet our obligations as they come due because of an inability to (i) liquidate assets or obtain adequate funding, or (ii) unwind or offset specific exposures without significantly lowering market prices because of inadequate market depth or market disruptions, or that we will not meet the liquidity management requirements applicable to us as a Category IV banking organization, subject to the applicable transition periods.
▪If our current level of balance sheet liquidity were to experience pressure, it could affect our ability to pay deposits and fund our operations.
▪We are subject to enhanced liquidity risk management requirements as a Category IV banking organization, subject to the applicable transition periods, including reporting, liquidity stress testing, and a liquidity buffer, as well as resolution planning at the bank level, and failure to meet these requirements could result in regulatory and compliance risks, and possible restrictions on our activities.
•Capital Adequacy Risks: The risks that our capital levels become inadequate to preserve our safety and soundness, support our ongoing business operations and strategies and provide us with support against unexpected or sudden changes in the business/economic environment, or that we will not meet the capital adequacy requirements applicable to us as a Category IV banking organization, subject to the applicable transition periods.
▪Our ability to grow is contingent upon access to capital, which may not be readily available to us.
▪We and FCB are subject to capital adequacy and liquidity guidelines and, if we fail to meet these guidelines, our financial condition and ability to make capital distributions would be adversely affected.
•Compliance Risks: The risks of loss or reputational harm to us resulting from regulatory sanctions, fines, penalties or losses due to our failure to comply with laws, rules, regulations or other supervisory requirements applicable to us.
▪We operate in a highly regulated industry, and the laws and regulations that govern our operations, taxes, corporate governance, executive compensation and financial accounting and reporting, including changes in them or our failure to comply with them, may adversely affect us.
▪Information security and data privacy are areas of heightened legislative and regulatory focus.
•Asset Risks: The risks that the value of our long-lived assets will be lower than expected, resulting in reduced income over the remaining life of the asset or a lower sale value.
▪We may not be able to realize our entire investment in the equipment that we lease to our customers.
•Financial Reporting Risks: The risks that our financial information is reported incorrectly or incompletely, including through the improper application of accounting standards or other errors or omissions.
▪Accounting standards may change and increase our operating costs or otherwise adversely affect our results.
▪Our accounting policies and processes are critical to the reporting of our financial condition and results of operations. They require management to make estimates about matters that are uncertain, and such estimates may be materially different from actual results.
The risks and uncertainties that management believes are material to an investment in us are described below. Additional risks and uncertainties that are not currently known to management or that management does not currently deem material could also have a material adverse impact on our financial condition, the results of our operations or our business. If such risks and uncertainties were to materialize or the likelihoods of the risks were to increase, we could be adversely affected, and the market price of our securities could significantly decline.
We may be adversely affected by risks associated with completed, pending or any potential future acquisitions.
We plan to continue to grow our business organically. However, we have pursued and expect to continue to pursue acquisition opportunities that we believe support our business strategies and may enhance our profitability. For example, on January 3, 2022, we consummated the acquisition of CIT, which added $53.78 billion in total assets, $39.43 billion in deposits and $32.71 billion in loans. We must generally satisfy a number of material conditions prior to consummating any acquisition including, in many cases, federal and state regulatory approval. Among other things, our regulators will consider our capital, liquidity, profitability, regulatory compliance and levels of goodwill when considering acquisition and expansion proposals. We may fail to complete strategic and competitively significant business opportunities as a result of our inability to obtain required regulatory approvals in a timely manner or at all, or the approval for such opportunity could include conditions imposing additional costs or limitations that reduce the anticipated related benefits. On July 9, 2021, President Biden issued the Executive Order, which encouraged federal banking agencies to review the framework for evaluating bank mergers and acquisitions under the BHC Act and the Bank Merger Act. The Executive Order has received significant public support from members of Congress as well as from members of the board of the FDIC and Federal Reserve and the Acting Comptroller of the Currency. The Director of the CFPB” has publicly sought a greater role for the CFPB in the evaluation of bank merger proposals. Any enhanced regulatory scrutiny of bank mergers and acquisitions and revision of the regulatory framework for approval of bank mergers could adversely affect the marketplace for bank merger transactions and could result in potential future acquisitions by us being delayed, impeded or restricted in certain respects and result in new rules that possibly limit the size of financial institutions that we may be able to acquire in the future or alter the terms for such transactions.
We may be unsuccessful in identifying, consummating or integrating any potential acquisitions. Acquisitions of financial institutions, assets of financial institutions or other operating entities involve operational risks and uncertainties. Acquired companies or assets may have unknown or contingent liabilities, exposure to unexpected asset quality problems that require write downs or write-offs, additional regulatory requirements or difficulty retaining key employees and customers.
Due to these and other issues relating to acquisitions, we may not be able to realize projected cost savings, synergies or other benefits associated with any such acquisition. Failure to efficiently integrate any acquired entities or assets into our existing operations could significantly increase our operating costs and consequently have material adverse effects on our financial condition and results of operations.
Our future results will suffer if we do not effectively manage our expanded operations following the CIT Merger.
Following the CIT Merger, the size and geographic and operational scope of our business has increased significantly. The CIT Merger more than doubled our asset size, increased the breadth and complexity of our business with the addition of new business lines in which we have not previously engaged and expanded our geographic scope to new geographic areas. Our future success depends, in part, upon the ability to manage this expanded business, which will pose substantial challenges for management, including challenges related to the management and monitoring of new and expanded operations and associated increased costs and complexity. We may be unsuccessful in this regard or fail to realize the expected operating efficiencies, cost savings and other benefits currently anticipated from the CIT Merger.
We encounter significant competition that may reduce our market share and profitability.
We operate in a highly competitive industry and compete with other banks and specialized financial services providers in our market areas. Our primary competitors include local, regional and national banks; credit unions; commercial finance companies; leasing companies; various wealth management providers; independent and captive insurance agencies; mortgage companies; and other non-bank providers of financial services. Some of our larger competitors, including certain banks with a significant presence in our market areas, have the capacity to offer products and services we do not offer. Some of our non-bank competitors operate in less stringent regulatory environments, and certain competitors are not subject to federal or state income taxes. The fierce competitive pressures that we face adversely affect pricing for many of our products and services.
Additionally, technology and other changes are allowing parties to complete financial transactions that historically have involved banks through alternative methods without involving banks. For example, consumers can now maintain funds that would have historically been held as bank deposits in brokerage accounts, mutual funds or virtual accounts. Consumers can also complete transactions, such as paying bills or transferring funds directly without the assistance of banks. Transactions utilizing digital assets, including cryptocurrencies, stablecoins and other similar assets, have increased substantially. Certain characteristics of digital asset transactions, such as the speed with which such transactions can be conducted, the ability to transact without the involvement of regulated intermediaries, the ability to engage in transactions across multiple jurisdictions, and the anonymous nature of the transactions, are appealing to certain consumers. Accordingly, digital asset service providers—which, at present, are not subject to as extensive regulation as banking organizations and other financial institutions—have become active competitors for our customers’ banking business and may have greater flexibility in competing for business. The process of eliminating banks as intermediaries, known as “disintermediation,” could result in the loss of fee income, as well as the loss of customer deposits and the related income generated from those deposits. The loss of these revenue streams and the lower cost of deposits as a source of funds could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
We may fail to realize all of the anticipated benefits of the CIT Merger, or those benefits may take longer to realize than expected. We may also encounter difficulties in completing the integration of the acquired operations and may incur expenses in excess of those forecasted in connection with the completion.
The success of the CIT Merger, including anticipated benefits and cost savings, depends, in substantial part, on our ability to successfully complete the integration of the acquired operations in a manner that results in various benefits, such as anticipated synergies and cost savings, and that does not materially disrupt existing customer relationships or result in decreased revenues due to loss of customers. Although our merger integration is substantially complete, the process of integrating operations resulted in a loss of key personnel, and we could still discover inconsistencies in standards, controls, procedures and policies, which could adversely affect us. While we have attempted to accurately forecast a certain level of expense and expected cost savings in connection with the integration, there are many factors beyond our control that could affect the total amount and the timing of the integration expense and projected cost savings. In addition, the diversion of management’s attention and any unexpected delays or difficulties encountered in completing the integration of the acquired operations could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, operating results and prospects.
Certain provisions in our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws may prevent a change in management or a takeover attempt that a stockholder might consider to be in their best interests.
We are a banking holding company incorporated in the state of Delaware. Certain anti-takeover provisions under Delaware law and certain provisions contained in our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation (our “Certificate of Incorporation) and Amended and Restated Bylaws (our “Bylaws”) could delay or prevent the removal of our directors and other management. The provisions could also delay or make more difficult a tender offer, merger or proxy contest a stockholder might consider to be in their best interests. For example, our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws:
•allow the Board to issue and set the terms of preferred shares without further stockholder approval;
•limit who can call a special meeting of stockholders;
•establish advance notice requirements for nominations for election to the Board and proposals of other business to be considered at annual meetings of stockholders; and
•authorize the issuance of two classes of common stock, one of which, Class B common stock, par value $1 per share (“Class B common stock”), is entitled to cast 16 votes per share. As of December 31, 2022, approximately 34.1% of the outstanding shares of Class B common stock were owned and entitled to be voted by our directors and executive officers and certain of their affiliates.
These provisions, as well as provisions of the BHC Act and other relevant statutes and regulations that require advance notice and applications for regulatory approval of changes in control of banks and bank holding companies, may discourage bids for our common stock at a premium over market price, adversely affecting the price that could be received by our stockholders for our common stock. Additionally, the fact that the Holding family and entities related to various family members hold or control shares representing approximately 50%, and in the past have held or controlled shares representing more than 50%, of the voting power of our common stock may discourage potential takeover attempts and bids for our common stock at a premium over market price.
Our Bylaws provide that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the sole and exclusive forum for substantially all disputes between us and our stockholders. This could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers, or employees or agents.
Our Bylaws provide that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the sole and exclusive forum for (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of us; (ii) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors, officers, other employees or stockholder to us or our stockholders; (iii) any action asserting a claim against us arising pursuant to any provision of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware or as to which the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware confers jurisdiction on the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware; or (iv) any action asserting a claim against us governed by the internal affairs doctrine. These choice of forum provisions do not preclude or contract the scope of exclusive federal or concurrent jurisdiction for any actions brought under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. Accordingly, our choice of forum provisions will not relieve us of our duties to comply with the federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder, and our stockholders will not be deemed to have waived our compliance with these laws, rules and regulations.
