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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
(Mark one)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from   to
Commission file number: 001-11307-01
fcx_logoa45.jpg
Freeport-McMoRan Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware74-2480931
(State or other jurisdiction of(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
incorporation or organization) 
333 North Central Avenue
PhoenixArizona85004-2189
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
(602) 366-8100
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.10 per shareFCXThe New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:  None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act  Yes No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.   Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  Yes No                         
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.   
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer  
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.             
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.                                      
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.                        
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).    
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).                                Yes No
The aggregate market value of common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was $57.1 billion on June 30, 2023.
Common stock issued and outstanding was 1,434,409,010 shares on January 31, 2024.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant’s proxy statement for its 2024 annual meeting of stockholders are incorporated by reference into Part III of this report.



Freeport-McMoRan Inc.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
  
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 75
  
 
Item 6. Reserved
 
  
 
  
  
  


i

PART I
Items 1. and 2. Business and Properties.

All of our periodic reports filed with the United States (U.S.) Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, are available, free of charge, through our website, fcx.com, including our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and any amendments to those reports. These reports and amendments are available through our website as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file or furnish such material to the SEC. Our website is for information only and the contents of our website or information connected thereto are not incorporated in, or otherwise to be regarded as part of, this Form 10-K.

References to “we,” “us” and “our” refer to Freeport-McMoRan Inc. (FCX) and its consolidated subsidiaries. References to “Notes” refer to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included herein (refer to Item 8.), and references to “MD&A” refer to Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk included herein (refer to Items 7. and 7A.). The following discussions include forward-looking statements that are not guarantees of future performance and actual results may differ materially (refer to Item 1A. “Risk Factors” and “Cautionary Statement” in MD&A for further discussion).

GENERAL

We are a leading international mining company with headquarters in Phoenix, Arizona. We operate large, long-lived, geographically diverse assets with significant proven and probable mineral reserves of copper, gold and molybdenum. We are one of the world’s largest publicly traded copper producers. Our portfolio of assets includes the Grasberg minerals district in Indonesia, one of the world’s largest copper and gold deposits; and significant mining operations in North America and South America, including the large-scale Morenci minerals district in Arizona and the Cerro Verde operation in Peru.

Our results for 2023 reflect strong operating performance, including achievement of a number of important initiatives to advance growth options, to position us for the future and aimed at enhancing value. Despite economic uncertainty, including rising costs, we continued to generate positive operating cash flows. We believe the actions we have taken in recent years to build a solid balance sheet and maintain flexible organic growth options while maintaining liquidity, will allow us to continue to execute our business plans in a prudent manner and preserve substantial future asset values.

We believe that we have a high-quality portfolio of long-lived copper assets that are positioned to generate long-term value, and we remain focused on executing our operating and investment plans. Our underground mining operations at the Grasberg minerals district in Indonesia continue to perform well, with copper and gold production increasing in each of the past three years, including achievement of multiple operating records during 2023. Furthermore, projects to expand our domestic smelting and refining capacity in Indonesia are progressing, with construction progress for these projects measured at over 90% at year-end 2023. We are also advancing a series of initiatives across our North America and South America operations to incorporate new applications, technologies and data analytics to our leaching processes. In fourth-quarter 2023, we achieved our initial run rate target of approximately 200 million pounds of copper per year through these initiatives.

For the year 2023, the London Metal Exchange (LME) copper settlement prices averaged $3.85 per pound, ranging from a high of $4.28 per pound in January to a low for the year of $3.54 per pound in May, and closing at $3.84 per pound on December 29, 2023. Current physical market conditions are strong as evidenced by low levels of global exchange stocks. We believe long-term fundamentals for copper are favorable and that future demand will be supported by copper’s role in the global transition to renewable power, electric vehicles and other carbon-reduction initiatives, continued urbanization in developing countries and growing connectivity globally.
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Following are our ownership interests at December 31, 2023, in operating mines through our consolidated subsidiaries, Freeport Minerals Corporation (FMC) and PT Freeport Indonesia (PT-FI):
MineStructure.jpg
a.Refer to Note 3 for discussion of our conclusion to consolidate PT-FI.
b.FMC has a 72% undivided interest in Morenci via an unincorporated joint venture. Refer to Note 3 for further discussion.

Following is the allocation of our estimated consolidated recoverable proven and probable mineral reserves at December 31, 2023, by geographic location (refer to “Mining Operations” and “Mineral Reserves” for further discussion):
CopperGoldMolybdenum
North America43 %%80 %
a
South America29 — 20 
Indonesia28 98 — 
100 %100 %100 %
a.Our Henderson and Climax molybdenum mines contain 18% of our estimated consolidated recoverable proven and probable molybdenum reserves, and our North America copper mines contain 62%.

In North America, we operate seven copper mines – Morenci, Bagdad, Safford (including Lone Star), Sierrita and Miami in Arizona, and Chino and Tyrone in New Mexico, and two molybdenum mines – Henderson and Climax in Colorado. In addition to copper, certain of our North America copper mines also produce molybdenum concentrate, gold and silver. In South America, we operate two copper mines – Cerro Verde in Peru and El Abra in Chile. In addition to copper, the Cerro Verde mine also produces molybdenum concentrate and silver. In Indonesia, PT-FI operates in the Grasberg minerals district. In addition to copper, the Grasberg minerals district also produces gold and silver.
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Following is the allocation of our consolidated copper, gold and molybdenum production for the year 2023 by geographic location (refer to “Mining Operations” and MD&A for further information):
CopperGoldMolybdenum
North America32 %%73 %
a
South America29 — 27 
Indonesia39 99 — 
100 %100 %100 %
a.Our Henderson and Climax molybdenum mines produced 36% of our consolidated molybdenum production, and our North America copper mines produced 37%.

Copper production from three of our mines, the Morenci mine in North America, the Cerro Verde mine in Peru and the Grasberg minerals district in Indonesia, together totaled 76% of our consolidated copper production in 2023.

The geographic locations of our operating mines are shown on the world map below.
map10K.jpg

COPPER, GOLD AND MOLYBDENUM

The following provides a summary of our primary natural resources – copper, gold and molybdenum. Refer to MD&A for further discussion of historical and current market prices of these commodities and Item 1A. “Risk Factors” for discussion of factors that can cause price fluctuations.

Copper
Copper is an internationally traded commodity, and its prices are determined by the major metals exchanges – the LME, Commodity Exchange Inc. (COMEX) and Shanghai Futures Exchange. Prices on these exchanges generally reflect the worldwide balance of copper supply and demand, and can be volatile and cyclical.

In general, demand for copper reflects the rate of underlying world economic growth, particularly in industrial production and construction. According to Wood Mackenzie, a widely followed independent metals market consultant, copper’s end-use markets (and their estimated shares of total consumption) are electrical applications (28%), construction (27%), consumer products (21%), transportation (13%) and industrial machinery (11%). We believe copper will continue to be essential in these basic uses as well as contribute significantly to new technologies for clean energy, to advance communications and to enhance public health. Examples of areas we
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believe will require additional copper in the future include: (i) high efficiency motors, which consume up to 75% more copper than a standard motor; (ii) electric vehicles, which consume up to four times the amount of copper in terms of weight compared to vehicles of similar size with an internal combustion engine, and require copper-intensive charging station infrastructure to refuel; and (iii) renewable energy such as wind and solar, which consume four to five times the amount of copper compared to traditional fossil fuel generated power.

Gold
Gold is used for jewelry, coinage and bullion as well as various industrial and electronic applications. Gold can be readily sold on numerous markets throughout the world. Benchmark prices are generally based on London Bullion Market Association (London) quotations.

Molybdenum
Molybdenum is a key alloying element in steel and the raw material for several chemical-grade products used in catalysts, lubrication, smoke suppression, corrosion inhibition and pigmentation. Molybdenum-based chemicals are used to produce high-purity molybdenum metal used in electronics such as flat-panel displays and in super alloys used in aerospace. Like copper, demand for molybdenum is positively impacted by new technologies for clean energy. Reference prices for molybdenum are available in several publications, but generally based on Platts Metals Daily.

PRODUCTS AND SALES

Our consolidated revenues for 2023 primarily included sales of copper (75%), gold (15%) and molybdenum (8%). For the three years ended December 31, 2023, there were no customers that accounted for 10% or more of our consolidated revenues in 2023, and the only customer that accounted for 10% or more of our consolidated revenues in both 2022 and 2021 was PT Smelting (PT-FI’s 39.5% owned copper smelter and refinery). Beginning January 1, 2023, PT-FI’s commercial arrangement with PT Smelting changed to a tolling arrangement and there are no further sales from PT-FI to PT Smelting (refer to Note 3 for further discussion). Refer to Note 16 for a summary of our consolidated revenues and operating income (loss) by business segment and geographic area.

Copper Products
We are one of the world’s leading producers of copper concentrate, cathode and continuous cast copper rod. During 2023, 51% of our mined copper was sold in concentrate, 27% as cathode and 22% as rod from our North America operations. The copper ore from our mines is generally processed either by smelting and refining or by solution extraction and electrowinning (SX/EW) as described below.

Copper Concentrate. We produce copper concentrate at six of our mines in which mined ore is crushed and treated to produce a copper concentrate with copper content of approximately 20% to 30%. In North America, copper concentrate is produced at the Morenci, Bagdad, Sierrita and Chino mines, and a significant portion is shipped to our Miami smelter in Arizona for further processing. Copper concentrate is also produced at the Cerro Verde mine in Peru and the Grasberg minerals district in Indonesia.

Copper Cathode. We produce copper cathode at our electrolytic refinery located in El Paso, Texas, and at nine of our mines. 

SX/EW cathode is produced from the Morenci, Bagdad, Safford, Sierrita, Miami, Chino and Tyrone mines in North America, and from the Cerro Verde and El Abra mines in South America. For ore subject to the SX/EW process, the ore is placed on stockpiles and copper is extracted from the ore by dissolving it with a weak sulfuric acid solution. The copper content of the solution is increased in two additional SX stages, and then the copper-bearing solution undergoes an EW process to produce cathode that is, on average, 99.99% copper. Our copper cathode is used as the raw material input for copper rod, brass mill products and for other uses.

Copper cathode is also produced at Atlantic Copper (our wholly owned copper smelting and refining unit in Spain) and PT Smelting. Copper concentrate is smelted (i.e., subjected to extreme heat) to produce copper anode, which weighs between 700 and 900 pounds and has an average copper content of 99.5%. The anode is further treated by electrolytic refining to produce copper cathode, which weighs between 100 and 350 pounds and has an average copper content of 99.99%. Refer to “Smelting Facilities and Other Mining Properties” for further discussion of Atlantic Copper and PT Smelting.

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Continuous Cast Copper Rod. We manufacture continuous cast copper rod at our facilities in El Paso, Texas and Miami, Arizona, primarily using copper cathode produced at our North America copper mines.

Copper Sales
North America. The majority of the copper produced at our North America copper mines and refined in our El Paso, Texas refinery is consumed at our rod plants to produce copper rod, which is then sold to wire and cable manufacturers. The remainder of our North America copper production is sold in the form of copper cathode or copper concentrate under U.S. dollar-denominated annual contracts. Generally, copper cathode is sold to rod, brass or tube fabricators. Cathode and rod contract prices are generally based on the prevailing COMEX monthly average settlement price for the month of shipment and include a premium. During 2023, our North America mines shipped 3% of their copper concentrate sales volumes to Atlantic Copper for smelting and refining, which was sold as copper cathode by Atlantic Copper.

South America. Production from our South America mines is sold as copper concentrate or copper cathode under U.S. dollar-denominated, annual and multi-year contracts. During 2023, our South America mines sold 74% of their copper production in concentrate and 26% as cathode. During 2023, 9% of our South America mines’ copper concentrate sales volumes were shipped to Atlantic Copper for smelting and refining, which was sold as copper cathode by Atlantic Copper.

Substantially all of our South America copper concentrate and cathode sales contracts provide final copper pricing in a specified future month (generally one to four months from the shipment date) primarily based on quoted LME monthly average settlement copper prices. Revenues from our South America concentrate sales are recorded net of royalties and treatment charges (i.e., fees paid to smelters that are generally negotiated annually). In addition, because a portion of the metals contained in copper concentrate is unrecoverable from the smelting process, revenues from our South America concentrate sales are also recorded net of allowances for unrecoverable metals, which are a negotiated term of the contracts and vary by customer.

