Company Quick10K Filing
First Hawaiian
Closing Price ($) Shares Out (MM) Market Cap ($MM)
$0.00 135 $3,461
10-K 2020-02-28 Annual: 2019-12-31
10-Q 2019-10-25 Quarter: 2019-09-30
10-Q 2019-07-29 Quarter: 2019-06-30
10-Q 2019-04-26 Quarter: 2019-03-31
10-K 2019-02-28 Annual: 2018-12-31
10-Q 2018-10-26 Quarter: 2018-09-30
10-Q 2018-07-27 Quarter: 2018-06-30
10-Q 2018-04-27 Quarter: 2018-03-31
10-K 2018-02-28 Annual: 2017-12-31
10-Q 2017-10-27 Quarter: 2017-09-30
10-Q 2017-08-10 Quarter: 2017-06-30
10-Q 2017-04-28 Quarter: 2017-03-31
10-K 2017-03-15 Annual: 2016-12-31
10-Q 2016-11-10 Quarter: 2016-09-30
10-Q 2016-09-09 Quarter: 2016-06-30
8-K 2020-02-11 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2020-01-22 Earnings, Amend Bylaw, Exhibits
8-K 2019-11-04 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2019-10-24 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2019-09-06 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2019-08-09 Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2019-07-25 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2019-06-07 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2019-04-25 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2019-04-24 Shareholder Vote
8-K 2019-03-11 Officers
8-K 2019-03-04 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2019-03-01 Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2019-02-27 Officers, Exhibits
8-K 2019-02-12 Officers, Other Events
8-K 2019-01-30 Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2019-01-24 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2019-01-14 Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2018-11-05 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-10-25 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-10-24 Officers
8-K 2018-09-05 Other Events
8-K 2018-09-05 Officers, Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2018-07-29 Other Events
8-K 2018-07-26 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-07-26 Enter Agreement, Control, Officers, Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2018-07-25 Officers, Exhibits
8-K 2018-07-15 Officers
8-K 2018-06-08 Regulation FD
8-K 2018-05-22 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-05-07 Enter Agreement, Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2018-04-26 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-04-25 Officers, Shareholder Vote, Exhibits
8-K 2018-02-06 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-02-06 Officers, Exhibits
8-K 2018-01-25 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-01-25 Other Events
8-K 2018-01-08 Officers, Exhibits
FHB 2019-12-31
Part I
Item 1. Business
Item 1A. Risk Factors
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 2. Properties
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Part II
Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Item 6. Selected Financial Data
Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
Item 9A. Controls and Procedures
Item 9B. Other Information
Part III
Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
Item 11. Executive Compensation
Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
Item 14. Principal Accounting Fees and Services
Part IV
Item 15. Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules
Item 16. Form 10-K Summary
EX-3.3 ex-3d3.htm
EX-4.1 ex-4d1.htm
EX-10.20 ex-10d20.htm
EX-21.1 ex-21d1.htm
EX-23.1 ex-23d1.htm
EX-31.1 ex-31d1.htm
EX-31.2 ex-31d2.htm
EX-32.1 ex-32d1.htm
EX-32.2 ex-32d2.htm

First Hawaiian Earnings 2019-12-31

FHB 10K Annual Report

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow

Comparables ($MM TTM)
Ticker M Cap Assets Liab Rev G Profit Net Inc EBITDA EV G Margin EV/EBITDA ROA
UBSI 3,716 19,883 16,549 0 0 259 498 5,264 10.6 1%
FHB 3,461 20,526 17,867 752 0 270 462 3,177 0% 6.9 1%
VLY 3,439 33,028 29,524 0 0 336 889 4,784 5.4 1%
ASB 3,433 33,273 29,373 1,232 0 346 805 3,673 0% 4.6 1%
HWC 3,415 28,762 25,443 0 0 0 311 3,283 10.5 0%
GBCI 3,406 12,676 10,989 79 0 200 289 3,175 0% 11.0 2%
CBU 3,370 10,745 8,936 0 0 171 267 2,495 9.4 2%
BOH 3,345 17,689 16,403 0 0 227 360 2,966 8.2 1%
MBFI 3,338 20,207 17,172 0 0 214 356 3,037 8.5 1%
TCF 3,265 24,419 21,773 0 0 310 764 4,642 6.1 1%

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Com

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

  ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2019

OR

  TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from               to               

Commission File Number  001-14585

FIRST HAWAIIAN, INC.

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)

Delaware

99-0156159

(State or Other Jurisdiction of Incorporation)

(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

999 Bishop Street, 29th Floor

Honolulu, HI

96813

(Address of Principal Executive Offices)

(Zip Code)

(808) 525-7000

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Securities Registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class:

Trading Symbol(s)

Name of each exchange on which registered:

Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share

FHB

NASDAQ Global Select Market

Securities Registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes    No  

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act. Yes    No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes    No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (Section 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes    No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer 

Accelerated filer 

Non-accelerated filer       

Smaller reporting company 

Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).     Yes      No

As of June 28, 2019, the aggregate market value of the registrant’s voting shares held by non-affiliates was approximately $3.5 billion, based on the closing sale price of $25.87 as reported on the NASDAQ Global Select Market.

As of February 20, 2020, there were 130,350,725 shares of the registrant’s common stock outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the Proxy Statement for the 2020 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K.

Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

FIRST HAWAIIAN, INC.

FORM 10-K ANNUAL REPORT

Part I

Page No.

 

Item 1.

 

Business

 

2

 

Item 1A.

 

Risk Factors

 

14

 

Item 1B.

 

Unresolved Staff Comments

 

34

 

Item 2.

 

Properties

 

34

 

Item 3.

 

Legal Proceedings

 

35

 

Item 4.

 

Mine Safety Disclosures

 

35

 

 

 

 

 

 

Part II

 

 

 

Item 5.

 

Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

36

 

Item 6.

 

Selected Financial Data

 

38

 

Item 7.

 

Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

43

 

Item 7A.

 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

 

79

 

Item 8.

 

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

 

80

 

Item 9.

 

Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

154

 

Item 9A.

 

Controls and Procedures

 

154

 

Item 9B.

 

Other Information

 

157

 

 

 

 

 

 

Part III

 

 

 

Item 10.

 

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

 

159

 

Item 11.

 

Executive Compensation

 

159

 

Item 12.

 

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

159

 

Item 13.

 

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

 

160

 

Item 14.

 

Principal Accounting Fees and Services

 

160

 

 

 

 

 

 

Part IV

 

 

 

Item 15.

 

Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules

 

161

 

Item 16.

 

Form 10-K Summary

 

161

Signatures

 

165

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PART I

ITEM 1.  BUSINESS

General

First Hawaiian, Inc. (“FHI” or the “Parent”), a bank holding company, owns 100% of the outstanding common stock of First Hawaiian Bank (“FHB” or the “Bank”). References to “we,” “our,” “us,” or the “Company” refer to the Parent and its wholly-owned subsidiary, FHB, for purposes of discussion in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

We are a bank holding company incorporated in the state of Delaware and headquartered in Honolulu, Hawaii. Our wholly-owned bank subsidiary, FHB, was founded in 1858 under the name Bishop & Company and was the first successful banking partnership in the Kingdom of Hawaii and the second oldest bank formed west of the Mississippi River. Today, FHB is the largest full-service bank headquartered in Hawaii as measured by assets, loans, deposits and net income. As of December 31, 2019, we had $20.2 billion of assets, $13.2 billion of gross loans and leases, $16.4 billion of deposits and $2.6 billion of stockholders’ equity. We generated $284.4 million of net income or diluted earnings per share of $2.13 per share for the year ended December 31, 2019.

Through the Bank, we operate a network of 58 branches in Hawaii (53 branches), Guam (3 branches) and Saipan (2 branches). We provide a diversified range of banking services to consumer and commercial customers, including deposit products, lending services and wealth management and trust services. Through our distribution channels, we offer a variety of deposit products to our customers, including checking and savings accounts and other types of deposit accounts. We offer comprehensive commercial banking services to middle market and large Hawaii-based businesses with over $10 million of revenue, strong balance sheets and high-quality collateral. We provide commercial and industrial lending, including auto dealer flooring, commercial real estate and construction lending. We also offer comprehensive consumer lending services focused on residential real estate lending, indirect auto financing and other consumer loans to individuals and small businesses through our branch, online and mobile distribution channels. Our wealth management business provides an array of trust services, private banking and investment management services. We also offer consumer and commercial credit cards and merchant processing.

We seek to develop comprehensive, long-term banking relationships by offering a diverse array of products and services, cross-selling those products and services and delivering high quality customer service. Our service culture and emphasis on repeat positive customer experiences are integral to our banking strategy and exemplified by our longstanding customer relationships.

We operate our business through three operating segments: Retail Banking, Commercial Banking and Treasury and Other. See “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (“MD&A”) – Analysis of Business Segments” and “Note 23. Reportable Operating Segments” in the notes to the consolidated financial statements included in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data for more information.

As of December 31, 2019, we had approximately 2,100 employees, which included full time employees, part time employees and temporary employees. None of our employees are parties to a collective bargaining agreement and we do not expect a significant change in the number of our employees in the near future.

Our Products and Services

The Bank is a full-service community bank focused on building relationships with our customers. We provide a variety of deposit accounts and lending services to commercial and consumer customers, as well as credit card products, wealth management services and merchant processing services. For over ten years, the Bank has maintained the largest deposit market share in Hawaii and currently has the leading market position in deposits in Hawaii, Guam and Saipan. We offer a comprehensive range of commercial lending services including commercial and industrial lending, auto dealer flooring, commercial real estate lending and construction lending. Our primary consumer lending services are mortgage lending, auto finance, small business loans, personal installment and credit cards. Our wealth management business offers individuals investment and financial planning services, insurance protection, trust and estate services and private banking.

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Competition

We operate in the highly competitive financial services industry and face significant competition for customers from financial institutions located both within and beyond our principal markets. We compete with commercial banks, savings banks, credit unions, non-bank financial services companies and other financial institutions operating within or near the areas we serve. Additionally, certain large banks headquartered on the U.S. mainland and large community banking institutions target the same customers we do. In addition, as customer preferences and expectations continue to evolve, technology has lowered barriers to entry and made it possible for banks to expand their geographic reach by providing services over the Internet and for non-banks to offer products and services traditionally provided by banks, such as automatic transfer and automatic payment systems.

Our Strategic Initiatives

Our business strategy is focused on providing full service banking across our branch footprint, and we strive to be Hawaii’s bank of choice for consumer and commercial customers. We believe the combination of our brand, service quality, prudent approach to risk management and ties to the communities we serve provides us with steady growth opportunities and has allowed us to consistently deliver top tier operating performance. Our ongoing strategic focus and business initiatives include continuing to grow organically by leveraging our existing core competencies and positioning our business for the evolving bank landscape. We have a deep understanding of our customers and local market conditions which has been, and will continue to be, a primary factor in the success of our franchise.

Organizational History and Structure

Prior to our initial public offering in August 2016 (“IPO”), we were an indirect wholly owned subsidiary of BNP Paribas (“BNPP”), a global financial institution based in France.  

On April 1, 2016, BNPP effected a series of reorganization transactions (“Reorganization Transactions”), as a part of which we amended our certificate of incorporation to change our name to First Hawaiian, Inc., with First Hawaiian Bank remaining our only direct wholly owned subsidiary.

On July 1, 2016, in order to comply with the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System’s requirements applicable to BNPP, we became an indirect wholly owned subsidiary of BNP Paribas USA, Inc. (“BNP Paribas USA”), BNPP’s U.S. intermediate holding company. As part of that reorganization, we became a direct wholly owned subsidiary of BancWest Corporation (“BWC”), a direct wholly owned subsidiary of BNP Paribas USA.

In August 2016, FHI completed its IPO of 24,250,000 shares of common stock sold by BWC. Shares of FHI’s common stock began trading on the NASDAQ Global Select Market (“NASDAQ”) under the ticker symbol “FHB” on August 4, 2016. In connection with FHI’s IPO, BNPP announced its intent to sell its interest in FHI, including FHI’s wholly owned subsidiary, FHB, over time, subject to market conditions and other considerations.

Following a series of secondary offerings completed in 2017 and 2018, on February 1, 2019, BNPP, through BWC, completed the sale of its remaining 24,859,750 shares of FHI common stock in a public offering. FHI did not receive any of the proceeds from the sales of shares of FHI common stock in that offering, in any of the secondary offerings described above or the IPO. As a result of the completion of the February 1, 2019 public offering, BNPP (through BWC, the selling stockholder) fully exited its ownership interest in FHI common stock.

For additional information on the separation from BNPP and the Reorganization Transactions, see “Note 1. Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” in the notes to the consolidated financial statements included in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.

Supervision and Regulation

We are subject to extensive regulation under federal and state banking laws that establish a comprehensive framework for our operations. This regulatory framework may materially impact our growth potential and financial performance and is intended primarily for the protection of the safety and soundness of financial institutions, maintenance of the federal deposit insurance system and the protection of consumers or classes of consumers, rather than the protection of stockholders or other investors.

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Significant elements of the statutes, regulations and policies applicable to the Company are described below. This description is qualified in its entirety by reference to the full text of the statutes, regulations and policies described. These statutes, regulations and policies are continually under review by Congress and state legislatures and federal and state regulatory agencies.

Regulatory Agencies

FHI is a bank holding company under the U.S. Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 (the “BHC Act”) and has elected to be treated as a financial holding company under the BHC Act. Consequently, FHI and its subsidiary are subject to the supervision, regulation, examination and reporting requirements of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (the “Federal Reserve”). The BHC Act provides generally for “umbrella” regulation of bank holding companies by the Federal Reserve and functional regulation of holding company subsidiaries by applicable regulatory agencies. The BHC Act, however, authorizes the Federal Reserve to examine any subsidiary of a bank holding company, other than a depository institution, engaged in activities permissible for a depository institution. The Federal Reserve is also granted the authority, in certain circumstances, to require reports of, examine and adopt rules applicable to any holding company subsidiary.

In general, the BHC Act limits the activities permissible for bank holding companies. Bank holding companies electing to be treated as financial holding companies, however, may engage in additional activities under the BHC Act as described below under “— Permissible Activities under the BHC Act”. For a bank holding company to be eligible to elect financial holding company status, all of its subsidiary insured depository institutions must be well-capitalized and well-managed as described below under “— Prompt Corrective Action Framework” and must have received at least a “satisfactory rating” on such institution’s most recent examination under the Community Reinvestment Act (the “CRA”). The bank holding company itself must also be well-capitalized and well-managed in order to be eligible to elect financial holding company status. If a financial holding company fails to continue to meet any of the well-capitalized and well-managed prerequisites for financial holding company status after engaging in activities not permissible for bank holding companies that have not elected to be treated as financial holding companies, the company must enter into an agreement with the Federal Reserve to comply with all applicable capital and management requirements. If the company does not return to compliance within 180 days, the Federal Reserve may order the company to divest its subsidiary banks or the company may be required to discontinue or divest investments in companies engaged in activities permissible only for a bank holding company electing to be treated as a financial holding company. In addition, if any insured depository institution subsidiary of a financial holding company fails to maintain a CRA rating of at least “Satisfactory,” the financial holding company will be subject to restrictions on certain new activities and acquisitions.

FHB is a Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (the “FDIC”) insured bank chartered under the laws of the state of Hawaii. FHB is not a member of the Federal Reserve System. Consequently, the FDIC and the Hawaii Department of Financial Institutions (the “DFI”) are the primary regulators of FHB and also regulate its subsidiaries. FHB’s branch operations in Guam are also subject to regulation by the Banking and Insurance Commissioner of the Government of Guam Department of Revenue and Taxation (the “Guam Banking and Insurance Commissioner”). FHB’s branch operation in Saipan, which is one of the principal islands of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (“CNMI”), is subject to the regulatory jurisdiction of the Division of Banking of the CNMI Department of Commerce. In addition, as the owner of a Hawaii-chartered bank, FHI is registered as a financial institution holding company under the Hawaii Code of Financial Institutions (the “Hawaii Code”) and is subject to the registration, reporting and examination requirements of the Hawaii Code, as well as supervision and examination by the Hawaii DFI.