These choice of forum provisions may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum of its choosing for disputes with us or our directors, officers or other employees or agents, which may discourage lawsuits against us and our directors, officers and other employees or agents.
If a court were to find the choice of forum provision contained in our Bylaws to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions, which could harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition. Even if we are successful in defending against these claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and be a distraction to management and other employees.
We rely on dividends from FCB for paying dividends on our common and preferred stock and servicing our debt obligations, and FCB’s ability to pay us dividends is restricted.
As a FHC, we are a separate legal entity from FCB. We derive most of our revenue and cash flow from dividends paid by FCB. These dividends are the primary source from which we pay dividends on our common and preferred stock and interest and principal on our debt obligations. State and federal laws impose restrictions on the dividends that FCB may pay to us. In the event FCB is unable to pay dividends to us for an extended period of time, we may not be able to service our debt obligations or pay dividends on our common or preferred stock, and the inability to receive dividends from FCB could consequently have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our financial performance depends upon our ability to attract and retain customers for our products and services, which may be adversely impacted by weakened consumer or business confidence and by any inability on our part to predict and satisfy customers’ needs and demands.
Our financial performance is subject to risks associated with the loss of customer confidence and demand. A fragile, weakening or changing economy, or ambiguity surrounding the economic future, may lessen the demand for our products and services. Our performance may also be negatively impacted if we fail to attract and retain customers because we are not able to successfully anticipate, develop and market products and services that satisfy market demands. Such events could impact our performance through fewer loans, reduced fee income and fewer deposits, each of which could result in reduced net income.
New technologies, and our ability to efficiently and effectively implement, market and deliver new products and services to our customers present competitive risks.
The financial services industry is continually undergoing rapid technological change with frequent introduction of new technology-driven products and services. The effective use of technology increases efficiency and enables financial institutions to better serve customers and to reduce costs. The rapid growth of new digital technologies related to the digitization of banking services and capabilities, including through internet services, smart phones and other mobile devices, requires us to continuously evaluate our product and service offerings to ensure they remain competitive. These trends were accelerated by the COVID-19 pandemic increasing demand for mobile banking solutions. Our success depends in part on our ability to adapt and deliver our products and services in a manner responsive to evolving industry standards and consumer preferences. New technologies by banks and non-bank service providers may create risks if our products and services are no longer competitive with then-current standards, and could negatively affect our ability to attract or maintain a loyal customer base. We may not be able to effectively implement new technology-driven products and services that allow us to remain competitive or be successful in marketing these products and services to our customers. These risks may affect our ability to grow and could reduce our revenue streams from certain products and services, while increasing expenses associated with developing more competitive solutions, which could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
We face significant operational risks in our businesses and may fail to maintain appropriate operational infrastructure and oversight.
Safely conducting and growing our business requires that we create and maintain an appropriate operational and organizational control infrastructure. Operational risk can arise in numerous ways, including, but not limited to, employee fraud, customer fraud and control lapses in bank operations and information technology. Our dependence on our employees and internal and third party automated systems and vendors to record and process transactions may further increase the risk that technical failures or system-tampering will result in losses that are difficult to detect. Our internal controls that are intended to safeguard and maintain our operational and organizational infrastructure and information have inherent limitations and may not be successful. We may be subject to disruptions of our operating systems arising from events that are wholly or partially beyond our control. In addition, our railcars are used to transport a variety of products including, but not limited to, cement, energy products, chemicals and coal. An accidental derailment of these railcars could result in personal injury and property damage, which could be significant, as well as potential environmental remediation and restoration obligations and penalties. Failure to maintain appropriate operational infrastructure and oversight or to safely operate our business can lead to loss of service to customers, reputational harm, legal actions and noncompliance with various laws and regulations, all of which could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
A cyberattack, information or security breach, or a technology outage of ours or of a third party could adversely affect our ability to conduct our business, manage our exposure to risk, result in the disclosure or misuse of confidential customer or employee data or proprietary information, and increase our costs to maintain and update our operational and security systems and infrastructure. This could adversely impact our results of operations, liquidity and financial condition, as well as cause us legal or reputational harm.
Our businesses are highly dependent on the security and efficacy of our infrastructure, computer and data management systems, as well as those of third parties with whom we interact or on whom we rely. Our businesses rely on the secure processing, transmission, storage and retrieval of confidential, proprietary and other information in our computer and data management systems and networks, and in the computer and data management systems and networks of third parties. In addition, to access our network, products and services, our customers and other third parties may use personal mobile devices or computing devices that are outside of our network environment and are subject to their own cybersecurity risks, which may provide a point of entry for adverse effects on our own network environment.
We, our customers, regulators and other third parties have been subject to, and are likely to continue to be the target of, cyberattacks. These cyberattacks include computer viruses, malicious or destructive code, ransomware, phishing attacks, denial of service or information or other security breaches that could result in the unauthorized release, gathering, monitoring, misuse, loss or destruction of confidential, proprietary and other information of ours, our employees, our customers or of third parties, damages to systems, or other material disruption to our or our customers’ or other third parties’ network access or business operations. As cyber threats continue to evolve, we have been and will likely continue to be required to expend significant resources to continuously enhance our protective measures and may be required to expend significant resources to investigate and remediate any information security vulnerabilities or incidents. We may not be able to anticipate all security breaches, nor may we be able to implement guaranteed preventive measures against such security breaches. Additionally, a security breach may be difficult to detect, even after it occurs, which may compound the issues related to such breach.
Continued geographical turmoil, including the ongoing conflict between Russia and Ukraine, has heightened the risk of cyberattack and has created new risk for cybersecurity, and similar concerns. For example, the United States government has warned that sanctions imposed against Russia by the United States in response to its conflict with Ukraine could motivate Russia to engage in malicious cyber activities against the United States. If such cyberattacks occurred, it could result in severe costs and disruptions to governmental entities and companies and their operations. The impact of the conflict and retaliatory measures is continually evolving and cannot be predicted with certainty.
Cybersecurity risks for banking organizations have significantly increased in recent years in part because of the proliferation of new technologies, the use of the internet to conduct financial transactions, and the increased sophistication and activities of organized crime, hackers, terrorists, nation-states, activists and other external parties. These risks are expected to continue in the future as that proliferation intensifies. For example, we will likely see an increase in cybersecurity risks in the future as we continue to augment our mobile-payment and other internet-based product offerings and expand our internal usage of web-based products and applications. In addition, financially motivated attacks remain a challenge from a cybercrime perspective due to the increased sophistication and activities of organized crime groups, hackers, terrorist organizations, hostile foreign governments, disgruntled employees or vendors, activists and other external parties, including those involved in corporate espionage. Even the most advanced internal control environment may be vulnerable to compromise. Additionally, the increase of supply chain attacks including third parties with access to our data or those providing critical services, remain an emerging operational issue which could adversely affect our business, customers, reputation and operations. As cyber threats continue to evolve, we may be required to expend significant additional resources to continue to modify or enhance our layers of defense or to investigate and remediate any information security vulnerabilities.
Although to date we are not aware of any material losses or other material consequences relating to technology failure, cyberattacks or other information or security breaches, whether directed at us or third parties, we may suffer such losses or other consequences in the future.
We also face indirect technology, cybersecurity and operational risks relating to customers and other third parties with whom we do business or upon whom we rely to facilitate or enable our business activities, including financial counterparties; financial intermediaries such as clearing agents, exchanges and clearing houses; vendors; regulators; and providers of critical infrastructure such as internet access and electrical power. As a result of increasing consolidation, interdependence and complexity of financial entities and technology systems, a technology failure, cyberattack or other information or security breach that significantly degrades, deletes or compromises the systems or data of one or more financial entities could have a material impact on counterparties or other market participants, including us. This consolidation interconnectivity and complexity increases the risk of operational failure, on both individual and industry-wide bases, as disparate systems need to be integrated, often on an accelerated basis. Any third-party technology failure, cyberattack or other information or security breach, termination or constraint could, among other things, adversely affect our ability to effect transactions, service our customers, manage our exposure to risk or expand our businesses.
Cyberattacks or other information or security breaches, whether directed at us or third parties, may result in a material loss or have material consequences. Furthermore, the public perception that a cyberattack on our systems has been successful, whether or not this perception is correct, may damage our reputation with customers and third parties with whom we do business and may encourage further cyberattacks. A successful penetration or circumvention of system security could cause us negative consequences, including loss of customers and business opportunities, disruption to our operations and business, misappropriation or destruction of our confidential information and that of our customers, or damage to our customers’ and third parties’ computers or systems, and could result in a violation of applicable data privacy and protection laws and other laws, litigation exposure, regulatory fines, penalties or intervention, loss of confidence in our security measures, reputational damage, reimbursement or other compensatory costs, and additional compliance costs, any of which could adversely impact our results of operations, liquidity and financial condition.
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, including its variant strains, may continue to adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The spread of COVID-19 created a global health-crisis that caused significant economic disruption and continues to cause illness, quarantines, reduced attendance at events and reduced travel, reduced commercial and financial activity, and overall economic and financial market instability. While the level of disruption caused by the COVID-19 pandemic has generally lessened in 2022, there is no assurance that the pandemic will not worsen again, including as a result of the emergence of new strains of the virus.
Continuation of the COVID-19 pandemic, or a similar crisis, could negatively impact our capital, liquidity, and other financial positions and our business, results of operations, and prospects. Economic factors stemming from the lasting effects of the pandemic, including inflation risks, oil price volatility and changes in interest rates, have and may continue to destabilize financial markets and negatively impact our customers’ business activities and operations, making it difficult for them to satisfy existing debt obligations. Moreover, as economic conditions relating to the pandemic have improved and evolved, the Federal Reserve has shifted its focus to limiting the inflationary and other potentially adverse effects of the extensive pandemic-related government stimulus, which signals the potential for a continued period of economic uncertainty. The duration and severity of the pandemic continues to be impossible to predict, as is the potential for a seasonal or other resurgence. The full extent of the impact will depend on future developments that are highly uncertain including the duration and spread of any further outbreak, its severity, vaccine effectiveness and acceptance, governmental actions to contain the virus (including its variants) and the long-term economic impact, both globally, as well as in our banking markets, which includes the potential for further recession.