Indonesia. PT-FI has historically sold its production in the form of copper concentrate, which contains significant quantities of gold and silver, primarily under U.S. dollar-denominated, long-term contracts. PT-FI also sells a small amount of copper concentrate in the spot market.

Beginning in 2023, PT-FI’s commercial arrangement with PT Smelting changed from a concentrate sales agreement to a tolling arrangement. Under this arrangement, PT-FI pays PT Smelting a tolling fee to smelt and refine its concentrate and PT-FI retains title to all products for sale to third parties (i.e., there are no further sales to PT Smelting). PT-FI’s sale of copper cathodes under the tolling arrangement are priced in the month of shipment and are not subject to provisional pricing.

During 2023, PT-FI sold 75% of its copper production in concentrate and 25% as cathode. During 2023, PT-FI shipped 10% of its concentrate sales volumes to Atlantic Copper, which was sold as copper cathode by Atlantic Copper.

Substantially all of PT-FI’s copper concentrate sales contracts provide final pricing in a specified future month (generally one to four months from the shipment date) primarily based on quoted LME monthly average settlement copper prices. Revenues from PT-FI’s concentrate sales are recorded net of royalties, export duties, treatment charges and allowances for unrecoverable metals. Revenues from PT-FI’s cathode sales are recorded net of royalties.

Refer to Item 1A. “Risk Factors,” “Operations – Indonesia Mining” in MD&A and Notes 12, 13 and 14 for a discussion of Indonesia regulatory matters, including those related to export licenses, export duties and export proceeds.

Gold Products and Sales
We produce gold almost exclusively from our mines in the Grasberg minerals district. The gold we produce is primarily sold as a component of our copper concentrate or in anode slimes, which are a product of the smelting and refining process. Gold generally is priced at the average London price for a specified month near the month of shipment. Revenues from gold sold as a component of our copper concentrate are recorded net of treatment charges, royalties, export duties and allowances for unrecoverable metals. Revenues from gold sold in anode slimes are recorded net of royalties and refining charges.

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Molybdenum Products and Sales
According to Wood Mackenzie, we are the world’s largest producer of molybdenum and molybdenum-based chemicals. In addition to production from the Henderson and Climax molybdenum mines, we produce molybdenum concentrate at certain of our North America copper mines and our Cerro Verde copper mine in Peru. The majority of our molybdenum concentrate is processed in our own conversion facilities. Our molybdenum sales are primarily priced based on the average published Platts Metals Daily price for the month prior to the month of shipment.

GOVERNMENTAL REGULATIONS

Our operations are subject to a broad range of laws and regulations imposed by governments and regulatory bodies, both in the U.S. and internationally. These laws and regulations touch all aspects of our operations, the most significant of which include how we extract, process and explore for minerals and how we conduct our business, including laws and regulations governing matters such as mining rights, environmental and reclamation matters, climate change, occupational health and safety, and human rights. Compliance with these laws and regulations requires expenditures for the implementation, operation and maintenance of systems and programs, but has not had and is not expected to have a material adverse effect on our expenditures, results of operations or competitive position. We continuously monitor and strive to maintain compliance with changes in laws and regulations that impact our business.

Mining Rights
We conduct our mining and exploration activities pursuant to concessions granted by, or under contracts with, the host government in the countries where we operate. These countries include, among others, the U.S., Peru, Chile and Indonesia. Mining rights include our license to operate and involve our payment of applicable taxes and royalties to the host governments. The concessions and contracts are subject to the political risks associated with the host countries. For information about mining rights, governmental agreements, licenses to operate, and tax regulations and related matters refer to “Mining Operations” below, Item 1A. “Risk Factors” and Notes 3, 11, 12 and 13.

Environmental and Reclamation Matters
Our operations are subject to extensive and complex environmental laws and regulations governing the generation, storage, treatment, transportation and disposal of hazardous substances; solid waste disposal; air emissions; wastewater discharges; remediation, restoration and reclamation of environmental contamination, including mine closures and reclamation; protection of endangered and threatened species and designation of critical habitats; and other related matters. In addition, we must obtain regulatory permits and approvals to start, continue and expand operations. As a mining company, compliance with environmental, health and safety laws and regulations is an integral and costly part of our business. We conduct our operations in a manner that aims to protect public health and the environment. We believe our operations follow applicable laws and regulations in all material respects, and we have internal company policies that in some instances go beyond compliance with such laws and regulations.

At December 31, 2023, we had $1.9 billion recorded in our consolidated balance sheet for environmental obligations and $3.0 billion recorded for asset reclamation obligations. We incurred environmental capital expenditures and other environmental costs (including our joint venture partners’ shares) to comply with applicable environmental laws and regulations that affect our operations totaling $0.5 billion in 2023, $0.4 billion in 2022 and $0.3 billion in 2021. For 2024, we expect to incur approximately $0.6 billion of aggregate environmental capital expenditures and other environmental costs (including our joint venture partners’ shares). The timing and amounts of estimated payments could change as a result of changes in regulatory requirements, changes in scope and costs of reclamation activities, the settlement of environmental matters and the rate at which actual spending occurs on continuing matters.

For information about environmental laws and regulations at our global operations, including litigation and related costs, and reclamation matters, see below as well as Item 1A. “Risk Factors,” Item 3 “Legal Proceedings” and Notes 1, 12 and 13.
North America. United States. Laws such as the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980, as amended (CERCLA) and similar state laws may expose us to joint and several liability for environmental damages caused by our operations, or by previous owners or operators of properties we acquired or are currently operating or at sites where we previously sent materials for processing, recycling or disposal. We have substantial obligations for environmental remediation on mining properties previously owned or operated by FMC and certain of its affiliates.
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We are required by U.S. federal and state laws and regulations to provide financial assurance sufficient to allow a third party to implement approved closure and reclamation plans for our mining properties if we are unable to do so. Most of our financial assurance obligations are imposed by state laws that vary significantly by jurisdiction, depending on how each state regulates land use and groundwater quality. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state agencies may also require financial assurance for investigation and remediation actions that are required under settlements of enforcement actions under CERCLA or similar state laws.

Regulations have been considered at various governmental levels to increase financial responsibility requirements both for mine closure and reclamation. In 2019, legislation was enacted in Colorado that eliminates our ability to use parent company guarantees and requires proof of an end date for water treatment as a condition of permit issuance authorizing mining operations, with some exceptions for existing operations. In 2018, EPA concluded a rulemaking that considered the need for financial responsibility for hardrock mining operations under CERCLA by publishing its determination that it did not intend to require financial responsibility for the hardrock mining industry sector. In 2019, the District of Columbia Circuit upheld EPA’s decision. In connection with the presidential executive order issued in January 2021, EPA will review this final action, though the timing of its review is unknown. In 2023, a federal Interagency Working Group on mining laws, regulations and permitting led by the Department of the Interior (DOI) identified financial responsibility as one of many substantive reforms to federal mining laws and recommended reform and enhancement of laws, regulations and policies governing financial assurance, which if enacted, may impact other mining laws that may be applicable to us in the future.

Our U.S. mining operations are also subject to regulations under the Endangered Species Act that are intended to protect species listed by the DOI’s Fish & Wildlife Service (FWS) as endangered or threatened, along with critical habitat designated by FWS for these listed species. The regulations may affect the ability of landowners, including us, to obtain federal permits or authorizations needed for expansion of our operations, and may also affect our ability to obtain, retain or deliver water to some operations.

New or revised environmental regulatory requirements are frequently proposed, many of which result in substantially increased costs for our business, including those regarding financial assurance discussed above and in Item 1A. “Risk Factors.” For example, in 2023, EPA amended its rule proposal to revise the standards for hazardous air pollutant emissions from primary copper smelters, including our Miami, Arizona smelter, which processes a significant portion of the copper concentrate produced by our North America copper mines. EPA continues to consider comments and collect additional data, and EPA’s final rule, expected by mid-2024, could impose additional requirements on our operations. We may be required to modify our systems or install additional equipment to address findings, new requirements or for other reasons, which could result in significant costs, including increased capital expenditures and operating costs, and could adversely impact our business.

EPA and state agencies continue to consider regulations for man-made organic compounds that could be present in soil, groundwater and surface water at our existing and former operations. These regulations may include drinking water standards, hazardous waste requirements, and hazardous substance designations for Perfluorooctanesulfonic and Perfluorooctanoic acids. In 2023, EPA issued a draft toxicological assessment for
inorganic arsenic. In January 2024, EPA announced that, effective immediately, it is lowering recommended screening levels for investigation and clean up of lead-contaminated soils. We are reviewing EPA’s guidance to understand possible ramifications to completed or ongoing work overseen by either EPA or state agencies. This EPA guidance and future changes to EPA’s lead and arsenic cleanup levels could result in material increases to our environmental reserves for ongoing residential property cleanup projects near former smelter sites.

In 2023, EPA and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers issued a final rule to amend the final revised definition of the “waters of the United States.” Although future court decisions may further affect the scope of the final rule and legal challenges have already been successful, we may need federal authorization under the Clean Water Act to expand some of our operations.

South America. Peru. In 2005, Peru enacted the General Environmental Law (Law No. 28611), which establishes the main environmental guidelines and principles applicable in Peru. Pursuant to the General Environmental Law, Ministry of Energy and Mines (MINEM) issued national environmental regulations, which have gradually replaced prior guidelines governing governmental agencies environmental competencies. The Environmental Evaluation and Oversight Agency has the authority to inspect mining operations and fine companies that fail to comply with prescribed environmental regulations and their approved environmental assessments.

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Cerro Verde is subject to regulation under the Mine Closure Law administered by MINEM. Under the closure regulations, mines must submit a closure plan that includes the reclamation methods, closure cost estimates, methods of control and verification, closure and post-closure plans, and financial assurance. In compliance with the requirement for five-year updates, in 2023, Cerro Verde submitted its updated closure plan and cost estimates and received approval from MINEM in December 2023.

The Cerro Verde mine has developed and continues to implement detailed, comprehensive mine waste and tailings management programs to meet the applicable Peru waste regulations and our environmental management practices. These programs incorporate commitments included in the Environmental and Social Impact Studies and the Engineer of Record designs for the specific cases of tailings storage facilities and certain leach pad stockpiles. For any future projects, including for existing facilities, Cerro Verde also may be required by MINEM or the National Environmental Certification Service for Sustainable Investments to incur additional costs to comply with the requirements of new regulations that provide for the adequacy of the transportation and final disposal of tailings.

Chile. El Abra is subject to regulation under the Mine Closure Law administered by the Chile Mining and Geology Agency. El Abra submitted an updated closure plan and cost estimates in November 2018, and approval of the updated closure plan and cost estimates was received in August 2020. In compliance with the requirement for five-year updates, El Abra expects to submit an updated plan with closure cost estimates in 2025 unless a modification to the closure plan requires earlier submission.

Indonesia. PT-FI holds multiple permits from national, provincial, and regency regulatory agencies, including groundwater use permits, effluent and air discharge permits, solid and hazardous waste storage and management permits and protection of forest borrow-to-use permits. Where permits have specific terms, renewal applications are made to the relevant regulatory authority as required, prior to the end of the permit term.

In December 2018, Indonesia’s Ministry of Environment and Forestry (MOEF) issued a revised environmental permit to PT-FI to address certain operational activities that it alleged were inconsistent with earlier studies. PT-FI and the MOEF also established a new framework known as the Tailings Management Roadmap for continuous improvement in environmental practices at PT-FI’s operations, including initiatives that will examine options to potentially increase tailings retention and to evaluate large scale beneficial uses of tailings within Indonesia. The third-party expert nominated by MOEF to perform the framework evaluation submitted its report to the MOEF in June 2021. In 2023, PT-FI continued to work with MOEF on the Tailings Management Roadmap objectives. This included further reduction of non-tailings sediment entering the tailings management area, construction of permeable groins in the estuary portion of the tailings management area to increase sedimentation and reduce erosion, as well as continue pursuing additional beneficial uses of tailings in infrastructure and other projects.

Permitting continues to progress for certain facilities related to the expansion of underground mining production operations as well as for additional structures to increase retention of tailings within the approved lowlands tailings management areas. In 2020, PT-FI initiated a new environmental impact analysis (called an Analisis Mengenai Dampak Lingkungan or AMDAL) in preparation for the proposed activities associated with the transition from Grasberg surface to underground operations, and PT-FI completed the approval requirements of the AMDAL covering all support activities for the underground transition in 2023. In December 2023, PT-FI received technical approval for its tailings management activities. A second AMDAL submission covering additional underground activities is in the final stages of approval.

