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UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
    Annual Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
or
    Transition Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the transition period from                      to                     .
Commission File Number: 001-34653
FIRST INTERSTATE BANCSYSTEM, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware 81-0331430
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization) (IRS Employer Identification No.)
401 North 31st Street
Billings,
MT
59101
(Address of principal executive offices)(zip code)
(406255-5311
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of exchange on which registered
Common stock, $0.00001 par valueFIBKNASDAQ
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
(Title of class)
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. þ Yes o No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. o Yes þ No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. þ Yes o No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§223.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). þ Yes o No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filerNon-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements o
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant's executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). o
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act.)  Yes þ No
The aggregate market value of voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates, computed by reference to the price at which the common equity was last sold on the NASDAQ, as of the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter was $2.1 billion.
As of January 31, 2024, there were 103,935,844 shares outstanding of the registrant’s Common stock.
Documents Incorporated by Reference
The registrant intends to file a definitive Proxy Statement for the Annual Meeting of Shareholders scheduled to be held May 22, 2024. The information required by Part III of this Form 10-K is incorporated by reference to such Proxy Statement.



FIRST INTERSTATE BANCSYSTEM, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
Index
December 31, 2023
Page Nos.
Item 1
Item 1A
Item 1B
Item 1C
Item 2
Item 3
Item 4
Item 5
Item 6
Item 7
Item 7A
Item 8
Item 9
Item 9A
Item 9B
Item 9C
Item 10
Item 11
Item 12
Item 13
Item 14
Item 15
Item 16


PART I
Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements    
When we refer to “we,” “our,” “us,” “First Interstate,” or the “Company” in this report, we mean First Interstate BancSystem, Inc. and our consolidated subsidiaries, including our wholly -owned subsidiary, First Interstate Bank, unless the context indicates that we refer only to the parent company, First Interstate BancSystem, Inc. When we refer to the “Bank” or “FIB” in this report, we mean only First Interstate Bank.
This report contains “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Rule 175 promulgated thereunder, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, and Rule 3b-6 promulgated thereunder, that involve inherent risks and uncertainties. Any statements about our plans, objectives, expectations, strategies, beliefs, or future performance or events constitute forward-looking statements. Such statements are identified by words or phrases such as “believes,” “expects,” “anticipates,” “plans,” “trends,” “objectives,” “continues,” or similar expressions, or future or conditional verbs such as “will,” “would,” “should,” “could,” “might,” “may,” or similar expressions. Forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties, assumptions, estimates, and other important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from any results, performance or events expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. The factors included below under the caption “Summary Risk Factors” and described in further detail below under Item 1A Risk Factors of this report, among others, may cause actual results to differ materially from current expectations in the forward-looking statements, including those set forth in this report.
All forward-looking statements attributable to us or persons acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements set forth herein. Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date they are made and we do not undertake or assume any obligation to update publicly any of these statements to reflect actual results, new information, or future events, changes in assumptions, or changes in other factors affecting forward-looking statements, except to the extent required by applicable law. If we update one or more forward-looking statements, no inference should be drawn that we will make additional updates with respect to those or other forward-looking statements.
Summary Risk Factors
An investment in shares of our common stock involves a high degree of risk. If any of the factors enumerated below and described in more detail in the section entitled "Risk Factors" under Item 1A of this report occurs, our business, financial condition, liquidity, results of operations, and prospects could be materially and adversely affected. In that case, the market price for our common stock could decline, and you may lose some or all of your investment. Some of the most material risks relating to an investment in our common stock include the impact or effect on our Company and its operating results, or its investors, of:
Regulatory and Compliance Risks, including:
new or changes in existing, governmental regulations;
negative developments in the banking industry and increased regulatory scrutiny;
tax legislative initiatives or assessments;
more stringent capital requirements, to the extent they may become applicable to us;
changes in accounting standards;
any failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations, including, but not limited to, the CRA and fair lending laws, the USA PATRIOT ACT, OFAC guidelines and requirements, the BSA, and the related FinCEN and FFIEC Guidelines and regulations (as each of such terms and acronyms is defined below); and
federal deposit insurance increases;
Credit Risks, including:
lending risks and risks associated with loan sector concentrations;
a decline in economic conditions that could reduce demand for our products and services and negatively impact the credit quality of loans;
loan credit losses exceeding estimates;
exposure to losses in collateralized loan obligation securities;
changes to United States trade policies, including the imposition of tariffs and retaliatory tariffs; and
the soundness of other financial institutions;
Liquidity Risks, including:
the ability to meet cash flow needs and availability of financing sources for working capital and other needs;
a loss of deposits or a change in product mix that increases the Company’s funding costs; and
inability to access funding or to monetize liquid assets;
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Market Risks, including:
changes in interest rates; and
interest rate effect on the value of our investment securities;
Operational Risks, including:
cybersecurity risks, including “denial-of-service attacks,” “hacking,” and “identity theft” that could result in the disclosure of confidential information;
privacy, information security, and data protection laws, rules, and regulations that affect or limit how we collect and use personal information;
the potential impairment of our goodwill and other intangible assets;
our reliance on other companies that provide key components of our business infrastructure;
events that may tarnish our reputation;
main stream and social media contagion;
the loss of the services of key members of our management team and directors;
our ability to attract and retain qualified employees to operate our business;
costs associated with repossessed properties, including environmental remediation;
the effectiveness of our systems of internal operating and accounting controls; and
our ability to implement technology-facilitated products and services or be successful in marketing these products and services to our clients;
Strategic Risks, including:
difficulties we may face in combining the operations of acquired entities or assets with our own operations or assessing the effectiveness of businesses in which we make strategic investments or with which we enter into strategic contractual relationships;
competition from new or existing financial institutions and non-banks;
investing in technology; and
incurrence of significant costs related to mergers and related integration activities;
Common Stock Risks, including:
the volatility in the price and trading volume of our common stock;
“anti-takeover” provisions in our certificate of incorporation and regulations, which may make it more difficult for a third party to acquire control of us even in circumstances that could be deemed beneficial to stockholders;
changes in our dividend policy or our ability to pay dividends;
our common stock not being an insured deposit;
the potential dilutive effect of future equity issuances; and
the subordination of our common stock to our existing and future indebtedness;
General Risk Factors, including:
the impact of the combined deficiencies resulting in a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting;
the effect of global conditions, earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunamis, floods, fires, drought, and other natural catastrophic events; and
the impact of climate change and environmental sustainability matters.
The foregoing risk factors are not necessarily all of the factors that could cause our actual results, performance, or achievements to differ materially from expectations. Other unknown or unpredictable factors also could harm our results. Investors and other interested parties are encouraged to read the information included under the section captioned “Risk Factors” below in its entirety before making an investment decision about our securities.
Item 1. Business
Our Company
We are a financial and bank holding company focused on community banking. Since our incorporation in Montana in 1971, we have grown both organically and through strategic acquisitions. We operate 304 banking offices, including branches and detached drive-up facilities, in communities across 14 states—Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, Oregon, South Dakota, Washington, and Wyoming. Through our bank subsidiary, First Interstate Bank, we deliver a comprehensive range of banking products and services—including online and mobile banking—to individuals, businesses, government entities, and others throughout our market areas.
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We are proud to provide lending opportunities to clients that participate in a wide variety of industries, including:
Agriculture
Healthcare
Professional services
Technology
Construction
Hospitality
Real Estate Development
Tourism
Education
Housing
Retail
Wholesale trade
Governmental services
Historically, the Company’s authorized common stock had consisted of 200,000,000 shares, of which 100,000,000 shares were designated as Class A common stock and 100,000,000 were designated as Class B common stock. The Class A common stock had one vote per share while the Class B common stock had five votes per share and was convertible to Class A common stock on a share-for-share basis. On March 24, 2022, the record date for our first annual stockholders’ meeting following the completion of the Great Western Bank (“GWB”) acquisition on February 1, 2022, all outstanding shares and rights to acquire shares of Class B common stock were automatically converted into the same number of outstanding shares and rights to acquire the same number of shares, as applicable, of Class A common stock. As a result, we now have only one class of common stock outstanding and issuable upon exercise of outstanding rights to acquire common stock, all with equivalent voting rights: namely, common stock. The Class A common stock is traded on the NASDAQ stock market, or NASDAQ, under the symbol “FIBK.” Since our initial public offering, we have expanded our market reach through organic growth and strategic acquisitions, including our acquisitions of Mountain West Bank, United Bank, N.A., Flathead Bank of Bigfork, Bank of the Cascades, Inland Northwest Bank, Idaho Independent Bank, Community 1st Bank, and GWB. As of December 31, 2023, we had consolidated assets of $30.7 billion, deposits of $23.3 billion, loans held for investment of $18.3 billion, and total stockholders’ equity of $3.2 billion.
Our mission is to help people and their money work better together. With that as our guiding focus, we strive to be the most relevant everyday experience our clients have with their money. With our focus on community banking, we adhere to common values that have long provided a foundation for our growth and success:
(1)Put people first, always;
(2)Seek greatness;
(3)Demonstrate integrity;
(4)Celebrate success; and
(5)Be committed to our communities.
These values support our commitment to our employees, our clients, our communities, and our shareholders.
Our business model is strategically focused around four key pillars, which help us align, organize, and prioritize business strategies. These pillars guide our actions related to our employees, our clients, and our operations, ultimately leading to our financial success and creating value for our shareholders.
The first pillar is Our People, Our Priority. The success of our Company is a reflection of our people. We are building a diverse company, attracting the right people, retaining them in the right jobs, and developing them to meet our long-term needs. Our people are informed, capable, and resilient.
The second pillar is Relentless Client Focus. Our client loyalty is cultivated by our focus on every interaction, every time. By listening to our clients and learning about their needs, we are better able to connect their goals and dreams to the right products and services.
The third pillar is Future Ready, Today. We live in a world in constant motion, which requires agility and resiliency; adapting our products and processes to be scalable and sustainable is essential. Robust and relevant systems and processes create a foundation for our employees to excel—not only in their personal performance, but in their delivery of our products and services to our clients.
The fourth pillar is Financial Vitality. Our strategic focus on balance sheet management and goal-oriented financial rigor keeps us a top-performing bank. Our emphasis on accountability and our collaborative approach to aligning our efforts under our four pillars allows our community banking model to flourish.