The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic heightened specific risk factors and could still impact substantially all risk factors described herein.
We are subject to litigation and other legal liability risks, and our expenses related to such risks may adversely affect our results.
We are subject to litigation risks in the ordinary course of our business. Claims and legal actions, including supervisory actions by our regulators, that have been or may be initiated against us (including against entities that we acquire) from time to time could involve large monetary sums and significant defense costs. During the last credit crisis, we saw the number of cases and our expenses related to those cases increase and expect to see the same in future credit crises. The outcomes of such cases are always uncertain until finally adjudicated or resolved.
In the course of our business, we may foreclose on and take title to real estate that contains or was used in the manufacture or processing of hazardous materials or that is subject to other environmental risks. In addition, we may lease equipment to our customers that is used to mine, develop, and process hazardous materials, and our railcars may be used to transport hazardous materials. As a result, we could be subject to environmental liabilities or claims for negligence, property damage or personal injury with respect to these properties or equipment. We may be held liable to a governmental entity or to third parties for property damage, personal injury, investigation and clean-up costs incurred by these parties in connection with environmental contamination, accidents or other hazardous risks, or may be required to investigate or clean up hazardous or toxic substances or chemical releases at a property. The costs associated with investigation or remediation activities could be substantial. In addition, if we are the owner or former owner of a contaminated site or equipment involved in a hazardous incident, we may be subject to common law claims by third parties based on damages and costs resulting from environmental contamination, property damage, personal injury or other hazardous risks emanating from the property or related to the equipment.
We establish reserves for legal claims when payments associated with the claims become probable and our liability can be reasonably estimated. We may still incur legal costs for a matter even if we have not established a reserve. In addition, the actual amount paid in resolution of a legal claim may be substantially higher than any amounts reserved for the matter. The ultimate resolution of a legal proceeding, depending on the remedy sought and any relief granted, could materially adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
Substantial legal claims or significant regulatory action against us could have material adverse financial effects or cause significant reputational harm to us, which in turn could seriously harm our business prospects. We may be exposed to substantial uninsured legal liabilities and regulatory actions which could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition. For additional information, refer to the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements, Note 24 - Commitments and Contingencies, in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
We depend on qualified personnel for our success and may not be able to retain or attract such personnel.
As a human capital-intensive business, our success depends to a great extent on our ability to attract and retain highly skilled and qualified executive officers and management, financial, compliance, technical, operations, sales, and support employees, which has taken on heightened importance because of the significant expansion of the size and geographic and operational scope of our business that occurred in connection with the CIT Merger. We face significant competition in the recruitment of qualified executive officers and employees. Losses of, or changes in, our current executive officers or other personnel and their expertise and services, or substantial increases in the costs of employee compensation or benefits, may disrupt our business and could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. We have developed an executive officer succession plan, but it may be ineffective, or we may fail in implementing it. We may be unsuccessful in retaining our current executive officers or other key personnel, or hiring additional key personnel to assist in executing our growth, expansion and acquisition strategies, all of which could cause those strategies to fail or be less successful than they would otherwise be.
Our compensation practices are subject to review and oversight by the Federal Reserve, the FDIC and other regulators. The federal banking agencies have issued joint guidance on executive compensation designed to help ensure that a banking organization’s incentive compensation policies do not encourage imprudent risk taking and are consistent with the safety and soundness of the organization. In addition, the Dodd-Frank Act required those agencies, along with the SEC, to adopt rules to require reporting of incentive compensation and to prohibit certain compensation arrangements. Effective January 2023, the SEC adopted final rules requiring national securities exchanges, including The Nasdaq Stock Market Stock Market LLC (“Nasdaq”) where we are currently listed, to establish new listing standards relating to policies for the recovery of erroneously awarded incentive-based compensation, which are often referred to as “clawback policies”. Among other requirements, these new listing standards will obligate listed companies to recover incentive-based compensation paid to its current or former executive officers in the event the company is required to make certain accounting restatements. If, as a result of complying with the new rules, we are unable to attract and retain qualified employees, or do so at rates necessary to maintain our competitive position, or if the compensation costs required to attract and retain employees become more significant, our performance, including our competitive position, could be materially adversely affected.
We are exposed to losses related to fraud.
As technology continues to evolve, criminals are using increasingly more sophisticated techniques to commit and hide fraudulent activity. Fraudulent activity that we have been and are likely to continue to be exposed to can come in many forms, including debit card/credit card fraud, check fraud, wire fraud, electronic scanning devices attached to ATM machines, social engineering, digital fraud and phishing attacks to obtain personal information and fraudulent impersonation of our customers through the use of falsified or stolen credentials. We expect that combating fraudulent activities as they evolve will require continued ongoing investments and attention in the future as significant fraud could cause us direct losses or impair our customer relationships, among other potential consequences, adversely impacting our reputation or results of operation.
Our business and financial performance could be impacted by natural or man-made disasters, global pandemics, acts of war or terrorist activities, climate change or other adverse external events.
Natural or man-made disasters (including, but not limited to, earthquakes, hurricanes, tornadoes, floods, fires, pollution, and explosions), global pandemics, acts of war, terrorist activities, climate change or other adverse external events could hurt our financial performance (i) directly through damage to our facilities or other impacts to our ability to conduct business in the ordinary course, and (ii) indirectly through such damage or impacts to our customers, suppliers or other counterparties. In particular, a significant amount of our business is concentrated in North Carolina, South Carolina, California, Texas, New York and Florida, including areas where our facilities and retail and commercial customers have been and in the future could be impacted by hurricanes and flooding, earthquakes or wildfires. We also do business in Georgia, Virginia, Nebraska, Arizona, New Jersey, Hawaii, Nevada, as well as in Canada, all of which also include areas significantly exposed to the foregoing risks. We could also suffer adverse results to the extent that disasters, wars, terrorist activities, riots or civil unrest affect the broader markets or economy or our operations specifically. Our ability to minimize the consequences of such events is in significant measure reliant on the quality of our disaster recovery planning and our ability, if any, to forecast the events, and such quality and ability may be inadequate.
There has been increasing political and social attention to the issue of climate change and related environmental sustainability matters. Federal and state legislators and regulatory agencies have proposed and continue to advance numerous legislative and regulatory initiatives seeking to mitigate the negative effects of climate change. On October 21, 2021, the Financial Stability Oversight Council published a report identifying climate-related financial risk as an “emerging threat” to financial stability. On December 16, 2021, the OCC issued proposed principles for climate-related financial risk management for national banks with more than $100 billion in total assets. On March 30, 2022 and December 2, 2022, the FDIC and Federal Reserve Board issued their own proposed principles, respectively, for climate risk management by larger banking organizations. To the extent that these initiatives lead to the promulgation of new regulations or supervisory guidance applicable to us, we would expect to experience increased compliance costs and other compliance-related risks. Such climate change-related measures may also result in the imposition of taxes and fees, the required purchase of emission credits or the implementation of significant operational changes, each of which may require us to expend significant capital and incur compliance, operating, maintenance and remediation costs.
We are unable to predict how climate change may impact our financial condition and operations; however, as a banking organization, the physical effects of climate change may present certain unique risks to us, our customers or third parties on which we rely. For example, an increase in the frequency or magnitude of natural disasters, shifts in local climates and other disruptions related to climate change may adversely affect the value of real properties securing our loans, which could diminish the value of our loan portfolio. Such events may also cause reductions in regional and local economic activity that may have an adverse effect on our customers. Consumers and businesses in communities that we serve may change their behavior and preferences as a result of these issues and new climate change laws and regulations aimed at mitigating climate change. The impact on our customers will likely vary depending on their specific attributes, including their reliance on or role in carbon intensive activities and therefore, we could experience a drop in demand for our products and services, particularly in certain sectors. We may also be subject to adverse action from our regulators or other third parties, such as environmental advocacy organizations, in relation to how our business relates to or has addressed or failed to address climate change-related risks. Each of these outcomes could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
We rely on third party vendors to provide key components of our business infrastructure, and our vendors may be responsible for or contribute to failures that adversely affect our operations.
Third party vendors provide key components of our business infrastructure, including certain data processing and information services. Their services could be difficult to quickly replace in the event of failure or other interruption in service. Failures of certain vendors to provide services could adversely affect our ability to deliver products and services to our customers. Third party vendors also present information security risks to us, both directly and indirectly through our customers. Our monitoring of significant vendor risks, including the financial stability of critical vendors, may be inadequate and incomplete. The lingering effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent impacts from variant strains may continue to compound vendor risks, as unexpected disruptions can impact a third party vendor’s operations with little warning. These effects include the direct impact of disease as well as secondary effects on third party vendors, including pandemic-related changes to how vendors are engaged, onboarded and monitored. The failure of a critical third party vendor to provide key components of our business infrastructure could substantially disrupt our business and cause us to incur significant expense while harming our relationships with our customers.
The quality of our data could deteriorate and cause financial or reputational harm to the Bank.
Our Data Governance program is reliant on the execution of procedures, process controls and system functionality, and errors may occur. Incomplete, inconsistent, or inaccurate data could lead to non-compliance with regulatory requirements and result in fines. Additionally, adverse impacts on customers could result in reputational harm and customer attrition. Inaccurate or incomplete data presents the risk that business decisions relying on such data will prove inefficient, ineffective or harmful to us. Additionally, information we provide to our investors and regulators may be negatively impacted by inaccurate or incomplete data, which could have a wide range of adverse consequences such as legal liability and reputational harm.
Malicious action by an employee could result in harm to our customers or the Bank.
Several high-profile cases of employee misconduct have occurred at other financial institutions. Such an event may lead to large regulatory fines, as well as an erosion in customer confidence, which could impact our financial and competitive position. Our employee code of ethics and policies governing our compensation, conduct and sales practices may be inadequate to deter and respond to potential employee misconduct.
If we fail to effectively manage credit risk, our business and financial condition will suffer.
Effectively managing credit risks is essential for the operation of our business. There are credit risks inherent in making any loan, including risks of repayment, risks with respect to the period of time over which the loan may be repaid, risks relating to proper loan underwriting and guidelines, risks resulting from changes in economic and industry conditions, risks in dealing with individual borrowers and risks resulting from uncertainties as to the future value of collateral. Our loan approval procedures and our credit risk monitoring may be or become inadequate to appropriately manage the inherent credit risks associated with lending. Our credit administration personnel, policies and procedures may not adequately adapt to changes in economic or other conditions affecting customers and the quality of our loan portfolio. Any failure to manage such credit risks may materially adversely affect our business, consolidated results of operations and financial condition because it may lead to loans that we make not being paid back in part or in full on a timely basis or at all.