A detailed mine closure plan and five-year reclamation plan have been approved by Indonesia regulators as required by Indonesia law. In 2019, PT-FI completed and received approval on an updated mine closure plan to reflect Grasberg minerals district production operations until 2041. The plan is reviewed annually and required reclamation bonds are in place. In the future, additional approval will be required for the diversion of the Aghawagon/Otomona River out of the tailings management area at the end of the mine life.

Climate Change
In many of the jurisdictions in which we or our customers operate, governmental bodies are increasingly enacting legislation and regulations in response to the potential impacts of climate change. For example, as a result of the 2015 Paris Agreement, a number of governments, including the U.S. and Chile, have pledged “Nationally Determined Contributions” to control and reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). Additionally, the pledges made as part of the 2021 Glasgow Climate Pact could result in further policy changes in many of the jurisdictions in which we operate. Further, several states in the U.S., including Colorado and New Mexico, have advanced goals reducing or eliminating fossil fuel-based energy production. Carbon tax legislation also has been adopted in jurisdictions
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where we operate, including Indonesia and the European Union (EU), and we expect that such carbon taxes and other carbon pricing mechanisms will increase over time.

Further, regulations that affect us also may include mandated corporate climate-related reporting. For example, in 2022, the SEC proposed new climate-related disclosure rules, which if finalized, could require new climate-related disclosures in SEC filings and audited financial statements, including certain climate-related metrics and GHG emissions data, information about climate-related targets and goals, transition plans, if any, and attestation requirements. In addition, Atlantic Copper is, and we expect to be, subject to the requirements of the EU’s Corporate Sustainability Reporting Directive, which will require additional disclosures across, among others, environmental and social topics, including climate change. We also may be subject to California’s Climate Corporate Data Accountability Act, Climate-Related Financial Risk Act and Voluntary Carbon Market Disclosures Act, which were enacted in 2023 (some of which are currently being legally challenged) and together will require reporting and third-party assurance of GHG emissions information for certain entities, climate-related financial risk reporting and disclosures regarding carbon reduction claims. Legislation similar to California’s is also under consideration in other states.

While it is not yet possible to reasonably estimate the nature, extent, timing and cost or other impacts of any future carbon pricing mechanisms, mandatory disclosures, other climate change regulatory programs or future legislative action that may be enacted, we anticipate that we will dedicate more resources and incur more costs to comply and remediate in response to legislative or regulatory changes.

For information about the risks posed by the potential impacts of climate change and related regulations, refer to Item 1A. “Risk Factors.”

Health and Safety
Our highest priority is the health, safety and well-being of our employees and contractors. We also work to promote our safety-first values with our suppliers and in the communities where we operate. We believe health and safety considerations are integral to, and fundamental for, all other functions in our organization, and we understand the health and safety of our workforce is critical to our operational efficiency and long-term success. We are subject to extensive U.S. and international regulation of worker health and safety, including the requirements of the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Act and similar laws of other jurisdictions. For example, in the U.S., the operation of our mines is subject to regulation by the U.S. Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) under the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977 (Mine Act). MSHA inspects our mines on a regular basis and issues citations and orders when it believes a violation has occurred under the Mine Act. Additionally, in the U.S., various state agencies have concurrent jurisdiction arising under state law that regulate worker health and safety in both our industrial facilities and mines. If regulatory inspections result in an alleged violation, we may be subject to fines and penalties and, in instances of alleged significant violations, our mining operations or industrial facilities could be subject to temporary or extended closures. Refer to Exhibit 95.1 to this Form 10-K for additional information regarding certain orders and citations issued by MSHA for our operations during the year ended December 31, 2023. For information about health and safety, refer to “Human Capital” below and Item 4. “Mine Safety Disclosures.”

Human Rights
We are dedicated to the recognition, respect and promotion of human rights wherever we do business. We are committed to respecting the rights of all people, including our employees, business partners, community members and others who potentially may be impacted by our business activities. We take this obligation seriously in all aspects of our business, and we expect the same of our business partners.

For information about human rights, refer to “Community and Human Rights” below.

COMPETITION

The top 10 producers of copper comprise approximately 41% of total worldwide mined copper production. For the year 2023, we ranked third among those producers, with approximately 6% of estimated total worldwide mined copper production on an attributable basis. We believe our competitive position is based on the size, quality and grade of our ore bodies and our ability to manage costs compared with other producers. We have a diverse portfolio of mining operations with varying ore grades and cost structures. Our costs are driven by the location, grade and nature of our ore bodies, and the level of input costs, including energy, labor and equipment. The metals markets are cyclical, and we believe our ability to maintain our competitive position over the long term is based on our ability
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to acquire and develop quality deposits (including the expansion of deposits at our existing mine sites); recruit, retain, develop and advance a skilled workforce; and to manage our costs.

MINING OPERATIONS

The Copper Mark
We demonstrate our responsible production performance through the Copper Mark, a comprehensive assurance framework developed specifically for the copper industry, and recently extended to other metals including molybdenum. To achieve the Copper Mark, each site is required to complete an independent external assurance process to assess conformance with 33 environmental, social and governance (ESG) criteria. Awarded sites must be revalidated every three years. We have achieved the Copper Mark and/or Molybdenum Mark, as applicable, at all of our sites globally.

ICMM
We are a founding member of the International Council on Mining & Metals (ICMM), an organization dedicated to a safe, fair and sustainable mining and metals industry, aiming continuously to strengthen ESG performance across the global mining and metals industry. As a member company, we are required to implement the 10 Mining Principles which define good ESG practices, and associated position statements, while also meeting 39 performance expectations and producing an externally verified sustainability report utilizing the Global Reporting Initiative Sustainability Reporting Standards subject to the ICMM Assurance & Validation Procedure.

Tailings Management
We dedicate substantial financial resources and internal and external technical resources to pursue the safe management of our tailings facilities and to reduce or eliminate the number of and potential consequences of credible failure modes. Our tailings management and stewardship program, which involves qualified external Engineers of Record and periodic oversight by Independent Tailings Review Boards and our Tailings Stewardship Team, conform with the tailings governance framework on preventing catastrophic failure of tailings storage facilities adopted by the ICMM. Further, our Tailings Management Policy outlines our continued commitment to managing our tailings responsibly and effectively across our sites globally. As an ICMM member and in accordance with our commitment in our Tailings Management Policy, we also have implemented the Global Industry Standard on Tailings Management (the Tailings Standard) for all tailings storage facilities with “Extreme” or “Very High” potential consequences based on “credible failure modes” and are committed to implementing the Tailings Standard by August 2025 for all other tailing storage facilities that have not been deemed “Safely Closed” (each as defined in the Tailings Standard). We believe we have the financial capacity to meet current estimated lifecycle costs, including estimated closure, post-closure and reclamation obligations associated with our tailings storage facilities. We continue to enhance our existing practices to strengthen the design, operation and closure of tailings storage facilities in an effort to reduce the risk of severe or catastrophic failure of those facilities.

Refer to Item 1A. “Risk Factors” for further discussion of the risks associated with our tailings management.

Overview of Mines
Following are maps and descriptions of our copper and molybdenum mining operations in North America, South America and Indonesia. We consider our material mines, as defined under the disclosure requirements of Subpart 1300 of SEC Regulation S-K, to be the Morenci mine in North America, the Cerro Verde mine in Peru and the Grasberg minerals district in Indonesia. Refer to Exhibits 96.1, 96.2 and 96.3 for the Technical Report Summaries that have been prepared for our material mines.

North America
In the U.S., most of the land occupied by our copper and molybdenum mines, concentrators, SX/EW facilities, smelter, refinery, rod mills, molybdenum roasters and processing facilities is owned by us or is located on unpatented mining claims owned by us. Certain portions of our Bagdad, Sierrita, Miami, Chino, Tyrone, Henderson and Climax operations are located on government-owned land and are operated under a Mine Plan of Operations or other use permit. We hold various federal and state permits or leases on government land for purposes incidental to mine operations.


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Morenci
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We own a 72% undivided interest in Morenci, with the remaining 28% owned by Sumitomo Metal Mining Arizona, Inc. (15%) and SMM Morenci, Inc. (13%). Each partner takes in kind its share of Morenci’s production.

Morenci is an open-pit copper mining complex that has been in continuous operation since 1939 and previously was mined through underground workings. In the 1880s, Phelps Dodge & Company (Phelps Dodge) first invested in the area, and through acquisition, consolidated all mining operations in the area by the 1920s. Phelps Dodge was acquired by FCX in 2007. Morenci is located in Greenlee County, Arizona, approximately 50 miles northeast of Safford on U.S. Highway 191. The property is located at latitude 33.07 degrees north and longitude 109.35 degrees west using the World Geodetic System (WGS) 84 coordinate system. The site is accessible by a paved highway and a railway spur.

The Morenci mine is a porphyry copper deposit that has oxide, secondary sulfide and primary sulfide mineralization. The predominant oxide copper mineral is chrysocolla. Chalcocite is the most important secondary copper sulfide mineral, with chalcopyrite as the dominant primary copper sulfide.

The Morenci operation consists of two concentrators with a milling design capacity of 132,000 metric tons of ore per day, which produce copper and molybdenum concentrate; a 72,500 metric ton-per-day, crushed-ore leach pad and stacking system; a low-grade run-of-mine (ROM) leaching system; four SX plants; and three EW tank houses that produce copper cathode. Total EW tank house capacity is approximately 900 million pounds of copper per year. Morenci’s available mining fleet consists of one hundred and forty-one 235-metric-ton haul trucks loaded by 13 electric shovels with bucket sizes ranging from 47 to 57 cubic meters. Morenci’s mining fleet is capable of moving an average of 785,000 metric tons of material per day. Our share of Morenci’s net property, plant, equipment (PP&E) and mine development costs at December 31, 2023, totaled $2.2 billion.

Morenci’s production, including our joint venture partners’ share, totaled 0.8 billion pounds of copper and 3 million pounds of molybdenum in 2023, 0.9 billion pounds of copper and 4 million pounds of molybdenum in 2022, and 0.9 billion pounds of copper and 5 million pounds of molybdenum in 2021.

Morenci is located in a desert environment with rainfall averaging 13 inches per year. The highest bench elevation is 1,900 meters above sea level and the ultimate pit bottom is expected to have an elevation of 760 meters above sea level. The Morenci operation encompasses approximately 61,700 acres, comprising 51,300 acres of fee lands and 10,400 acres of unpatented mining claims held on public mineral estate and numerous state or federal permits, easements and rights-of-way.

The Morenci operation’s electrical power is supplied by our wholly owned subsidiary, The Morenci Water & Electric Company (MW&E). MW&E sources its generation services through our wholly owned subsidiary, Freeport-McMoRan Copper & Gold Energy Services LLC, through capacity rights at the Luna Energy Facility in Deming, New Mexico, and other power purchase agreements. Although we believe the Morenci operation has sufficient water sources to support current operations, we are a party to litigation that may impact our water right claims or rights to continued use of currently available water supplies, which could adversely affect our water supply for the Morenci operation. Refer to “Governmental Regulations” above, Item 1A. “Risk Factors” and Item 3. “Legal Proceedings” for further discussion.


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Bagdad
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Our wholly owned Bagdad mine is an open-pit copper and molybdenum mining complex that has been in continuous operations since 1945 and prior mining was conducted through underground workings. Bagdad is located in Yavapai County in west-central Arizona, approximately 60 miles west of Prescott and 100 miles northwest of Phoenix. The property can be reached by U.S. Highway 93 to State Route 97 or Arizona Highway 96, which ends at the town of Bagdad. The closest railroad is at Hillside, Arizona, 24 miles southeast on Arizona Highway 96.

The Bagdad mine is a porphyry copper deposit containing both sulfide and oxide mineralization. Chalcopyrite and molybdenite are the dominant primary sulfides and are the primary economic minerals in the mine. Chalcocite is the most common secondary copper sulfide mineral, and the predominant oxide copper minerals are chrysocolla, malachite and azurite.

The Bagdad operation consists of a concentrator with a milling design capacity of 77,100 metric tons of ore per day that produces copper and molybdenum concentrate, a SX/EW plant that can produce approximately 9 million pounds per year of copper cathode from solution generated by low-grade stockpile leaching, and a pressure-leach plant to process molybdenum concentrate. The available mining fleet consists of thirty-five 235-metric-ton haul trucks loaded by 8 electric shovels with bucket sizes ranging from 30 to 48 cubic meters, which are capable of moving an average of 236,000 metric tons of material per day. In 2023, we announced a project to convert Bagdad’s fleet of haul trucks to become fully autonomous over the next three years. Bagdad’s net PP&E and mine development costs at December 31, 2023, totaled $0.8 billion.