The Company offers certain insurance, investment and trust products through FHB and its subsidiary, Bishop Street Capital Management Corporation, a registered investment advisor with the SEC. Bishop Street Capital Management Corporation is subject to the disclosure and regulatory requirements of the Investment Advisors Act of 1940, as administered by the SEC. FHB is also registered as a municipal securities advisor with the Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board (“MSRB”) and the SEC and is subject to the disclosure and regulatory requirements of the MSRB and the SEC. FHB’s insurance brokerage activities in Hawaii are conducted under its insurance producer license by appointed agents (licensed insurance producers) and those licensees are subject to regulation by the Insurance Division of the State of Hawaii Department of Commerce and Consumer Affairs (the “DCCA Insurance Division”). FHB’s trust services in Hawaii are subject to regulation by the FDIC and the Hawaii DFI. FHB’s insurance activities in Guam are conducted under a general agent’s license issued by the Guam Banking and Insurance Commissioner and FHB is therefore subject to regulation by the insurance branch of the regulatory division of the Guam Department of Revenue and Taxation.

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FHB and its affiliates are also subject to supervision, regulation, examination and enforcement by the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (the “CFPB”), with respect to consumer protection laws and regulations. In addition, FHI is subject to the disclosure and regulatory requirements of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Act of 1934 (“Exchange Act”) administered by the SEC and the rules adopted by NASDAQ applicable to listed companies. The Company is subject to numerous other statutes and regulations that affect its business activities and operations.

Permissible Activities under the BHC Act

In general, the BHC Act limits the business of bank holding companies to banking, managing or controlling banks and other activities that the Federal Reserve has determined to be so closely related to banking as to be a proper incident thereto.

Bank holding companies that qualify and elect to be treated as “financial holding companies,” like us, may engage in, or acquire and retain the shares of a company engaged in, a broad range of additional activities that are (i) financial in nature or incidental to such financial activities or (ii) complementary to a financial activity and do not pose a substantial risk to the safety and soundness of depository institutions or the financial system generally. These activities include securities underwriting and dealing, insurance underwriting and brokerage and making merchant banking investments.

The BHC Act does not place territorial restrictions on permissible non-banking activities of bank holding companies. The Federal Reserve has the power to order any bank holding company or its subsidiaries to terminate any activity or to terminate its ownership or control of any subsidiary when the Federal Reserve has reasonable grounds to believe that continuing such activity, ownership or control constitutes a serious risk to the financial soundness, safety or stability of any bank subsidiary of the bank holding company.

Permissible Activities for Banks

As a Hawaii-chartered bank, FHB’s business is generally limited to activities permitted by Hawaii law and any applicable federal laws. Under the Hawaii Code, the Bank may generally engage in all usual banking activities, including accepting deposits; extending loans and lines of credit; borrowing money; issuing, confirming and advising letters of credit; entering into repurchase agreements; buying and selling foreign currency and, subject to certain limitations, making investments. Subject to prior approval by the Commissioner of the Hawaii DFI and by the DCCA Insurance Division, the Bank may also permissibly engage in activities related to a trust business, activities relating to insurance and annuities and any activity permissible for a national banking association.

Hawaii law also imposes restrictions on the Bank’s activities and corporate governance requirements intended to ensure the safety and soundness of the bank. For example, the Hawaii Code requires that at least one of the directors of the Bank, as well as the Chief Executive Officer of the bank, be residents of the State of Hawaii. FHB is also restricted under the Hawaii Code to investing in certain types of investments and is generally limited in the amount of money it can lend to a single borrower or invest in securities issued by a single issuer (in each case, 20% of FHB’s common stock and additional paid-in capital).

Enhanced Prudential Standards

The Dodd-Frank Act, as amended by the Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act of 2018 (“EGRRCPA”), directs the Federal Reserve to monitor emerging risks to financial stability and enact enhanced supervision and prudential standards applicable to bank holding companies with total consolidated assets of $250 billion or more and non-bank covered companies designated as systemically important by the Financial Stability Oversight Council (often referred to as systemically important financial institutions). The Dodd-Frank Act mandates that certain regulatory requirements applicable to systemically important financial institutions be more stringent than those applicable to other financial institutions. In general, EGRRCPA and implementing regulations increased the statutory asset threshold above which the Federal Reserve is required to apply these enhanced prudential standards from $50 billion to $250 billion (subject to certain discretion by the Federal Reserve to apply any enhanced prudential standard requirement to any BHC with between $100 billion and $250 billion in total consolidated assets that would otherwise be exempt under EGRRCPA). BHCs with $250 billion or more in total consolidated assets remain fully subject to the Dodd-Frank Act’s enhanced prudential standards requirements.

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In February 2014, the Federal Reserve adopted rules to implement certain of these enhanced prudential standards. The rules required publicly traded bank holding companies with $10 billion or more in total consolidated assets to establish risk committees and require bank holding companies with $50 billion or more in total consolidated assets to comply with enhanced liquidity and overall risk management standards. In October 2019, the Federal Reserve adopted a rule that tailors the application of the enhanced prudential standards to BHCs per the EGRRCPA amendments, including by raising the asset threshold for application of many of these standards. Pursuant to the final rule, the requirement to maintain a risk committee was revised to apply to only bank holding companies with $50 billion or more in total consolidated assets.

EGRRCPA raised the asset thresholds for application of Dodd-Frank Act stress testing requirements. As a result, the stress testing requirements that previously applied to the Company, as a BHC with $10 billion to $100 billion in total consolidated assets, and FHB, as a bank with $10 billion or more in total consolidated assets, no longer apply to the Company and FHB.

Acquisitions by Bank Holding Companies

The BHC Act, the Bank Merger Act, the Hawaii Code and other federal and state statutes regulate acquisitions of banks and other FDIC-insured depository institutions. The Company must obtain the prior approval of the Federal Reserve before (i) acquiring direct or indirect ownership or control of any voting shares of any bank or bank holding company, if after such acquisition, it will directly or indirectly own or control 5% or more of any class of voting shares of the institution, (ii) acquiring all or substantially all of the assets of any bank (other than directly through the Bank) or (iii) merging or consolidating with any other bank holding company. Under the Bank Merger Act, the prior approval of the FDIC is required for the Bank to merge with another bank or purchase all or substantially all of the assets or assume any of the deposits of another FDIC-insured depository institution. In reviewing applications seeking approval of merger and acquisition transactions, bank regulators consider, among other things, the competitive effect and public benefits of the transactions, the capital position and managerial resources of the combined organization, the risks to the stability of the U.S. banking or financial system, the applicant’s performance record under the CRA, the applicant’s compliance with fair housing and other consumer protection laws and the effectiveness of all organizations involved in combating money laundering activities. In addition, failure to implement or maintain adequate compliance programs could cause bank regulators not to approve an acquisition where regulatory approval is required or to prohibit an acquisition even if approval is not required. In addition, the Federal Reserve will consider the extent to which a proposed transaction would result in greater or more concentrated risks to the stability of the U.S. banking or financial system. Under applicable laws, the Company may not be permitted to acquire any bank in Hawaii because it controls more than 30% of the total amount of deposits in the Hawaii market. As a result, any further growth in the Hawaii market will most likely have to occur organically rather than by acquisition.

Dividends and Repurchases

FHI is a legal entity separate and distinct from the Bank and its subsidiaries. Virtually all of FHI’s income comes from dividends from the Bank, which is also the primary source of FHI’s liquidity and funds to pay dividends on its equity and, if FHI were to incur debt in the future, interest and principal on its debt. There are statutory and regulatory limitations on the payment of dividends by the Bank to FHI, as well as by FHI to its stockholders.

Federal bank regulators are authorized to determine, under certain circumstances relating to the financial condition of a bank holding company or a bank, that the payment of dividends would be an unsafe or unsound practice and to prohibit payment thereof. In particular, federal bank regulators have stated that paying dividends that deplete a banking organization’s capital base to an inadequate level would be an unsafe and unsound banking practice and that banking organizations should generally pay dividends only out of current operating earnings. In addition, the ability of banks and bank holding companies to pay dividends, and the contents of their respective dividend policies, could be impacted by a range of regulatory changes.

Payment of Dividends by the Bank. In addition to the restrictions discussed above, the Bank is subject to limitations under Hawaii law regarding the amount of dividends that it may pay to the Parent. In general, under Hawaii law, dividends from a bank may not exceed the bank’s retained earnings provided that the bank will, after the dividend, have the minimum paid-in common stock and additional paid-in capital required under Hawaii law, which, for a bank which has trust operations, is $6.5 million. Hawaii law also effectively restricts a bank from paying a dividend, or the amount of the dividend, unless that bank’s common stock and additional paid-in capital is $6.5 million multiplied by 133%, or $8.6 million. This amount is not necessarily indicative of amounts that may be paid or available to be paid in

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future periods. Under Hawaii banking law, for example, paying “excessive dividends” in relation to a bank’s capital position, earnings capacity and asset quality could be deemed to be an unsafe and unsound banking practice. Under the Hawaii Business Corporation Act, a dividend or other distribution may not be made if a bank would not be able to pay its debts as they become due in the ordinary course of business or if its total assets would be less than the sum of its total liabilities and the amounts that would be needed to satisfy shareholders with preferential rights of distribution. In addition, under the Federal Deposit Insurance Act of 1950 (“FDIA”), an insured institution may not pay a dividend if payment would cause it to become undercapitalized or if it already is undercapitalized. See “— Prompt Corrective Action Framework” below.

Payment of Dividends and Common Stock Repurchases by the Company. As a bank holding company, the Company is subject to oversight by the Federal Reserve. In particular, the dividend policies and share repurchases of the Company are reviewed by the Federal Reserve and will be assessed against, among other things, the Company’s ability to achieve the required capital ratios under applicable capital rules (including the applicable capital conservation buffer). In addition, the Federal Reserve has indicated generally that it may be an unsafe or unsound practice for bank holding companies to pay dividends unless a bank holding company’s net income is sufficient to fund the dividends and the expected rate of earnings retention is consistent with the organization’s capital needs, asset quality and overall financial condition. See “— Regulatory Capital Requirements” below.

The Capital Simplification Rules (defined below) eliminated the standalone prior approval requirement in the Capital Rules (as defined below) for any repurchase of common stock. In certain circumstances, the Company’s repurchases of its common stock may be subject to a prior approval or notice requirement under other regulations or policies of the Federal Reserve. Any redemption or repurchase of preferred stock or subordinated debt remains subject to the prior approval of the Federal Reserve.

Transactions with Affiliates and Insiders

Transactions between the Bank and its subsidiaries, on the one hand, and the Company or any other affiliate of the Company, on the other hand, are regulated under federal banking law. The Federal Reserve Act imposes quantitative and qualitative requirements and collateral requirements on “covered transactions” by the Bank with, or for the benefit of, its affiliates, and generally requires those transactions to be on terms at least as favorable to the Bank as if the transaction were conducted with an unaffiliated third party. Covered transactions are defined by statute to include a loan or extension of credit, as well as a purchase of securities issued by an affiliate, a purchase of assets (unless otherwise exempted by the Federal Reserve) from the affiliate, the acceptance of securities issued by the affiliate as collateral for a loan, the issuance of a guarantee, acceptance or letter of credit on behalf of an affiliate, and credit exposure arising under derivative transactions, repurchase and reverse repurchase agreements, and securities borrowing and lending transactions. In general, any such transaction by the Bank or its subsidiaries must be limited to certain thresholds on an individual and aggregate basis and, for credit transactions with any affiliate, must be secured by designated amounts of specified collateral.

Federal law also limits a bank’s authority to extend credit to its directors, executive officers, principal shareholders (and persons that beneficially own or control more than 10% of any class of the bank’s voting stock), as well as to entities owned or controlled by such persons. Among other things, extensions of credit to such insiders are required to be made on terms that are substantially the same as, and follow credit underwriting procedures that are not less stringent than, those prevailing for comparable transactions with non-insiders. Also, the terms of such extensions of credit may not involve more than the normal risk of non-repayment or present other unfavorable features and may not exceed certain limitations on the amount of credit extended to such persons individually and in the aggregate. Certain extensions of credit also require the approval of the Bank’s board of directors.

Source of Strength

Federal law requires bank holding companies to act as a source of financial and managerial strength to their subsidiary banks. Under this requirement, the Company is expected to commit resources to support the Bank, including at times when the Parent may not be in a financial position to provide such resources, and it may not be in its, or its stockholders’ or creditors’, best interests to do so. In addition, any capital loans the Company makes to the Bank are subordinate in right of payment to depositors and to certain other indebtedness of the Bank. In the event of the Company’s bankruptcy, any commitment by the Company to a federal bank regulatory agency to maintain the capital of the Bank will be assumed by the bankruptcy trustee and entitled to priority of payment.

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Regulatory Capital Requirements

Capital Requirements Applicable to Top-Tier Holding Companies in an Organizational Structure.  The Federal Reserve monitors the capital adequacy of the Company, and the FDIC and the Hawaii DFI monitor the capital adequacy of the Bank. The bank regulators currently use a combination of risk-based ratios and a leverage ratio to evaluate capital adequacy. The Company and the Bank are subject to the federal bank regulators’ final rules implementing Basel III and various provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act (the “Capital Rules”).

The Capital Rules, among other things, impose a capital measure called “Common Equity Tier 1” (“CET1”), to which most deductions/adjustments to regulatory capital must be made. In addition, the Capital Rules specify that Tier 1 capital consists of CET1 and “Additional Tier 1 capital” instruments meeting certain specified requirements.

Under the Capital Rules, the minimum capital ratios are as follows:

4.5% CET1 to risk-weighted assets,

6.0% Tier 1 capital (that is, CET1 plus Additional Tier 1 capital) to risk-weighted assets,

8.0% total capital (that is, Tier 1 capital plus Tier 2 capital) to risk-weighted assets, and

4.0% Tier 1 capital to average quarterly assets.

The Capital Rules also require a 2.5% capital conservation buffer designed to absorb losses during periods of economic stress. The capital conservation buffer is composed entirely of CET1, on top of these minimum risk-weighted asset ratios, effectively resulting in minimum ratios of (i) 7% CET1 to risk-weighted assets, (ii) 8.5% Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets, and (iii) 10.5% total capital to risk-weighted assets.

Banking institutions with a ratio of CET1 to risk-weighted assets above the minimum but below the capital conservation buffer face constraints on dividends, equity repurchases and certain discretionary compensation based on the amount of the shortfall and the institution’s “eligible retained income” (that is, four quarter trailing net income, net of distributions and tax effects not reflected in net income).

The Capital Rules provide for a number of deductions from and adjustments to CET1 that were phased-in. These include, for example, the requirement that mortgage servicing rights (“MSRs”), certain deferred tax assets (“DTAs”) and significant investments in non-consolidated financial entities be deducted from CET1 to the extent that any one such category exceeds 10% of CET1 or all such categories in the aggregate exceed 15% of CET1. In November 2017, the federal bank regulators revised the Capital Rules to extend the current transitional treatment of MSRs, certain DTAs, investments in non-consolidated financial entities and minority interests for non-advanced approaches banking organizations (the “Transition Rules”), including the Company and FHB.

In July 2019, the federal bank regulators adopted rules intended to revise and simplify the capital treatment for MSRs, certain DTAs, investments in non-consolidated financial entities and minority interests for banking organizations, such as the Company and the Bank, that are not subject to the advanced approaches (the “Capital Simplification Rules”). The Capital Simplifications Rules and the rescission of the Transition Rule will take effect for the Company as of April 1, 2020. In November 2019, the federal bank regulators issued a final rule revising the definition of “high volatility commercial real estate” exposures to exclude certain acquisition, development and construction loans, consistent with the definition in EGRRCPA.