By adhering to a strong set of values, we have significantly and strategically grown our business. Our long-term philosophy emphasizes providing high-quality financial products and services, delivering exceptional client service, influencing business leadership within our communities through professional and dedicated bankers, supporting our communities through financial contributions and socially responsible leadership, and cultivating a strong corporate culture. We plan to continue to advance our business in a disciplined and prudent manner, fueled by organic growth in our existing market areas and expansion into new and complementary markets when appropriate acquisition and other opportunities arise.
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Community Banking
We have one operating segment—community banking. Community banking encompasses commercial, governmental, and consumer banking services provided through our Bank: primarily the acceptance of deposits, the extension of credit, mortgage loan origination and servicing, and wealth management, which includes trust, employee benefit, investment management, insurance, agency, and custodial services to individuals, businesses, and nonprofit organizations. Our philosophy emphasizes a local focus through a personalized service approach while also strengthening the communities in our market areas through community involvement, service activities, and philanthropy. We grant our banking offices significant authority in delivering products in response to local market considerations and client needs. This autonomy enables our banking offices to remain competitive by quickly responding to local market conditions and enhancing relationships with our clients in those markets. While our banking offices enjoy a level of flexibility, they remain accountable to company-wide standards and established limits on their authority and discretion. This combination of authority and accountability allows our banking offices to provide personalized service and localized community support while at the same time remaining focused on our overall financial vitality.
Lending Activities
We offer real estate, consumer, commercial, agricultural, and other loans to individuals, government entities, and businesses in our market areas. We have comprehensive credit policies that establish company-wide underwriting and documentation standards to manage the lending process and limit our risk. Each loan must meet minimum underwriting standards specified in our credit policies and procedures, which generally specify that loans:
(1)are made to borrowers generally located within or adjacent to our market footprint or own businesses and/or real estate within or adjacent to our footprint, with limited exceptions that may include participation loans and loans to national accounts;
(2)are made only for identified legal purposes;
(3)have specifically identified sources of repayment;
(4)mature within designated maximum maturity periods that coincide with repayment sources;
(5)are appropriately collateralized whenever possible;
(6)are supported by current credit information;
(7)do not exceed the Bank’s legal lending limit;
(8)include medium-term fixed interest rates or variable rates that are adjusted within designated time frames; and
(9)require compliance with laws and regulations including a flood zone and risk determination prior to closing.
In addition, our credit policies include lending limitations to minimize concentrations of credit in agricultural, commercial, real estate, or consumer loans. Furthermore, the criteria meeting our underwriting standards must be documented, with exceptions noted, as a part of the loan approval process. 
While each loan must meet minimum underwriting standards, qualified bankers are granted levels of credit authority for approving and pricing loans to assure that banking offices are responsive to competitive issues and community needs in each market area. Lending authorization is established at individual, branch, and market levels. Credit authorization is established and assigned based on the credit experience and credit acumen of each branch loan officer. Credit authorization is under the direction of our Chief Credit Officer or such officer’s designee and is reviewed on an ongoing basis. Credit granted over the authority of our loan officers are approved by designated Credit Officers and/or the Chief Credit Officer with the concurrence of our Chief Risk Officer as necessary.
Deposit Products
We offer traditional depository products including checking, savings, and time deposits. Deposits at the Bank are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, or the FDIC, up to statutory limits. We also offer repurchase agreements primarily to commercial and municipal depositors. Under repurchase agreements, we sell investment securities held by the Bank to our clients under an agreement to repurchase the investment securities at a specified time or on demand. All outstanding repurchase agreements are due in one business day. Additionally, the Company is a member of the IntraFi Network, which allows banking clients insured cash sweep products with access to FDIC insurance protection on deposits that exceed FDIC insurance limits.    
Wealth Management
We provide a wide range of trust, employee benefit, investment management, insurance, agency, and custodial services to individuals, businesses, and nonprofit organizations. These services include the administration of estates and personal trusts, management of investment accounts for individuals, employee benefit plans and charitable foundations, and insurance planning.
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Centralized Services
We have centralized certain operational activities to provide consistent service levels to our clients across the Bank, which helps us gain efficiency in management of those activities as well as ensure regulatory compliance. Centralized operational activities generally support our banking offices in the delivery of products and services to clients and include:
marketing;
credit review;
loan servicing;
credit card issuance and servicing;
mortgage loan sales and servicing;
indirect consumer loan purchasing and processing;
loan collections; and
other operational activities.
Additionally, specialized staff support services have been centralized to enable our branches to more efficiently serve their markets. These services include:
credit risk management;
finance;
human resource management;
internal audit;
facilities management;
technology;
risk management;
legal;
compliance; and
other support services.
Market Area
The following table reflects our deposit market share and branch locations by state:
 Deposit Market Share and Branch Locations by State
% of Market Deposits (1)
Deposit Market Share Rank (1)
Number of Branches (2)
Arizona0.3219
Colorado0.52620
Idaho4.3822
Iowa1.9945
Kansas0.11582
Minnesota3051
Missouri0.11426
Montana
16.6242
Nebraska2.5744
North Dakota0.1741
Oregon
2.5933
South Dakota0.5546
Washington0.42918
Wyoming13.7115
Total304
(1) Source: FDIC.gov-data as of June 30, 2023.
(2) As of December 31, 2023.
We operate in markets with a diverse employment base covering numerous industries and we believe our community bank approach to providing client service is a competitive advantage that strengthens the Company’s ability to effectively provide financial products and services to businesses and individuals in its markets.
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Competition
There is significant competition among commercial banks in our market areas. We also compete with other providers of financial services that actively engage in providing various types of loans and other financial services to their clients, such as:
savings and loan associations;
credit unions;
financial technology companies;
internet banks;
consumer finance companies;
brokerage firms;
mortgage banking companies;
insurance companies;
securities firms;
mutual funds;
government agencies; and
major retailers.
To remain competitive in this congested industry, we continue to develop our omni-channel experience across our website, social media, and email, in addition to our offline channels, such as brick and mortar banking offices. Some of our competitors have greater resources and, as such, may have higher lending limits and may offer other services that we do not provide. We generally compete on the basis of service and responsiveness to client needs, available loan and deposit products, rates of interest charged on loans, rates of interest paid for deposits, and the availability and pricing of services such as trust, employee benefit, investment, and insurance services.
Government Regulation and Supervision
We are subject to extensive government regulation and supervision under federal and state laws. Summaries of the material laws and regulations that are applicable to us are provided below. The descriptions that follow are not intended to summarize all laws and regulations applicable to us. Furthermore, the descriptions that follow do not purport to be complete and are qualified in their entirety by reference to the full provisions of those laws and regulations. In addition to laws and regulations, state and federal banking regulatory agencies may issue policy statements, interpretive letters, and similar written guidance that may impose additional regulatory obligations or otherwise affect the conduct of our business. Additionally, proposals to change laws and regulations are frequently introduced at both the federal and state levels. The likelihood and timing of any such changes and their impact on the Company cannot be determined with certainty.
Regulatory Authorities
As a public company with our securities listed for trading on the NASDAQ stock market, we are subject to the disclosure and regulatory requirements of the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, including under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, and the rules and listing standards of the NASDAQ stock market.
As a financial and bank holding company, we are subject to regulation under the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended, and to supervision, regulation, and regular examination by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (the “Federal Reserve”).
The Bank is subject to supervision and regular examination by its primary banking regulators, the Federal Reserve and the Montana Department of Administration, Division of Banking and Financial Institutions (the “Montana Division”). The Bank is also subject to supervision and examination by the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (“CFPB”).
The Bank’s deposits are insured by the Deposit Insurance Fund (“DIF”) administered by the FDIC in the manner and to the extent provided by law. As such, the Bank is subject to the Federal Deposit Insurance Act (the “FDIA”) and FDIC regulations relating to deposit insurance and may also be subject to supervision and examination by the FDIC.
We are currently subject to the regulatory capital framework and guidelines reached by Basel III as adopted by the Federal Reserve. The Federal Reserve has risk-based capital adequacy guidelines intended to measure capital adequacy with regard to a banking organization’s balance sheet, including off-balance sheet exposures such as unused portions of loan commitments, letters of credit, and recourse arrangements.
The extensive regulation of the Bank limits both the activities in which the Bank may engage and the conduct of its permitted activities. Further, the laws and regulations impose reporting and information collection obligations on the Bank. The Bank incurs significant costs relating to compliance with various laws and regulations and the collection and retention of information. As the regulatory framework for bank holding companies and banks continues to evolve and become more complex, the cost of complying with regulatory requirements continues to increase.
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Financial and Bank Holding Company
First Interstate is a bank holding company and has registered as a financial holding company under regulations issued by the Federal Reserve. As a financial holding company, we may engage in business activities that are determined by the Federal Reserve to be financial in nature or incidental to financial activities as well as all activities authorized generally to bank holding companies. We may continue to engage in authorized financial activities provided that we remain a financial holding company and are “well-capitalized” and “well-managed.” We do not currently engage in significant financial holding company business or activities not otherwise permitted generally for bank holding companies.
Under federal law, First Interstate is required to serve as a source of financial and managerial strength to the Bank, which may include providing financial assistance to the Bank if the Bank experiences financial distress. Under existing Federal Reserve source of strength policies, the Federal Reserve may require a bank holding company to make capital injections into a troubled subsidiary bank. The Federal Reserve may also determine that the bank holding company is engaging in unsafe and unsound practices if it fails to commit resources to a subsidiary bank.
We are required by the Bank Holding Company Act to obtain Federal Reserve approval prior to acquiring, directly or indirectly, ownership or control of voting shares of any bank, if, after such acquisition, we would own or control more than 5% of its voting stock. The Federal Reserve considers a number of factors in evaluating acquisitions, including the financial and managerial resources and future prospects of the parties, the convenience and needs of the communities served, and competitive factors. Under the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 (the “Dodd-Frank Act”), when considering an application, the Federal Reserve is also required to evaluate whether the transaction would result in more concentrated risks to the United States banking or financial system. Under federal law and regulations, a bank holding company may acquire banks in states other than its home state if, among other things, the bank holding company is both “well-capitalized” and “well-managed” both before and after the acquisition.