Bagdad’s production totaled 146 million pounds of copper and 10 million pounds of molybdenum in 2023, 165 million pounds of copper and 9 million pounds of molybdenum in 2022, and 184 million pounds of copper and 9 million pounds of molybdenum in 2021.

We have a potential expansion project to more than double the concentrator capacity of the Bagdad operation. Bagdad’s reserve life currently exceeds 80 years and supports an expanded operation. In late 2023, we completed technical and economic studies, which indicated the opportunity to construct new concentrating facilities to expand capacity from 77,000 metric tons of ore per day to between 165,000 to 185,000 metric tons of ore per day. Estimated incremental project capital costs approximate $3.5 billion (excluding infrastructure that would be required in the long-range plans) and is expected to increase production by approximately 200-250 million pounds per year, which would more than double Bagdad’s current production. Expanded operations also are expected to provide improved efficiency and reduce unit net cash costs through economies of scale. Project economics indicate that the expansion would require an incentive copper price in the range of $3.50 to $4.00 per pound and would require approximately three to four years to complete. The decision to proceed and timing of the potential expansion will take into account overall copper market conditions, availability of labor and other factors, including progress on conversion of the existing haul truck fleet to autonomous and expanding housing alternatives to support long-range plans. In parallel, we are advancing activities for expanded tailings infrastructure projects required under long-range plans in order to advance the potential construction timeline. Refer to Item 1A. “Risk Factors” for further discussion.

Bagdad is located in a desert environment with rainfall averaging 15 inches per year. The highest bench elevation is 1,250 meters above sea level and the ultimate pit bottom is expected to be 120 meters above sea level. The Bagdad operation encompasses approximately 51,200 acres, comprising 40,000 acres of fee lands and 11,200 acres of unpatented mining claims held on public mineral estate and numerous state or federal permits, easements and rights-of-ways.
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Bagdad receives electrical power from Arizona Public Service Company. We believe the Bagdad operation has sufficient water sources to support current operations.

Safford, including Lone Star
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Our wholly owned Safford mine is an open-pit copper mining complex that has been in operation since 2007. Safford is located in Graham County, Arizona, 8 miles north of the town of Safford and 170 miles east of Phoenix. The site is accessible by a paved county road off U.S. Highway 70.

The Safford mine includes three copper deposits that have oxide mineralization overlaying primary copper sulfide mineralization. The predominant oxide copper minerals are chrysocolla and copper-bearing iron oxides with the predominant copper sulfide material being chalcopyrite. The only Safford deposit currently being mined is Lone Star, which began leaching operations in the second half of 2020 and production from oxide ores averaged 265 million pounds of copper per year over the past three years. We continue to advance plans to increase volumes to achieve 300 million pounds of copper per year from oxide ores, which reflects a continuing expansion of the initial design capacity of 200 million pounds of copper per year. Positive drilling conducted in recent years indicates opportunities to expand production to include sulfide ores in the future. We are completing metallurgical testing and mine development planning and expect to commence pre-feasibility studies during 2024 for a potential significant expansion.

Safford is a mine-for-leach operation that produces copper cathode. The operation consists of three open pits, of which only Lone Star is currently being mined, feeding a crushing facility with a design capacity of 103,500 metric tons of ore per day. The crushed ore is delivered to a leach pad by a series of overland and portable conveyors. Leach solutions feed a SX/EW facility with a capacity of 305 million pounds of copper per year. A sulfur burner plant is also in operation at Safford, providing a cost-effective source of sulfuric acid used in SX/EW operations. The available mining fleet consists of fifty-nine 235-metric-ton haul trucks loaded by 7 electric shovels with bucket sizes ranging from 34 to 47 cubic meters, which are capable of moving an average of 408,000 metric tons of material per day. Safford’s net PP&E and mine development costs at December 31, 2023, totaled $1.4 billion.

Safford’s copper production totaled 245 million pounds in 2023, 285 million pounds in 2022 and 265 million pounds in 2021.

Safford is located in a desert environment with rainfall averaging 10 inches per year. The highest bench elevation is 1,783 meters above sea level and the ultimate pit bottom is expected to have an elevation of 716 meters above sea level. The Safford operation encompasses approximately 78,300 acres, comprising 37,700 acres of fee lands and 40,600 acres of unpatented claims held on public mineral estate.

The Safford operation’s electrical power is primarily sourced from Tucson Electric Power Company, Arizona Public Service Company and the Luna Energy facility. Although we believe the Safford operation has sufficient water sources to support current operations, we are a party to litigation that may impact our water right claims or rights to continued use of currently available water supplies, which could adversely affect our water supply for the Safford operation. Refer to “Governmental Regulations” above, Item 1A. “Risk Factors” and Item 3. “Legal Proceedings” for further discussion.


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Sierrita
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Our wholly owned Sierrita mine is an open-pit copper and molybdenum mining complex that has been in operation since 1959. Sierrita is located in Pima County, Arizona, approximately 20 miles southwest of Tucson and 7 miles west of the town of Green Valley and Interstate Highway 19. The site is accessible by a paved highway and by rail.

The Sierrita mine is a porphyry copper deposit that has oxide, secondary sulfide and primary sulfide mineralization. The predominant oxide copper minerals are malachite, azurite and chrysocolla. Chalcocite is the most important secondary copper sulfide mineral, and chalcopyrite and molybdenite are the dominant primary sulfides.

The Sierrita operation includes a concentrator with a milling design capacity of 100,000 metric tons of ore per day that produces copper and molybdenum concentrate. Sierrita also produces copper from a ROM oxide-leaching system. Cathode copper is plated at the Twin Buttes EW facility, which has a design capacity of approximately 50 million pounds of copper per year. The Sierrita operation also has molybdenum facilities consisting of a leaching circuit, two molybdenum roasters and a packaging facility. The molybdenum facilities process molybdenum concentrate produced by Sierrita, from our other mines and from third-party sources. The available mining fleet consists of twenty-four 235-metric-ton haul trucks loaded by 4 electric shovels with bucket sizes ranging from 34 to 56 cubic meters, which are capable of moving an average of 200,000 metric tons of material per day. Sierrita’s net PP&E and mine development costs at December 31, 2023, totaled $0.8 billion.

Sierrita’s production totaled 185 million pounds of copper and 18 million pounds of molybdenum in 2023, 184 million pounds of copper and 17 million pounds of molybdenum in 2022, and 189 million pounds of copper and 21 million pounds of molybdenum in 2021.

Sierrita is located in a desert environment with rainfall averaging 14 inches per year. The highest bench elevation is 1,387 meters above sea level and the ultimate pit bottom is expected to be 427 meters above sea level. The Sierrita operation, including the adjacent Twin Buttes site, encompasses approximately 47,700 acres, comprising 38,700 acres of fee lands including split estate lands and 9,000 acres of unpatented mining claims held on public mineral estate.

Sierrita receives electrical power through long-term contracts with the Tucson Electric Power Company. Although we believe the Sierrita operation has sufficient water sources to support current operations, we are a party to litigation that may impact our water rights claims or rights to continued use of currently available water supplies, which could adversely affect our water supply for the Sierrita operation. Refer to “Governmental Regulations” above, Item 1A. “Risk Factors” and Item 3. “Legal Proceedings” for further discussion.

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Miami
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Our wholly owned Miami mine is an open-pit copper mining complex located in Gila County, Arizona, 90 miles east of Phoenix and 6 miles west of the city of Globe on U.S. Highway 60. The site is accessible by a paved highway and by rail.

The Miami mine is a porphyry copper deposit that has leachable oxide and secondary sulfide mineralization. The predominant oxide copper minerals are chrysocolla, copper-bearing clays, malachite and azurite. Chalcocite and covellite are the most important secondary copper sulfide minerals.

Since about 1915, the Miami mining operation had processed copper ore using both flotation and leaching technologies. The design capacity of the SX/EW plant is 200 million pounds of copper per year. Miami is no longer mining ore, but currently produces copper through leaching material already placed on stockpiles. Miami’s net PP&E and mine development costs at December 31, 2023, totaled $9 million.

Miami’s copper production totaled 12 million pounds in 2023, 11 million pounds in 2022 and 12 million pounds in 2021.

Miami is located in a desert environment with rainfall averaging 18 inches per year. The highest bench elevation is 1,390 meters above sea level and mining advanced the pit bottom to an elevation of 810 meters above sea level. Subsequent sloughing of material into the pit has filled it back to an elevation estimated to be 900 meters above sea level. The Miami operation encompasses approximately 14,800 acres, comprising 10,400 acres of fee lands and 4,400 acres of unpatented mining claims held on public mineral estate.

Miami receives electrical power through long-term contracts with the Salt River Project and natural gas through long-term contracts with El Paso Natural Gas as the transporter. We believe the Miami operation has sufficient water sources to support current operations. Refer to “Governmental Regulations” above and Item 1A. “Risk Factors” for further discussion.

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Chino and Tyrone
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Chino. Our wholly owned Chino mine is an open-pit copper mining complex that has been in operation since 1910. Chino is located in Grant County, New Mexico, approximately 15 miles east of Silver City, along State Highway 180. The mine is accessible by paved roads and by rail.

The Chino mine is a porphyry copper deposit with adjacent copper skarn deposits. There is leachable oxide, secondary sulfide and millable primary sulfide mineralization. The predominant oxide copper mineral is chrysocolla. Chalcocite is the most important secondary copper sulfide mineral, and chalcopyrite and molybdenite the dominant primary sulfides.

The Chino operation consists of a concentrator with a milling design capacity of 36,000 metric tons of ore per day that produces copper concentrate, and a 150 million pound-per-year SX/EW plant that produces copper cathode from solution generated by ROM leaching. The available mining fleet consists of nineteen 240-metric-ton haul trucks loaded by 3 electric shovels with bucket sizes ranging from 31 to 48 cubic meters, which are capable of moving an average of 180,000 metric tons of material per day. Chino’s net PP&E and mine development costs at December 31, 2023, totaled $0.5 billion.

Over the past three years, Chino has been operating at approximately 50% of capacity, with copper production totaling 141 million pounds in 2023, 130 million pounds in 2022 and 124 million pounds in 2021.

Chino is located in a desert environment with rainfall averaging 16 inches per year. The highest bench elevation is 2,250 meters above sea level and the ultimate pit bottom is expected to be 1,508 meters above sea level. The Chino operation encompasses approximately 127,800 acres, comprising 110,000 acres of fee lands and 17,800 acres of unpatented mining claims held on public mineral estate.

Chino receives electrical power from the Luna Energy facility and from the open market. We believe the Chino operation has sufficient water sources to support current operations. Refer to “Governmental Regulations” above and Item 1A. “Risk Factors” for further discussion.

Tyrone. Our wholly owned Tyrone mine is an open-pit copper mining complex and has been in operation since 1967. Tyrone is located in Grant County, New Mexico, 10 miles south of Silver City, along State Highway 90. The site is accessible by paved roads and by rail.

The Tyrone mine is a porphyry copper deposit. Mineralization is predominantly secondary sulfide consisting of chalcocite, with leachable oxide mineralization consisting of chrysocolla.

Copper processing facilities consist of a SX/EW operation with a maximum capacity of approximately 100 million pounds of copper cathode per year. The available mining fleet consists of nine 240-metric-ton haul trucks loaded by 1 electric shovel with a bucket size of 47 cubic meters, which is capable of moving an average of 108,000 metric tons of material per day. Tyrone’s net PP&E and mine development costs at December 31, 2023, totaled $0.1 billion.

Tyrone’s copper production totaled 51 million pounds in 2023, 59 million pounds in 2022 and 55 million pounds in 2021.

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Tyrone is located in a desert environment with rainfall averaging 16 inches per year. The highest bench elevation is 2,070 meters above sea level and the ultimate pit bottom is expected to have an elevation of 1,475 meters above sea level. The Tyrone operation encompasses approximately 80,700 acres, comprising 67,700 acres of fee lands and 13,000 acres of unpatented mining claims held on public mineral estate.

Tyrone receives electrical power from the Luna Energy facility and from the open market. We believe the Tyrone operation has sufficient water sources to support current operations. Refer to “Governmental Regulations” above and Item 1A. “Risk Factors” for further discussion.