Our allowance for credit losses may prove to be insufficient to absorb losses in our credit portfolios.
We maintain an allowance for credit losses (“ACL”) that is designed to cover expected credit losses on loans that borrowers may not repay in their entirety. A reserve is also maintained in other liabilities to cover expected losses for unfunded commitments. The ACL may not be sufficient to cover actual credit losses, and future provisions for credit losses could materially and adversely affect our operating results. Accounting measurements related to asset impairment and the ACL require significant estimates that are subject to uncertainty and revisions driven by new information and changing circumstances. The significant uncertainties surrounding our borrowers’ abilities to conduct their businesses successfully through changing economic environments, competitive challenges and other factors complicate our estimates of the risk and amount of loss on any loan. Due to the degree of uncertainty and the susceptibility to change, the actual losses may vary substantially from current estimates. We also expect fluctuations in the ACL due to economic changes nationally as well as locally within the states in which we conduct business. This is especially true as the economy reacts to the continuation of and potential recovery from the impacts from the COVID-19 pandemic and related variant strains. In addition, the reserve related to unfunded commitments may not be sufficient to cover actual losses, and future provisions for such losses could also materially and adversely affect our operating results and are also subject to significant uncertainties and fluctuations.
As an integral part of their examination process, our banking regulators periodically review the ACL and may require us to increase it by recognizing additional provisions for credit losses charged to expense or to decrease the allowance by recognizing loan charge-offs, net of recoveries. Any such required additional credit loss provisions or loan charge-offs could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Our concentration of loans and leases to borrowers and lessees within the medical and dental industries, as well as the rail business, could impair our earnings if those industries experience economic difficulties.
Statutory or regulatory changes relevant to the medical and dental industries, or economic conditions in the market generally, could negatively impact these borrowers’ businesses and their ability to repay their loans with us, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. Additionally, smaller practices such as those in the dental industry generally have fewer financial resources in terms of capital or borrowing capacity than larger entities, and generally have a heightened vulnerability to negative economic conditions. Consequently, we could be required to increase our ACL through additional provisions on our income statement, which would reduce reported net income.
Due to our substantial concentration in our rail business, if there is a significant downturn in shipping by railcar, it could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations. The impacts from the COVID-19 pandemic and variant strains has created volatility and uncertainty in the economy, which has and is expected to continue to adversely impact our rail business. In addition, volatility in the price of, and demand for oil and gas may have negative effects on not only our loan exposures in the exploration and production section, but may also lead to a decreased demand for our railcars.
Economic conditions in real estate markets impacting collateral values and our reliance on junior liens may adversely impact our business and our results of operations.
Real property collateral values may be impacted by economic conditions in the real estate market and may result in losses on loans that, while adequately collateralized at the time of origination, become inadequately collateralized over time. Our reliance on junior liens is concentrated in our consumer revolving mortgage loan portfolio. Approximately two-thirds of the consumer revolving mortgage portfolio is secured by junior lien positions, and lower real estate values for collateral underlying these loans may cause the outstanding balance of the senior lien to exceed the value of the collateral, resulting in a junior lien loan becoming effectively unsecured. Inadequate collateral values, rising interest rates and unfavorable economic conditions could result in greater delinquencies, write-downs or charge-offs in future periods, which could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations and capital adequacy.
Our financial condition could be adversely affected by the soundness of other financial institutions.
Financial services institutions are interrelated as a result of trading, clearing, counterparty and other relationships. We have exposure to numerous financial services providers, including banks, securities brokers and dealers and other financial services providers. Our monitoring of the financial conditions of financial institutions with which we have credit exposure is inherently limited and may be inadequate, and transactions with those institutions expose us to credit risk through the possibility of counterparty default.
Unfavorable economic or political conditions, as considered through a range of metrics, have and could continue to adversely affect our business.
Our business is subject to periodic fluctuations based on international, national, regional and local economic conditions. These fluctuations are not predictable, cannot be controlled and have had and may continue to have or further have a material adverse impact on our operations and financial condition. Our banking operations are primarily located within several states but are locally oriented and community-based. Our retail and commercial banking activities are primarily concentrated within the same geographic footprint. The markets in which we have the greatest presence are North Carolina, South Carolina, California, Texas, New York, and Florida. We also do business in Canada, primarily related to our rail portfolio. Worsening economic conditions within our markets, particularly within those with our greatest presence, could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Accordingly, we expect to continue to be dependent upon local business conditions, rail industry conditions and conditions in the local residential and commercial real estate markets we serve. Unfavorable changes in unemployment, real estate values, interest rates, foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations and other factors could weaken the economies of the communities we serve and otherwise adversely affect our business. Thus far, this includes declines in fee income and impacts on the fair value of our equity securities, but could create additional adverse impacts to provision for credit losses and declines in demand for our products and services.
We conduct limited business operations in certain foreign jurisdictions, and we engage in certain cross border lending and leasing transactions. An economic recession or downturn or business disruption associated with the political or economic environments in the international markets in which we operate could similarly adversely affect us.
In addition, the political environment, the level of United States debt and global economic conditions can have a destabilizing effect on financial markets. Weakness in any of our market areas could have an adverse impact on our earnings, and consequently, our financial condition and capital adequacy. For example, a U.S. government debt default, threatened default, or downgrade of the sovereign credit ratings of the United States by credit rating agencies, could have an adverse impact on the financial markets, interest rates and economic conditions in the United States and worldwide. The U.S. debt ceiling and budget deficit concerns in recent years have increased the possibility of U.S. government shutdowns, forced federal spending reductions, debt defaults, credit-rating downgrades and an economic slowdown or recession in the United States. Political tensions may make it difficult for Congress to agree on any further increases to or suspension of the debt ceiling in a timely manner or at all, which may lead to a default by the U.S. government or downgrades of its credit ratings. Many of the investment securities held in FCB’s portfolio are issued by the U.S. government and government agencies and sponsored entities, which are generally viewed as among the most conservative investment options. While the likelihood may be remote, a government default or threat of default would impact the price and liquidity of U.S. government securities. A debt default or further downgrade to the U.S. government’s sovereign credit rating or its perceived creditworthiness could also adversely affect the ability of the U.S. government to support the financial stability of Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, and the FHLBs. Since banks are sensitive to the risk of downturns, the stock prices of all banks typically decline, sometimes substantially, if the market believes that a downturn has become more likely or is imminent. This effect can and often does occur indiscriminately, initially without much regard to different risk postures of different banks. Weakness in any of our market areas could have an adverse impact on our earnings, and consequently, our financial condition and capital adequacy.
Failure to effectively manage our interest rate risk could adversely affect us.
Our results of operations and cash flows are highly dependent upon net interest income. Interest rates are highly sensitive to many factors that are beyond our control, including general economic and market conditions and policies of various governmental and regulatory agencies, particularly the actions of the Federal Reserve’s Federal Open Market Committee (“FOMC”). Changes in monetary policy, including changes in interest rates, could influence interest income, interest expense, and the fair value of our financial assets and liabilities. If changes in interest rates on our interest-earning assets are not equal to the changes in interest rates on our interest-bearing liabilities, our net interest income and, therefore, our net income, could be adversely impacted.
As interest rates rise, our interest expense will increase and our net interest margins may decrease, negatively impacting our performance and our financial condition. To the extent banks and other financial services providers compete for interest-bearing deposit accounts through higher interest rates, our deposit base could be reduced if we are unwilling to pay those higher rates. If we decide to compete with those higher interest rates, our cost of funds could increase and our net interest margins could be reduced, dependent on the timing and sensitivities of our interest-earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities. Additionally, higher interest rates may impact our ability to originate new loans. Increases in interest rates could adversely affect the ability of our borrowers to meet higher payment obligations. If this occurred, it could cause an increase in nonperforming assets and net charge-offs.
We cannot control or predict with certainty changes in interest rates. The forecasts of future net interest income by our interest rate risk monitoring system are estimates and may be inaccurate. Actual interest rate movements may differ from our forecasts, and unexpected actions by the FOMC may have a direct impact on market interest rates. The Federal Reserve announced in January of 2022 that it would be slowing the pace of its bond purchasing and increasing the target range for the federal funds rate over time. The FOMC since has increased the target range seven times throughout 2022. As of December 31, 2022, the target range for the federal funds rate had been increased to 4.25% to 4.5% and the FOMC signaled that future increases may be appropriate in order to attain a monetary policy sufficiently restrictive to return inflation to more normalized levels. The higher interest rates increased the cost of deposits and our other funding sources, and may continue to increase costs, dependent on the Federal Reserve actions.
Accounting for acquired assets may result in earnings volatility.
Fair value discounts that are recorded at the time an asset is acquired are accreted into interest income based on accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“GAAP”). The rate at which those discounts are accreted is unpredictable and the result of various factors including prepayments and estimated credit losses. Post-acquisition credit deterioration results in the recognition of provision expense. Volatility in earnings could unfavorably influence investor interest in our common stock, thereby depressing the market value of our stock and the market capitalization of our company.
The performance of equity securities and corporate bonds in our investment securities portfolio could be adversely impacted by the soundness and fluctuations in the market values of other financial institutions.
Our investment securities portfolio contains certain equity securities and corporate bonds of other financial institutions. As a result, a portion of our investment securities portfolio is subject to fluctuation due to changes in the financial stability and market value of other financial institutions, as well as interest rate sensitivity to economic and market conditions. Such fluctuations could reduce the value of our investment securities portfolio and consequently have an adverse effect on our results of operations. We have seen volatile earnings impacts related to the fair value of equity securities in recent periods.
We may be adversely impacted by the transition from LIBOR as a reference rate.