With respect to capital ratio requirements, the Bank is also subject to the prompt corrective action regulations pursuant to Section 38 of the FDIA. See “— Prompt Corrective Action Framework.”

In December 2017, the Basel Committee published standards that it described as the finalization of the Basel III post-crisis regulatory reforms (the standards are commonly referred to as “Basel IV”). Among other things, these standards revise the Basel Committee’s standardized approach for credit risk (including recalibrating risk weights and introducing new capital requirements for certain “unconditionally cancellable commitments,” such as unused credit card and home equity lines of credit) and provide a new standardized approach for operational risk capital. Under the Basel framework, these standards will generally be effective on January 1, 2022, with an aggregate output floor phasing in through January 1, 2027. Under the current U.S. Capital Rules, operational risk capital requirements and a capital floor apply only to

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advanced approaches institutions, and not to the Company or the Bank. The impact of Basel IV on the Company and the Bank will depend on the manner in which it is implemented by the federal bank regulators.

In December 2018, federal bank regulators issued a final rule that would provide an optional three-year phase-in period for the day-one regulatory capital effects of the adoption of the current expected credit losses (“CECL”) Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2016-13, Financial Instruments – Credit Losses (Topic 326), Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments. See “Note 1. Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” in the notes to the consolidated financial statements included in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data for additional information about CECL.

Prompt Corrective Action Framework

The FDIA requires the federal bank regulators to take prompt corrective action in respect of depository institutions that fail to meet specified capital requirements. The FDIA establishes five capital categories (“well-capitalized”, “adequately capitalized”, “undercapitalized”, “significantly undercapitalized” and “critically undercapitalized”), and the federal bank regulators are required to take certain mandatory supervisory actions, and are authorized to take other discretionary actions, with respect to institutions that are undercapitalized, significantly undercapitalized or critically undercapitalized. The severity of these mandatory and discretionary supervisory actions depends upon the capital category in which the institution is placed.

Currently, an insured depository institution generally will be classified in the following categories based on the capital measures indicated:

“Well capitalized”

“Adequately capitalized”

Total capital ratio of at least 10.0%,

Total capital ratio of at least 8.0%,

CET1 capital ratio of at least 6.5%,

CET1 capital ratio of at least 4.5%,

Tier 1 capital ratio of at least 8.0%,

Tier 1 capital ratio of at least 6.0%, and

Tier 1 leverage ratio of at least 5.0%, and

Tier 1 leverage ratio of at least 4.0%.

Not subject to any order or written directive requiring a specific capital level.

“Undercapitalized”

“Significantly undercapitalized”

Total capital ratio of less than 8.0%,

Total capital ratio of less than 6.0%,

CET1 capital ratio of less than 4.5%,

CET1 capital ratio of less than 3.0%,

Tier 1 capital ratio of less than 6.0%, or

Tier 1 capital ratio of less than 4.0%, or

Tier 1 leverage ratio of less than 4.0%.

Tier 1 leverage ratio of less than 3.0%.

“Critically undercapitalized”

Tangible equity to average quarterly tangible assets of 2.0% or less.

An institution may be downgraded to, or deemed to be in, a capital category that is lower than indicated by its capital ratios if it is determined to be in an unsafe or unsound condition or if it receives an unsatisfactory examination rating with respect to certain matters. A bank’s capital category is determined solely for the purpose of applying prompt corrective action regulations, and the capital category may not constitute an accurate representation of the bank’s overall financial condition or prospects for other purposes.

As of December 31, 2019, the Bank was well-capitalized with both a CET1 capital ratio and a Tier 1 capital ratio of 11.72%, total capital ratio of 12.65% and Tier 1 leverage ratio of 8.67%, in each case calculated under the Capital Rules. Although the prompt corrective action provisions apply only to depository institutions and not to bank holding companies, if the provisions applied to bank holding companies, the Company would be well-capitalized. As of December 31, 2019, the Company’s CET1 capital ratio and Tier 1 capital ratio was 11.88%, its total capital ratio was 12.81%, and its Tier 1 leverage ratio was 8.79%, in each case calculated under the Capital Rules. For more information on the Company’s and the Bank’s capital ratios, see “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition — Capital” and “Note 13. Regulatory Capital Requirements” in the notes to the consolidated financial statements included in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.

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An institution that is categorized as undercapitalized, significantly undercapitalized or critically undercapitalized is required to submit an acceptable capital restoration plan to its appropriate federal bank regulator. Under the FDIA, in order for the capital restoration plan to be accepted by the appropriate federal banking agency, a bank holding company must guarantee that a subsidiary depository institution will comply with its capital restoration plan, subject to certain limitations. The bank holding company must also provide appropriate assurances of performance. The obligation of a controlling bank holding company under the FDIA to fund a capital restoration plan is limited to the lesser of 5% of an undercapitalized subsidiary’s assets or the amount required to meet regulatory capital requirements. An undercapitalized institution is also generally prohibited from increasing its average total assets, making acquisitions, establishing any branches or engaging in any new line of business, except in accordance with an accepted capital restoration plan or with the approval of the FDIC. Institutions are also generally prohibited from making any capital distributions (including payment of a dividend) or paying any management fee to its parent holding company if the institution is or would thereafter become undercapitalized. Institutions that are undercapitalized or significantly undercapitalized and either fail to submit an acceptable capital restoration plan or fail to implement an approved capital restoration plan may be subject to a number of requirements and restrictions, including orders to sell sufficient voting stock to become adequately capitalized, orders to elect new boards of directors, requirements to reduce total assets and cessation of receipt of deposits from correspondent banks. Critically undercapitalized institutions are generally subject to appointment of a receiver or conservator.

In addition, the FDIA prohibits insured depository institutions from accepting brokered deposits or offering interest rates on any deposits significantly higher than the prevailing rate in the bank’s normal market area or nationally (depending upon where the deposits are solicited), unless it is well capitalized or is adequately capitalized and receives a waiver from the FDIC. A depository institution that is adequately capitalized and that accepts brokered deposits under a waiver from the FDIC may not pay an interest rate on any deposit in excess of 75 basis points over certain prevailing market rates. The FDIA imposes no such restrictions on a bank that is well capitalized.

Safety and Soundness Standards

The FDIA requires the federal bank regulators to prescribe standards, by regulations or guidelines, relating to internal controls, information systems and internal audit systems, loan documentation, credit underwriting, interest rate risk exposure, asset growth, asset quality, earnings, stock valuation and compensation, fees and benefits, and such other operational and managerial standards as the agencies deem appropriate. Guidelines adopted by the federal bank regulatory agencies establish general standards relating to internal controls and information systems, internal audit systems, loan documentation, credit underwriting, interest rate exposure, asset growth and compensation, fees and benefits. In general, these guidelines require, among other things, appropriate systems and practices to identify and manage the risk and exposures specified in the guidelines. These guidelines also prohibit excessive compensation as an unsafe and unsound practice and describe compensation as excessive when the amounts paid are unreasonable or disproportionate to the services performed by an executive officer, employee, director or principal stockholder. In addition, the agencies adopted regulations that authorize, but do not require, an agency to order an institution that has been given notice by an agency that it is not satisfying any of such safety and soundness standards to submit a compliance plan. If, after being so notified, an institution fails to submit an acceptable compliance plan or fails in any material respect to implement an acceptable compliance plan, the bank regulator must issue an order directing action to correct the deficiency and may issue an order directing other actions of the types to which an undercapitalized institution may be subject under the FDIA. See “— Prompt Corrective Action Framework” above. If an institution fails to comply with such an order, the bank regulator may seek to enforce such order in judicial proceedings and to impose civil money penalties.

Deposit Insurance

FDIC Insurance Assessments. As an FDIC-insured bank, FHB must pay deposit insurance assessments to the FDIC based on its average total assets minus its average tangible equity. For institutions with $10 billion or more in assets, such as FHB, the FDIC uses a performance score and a loss-severity score that are used to calculate an initial assessment rate. In calculating these scores, the FDIC uses a bank’s capital level and supervisory ratings and certain financial measures to assess an institution’s ability to withstand asset-related stress and funding-related stress. The FDIC also has the ability to make discretionary adjustments to the total score based upon significant risk factors that are not adequately captured in the calculations. In addition to ordinary assessments described above, the FDIC has the ability to impose special assessments in certain instances.

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Under the FDIA, the FDIC may terminate deposit insurance upon a finding that the institution has engaged in unsafe and unsound practices, is in an unsafe or unsound condition to continue operations, or has violated any applicable law, regulation, rule, order or condition imposed by the FDIC. In addition, the FDIC is authorized to conduct examinations of and require reporting by FDIC-insured institutions.

The Volcker Rule

The Dodd-Frank Act and the implementing regulations of the federal regulators generally prohibit banks and their affiliates from engaging in proprietary trading and investing in and sponsoring hedge funds and private equity funds (the “Volcker Rule”). The Volcker Rule has not had a material effect on the Company’s operations, as the Company does not have any significant engagement in the businesses prohibited by the Volcker Rule. The Company has incurred costs to adopt additional policies and systems to ensure compliance with the Volcker Rule, but such costs have not been material.

In October 2019, the Federal Reserve, Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, FDIC, Commodity Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”) and SEC finalized rules to tailor the application of the Volcker Rule based on the size and scope of a banking entity’s trading activities and to clarify and amend certain definitions, requirements and exemptions. In January 2020, the Federal Reserve, Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, FDIC, CFTC and SEC issued a proposal intended to clarify and amend certain definitions, requirements and exemptions with respect to covered funds. The ultimate impact of any amendments to the Volcker Rule regulations will depend on, among other things, further rulemaking and implementation guidance from the relevant U.S. federal regulatory agencies and the development of market practices and standards.

Depositor Preference

Under federal law, depositors (including the FDIC with respect to the subrogated claims of insured depositors) and certain claims for administrative expenses of the FDIC as receiver would be afforded a priority over other general unsecured claims against such an institution in the “liquidation or other resolution” of such an institution by any receiver.

Consumer Financial Protection

The Company is subject to a number of federal and state consumer protection laws that extensively govern the Company’s relationship with its customers. These laws include, but are not limited to, the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, the Fair Credit Reporting Act, the Truth in Lending Act, the Truth in Savings Act, the Electronic Fund Transfer Act, the Expedited Funds Availability Act, the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, the Fair Housing Act, the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act, the Service Members Civil Relief Act and these laws’ respective state-law counterparts, as well as state usury laws and laws regarding unfair and deceptive acts and practices. These and other federal and state laws require, among other things, disclosures of the cost of credit and terms of deposit accounts, provide substantive consumer rights, prohibit discrimination in credit transactions, regulate the use of credit report information, provide financial privacy protections, prohibit unfair, deceptive and abusive practices and subject the Company to substantial regulatory oversight. Violations of applicable consumer protection laws can result in significant potential liability from litigation brought by customers, including actual damages, restitution and attorneys’ fees. Federal bank regulators, state attorneys general and state and local consumer protection agencies may also seek to enforce consumer protection requirements and obtain these and other remedies, including regulatory sanctions, customer rescission rights, action by the state and local attorneys general in each jurisdiction in which the Company operates and civil money penalties. Failure to comply with consumer protection requirements may also result in the failure to obtain any required bank regulatory approval for merger or acquisition transactions the Company may wish to pursue or the Company’s prohibition from engaging in such transactions even if approval is not required.

The CFPB is a federal agency with broad rulemaking, supervisory and enforcement powers under federal consumer financial protection laws. The CFPB is also authorized to engage in consumer financial education, track consumer complaints, request data and promote the availability of financial services to underserved consumers and communities. The CFPB has examination and enforcement authority over banks with assets of $10 billion or more, as well as their affiliates.

The CFPB has finalized a number of significant rules which impact nearly every aspect of the lifecycle of a residential mortgage loan. These rules implement the Dodd-Frank Act amendments to the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, the Truth in Lending Act and the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act. Among other things, the rules adopted by the

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CFPB require banks to: (i) develop and implement procedures to ensure compliance with a “reasonable ability to repay” test and identify whether a loan meets a new definition for a “qualified mortgage”, in which case a rebuttable presumption exists that the creditor extending the loan has satisfied the reasonable ability to repay test; (ii) implement new or revised disclosures, policies and procedures for originating and servicing mortgages including, but not limited to, integrated loans estimate and closing disclosures, pre-loan counseling, early intervention with delinquent borrowers and specific loss mitigation procedures for loans secured by a borrower’s principal residence; (iii) comply with additional restrictions on mortgage loan originator hiring and compensation; (iv) comply with new disclosure requirements and standards for appraisals and certain financial products; and (v) maintain escrow accounts for higher-priced mortgage loans for a longer period of time. The Company is continuing to analyze the impact that such rules may have on its business.

The CFPB has broad supervisory, examination and enforcement authority over various consumer financial products and services, including the ability to require reimbursements and other payments to customers for alleged legal violations and to impose significant penalties, as well as injunctive relief that prohibits lenders from engaging in allegedly unlawful practices. The CFPB also has the authority to obtain cease and desist orders providing for affirmative relief or monetary penalties. The Dodd-Frank Act does not prevent states from adopting stricter consumer protection standards. State regulation of financial products and potential enforcement actions could also adversely affect the Company’s business, financial condition or results of operations.

Community Reinvestment Act of 1977

Under the CRA, the Bank has an obligation, consistent with safe and sound operations, to help meet the credit needs of the market areas where it operates, which include low- and moderate-income individuals and communities. In connection with its examination of the Bank, the FDIC is required to assess the Bank’s CRA performance in the areas of lending, investments and services. FHB’s CRA performance could, among other things, result in the denial or delay in certain corporate applications filed by the Parent or the Bank, including applications for branch openings or relocations and applications to acquire, merge or consolidate with another banking institution or holding company. FHB received a rating of “Outstanding” in its most recently completed CRA examination.

In December 2019, the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency and the FDIC issued a notice of proposed rulemaking intended to (i) clarify which activities qualify for CRA credit; (ii) update where activities count for CRA credit; (iii) create a more transparent and objective method for measuring CRA performance; and (iv) provide for more transparent, consistent, and timely CRA-related data collection, recordkeeping, and reporting. We will continue to evaluate the impact of any changes to the regulations implementing the CRA.

Financial Privacy and Cybersecurity

The federal bank regulators have adopted rules limiting the ability of banks and other financial institutions to disclose non-public information about consumers to unaffiliated third parties. These limitations require disclosure of privacy policies to consumers and, in some circumstances, allow consumers to prevent disclosure of certain personal information to an unaffiliated third party. These regulations affect how consumer information is transmitted through diversified financial companies and conveyed to outside vendors. In addition, consumers may also prevent disclosure of certain information among affiliated companies that is assembled or used to determine eligibility for a product or service, such as that shown on consumer credit reports and asset and income information from applications. Consumers also have the option to direct banks and other financial institutions not to share information about transactions and experiences with affiliated companies for the purpose of marketing products or services.

Federal banking regulators regularly issue guidance regarding cybersecurity intended to enhance cyber risk management standards among financial institutions. A financial institution is expected to establish multiple lines of defense and to ensure their risk management processes address the risk posed by potential threats to the institution. A financial institution’s management is expected to maintain sufficient processes to effectively respond and recover the institution’s operations after a cyberattack. A financial institution is also expected to develop appropriate processes to enable recovery of data and business operations if a critical service provider of the institution falls victim to this type of cyberattack. The Bank has adopted an information security program that has been approved by its board of directors and reviewed by its regulators.

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State regulators have also been increasingly active in implementing privacy and cybersecurity standards and regulations. Recently, several states have adopted regulations requiring certain financial institutions to implement cybersecurity programs and providing detailed requirements with respect to these programs, including data encryption requirements. Many states have also recently implemented or modified their data breach notification and data privacy requirements. For example, the California Consumer Privacy Act became effective on January 1, 2020. We expect this trend of state-level activity in those areas to continue and are continually monitoring developments in the states in which our customers are located.