Banks may also merge across state lines. With additional changes made to federal statutes under the Dodd-Frank Act, banks are also permitted to establish new interstate branches if a bank located in the target state could establish a new branch at the proposed location without regard to state laws limiting interstate de novo branching. A state can prohibit interstate mergers entirely or prohibit them if the continuing bank would control insured bank deposits in excess of a specified percentage of total insured bank deposits in the state. Under Montana law, a bank cannot acquire control of a bank located in Montana if, after the acquisition, the acquiring institution would control, in the aggregate, more than 30% of the total deposits of insured depository institutions located in Montana. As of June 30, 2023, based on publicly available information provided by the FDIC, we believe the Bank controlled approximately 16.6% of the total deposits of all insured depository institutions located in Montana. As such, the state limitation may limit our ability to directly or indirectly acquire additional banks located in Montana.
In order to assess the financial strength of the bank holding company, the Federal Reserve and the State of Montana may conduct periodic on-site and off-site inspections and credit reviews throughout the year. The federal banking agencies, including the Federal Reserve, may require additional information and reports from us. In addition, the Federal Reserve may examine, and require reports and information regarding, any entity that we control, including entities other than banks or entities engaged in financial activities. In certain circumstances, the Federal Reserve may require us to divest of non-bank entities or limit the activities of those entities even if the activities are otherwise permitted to bank holding companies under governing law.
Dividends and Restrictions on Transfers of Funds
Dividends from the Bank are the primary source of funds for the payment of our operating expenses and for the payment of dividends to our shareholders. Dividends are also limited by state and federal laws and regulations. We are also subject to various regulatory restrictions relating to capital distributions, including dividends, regulatory capital minimums, and the requirement to remain “well-capitalized” under the prompt corrective action regulations summarized below under the caption “Business – Government Regulation and Supervision – Capital Standards and Prompt Corrective Action.” In general, the Bank is limited to paying dividends that do not exceed the current year net profits together with retained earnings from the two preceding calendar years unless prior consent of the Federal Reserve is obtained. In addition, the Bank may not pay dividends in excess of the previous two years’ net earnings without providing notice to the Montana Division.
The capital buffer rules adopted by the federal banking regulators in accordance with the Basel Accords impose further limitations on the Bank’s ability to pay dividends. In general, the Bank’s ability to pay dividends is limited under the capital buffer rules unless the Bank’s common equity conservation buffer exceeds the minimum required capital ratio by 2.5% of risk-weighted assets.
A state or federal banking regulator may also impose, by regulatory order or agreement of the Bank, specific dividend limitations or prohibitions. The Bank is not, however, currently subject to a specific regulatory dividend limitation.
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The Federal Reserve has issued a policy statement regarding the payment of dividends and the repurchase of common stock by bank holding companies. In general, the policy provides that dividends should be paid only out of current earnings and only if the prospective rate of earnings retention by the holding company appears consistent with the organization’s capital needs, asset quality, and overall financial condition. Regulatory guidance provides for prior regulatory consultation with respect to capital distributions in certain circumstances such as where the company’s net income for the past four quarters (net of previous capital distributions) is insufficient to fully fund the dividend or the company’s overall rate of earnings retention is inconsistent with the company’s capital needs and overall financial condition. The ability of a holding company to pay dividends may be restricted if a subsidiary bank becomes under-capitalized. The policy statement also states that a holding company should inform the Federal Reserve supervisory staff prior to redeeming or repurchasing common stock or perpetual preferred stock if the holding company is experiencing financial weaknesses or if the repurchase or redemption would result in a net reduction, as of the end of a quarter, in the amount of such equity instruments outstanding compared with the beginning of the quarter in which the redemption or repurchase occurred. These regulatory policies may affect our ability to pay dividends, repurchase shares of common stock, or otherwise engage in capital distributions.
Capital Standards and Prompt Corrective Action
Banks and bank holding companies are subject to various regulatory capital requirements administered by state and federal banking agencies, which involve quantitative measures of assets, liabilities, and certain off-balance sheet items calculated under regulatory accounting practices. Capital amounts and classifications are also subject to qualitative judgments by regulators about components, risk weighting, and other factors. The capital requirements are intended to ensure that banking organizations have adequate capital given the risk levels of assets and off-balance sheet financial instruments and are applied separately to the Bank and its parent holding company.
Federal regulations require FDIC-insured depository institutions and bank holding companies to meet several minimum capital standards:
a common equity Tier 1 capital to risk-based assets ratio of 4.5%;
a Tier 1 capital to risk-based assets ratio of 6.0%;
a total capital to risk-based assets ratio of 8.0%; and
a 4.0% Tier 1 capital to total assets leverage ratio.
The existing capital requirements were effective January 1, 2015, and are based on recommendations of the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision and requirements of the Dodd-Frank Act.
For purposes of the regulatory capital requirements, common equity Tier 1 capital is generally defined as common stockholders’ equity and retained earnings and is reduced by substantially all of the regulatory deductions including items such as goodwill and other intangibles and certain deferred tax assets. Tier 1 capital is generally defined as common equity Tier 1 capital and additional Tier 1 capital. Additional Tier 1 capital includes certain noncumulative perpetual preferred stock and related surplus and minority interests in equity accounts of consolidated subsidiaries. Total capital includes Tier 1 capital (common equity Tier 1 capital plus additional Tier 1 capital) and Tier 2 capital. Tier 2 capital is composed of capital instruments and related surplus, meeting specified requirements, and may include cumulative preferred stock and long-term perpetual preferred stock, mandatory convertible securities, intermediate preferred stock, and subordinated debt. Also included in Tier 2 capital is the allowance for credit losses limited to a maximum of 1.25% of risk-weighted assets and, for institutions like us that have exercised an opt-out election regarding the treatment of Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (“AOCI”), up to 45.0% of net unrealized gains on available-for-sale equity securities with readily determinable fair market values. Institutions that have not exercised the AOCI opt-out have AOCI incorporated into common equity Tier 1 capital (including unrealized gains and losses on available-for-sale-securities). Calculation of all types of regulatory capital is subject to deductions and adjustments specified in the regulations.
In determining the amount of risk-weighted assets for purposes of calculating risk-based capital ratios, all assets, including certain off-balance sheet assets (for example, recourse obligations, direct credit substitutes, residual interests), are multiplied by a risk weight factor assigned by the regulations based on the risks believed inherent in the type of asset.
Higher levels of capital are required for asset categories believed to present greater risk. For example, a risk weight of 0% is assigned to cash and United States government securities, a risk weight of 50% generally is assigned to prudently underwritten first lien one- to four-family residential mortgages, a risk weight of 100% is assigned to commercial and consumer loans, a risk weight of 150% is assigned to certain past due loans, and a risk weight of between 0% to 600% is assigned to permissible equity interests, depending on certain specified factors.
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In addition to establishing the minimum regulatory capital requirements, the regulations limit capital distributions and certain discretionary bonus payments to management if the institution does not hold a “capital conservation buffer” consisting of 2.5% of common equity Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets above the amount necessary to meet its minimum risk-based capital requirements. In assessing an institution’s capital adequacy, the Federal Reserve takes into consideration not only these numeric factors, but qualitative factors as well and has the authority to establish higher capital requirements in individual cases where deemed necessary. The Federal Reserve has not established individual capital requirements applicable to us.
Federal law requires the federal banking agencies to take “prompt corrective action” in respect of depository institutions that do not meet minimum capital requirements. The law sets forth the following five capital tiers:
“well capitalized;”
“adequately capitalized;”
“under-capitalized;”
“significantly under-capitalized;” and
“critically under-capitalized.”
A depository institution’s capital tier will depend upon how its capital levels compare with various relevant capital measures and certain other factors, as established by regulation. The relevant capital measures are the common equity tier 1 capital ratio, total capital ratio, the tier 1 capital ratio, and the leverage ratio.
A depository institution is generally prohibited from making any capital distributions (including payment of a dividend) or paying any management fee to its parent holding company if the depository institution would thereafter be under-capitalized. Under-capitalized institutions may be subject to growth limitations and other restrictions and are required to submit a capital restoration plan. If a depository institution fails to submit an acceptable plan, it is treated as if it is “significantly under-capitalized.”
“Significantly under-capitalized” depository institutions are subject to additional requirements and restrictions, such as orders to sell sufficient stock to become “adequately capitalized,” to reduce total assets, restrict interest rates paid, remove management and directors, and cease receipt of deposits from correspondent banks. “Critically under-capitalized” institutions are subject to the appointment of a receiver or conservator.
The capital stock of banks organized under Montana law, such as the Bank, may be subject to assessment upon the direction of the Montana Department of Administration under the Montana Bank Act. Under the Montana Bank Act, if the Department of Administration determines an impairment of a bank’s capital exists, it may notify the bank’s board of directors of the impairment and require payment of an assessment on the bank stock. If the bank fails to do so, the Department of Administration may, among other things, take charge of the bank and proceed to liquidate the bank.
Restrictions on Transactions with Affiliates, Directors, and Officers
Under the Federal Reserve Act, the Bank may not lend funds or otherwise extend credit to its parent holding company or any other affiliate, except on specified types and amounts of collateral generally upon market terms and conditions. The Federal Reserve also has authority to define and limit the transactions between banks and their affiliates. The Federal Reserve’s Regulation W and relevant federal statutes and regulations, among other authorities, impose significant limitations on transactions in which the Bank may engage with us or with other affiliates, including per-affiliate and aggregate limits on affiliate transactions.
Federal Reserve Regulation O restricts loans to the Bank and its parent holding company’s insiders, which includes directors, certain officers, and principal shareholders and their respective related interests. All extensions of credit to the insiders and their related interests must be on the same terms as, and subject to the same loan underwriting requirements as, loans to persons who are not insiders. In addition, Regulation O imposes lending limits on loans to insiders and their related interests and imposes, in certain circumstances, requirements for prior approval of the loans by the Bank board of directors.
Safety and Soundness Standards and Other Supervisory and Enforcement Mechanisms
The federal banking agencies have adopted guidelines establishing standards for safety and soundness, asset quality and earnings, loan documentation, credit underwriting, interest rate risk exposure, internal controls, and audit systems. These standards are designed to identify potential concerns and ensure action is taken to address those concerns before they pose a risk to the DIF. If a federal banking agency determines that an institution fails to meet any of these standards, the agency may require the institution to submit an acceptable plan to achieve compliance with the standard. If the institution fails to submit an acceptable plan within the time allowed by the agency or fails in any material respect to implement an accepted plan, the agency must, by order, require the institution to correct the deficiency and may take other supervisory action.