Climax and Henderson
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Climax. Our wholly owned Climax mine is an open-pit molybdenum mine that is located 13 miles northeast of Leadville, Colorado, off Colorado State Highway 91 at the top of Fremont Pass. The mine is accessible by paved roads. Climax was placed on care and maintenance status by its previous owner in 1995 and, after being acquired by us, began commercial production in 2012.

The Climax ore body is a porphyry molybdenum deposit, with molybdenite as the primary sulfide mineral.

The Climax mine includes a 25,000 metric tons of ore per day mill facility. Climax has the capacity to produce approximately 30 million pounds of molybdenum per year. The available mining fleet consists of eleven 177-metric-ton haul trucks loaded by 2 hydraulic shovels with bucket sizes of 34 cubic meters, which are capable of moving an average of 90,000 metric tons of material per day. Climax’s net PP&E and mine development costs at December 31, 2023, totaled $1.3 billion.

Over the past three years, Climax has been operating at approximately 75% of capacity with molybdenum production totaling 17 million pounds in 2023, 21 million pounds in 2022 and 18 million pounds in 2021.

The Climax mine is located in a mountainous region. The highest bench elevation is approximately 4,050 meters above sea level and the ultimate pit bottom is expected to have an elevation of approximately 3,100 meters above sea level. This region experiences significant snowfall during the winter months. The Climax operation encompasses approximately 15,100 acres, comprising 14,300 of privately owned land and 800 acres of federal claims.

Climax operations receive electrical power through long-term contracts with Xcel Energy and natural gas supply with United Energy Trading (with Xcel as the transporter). We believe the Climax operation has sufficient water sources to support current operations. Refer to “Governmental Regulations” above and Item 1A. “Risk Factors” for further discussion.

Henderson. Our wholly owned Henderson molybdenum mining complex has been in operation since 1976. Henderson is located 42 miles west of Denver, Colorado, off U.S. Highway 40. Nearby communities include the towns of Empire, Georgetown and Idaho Springs. The Henderson mill site is located 15 miles west of the mine and is accessible from Colorado State Highway 9. The Henderson mine and mill are connected by a 10-mile conveyor tunnel under the Continental Divide and an additional 5-mile surface conveyor. The tunnel portal is located 5 miles east of the mill.

The Henderson mine is a porphyry molybdenum deposit, with molybdenite as the primary sulfide mineral.
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The Henderson operation consists of a block-cave underground mining complex feeding a concentrator with a design capacity of approximately 32,000 metric tons per day. Henderson has the capacity to produce approximately 15 million pounds of molybdenum per year. The majority of the molybdenum concentrate produced is shipped to our Fort Madison, Iowa, processing facility. The available underground mining equipment fleet consists of fifteen 9-metric-ton load-haul-dump (LHD) units and seven 73-metric-ton haul trucks, which deliver ore to a gyratory crusher feeding a series of 3 overland conveyors to the mill stockpiles. Henderson’s net PP&E and mine development costs at December 31, 2023, totaled $0.2 billion.

Henderson’s molybdenum production totaled 13 million pounds in 2023 and 12 million pounds in both 2022 and 2021.

The Henderson mine is located in a mountainous region with the main access shaft at 3,180 meters above sea level. The main production levels are currently at elevations of 2,200 and 2,350 meters above sea level. This region experiences significant snowfall during the winter months. The Henderson mine and mill operations encompass approximately 17,200 acres, comprising 13,000 acres of fee lands, 4,200 acres of unpatented mining claims held on public mineral estate and a 50-acre easement with the U.S. Forest Service for the surface portion of the conveyor corridor.

Henderson operations receive electrical power through long-term contracts with Xcel Energy and natural gas supply with United Energy Trading (with Xcel Energy as the transporter). We believe the Henderson operation has sufficient water sources to support current operations. Refer to “Governmental Regulations” above and Item 1A. “Risk Factors” for further discussion.

South America
At our operations in South America, mine properties and facilities are controlled through mining claims or concessions under the general mining laws of the relevant country. The claims or concessions are owned or controlled by the operating companies in which we or our subsidiaries have a controlling ownership interest. Roads, power lines and aqueducts are controlled by easements.

Cerro Verde
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We have a 53.56% ownership interest in Cerro Verde, with the remaining 46.44% held by SMM Cerro Verde Netherlands B.V. (21.0%), Compañia de Minas Buenaventura S.A.A. (19.58%) and other stockholders whose Cerro Verde shares are publicly traded on the Lima Stock Exchange (5.86%).

Cerro Verde is an open-pit copper and molybdenum mining complex that has been in operation since 1976. Cerro Verde is located 20 miles southwest of Arequipa, Peru. Prior to being acquired in 1994 by a predecessor of Phelps Dodge, the mine was previously operated by the Peru government. The property is located at latitude 16.53 degrees south and longitude 71.58 degrees west using the WGS 84 coordinate system. The site is accessible by paved highways. Cerro Verde’s copper cathode and concentrate production that is not sold locally is transported approximately 70 miles by truck and by rail to the Port of Matarani for shipment to international markets. Molybdenum concentrate is transported by truck to either the Ports of Callao or Matarani for shipment.
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The Cerro Verde mine is a porphyry copper deposit that has oxide, secondary sulfide and primary sulfide mineralization. The predominant oxide copper minerals are brochantite, chrysocolla, malachite and copper “pitch.” Chalcocite and covellite are the most important secondary copper sulfide minerals. Chalcopyrite and molybdenite are the dominant primary sulfides.

Cerro Verde’s operation includes 2 concentrating facilities with an annual average permitted milling capacity of 409,500 metric tons of ore per day (and the ability to annually treat up to 5% more for a total of 430,000 metric tons of ore per day). As a result of several efficiency initiatives implemented over the past several years, in 2023, Cerro Verde’s 2 concentrators were able to achieve a combined average milling rate of 417,400 metric tons of ore per day in 2023. Cerro Verde also operates SX/EW leaching facilities, which have a production capacity of approximately 200 million pounds of copper per year. In 2023, Cerro Verde began to dismantle its crushed leach facility (which had a capacity of 39,000 metric tons of ore per day) as a result of pit expansion but continues to utilize its 100,000-metric-ton-per-day ROM leach system.

The available fleet consists of fifty-four 300-metric-ton haul trucks (1 of which is currently on standby), ninety-three 250-metric-ton haul trucks (10 of which are currently on standby) and 7 leased 380-metric-ton haul trucks loaded by 13 electric shovels with bucket sizes ranging from 33 to 57 cubic meters. This fleet is capable of moving an average of approximately 1,000,000 metric tons of material per day. Cerro Verde’s net PP&E and mine development costs at December 31, 2023, totaled $5.9 billion.

Cerro Verde’s production totaled 1.0 billion pounds of copper and 22 million pounds of molybdenum in 2023, 1.0 billion pounds of copper and 23 million pounds of molybdenum in 2022, and 0.9 billion pounds of copper and 21 million pounds of molybdenum in 2021.

Cerro Verde is located in a desert environment with rainfall averaging less than two inches per year and is in an active seismic zone. The highest bench elevation is 2,768 meters above sea level and the ultimate pit bottom is expected to be 1,538 meters above sea level. The Peru general mining law and Cerro Verde’s mining stability agreement grant the surface rights of mining concessions located on government land. Government land obtained after 1997 must be leased or purchased. Cerro Verde has a mining concession covering approximately 175,000 acres, including 62,000 acres of surface rights and access to 14,600 acres granted through an easement from the Peru National Assets Office, plus 151 acres of owned property, and 1,151 acres of rights-of-way outside the mining concession area leased from both government agencies and private parties.

Cerro Verde currently receives electrical power, including hydro-generated power, under long-term contracts with ElectroPeru and Engie Energia Peru S.A. During 2023, Cerro Verde entered into a new power purchase agreement that is expected to transition its electric power to fully renewable energy sources in 2026.

Water for our Cerro Verde processing operations comes from renewable sources through a series of storage reservoirs on the Río Chili watershed that collect water primarily from seasonal precipitation and from wastewater collected from the city of Arequipa and treated at a wastewater treatment plant operated by Cerro Verde. We believe the Cerro Verde operation has sufficient water sources to support current operations, but we are closely monitoring ongoing El Niño weather patterns. Refer to “Governmental Regulations” above and Item 1A. “Risk Factors” for further discussion.

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El Abra
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We have a 51% ownership interest in El Abra, and the remaining 49% interest is held by the state-owned copper enterprise Corporación Nacional del Cobre de Chile.

El Abra is an open-pit copper mining complex that has been in operation since 1996. El Abra is located 47 miles north of Calama in Chile’s El Loa province of the northern Chilean region of Antofagasta. The site is accessible by paved highways and by rail.

The El Abra mine is a porphyry copper deposit that has sulfide and oxide mineralization. The predominant primary sulfide copper minerals are bornite and chalcopyrite. There is a minor amount of secondary sulfide mineralization as chalcocite. The oxide copper minerals are chrysocolla and pseudomalachite. There are lesser amounts of copper bearing clays and tenorite.

The El Abra operation consists of a SX/EW facility with a capacity of 500 million pounds of copper cathode per year from a 125,000-metric-ton-per-day crushed leach circuit and a ROM leaching operation. The available fleet consists of twenty-three 242-metric-ton haul trucks loaded by 4 electric shovels with buckets ranging in size from 29 to 41 cubic meters, which are capable of moving 217,000 metric tons of material per day. El Abra’s net PP&E and mine development costs at December 31, 2023, totaled $0.8 billion.

El Abra’s copper production totaled 217 million pounds in 2023, 202 million pounds in 2022 and 160 million pounds in 2021. Higher mining and stacking activities at El Abra over the past two years resulted in the increase in production compared to 2021.

We have identified a large sulfide resource that would support a potential major mill project similar to the large-scale concentrator at Cerro Verde. Technical and economic studies continue to be evaluated to determine the optimal scope and timing for the sulfide project. Capital cost requirements are being updated to reflect current market conditions. We are evaluating water infrastructure alternatives to provide options to extend existing operations and support a future expansion, while continuing to monitor Chile’s regulatory and fiscal matters, as well as trends in capital costs for similar projects. In parallel, as part of the permitting process for the potential expansion, we are planning for a potential submission of an environmental impact statement during 2025, subject to ongoing stakeholder engagement and economic evaluations.

El Abra is located in a desert environment with rainfall averaging less than one inch per year and is in an active seismic zone. The highest bench elevation is 4,225 meters above sea level and the ultimate pit bottom is expected to be 3,385 meters above sea level. El Abra controls a total of approximately 183,900 acres of mining claims covering the ore deposit, stockpiles, process plant, and water wellfield and pipeline. In addition, El Abra has land surface rights for the road between the processing plant and the mine, the water wellfield, power transmission lines and for the water pipeline from the Salar de Ascotán aquifer.

El Abra currently receives electrical power under a long-term contract with Engie Energia Chile S.A. Water for our El Abra processing operations currently comes from the continued pumping of groundwater from the Salar de Ascotán aquifer pursuant to regulatory approval. We believe El Abra has sufficient water sources to support current operations, although we are evaluating options for water infrastructure alternatives to provide options to extend existing operations and support a future expansion. Refer to “Governmental Regulations” above and Item 1A. “Risk Factors” for further discussion.
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Indonesia
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Ownership. PT-FI is a limited liability company organized under the laws of the Republic of Indonesia. On December 21, 2018, we completed the transaction with the Indonesia government regarding PT-FI’s long-term mining rights and share ownership (the 2018 Transaction). Following the 2018 Transaction, we have a 48.76% share ownership in PT-FI and the remaining 51.24% share ownership is collectively held by PT Mineral Industri Indonesia (MIND ID), an Indonesia state-owned enterprise, and PT Indonesia Papua Metal Dan Mineral (formerly known as PT Indocopper Investama), which is expected to be owned by MIND ID and the provincial/regional government in Central Papua, Indonesia. Refer to Note 3 for further discussion of the economics related to the 2018 Transaction.

IUPK. Concurrent with closing the 2018 Transaction, the Indonesia government granted PT-FI a special mining license (IUPK) to replace its former Contract of Work, enabling PT-FI to conduct operations in the Grasberg minerals district through 2041. Under the terms of the IUPK, PT-FI has been granted an extension of mining rights through 2031, with rights to extend mining rights through 2041, subject to PT-FI completing the construction of additional domestic smelting and refining capacity in Indonesia and fulfilling its defined fiscal obligations to the Indonesia government. The IUPK, and related documentation, contains legal and fiscal terms and is legally enforceable through 2041. In addition, we, as a foreign investor, have rights to resolve investment disputes with the Indonesia government through international arbitration.