Anti-Money Laundering and the USA PATRIOT ACT

A major focus of governmental policy on financial institutions in recent years has been aimed at combating money laundering and terrorist financing. Anti-money laundering laws impose compliance and due diligence obligations, and financial institutions must take certain steps to assist government agencies in detecting and preventing money laundering and report certain types of suspicious transactions. Financial institutions are also prohibited from entering into specified financial transactions and account relationships and must use enhanced due diligence procedures in their dealings with certain types of high-risk customers and implement a written customer identification program. Regulatory authorities routinely examine financial institutions for compliance with these requirements, and failure of a financial institution to maintain and implement adequate programs to combat money laundering and terrorist financing, or to comply with all of the relevant laws or regulations, could have serious financial, legal and reputational consequences for the institution, including the imposition of civil money penalties or causing applicable bank regulatory authorities not to approve merger or acquisition transactions when regulatory approval is required or to prohibit such transactions even if approval is not required. Regulatory authorities have imposed cease and desist orders and civil money penalties against institutions found to be violating these requirements.

Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”) Regulation

The U.S. Treasury Department’s OFAC administers and enforces economic and trade sanctions against targeted foreign countries and regimes, under authority of various laws, including designated foreign countries, nationals and others. OFAC publishes lists of specially designated targets and countries. The Company and the Bank are responsible for, among other things, blocking accounts of, and transactions with, such targets and countries, prohibiting unlicensed trade and financial transactions with them and reporting blocked transactions after their occurrence. Failure to comply with these sanctions could have serious financial, legal and reputational consequences, including causing applicable bank regulatory authorities not to approve merger or acquisition transactions when regulatory approval is required or to prohibit such transactions even if approval is not required. Regulatory authorities have imposed cease and desist orders and civil money penalties against institutions found to be violating these sanctions.

Incentive Compensation

The Federal Reserve will review, as part of the regular, risk-focused examination process, the incentive compensation arrangements of banking organizations, such as the Company, that are not “large, complex banking organizations.” These reviews will be tailored to each organization based on the scope and complexity of the organization’s activities and the prevalence of incentive compensation arrangements. The findings of the supervisory initiatives will be included in reports of examination. Deficiencies will be incorporated into the organization’s supervisory ratings, which can affect the organization’s ability to make acquisitions and take other actions. Enforcement actions may be taken against a banking organization if its incentive compensation arrangements, or related risk management control or governance processes, pose a risk to the organization’s safety and soundness and the organization is not taking prompt and effective measures to correct the deficiencies.

In June 2010, the Federal Reserve and FDIC issued comprehensive final guidance on incentive compensation policies intended to ensure that the incentive compensation policies of banking organizations do not undermine the safety and soundness of such organizations by encouraging excessive risk-taking. The guidance, which covers all employees that have the ability to materially affect the risk profile of an organization, either individually or as part of a group, is based upon the key principles that a banking organization’s incentive compensation arrangements should (i) provide incentives that appropriately balance risk and financial results in a manner that does not encourage employees to expose their organizations to imprudent risk, (ii) be compatible with effective internal controls and risk management and (iii) be supported by strong corporate governance, including active and effective oversight by the organization’s board of directors.

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These three principles are incorporated into the proposed joint compensation regulations under the Dodd-Frank Act, discussed above.

The Dodd-Frank Act requires the U.S. financial regulators, including the Federal Reserve and the FDIC, to adopt rules on incentive-based payment arrangements at specified regulated entities having at least $1 billion in total assets (including the Company and the Bank). The U.S. financial regulators proposed revised rules in 2016, which have not been finalized.

Future Legislation and Regulation

Congress may enact, modify or repeal legislation from time to time that affects the regulation of the financial services industry, and state legislatures may enact, modify or repeal legislation from time to time affecting the regulation of financial institutions chartered by or operating in those states. Federal and state regulatory agencies also periodically propose and adopt changes to their regulations or change the manner in which existing regulations are applied. The substance or impact of pending or future legislation or regulation, or the application thereof, cannot be predicted, although enactment of proposed legislation, or modification or repeal of existing legislation, could impact the regulatory structure under which the Company operates and may significantly increase its costs, impede the efficiency of its internal business processes, require the Company to increase its regulatory capital and modify its business strategy, and limit its ability to pursue business opportunities in an efficient manner. The Company’s business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects may be adversely affected, perhaps materially, as a result.

Securities Exchange Act Reports and Additional Information

Our annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and all amendments to those reports can be found free of charge on our website at www.fhb.com, under Investor Relations, as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed with or furnished to the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). These reports are also available free of charge on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov.

Information on our Investor Relations website, our main website and other websites referred to in this report is not incorporated by reference into this report or any other report filed with or furnished to the SEC. We have included such website addresses only as inactive textual references and do not intend them to be active links.

ITEM 1A.  RISK FACTORS

Ownership of our common stock involves a significant degree of risk and uncertainty. The material risks and uncertainties that management believes affect us are described below. Any of the following risks, as well as risks that we do not know or currently deem immaterial, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. To the extent that any of the information in this Form 10-K constitutes forward-looking statements, the risk factors below are cautionary statements identifying important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed in any forward-looking statements made by us or on our behalf. See “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”

Risks Related to Our Business

Geographic concentration in our existing markets may unfavorably impact our operations.

A substantial majority of our business is with customers located within Hawaii. Our operations are heavily concentrated in Hawaii, as well as in Guam and Saipan. As a result of this geographic concentration, our results depend largely on economic conditions in these and surrounding areas. As discussed below, deterioration in economic conditions in Hawaii, Guam and Saipan would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

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Our business may be adversely affected by conditions in the financial markets and economic conditions generally and in Hawaii, Guam and Saipan in particular.

We provide banking and financial services to customers primarily in Hawaii, Guam and Saipan. Our financial performance generally, and the ability of our borrowers to pay interest on and repay principal of outstanding loans and the value of collateral securing those loans in particular, as well as demand for loans and other products and services we offer, is highly dependent upon the business environment in the markets in which we operate. Economic conditions in our markets depend mainly on tourism, U.S. military and defense products and services, real estate, government and other service-based industries. In addition, Hawaii’s economy depends significantly on conditions of the U.S. economy and key international economies, particularly Japan. While the U.S. economy grew at a solid pace in 2019, the growth rate slowed compared to 2018, and Japanese economic growth slowed down in the second half of 2019, with fourth quarter GDP contracting at a rate of approximately 6.3% on an annualized basis. Declines in the economic conditions in these markets,  tourism, fluctuations in the strength of currencies such as the U.S. dollar and the Japanese yen, the inability of the Hawaii economy to absorb continuing construction expansion, continued higher levels of underemployment compared to pre-recession levels, increases in energy costs, the availability of affordable air transportation, pandemics or other widespread health emergency (or concerns over the possibility of such an emergency) (including coronavirus (COVID-19)), real or threatened acts of war or terrorism, adverse weather, natural disasters and local or national budget issues, among other factors, may impact consumer and corporate spending. As a result, these events may contribute to a deterioration in Hawaii’s general economic condition, which, as a result of our geographic concentration, could adversely impact us and our borrowers.

Commercial lending represents approximately 52% of our total loan and lease portfolio as of December 31, 2019, and we generally make loans to small to mid-sized businesses whose success depends on the regional economy. These businesses generally have fewer financial resources in terms of capital or borrowing capacity than larger entities and may expose us to greater credit risks. We also engage in mortgage lending and automobile financing, as well as other forms of consumer lending. Adverse economic and business conditions in our market areas could reduce our growth rate, affect our borrowers’ ability to repay their loans or the value of the collateral underlying their loans and, consequently, adversely affect our financial condition and performance.

The U.S. military has a major presence in Hawaii and Guam and, as a result, is an important aspect of the economies in which we operate. The funding of the U.S. military occurs as part of the overall U.S. government budget and appropriation process which is driven by numerous factors, including geo-political events, macroeconomic conditions and the ability of the U.S. government to enact legislation such as appropriations bills. There have been lower levels of federal government expenditures in Hawaii since the budget sequestration took effect in March 2013. Further cuts in defense and other security spending could have an adverse impact on the economy in our markets. While the current U.S. presidential administration has, to this point, favored an increase in military spending, it remains unclear whether any increase would match or exceed pre-sequester funding levels, or whether military spending will be impacted by the political elections in the United States in November 2020 or the resulting administration.

Other economic conditions that affect our financial performance include short-term and long-term interest rates, the prevailing yield curve, inflation and price levels (particularly for real estate), monetary policy, unemployment and the strength of the domestic economy as a whole. Unfavorable market conditions can result in a deterioration in the credit quality of our borrowers and the demand for our products and services, an increase in the number of loan delinquencies, defaults and charge-offs, additional provisions for loan losses, adverse asset values and an overall material adverse effect on the quality of our loan portfolio. Unfavorable or uncertain economic and market conditions can be caused by declines in economic growth, business activity or investor or business confidence, limitations on the availability or increases in the cost of credit and capital, increases in inflation or interest rates, high unemployment, natural disasters or a combination of these or other factors.

Our business is significantly dependent on the real estate markets in which we operate, as a significant percentage of our loan portfolio is secured by real estate.

As of December 31, 2019, our real estate loans represented approximately $8.6 billion, or 65% of our total loan and lease portfolio. Our real estate loans consist primarily of residential loans including home equity loans (representing 35% of our total loan and lease portfolio) and commercial and construction loans (representing 30% of our total loan and lease portfolio), with the significant majority of these loans concentrated in Hawaii. Real property values in Hawaii may be affected by a variety of factors outside of our control and the control of our borrowers, including national and local

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economic conditions generally. Declines in real property prices, including prices for homes and commercial properties, in Hawaii, Guam or Saipan could result in a deterioration of the credit quality of our borrowers, an increase in the number of loan delinquencies, defaults and charge-offs, and reduced demand for our products and services generally.

As of December 31, 2019, our commercial and industrial loans represented approximately $2.7 billion or 21% of our total loan and lease portfolio. Commercial and industrial loans may have a greater risk of loss than residential mortgage loans, in part because these loans are generally larger or more complex to underwrite and are characterized by having a limited supply of real estate at commercially attractive locations, long delivery time frames for development and high interest rate sensitivity. As payments on loans secured by commercial real estate often depend upon the successful operation and management of the properties and the businesses which operate from within them, repayment of such loans may be affected by factors outside the borrower’s control, such as adverse conditions in the real estate market or the economy or changes in government regulation. In recent years, commercial real estate markets have been experiencing substantial growth, and increased competitive pressures have contributed significantly to historically low capitalization rates and rising property values. Commercial real estate prices, according to many U.S. commercial real estate indices, are currently above the 2007 peak levels that contributed to the financial crisis. Our failure to adequately implement risk management policies, procedures and controls could adversely affect our ability to increase this portfolio going forward and could result in an increased rate of delinquencies in, and increased losses from, this portfolio.

In addition, nearly all residential mortgage loans and home equity lines of credit and loans outstanding are for residences located in Hawaii, Guam or Saipan. These island locales are susceptible to a wide array of potential natural disasters including, but not limited to, hurricanes, floods, earthquakes and tsunamis, like the October 2018 super typhoon that struck Saipan causing material damage to the island. Finally, declines in real property values in the areas in which we operate, particularly Hawaii, could reduce the value of any collateral we realize following a default on these loans and could adversely affect our ability to continue to grow our loan portfolio consistent with our underwriting standards. Our failure to mitigate these risks effectively could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Concentrated exposures to certain asset classes and individual obligors may unfavorably impact our operations.

We have naturally developed concentrated exposures to those asset classes and industries in which we have specific knowledge or competency, such as commercial real estate lending and dealer financing, which represented 30% and 8% of our total loans, respectively, as of December 31, 2019. In management’s judgment, our extensive experience within these concentration areas, and our strategic relationships within such areas, allows us to better evaluate the associated risks and price credit accordingly. However, the presence of similar exposures concentrated in certain asset classes leaves us exposed to the risk of a focused downturn or increased competitive pressures within a concentration area. Additionally, we have cultivated relationships with market leaders that result in relatively larger exposures to select single obligors than would be typical for an institution of our size in a larger operating market. For example, our top five dealer relationships represented approximately 34% of our outstanding dealer flooring commitments as of December 31, 2019. The failure to properly anticipate and address risks associated with these concentrated exposures could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Our business is subject to interest rate risk and fluctuations in interest rates may adversely affect our earnings.

Fluctuations in interest rates may negatively impact our banking business and may weaken demand for some of our products. Our earnings and cash flows are largely dependent on net interest income, which is the difference between the interest income we receive from interest-earning assets (e.g., loans and investment securities) and the interest expense we pay on interest-bearing liabilities (e.g., deposits and borrowings). The level of net interest income is primarily a function of the average balance of interest-earning assets, the average balance of interest-bearing liabilities and the spread between the yield on such assets and the cost of such liabilities. These factors are influenced by both the pricing and mix of interest-earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities. Interest rates are volatile and highly sensitive to many factors that are beyond our control, such as economic conditions and policies of various governmental and regulatory agencies, and, in particular the monetary policy of the Federal Open Market Committee of the Federal Reserve System (the “FOMC”). In recent years, it has been the policy of the FOMC and the U.S. Treasury Department to maintain interest rates at historically low levels through a targeted federal funds rate and the purchase of U.S. Treasury and mortgage-backed securities. Consequently, the average yield on our interest-earning assets has decreased during the current low interest rate environment. If a low interest rate environment persists, our net interest income may further decrease. This would be the

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case because our ability to lower our interest expense has been limited at these interest rate levels, while the average yield on our interest-earning assets has continued to decrease.

During 2019, the FOMC lowered short-term interest rates by 25 basis points three times. Though the FOMC noted in 2020 that although household spending has been rising at a moderate pace, business fixed investment and exports remains weak and longer-term inflation expectations remain unchanged. In the event that interest rates continue to decrease, our net interest income could be adversely affected. If our net interest income decreases, this could have an adverse effect on our profitability and the value of our investments.

Changes in monetary policy, including changes in interest rates, could influence not only the interest we receive on loans and securities and the amount of interest we pay on deposits and borrowings, but also our ability to originate loans and deposits. Changes in interest rates also have a significant impact on the carrying value of certain assets, including loans, real estate and investment securities, on our balance sheet. We may incur debt in the future, and that debt may also be sensitive to interest rates.

The cost of our deposits is largely based on short-term interest rates, the level of which is driven primarily by the FOMC’s actions. However, the yields generated by our loans and securities are often difficult to re-price and are typically driven by longer-term interest rates, which are set by the market or, at times, the FOMC’s actions, and vary over time. The level of net interest income is therefore influenced by movements in such interest rates and the pace at which such movements occur. If the interest rates paid on our deposits and other borrowings increase at a faster pace than the interest rates on our loans and other investments, our net interest income may decline and, with it, a decline in our earnings may occur. Our net interest income and earnings would be similarly affected if the interest rates on our interest-earning assets declined at a faster pace than the interest rates on our deposits and other borrowings. Any substantial, unexpected, prolonged change in market interest rates could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Changes in interest rates can also affect the level of loan refinancing activity, which impacts the amount of prepayment penalty income we receive on loans we hold. Because prepayment penalties are recorded as interest income when received, the extent to which they increase or decrease during any given period could have a significant impact on the level of net interest income and net income we generate during that time. A decrease in our prepayment penalty income resulting from any change in interest rates or as a result of regulatory limitations on our ability to charge prepayment penalties could therefore adversely affect our net interest income, net income or results of operations.

Changes in interest rates can also affect the slope of the yield curve. A flatter or inverted yield curve could cause our net interest income and net interest margin to contract, which could have a material adverse effect on our net income and cash flows, as well as the value of our assets. An inverted yield curve may also adversely affect the yield on investment securities by increasing the prepayment risk of any securities purchased at a premium.