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Pursuant to the Dodd-Frank Act, federal banking regulators impose additional supervisory measures on banking organizations such as us when they exceed $10 billion in assets. These include enhanced risk management and corporate governance processes specified by the regulators.
The Federal Reserve has authority to bring an enforcement action against a bank or bank holding company and all “institution-affiliated parties” of a bank or bank holding company, including directors, officers, stockholders, and under certain circumstances, attorneys, appraisers, and accountants for the bank or holding company. Formal enforcement actions may include measures such as the issuance of a capital directive or cease and desist order for the removal of officers and/or directors or the appointment of a receiver or conservator. Civil money penalties cover a wide range of violations and actions, and can range up to $5,000 per day, unless a finding of knowing or reckless disregard is made, in which case penalties may be as high as $1 million per day. The FDIC also has the authority to terminate deposit insurance or recommend to the Federal Reserve that enforcement action be taken with respect to a particular bank. If such action is not taken, the FDIC has authority to take the action under specified circumstances. Montana law also provides the Montana Division with various enforcement mechanisms and, ultimately, authority to appoint a receiver or conservator for a Montana bank.
Deposit Insurance
The FDIC insures our client deposits through the DIF up to $250,000 per depositor. The amount of FDIC assessments paid by each DIF member institution is based on financial measures and supervisory ratings derived from a statistical model estimating the probability of failure within a three-year period, with banks deemed more risky paying higher assessments.
The FDIC was required by the Dodd-Frank Act to take actions necessary to cause the DIF to reach a reserve ratio of 1.35% of total estimated insured deposits by September 30, 2020. On September 30, 2018, the DIF Reserve Ratio reached 1.36%. As of September 30, 2020, the FDIC had announced that the ratio had declined to 1.30% due largely to consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic. The FDIC adopted a plan to restore the fund to the 1.35% ratio within eight years, but did not change its assessment schedule. On October 18, 2022, the FDIC finalized a rule that would increase initial base deposit insurance assessment rates by two basis points, beginning with the first quarterly assessment period of 2023.
In addition, to recover costs associated with protecting uninsured depositors during the bank failures in the first half of 2023, in November 2023, the FDIC implemented a 13.4 basis point annual special assessment on uninsured deposits above $5 billion, to be collected during an anticipated eight consecutive quarters beginning with the first quarter of 2024. The Company accrued $10.5 million in the fourth quarter of 2023 for the special assessment. The ultimate impact and timing of recognition will depend on the final outcome of the ongoing FDIC deliberations. The special assessment is in addition to the assessment rates finalized as part of FDIC’s Amended Restoration Plan. As of June 30, 2023, the DIF balance was $117 billion and the DIF Reserve Ratio had decreased from 1.25% as of December 31, 2022 to 1.1% as of June 30, 2023. Despite this decrease, caused in part by the costs associated with the bank failures in the first half of 2023, the FDIC projects that the DIF Reserve Ratio will reach the statutory minimum ahead of the statutory deadline of September 30, 2028, consistent with the FDIC’s Amended Restoration Plan which became effective as of January 1, 2023.
All FDIC-insured institutions are also required to pay assessments to the FDIC to fund interest payments on bonds issued by the Financing Corporation, or the FICO, an agency of the Federal government established to recapitalize the predecessor to the DIF. The assessment rate is applied to total average assets less tangible equity, as defined under the Dodd-Frank Act. The assessment rate schedule can change from time-to-time at the discretion of the FDIC, subject to certain limits. Under the current system, premiums are assessed quarterly.
Interchange Fees
Under the Durbin Amendment to the Dodd-Frank Act, also known as Regulation II, the Federal Reserve adopted rules establishing standards for assessing whether the interchange fees that may be charged with respect to certain electronic debit transactions are “reasonable and proportional” to the costs incurred by issuers for processing such transactions, which alters the competitive structure of the debit card payment processing industry and caps debit card interchange fees for banks with over $10 billion in assets. Interchange fees are charges that merchants pay to us and other card-issuing banks for processing electronic payment transactions. The Federal Reserve also has rules governing routing and exclusivity that require issuers to offer two unaffiliated networks for routing transactions on each debit or prepaid product. On October 3, 2022, the Federal Reserve finalized a rule that amends Regulation II to specify, among other things, that debit card issuers should enable all debit card transactions, including card-not-present transactions such as online payments, to be processed on at least two unaffiliated payment card networks. The final rule became effective July 1, 2023. In October 2023, the Federal Reserve proposed revising Regulation II to lower the cap from its current rate of 21 cents and .05% of the transaction, plus a one-cent fraud-prevention adjustment, to 14.4 cents and .04% per transaction and a 1.3 cents fraud-prevention adjustment, effective June 30, 2025. We are subject to the interchange fee cap and having at least two unaffiliated payment card networks because our assets exceed $10 billion.
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Client Privacy and Other Consumer Protections
Federal and State laws impose client privacy requirements on any company engaged in financial activities, including us. Under these requirements, a financial company is required to protect the security and confidentiality of clients’ nonpublic personal information. In addition, for clients who obtain a financial product such as a loan for personal, family, or household purposes, a financial holding company is required to disclose its privacy policy to the client at the time the relationship is established and annually thereafter. The financial company must also disclose its policies concerning the sharing of the client’s nonpublic personal information with affiliates and third parties. Finally, a financial company is prohibited from disclosing an account number or similar item to a third party for use in telemarketing, direct mail marketing, or marketing through electronic mail.
The Bank is subject to a variety of federal and state laws, regulations, and reporting obligations aimed at protecting consumers and Bank clients. Failure to comply with these laws and regulations may, among other things, impair the collection of loans made in violation of the laws and regulations, provide borrowers or other clients certain rights and remedies, or result in the imposition of penalties on the Bank. Certain of these laws and regulations are described below.
The Equal Credit Opportunity Act generally prohibits discrimination in credit transactions on, among other things, the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, sex, marital status, or age and, in certain circumstances, limits the Bank’s ability to require co-obligors or guarantors as a condition of the extension of credit to an individual.
The Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (“RESPA”) requires certain disclosures be provided to borrowers in real estate loan closings or other real estate settlements. In addition, RESPA limits or prohibits certain settlement practices, fee sharing, “kickbacks,” and similar practices that are considered to be abusive.
The Truth in Lending Act (“TILA”) requires disclosures to borrowers and other parties in consumer loans, including, among other things, disclosures relating to interest rates and other finance charges, payments and payment schedules, and annual percentage rates.
The Fair Housing Act regulates, among other things, lending practices in residential housing and prohibits discrimination in housing-related lending activities on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, sex, handicap, disability, or familial status.
The Home Mortgage Disclosure Act requires certain lenders and other firms engaged in the home mortgage industry to collect and report information relating to applicants, borrowers, and home mortgage lending activities in which they engage in their market areas or communities. The information is used for, among other purposes, evaluation of discrimination or other impermissible acts in home mortgage lending.
The Home Ownership and Equity Protection Act regulates terms and disclosures of certain closed-end home mortgage loans that are not purchase money loans and includes loans classified as “high-cost loans.”
The Fair Credit Reporting Act, as amended by the Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act, generally limits lenders and other financial firms in their collection, use, or dissemination of client credit information, gives clients some access to, and control over, their credit information, and requires financial firms to establish policies and procedures intended to deter identity theft and related frauds.
The Fair Debt Collection Practices Act regulates actions that may be taken in the collection of consumer debts and provides consumers with certain rights of access to information related to collection actions.
The Electronic Fund Transfer Act regulates fees and other terms on electronic funds transactions.
The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act prohibits, among other things, lending practices to consumers that are unfair, deceptive, or abusive.
The CFPB has promulgated numerous regulations relating to consumer financial services-related topics, such as mortgage origination disclosures, mortgage servicing practices, and others.
The Community Reinvestment Act (“CRA”) generally requires the federal banking agencies to evaluate the record of a financial institution in meeting the credit needs of its local communities, including low- and moderate-income neighborhoods. In addition to substantial penalties and corrective measures that may be assessed for a violation of fair lending laws, the federal banking agencies may take compliance with such laws and the CRA into account when evaluating applications for transactions such as mergers and for new branches.
In connection with its assessment of CRA performance, the appropriate bank regulatory agency assigns a rating of “outstanding,” “satisfactory,” “needs to improve,” or “substantial noncompliance.” The Bank received an “outstanding” rating on its most recently published CRA examination. Although the Bank’s policies and procedures are designed to achieve compliance with all fair lending and CRA requirements, instances of non-compliance are occasionally identified through normal operational activities. Management endeavors to respond proactively to any instances of non-compliance and to implement and update appropriate procedures to prevent instances of non-compliance and other violations from occurring.
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USA PATRIOT Act
The USA PATRIOT Act of 2001 amended the Bank Secrecy Act of 1970 and the Money Laundering Control Act of 1986 and adopted additional measures requiring insured depository institutions, broker-dealers, and certain other financial institutions to have policies, procedures, and controls to detect, prevent, and report money laundering and terrorist financing. The laws and related regulations also provide for information sharing, subject to conditions, between federal law enforcement agencies and financial institutions, as well as among financial institutions, for counter-terrorism purposes. Federal banking regulators are required, when reviewing bank holding company acquisition or merger applications, to take into account the effectiveness of the anti-money laundering activities of the applicants.
Office of Foreign Asset Control
The United States Treasury Office of Foreign Asset Control enforces economic and trade sanctions imposed by the United States on foreign persons and governments. Among other authorities, the Office of Foreign Asset Control, or OFAC, may require United States financial institutions to block or “freeze” assets of identified foreign persons or governments which come within the control of the financial institution. Financial institutions are required to adopt procedures for identification of new and existing deposit accounts and other relationships with persons or governments identified by OFAC and to timely report the accounts or relationships to OFAC.
Incentive Compensation
In May 2016, the Federal Reserve Board, other federal banking agencies, and the SEC jointly published a re-proposed rule-making designed to implement provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act prohibiting incentive compensation arrangements that would encourage inappropriate risk taking at a covered institution, which includes a bank or bank holding company with $1 billion or more of assets, such as us. The proposed rule (i) prohibits incentive-based compensation arrangements that encourage executive officers, employees, directors, or principal shareholders to expose the institution to inappropriate risks by providing excessive compensation (based on the standards for excessive compensation adopted pursuant to the FDIA) and (ii) prohibits incentive-based compensation arrangements for executive officers, employees, directors or principal shareholders that could lead to a material financial loss for the institution. The proposed rule requires covered institutions to establish policies and procedures for monitoring and evaluating their compensation practices. The comment period ended in July 2016, but the SEC is expected to resurrect this issue as a new proposed rule in 2024. Although final rules had not been adopted as of as of December 31, 2023, if these or other regulations are adopted in a form similar to the proposed rule-making, they could impose limitations on the manner in which we may structure compensation for our executives.