Given the long-term nature of planning for mining investments, the Indonesia government is updating regulations that would enable PT-FI to apply for an extension of its IUPK beyond 2041. An extension would enable continuity of large-scale operations and provide growth options through additional resource development opportunities in the Grasberg minerals district.

Refer to Item 1A. “Risk Factors” and Note 13 for discussion of PT-FI’s IUPK and risks associated with our Indonesia mining operations.

Indonesia Smelting and Refining Capacity. In connection with PT-FI’s 2018 agreement with the Indonesia government to secure the extension of its long-term mining rights, PT-FI agreed to expand its domestic smelting and refining capacity. At the end of 2023, progress of the Manyar smelter and precious metals refinery (PMR) (collectively, the Indonesia smelter projects) was measured at over 90%. Refer to “Smelting Facilities and Other Mining Properties” below, Item 1A. “Risk Factors,” MD&A and Notes 12 and 13 for additional discussion of the Indonesia smelter projects.

Grasberg Minerals District. PT-FI operates in the remote highlands of the Sudirman Mountain Range in the province of Central Papua, Indonesia, which is on the western half of the island of New Guinea. Since 1967, we and our predecessors have been the only operator of exploration and mining activities in the approximately 24,600-acre operating area. The operating area is accessible by coastal portsite facilities on the Arafura Sea and by the Timika
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airport. The project site is located at latitude 4.08 degrees south and longitude 137.12 degrees east using the WGS 84 coordinate system. The project area includes a 70-mile main service road from portsite to the mill complex. PT-FI’s net PP&E and mine development costs at December 31, 2023, totaled $19.1 billion.

Production from the Grasberg minerals district totaled 1.7 billion pounds of copper and 2.0 million ounces of gold in 2023, 1.6 billion pounds of copper and 1.8 million ounces of gold in 2022, and 1.3 billion pounds of copper and 1.4 million ounces of gold in 2021.

Over a multi-year investment period, PT-FI has successfully commissioned three large-scale underground mines in the Grasberg minerals district (Grasberg Block Cave, Deep Mill Level Zone (DMLZ) and Big Gossan), which provided 100% of production volumes. Milling rates for ore from these underground mines averaged 198,300 metric tons of ore per day in 2023, an approximate 3% increase from 192,600 metric tons of ore per day in 2022, and an approximate 31% increase from 151,600 metric tons of ore per day in 2021. PT-FI set a number of annual operating records during 2023, including total underground ore mined (and milled) and volume of concentrate produced. Production from these underground mines is expected to continue through 2041 and an extension of PT-FI’s operating rights beyond 2041 would extend the lives of these mines. Refer to Item 1A. “Risk Factors” for discussion of risks associated with development projects and underground mines.

In December 2023, PT-FI completed the installation of new milling facilities, which will enable PT-FI to further leverage the success of the underground mines and provide sustained large-scale production volumes. PT-FI is also advancing a mill recovery project with the installation of a new copper cleaner circuit that is expected to be completed in the second half of 2024 to provide incremental production of approximately 60 million pounds of copper and 40 thousand ounces of gold per year.

Our principal source of power for our Indonesia operations is a coal-fired power plant that we built in 1998. Diesel generators supply peaking and backup electrical power generating capacity. In 2023, PT-FI commissioned a dual-fuel power plant to support increased power requirements and diversify its energy sources. PT-FI is advancing plans to transition its existing energy source from coal to liquefied natural gas, which is expected to meaningfully reduce PT-FI’s Scope 1 GHG emissions at the Grasberg minerals district. The project includes investments in a new gas-fired combined cycle facility. Capital expenditures for the new facilities, to be incurred over the next four years, approximate $1 billion representing an incremental cost of $0.4 billion compared to previously planned investments to refurbish the existing coal units.

A combination of naturally occurring mountain streams and water derived from our underground operations provides water for our operations. Our Indonesia operations are in an active seismic zone and experience average annual rainfall of approximately 200 inches.

Grasberg Block Cave Underground Mine
The Grasberg Block Cave ore body is the same ore body historically mined from the surface in the Grasberg open pit. Undercutting, drawbell construction and ore extraction activities in the Grasberg Block Cave underground mine continue to track expectations. As of December 31, 2023, the Grasberg Block Cave underground mine had 425 open drawbells.

Ore milled from the Grasberg Block Cave underground mine averaged 117,300 metric tons per day in 2023, 103,300 metric tons per day in 2022 and 70,600 metric tons per day in 2021.

The Grasberg Block Cave fleet consists of approximately 870 pieces of mobile equipment. The primary mining equipment directly associated with production and development includes an available fleet of 98 LHD units and 22 haul trucks. Each production LHD unit typically carries approximately 11 metric tons of ore and transfers ore into the rail haulage system. The Grasberg Block Cave has a rail haulage system currently operating with 13 locomotives and 143 ore wagons that haul the ore to 3 gyratory crushers located underground via an automated rail system. Each ore wagon typically carries 35 metric tons. The crushed ore is conveyed to surface stockpiles for processing.


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DMLZ Underground Mine
The DMLZ ore body lies below the Deep Ore Zone (DOZ) underground mine at the 2,590-meter elevation and represents the downward continuation of mineralization in the Ertsberg East Skarn system and neighboring Ertsberg porphyry.

Hydraulic fracturing operations have been effective in managing rock stresses and pre-conditioning the cave following mining-induced seismic activity experienced from time to time. As of December 31, 2023, the DMLZ underground mine had 132 open drawbells.

Ore milled from the DMLZ underground mine averaged 75,900 metric tons per day in 2023, 76,300 metric tons per day in 2022 and 58,000 metric tons per day in 2021.

The DMLZ fleet consists of 425 pieces of mobile equipment, which includes 60 LHD units and 33 haul trucks used in production and development activities. Each production LHD unit typically carries approximately 9 metric tons of ore and transfers ore into the truck haulage system. The haul trucks have a capacity of 55 to 60 metric tons and load ore from chutes fed by the LHDs and transfer it to one of two gyratory crushers. The crushed ore is conveyed to surface stockpiles for processing.

Big Gossan Underground Mine
The Big Gossan ore body lies underground and adjacent to the current mill site. It is a tabular, near vertical ore body with approximate dimensions of 1,200 meters along strike and 800 meters down dip with varying thicknesses from 20 meters to 120 meters. The mine utilizes a blasthole stoping method with delayed paste backfill. Stopes of varying sizes are mined and the ore dropped down passes to a truck haulage level. Trucks are chute loaded and transport the ore to a jaw crusher. The crushed ore is then hoisted vertically via a two-skip production shaft to a level where it is loaded onto a conveyor belt. The belt carries the ore to one of the main underground conveyors where the ore is transferred and conveyed to the surface stockpiles for processing.

Ore milled from the Big Gossan underground mine averaged 7,900 metric tons per day in 2023, 7,600 metric tons per day in 2022 and 7,500 metric tons per day in 2021.

The Big Gossan fleet consists of 79 pieces of mobile equipment, which include 10 LHD units and 8 haul trucks used in development and production activities.

Kucing Liar Underground Mine
Long-term mine development activities are ongoing for PT-FI’s Kucing Liar deposit in the Grasberg minerals district, which is expected to produce over 7 billion pounds of copper and 6 million ounces of gold between 2029 and the end of 2041. An extension of PT-FI’s operating rights beyond 2041 would extend the life of the project. Pre-production development activities commenced in 2022 and are expected to continue over an approximate 10-year timeframe. Capital investments are estimated to average approximately $400 million per year over this period. At full operating rates of approximately 90,000 metric tons of ore per day, annual production from Kucing Liar is expected to approximate 560 million pounds of copper and 520 thousand ounces of gold, providing PT-FI with sustained long-term, large-scale and low-cost production. Kucing Liar will benefit from substantial shared infrastructure and PT-FI’s experience and long-term success in block-cave mining.

DOZ Underground Mine
PT-FI began production from the DOZ ore body in 1989 and the ore body was depleted at the end of 2021.

Grasberg Open Pit  
PT-FI began open-pit mining of the Grasberg ore body in 1990 and the final phase was mined during 2019. In aggregate, the Grasberg open pit produced over 27 billion pounds of copper and 46 million ounces of gold in the 30-year period from 1990 through 2019.

Description of Indonesia Ore Bodies. Our Indonesia ore bodies are located within and around two main igneous intrusions, the Grasberg monzodiorite and the Ertsberg diorite. The host rocks of these ore bodies include both carbonate and clastic rocks that form the ridge crests and upper flanks of the Sudirman Range, and the igneous rocks of monzonitic to dioritic composition that intrude them. The igneous-hosted ore bodies (the Grasberg Block Cave and portions of the DMLZ) occur as vein stockworks and disseminations of copper sulfides, dominated by chalcopyrite and, to a lesser extent, bornite. The sedimentary-rock hosted ore bodies (portions of the DMLZ and Kucing Liar and all of the Big Gossan) occur as “magnetite-rich, calcium/magnesian skarn” replacements, whose
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location and orientation are strongly influenced by major faults and by the chemistry of the carbonate rocks along the margins of the intrusions.

The copper mineralization in these skarn deposits is dominated by chalcopyrite, but higher bornite concentrations are common. Moreover, gold occurs in significant concentrations in all of the district’s ore bodies, though rarely visible to the naked eye. These gold concentrations usually occur as inclusions within the copper sulfide minerals, though, in some deposits, these concentrations can also be strongly associated with pyrite.

The following diagram indicates the relative elevations (in meters) of our reported Indonesia ore bodies.
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The following map, which encompasses an area of 42 square kilometers, indicates the relative positions and sizes of our reported Indonesia ore bodies and their locations.
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Smelting Facilities and Other Mining Properties
Manyar Smelter and Precious Metal Refinery. PT-FI is actively engaged in the construction of the Manyar smelter in Gresik, Indonesia. Construction progress of the Manyar smelter (with a capacity to process approximately 1.7 million metric tons of copper concentrate per year) is advancing on schedule with a target of May 2024 for mechanical completion, which will be followed by a ramp-up period through December 2024. Construction of the smelter has an estimated cost of $3.0 billion, including $2.8 billion for a construction contract (excluding capitalized interest, owner’s costs and commissioning) and $0.2 billion for investment in a desalination plant.

The PMR is being constructed to process gold and silver from the Manyar smelter and PT Smelting. Construction is in progress with commissioning expected during 2024. Current cost estimates total $665 million, reflecting updated costs for construction, materials, labor and engineering.

Atlantic Copper. Our wholly owned Atlantic Copper smelter and refinery is located on land concessions from the Huelva, Spain, port authorities, which are scheduled to expire in 2038.

The design capacity of the smelter is approximately 300,000 metric tons of copper per year, and the refinery has a capacity of 286,000 metric tons of copper per year. Atlantic Copper’s anode production from its smelter totaled 261,900 metric tons of copper in 2023, 215,000 metric tons in 2022 and 278,600 metric tons in 2021. Copper cathode production from its refinery totaled 260,300 metric tons of copper in 2023, 218,400 metric tons in 2022 and 277,000 metric tons in 2021.

During 2023, Atlantic Copper purchased 40% of its concentrate from our copper mining operations (20% from PT-FI, 17% from South America mining and 3% from the North America copper mines) and 60% from third parties.

Atlantic Copper completed a 78-day major maintenance turnaround in 2022. Atlantic Copper’s major maintenance turnarounds typically occur approximately every eight years, with shorter-term maintenance turnarounds in the interim.

Atlantic Copper is developing an e-material recycling project as a result of the significant and continued
growth in electronic waste material. Atlantic Copper’s existing smelting and refining facilities provide synergies to recycle this type of material, and the project, which is expected to commence operations in 2025, would include an addition of a smelting furnace and associated equipment to recover copper, gold, silver, palladium, tin, nickel and platinum from electronic materials. Atlantic Copper estimates that the initial project capital will approximate $345 million.

PT Smelting. PT Smelting, an Indonesia company, owns a copper smelter and refinery in Gresik, Indonesia. On April 30, 2021, PT-FI acquired an additional 14.5% of the outstanding common stock of PT Smelting, increasing its ownership interest to 39.5%. Mitsubishi Materials Corporation (MMC) owns the remaining 60.5% and serves as the operator of PT Smelting.

In November 2021, PT-FI completed agreements with MMC to implement the expansion of PT Smelting’s capacity by 30% to 1.3 million metric tons of copper concentrate per year. In December 2023, the project was successfully completed on time and within budget. The project was funded by PT-FI with borrowings that are expected to convert to equity in 2024, increasing PT-FI’s ownership in PT Smelting to approximately 65%. Refer to Note 3 for further discussion.