As of December 31, 2019, we had $5.9 billion of noninterest-bearing demand deposits and $10.6 billion of interest-bearing deposits. Since 2011, depository institutions have not been prohibited from paying interest on demand deposits, such as checking accounts. The impact of the change on us has not been significant because of current market conditions, which have resulted in very low interest rates for checking accounts. If market conditions were to change, including as a result of monetary policy or the competitive environment, and we need to offer higher interest rates on checking accounts to maintain current clients or attract new clients, our interest expense will increase, perhaps materially. Furthermore, if we fail to offer interest in a sufficient amount to keep these demand deposits, our core deposits may be reduced, which would require us to obtain funding in other ways or risk slowing our future asset growth.

Certain of our businesses, our funding and financial products may be adversely affected by changes or the discontinuance of LIBOR.

Our floating-rate funding, certain hedging transactions and certain of the products that we offer, such as floating-rate loans and mortgages, determine the applicable interest rate or payment amount by reference to a benchmark rate, such as the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”), or to an index, currency, basket or other financial metric. LIBOR and certain other benchmark rates are the subject of recent national, international, and other regulatory guidance and proposals for reform. On July 27, 2017, the United Kingdom’s Financial Conduct Authority, which regulates LIBOR, announced that after December 31, 2021 it would no longer compel banks to submit the rates required to calculate LIBOR. After

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2021, there also is uncertainty about the continued availability of LIBOR. If LIBOR ceases to exist or the methodology for the LIBOR calculation changes, financial products with interest rates tied to LIBOR may be adversely affected.

After 2021, if LIBOR remains available it may no longer be considered to be an acceptable market benchmark. There is also uncertainty regarding the development of acceptable alternatives to LIBOR and the effect of any such changes may have on the pricing for LIBOR-indexed financial instruments. We have loans, derivative contracts, and other financial instruments with rates that are either directly or indirectly tied to LIBOR and the interest rates on these instruments, as well as the associated revenue and expenses, may be adversely affected. Failing to adequately manage this transition process with our customers could also adversely impact our reputation.

Regulators, industry groups and certain committees (e.g., the Alternative Reference Rates Committee) have, among other things, published recommended fallback language for LIBOR-linked financial instruments, identified recommended alternatives for certain LIBOR rates (e.g., the Secured Overnight Financing Rate as the recommended alternative to U.S. Dollar LIBOR), and proposed implementations of the recommended alternatives in floating rate instruments. At this time, it is not possible to predict whether these recommendations and proposals will be broadly accepted, whether they will continue to evolve, and what the effect of their implementation may be on the markets for floating-rate financial instruments.

The discontinuation of LIBOR, changes in LIBOR or changes in market perceptions of the acceptability of LIBOR as a benchmark could result in other changes to our risk exposures (for example, if the anticipated discontinuation of LIBOR adversely affects the availability or cost of floating-rate funding and, therefore, our exposure to fluctuations in interest rates) or otherwise result in losses on a product or having to pay more or receive less on securities that we own or have issued. In addition, such uncertainty could result in pricing volatility, loss of market share in certain products, adverse tax or accounting impacts, and compliance, legal and operational costs and risks associated with client disclosures, discretionary actions taken or negotiation of fallback provisions, systems disruption and business continuity.

Our business, profitability and liquidity may be adversely affected by deterioration in the credit quality of, or defaults by, third parties who owe us money, securities or other assets or whose securities or obligations we hold.

A number of our products expose us to credit risk. We are exposed to the risk that third parties that owe us money, securities or other assets will not perform their obligations. These parties may default on their obligations to us due to bankruptcy, lack of liquidity, operational failure or other reasons. A failure of a significant market participant, or even concerns about a default by such an institution, could lead to significant liquidity problems, losses or defaults by other institutions, which in turn could adversely affect us.

We are also subject to the risk that our rights against third parties may not be enforceable in all circumstances or that there is a deterioration in the credit quality of third parties whose securities or obligations we hold, including a deterioration in the value of collateral posted by third parties to secure their obligations to us under derivatives contracts and loan agreements. A deterioration in credit quality of such obligors, could result in losses and/or adversely affect our ability to rehypothecate or otherwise use those securities or obligations for liquidity purposes.

We might underestimate the credit losses inherent in our loan and lease portfolio and have credit losses in excess of the amount we reserve for loan and lease losses.

Because the credit quality of our loan and lease portfolio can have a significant impact on our earnings, the operation of our business requires us to manage credit risk. As a lender, we are exposed to the risk that our borrowers will be unable to repay their loans according to their terms, and that the collateral securing repayment of the loans we extend, if any, may not be sufficient to ensure repayment. In addition, there are risks inherent in making any loan, including risks with respect to the period of time over which the loan may be repaid, risks relating to proper loan underwriting, risks resulting from changes in economic and industry conditions and risks inherent in dealing with individual borrowers, including the risk that a borrower may not provide information to us about its business in a timely manner and/or may present inaccurate or incomplete information to us, and risks relating to the value of collateral.

We maintain an allowance for loan and lease losses (the “Allowance”), which is a reserve established through a provision for loan and lease losses (the “Provision”) charged to expense representing, beginning with the first quarter of 2020, management’s best estimate of inherent losses within our existing portfolio of loans and leases. The level of the Allowance reflects management’s continuing evaluation of specific credit risks, the quality of the loan and lease portfolio,

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the value of the underlying collateral, the level of non-accruing loans and leases, the unidentified losses inherent in the current loan and lease portfolio, and economic, political and regulatory conditions.

For our commercial loans, we perform an internal loan review and grade loans on an ongoing basis, and we estimate and establish reserves for credit risks and credit losses inherent in our credit exposure (including unfunded lending commitments). The objective of our loan review and grading procedures is to identify existing or emerging credit quality problems so that appropriate steps can be initiated to avoid or minimize future losses. This process, which is critical to our financial results and condition, requires difficult, subjective and complex judgments of loan collectability. As is the case with any such assessments, there is always the chance that we will fail to identify the proper factors or that we will fail to accurately estimate the impacts of factors that we do identify.

Although our management has established an Allowance it believes is adequate, we could sustain credit losses that are significantly higher than the amount of our Allowance. Higher credit losses could arise for a variety of reasons, such as growth in our loan and lease portfolio, changes in economic conditions affecting borrowers, new information regarding our loans and leases and other factors within and outside our control. If real estate values were to decline or if economic conditions in our markets were to deteriorate unexpectedly, additional loan and lease losses not incorporated in the existing Allowance might occur. Losses in excess of the existing Allowance will reduce our net income and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. A severe downturn in the economy generally, in our markets specifically or affecting the business and assets of individual customers would generate increased charge-offs and a need for higher reserves. While we believe that our Allowance for credit losses was adequate as of December 31, 2019, there is no assurance that it will be sufficient to cover all incurred credit losses. In the event of significant deterioration in economic conditions, we may be required to increase reserves in future periods, which would reduce our earnings.

Bank regulatory agencies will periodically review our Allowance and the value attributed to non-accrual loans and leases or to real estate we acquire through foreclosure. Such regulatory agencies may require us to adjust our determination of the value for these items, increase our Allowance or reduce the carrying value of owned real estate, reducing our net income. Further, if charge-offs in future periods exceed the Allowance, we may need additional adjustments to increase the Allowance. These adjustments could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

In addition, in June 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (the “FASB”) issued ASU No. 2016-13 that, effective January 1, 2020, substantially changes the accounting for credit losses on loans and other financial assets held by banks, financial institutions and other organizations. In December 2018, the Federal Reserve, OCC and FDIC finalized revisions to their regulatory capital rules to address this change to the treatment of credit expense and allowances and provide an optional three-year phase-in period for the day-one adverse regulatory capital effects upon adopting the standard to address concerns with the impact on capital and capital planning. As a result of changing from an “incurred loss” model, which encompasses allowances for current known and inherent losses within the portfolio, to an “expected loss” model, which encompasses allowances for losses expected to be incurred over the life of the portfolio, the standard is expected to increase the level of our Allowance for Credit Losses (“ACL”) effective January 1, 2020. Based on the Company’s portfolio balances and forecasted economic conditions as of January 1, 2020, management believes that the adoption of the new standard will result in an increase in the ACL of approximately 10 – 15%, as compared to the Company’s reserve levels as of December 31, 2019. It is also possible that the Company’s ongoing reported earnings and lending activity will be negatively impacted in periods following adoption as ASU No. 2016-13 will necessitate that we establish an allowance for expected credit losses for certain debt securities and other financial assets. See “Note 1. Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” in the notes to the consolidated financial statements included in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.

Our ability to maintain, attract and retain customer relationships is highly dependent on our reputation.

As the parent company of Hawaii’s oldest and largest bank, we rely in part on the reputation of our bank for superior financial services to retain our customer relationships. Damage to our reputation could undermine the confidence of our current and potential customers in our ability to provide high-quality financial services. Such damage could also impair the confidence of our counterparties and vendors and ultimately affect our ability to effect transactions. Maintenance of our reputation depends not only on our success in maintaining our service-focused culture and controlling and mitigating the various risks described in this Form 10-K, but also on our success in identifying and appropriately addressing issues that may arise in areas such as potential conflicts of interest, anti-money laundering, customer personal

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information and privacy issues, customer and other third party fraud, record-keeping, regulatory investigations and any litigation that may arise from the failure or perceived failure of us to comply with legal and regulatory requirements. Maintaining our reputation also depends on our ability to successfully prevent third parties from infringing on the “First Hawaiian Bank” brand and associated trademarks and our other intellectual property. Defense of our reputation, trademarks and other intellectual property, including through litigation, could result in costs that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Severe weather, hurricanes, tsunamis, natural disasters, pandemics, acts of war or terrorism or other external events could significantly impact our business.

Severe weather, hurricanes, tsunamis, natural disasters, widespread disease or pandemics or other severe health emergencies, or concerns over the possibility of such an emergency (including the recent outbreak of coronavirus (COVID-19)), acts of war or terrorism or other adverse external events could have a significant impact on our business. In addition, as our primary markets are located on islands in the Pacific Ocean, they may be particularly susceptible to certain of these risks or other risks resulting from climate change, including those relating to rising sea levels.

Since the beginning of January 2020, the coronavirus outbreak has caused disruption to global markets, particularly in China. It remains unclear how this will evolve in 2020, and we continue to monitor the situation closely. At this time, given our very limited direct credit and operational exposure to regions that have been significantly affected to date, we believe that the primary risk that the current coronavirus poses to us relates to the potential disruption of the global economy and the transportation and tourism industries, particularly in markets in which we operate. Spread of the coronavirus, in particular within the United States or Japan, could exacerbate its effect on us which could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

Among other things, the aforementioned events could affect the stability of our deposit base, impair the ability of borrowers to repay outstanding loans, impair the value of collateral securing loans, cause significant property damage, result in loss of revenue or cause us to incur additional expenses. Because Hawaii’s economy is heavily dependent on the tourism industry, which is in turn heavily influenced by the affordability and desirability of air travel, any related safety concerns or limitations  and the prevailing weather patterns in the region, we could be disproportionally affected relative to others in the case of external events such as acts of war or terrorism, severe weather, natural disasters or pandemics or other actual or perceived severe health emergencies, including travel restrictions as a result of actual or perceived health emergencies that impact markets on which we depend. The occurrence of any of these events in the future could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

We own the building in Honolulu in which our principal office and headquarters are located. The building is the tallest building in downtown Honolulu and a prominent architectural landmark. We lease space in the building to a number of other businesses and, for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively, the leases in our headquarters generated $2.9 million, or approximately 1.0%, and $3.1 million, or approximately 1.2%, of our net income, respectively. In addition, as of December 31, 2019, over 600, or over a quarter of our employees work in our principal office. Given that we derive a portion of our income from leasing space in our principal office building and that the largest concentration of our employees is located in our principal office building, depending on the intensity and longevity of the event, a catastrophic event impacting our Honolulu office building, including a terrorist attack, extreme weather event or other hostile or catastrophic event, could negatively affect our business and reputation. In addition to the impact this would have on our ability to service and interact with our clients, we may also lose the rental income we derive from tenants that occupy our Honolulu office building. Further, the value of our Honolulu office building, which accounted for approximately 37.6% of the net book value of our total premises and equipment, or $119.0 million, as of December 31, 2019, could significantly depreciate if such a catastrophic event were to occur. A significant event impacting our principal office building could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

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The value of the investment securities we own may decline in the future.

As of December 31, 2019, we owned investment securities with a fair market value of $4.1 billion, which largely consisted of our positions in obligations of the U.S. government and government-sponsored enterprises. We evaluate our investment securities on at least a quarterly basis, and more frequently when economic and market conditions warrant such an evaluation, to determine whether any decline in fair value below amortized cost is the result of an other-than-temporary impairment (“OTTI”). The process for determining whether impairment is other-than-temporary usually requires complex, subjective judgments about the future financial performance of the issuer in order to assess the probability of receiving all contractual principal and interest payments on the security. Because of changing economic and market conditions affecting issuers, we may be required to recognize OTTI in future periods, which could adversely affect our business, results of operations or financial condition.

Loss of deposits could increase our funding costs.

Like many banking companies, we rely on customer deposits to meet a considerable portion of our funding, and we continue to seek customer deposits to maintain this funding base. We accept deposits directly from consumer and commercial customers and, as of December 31, 2019, we had $16.4 billion in deposits. Although we hold the largest share of the deposit market in Hawaii, these deposits are subject to potentially dramatic fluctuations in availability or price due to certain factors outside our control, such as a loss of confidence by customers in us or the banking sector generally, customer perceptions of our financial health and general reputation, increasing competitive pressures from other financial services firms for consumer or corporate customer deposits, changes in interest rates and returns on other investment classes, which could result in significant outflows of deposits within short periods of time or significant changes in pricing necessary to maintain current customer deposits or attract additional deposits. In addition, if the Company’s competitors raise the rates they pay on deposits, the Company’s funding costs may increase, either because the Company raises its rates to avoid losing deposits or because the Company loses deposits and must rely on more expensive sources of funding. Higher funding costs could reduce the Company’s net interest margin and net interest income and could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Our liquidity is dependent on dividends from First Hawaiian Bank.

We are a legal entity separate and distinct from our banking and other subsidiaries. Dividends from the Bank provide virtually all of our cash flow, including cash flow to pay dividends on our common stock and principal and interest on any debt we may incur. Various federal and state laws and regulations limit the amount of dividends that our bank may pay to us. For example, Hawaii law only permits our bank to pay dividends out of retained earnings as defined under Hawaii banking law, which differs from retained earnings calculated under GAAP. Also, our right to participate in a distribution of assets upon a subsidiary’s liquidation or reorganization is subject to the prior claims of the subsidiary’s creditors. In the event the Bank is unable to pay dividends to us, we may not be able to service any debt we may incur, pay obligations or pay dividends on our common stock. The inability to receive dividends from the Bank could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, liquidity or results of operations.

We may not be able to maintain consistent growth, earnings or profitability.

Although the Hawaii economy has experienced five consecutive years of economic expansion, there can be no assurance that we will be able to continue to grow and to remain profitable in future periods, or, if profitable, that our overall earnings will remain consistent or increase in the future. Sustainable growth requires that we manage our risks by following prudent loan underwriting standards, balancing loan and deposit growth without increasing interest rate risk or compressing our net interest margin, maintaining more than adequate capital at all times, hiring and retaining qualified employees and successfully implementing strategic projects and initiatives. Our earnings may also be reduced by increased expenses associated with increased assets, such as additional employee compensation expense, inflation and investments in technology and increased interest expense on any liabilities incurred or deposits solicited to fund increases in assets.

Continued, long-term growth may be unsustainable, given the concentration of our operations and customer base in Hawaii, Guam and Saipan. Moreover, under applicable laws, we may not be permitted to acquire any bank in Hawaii because we control more than 30% of the total amount of deposits in the Hawaii market. As a result, any further growth in the Hawaii market will most likely have to occur organically rather than by acquisition. Our inability to manage our growth successfully or to continue to expand into new markets could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

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We may not be able to attract and retain key personnel and other skilled employees.