Cybersecurity
Federal regulators have issued two related statements regarding cybersecurity. One statement indicates that financial institutions should design multiple layers of security controls to establish lines of defense and ensure their risk management processes also address the risk posed by compromised client credentials, including security measures to reliably authenticate clients accessing internet-based services of the financial institution. The other statement indicates that a financial institution’s management is expected to maintain sufficient business continuity planning processes to ensure the rapid recovery, resumption, and maintenance of the institution’s operations after a cyber-attack involving destructive malware. A financial institution is also expected to develop appropriate processes to enable recovery of data and business operations and address rebuilding network capabilities and restoring data if the institution or its critical service providers fall victim to this type of cyber-attack. If we fail to observe the regulatory guidance, we could be subject to various regulatory sanctions, including financial penalties.
For additional discussion on cybersecurity, see Part I, Item 1C, “Cybersecurity” included herein.
Human Capital
Culture is critically important to the Company’s success; our people are our number one priority. We approach our culture with an aspirational lens. It is not a stand-alone initiative or program—it is integrated in our systems, our processes, and our DNA. Our values guide how we make decisions, treat each other, and serve our clients.
Employee Base
As of December 31, 2023, we employed 3,585 full-time equivalent employees, with none represented by a collective bargaining agreement. This represents a decrease of 198 employees from December 31, 2022. As of December 31, 2023, approximately 68.2% of our workforce was female, 31.6% was male, and 0.2% have not declared. The executive team is comprised of 75.0% female and 25.0% male, and the Company’s senior leadership team was 45.5% female and 54.5% male.
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Commitment to Community / Volunteerism
We are “all-in” when it comes to giving back—with time, money, and heart. We have a vested interest in the strength of our communities and strive to make them better places to live and work. Each year, the Company creates commitment to community plans for all our markets, which includes donating a portion of our net income before tax for charitable purposes. These plans help align strategies for philanthropy, volunteering and leadership, financial education outreach, community development, and sustainability.
We encourage employees to take active leadership roles within their communities to further demonstrate our values and help us respond to the needs of the markets we serve. The Company provides employees an opportunity to participate in a Bank-sponsored service project annually, marking the second Wednesday in September as our Commitment to Community Volunteer Day. We close all offices in the afternoon on Volunteer Day so employees can lend a hand in their community, either as teams or as individuals.
Employee Engagement
Our employee engagement strategy is focused on creating and maintaining a work environment where all employees’ voices are heard. The organization’s success is measured by assessing the consistency in which we meet workplace needs and the activation of progress by local-level leaders. An annual census survey is conducted each fall and strategic pulse surveys help us dig deeper into organizational nuances, allowing us to gain additional insight into the needs of our organization and task appropriate departments with creating solutions.
Leaders in our organization are held accountable for encouraging participation, reviewing and sharing team results, holding action-oriented engagement discussions, and submitting an annual action plan to encourage engagement throughout the year. Aggregated employee engagement data is provided to the Board of Directors as a key indicator of the health of our workforce.
Compensation and Benefits
We strive to provide competitive wages, benefits, and programs that meet the varying needs of our workforce. We continually review our programs to ensure we remain competitive and take care of our employees. In 2023, we increased the salary threshold for the Childcare Assistance Program (CCAP) from $60,000 to $70,000. We added a second Dental Plan option giving our employees a more affordable option. To our VSP vision Plan we added VSP Lightcare which gives non-prescription wearers a sun glass or blue light filtering glass option.
Our compensation strategies are designed to pay for performance, pay competitively within our markets, and support pay equity among comparable jobs and markets across the company. We make data-driven decisions regarding employee compensation based on the job, experience, and performance.
The approach we take in our benefit offerings is a holistic one to address our employees’ total well-being, which includes aspects of their health, physical, mental/emotional, social, and financial needs.
We offer the following compensation and benefit programs as part of our total rewards package:
Competitive Total Compensation
Base salary
Pay for performance short-term and long-term incentive programs for eligible employees
Comprehensive Benefit Programs
Medical, dental, and vision plans
401(k) plan with a 100% match on the first 6% contributed
Paid time off
Health savings accounts with employer contribution
Flexible spending accounts
Company paid childcare assistance program
Student debt employer repayment program
Additional Benefits: short-term disability; long-term disability; employee assistance program; free or discounted banking products and services; wellness program; and flexible work arrangements
Growth and Development
In our ongoing commitment to fostering a dynamic and competitive workforce, we have dedicated significant time and resources to nurture our talent. In 2023, we made strides in employee development, offering multifaceted development programs centered around neuroscience and emotional intelligence. This initiative was complimented by role-based training programs and on-demand learning opportunities and resources, reinforcing our commitment to equipping our workforce with the skills needed to excel in our markets. We have expanded our Individual Development plan process and instituted executive coaching programs for successors, ensuring preparedness for the future.
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Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion
We work to foster a culture of diversity, equity, and inclusion, or DEI, not only within our Company, but within the communities where we live and work. We take pride in creating a workplace environment that values our employees for their differences while ensuring equity in all we do. We are committed to advocating for the rights and respect of all and actively participate in achieving this by setting an example.
In 2023 the Company focused its efforts on education, employee connection, and communications. We expanded our DEI Council to ensure further geographic representation and formalized our Council Governance. We championed DEI initiatives in the communities we serve and engaged with new partners to ensure we are recruiting and retaining diverse talent across our footprint. Kevin Riley, CEO and President, signed the CEO Action Pledge that aligns First Interstate Bank with 2,000 other organizations which pledge to take action to cultivate environments where diverse experiences and perspectives are welcomed.
In the second quarter of 2023, we invited all employees to complete our customized LinkedIn Learning Path. During that time frame, 2,870 employees completed the Learning Path. This Learning Path has been added to new employee onboarding materials to provide them the opportunity to experience the same robust learning opportunities our existing employees received. This Learning Path serves as the foundation for our 3-part Leading the Way to DEI training, our in-house training program. In 2022, our DEI Council, HR team, and Executive and Senior Leadership Team participated in the first iterations of Leading the Way. We then rolled the training out to the people leaders in our company with multiple session options over a 3-month period; over 600 leaders participated in Leading the Way training. We created bridge resources for managers to use with their teams to prepare them for the Leading the Way training that will be rolled out to all employees in the spring of 2024.
We also spent time updating and refining our DEI resources and communications both internally and externally. We launched the Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion page of our corporate site to further the visibility of our commitment to our communities and potential candidates. We invested time in our internal intranet page to provide additional resources and align our internal and external DEI messaging.
We continued our Collective Learning Series where we host a monthly educational and community-building webinar series. These hour-long, web-based connections allow for a more in-depth look into the DEI topics we have explored in Inet articles, as well as other topics employees and leaders are passionate and curious about. The Collective Learning Series is an opportunity to show the explicit link between our Mission to help people and their money work better together and DEI. In 2023, we engaged employees at every level of the Company on topics ranging from Heritage month celebrations to Neurodiversity to mental health. Over 1,400 employees attended in 2023.
We believe that when nobody gets left behind, everybody moves forward. We are committed to moving forward with our work while making an impact and difference for our communities and employees.
Website Access to SEC Filings
The Company’s electronic filings with the SEC, including Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and Proxy Statements, as well as amendments to these reports and statements filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, are made available at no cost through our website at www.FIBK.com by clicking through the “Financials” tab found there and selecting “SEC Filings,” as soon as reasonably practicable after the Company files such material with, or furnishes such materials to, the SEC. The Company’s SEC filings are also available through the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov. In addition, we routinely post important information for investors on our website at www.FIBK.com. We use this website as a means of disclosing material information in compliance with our disclosure obligations under Regulation FD. Accordingly, investors should monitor our website, in addition to following our press releases, SEC filings, public conference calls, presentations and webcasts. Our website and the information contained therein or connected thereto is not intended to be incorporated by reference into this report and should not be considered a part of this report, and the referenced websites are not intended to act as active hyperlinks.
Item 1A. Risk Factors
Like other financial institutions and bank holding companies, the success of our business is subject to a number of risks and uncertainties, many of which are outside of our control. The material risks and uncertainties of which we are currently aware are set forth below under headings that are provided for convenience and intended to organize the risks and uncertainties into related categories to improve readability for investors; no inference should be drawn, however, that the placement of a risk factor under a particular category means it is not applicable to another category of risks or that it may be more or less material than another risk factor. Regardless, if any of the events or circumstances described below actually occur, our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects could be harmed. These risks are not the only ones we may face. Other risks of which we are not aware, including those which relate to the banking and financial services industry in general and us in particular, or those which we do not currently believe are material, may harm our future business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects. You should consider carefully the following important factors in evaluating us and our business before you make an investment decision about our securities.
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Regulatory and Compliance Risks
New governmental regulations and/or changes in existing governmental regulations could have a material adverse effect on the Company.
The Company is extensively regulated under federal and state banking laws and regulations that are intended primarily for the protection of clients, the DIF, and the banking system. Both the scope of the laws and regulations and the intensity of the supervision to which our business is subject have increased in recent years in response, we believe, to various factors including the 2008 financial crisis as well as technological and market changes. Regulatory enforcement and fines have also increased across the banking and financial services sector. Many of these changes have occurred as a result of the Dodd-Frank Act and its implementing regulations. The Company expects its business will remain subject to extensive regulation and supervision.
Regulations, along with the currently existing tax, accounting, securities, insurance, employment, monetary, and other laws and regulations, rules, standards, policies, and interpretations control the methods by which we conduct business, implement strategic initiatives and tax compliance, and govern financial reporting and disclosures. In addition, the Company is subject to changes in federal and state laws as well as changes in banking and credit regulations and governmental economic and monetary policies. Congress may enact legislation from time-to-time that affects the regulation of the financial services industry, and state legislatures may enact legislation from time-to-time affecting the regulation of financial institutions chartered by or operating in those states. Federal and state regulatory agencies also periodically propose and adopt changes to their regulations or change the application of existing regulations. In recent years, the CFPB has increased its scrutiny of fee-based business models and various fees on consumer financial products and services, including depositor, overdraft and late fee charges. For example, in February 2023, the CFPB proposed changes that would limit the amount of late fees that could be charged for late credit card payments. Certain elements of the federal government have also expressed an interest in increased regulation of these types of fees. Any of these changes or new legislation could increase our future compliance and other operating expenses and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operation.