Beginning in 2023, PT-FI’s commercial arrangement with PT Smelting changed from a copper concentrate sales agreement to a tolling arrangement. Under the arrangement, PT-FI pays PT Smelting a tolling fee (which PT-FI records as production costs in the consolidated statements of income) to smelt and refine its copper concentrate and PT-FI retains title to all products for sale to unaffiliated third parties (i.e., there are no further sales to PT Smelting). Refer to MD&A and Note 3 for further discussion.

PT Smelting’s anode production from its smelter totaled 251,300 metric tons of copper in 2023, 316,700 metric tons in 2022 and 280,400 metric tons in 2021. Copper cathode production from its refinery totaled 212,000 metric tons of copper in 2023, 268,400 metric tons in 2022 and 256,900 metric tons in 2021.

PT Smelting’s major scheduled maintenance turnarounds (which approximate 30 days to complete) are expected to occur every two years, with short-term maintenance turnarounds in the interim. PT Smelting completed an 18-day maintenance turnaround during October 2022, a 72-day shutdown in July 2023 associated with its expansion
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project and a 7-day shutdown in November 2023 to complete final tie-in of the expansion project. The next maintenance turnaround is scheduled for mid-year 2025.

Miami Smelter. We own and operate a smelter at our Miami mining operation in Arizona. The smelter has been operating for over 100 years and has been upgraded numerous times during that period to implement new technologies, improve production and comply with air quality requirements.

The Miami smelter processes copper concentrate primarily from our North America copper mines. Concentrate processed through the smelter totaled 810,900 metric tons in 2023, 781,000 metric tons in 2022 and 674,000 metric tons in 2021, and copper anode production from the smelter totaled 222,000 metric tons in 2023, 202,000 metric tons in 2022 and 194,000 metric tons in 2021. In addition, because sulfuric acid is a by-product of smelting concentrate, the Miami smelter is also the most significant source of sulfuric acid for our North America leaching operations.

Major maintenance turnarounds are anticipated to occur approximately every three years for the Miami smelter. We performed a major maintenance turnaround during 2021. The next major maintenance turnaround is scheduled for mid-year 2025.

Rod & Refining Operations. Our Rod & Refining operations consist of conversion facilities located in North America, including a refinery in El Paso, Texas, and rod mills in El Paso, Texas and Miami, Arizona. We refine our copper anode production from our Miami smelter at our El Paso refinery. The El Paso refinery has the potential to operate at an annual production capacity of approximately 410,000 metric tons of copper cathode, which is sufficient to refine all of the copper anode we produce at our Miami smelter. Copper cathode production from the El Paso refinery totaled 217,800 metric tons in 2023, 208,900 metric tons in 2022 and 187,300 metric tons in 2021. Our El Paso refinery also produces nickel carbonate, copper telluride and autoclaved slimes material containing gold, silver, platinum and palladium.

Molybdenum Conversion Facilities. We process molybdenum concentrate at our conversion plants in the U.S. and Europe into such products as technical-grade molybdic oxide, ferromolybdenum, pure molybdic oxide, ammonium molybdates and molybdenum disulfide. We operate molybdenum roasters in Sierrita, Arizona; Fort Madison, Iowa; and Rotterdam, the Netherlands, and we operate a molybdenum pressure-leach plant in Bagdad, Arizona. We also produce ferromolybdenum for customers worldwide at our conversion plant located in Stowmarket, United Kingdom.

Other North America Copper Mines. We have five non-operating copper mines – Ajo, Bisbee, Tohono, Twin Buttes and Christmas, which are located in Arizona – that have been on care and maintenance status for several years and would require new or updated environmental studies, new permits, and additional capital investment, which could be significant, to return them to operating status.

MINING DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS AND EXPLORATION ACTIVITIES

In 2023, capital expenditures totaled $4.8 billion (including $1.8 billion for major mining projects – primarily for underground development activities in the Grasberg minerals district – and $1.7 billion for Indonesia smelter projects).

We have several projects and potential opportunities to expand production volumes, extend mine lives and develop large-scale underground ore bodies. As further discussed in MD&A, our near-term major development projects will focus on the underground development activities in the Grasberg minerals district. Considering the long-term nature and large size of our development projects, actual costs and timing could vary from estimates. Additionally, in response to market conditions, the timing of our expenditures will continue to be reviewed. We continue to review our mine development and processing plans to maximize the value of our mineral reserves.

Additionally, full development of PT-FI’s underground mineral reserves at the Grasberg minerals district is expected to require approximately $6 billion (most will be incurred over the next 11 years) of capital expenditures at our processing facilities to optimize the handling of underground ore from the Grasberg Block Cave, DMLZ and Kucing Liar deposits. Increases in power loads at these processing facilities and the underground mines are expected to require additional power generation and as such, PT-FI is planning investments in a new gas-fired combined cycle facility. Capital expenditures for the new power generation facilities, to be incurred over the next four years,
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approximate $1 billion which represents an incremental cost of $0.4 billion compared to previously planned investments to refurbish the existing coal units. Refer to “Mining Operations” for further discussion.

In 2023, exploration spending associated with our mining operations totaled $112 million. Our mining exploration activities are primarily associated with our existing mines, focusing on opportunities to expand mineral reserves and resources to support development of additional future production capacity. Exploration results continue to indicate opportunities for significant future potential reserve additions at our existing properties in North America and South America.

Refer to Item 1A. “Risk Factors” for further discussion of risks associated with mine development projects and exploration activities, and PT-FI’s IUPK.

SOURCES AND AVAILABILITY OF ENERGY, NATURAL RESOURCES AND RAW MATERIALS

Our copper mining operations require significant amounts of energy, principally diesel, electricity, coal and natural gas, most of which is obtained from third parties under long-term contracts. Energy represented 19% of our copper mine site operating costs in 2023, including purchases of approximately 250 million gallons of diesel fuel; approximately 8,650 gigawatt hours of electricity at our North America and South America copper mining operations (we generate all of our power at our Indonesia mining operation); approximately 700 thousand metric tons of coal for our coal power plant in Indonesia; and approximately 2 million MMBtu (million British thermal units) of natural gas at certain of our North America mines. Based on current cost estimates, energy is expected to approximate 20% of our copper mine site operating costs in 2024.

Our mining operations also require significant quantities of water for mining, ore processing and related support facilities. The loss of water rights for any of our mines, in whole or in part, or shortages of water to which we have rights, could require us to curtail or shut down mining operations. For a further discussion of risks and legal proceedings associated with the availability of water, refer to “Governmental Regulations” above, Item 1A. “Risk Factors” and Item 3. “Legal Proceedings.”

Sulfuric acid is used in the SX/EW process and is produced as a by-product of the smelting process at our smelters and from our sulfur burners at the Safford mine. Sulfuric acid needs in excess of the sulfuric acid produced by our operations are purchased from third parties.

For further discussion of risks associated with various input costs, refer to Item 1A. “Risk Factors.”

HUMAN CAPITAL

We are committed to promoting the health, safety and well-being of our workforce and striving to further strengthen our commitment to promoting an inclusive, diverse and agile workplace. We believe our global workforce is the foundation of our success. Our Board of Directors (Board) oversees our policies and implementation programs that govern our approach to management of our human capital, with the Corporate Responsibility Committee (CRC) having oversight of health and safety matters and the Compensation Committee having oversight of other human capital matters, including those relating to workforce recruitment, retention and development, pay equity and inclusion and diversity.

Workforce
At December 31, 2023, we had approximately 27,200 employees (13,000 in North America, 6,700 in South America, 6,400 in Indonesia and 1,100 in Europe and other locations). We also had contractors that employed personnel at many of our operations at various times throughout 2023, including approximately 56,000 in Indonesia (approximately 32,000 at the Manyar smelter development site and approximately 24,000 at the Grasberg Minerals District), 20,100 in North America, 6,800 at our South America mining operations and 2,500 in Europe and other locations. Certain of these contractors work on projects that are temporary in nature and fluctuate from year to year.

Approximately 29% of our global employee population is covered by collective labor agreements (CLAs). In North America, our workforce is not covered by a CLA. Rather, our hourly, full-time employees at our active North America sites elect to work directly with management using our Guiding Principles, which outline how we work together to achieve our collective goals within the values of the company.
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Employees covered by CLAs on December 31, 2023, are listed below, with the number of employees covered and the expiration date of the applicable CLA:

LocationNumber of UnionsNumber of
 Employees Covered by a CLA
Expiration Date
PT-FI – Indonesia
33,008 March 2024
Cerro Verde – Peru
23,470 August 2024 and August 2025
El Abra – Chile
2900 April 2026
Atlantic Copper – Spain
3523 December 2022
a
Rotterdam – The Netherlands
153 March 2025
Stowmarket – United Kingdom
138 May 2026
a.The CLA between Atlantic Copper and its three unions expired in December 2022, but has been extended indefinitely and remains active by mutual agreement from both parties while a new agreement is negotiated.
We seek to openly engage with our employees directly, and where applicable, our union leadership to negotiate and uphold labor agreements. We recognize labor disruptions, such as prolonged strikes or other work stoppages, can adversely affect our business operations, our workforce and regional stakeholders. In 2023, there were no strikes or lockouts at any of our operations.

Health and Safety
Our highest priority is the health, safety and well-being of our employees and contractors. We also work to promote our safety-first values with our suppliers and in the communities where we operate. We believe health and safety considerations are integral to, and fundamental for, all other functions in our organization, and we understand the health and safety of our workforce is critical to our operational efficiency and long-term success. Our global health and safety strategy, “Safe Production Matters,” is focused on fatality prevention, eliminating systemic root causes of incidents and continuous improvement through robust management systems, which are supported by leaders empowering our teams to work safely. Foundational to our Safe Production Matters strategy is our Fatal Risk Management (FRM) program. The goal of our FRM program is to achieve zero workplace fatalities by raising awareness to fatal risks and the measures necessary to mitigate them.

We further seek to prevent fatalities by leveraging technology to support safe work practices in the field and data analytics to identify opportunities for improvement. Our framework for managing risks and compliance obligations is certified company-wide in accordance with the ISO 45001 Health and Safety Management System (ISO 45001), most recently certified in January 2023. ISO 45001 requires third-party site-level verification of requirements, with an overall goal of preventing fatalities and reducing safety incidents.

As part of our commitment to providing a healthy and safe workplace, we strive to provide the training, tools and resources needed so our workforce can identify risks and consistently apply effective controls. We share information and key learnings about potential fatal events (PFEs) and best practices throughout the company, and we engage with industry peers and professional organizations to learn and continuously improve our health and safety program. We also review and discuss all fatal incident investigations with the CRC and the Board.

Our objective is to achieve zero workplace fatalities and to decrease injuries and occupational illnesses. We measure our safety performance through regularly established benchmarks, including the industry-established Total Recordable Incident Rate (TRIR), and our company-established PFEs, both of which include employees and contractors company-wide. Regrettably, we had one work-related fatality in each of 2023 and 2022. In addition, we had 46 PFEs in 2023 and 30 PFEs in 2022. Our TRIR per 200,000 man-hours worked was 0.60 in 2023 and 0.77 in 2022.

In addition to a traditional focus on safety, we aim to support the overall health and well-being of our workforce by providing access to health and wellness resources, and offering opportunities for flexible work schedules, where practicable, among other efforts.
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Employee Engagement, Training and Development
In addition to the health, safety and well-being of our global workforce, we have prioritized retaining a flexible, highly engaged and agile workforce. A key to our success is the ability to recruit, retain, develop and advance talented employees with diverse perspectives. We continued to face challenges in 2023 with an increasingly competitive and tight labor market, particularly in North America, and we remain committed to assessing our recruitment and training and development programs to adapt to the changing labor market and our employee needs.

We are committed to ongoing training and development of our workforce. We focus on recruiting and retaining talented people by offering quality employment with competitive compensation and benefits, which support our efforts in the tight labor markets. We also offer opportunities for professional development and advancement. Strategic talent reviews and succession planning occur regularly and across all business areas. To support the advancement of our employees, we offer training and development programs encouraging advancement from within and continue to promote strong and experienced management talent. We leverage both formal and informal programs to identify, foster and retain top talent at both the corporate and operations levels. We expect our talent management processes and corresponding training and development programs will continue to mature and evolve in line with our commitment to continuous improvement.