Our success depends, in large part, on the skills of our management team and our ability to retain, recruit and motivate key officers and employees. Competition for qualified employees and personnel in the banking industry is intense and there are a limited number of qualified persons with knowledge of, and experience in, the regional banking industry, especially in the communities served by our branch network. A substantial number of our employees have considerable tenure with the Bank and some will be nearing retirement in the next few years, which makes succession planning important to the continued operation of our business. We need to continue to attract and retain key personnel and to recruit qualified individuals to succeed existing key personnel to ensure the continued growth and successful operation of our business. Leadership changes will occur from time to time, and we cannot predict whether significant retirements or resignations will occur or whether we will be able to recruit additional qualified personnel. Competition for senior executives and skilled personnel in the financial services and banking industry is intense, which means the cost of hiring, incentivizing and retaining skilled personnel may continue to increase, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. In addition, our ability to effectively compete for senior executives and other qualified personnel by offering competitive compensation and benefit arrangements may be restricted by applicable banking laws and regulations, including any restrictions that may in the future be adopted by U.S. regulatory agencies, including the Federal Reserve and FDIC. The loss of the services of any senior executive or other key personnel, the inability to recruit and retain qualified personnel in the future or the failure to develop and implement a viable succession plan, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

We operate in a highly competitive industry and market area.

We operate in the highly competitive financial services industry and face significant competition for customers from financial institutions located both within and beyond our principal markets. We compete with commercial banks, savings banks, credit unions, non-bank financial services companies and other financial institutions operating within or near the areas we serve. Additionally, certain large banks headquartered on the U.S. mainland and large community banking institutions target the same customers we do. In addition, as customer preferences and expectations continue to evolve, technology has lowered barriers to entry and made it possible for banks to expand their geographic reach by providing services over the Internet and for non-banks to offer products and services traditionally provided by banks, such as automatic transfer and automatic payment systems. The banking industry is experiencing rapid changes in technology, and, as a result, our future success will depend in part on our ability to address our customers’ needs by using technology. Customer loyalty can be influenced by a competitor’s new products, especially offerings that could provide cost savings or a higher return to the customer. Increased lending activity of competing banks following the Great Recession (which we define as January 1, 2008 through December 31, 2009) has also led to increased competitive pressures on loan rates and terms for high-quality credits. We may not be able to compete successfully with other financial institutions in our markets, and we may have to pay higher interest rates to attract deposits, accept lower yields to attract loans and pay higher wages for new employees, resulting in lower net interest margins and reduced profitability.

Many of our non-bank competitors are not subject to the same extensive regulations that govern our activities and may have greater flexibility in competing for business. The financial services industry could become even more competitive as a result of legislative, regulatory and technological changes and continued consolidation. In addition, some of our current commercial banking customers may seek alternative banking sources as they develop needs for credit facilities larger than we may be able to accommodate. Our inability to compete successfully in the markets in which we operate could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

New lines of business, products, product enhancements or services may subject us to additional risks.

From time to time, we may implement new lines of business or offer new products and product enhancements as well as new services within our existing lines of business. There are substantial risks and uncertainties associated with these efforts, particularly in instances where the markets are not fully developed. In implementing, developing or marketing new lines of business, products, product enhancements or services, we may invest significant time and resources, although we may not assign the appropriate level of resources or expertise necessary to make these new lines of business, products, product enhancements or services successful or to realize their expected benefits. Further, initial timetables for the introduction and development of new lines of business, products, product enhancements or services may not be achieved, and price and profitability targets may not prove feasible. External factors, such as compliance with regulations, competitive alternatives and shifting market preferences, may also impact the ultimate implementation of a new line of

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business or offerings of new products, product enhancements or services. Furthermore, any new line of business, product, product enhancement or service could have a significant impact on the effectiveness of our system of internal controls. Failure to successfully manage these risks in the development and implementation of new lines of business or offerings of new products, product enhancements or services could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

If our techniques for managing risk are ineffective, we may be exposed to material unanticipated losses.

In order to manage the significant risks inherent in our business, we must maintain effective policies, procedures and systems that enable us to identify, monitor and control our exposure to material risks, such as credit, operational, legal and reputational risks. Our risk management methods may prove to be ineffective due to their design, their implementation or the degree to which we adhere to them, or as a result of the lack of adequate, accurate or timely information or otherwise. If our risk management efforts are ineffective, we could suffer losses that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. In addition, we could be subject to litigation, particularly from our customers, and sanctions or fines from regulators. Our techniques for managing the risks we face may not fully mitigate the risk exposure in all economic or market environments, including exposure to risks that we might fail to identify or anticipate.

We are dependent on the use of data and modeling both in our management decision-making generally and in meeting regulatory expectations in particular.

The use of statistical and quantitative models and other quantitatively-based analyses is central to bank decision-making and regulatory compliance processes, and the employment of such analyses is becoming increasingly widespread in our operations. Liquidity stress testing, interest rate sensitivity analysis, the automated extension of credit based on defined criteria and the identification of possible violations of anti-money laundering regulations are all examples of areas in which we are dependent on models and the data that underlies them. We anticipate that model-derived insights will penetrate further into bank decision-making, and particularly risk management efforts, as the capacities developed to meet rigorous stress testing requirements are able to be employed more widely. While these quantitative techniques and approaches improve our decision-making, they also create the possibility that faulty data or flawed quantitative approaches could yield adverse outcomes or regulatory scrutiny. Secondarily, because of the complexity inherent in these approaches, misunderstanding or misuse of their outputs could similarly result in suboptimal decision-making.

The occurrence of fraudulent activity, breaches or failures of our information security controls or cybersecurity-related incidents could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

As a financial institution, we are susceptible to fraudulent activity, information security breaches and cybersecurity-related incidents that may be committed against us or our clients, which may result in financial losses or increased costs to us or our clients, disclosure or misuse of our information or our client information, misappropriation of assets, privacy breaches against our clients, litigation or damage to our reputation. Such fraudulent activity may take many forms, including check fraud, electronic fraud, wire fraud, phishing, social engineering and other dishonest acts. Information security breaches and cybersecurity-related incidents may include fraudulent or unauthorized access to systems used by us or our clients, denial or degradation of service attacks, and malware or other cyberattacks. In recent periods, several large corporations, including financial institutions and retail companies, have suffered major data breaches, in some cases exposing not only confidential and proprietary corporate information, but also sensitive financial and other personal information of their customers and employees and subjecting them to potentially fraudulent activity. Some of our clients may have been affected by these breaches, which increase their risks of identity theft, credit card fraud and other fraudulent activity that could involve their accounts with us. We are regularly the target of attempted electronic fraudulent activity, security breaches and cybersecurity-related attacks. Consistent with industry trends, we may face an increasing number of attempted cyberattacks as we expand our mobile and other internet-based products and services, and we provide more of these services to a greater number of individual customers. The increased use of mobile and cloud technologies can heighten these and other operational risks.

We also face risks related to cyberattacks and other security breaches in connection with credit card transactions that typically involve the transmission of sensitive information regarding our customers through various third parties, including merchant acquiring banks, payment processors, payment card networks and our processors. Some of these parties have in the past been the target of security breaches and cyberattacks, and because the transactions involve third parties and environments such as the point of sale that we do not control or secure, future security breaches or cyberattacks

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affecting any of these third parties could impact us through no fault of our own, and in some cases we may have exposure and suffer losses for breaches or attacks relating to them.

Information pertaining to us and our customers is maintained, and transactions are executed, on networks and systems maintained by us, our customers and certain of our third-party partners, such as our online banking or reporting systems. The secure maintenance and transmission of confidential information, as well as execution of transactions over these systems, are essential to protect us and our customers against fraud and security breaches and to maintain our customers’ confidence. Breaches of information security also may occur, and in infrequent cases have occurred, through intentional or unintentional acts by those having access to our systems or our customers’ or counterparties’ confidential information, including employees. In addition, increases in criminal activity levels and sophistication, advances in computer capabilities, new discoveries, vulnerabilities in third-party technologies (including browsers and operating systems) or other developments could result in a compromise or breach of the technology, processes and controls that we use to prevent fraudulent transactions and to protect data about us, our customers and underlying transactions, as well as the technology used by our customers to access our systems. Although we have developed, and continue to invest in, systems and processes that are designed to detect and prevent security breaches and cyberattacks and periodically test our security, our inability to anticipate, or failure to adequately mitigate, breaches of security could result in: losses to us or our customers; our loss of business and/or customers; damage to our reputation; the incurrence of additional expenses; disruption to our business; our inability to grow our online services or other businesses; additional regulatory scrutiny or penalties; or our exposure to civil litigation and possible financial liability — any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. Additionally, we may not be able to ensure that our third-party vendors have appropriate controls in place to protect the confidentiality of the information they receive from us and our business, financial condition or results of operations could be adversely affected by a material breach of, or disruption to, the security of any of our or our vendors’ systems.  

More generally, publicized information concerning security and cyber-related problems could inhibit the use or growth of electronic or web-based applications or solutions as a means of conducting commercial transactions. Such publicity may also cause damage to our reputation as a financial institution. As a result, our business, financial condition or results of operations could be adversely affected.

Employee misconduct or mistakes could expose us to significant legal liability and reputational harm.

We are vulnerable to reputational harm because we operate in an industry in which integrity and the confidence of our customers are of critical importance. Our employees could engage in misconduct that adversely affects our business. For example, if an employee were to engage in fraudulent, illegal or suspicious activities, we could be subject to regulatory sanctions and suffer serious harm to our reputation (as a consequence of the negative perception resulting from such activities), financial position, customer relationships and ability to attract new customers. Our business often requires that we deal with confidential information. If our employees were to improperly use or disclose this information, even if inadvertently, we could suffer serious harm to our reputation, financial position and current and future business relationships. It is not always possible to deter employee misconduct, and the precautions we take to detect and prevent this activity may not always be effective. Misconduct by our employees, or even unsubstantiated allegations of misconduct, could result in a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. In addition, employee errors, such as inadvertent use or disclosure of confidential information, calculation errors, mistakes in addressing communications or data inputs, errors in developing, implementing or applying information technology systems or simple errors in judgment, could also have similar adverse effects.

We continually encounter technological change.

The financial services industry is continually undergoing rapid technological change with frequent introductions of new, technology-driven products and services. The effective use of technology increases efficiency and enables financial institutions to better serve customers and to reduce costs. Our future success depends, in part, upon our ability to address the needs of our customers by using technology to provide products and services that will satisfy customer demands, as well as to create additional efficiencies in our operations. For instance, we are in the process of implementing a new core system and modernizing our digital architecture, which is expected to be completed in 2021. Certain of our competitors have substantially greater resources to invest in technological improvements than we do. We may not be able to effectively implement new, technology-driven products and services or implement them as quickly as our competitors do or be successful in marketing these products and services to our customers. In addition, the implementation of technological changes and upgrades to maintain current systems and integrate new ones may also cause service interruptions, transaction

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processing errors and system conversion delays and may cause us to fail to comply with applicable laws or may otherwise result in an increase, potentially a material increase, in our expenses. Failure to successfully keep pace with technological change affecting the financial services industry and failure to avoid interruptions, errors and delays could cause us to lose customers or have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

We expect that new technologies and business processes applicable to the consumer credit industry will continue to emerge, and these new technologies and business processes may be better than those we currently use. Because the pace of technological change is high and our industry is intensely competitive, we may not be able to sustain our investment in new technology as critical systems and applications become obsolete or as better ones become available. A failure to maintain current technology and business processes could cause disruptions in our operations or cause our products and services to be less competitive, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

We may be adversely affected by changes in the actual or perceived soundness or condition of other financial institutions.

Financial services institutions that deal with each other are interconnected as a result of trading, investment, liquidity management, clearing, counterparty and other relationships. Within the financial services industry, loss of public confidence, including through default by any one institution, could lead to liquidity challenges or to defaults by other institutions. Concerns about, or a default by, one institution could lead to significant liquidity problems and losses or defaults by other institutions, as the commercial and financial soundness of many financial institutions is closely related as a result of these credit, trading, clearing and other relationships. Even the perceived lack of creditworthiness of, or questions about, a counterparty may lead to market-wide liquidity problems and losses or defaults by various institutions. This systemic risk may adversely affect financial intermediaries, such as clearing agencies, banks and exchanges with which we interact on a daily basis or key funding providers such as the Federal Home Loan Banks, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our access to liquidity or otherwise have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

We may need to raise additional capital in the future, and such capital may not be available when needed or at all.

We may need to raise additional capital, in the form of additional debt or equity, in the future to have sufficient capital resources and liquidity to meet our commitments and fund our business needs and future growth, particularly if the quality of our assets or earnings were to deteriorate significantly. Our ability to raise additional capital, if needed, will depend on, among other things, conditions in the capital markets at that time, which are outside of our control, and our financial condition. Economic conditions and a loss of confidence in financial institutions may increase our cost of funding and limit access to certain customary sources of capital, including inter-bank borrowings, repurchase agreements and borrowings from the discount window of the Federal Reserve System. We may not be able to obtain capital on acceptable terms — or at all. Any occurrence that may limit our access to the capital markets, such as a decline in the confidence of debt purchasers, depositors of our bank or counterparties participating in the capital markets or other disruption in capital markets, may adversely affect our capital costs and our ability to raise capital and, in turn, our liquidity. Further, if we need to raise capital in the future, we may have to do so when many other financial institutions are also seeking to raise capital and would then have to compete with those institutions for investors. An inability to raise additional capital on acceptable terms when needed could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

We may rely on the mortgage secondary market for some of our liquidity.

We may originate and sell mortgage loans. Loans sold on the secondary market represented $18.0 million and $29.8 million of mortgage loans for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively. We rely on Federal National Mortgage Association (“Fannie Mae”), Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“Freddie Mac”) and other purchasers to purchase loans in order to reduce our credit risk and provide funding for additional loans we desire to originate. We cannot provide assurance that these purchasers will not materially limit their purchases from us due to capital constraints or other factors, including, with respect to Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, a change in the criteria for conforming loans. In addition, various proposals have been made to reform the U.S. residential mortgage finance market, including the role of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. The exact effects of any such reforms are not yet known, but may limit our ability to sell conforming loans to Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac. In addition, mortgage lending is highly regulated, and our inability to comply with all federal and state regulations and investor guidelines regarding the origination, underwriting

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documentation and servicing of mortgage loans may also impact our ability to continue selling mortgage loans. If we are unable to continue to sell loans in the secondary market, our ability to fund, and thus originate, additional mortgage loans may be adversely affected, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Consumer protection initiatives related to the foreclosure process could materially affect our ability as a creditor to obtain remedies.

In 2011, Hawaii revised its rules for nonjudicial, or out-of-court, foreclosures. Prior to the revision, most lenders used the nonjudicial foreclosure method to handle foreclosures in Hawaii, as the process was less expensive and quicker than going through the court foreclosure process. After the revised rules went into effect, many lenders ended up forgoing nonjudicial foreclosures entirely and filing all foreclosures in court, which has created a backlog and slowed the judicial foreclosure process. Many lenders continue to exclusively use the judicial foreclosure process, making the foreclosure process very lengthy. Following a joint federal-state settlement regarding foreclosure practices, mortgage servicers have implemented new programs to assist borrowers with loss mitigation options. Federal and state loss mitigation requirements are now part of our annual audit requirements.

We are subject to a variety of risks in connection with any sale of loans we may conduct.