We have loans, borrowings and other financial instruments, including our Series B Preferred Stock, with attributes that are either directly or indirectly dependent on the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”). In 2017, the United Kingdom’s Financial Conduct Authority (the “FCA”) announced that after 2021 it would no longer compel banks to submit the rates required to calculate LIBOR. In November 2020, to facilitate an orderly LIBOR transition, the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, the FDIC and the Federal Reserve jointly announced that entering into new contracts using LIBOR as a reference rate after December 31, 2021, would create a safety and soundness risk. On March 5, 2021, the FCA announced that all LIBOR settings will either cease to be provided by any administrator or no longer be representative immediately after December 31, 2021, in the case of 1-week and 2-month United States dollar LIBOR, and immediately after June 30, 2023, in the case of the remaining United States dollar LIBOR settings. In addition, on March 15, 2022, the U.S. Congress passed the Adjustable Interest Rate (LIBOR) Act (the “LIBOR Act”) as part of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2022, which provides protection for contracts without workable fallback provisions and includes safe-harbor provisions to shield parties from liability under potential lawsuits due to the transition away from LIBOR. The final rule implementing the LIBOR Act was announced by the FRB on December 16, 2022, which among other things, (i) identifies benchmark rates based on the Secured Overnight Funding Rate (“SOFR”) to replace LIBOR settings in multiple categories of legacy contracts; (ii) specifies benchmark conforming changes related to the calculation, administration and other implementing actions of such benchmark replacements; and (iii) preempts state and local LIBOR replacement laws relating to the selection or use of a benchmark replacement or related conforming changes. BancShares anticipates taking advantage of the safe harbors that are afforded under the LIBOR Act and the implementing final rule.
In the United States, efforts to identify a set of alternative United States dollar reference interest rates are ongoing, and the Alternative Reference Rate Committee (the “ARRC”) has recommended the use of SOFR. SOFR is different from LIBOR in that it is a backward-looking secured rate rather than a forward-looking unsecured rate. These differences could lead to a greater disconnect between the Bank’s costs to raise funds for SOFR as compared to LIBOR. For cash products and loans, the ARRC has also recommended Term SOFR, which is a forward-looking SOFR based on SOFR futures and may in part reduce differences between SOFR and LIBOR. To further reduce differences between replacement indices and substitute indices, some market practitioners have also gravitated towards credit sensitive alternative reference rates besides SOFR. At this time, it is not possible to predict whether and to what extent banks will continue to provide submissions for the calculation of LIBOR. Similarly, there is still uncertainty around how quickly replacement reference rates will develop sufficient liquidity and industry-wide usage, or what the effect of any such changes in views or alternatives may be on the markets for LIBOR-indexed financial instruments.
The transition from LIBOR is complex and is expected to create additional costs and risks. Since proposed replacement reference rates, such as SOFR, are calculated differently, payments under contracts referencing such rates will differ from those referencing LIBOR. We may incur significant expense in effecting the transition and may be subject to disputes or litigation with our borrowers over the appropriateness or comparability to LIBOR of the replacement reference rates. Consequently, failure to adequately manage this transition process with our customers could adversely impact our reputation and potentially introduce additional legal risks. The replacement reference rates could also result in a reduction in our interest income. We may also receive inquiries and other actions from regulators with respect to our preparation and readiness for the replacement of LIBOR with replacement reference rates. The transition will change our market risk profiles, requiring changes to risk and pricing models, systems, contracts, valuation tools and product design, and failure to adequately manage this transition process could consequently have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The value of our goodwill may decline in the future.
Our goodwill could become impaired in the future. At December 31, 2022, we had $346 million of goodwill recorded as an asset on our balance sheet. We test goodwill for impairment at least annually, comparing the estimated fair value of a reporting unit with its net book value. We also test goodwill for impairment when certain events occur, such as a significant decline in our expected future cash flows, a significant adverse change in the business climate or a sustained decline in the price of our common stock. These tests may result in a write-off of goodwill deemed to be impaired, which could have a significant impact on our financial results.
The market price of our common stock may be volatile due to its relative illiquidity and other factors.
Although publicly traded, our common stock, particularly our Class B common stock, has less liquidity and public float than many other large, publicly traded financial services companies. Lower liquidity increases the price volatility of our common stock and could make it difficult for our stockholders to sell or buy our common stock at specific prices.
Excluding the impact of liquidity, the market price of our common stock can fluctuate widely in response to other factors, including expectations of financial and operating results, actual operating results, actions of institutional stockholders, speculation in the press or the investment community, market perception of acquisitions, including the CIT Merger, rating agency upgrades or downgrades, stock prices of other companies that are similar to us, general market expectations related to the financial services industry and the potential impact of government actions affecting the financial services industry. For example, the closing price per share of our Class A common stock, par value $1 per share (“Class A common stock”) on the Nasdaq Global Select Market ranged from a low of $598.01 to a high of $947.71 during the year ended December 31, 2022.
If our current level of balance sheet liquidity were to experience pressure, it could affect our ability to pay deposits and fund our operations.
Our deposit base represents our primary source of core funding and balance sheet liquidity. We typically have the ability to stimulate core deposit growth through reasonable and effective pricing strategies. However, in circumstances where our ability to generate needed liquidity is impaired, we need access to non-core funding such as borrowings from the Federal Home Loan Bank and the Federal Reserve, Federal Funds purchased lines and brokered deposits. While we maintain access to these non-core funding sources, some sources are dependent on the availability of collateral as well as the counterparty’s willingness and ability to lend. Failure to access sources of liquidity may affect our ability to pay deposits and fund our operations.
We are subject to enhanced liquidity risk management requirements as a Category IV banking organization, subject to the applicable transition periods, including reporting, liquidity stress testing, and liquidity buffer, as well as resolution planning at the bank level, and failure to meet these requirements could result in regulatory and compliance risks, and possible restrictions on our activities.
As a result of the CIT Merger, our total consolidated assets exceed $100 billion, and therefore we became subject to enhanced liquidity risk management requirements as a Category IV banking organization, including reporting, liquidity stress testing, a liquidity buffer and resolution planning, subject to the applicable transition periods. Were we to meet or exceed certain other thresholds for asset size and other risk-based factors, we would become subject to additional requirements under the Tailoring Rules. We expect to incur significant expense in continuing to develop policies, programs and systems designed to comply with all such requirements applicable to us. Failure to develop and maintain an adequate liquidity risk management and monitoring process may lead to adverse regulatory action (including possible restrictions on our activities).
Fee revenues from overdraft and nonsufficient funds programs may be subject to increased supervisory scrutiny.
Revenues derived from transaction fees associated with overdraft and nonsufficient funds (“NSF”) programs is included in non-interest income. In 2022, we collected approximately $48 million in overdraft and NSF fees (down from approximately $55 million in 2021), due to the reduction in our fees for overdrafts and elimination of NSF fees announced in January 2022. In 2021, certain members of Congress and the leadership of the CFPB expressed a heightened interest in bank overdraft and NSF programs. In December 2021, the CFPB published a report providing data on banks’ overdraft and NSF fee revenues as well as observations regarding consumer protection issues relating to such programs and in October 2022, the CFPB published further guidance concerning unlawful practices related to overdraft fees. The CFPB has pursued enforcement actions against banking organizations, and their executives, that oversee overdraft practices that are deemed to be unlawful and has indicated that it will continue to do so.
In response to this increased congressional and regulatory scrutiny, and in anticipation of enhanced supervision and enforcement of overdraft practices in the future, certain banking organizations have begun to modify their overdraft programs. In January 2022, we announced an elimination of NSF fees and a decrease in overdraft fees. Continued competitive pressures from our peers, as well as any adoption by our regulators of new rules or supervisory guidance or more aggressive examination and enforcement policies in respect of banks’ overdraft fee practices, could cause us to further modify our program and practices in ways that may have a negative impact on our revenue and earnings, which, in turn, could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. In addition, as supervisory expectations and industry practices regarding overdraft fee programs change, our continued charging of overdraft fees may result in negative public opinion and increased reputation risk.
Capital Adequacy Risks
Our ability to grow is contingent upon access to capital, which may not be readily available to us.
Our primary capital sources have been retained earnings and debt issued through both private and public markets. Rating agencies regularly evaluate our creditworthiness and assign credit ratings to us and FCB. The ratings of the agencies are based on a number of factors, some of which are outside our control. In addition to factors specific to our financial strength and performance, the rating agencies also consider conditions generally affecting the financial services industry. We may not be able to maintain our current credit ratings. Rating reductions could adversely affect our access to funding sources and increase the cost of obtaining funding.
Based on existing capital levels, we and FCB are well-capitalized under current leverage and risk-based capital standards. Our ability to grow is contingent on our ability to generate or otherwise access sufficient capital to remain well-capitalized under current and future capital adequacy guidelines.
We and FCB are subject to capital adequacy and liquidity guidelines and, if we fail to meet these guidelines, our financial condition and ability to make capital distributions would be adversely affected.
Under regulatory capital adequacy guidelines and other regulatory requirements, we, together with FCB, must meet certain capital and liquidity guidelines, subject to qualitative judgments by regulators about components, risk weightings and other factors.
We and FCB are subject to capital rules issued by the federal banking agencies including required minimum capital and leverage ratios. These requirements, and any proposed changes in connection with the federal banking agencies’ plan to implement the final Basel III post-crisis reform standards, could adversely affect our ability to pay dividends, restrict certain business activities, including share repurchases, or compel us to raise capital, each of which may adversely affect our results of operations or financial condition. Refer to the “Regulatory Considerations” section in Item 1. Business of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information regarding the capital requirements under the Dodd-Frank Act and Basel III.
We are required to submit an annual capital plan to the Federal Reserve and to be subject to supervisory stress testing under the Federal Reserve’s CCAR process on a biennial basis as a Category IV banking organization, subject to the applicable transition periods. Under the CCAR process, the Federal Reserve will evaluate our planned capital distributions (e.g., dividends) included in our capital plan over the planning horizon (i.e., nine consecutive quarters, beginning with the quarter preceding the quarter in which the capital plan is submitted over which the relevant projections extend) to determine whether we will be able to meet our ongoing capital needs under a range of different economic scenarios. Failure to obtain a non-objection on our capital plan submitted to the Federal Reserve, or to demonstrate capital adequacy under the CCAR process, could result in restrictions in our ability to declare and pay dividends, repurchase shares, or make other capital distributions. Refer to the “Regulatory Considerations” section of Item 1. Business of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information regarding the annual capital plan submission to the Federal Reserve and supervisory stress testing under the CCAR process.
Increases to our level of indebtedness could adversely affect our ability to raise additional capital and to meet our obligations.