Negative developments in the banking industry could result in increased regulatory scrutiny.
High profile bank failures in 2023 have led to disruption and volatility, including deposit outflows and an increased need for liquidity at some banks. Events involving adverse developments that affect financial institutions, transactional counterparties or other companies in the banking industry, or concerns or rumors about these or similar events, have in the past and may in the future lead to erosion of confidence in the banking system, deposit volatility, liquidity issues, stock price volatility, and other adverse developments.
The recent negative developments in the banking industry are expected to result in modifications to or additional laws and regulations governing banks and bank holding companies. These may include, an increase in capital requirements, modifications to regulatory requirements with respect to liquidity risk management, increased supervision over deposit concentrations, enhanced capital adequacy requirements, more stress testing and contingency planning requirements, implementation of other safe and sound banking practices, or other enhanced supervisory or enforcement activities. Other legislative initiatives could detrimentally impact our operations in the future. Regulatory bodies may enact new laws or promulgate new regulations or view matters or interpret laws and regulations differently than they have in the past, or commence investigations or inquiries into our business practices. Increased regulatory scrutiny, whether by virtue of new regulations (if any) or during routine examinations, could increase our cost of doing business and reduce our profitability. Among other things, there may be increased focus by both regulators and investors on deposit composition, the level of uninsured deposits, collateralized deposits, brokered deposits, unrealized losses in securities portfolios, liquidity, commercial real estate composition and concentration, and capital and general oversight and control of the foregoing.
Tax legislative initiatives or assessments could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
We are subject to income and other taxes in the United States and in the various state and local jurisdictions where we operate. The laws and regulations related to tax matters are extremely complex and subject to varying interpretations. Although management believes our positions are reasonable, we are subject to audit by the Internal Revenue Service in the United States and by state and local tax authorities in all the jurisdictions in which we conduct business operations. While we believe we comply with all applicable tax laws, rules, and regulations in the relevant jurisdictions, the tax authorities may determine that we owe additional taxes or apply existing laws and regulations differently, which could result in a significant increase in liabilities for taxes and interest in excess of accrued liabilities and harm our business and financial condition.
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New tax legislative initiatives, including increases in the corporate tax rate, may be enacted, negatively impacting our effective tax rate at the federal and state level, and potentially adversely affecting our tax positions or tax liabilities. For example, the U.S. has implemented a 15% minimum tax on corporations and a 1% excise tax on certain share buybacks. We have adopted and completed material share repurchase programs over the past several years as a means by which to return value to shareholders, and the new excise tax may have a material and negative impact on our willingness to engage in such programs in the future or may materially increase our costs associated with engaging in any such programs to the extent we determine to engage in them in the future. In addition, unilateral or multi-jurisdictional actions by various tax authorities, including an increase in tax audit activity, could have an adverse impact on our tax liabilities. In any event, significant uncertainties exist with respect to the amount of our tax liabilities, including those arising from potential and already implemented changes in tax laws. These and other tax related items could increase our future tax expense, could change our future intentions regarding the use of our earnings, and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We may be subject to more stringent capital requirements in the future, the impact of which could have a material risk to our operations.
Federal and state banking regulators possess broad powers to take supervisory actions as they deem appropriate. These supervisory actions may result in higher capital requirements, higher deposit insurance premiums, and limitations on the Company’s activities that could have a material adverse effect on its business and profitability. For example, the FDIC and the federal banking agencies approved a new rule that substantially amended the regulatory risk-based capital rules applicable to us by adopting “Basel III” regulatory capital reforms and other changes required by the Dodd-Frank Act.
The Basel III-based U.S. capital rules, among other things, impose a capital measure called Common Equity Tier 1 Capital, or CET1 capital, to which most deductions/adjustments to regulatory capital measures must be made. In addition, the Basel III-based U.S. capital rules specify that Tier 1 capital consists of CET1 and “Additional Tier 1 capital” instruments meeting certain specified requirements.
Under the U.S. Basel III-based capital rules, the minimum capital ratios are:
4.5% CET1 capital to risk-weighted assets;
6.0% tier 1 capital (that is, CET1 capital plus additional tier 1 capital) to risk-weighted assets;
8.0% total capital (that is, tier 1 capital plus tier 2 capital) to risk-weighted assets; and
4.0% tier 1 capital to total average consolidated assets as defined under U.S. Basel III Standardized approach (known as the “leverage ratio”).
The minimum risk-based capital and leverage ratios, which became effective for us on January 1, 2015, refined the definition of what constitutes “capital” for calculating these ratios. The rule required unrealized gains and losses on certain “available-for-sale” securities holdings to be included for calculating regulatory capital requirements unless a one-time opt-out is exercised. In addition, the final rule established a “capital conservation buffer” that, once fully phased in and combined with established minimum common equity, risk-based assets capital, and total capital ratios, will exceed the prompt corrective action “well-capitalized” thresholds (According to the FDIC Improvement Act of 1991, a depository institution is “well-capitalized” if it has a total risk-based capital ratio of 10% or greater; a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of 8.0% or greater; a Tier 1 leverage ratio of 5.0% or greater; a common equity Tier 1 capital ratio of 6.5% or greater; and is not subject to a regulatory order, agreement, or directive to meet and maintain a specific capital level for any capital measure.).
In January 2019, the phase-in of the capital conservation buffer requirement was completed. An institution will be subject to limitations on paying dividends, engaging in share repurchases, and paying discretionary bonuses if its capital level falls below the buffer amount. These limitations will establish a maximum percentage of eligible retained income that can be utilized for such actions.
In December 2017, the Basel Committee published standards that it described as the finalization of the Basel III post-crisis regulatory reforms (the standards are commonly referred to as “Basel IV”). Changes include, among other things:
Changes to risk-weights under the standardized approach
Restrictions on the use of models under the advanced approaches
Revisions to the credit valuation adjustment risk framework
An overhaul of the operational risk framework, including a more explicit operational risk capital charge under the standardized approach
Refinements to the leverage ratio framework
Creation of an output floor on the regulatory capital benefits that a banking organization using the advanced approaches can derive relative to the standardized approach
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In September 2022, the federal banking regulators announced their intent to revise U.S. regulatory capital requirements to align with Basel IV requirements, more recently referred to as the Basel III “Endgame,” and in July 2023 issued a notice of proposed rulemaking for comment that would substantially revise the regulatory capital framework for banking organizations with total assets of $100 billion or more and their depository institutions subsidiaries and banking organizations with significant trading activity. The proposal would not amend the capital requirements applicable to smaller, less complex banking organizations. It is unclear, however, when further guidance will become available and when any changes will go into effect. The impact of Basel IV will depend upon the way it is implemented in the U.S. with respect to institutions like First Interstate and FIB.
Changes in accounting standards could materially negatively impact our financial statements.
From time-to-time, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) and the SEC change the financial accounting and reporting standards that govern the preparation of our financial statements. These changes can materially impact how we record and report our financial condition and results of operations. For example, the FASB issued amendments to its guidance on the credit impairment of financial instruments. The amendments were effective for fiscal year 2020, which introduced a new impairment model based on current expected credit losses (“CECL”) rather than incurred losses. As a result of the amendments, we increased our allowance for credit losses, which had a significant impact on our results of operations.
Any failure to comply with laws and regulations, including the Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) and fair lending laws, could lead to material penalties.
We must comply with the CRA, the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, the Fair Housing Act, and other fair lending laws and regulations that impose non-discriminatory lending and other requirements on financial institutions. A failure to comply with these laws could result in a wide variety of sanctions, including the required payment of damages and civil money penalties, injunctive relief, imposition of restrictions on mergers and acquisitions activity, and restrictions on expansion. In addition to actions by the U.S. Department of Justice and other federal agencies, including the Federal Reserve and CFPB, who are responsible for enforcing these laws, our compliance with fair lending laws could be challenged in private class action litigation. The costs of defending any such challenge and any adverse outcome arising from such a challenge could damage our reputation or could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, or results of operations.
We are subject to the USA PATRIOT Act, OFAC guidelines and requirements, the Bank Secrecy Act (“BSA”), and related Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (“FinCEN”) and Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council (“FFIEC”) Guidelines and regulations and any failure to comply with them could result in material implications that could harm our business.
We are routinely examined by our regulators for compliance with the USA PATRIOT Act, OFAC guidelines and requirements, the BSA, and related FinCEN and FFIEC Guidelines. Failure to maintain and implement adequate programs and fully comply with relevant laws or regulations could have serious legal, financial, and reputational consequences for us, including causing applicable bank regulatory authorities not to approve merger or acquisition transactions when regulatory approval is required, or to prohibit such transactions even if approval is not required. Regulatory authorities have imposed cease and desist orders and significant civil money penalties against institutions found to be violating these regulations. If any of the foregoing were to come to pass, our business, financial condition, or results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
Federal deposit insurance premiums could increase further in the future.
The FDIC insures deposits at FDIC-insured financial institutions, including the Bank. The FDIC charges insured financial institutions premiums to maintain the DIF at a specific level. Historically, unfavorable economic conditions increased bank failures and these additional bank failures decreased the DIF. Extraordinary growth in insured deposits during the COVID-19 pandemic caused the ratio of the DIF to total insured deposits to fall below the current statutory minimum of 1.35%. To restore the DIF to its statutorily mandated minimums, the FDIC significantly increased deposit insurance premium rates, including the Bank's premium rates, resulting in increased expenses.
In addition to the FDIC’s restoration plan, the FDIC implemented a special assessment to cover the losses incurred by the DIF in response to the 2023 bank failures. Under this additional special assessment, the Bank was assessed 13.4 basis points annually on an assessment base equal to its estimated uninsured deposits, after excluding the first $5 billion of uninsured deposits. The special assessment will be collected on a quarterly basis for eight quarters beginning with the first quarter of 2024, although the FDIC retained the flexibility to extend the special assessment period and/or impose a one-time shortfall assessment to collect any necessary amounts to fully recover the losses to the DIF.