When we sell mortgage loans we are required to make customary representations and warranties to the purchaser about the mortgage loans and the manner in which they were originated and serviced. If any of these representations and warranties are incorrect, we may be required to indemnify the purchaser for any related losses, or we may be required to repurchase or provide substitute mortgage loans for part or all of the affected loans. We may also be required to repurchase loans as a result of borrower fraud or in the event of early payment default by the borrower on a loan we have sold. If the level of repurchase and indemnity activity becomes material, it could have a material adverse effect on our liquidity, business, financial condition or results of operations. Mortgage lending is highly regulated. Our inability to comply with all federal and state regulations and investor guidelines regarding the origination, underwriting documentation and servicing of mortgage loans may impact our ability to sell mortgage loans in the future.

In addition, we must report as held for sale any loans which we have undertaken to sell, whether or not a purchase agreement for the loans has been executed. We may therefore be unable to ultimately complete a sale for part or all of the loans we classify as held for sale. We must exercise our judgment in determining when loans must be reclassified from held for investment status to held for sale status under applicable accounting guidelines. Any failure to accurately report loans as held for sale could result in regulatory investigations and monetary penalties. Any of these actions could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. Our policy is to carry loans held for sale at the lower of cost or fair value. As a result, prior to being sold, any loans classified as held for sale may be adversely affected by market conditions, including changes in interest rates, and by changes in the borrower’s creditworthiness, and the value associated with these loans, including any loans originated for sale in the secondary market, may decline prior to being sold. We may be required to reduce the value of any loans we mark held for sale as a result, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

The appraisals and other valuation techniques we use in evaluating and monitoring loans secured by real property, other real estate owned (“OREO”) and repossessed personal property may not accurately describe the net value of the asset.

In considering whether to make a loan secured by real property, we generally require an appraisal of the property. However, an appraisal is only an estimate of the value of the property at the time the appraisal is made, and, as real estate values may change significantly in value in relatively short periods of time (especially in periods of heightened economic uncertainty), this estimate may not accurately describe the net value of the real property collateral after the loan is made. As a result, we may not be able to realize the full amount of any remaining indebtedness when we foreclose on and sell the relevant property. In addition, we rely on appraisals and other valuation techniques to establish the value of our OREO and personal property that we acquire through foreclosure proceedings and to determine certain loan impairments. If any of these valuations are inaccurate, our consolidated financial statements may not reflect the correct value of our OREO, and our Allowance for loan losses may not reflect accurate loan impairments. This could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

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Our operations could be interrupted if certain external vendors on which we rely experience difficulty, terminate their services or fail to comply with banking laws and regulations.

We depend to a significant extent on relationships with third-party service providers that provide services, primarily information technology services, that are critical to our operations. We utilize third-party core banking services and receive credit card and debit card services, Internet banking services, various information services and services complementary to our banking products from various third-party service providers. We are also exposed to the risk that a cyberattack, security breach or other information technology incident at a common vendor to our third-party service providers could impede their ability to provide services to us. We may not be able to effectively monitor or mitigate operational risks relating to the use of common vendors by third-party service providers. If any of our third-party service providers experience difficulties or terminate their services and we are unable to replace our service providers with other service providers, our operations could be interrupted. It may be difficult for us to replace some of our third-party vendors, particularly vendors providing our core banking, credit card and debit card services and information services, in a timely manner if they are unwilling or unable to provide us with these services in the future for any reason. If an interruption were to continue for a significant period of time, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. Even if we are able to replace them, it may be at higher cost to us, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. In addition, if a third-party provider fails to provide the services we require, fails to meet contractual requirements, such as compliance with applicable laws and regulations, or suffers a cyberattack or other security breach, our business could suffer economic and reputational harm that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

We depend on the accuracy and completeness of information about customers and counterparties.

In deciding whether to extend credit or enter into other transactions, and in evaluating and monitoring our loan portfolio on an ongoing basis, we may rely on information furnished by or on behalf of customers and counterparties, including financial statements, credit reports and other financial information. We may also rely on representations of those customers or counterparties or of other third parties, such as independent auditors, as to the accuracy and completeness of that information. Reliance on inaccurate, incomplete, fraudulent or misleading financial statements, credit reports or other financial or business information, or the failure to receive such information on a timely basis, could result in loan losses, reputational damage or other effects that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Downgrades to the credit rating of the U.S. government or of its securities or any of its agencies by one or more of the credit ratings agencies could have a material adverse effect on general economic conditions, as well as our business.

Downgrades of the U.S. federal government’s sovereign credit rating, and the perceived creditworthiness of U.S. government-backed obligations, could impact our ability to obtain funding that is collateralized by affected instruments and our ability to access capital markets on favorable terms. Such downgrades could also affect the pricing of funding, when funding is available. A downgrade of the credit rating of the U.S. government, or of its agencies, government-sponsored enterprises or related institutions, agencies or instrumentalities, may also adversely affect the market value of such instruments and, further, exacerbate the other risks to which we are subject and any related adverse effects on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Our accounting estimates and risk management processes and controls rely on analytical and forecasting techniques and models and assumptions, and actual results may differ from these estimates.

Our accounting policies and methods are fundamental to how we record and report our financial condition and results of operations. Our management must exercise judgment in selecting and applying many of these accounting policies and methods so they comply with GAAP and reflect management’s judgment of the most appropriate manner to report our financial condition and results. In some cases, management must select the accounting policy or method to apply from two or more alternatives, any of which may be reasonable under the circumstances, yet which may result in our reporting materially different results than would have been reported under a different alternative.

Certain accounting policies are critical to presenting our financial condition and results of operations. They require management to make difficult, subjective or complex judgments about matters that are uncertain. Materially different amounts could be reported under different conditions or using different assumptions or estimates. These critical accounting policies include the allowance for loan and lease losses, fair value measurements, pension and postretirement

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benefit obligations and income taxes. Because of the uncertainty of estimates involved in these matters, we may be required to do one or more of the following: significantly increase the allowance for loan losses or sustain loan losses that are significantly higher than the reserve provided; reduce the carrying value of an asset measured at fair value; or significantly increase our accrued tax liability. Any of these could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. See “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Critical Accounting Policies” for more information.

Our internal controls, disclosure controls, processes and procedures, and corporate governance policies and procedures are based in part on certain assumptions and can provide only reasonable (not absolute) assurances that the objectives of the system are met. Any failure or circumvention of our controls, processes and procedures or failure to comply with regulations related to controls, processes and procedures could necessitate changes in those controls, processes and procedures, which may increase our compliance costs, divert management’s attention from our business or subject us to regulatory actions and increased regulatory scrutiny. Any of these could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

We are subject to environmental liability risk associated with our bank branches and any real estate collateral we acquire upon foreclosure.

During the ordinary course of business, we may foreclose on and take title to properties securing certain loans that we have originated or acquired. We also have an extensive branch network, owning separate branch locations throughout the areas we serve. For any real property that we may possess, there is a risk that hazardous or toxic substances could be found on these properties. If hazardous or toxic substances are found, we may be liable for remediation costs, as well as for personal injury and property damage and costs of complying with applicable environmental regulatory requirements. Failure to comply with such requirements can result in penalties. Environmental laws may require us to incur substantial expenses and may materially reduce the affected property’s value or limit our ability to use, sell or lease the affected property. In addition, future laws or more stringent interpretations or enforcement policies with respect to existing laws may increase our exposure to environmental liability. The remediation costs and any other financial liabilities associated with an environmental hazard could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

We may be subject to litigation risk pertaining to our fiduciary responsibilities.

Some of the services we provide, such as trust and investment services, require us to act as fiduciaries for our customers and others. From time to time, third parties make claims and take legal action against us pertaining to the performance of our fiduciary responsibilities. If these claims and legal actions are not resolved in a manner favorable to us, we may be exposed to significant financial liability or our reputation could be damaged. Either of these results may adversely impact demand for our products and services or otherwise have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Changes in our accounting policies or in accounting standards could materially affect how we report our financial results and condition.

From time to time, the FASB and the SEC change the financial accounting and reporting standards that govern the preparation of our financial statements. As a result of changes to financial accounting or reporting standards, whether required by the FASB or other regulators, we could be required to change certain of the assumptions or estimates we have previously used in preparing our financial statements, which could negatively impact how we record and report our results of operations and financial condition generally. For a discussion of the expected impact of accounting pronouncements recently issued but not adopted by us as of December 31, 2019, see “Note 1. Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies – Recent Accounting Pronouncements” in the notes to the consolidated financial statements included in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data for more information.

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Risks Related to the Regulatory Oversight of Our Business

The banking industry is highly regulated, and the regulatory framework, together with any future legislative or regulatory changes, may have a significant adverse effect on our operations.

The banking industry is extensively regulated and supervised under both federal and state laws and regulations that are intended primarily for the protection of depositors, customers, federal deposit insurance funds and the banking system as a whole, not for the protection of our stockholders and creditors. We are subject to regulation and supervision by the Federal Reserve and our bank is subject to regulation and supervision by the FDIC, the CFPB and the Hawaii DFI. The laws and regulations applicable to us govern a variety of matters, including permissible types, amounts and terms of loans and investments we may make, the maximum interest rate that may be charged, the amount of reserves we must hold against deposits we take, the types of deposits we may accept, maintenance of adequate capital and liquidity, changes in the control of us and our bank, restrictions on dividends and establishment of new offices. We must obtain approval from our regulators before engaging in certain activities, and there is the risk that such approvals may not be obtained, either in a timely manner or at all. Our regulators also have the ability to compel us to take, or restrict us from taking, certain actions entirely, such as actions that our regulators deem to constitute an unsafe or unsound banking practice. Our failure to comply with any applicable laws or regulations, or regulatory policies and interpretations of such laws and regulations, could result in sanctions by regulatory agencies, civil money penalties or damage to our reputation, all of which could have a material adverse effect our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Since the Great Recession, federal and state banking laws and regulations, as well as interpretations and implementations of these laws and regulations, have undergone substantial review and change. Financial institutions generally have also been subjected to increased scrutiny from regulatory authorities. These changes and increased scrutiny have resulted and may continue to result in increased costs of doing business and may in the future result in decreased revenues and net income, reduce our ability to effectively compete to attract and retain customers, or make it less attractive for us to continue providing certain products and services. Recent political developments have added additional uncertainty to the implementation, scope and timing of changes in regulatory policy. Any future changes in federal and state law and regulations, as well as the interpretations and implementations, or modifications or repeals, of such laws and regulations, could affect us in substantial and unpredictable ways, including those listed above or other ways that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

We are required to act as a source of financial and managerial strength for our bank in times of stress.

Under federal law, we are required to act as a source of financial and managerial strength to our bank, and to commit resources to support our bank if necessary. We may be required to commit additional resources to our bank at times when we may not be in a financial position to provide such resources or when it may not be in our, or our stockholders’ or our creditors’ best interests to do so. Providing such support is more likely during times of financial stress for us and our bank, which may make any capital we are required to raise to provide such support more expensive than it might otherwise be. In addition, any capital loans we make to our bank are subordinate in right of payment to depositors and to certain other indebtedness of our bank. In the event of our bankruptcy, any commitment by us to a federal banking regulator to maintain the capital of our bank will be assumed by the bankruptcy trustee and entitled to priority of payment.

We are subject to capital adequacy requirements and may be subject to more stringent capital requirements.

We are subject to regulatory requirements relating to capital and liquidity, which are subject to change from time to time. If we fail to meet applicable requirements, we may be restricted in the types of activities we may conduct, and we may be prohibited from taking certain capital actions, such as paying dividends and repurchasing capital securities. See “Item 1. Business — Supervision and Regulation - Regulatory Capital Requirements” for more information.

While we have, and expect to continue to, meet the requirements of the Basel III-based capital rules and Regulation Q, we may fail to do so. In addition, these requirements could have a negative impact on our ability to lend, grow deposit balances, make acquisitions or make capital distributions in the form of dividends and share repurchases. Higher capital levels could also lower our return on equity.

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We may not pay dividends on our common stock in the future.

Holders of our common stock are entitled to receive only such dividends as our board of directors may declare out of funds legally available for such payments. Our board of directors may, in its sole discretion, change the amount or frequency of dividends or discontinue the payment of dividends entirely. In addition, we are a bank holding company, and our ability to declare and pay dividends is dependent on certain federal regulatory considerations, including the guidelines of the Federal Reserve regarding capital adequacy and dividends. It is the policy of the Federal Reserve that bank holding companies should generally pay dividends on common stock only out of earnings, and only if prospective earnings retention is consistent with the organization’s expected future needs, asset quality and financial condition.

Further, if we are unable to satisfy the capital requirements applicable to us for any reason, we may not be able to make, or may have to reduce or eliminate, the payment of dividends on our common stock. Any change in the level of our dividends or the suspension of the payment thereof could have a material adverse effect on the market price of our common stock. See “ – Risks Related to Our Business – Our liquidity is dependent on dividends from First Hawaiian Bank” for additional information on our reliance on dividends paid to us by the Bank.

Rulemaking changes implemented by the CFPB may result in higher regulatory and compliance costs that may adversely affect our results of operations.

The CFPB is a federal agency responsible for implementing, examining and enforcing compliance with federal consumer financial protection laws. The CFPB also has examination and primary enforcement authority with respect to depository institutions with $10 billion or more in assets, their service providers and certain non-depository entities such as debt collectors and consumer reporting agencies. The consumer protection provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act and the examination, supervision and enforcement of those laws and implementing regulations by the CFPB have created a more intense and complex environment for consumer finance regulation. See “Item 1. Business — Supervision and Regulation — Consumer Financial Protection.” The ultimate impact of this heightened scrutiny is uncertain but could result in changes to pricing, practices, products and procedures. It could also result in increased costs related to regulatory oversight, supervision and examination, additional remediation efforts and possible penalties. We may also be required to add additional compliance personnel or incur other significant compliance-related expenses. Our business, results of operations or competitive position may be adversely affected as a result.

Litigation and regulatory actions, including possible enforcement actions, could subject us to significant fines, penalties, judgments or other requirements resulting in increased expenses or restrictions on our business activities.

Our business is subject to increased litigation and regulatory risks as a result of a number of factors, including the highly regulated nature of the financial services industry and the focus of civil government attorneys on banks and the financial services industry generally. This focus has only intensified since the Great Recession, with regulators and civil government attorneys focusing on a variety of financial institution practices and requirements, including foreclosure practices, applicable consumer protection laws, classification of held for sale assets and compliance with anti-money laundering statutes, the Bank Secrecy Act and sanctions administered by OFAC. In addition, a single event or issue may give rise to numerous and overlapping investigations and proceedings, including by multiple federal and state regulators and other governmental authorities.

In the normal course of business, from time to time, we may be named as a defendant in various legal actions, including arbitrations, class actions and other litigation, arising in connection with our business activities. Certain of the legal actions have included, and may in the future include, claims for substantial compensatory or punitive damages or claims for indeterminate amounts of damages. In addition, while the arbitration provisions in certain of our customer agreements historically have limited our exposure to consumer class action litigation, there can be no assurance that we will be successful in enforcing our arbitration clause in the future. We may also, from time to time, be the subject of subpoenas, requests for information, reviews, investigations and proceedings (both formal and informal) by governmental and self-regulatory agencies regarding our business. Any such legal or regulatory actions may subject us to substantial compensatory or punitive damages, significant fines, penalties, obligations to change our business practices or other requirements resulting in increased expenses, diminished income and damage to our reputation. Our involvement in any such matters, even if the matters are ultimately determined in our favor, could also cause significant harm to our reputation and divert management’s attention from the operation of our business. Directives issued to enforce such actions may be confidential and thus, in some instances, we are not permitted to publicly disclose these actions. Further, any settlement, consent order or adverse judgment in connection with any formal or informal proceeding or investigation by government

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agencies may result in litigation, investigations or proceedings as other litigants and government agencies begin independent reviews of the same activities. As a result, the outcome of legal and regulatory actions could be material to our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows depending on, among other factors, the level of our earnings for that period, and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Increases in FDIC insurance premiums may adversely affect our earnings.