Our existing debt, together with any future incurrence of additional indebtedness and preferred stock, could have consequences that are materially adverse to our business, financial condition or results of operations. For example, it could: (i) limit our ability to obtain additional financing for working capital, capital expenditures, debt service requirements, acquisitions and general corporate or other purposes; (ii) restrict us from making strategic acquisitions or cause us to make non-strategic divestitures; (iii) restrict us from paying dividends to our stockholders; (iv) increase our vulnerability to general economic and industry conditions; or (v) require a substantial portion of cash flow from operations to be dedicated to the payment of principal and interest on our indebtedness and dividends on the preferred stock, thereby reducing our ability to use cash flows to fund our operations, capital expenditures and future business opportunities. Refer to the “Borrowings” sections of Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information regarding our borrowings.
We operate in a highly regulated industry, and the laws and regulations that govern our operations, taxes, corporate governance, executive compensation and financial accounting and reporting, including changes in them or our failure to comply with them, may adversely affect us.
We operate in a highly regulated industry and are subject to many laws, rules, and regulations at both the federal and state levels. These broad-based laws, rules, and regulations include, but are not limited to, expectations relating to anti-money laundering, lending limits, client privacy, fair lending, prohibitions against unfair, deceptive or abusive acts or practices, regulatory reporting, and community reinvestment,
In addition, we must comply with other regulations that protect the deposit insurance fund and the stability of the United States financial system, including laws and regulations that, among other matters, prescribe minimum capital requirements, impose limitations on our business activities and investments, limit the dividends or distributions that we can pay, restrict the ability of our bank subsidiaries to guarantee our debt and impose certain specific accounting requirements that may be more restrictive and may result in greater or earlier charges to earnings or reductions in our capital than GAAP. Compliance with laws and regulations can be difficult and costly, and changes in laws and regulations often result in additional compliance costs.
We are subject to extensive federal and applicable state regulation and supervision, primarily through FCB and certain nonbank subsidiaries. Banking regulations are primarily intended to protect depositors’ funds, federal deposit insurance funds, and the banking system as a whole, not stockholders. These regulations affect our lending practices, capital structure, investment practices, dividend policy, and growth, among other things. Congress and federal regulatory agencies continually review banking laws, regulations, and policies for possible changes.
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the related rules and regulations issued by the SEC and The Nasdaq, as well as numerous other more recently enacted statutes and regulations, including the Dodd-Frank Act, EGRRCPA, and regulations promulgated thereunder, have increased the scope, complexity and cost of corporate governance and reporting and disclosure practices, including the costs of completing our external audit and maintaining our internal controls. Such additional regulation and supervision may limit our ability to pursue business opportunities and result in a material adverse impact on our financial condition and results of operations.
Changes to statutes, regulations, or regulatory policies, including changes in interpretation or implementation of statutes, regulations, or policies, could affect us in substantial and unpredictable ways. Such changes could subject us to additional costs, limit the types of financial services and products we may offer, or increase the ability of nonbanks to offer competing financial services and products, among other things. Failure to comply with laws, regulations, or policies could result in sanctions by regulatory agencies (including potential limitations on our future acquisitions or operations, or requirements to forfeit assets), civil money penalties, or reputation damage.
Information security and data privacy are areas of heightened legislative and regulatory focus.
As information security and data privacy risks for banking organizations and the broader financial system have significantly increased in recent years, data privacy and security issues have become the subject of increasing legislative and regulatory focus. The federal bank regulatory agencies have proposed regulations that would enhance cyber risk management standards, which would apply to a wide range of LFIs and their third-party service providers, including us and FCB, and would focus on cyber risk governance and management, management of internal and external dependencies, and incident response, cyber resilience, and situational awareness. Several states have also proposed or adopted information security legislation and regulations, which require, among other things, notification to affected individuals when there has been a security breach of their personal data.
We receive, maintain, and store non-public personal information of our customers and counterparties, including, but not limited to, personally identifiable information and personal financial information. The collection, sharing, use, disclosure, and protection of these types of information are governed by federal and state law. Both personally identifiable information and personal financial information are increasingly subject to legislation and regulation, the intent of which is to increase transparency related to how personal information is processed, choices individuals have to control how their information is used and to protect the privacy of such information. For example, in June of 2018, the Governor of California signed into law the CCPA. The CCPA, which became effective on January 1, 2020, and was amended in November 2020 by the CPRA, applies to for-profit businesses that conduct business in California and meet certain revenue or data collection thresholds. The CPRA, which became effective on January 1, 2023, amends the scope and several of the substantive requirements of the CCPA, as well as certain mechanisms for administration and enforcement of the statute. Numerous other states have also enacted or are in the process of enacting state-level privacy, data protection and/or data security laws and regulations.
We may become subject to new legislation or regulation concerning information security and/or data privacy. If security, data privacy, data protection, data transfer, or data retention laws are implemented, interpreted, or applied in a manner inconsistent with our current practices, failure to adapt to changing requirements may subject us to fines, litigation, or regulatory enforcement actions. However, required changes to our business practices, policies, or systems may also adversely impact our operating results.
We face heightened compliance risks related to certain specialty commercial business lines.
Our rail business line is subject to various laws, rules and regulations administered by authorities in various jurisdictions. In the United States, our equipment leasing operations, including for railcars, ships, and other equipment, are subject to rules and regulations relating to safety, operations, maintenance and mechanical standards promulgated by various federal and state agencies and industry organizations, including the United States Department of Transportation, the Federal Railroad Administration, the Association of American Railroads, the Maritime Administration, the United States Coast Guard, and the United States Environmental Protection Agency. We are also subject to regulation by governmental agencies in foreign countries in which we do business. Our business operations and our equipment financing and leasing portfolios may be adversely impacted by rules and regulations promulgated by governmental and industry agencies, which could require substantial modification, maintenance, or refurbishment of our railcars, ships or other equipment, or could potentially make such equipment inoperable or obsolete. Failure to comply with these laws, rules and regulations could result in sanctions by regulatory agencies (including potential limitations on our future acquisitions or operations, or requirements to forfeit assets), civil money penalties, or reputation damage. Additionally, we may incur significant expenses in our efforts to comply with these laws, rules and regulations.
We are a Category IV banking organization and therefore subject to certain enhanced prudential standards and enhanced supervision by the Federal Reserve under the Dodd-Frank Act, as amended by the EGRRCPA, and implemented by the federal banking agencies’ Tailoring Rules, subject to the applicable transition periods.
After reporting total consolidated assets of $100 billion or more, based on a four-quarter trailing average, we became subject to enhanced prudential standards under Section 165 of the Dodd-Frank Act, as amended by the EGRRCPA, and implemented by the federal banking agencies’ Tailoring Rules, subject to the applicable transition periods. If we fail to develop and maintain at a reasonable cost the systems and processes necessary to comply with the standards and requirements imposed by these rules, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. Additionally, as we grow, and our assets exceed certain thresholds, regulatory requirements that we are subject to, as well as our compliance expenses, will increase. For example, after reporting $50 billion or more in weighted short-term wholesale funding, we will be subject to modified LCR and NSFR requirements, and we will be subject to full LCR and NSFR requirements after reporting $75 billion or more in weighted short-term wholesale funding in addition to other enhanced prudential standards as a Category III banking organization. Refer to the “Regulatory Considerations” section of Item 1. Business of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information regarding the enhanced prudential standards that we are subject to as a Category IV banking organization, and how our regulatory requirements will change based on our total assets and other risk-based factors under the Tailoring Rules.
The CFPB has reshaped the consumer financial laws through rulemaking and enforcement of the prohibitions against unfair, deceptive and abusive business practices. Compliance with any such change may impact the business operations of depository institutions offering consumer financial products or services, including FCB.
We are subject to supervision and examination by the CFPB for compliance with the CFPB’s regulations and policies. The CFPB has broad rulemaking authority to administer and carry out the provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act with respect to financial institutions that offer covered financial products and services to consumers. The CFPB is responsible for adopting rules identifying practices or acts that are unfair, deceptive or abusive in connection with any transaction with a consumer for a consumer financial product or service, or the offering of a consumer financial product or service. The CFPB has initiated enforcement actions against a variety of bank and non-bank market participants with respect to a number of consumer financial products and services that has resulted in those participants expending significant time, money and resources to adjust to the initiatives being pursued by the CFPB. The CFPB has pursued a more aggressive enforcement policy in respect of a range of regulatory compliance matters under the Biden Administration. CFPB enforcement actions may serve as precedent for how the CFPB interprets and enforces consumer protection laws, including practices or acts that are deemed to be unfair, deceptive or abusive, with respect to all supervised institutions, including us. which may result in the imposition of higher standards of compliance with such laws. The limitations and restrictions that may be placed upon us by the CFPB with respect to our consumer product offerings and services may produce significant, material effects on our profitability.
We may be adversely affected by changes in United States and foreign tax laws and other tax laws and regulations.
Corporate tax rates affect our profitability and capital levels. We are subject to the income tax laws of the United States, its states and their municipalities and to those of the foreign jurisdictions in which we do business. These tax laws are complex and may be subject to different interpretations. We must make judgments and interpretations about the application of these tax laws when determining our provision for income taxes, our deferred tax assets and liabilities and our valuation allowance. Changes to the tax laws, administrative rulings or court decisions could increase our provision for income taxes and reduce our net income. The United States corporate tax code may be reformed by the United States Congress and additional guidance may be issued by the United States Department of the Treasury. In August 2022, Congress enacted the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022 (the “Inflation Reduction Act”), which instituted, among other things, a 1% excise tax on certain corporate stock repurchases which took effect on January 1, 2023. As a result, effective for tax years beginning after December 31, 2022, BancShares may be subject to a Corporate Alternative Minimum Tax (“CAMT”). BancShares will treat any CAMT that may be applicable to tax years beginning after December 31, 2022 as a period cost. Further changes in tax laws and regulations, and income tax rates in particular, could have an adverse impact on our financial condition and results of operations. These changes could also affect our regulatory capital ratios as calculated in accordance with the Basel III Rules.
We are subject to ESG risks such as climate risk, hiring practices, diversity, racial and social justice issues, including in relation to our counterparties, which may adversely affect our reputation and ability to retain employees and customers.