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The FDIC may further increase the assessment rates or impose additional special assessments in the future to restore and then steadily increase the DIF to these statutory target levels. Any increase in the Bank's FDIC premiums could have an adverse effect on its business, financial condition and results of operations. FDIC insurance premiums could increase in the future in response to similar declining economic conditions.
Credit Risks
We may be subject to lending risks and risks associated with loan sector concentrations, which could adversely affect the Company.    
We take on credit risk by virtue of making loans and extending loan commitments and letters of credit. Our credit standards, procedures, and policies may not prevent us from incurring substantial credit losses, particularly considering recent market developments including the recent increases by the Federal Reserve to its benchmark interest rate.
Our loans held for investment portfolio are concentrated in commercial real estate and commercial business loans. As of December 31, 2023, we had $11.8 billion of commercial loans, including $8.9 billion of commercial real estate loans, representing approximately 64.5% of our loans held for investment portfolio.
Commercial loans may involve greater risks than our other types of lending. Because payments on such loans are often dependent on the successful operation or development of the property or business involved, repayment of such loans can be more sensitive to adverse conditions in the real estate market or the general economy. Commercial loans typically are made based on borrowers’ ability to make repayment from the cash flow of their commercial venture. If the cash flow from business operations is reduced because of adverse conditions, the borrower’s ability to repay the loan may be impaired. Commercial loans are, on average, larger loans as compared to other loans with less readily marketable collateral. Given these factors, losses incurred on commercial real estate and commercial loans could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
In addition, many of our borrowers operate in industries that are directly or indirectly impacted by changes in commodity prices, such as agriculture and livestock businesses, as well as businesses indirectly impacted by commodities prices, such as businesses that transport commodities or manufacture equipment used in production of commodities. Changes in commodity products prices depend on local, regional, and global events or conditions that affect supply and demand for the relevant commodity. Deterioration in economic conditions or in the real estate market could result in increased delinquencies and foreclosures and could have an adverse effect on the collateral value for many of these loans and on the repayment ability of many of our borrowers. Deterioration in economic conditions or in the real estate market could also reduce the number of loans we make to businesses in the construction and real estate industry, which could negatively impact our interest income and results of operations. Similarly, the occurrence of a natural or man-made disaster in our market areas could impair the value of the collateral we hold for real estate secured loans. Any factor or combination of factors identified above could negatively impact our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.
A decline in economic conditions could reduce demand for our products and services and negatively impact the credit quality of loans, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations.
Our clients are located predominantly in Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, Oregon, South Dakota, Washington, and Wyoming. Unlike larger banks that are more geographically diversified, our profitability largely depends on the general economic conditions in these areas. Deterioration in economic conditions could result in the following consequences, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, liquidity, and results of operations:
demand for our products and services may decline;
loan delinquencies, problem assets, and foreclosures may increase;
increases in the provisions for credit losses and loans and lease charge-offs;
decrease in net interest income derived from lending activities;
collateral for loans, especially real estate, may decline in value;
future borrowing power of our clients may be reduced;
the value of our securities portfolio may decline;
the net worth and liquidity of loan guarantors may decline, impairing their ability to honor commitments to us; and
increases in our operating expenses associated with attending to the effects of the above noted consequences.
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Volatility and uncertainty related to inflation and the effects of inflation, which may lead to increased costs for businesses and consumers and potentially contribute to poor business and economic conditions generally, may enhance or contribute to some of the risks discussed herein. For example, higher inflation, or volatility and uncertainty related to inflation, could reduce demand for our products, adversely affect the creditworthiness of the Company’s borrowers, or result in lower values for our investment securities and other interest-earning assets. The Federal Reserve stated its current objective is to return the rate of inflation to 2% and it has been aggressively acting to achieve this goal. Throughout 2022 and 2023, the Federal Reserve has raised the federal funds rate to its current targeted rate between 5.25% and 5.5% in an effort to curb inflation. With the general inflationary pressures easing, the Federal Reserve slowed it’s pace of raising interest rates in the second half of 2023. As market interest rates rise, we experience competitive pressures to increase the rates we pay on deposits, which may decrease our net interest income. In addition, inflationary pressures will increase our operating costs and could have a significant negative effect on our borrowers and the values of collateral securing loans, which could negatively affect our financial performance. To the extent these monetary policies do not mitigate the volatility and uncertainty related to inflation and the effects of inflation, or to the extent conditions otherwise worsen, we could experience adverse effects on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Deflationary pressures, while possibly lowering our operating costs, could also have a significant negative effect on our borrowers, especially our business borrowers, and the values of underlying collateral securing loans, which could negatively affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Additionally, a significant decline in general economic conditions caused by the economic slowdown in Europe and the United States, the impact of trade negotiations, escalating tensions with China, economic conditions in China, including the global economic impacts of the Chinese economy, China’s regulation of commerce, escalating military tensions in Europe as a result of Russia’s military action in Ukraine, and the conflict in Israel and the surrounding regions, the outbreak of other international or domestic hostilities or other unrest, a default by the United States or other governments in repaying financial obligations, a shutdown of all or part of the United States government or other governments, the effects of pandemics or other health crises, acts of terrorism, climate-related events such as prolonged drought, unemployment, or other economic and geopolitical factors beyond our control, could further impact these local economic conditions and negatively affect our business and results of operations.
If we experience loan credit losses in excess of estimated amounts, our earnings could be adversely affected.
The risk of credit losses on loans varies with, among other things, general economic conditions, the composition of our loan portfolio, the creditworthiness of the borrower over the term of the loan, and, in the case of a collateralized loan, the value and marketability of the collateral for the loan. We maintain an allowance for credit losses based upon, among other things, historical experience, delinquency trends, economic conditions, and regular reviews of loan portfolio quality. Based upon such factors, management makes various assumptions and judgments about the ultimate collectability of our loan portfolio and provides an allowance for credit losses. These assumptions and judgments are complex and difficult to determine given the significant uncertainty surrounding future conditions in the general economy and banking industry. If management’s assumptions and judgments prove to be incorrect and the allowance for credit losses is inadequate, or if banking authorities or regulations require us to increase the allowance for credit losses, our net income may be adversely affected. As a result, an increase in credit losses could have a material adverse effect on our earnings, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.
We invest in Collateralized Loan Obligations (CLO) securities, which may expose us to losses in connection with such investments.
We invest in certain AAA senior tranches of the capital structure in CLO securities. The senior tranche takes priority with respect to the interest and principal cash flows of the CLO security, while retaining the last priority in a loss scenario. The senior tranches are relatively more liquid than the subordinated notes due to the accompanying credit enhancement. The value of any investment in this asset class could decrease depending on the performance of the underlying collateral in the CLO. As of December 31, 2023, we had available-for-sale CLO securities with an estimated fair value of $1,119.7 million, or 19.2% of our available-for-sale investment portfolio.
United States trade policies and other factors beyond the Company’s control, including the imposition of tariffs and retaliatory tariffs, may adversely impact our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Uncertainties continue regarding the potential for a renegotiation of international trade agreements by the Biden administration after changes in United States trade policies, legislation, treaties, and tariffs were enacted by the Trump administration. These changes, including trade policies and tariffs affecting other countries, including China, countries comprising the European Union or Middle East, Canada, and Mexico, and retaliatory tariffs by such countries, could materially harm our business. Tariffs and retaliatory tariffs have been imposed, and additional tariffs and retaliatory tariffs are periodically discussed.
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A trade war or other governmental action related to tariffs or international trade agreements or policies, as well as COVID-19 or other potential epidemics or pandemics, have the potential to negatively impact our and/or our clients’ costs, demand for our clients’ products, and/or the U.S. economy or certain sectors thereof and, thus, adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
The soundness of other financial institutions could adversely affect the Company.
Financial services companies are interrelated as a result of trading, clearing, counterparty, or other relationships. We have exposure to many different industries and counterparties. For example, we execute transactions with counterparties in the financial services industry, including brokers and dealers, commercial banks, investment banks, and other institutional clients. As a result, defaults by, or even rumors or questions about, one or more financial services companies or the financial services industry at times have led to market-wide liquidity problems and could lead to losses or defaults by us or by other institutions. Many of these transactions expose us to increased credit risk in the event of default of a counterparty or client.
Liquidity Risks
We are subject to liquidity risks which could impair our cash flows and adversely affect the Company.
Liquidity is the ability to meet current and future cash flow needs on a timely basis at a reasonable cost. Our liquidity is used to make loans and repay deposit liabilities as they become due or are demanded by clients. We rely on our ability to generate deposits and effectively manage the repayment and maturity schedules of our loans and investment securities, respectively, to provide adequate liquidity to fund our operations. While scheduled loan repayments are a relatively stable source of funds, they are subject to the ability of borrowers to repay the loans. The ability of borrowers to repay loans can be adversely affected by a number of factors, including changes in economic conditions, adverse trends or events affecting business industry groups, reductions in real estate values or markets, business closings or lay-offs, inclement weather, natural disasters, which could be exacerbated by potential climate change, and international instability.
Additionally, deposit levels may be affected by several factors, including rates paid by competitors, general interest rate levels, regulatory capital requirements, returns available to clients on alternative investments and general economic conditions. We may experience potential stresses on liquidity management. We may see deposit levels decrease as clients adjust to distressed economic conditions by using the funds that would otherwise be savings. Accordingly, we may be required from time to time to rely on secondary sources of liquidity to meet withdrawal demands or otherwise fund operations. We maintain a portfolio of investment securities that may be used as a secondary source of liquidity to the extent the securities are not pledged as collateral. Other potential sources of liquidity include the sale of loans, the utilization of available government and regulatory assistance programs, the ability to acquire brokered deposits, the issuance of additional collateralized borrowings such as Federal Home Loan Bank advances, the issuance of debt or equity securities, the sale of available-for-sale securities which may require the sale of securities in a loss position, securities sold under repurchase agreements, federal funds purchased, and borrowings through the Federal Reserve’s discount window. Without sufficient liquidity from these potential sources, we may not be able to meet the cash flow requirements of our depositors and borrowers.