Our bank’s deposits are insured by the FDIC up to legal limits and, accordingly, our bank is subject to FDIC deposit insurance assessments. We generally cannot control the amount of premiums our bank will be required to pay for FDIC insurance. In 2010, the FDIC increased the deposit insurance fund’s target reserve ratio to 2.0% of insured deposits following the Dodd-Frank Act’s elimination of the 1.5% cap on the insurance fund’s reserve ratio. Assessment rates may be increased in the future to achieve this targeted reserve ratio. In addition, higher levels of bank failures during the Great Recession and increases in the statutory deposit insurance limits have increased resolution costs to the FDIC and put pressure on the deposit insurance fund. Future increases of FDIC insurance premiums or special assessments could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “Tax Act”) could have adverse or uncertain impacts on some aspects of our business, results of operations or financial condition.

On December 22, 2017, President Trump signed into law the Tax Act. The Tax Act makes many significant amendments to the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), including reducing the statutory rate of U.S. federal corporate income tax from 35% to 21%.

The overall impact of the Tax Act is subject to the effect of numerous provisions in the Tax Act, including the imposition of a “base erosion and anti-abuse tax”, limitations on deductibility of interest, limitations on the deduction of certain executive compensation costs and limitations on the use of future net operating losses to 80% of taxable income, among other changes. The impact from certain of these and other provisions has reduced the benefit from the reduction in the statutory U.S. federal rate and increased the Company’s effective tax rate by approximately 0.40% in 2018 and 0.26% in 2019. The overall impact of the Tax Act also depends on the future interpretations and regulations that may be issued by U.S. tax authorities, and it is possible that future guidance could adversely impact us. While we expect the Tax Act to have a net positive economic impact on us, it contains measures that could have adverse or uncertain impacts on some aspects of our business, results of operations or financial condition.

Non-compliance with the USA PATRIOT Act, the Bank Secrecy Act or other laws and regulations could result in fines or sanctions against us.

The USA PATRIOT Act of 2001 and the Bank Secrecy Act require financial institutions to design and implement programs to prevent financial institutions from being used for money laundering and terrorist activities. If such activities are detected, financial institutions are obligated to file suspicious activity reports with the U.S. Treasury Department’s Office of Financial Crimes Enforcement Network. These rules require financial institutions to establish procedures for identifying and verifying the identity of customers seeking to open new financial accounts. Federal and state bank regulators also have begun to focus on compliance with Bank Secrecy Act and anti-money laundering regulations. Failure to comply with these regulations could result in fines or sanctions, including restrictions on conducting acquisitions or establishing new branches. In recent years, several banking institutions have received large fines for non-compliance with these laws and regulations. While we have developed policies and procedures designed to assist in compliance with these laws and regulations, these policies and procedures may not be effective in preventing violations of these laws and regulations. Failure to maintain and implement adequate programs to combat money laundering and terrorist financing could also have serious reputational consequences for us, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Regulations relating to privacy, information security and data protection could increase our costs, affect or limit how we collect and use personal information and adversely affect our business opportunities.

We are subject to various privacy, information security and data protection laws, including requirements concerning security breach notification, and we could be negatively impacted by these laws. For example, our business is subject to the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act which, among other things: (i) imposes certain limitations on our ability to share

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nonpublic personal information about our customers with nonaffiliated third parties; (ii) requires that we provide certain disclosures to customers about our information collection, sharing and security practices and afford customers the right to “opt out” of any information sharing by us with nonaffiliated third parties (with certain exceptions) and (iii) requires that we develop, implement and maintain a written comprehensive information security program containing safeguards appropriate based on our size and complexity, the nature and scope of our activities, and the sensitivity of customer information we process, as well as plans for responding to data security breaches. Various state and federal banking regulators and states have also enacted data security breach notification requirements with varying levels of individual, consumer, regulatory or law enforcement notification in certain circumstances in the event of a security breach. Moreover, legislators and regulators in the United States are increasingly adopting or revising privacy, information security and data protection laws that potentially could have a significant impact on our current and planned privacy, data protection and information security-related practices, our collection, use, sharing, retention and safeguarding of consumer or employee information, and some of our current or planned business activities. As new privacy-related laws and regulations, such as the California Consumer Privacy Act and any future laws and regulations which will be modeled after those laws, are implemented, the time and resources needed for us to comply with such laws and regulations, as well as our potential liability for non-compliance and reporting obligations in the case of data breaches, may significantly increase. This could result from, among other things, increased privacy-related enforcement activity at the federal level, by the Federal Trade Commission, as well as at the state level, such as with regard to mobile applications.

Compliance with current or future privacy, data protection and information security laws (including those regarding security breach notification) to which we are subject could result in higher compliance and technology costs and could restrict our ability to provide certain products and services, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial conditions or results of operations. Our failure to comply with privacy, data protection and information security laws could result in potentially significant regulatory or governmental investigations or actions, litigation, fines, sanctions and damage to our reputation, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Our use of third-party vendors and our other ongoing third-party business relationships are subject to increasing regulatory requirements and attention.

We regularly use third-party vendors as part of our business. We also have substantial ongoing business relationships with other third parties. These types of third-party relationships are subject to increasingly demanding regulatory requirements and attention by our federal bank regulators, as well as heightened supervisory expectations regarding our due diligence, ongoing monitoring and control over our third-party vendors and other ongoing third-party business relationships. In certain cases, we may be required to renegotiate our agreements with these vendors to meet these enhanced requirements, which could increase our costs. We expect that our regulators will hold us responsible for deficiencies in our oversight and control of our third-party relationships and in the performance of the parties with which we have these relationships. As a result, if our regulators conclude that we have not exercised adequate oversight and control over our third-party vendors or other ongoing third-party business relationships or that such third parties have not performed appropriately, we could be subject to enforcement actions, including civil money penalties or other administrative or judicial penalties or fines as well as requirements for customer remediation, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Risks Related to BNPP’s Divestiture of Our Common Stock

We may be subject to unexpected income tax liabilities in connection with the Reorganization Transactions. BWHI is required to pay us for any unexpected income tax liabilities that arise in connection with the Reorganization Transactions. However, in the event that BWHI does not satisfy its payment obligations, we could be subject to significantly higher federal and/or state and local income tax liabilities than currently anticipated.

BNPP, BWHI and we expect that no U.S. federal income taxes will be imposed on us in connection with the Reorganization Transactions. However, we paid state and local income taxes of approximately $95.4 million in June 2016 (which was partially offset by a federal tax reduction of approximately $33.4 million received through the intercompany settlement of estimated taxes in April 2017) in connection with the Reorganization Transactions (the “Expected Taxes”). BNPP, BWHI and we reported a total tax liability in connection with the Reorganization Transactions of $92.1 million (the “Return Taxes”) in the tax returns of various state and local jurisdictions. Pursuant to the Tax Sharing Agreement, we reimbursed BWHI approximately $2.1 million due to the Return Taxes being lower than the Expected Taxes. Such amount was recorded as an adjustment to additional paid-in capital. We could be subject to higher income tax liabilities in the

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event that the Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”) or state and local tax authorities successfully assert that our income tax liabilities in respect of the Reorganization Transactions are higher than the Return Taxes. Under the terms of the Tax Sharing Agreement, BWHI is required to pay us for any such additional taxes on an “after-tax basis” (which means an amount determined by reducing the payment amount by any tax benefits derived by the Company and increasing the payment amount by any tax costs, including additional taxes, incurred by the Company as a result of such additional taxes and/or payments). See “Certain Related Party Transactions” in the Company’s Proxy Statement is incorporated herein by reference. If, however, our income tax liabilities with respect to the Reorganization Transactions are higher than the Return Taxes and BWHI fails to satisfy its payment obligations under the Tax Sharing Agreement, we could be liable for significantly higher federal and/or state income tax liabilities. We have not sought and will not seek any rulings from the IRS or state and local tax authorities regarding our expected tax treatment of the Reorganization Transactions.

In addition, under the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”) and related rules and regulations, each entity that was a member of the BancWest combined tax reporting group during any taxable period or portion of any taxable period ending on or before the effective time of the Reorganization Transactions is jointly and severally liable for the U.S. federal income tax liability of the entire combined tax reporting group for such taxable period. Although the Tax Sharing Agreement allocates the responsibility for prior period taxes of the combined tax reporting group in accordance with the existing tax allocation agreements, if BWHI were unable to pay any such prior period taxes for which it is responsible, we could be required to pay the entire amount of such taxes, and such amounts could be significant. Other provisions of federal, state or local tax law may establish similar liability for other matters, including laws governing tax qualified pension plans, as well as other contingent liabilities.

Risks Related to Our Common Stock

Our stock price may be volatile, and you could lose part or all of your investment as a result.

Stock price volatility may make it more difficult for you to resell your common stock when you want and at prices you find attractive. Our stock price may fluctuate significantly in response to a variety of factors including, among other things:

actual or anticipated variations in our quarterly results of operations;

recommendations or research reports about us or the financial services industry in general published by securities analysts;

the failure of securities analysts to cover, or continue to cover, us;

operating and stock price performance of other companies that investors deem comparable to us;

news reports relating to trends, concerns and other issues in the financial services industry;

future sales of our common stock;

departure of our management team or other key personnel;

new technology used, or services offered, by competitors;

significant acquisitions or business combinations, strategic partnerships, joint ventures or capital commitments by or involving us or our competitors;

changes or proposed changes in laws or regulations, or differing interpretations thereof affecting our business, or enforcement of these laws and regulations;

litigation and governmental investigations; and

geopolitical conditions such as acts or threats of terrorism or military conflicts.

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If any of the foregoing occurs, it could cause our stock price to fall and may expose us to litigation that, even if our defense is successful, could distract our management and be costly to defend. General market fluctuations, industry factors and general economic and political conditions and events — such as economic slowdowns or recessions, interest rate changes or credit loss trends — could also cause our stock price to decrease regardless of operating results.

Future sales and issuances of our common stock, including sales as part of our equity-based compensation plans, could result in dilution of the percentage ownership of our stockholders and could lower our stock price.

The market price of our common stock could decline as a result of sales of a large number of shares of our common stock or from the perception that such sales could occur. These sales, or the possibility that these sales may occur, also may make it more difficult for us to raise additional capital by selling equity securities in the future, at a time and price that we deem appropriate. As of February 20, 2020, we had a total of 129,931,457 shares of common stock outstanding.

We have filed a registration statement to register 6,253,385 shares of our common stock for issuance pursuant to awards granted under the equity incentive and employee stock purchase plans. We have granted awards covering 1,341,738 shares of our common stock under these plans as of December 31, 2019. We may increase the number of shares registered for this purpose from time to time, subject to stockholder approval. Once we register and issue these shares, their holders will be able to sell them in the public market, subject to applicable transfer restrictions.

We cannot predict the size of future issuances or sales of our common stock or the effect, if any, that future issuances or sales of shares of our common stock may have on the market price of our common stock. Sales or distributions of substantial amounts of our common stock (including shares issued in connection with an acquisition), or the perception that such sales could occur, may cause the market price of our common stock to decline.

Certain banking laws and certain provisions of our certificate of incorporation may have an anti-takeover effect.

Provisions of federal banking laws, including regulatory approval requirements, could make it difficult for a third party to acquire us, even if doing so would be perceived to be beneficial to our stockholders. Acquisition of 10% or more of any class of voting stock of a bank holding company or depository institution, including shares of our common stock, generally creates a rebuttable presumption that the acquirer “controls” the bank holding company or depository institution. Also, a bank holding company must obtain the prior approval of the Federal Reserve before, among other things, acquiring direct or indirect ownership or control of more than 5% of the voting shares of any bank, including our bank.

There also are provisions in our second amended and restated certificate of incorporation, which we refer to as our certificate of incorporation, and third amended and restated bylaws, which we refer to as our bylaws, such as limitations on the ability to call a special meeting of our stockholders and restrictions on stockholders’ ability to act by written consent, that may be used to delay or block a takeover attempt. In addition, our board of directors is authorized under our certificate of incorporation to issue shares of our preferred stock, and determine the rights, terms conditions and privileges of such preferred stock, without stockholder approval. These provisions may effectively inhibit a non-negotiated merger or other business combination, which, in turn could have a material adverse effect on the market price of our common stock.

ITEM 1B.  UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

Not applicable.

ITEM 2.    PROPERTIES

Our corporate headquarters and main branch are located at 999 Bishop Street, Honolulu, Hawaii 96813. Inclusive of our main branch, we operated 58 branch offices located on the islands of Oahu, Maui, Hawaii, Kauai, Lanai, Guam and Saipan as of December 31, 2019. We lease 34 of our branch offices and own the remainder of our offices, including our corporate headquarters and main branch which is located in the First Hawaiian Center. We are currently in the process of evaluating plans for more efficient usage of square footage, modernization and technological improvements to existing branches. We have closed and may close branches in certain circumstances to improve our efficiency.

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ITEM 3.    LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

We operate in a highly regulated environment. From time to time, we are a party to various litigation matters incidental to the conduct of our business. We are not presently party to any legal proceedings the resolution of which we believe would have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition, liquidity, results of operation, cash flows, or capital levels. For additional information, see the discussion related to contingencies in “Note 18. Commitments and Contingent Liabilities” in the notes to the consolidated financial statements included in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.

ITEM 4.    MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.

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PART II

ITEM 5.    MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

FHI’s common stock is listed on the NASDAQ under the symbol “FHB” and is quoted daily in leading financial publications.

As of February 20, 2020, there were 21 common registered shareholders of record. A registered shareholder of record is a shareholder whose share ownership in a company is recorded directly on the records of the company’s stock transfer agent. If one owns company shares through a bank, broker or other intermediary, then that shareholder is considered a “beneficial” shareholder. These holdings are considered to be held in “street name” through a bank, broker, or other intermediary and in the aggregate, are registered as a single shareholder of record.

Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Total Number of

Approximate Dollar

Shares Purchased

Value of Shares

Total Number

Average

as Part of Publicly

that May Yet Be

of Shares

Price Paid

Announced Plans or

Purchased Under the

Period

Purchased

per Share

Programs

Plans or Programs1

October 1, 2019 through October 31, 2019

453,505

$

26.97

453,505

$

38,961,524

November 1, 2019 through November 30, 2019

717,000

28.39

717,000

18,607,194

December 1, 2019 through December 31, 2019

170,367

28.47

170,367

13,757,598

Total

1,340,872

$

27.92

1,340,872

(1)In March 2019, the Company announced a share repurchase program for up to $100 million of its outstanding common stock during 2019. In August 2019, the Company announced a $50 million increase in its share repurchase program to up to $150 million of its outstanding common stock during 2019. On December 31, 2019, the share repurchase program for 2019 expired with $13.8 million remaining of the $150 million total repurchase amount authorized. In January 2020, the Company announced a share repurchase program for $80 million of its common stock during 2020. The timing and amount of share repurchases are influenced by various internal and external factors.

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Performance Graph

The following graph displays the cumulative total stockholder return on our common stock based on the market price of the common stock compared to the cumulative total returns for the Standard & Poor’s (“S&P”) 500 Index and the KBW Regional Banking Index (“KRX”). The graph assumes that $100 was invested on our IPO date, August 4, 2016, in our common stock(1), the S&P 500 Index(2) and the KRX(2). The cumulative total return on each investment is as of the dates indicated and assumes reinvestment of dividends.

Graphic

1Q 2017

2Q 2017

3Q 2017

4Q 2017

1Q 2018

2Q 2018

3Q 2018

4Q 2018

1Q 2019

2Q 2019

3Q 2019

4Q 2019

First Hawaiian, Inc. Common Stock

$

121.31

$

119.40

$

121.37

$

122.43

$

120.17

$

127.60

$

119.49

$

96.18

$

111.93

$

112.31

$

121.29

$

130.46

S&P 500 Index

107.88

111.51

114.76

122.86

122.05

125.44

133.45

113.54

129.27

134.14

136.84

147.46

KBW Regional Banking Index

123.53

123.69

124.23

132.55