We are subject to a variety of risks arising from environmental, social and governance (“ESG”) matters. ESG matters include, but are not limited to, climate risk, hiring practices, the diversity of our work force, and racial and social justice issues involving our personnel, customers and third parties with whom we otherwise do business. Investors have begun to consider the steps taken and resources allocated by financial institutions and other commercial organizations to address ESG matters when making investment and operational decisions. If our ESG practices do not meet (or are viewed as not meeting) investor or other industry stakeholder expectations and standards, which continue to evolve, our reputation and employee and customer retention may be negatively impacted. The Biden Administration, through Executive Orders and leadership appointments at the federal agencies, has communicated and sought to implement an agenda focused on oversight and legislative initiatives in a variety of areas material to our business, including addressing climate-related risks, promoting diversity and equality within the banking industry and addressing other ESG matters relevant to us.
We could also incur additional costs and require additional resources to monitor, report and comply with various ESG practices. For example, in 2022, the SEC proposed new climate disclosure rules, which if adopted, would require new climate-related disclosure in SEC filings, including certain climate-related metrics and greenhouse gas emissions data, information about climate-related targets and goals, transition plans, if any, and extensive attestation requirements. Further, we may be exposed to negative publicity based on the identity and activities of those to whom we lend and with which we otherwise do business and the public’s view of the approach and performance of our customers and business partners with respect to ESG matters.
We may not be able to realize our entire investment in the equipment that we lease to our customers.
Our loans and leases include a significant portion of leased equipment, including, but not limited to, railcars and locomotives, technology and office equipment and medical equipment. The realization of equipment values (residual values) during the life and at the end of the term of a lease is an important element in the profitability of our leasing business. At the inception of each lease, we record a residual value for the leased equipment based on our estimate of the future value of the equipment at the end of the lease term or end of the equipment’s estimated useful life. If the market value of leased equipment decreases at a rate greater than we projected, whether due to rapid technological or economic obsolescence, unusual wear and tear on the equipment, excessive use of the equipment, recession or other adverse economic conditions impacting supply and demand, it could adversely affect the current values or the residual values of such equipment.
Financial Reporting Risks
Accounting standards may change and increase our operating costs or otherwise adversely affect our results.
The Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) and the SEC periodically modify the standards governing the preparation of our financial statements. The nature of these changes is not predictable and has impacted and could further impact how we record transactions in our financial statements, which has led to and could lead to material changes in assets, liabilities, stockholders’ equity, revenues, expenses and net income. Implementation of new accounting rules or standards could additionally require us to implement technology changes which could impact ongoing earnings.
Our accounting policies and processes are critical to the reporting of our financial condition and results of operations. They require management to make estimates about matters that are uncertain, and such estimates may be materially different from actual results.
Accounting policies and processes are fundamental to how we record and report our financial condition and results of operations. Management must exercise judgment in selecting and applying many of these accounting policies and processes so they comply with GAAP. In some cases, management must select the accounting policy or method to apply from two or more alternatives, any of which may be reasonable under the circumstances, yet may result in us reporting materially different results than would have been reported under a different alternative.
Management has identified certain accounting policies as being critical because they require management to make difficult, subjective or complex conclusions about matters that are uncertain. Materially different amounts could be reported under different conditions or using different assumptions or estimates. Because of the uncertainty surrounding management’s judgments and the estimates pertaining to these matters, we may be required to adjust accounting policies or restate prior period financial statements. Refer to “Critical Accounting Estimates” included in Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Our business is highly quantitative and requires widespread use of financial models for day-to-day operations; these models may produce inaccurate predictions that significantly vary from actual results, and we may rely on these inaccurate predictions in making decisions that ultimately adversely affect our business.
We rely on quantitative models to measure risks and to estimate certain financial values. Such models may be used in many processes including, but not limited to, the pricing of various products and services, classifications of loans, setting interest rates on loans and deposits, quantifying interest rate and other market risks, forecasting losses, measuring capital adequacy and calculating economic and regulatory capital levels. Models may also be used to estimate the value of financial instruments and balance sheet items. Inaccurate or erroneous models present the risk that business decisions relying on the models will prove inefficient, ineffective or harmful to us. Additionally, information we provide to our investors and regulators may be negatively impacted by inaccurately designed or implemented models. For further information on risk monitoring, refer to the “Risk Management” section included in Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosure about Market Risk of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
We may fail to maintain an effective system of internal control over financial reporting, which could hinder our ability to prevent fraud and provide reliable financial reports to key stakeholders.
We must have effective internal controls over financial reporting in order to provide reliable financial reports, to effectively prevent fraud and to operate successfully as a public company. If we are unable to provide reliable financial reports or prevent fraud, our reputation and operating results will be harmed and we may violate regulatory requirements or otherwise become subject to legal liability. We may discover material weaknesses or significant deficiencies requiring remediation, which would require additional expense and diversion of management attention, among other consequences. A “material weakness” is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal controls over financial reporting such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of a company’s annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis.
Any failure to maintain effective internal controls or to implement any necessary improvement of our internal controls in a timely manner could, among other things, result in losses from fraud or error, harm our reputation or cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information, each of which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition and the market value of our common stock.
Item 2. Properties
We are headquartered in a nine-story building with approximately 163,000 square feet that is located in Raleigh, North Carolina, which is owned by FCB. In addition, FCB owns and occupies two separate facilities in Raleigh as well as a facility in Columbia, South Carolina, which serve as data and operations centers. The addition of CIT primarily increased leased space, as CIT occupied office space and a branch network, the vast majority of which was leased. As of December 31, 2022, FCB operated 582 branches and offices throughout the Southeast, Mid-Atlantic, Midwest and Western United States. FCB owns many of our branch buildings and leases other facilities from third parties. We believe that these properties are in good condition and well maintained, and are suitable and adequate for our business needs.
Additional information relating to leased office space is set forth in Note 6 — Leases, of BancShares’ Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements. Additional information relating to premises and equipment is set forth in Note 7 — Premises and Equipment, of BancShares’ Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
The Parent Company’s and various subsidiaries are named as defendants in various legal actions arising from our normal business activities in which damages in various amounts are claimed. Although the amount of any ultimate liability with respect to those matters cannot be determined, in the opinion of management, no legal actions exist that would be material to BancShares’ consolidated financial statements. Additional information related to legal proceedings is set forth in Note 24 — Commitments and Contingencies, of BancShares’ Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
The Parent Company has two classes of common stock—Class A common stock and Class B common stock. Shares of Class A common stock have one vote per share, while shares of Class B common stock have 16 votes per share. The Class A common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol FCNCA. The Class B common stock is traded on the over-the-counter market and quoted on the OTC Pink Market under the symbol FCNCB. As of February 17, 2023, there were aggregates of 1,052 and 142 holders of record and individual participants in securities position listings with respect to the Class A common stock and Class B common stock, respectively. The market volume for Class B common stock is extremely limited. On many days there is no trading and, to the extent there is trading, it is generally low volume. Over-the-counter market quotations for BancShares Class B common stock represent inter-dealer prices without retail markup, markdown or commissions, and may not represent actual transaction prices.
The average monthly trading volume for the Class A common stock was 2,235,497 shares during the fourth quarter of 2022 and 2,567,371 shares for the year ended December 31, 2022. The Class B common stock monthly trading volume averaged 617 shares during the fourth quarter of 2022 and 1,381 shares for the year ended December 31, 2022.
The table below summarizes our stock repurchase activity during the fourth quarter of 2022.
ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
|Class A Common Stock||Total Number of Class A Shares Repurchased||Average Price Paid per Share||Total Number of Shares Repurchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plan||Maximum Number of Shares that May Yet be Repurchased Under Plan|
|Repurchases from October 1 - 31, 2022||472,586 ||$||842.61 ||472,586 ||— |
|Repurchases from November 1 - 30, 2022||— ||$||— ||— ||— |
|Repurchases from December 1 - 31, 2022||— ||$||— ||— ||— |
|Total||472,586 ||$||842.61 ||472,586 ||— |
On July 26, 2022, the Board authorized a share repurchase program for up to 1,500,000 shares of Class A common stock for the period commencing August 1, 2022 through July 28, 2023. Under the authorized share repurchase program, shares of Class A common stock were authorized to be repurchased from time to time on the open market or in privately negotiated transactions, including through a Rule 10b5-1 plan. All 1,500,000 shares of Class A common stock under the program were repurchased during 2022, thereby completing the share repurchase program.
The graph and table below compare the cumulative total shareholder return (“CTSR”) of our Class A common stock to selected industry and broad-market indices. The broad-market index comparison is to the Nasdaq US Benchmark Total Return Index and the industry index comparison is to the KBW Nasdaq Bank Total Return Index, which is composed of the largest banking companies and includes all money center banks and regional banks. Each trend line assumes $100 was invested on December 31, 2017, and dividends were reinvested for additional shares.
The performance graph represents past performance and should not be considered to be an indication of future performance.
|FCNCA||$||100 ||$||94 ||$||133 ||$||144 ||$||208 ||$||190 |
|Nasdaq US Benchmark TR||100 ||95 ||124 ||150 ||189 ||152 |
|KBW Nasdaq Bank Total Return Index||100 ||82 ||112 ||100 ||139 ||109 |
Item 6. [Reserved]
Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Management’s discussion and analysis (“MD&A”) of earnings and related financial data is presented to assist in understanding BancShares’ financial condition and results of operations. Unless otherwise noted, the terms “we,” “us,” “our,” and “BancShares” in this MD&A refer to our consolidated financial condition and results of operations.
This MD&A is expected to provide our investors with a view of our financial condition and results of operations from our management’s perspective. This MD&A should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Throughout this MD&A, references to a specific “Note” refer to Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated. Although certain amounts for prior years have been reclassified to conform to statement presentations for 2022, the reclassifications had no effect on stockholders’ equity or net income as previously reported. Refer to further detail in Note 1 — Significant Accounting Policies and Basis of Presentation.
Management uses certain non-GAAP financial measures in its analysis of the financial condition and results of operations of BancShares. See the "Non-GAAP Financial Measurements" section of this MD&A for a reconciliation of these financial measures to the most directly comparable financial measures in accordance with GAAP.
On January 3, 2022, we completed the CIT Merger, our largest acquisition to date. CIT had consolidated total assets of approximately $53.24 billion as of December 31, 2021. The CIT Merger is described further below in the “Significant Events in 2022” section of this MD&A and in Note 2 — Business Combinations.
BancShares’ financial data for periods prior to the CIT Merger does not include CIT, and therefore may not be directly comparable to data as of or for the year ended December 31, 2022. The CIT Merger is a primary reason for many of the increases in 2022 compared to 2021 as discussed below in the “Results of Operations” and “Balance Sheet” sections of this MD&A.