Inclusion and Diversity
We are committed to fostering a culture that is safety focused, respectful, inclusive and representative of the communities where we operate. As a global organization that operates in diverse parts of the world, inclusion and diversity is a company priority, and we believe an inclusive and diverse workforce with a broad range of experience, knowledge, background, culture and heritage drives innovation, enhances operational performance and improves relationships with stakeholders.

We are often the largest employer in our local communities and hiring locally is a commitment we make to the host communities surrounding our operations and to our host countries. As of December 31, 2023, the vast majority of our employees are from the countries where we operate. We retain expatriate expertise for managerial and technical roles when we determine the required expertise is not available in local communities. Expatriates receive cultural training upon their arrival to a new location.

We aim to tailor our approach to inclusion and diversity across our global business and we seek to design programs and initiatives with standardized processes and priorities while being adaptable to site-specific or situational circumstances. We strive for, promote and foster a workplace where everyone feels a sense of belonging, is treated with respect and their opinions are valued. We believe an inclusive environment gives our people the confidence to speak up, share ideas that drive innovation and achieve operational excellence. We believe our inclusive environment is the foundation of our high-performance culture and is paramount to the long-term sustainable success of our business.

We are also committed to providing equal pay for equal work regardless of gender, race, ethnicity or any other characteristic protected by applicable law. We periodically conduct internal compensation reviews to identify and address, as appropriate, possible pay gaps, which cannot be explained through performance, distribution of jobs, experience, time in role and other legitimate business-related factors.

In addition to our Inclusion and Diversity Policy, our inclusion and diversity principles align with our core values of safety, respect, integrity, excellence and commitment, and are incorporated into our Principles of Business Conduct and other related policies. We have dedicated human resources team members to focus on inclusion and diversity initiatives and a cross-functional inclusion and diversity leadership team to help guide the strategy and direction of our inclusion and diversity programs. To help incentivize continued progress by our executive team, workforce performance metrics to support safety and inclusion and diversity priorities, among other things, have also been integrated into executive compensation, contributing to the sustainability component of our performance-based annual incentive program.

Additional information regarding our activities related to our people, including our workforce diversity data (such as our U.S. Employee EEO-1 report data), can be found in our Annual Report on Sustainability, which is available on our website and is updated annually.

Refer to Item 1A. “Risk Factors” for further information on human capital matters.

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COMMUNITY AND HUMAN RIGHTS

We have adopted policies that govern our working relationships with the communities where we operate and that are designed to guide our practices and programs in a manner that respects human rights and the culture of the local people impacted by our operations. In addition, global regulations with regard to human rights and environmental due diligence in supply chains require us to identify, and to prevent, or at least mitigate, adverse impacts on human rights and the environment.

We continue to make significant expenditures on community development, health, education, training and cultural programs, which include:

comprehensive job training programs
clean water and sanitation projects
public health programs, including malaria control and human immunodeficiency virus
agricultural assistance programs
small and medium enterprise development programs
basic education programs
cultural resources promotion and preservation programs
community infrastructure development
charitable donations

In 2000, we endorsed the joint U.S. State Department-British Foreign Office Voluntary Principles on Security and Human Rights (Voluntary Principles). We participated in developing these Voluntary Principles with other major natural resource companies and international human rights organizations and they are incorporated into our Human Rights Policy. The Voluntary Principles provide guidelines for our security programs, including interaction with host-government security personnel, private security contractors and our internal security employees.

Our Human Rights Policy reflects our commitment to implementing the United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights. We conduct site-level human rights impact assessments (HRIAs) at our global operations, which help us to embed human rights considerations into our business practices. We completed HRIAs at our PT-FI Grasberg operations in 2023, Arizona operations in 2022, El Abra in 2021, New Mexico operations in 2018 and Cerro Verde in 2017. In 2023, we initiated a second HRIA at Cerro Verde, which is expected to be completed later in 2024, and we initiated the planning phase for HRIAs at the Manyar smelter and our Colorado operations. We continue to participate in a multi-industry human rights working group to gain insight from peer companies and experts in the field to learn how best practices are evolving.

We believe that our social and economic development programs are responsive to the issues raised by the local communities near our areas of operation and help us maintain good relations with the surrounding communities and avoid disruptions of mining operations. As part of our ongoing commitment to our community stakeholders, we have made and expect to continue making investments in certain social programs, including in-kind support and administration, across our global operations from time to time. Over the last three years, these investments have averaged $170 million per year. Nevertheless, social and political instability in the areas of our operations may adversely impact our mining operations. Refer to Item 1A. “Risk Factors” for further discussion.

South America. Cerro Verde has provided a variety of community support projects over the years. Following engagements with regional and local governments, civic leaders and development agencies, in 2006, Cerro Verde committed to support the costs for a new potable water treatment plant to serve Arequipa. In addition, an agreement was reached with the Peru government for development of a water storage network that was financed by Cerro Verde and a distribution network that was financed by the Cerro Verde Civil Association.

Cerro Verde constructed a wastewater treatment plant for the city of Arequipa, which was completed in 2015. The wastewater treatment plant supplements existing water supplies to support Cerro Verde’s concentrator expansion and also improves the local water quality, enhances agriculture products grown in the area and reduces the risk of waterborne illnesses. In addition to these projects, Cerro Verde annually makes significant community development investments in the Arequipa region.

Security Matters. Consistent with our operating permits in Peru and our commitment to protect our employees and property, we have taken steps to provide a safe and secure working environment. As part of its security program, Cerro Verde maintains its own internal security department. Both employees and contractors perform functions such
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as protecting company facilities, monitoring shipments of supplies and products, assisting in traffic control and aiding in emergency response operations. The security department receives human rights and Voluntary Principles training annually. Cerro Verde’s costs for its internal civilian security department totaled approximately $8 million in 2023 and $7 million for both of the years 2022 and 2021.

Cerro Verde, like all businesses and residents of Peru, relies on the Peru government for the maintenance of public order, upholding the rule of law and the protection of personnel and property. The Peru government is responsible for employing police personnel and directing their operations. Cerro Verde has limited public security forces in support of its operation, with the arrangement defined through an Inter-institutional Cooperation Agreement with the Peru National Police. Cerro Verde’s share of support costs for government-provided security approximated $1 million in each of the years 2023, 2022 and 2021. Refer to Item 1A. “Risk Factors” for further discussion of security risks in Peru.

Indonesia. PT-FI provides funding and technical assistance to support various community development programs in areas such as health, education, economic development and local infrastructure. In 1996, PT-FI established a social investment fund with the aim of contributing to social and economic development in the Mimika Regency. Prior to 2019, the fund was mainly managed by the Amungme and Kamoro Community Development Organization, a community-led institution. In 2019, a new foundation, the Amungme and Kamoro Community Empowerment Foundation (Yayasan Pemberdayaan Masyarakat Amungme dan Kamoro, or YPMAK), was established, and in 2020, PT-FI appointed YPMAK to assist in distributing a significant portion of PT-FI’s funding to support the development and empowerment of the local Indigenous Papuan people. YPMAK is governed by a Board of Governors consisting of seven representatives, including four from PT-FI.

In addition, since 2001, PT-FI has voluntarily established and contributed to land rights trust funds administered by Amungme and Kamoro representatives that focus on socioeconomic initiatives, human rights and environmental issues.

PT-FI is committed to the continued funding of YPMAK programs and the land rights trust funds, as well as for other local-community development initiatives through 2041 and has made and expects to continue making annual investments in public health, education, and local economic development. PT-FI recorded charges totaling $123 million in both 2023 and 2022 and $109 million in 2021 to cost of sales for social and economic development programs.

Security Matters. Consistent with our ongoing commitment to protect our employees and property, we have taken steps to provide a safe and secure working environment. As part of its security program, PT-FI maintains its own internal civilian security department. Both employees and contractors perform functions such as protecting company facilities, monitoring shipments of supplies and products, assisting in traffic control and aiding in emergency response operations. The security department receives human rights training annually.

PT-FI’s costs for its internal civilian security department totaled $51 million in 2023 and $50 million in both 2022 and 2021.

PT-FI, like all businesses and residents of Indonesia, relies on the Indonesia government for the maintenance of public order, upholding the rule of law and protection of personnel and property. The Grasberg minerals district has been designated by the Indonesia government as one of Indonesia’s vital national assets. This designation results in the police and, to a lesser extent, the military playing a significant role in protecting the area of our operations. The Indonesia government is responsible for employing police and military personnel and directing their operations.

From the outset of PT-FI’s operations, the Indonesia government has looked to PT-FI to provide logistical and infrastructure support and assistance for these necessary services because of the limited resources of the Indonesia government and the remote location of and lack of development in Central Papua. PT-FI’s financial support of the Indonesia government security institutions assigned to PT-FI’s operations area represents a prudent response to PT-FI’s requirements and commitments to protect its workforce and property better ensuring that personnel are properly fed and lodged and have the logistical resources to patrol PT-FI’s roads and secure its area of operations. In addition, the provision of such support is consistent with our philosophy of responsible corporate citizenship and reflects our commitment to pursue practices that protect and respect human rights.

PT-FI’s support costs for the government-provided security totaled $25 million in 2023, 2022 and 2021. This supplemental support consists of various infrastructure and other costs, including food, housing, fuel, travel, vehicle
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repairs, allowances to cover incidental and administrative costs, and community assistance programs conducted by the military and police. Refer to Item 1A. “Risk Factors” for further discussion of security risks in Indonesia.

MINING PRODUCTION AND SALES DATA
Years Ended December 31,
ProductionSales
COPPER (millions of recoverable pounds)
202320222021202320222021
(FCX’s net interest in %)        
North America        
Morenci (72%)a
575 636 631  578 639 632 
Safford (100%)245 285 265 250 281 252 
Sierrita (100%)185 184 189 183 186 187 
Bagdad (100%)146 165 184  148 169 185 
Chino (100%)141 130 124  143 127 114 
Tyrone (100%)51 59 55  53 59 53 
Miami (100%)12 11 12 12 11 13 
Other (100%)(5)(3)—  (6)(3)— 
Total North America1,350 1,467 1,460  1,361 1,469 1,436 
South America        
Cerro Verde (53.56%)985 974 887 988 964 888 
El Abra (51%)217 202 160 212 198 167 
Total South America1,202 1,176 1,047 1,200 1,162 1,055 
Indonesia        
Grasberg minerals district (48.76%)b
1,660 1,567 1,336 1,525 1,582 1,316 
Consolidated4,212 4,210 3,843 4,086 
c
4,213 
c
3,807 
c
Less noncontrolling interests1,414 845 741 1,344 840 741 
Net2,798 3,365 3,102 2,742 3,373 3,066 
Average realized price per pound$3.85 $3.90 $4.33 
GOLD (thousands of recoverable ounces)
        
(FCX’s net interest in %)
North America (100%)15 13 11 16 12 11 
Indonesia (48.76%)b
1,978 1,798 1,370 1,697 1,811 1,349 
Consolidated1,993 1,811 1,381  1,713 1,823 1,360 
Less noncontrolling interests952 337 257 808 339 252 
Net1,041 1,474 1,124 905 1,484 1,108 
Average realized price per ounce$1,972 $1,787 $1,796 
MOLYBDENUM (millions of recoverable pounds)
        
(FCX’s net interest in %)
Climax (100%)17 21 18 N/AN/AN/A
Henderson (100%)13 12 12 N/AN/AN/A
North America copper mines (100%)a
30 29 34 N/AN/AN/A
Cerro Verde (53.56%)22 23 21 N/AN/AN/A
Consolidated82 85 85 81 75 82 
Less noncontrolling interest10 11 10 10 10 
Net72 74 75 71 65 73 
Average realized price per pound$24.64 $18.71 $15.56 
a.Amounts are net of Morenci’s joint venture partners’ undivided interest.
b.Our economic interest in PT-FI is 48.76% and prior to 2023, it approximated 81% (refer to Note 3 for further discussion).
c.Consolidated sales volumes exclude purchased copper of 103 million pounds in 2023, 124 million pounds in 2022 and 173 million pounds in 2021.

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SELECTED OPERATING DATA
 Years Ended December 31, 
 20232022202120202019
CONSOLIDATED MINING 
Copper (millions of recoverable pounds)       
Production 4,212 4,210 3,843 3,206 3,247  
Sales, excluding purchases4,086 4,213 3,807 3,202 3,292  
Average realized price per pound$3.85 $3.90 $4.33 $2.95 $2.73 
Gold (thousands of recoverable ounces)