Year-over-year comparisons of the financial results for 2021 and 2020 are contained in Item 7. of BancShares’ Annual Report on Form 10-K as of and for the year ending December 31, 2021 filed with the SEC on February 25, 2022 and available through FCB’s investor relations website www.ir.firstcitizens.com or the SEC’s EDGAR database.
Key Strategic Objectives
Our overall business strategy is to acquire, expand, and retain client relationships. From a financial standpoint, long-term sustainability is our primary objective. Our major areas of focus are:
•Delivering value to our customers - We strive to be customer-centric by providing solutions to serve our customers’ financial objectives and needs.
•Growth - Our growth strategy focuses on organic growth, supplemented by strategic acquisitions. We strive to optimize allocation of capital and investments to focus on financial products and services with higher returns and opportunities. Our goal is to continue to add lower cost core deposits to help fund our growth.
•Our people and associates - We seek to attract, retain and develop associates who align with our long-term direction and culture, while scaling for continued growth.
•Operational efficiency - We aim to expand revenue, reduce costs of delivery, and maximize merger synergies, while effectively executing on our operating model.
•Prudent and strong risk management - Our goal is to manage risk within our defined risk appetite.
Significant Events in 2022
The CIT Merger closed on January 3, 2022 as further discussed in Note 2 — Business Combinations. Significant items related to the CIT Merger are as follows:
•The fair value of total assets acquired was $53.78 billion, which mainly consisted of approximately $32.71 billion of loans, approximately $7.84 billion of operating lease equipment and approximately $6.56 billion of investment securities. Loans consisted of commercial and industrial loans, commercial real estate loans and finance leases, which are included in our Commercial Banking segment, and consumer loans (primarily residential mortgages), which are in our General Banking segment. Acquired rail assets were mostly operating lease equipment and reported in the Rail segment.
•The fair value of deposits acquired was approximately $39.43 billion, which included deposits derived from the Digital Bank, Homeowners’ Association (“HOA”) deposits related to Community Association Banking (“CAB”), and commercial deposits. The transaction also included approximately 80 bank branches, about 60 of which were in Southern California, and the remaining primarily in the Southwest, Midwest and Southeast.
•FCB assumed certain issued and outstanding series of CIT debt securities with a fair value of approximately $4.54 billion in connection with the CIT Merger. On February 24, 2022, BancShares redeemed approximately $2.90 billion of senior unsecured notes that were assumed in the CIT Merger.
•BancShares recorded a gain on acquisition of $431 million, representing the excess of the net assets acquired over the purchase price, core deposit intangibles of $143 million, and an intangible liability of $52 million for net below market lessor lease contract rental rates related to the rail portfolio.
Share Repurchase Program
On July 26, 2022, our Board authorized a share repurchase program for up to 1,500,000 shares of BancShares’ Class A common stock for the period commencing August 1, 2022 through July 28, 2023. All shares under the program were repurchased during 2022, thereby completing the share repurchase program. See Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further details on these purchases.
As of December 31, 2021, BancShares managed its business and reported its financial results as a single segment. BancShares began reporting multiple segments during the first quarter of 2022 and now reports General Banking, Commercial Banking, Rail, and Corporate segments, as further discussed in Note 1 — Significant Accounting Policies and Basis of Presentation. Information about our segments is included in Note 23 — Business Segment Information and in the section entitled “Results by Business Segments” later in this MD&A.
Financial Performance Summary
Selected Financial Data
|dollars in millions, except share data||Year ended December 31|
|SUMMARY OF OPERATIONS|
|Interest income||$||3,413 ||$||1,451 ||$||1,484 |
|Interest expense||467 ||61 ||96 |
|Net interest income||2,946 ||1,390 ||1,388 |
|Provision (benefit) for credit losses||645 ||(37)||58 |
|Net interest income after provision for credit losses||2,301 ||1,427 ||1,330 |
|Noninterest income||2,136 ||508 ||477 |
|Noninterest expense||3,075 ||1,234 ||1,189 |
|Income before income taxes||1,362 ||701 ||618 |
|Income tax expense||264 ||154 ||126 |
|Net income||1,098 ||547 ||492 |
|Preferred stock dividends||50 ||18 ||14 |
|Net income available to common stockholders||$||1,048 ||$||529 ||$||478 |
|PER COMMON SHARE DATA|
|Average diluted common shares||15,549,944 ||9,816,405 ||10,056,654 |
|Net income available to common stockholders (diluted)||$||67.40 ||$||53.88 ||$||47.50 |
|KEY PERFORMANCE METRICS|
|Return on average assets (ROA)||1.01 ||%||1.00 ||%||1.07 ||%|
Net interest margin (NIM) (1)
|3.14 ||%||2.66 ||%||3.17 ||%|
|SELECTED PERIOD AVERAGE BALANCES|
|Total investments||$||19,166 ||$||10,611 ||$||9,055 |
Total loans and leases (1)
|67,787 ||32,860 ||31,605 |
|Total operating lease equipment (net)||7,982 ||— ||— |
|Total assets||108,933 ||54,983 ||46,021 |
|Total deposits||89,915 ||48,259 ||39,747 |
|Total stockholders’ equity||10,276 ||4,461 ||3,954 |
|SELECTED PERIOD-END BALANCES|
|Total investments||$||19,369 ||$||13,110 ||$||9,923 |
|Total loans and leases||70,781 ||32,372 ||32,792 |
|Total operating lease equipment (net)||8,156 ||— ||— |
|Total assets||109,298 ||58,309 ||49,958 |
|Total deposits||89,408 ||51,406 ||43,432 |
|Total stockholders’ equity||9,662 ||4,738 ||4,229 |
|Loan to deposit ratio||79.17 ||%||62.97 ||%||75.50 ||%|
|Noninterest-bearing deposits to total deposits||27.87 ||%||41.64 ||%||41.48 ||%|
|Common equity tier 1 ratio||10.08 ||%||11.50 ||%||10.61 ||%|
|Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio||11.06 ||%||12.47 ||%||11.63 ||%|
|Total risk-based capital ratio||13.18 ||%||14.35 ||%||13.81 ||%|
|Tier 1 leverage capital ratio||8.99 ||%||7.59 ||%||7.86 ||%|
|Ratio of nonaccrual loans to total loans||0.89 ||%||0.37 ||%||0.58 ||%|
|Allowance for credit losses to loans ratio||1.30 ||%||0.55 ||%||0.68 ||%|
|Net charge off ratio||0.12 ||%||0.03 ||%||0.07 ||%|
(1) Calculation is further discussed in Table 3 in the Results of Operations section of this MD&A.
Year to Date Income Statement Highlights
•Net income for the year ended December 31, 2022 was $1.10 billion, an increase of $551 million, or 101% compared to 2021. Net income available to common stockholders for the year ended December 31, 2022 was $1.05 billion, an increase of $519 million, or 98% compared to 2021. Net income per diluted common share for the year ended December 31, 2022 was $67.40, an increase of 25% compared to 2021. The increases were primarily due to the CIT Merger.
•Return on average assets for the year ended December 31, 2022 was 1.01%, compared to 1.00% for 2021.
•Net interest income (“NII”) for the year ended December 31, 2022 was $2.95 billion, an increase of $1.56 billion, or 112% compared to 2021. This increase was primarily due to the CIT Merger, loan growth and higher yields on interest-earning assets, partially offset by higher rates paid on interest-bearing deposits and a decline in interest income on SBA-PPP loans.
•Net interest margin (“NIM”) for the year ended December 31, 2022 was 3.14%, an increase of 48 bps compared to 2.66% in 2021. The increase in NIM was primarily due to the increase in yield on interest-earning assets, partially offset by an increase in the cost of interest-bearing liabilities.
•Provision for credit losses for the year ended December 31, 2022 was $645 million, compared to a benefit of $37 million in 2021. The provision for credit losses in 2022 included a provision of $513 million for non-purchased credit deteriorated (“Non-PCD”) loans, leases and unfunded commitments acquired in the CIT Merger (the “Day 2 provision for credit losses”). The 2022 provision for credit losses reflects the CIT Merger, loan growth, and deterioration in the economic outlook, partially offset by a change in portfolio mix. The net charge-off ratio for the year ended December 31, 2022 was 0.12%, compared to 0.03% for 2021.
•Noninterest income for the year ended December 31, 2022 was $2.14 billion, an increase of $1.63 billion compared to $508 million for 2021. The year ended December 31, 2022 includes a gain on acquisition of $431 million. The remaining increase was primarily due to the added activity from the CIT Merger, including rental income on operating lease equipment of $864 million.
•Noninterest expense for the year ended December 31, 2022 was $3.08 billion, an increase of $1.84 billion compared to $1.23 billion for 2021. The increase was primarily associated with the CIT Merger, including higher salaries and benefits of $637 million primarily due to the increase in employees, $534 million of depreciation and maintenance costs associated with operating lease equipment and an increase in merger-related expenses of $202 million.
•Select significant items for the year ended December 31, 2022 follow:
•Day 2 provision for credit losses of $513 million;
•Gain on acquisition of $431 million in noninterest income, representing the excess of the fair value of net assets acquired over the purchase price;
•Merger-related expenses of $231 million in noninterest expense;
•A reduction of $27 million in other noninterest expense related to the termination of certain post retirement plans assumed in the CIT Merger; and
•Income tax expense of $55 million related to the strategic decision to exit $1.25 billion of BOLI policies as discussed further below in the “Fourth Quarter Analysis” section of this MD&A.
Balance Sheet Highlights
•Total loans and leases at December 31, 2022 were $70.78 billion, an increase of $38.41 billion from December 31, 2021, primarily reflecting the addition of $32.71 billion from the CIT Merger. In addition, during 2022 we continued to see growth in our branch network, as well as growth in our Commercial Banking segment from a number of our industry verticals, such as healthcare and technology, equipment financing, and growth in both commercial and consumer mortgage loans.
•Total deposits at December 31, 2022 were $89.41 billion, an increase of $38.00 billion from December 31, 2021, reflecting the addition of $39.43 billion from the CIT Merger. Total deposits declined during the second and third quarters of 2022, reflecting the most rate sensitive customers moving funds in response to increases in the target federal funds rate. This decline in total deposits was primarily concentrated in branches acquired in the CIT Merger and the Commercial Banking segment. Deposits increased durin