Additionally, our access to funding sources in amounts adequate to finance our activities or on terms that are acceptable to us could be impaired by factors specific to us, the financial services industry, or the economy in general. Factors that could reduce our access to liquidity sources include a downturn in our local or national economies, unfavorable market conditions, difficult or illiquid credit markets, impairments on the value of the collateral we use to secure certain of our borrowings, or adverse regulatory actions against us. A failure to maintain adequate liquidity could have a material, adverse effect on our regulatory standing, business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Loss of deposits or a change in deposit mix could increase the Company’s funding costs and negatively affect the Company’s operations.
Deposits are a low cost and stable source of funding. We depend on checking and savings, negotiable order of withdrawal, money market deposit account balances, and other forms of client deposits as our primary source of funding. Deposit levels may be affected by several factors, including interest rates paid by competitors, general interest rate levels, returns available to customers on alternative investments and general economic conditions that affect savings levels and the amount of liquidity in the economy, including government stimulus efforts in response to economic crises. The availability of internet banking products has increased the mobility of client deposits. We compete with banks and other financial institutions for deposits. Funding costs may increase because the Company may lose deposits and replace them with more expensive sources of funding. Clients may shift their deposits into higher-cost products, or the Company may need to raise its interest rates to remain competitive in the marketplace. Higher funding costs reduce the Company’s net interest income and net income.
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We experienced modest changes in our total outstanding deposit balances following the bank closures in March and May 2023 and related events. We also experienced changes in deposit balances resulting from typical seasonal fluctuations due to the nature of our business and the business of our customers. We cannot be assured that unusual deposit withdrawal activity will not affect banks generally in the future or the Bank specifically.
Our Liquidity could be impacted by an inability to access funding, by an unforeseen outflow of cash, or by the inability to monetize liquid assets.
Factors outside of the Company’s control, such as a general market disruption or an operational problem that affects third parties, could impair the Company’s ability to access short-term funding or create an unforeseen outflow of cash due to, among other factors, draws on unfunded commitments or deposit attrition. Large-scale withdrawals of deposits could require us to access short-term funding sources to meet immediate cash needs or pay significantly higher interest rates to obtain or maintain our deposits, which would have an adverse impact on our net interest income and net income. In addition, changes to the underwriting guidelines or lending policies may limit or restrict our ability to borrow, and therefore could have a significant adverse impact on our liquidity. In the event of future turmoil in the banking industry or other events, there is no guarantee that the U.S. government will invoke the systemic risk exception, create additional liquidity programs, or take any other action to stabilize the banking industry or provide liquidity. The Company’s inability to monetize liquid assets or to access short-term funding or capital markets could limit the Company’s ability to make new loans or meet existing lending commitments and could impact the Company’s liquidity and capitalization.
Market Risks
Changes in interest rates may have an adverse effect on demand for our products and services and on our profitability.
Our earnings and cash flows are largely dependent on net interest income, which is the difference between interest income earned on interest-earning assets, such as loans and investment securities, and interest expense paid on interest-bearing liabilities, such as deposits and borrowed funds. The level of net interest income is primarily a function of the average balance of interest-earning assets, the average balance of interest-bearing liabilities, and the spread between the yield on such assets and the cost of such liabilities. The narrowing of interest rate spreads could adversely affect our earnings and financial condition. The Federal Reserve increased the federal funds target range by 525 basis points between March 16, 2022 and July 26, 2023 in an effort to dampen increasing inflation rates. With the general inflationary pressures easing, the Federal Reserve slowed its pace of raising interest rates in the second half of 2023. The Federal Reserve also indicated in December 2023 that there may be interest rate decreases during 2024, although we cannot control or predict with certainty changes in interest rates. Regional and local economic conditions, competitive pressures, and the policies of regulatory authorities, including monetary policies of the Federal Reserve and the speed of their implementation, affect interest income and interest expense.
As of December 31, 2023, 40.2% of our loans were advanced to our clients on a variable or adjustable-rate basis. The prolonged higher borrowing costs resulting from the increases by the Federal Reserve may cause financial hardship on our borrowers, reducing the ability of borrowers to repay their current loan obligations. As a result, these increases in interest rates could result in increased loan defaults, foreclosures, and charge-offs and could necessitate further increases to the allowance for credit losses, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, or results of operations. In addition, a decrease in interest rates could negatively impact our margins and profitability and uncertainty about the timing and magnitude of future interest rate changes could reduce borrowing demand and, thus, the need for our lending services.
Changes in monetary policy, including changes in interest rates, could influence not only the interest we receive on loans and securities and the amount of interest we pay on deposits and borrowings, but could also adversely affect (1) our ability to originate loans and obtain deposits, (2) the fair value of our financial assets and liabilities, including mortgage servicing rights, (3) our ability to realize gains on the sale of assets, and (4) the average duration of our mortgage-backed securities and collateralized mortgage obligations portfolios. For example, rising interest rates could adversely affect our mortgage banking business because higher interest rates could cause clients to apply for fewer mortgages. Similarly, rising interest rates would increase the required periodic payment for variable rate loans and may result in an increase in non-performing loans. Additionally, rising interest rates may increase the cost of our deposits, which are a primary source of funding. Any substantial, unexpected, or prolonged change in market interest rates could have a material, adverse effect on our cash flows, financial condition, and results of operations.
Changes in interest rates can also affect the slope of the yield curve. The impact from a decline in the current yield curve or a flatter or inverted yield curve could cause our net interest income and net interest margin to contract, which could have a material adverse effect on our net income and cash flows, as well as the value of our assets. An inverted yield curve or downward shift in interest rates may also adversely affect the yield on investment securities by increasing the prepayment risk on certain securities. A flattening or inversion of the yield curve or a negative interest rate environment in the United States could create downward pressure on our net interest margin.
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Changes in interest rates may have an adverse effect on the value of our investment securities.
Inflation and rapid increases in interest rates have led to a decline in the trading value of previously issued government securities with interest rates below current market interest rates. Any sale of investment securities that are held in an unrealized loss position by us for liquidity or other purposes will cause actual losses to be realized. There can be no assurance that there will not be additional bank failures or issues such as liquidity concerns in the broader financial services industry or in the U.S. financial system. Adverse financial market and economic conditions can exert downward pressure on stock prices, security prices, and credit availability for financial institutions without regard to their underlying financial strength. The volatility and economic disruption resulting from the bank closures in the first two quarters of 2023 particularly impacted the price of securities issued by financial institutions, including us.
Operational Risks
Our Company faces cybersecurity risks, including denial-of-service attacks, hacking, and identity theft that could result in the disclosure of confidential information, adversely affect our business or reputation, and create significant legal and financial exposure.
Our computer systems and network infrastructure are subject to security risks and could be susceptible to cyber-attacks, such as denial-of-service attacks, hacking, malware, terrorist activities, or identity theft. Financial services institutions and companies engaged in data processing have reported breaches in the security of their websites or other systems, some of which have involved sophisticated and targeted attacks intended to obtain unauthorized access to confidential information, destroy data, disable or degrade service, or sabotage systems, often through the introduction of computer viruses, malware, ransomware, cyber-attacks, and other means. Denial-of-service attacks have been launched against several large financial services institutions, primarily resulting in inconvenience. Future ransomware and cyber-attacks could be more disruptive and damaging. Hacking and identity theft risks, in particular, could cause serious reputational harm to the Company and the Bank. 
The hardware and software we purchase from suppliers to facilitate financial services and perform company operations are also at risk of having embedded malware, viruses, and other methods intended to develop unauthorized access to confidential information. These types of attacks, known as “supply-chain attacks,” have become more prevalent and are creating additional risks through the solutions and tools upon which we rely. While we have a third-party risk management program to oversee our vendors and procurement, our ability to successfully mitigate these risks that occur in the hardware and software of these vendors is limited. To the extent we experience supply-chain attacks, our business and reputation could be materially adversely affected.
In addition, we provide our clients with the ability to bank remotely, including online, through their mobile device, and over the telephone. The secure transmission of confidential information over the internet and other remote channels is a critical element of remote banking. Our network could be vulnerable to unauthorized access, computer viruses, malware, phishing schemes, and other internal and external security breaches. We may be required to spend significant capital and other resources to protect against threats, or to alleviate problems caused by security breaches or malicious software. To the extent that our activities or the activities of our clients involve the storage and transmission of confidential information, security breaches, and viruses could expose us to claims, regulatory scrutiny, litigation, and other possible liabilities. Other possible points of intrusion or disruption not within the Company’s control include internet service providers, electronic mail portal providers, social media portals, distant-server (cloud) service providers, electronic data security providers, telecommunications companies, and smart phone manufacturers.
Despite efforts to ensure the integrity of our systems, cyber threats are rapidly evolving and we may not be able to anticipate or prevent all such attacks, nor may we be able to implement guaranteed preventive measures against such security breaches. The techniques used by cyber criminals change frequently, may not be recognized until launched or later, and can originate from a wide variety of sources, including outside groups such as external service providers. These risks may increase in the future as we continue to increase our mobile payment and other internet-based product offerings and expand our internal usage of web-based products and applications. Further, targeted social engineering attacks may be sophisticated and difficult to prevent and our employees, clients, or other users of our systems may be fraudulently induced to disclose sensitive information, allowing cyber criminals to gain access to our systems or data of our clients.
In addition, some of our employees work remotely, including while traveling for business, which increases our cybersecurity risk, creates data accessibility concerns, and makes us more susceptible to security breaches or business disruptions.
A successful penetration or circumvention of system security could cause us serious negative consequences, including significant disruption of operations, misappropriation of confidential information, or damage to our computers or systems or to those of our clients and counterparties. A successful security breach could result in violations of applicable privacy and other laws, financial loss to us or to our clients, loss of confidence in our security measures, significant litigation exposure, and harm to our reputation, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.
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Privacy, information security, and data protection laws, rules, and regulations could affect or limit how we collect and use personal information, increase our costs, and adversely affect our business opportunities.
We are subject to various privacy, information security, and data protection laws, including: (i) certain limitations on our ability to share non-public personal information about our clients with non-affiliated third parties; (ii) requirements for certain disclosures to clients about our information collection, sharing, and security practices and that afford clients the right to “opt out” of any information sharing by us with non-affiliated third parties (with certain exceptions); and (iii) requirements that we develop, implement, and maintain a written information security program containing appropriate safeguards based on our size and complexity, the nature and scope of our activities, and the sensitivity of client information we process, as well as plans for responding to data security breaches. Compliance with current or future privacy, data protection, and information security laws (including those regarding security breach notification) affecting client or employee data could result in higher compliance and technology costs and could restrict our ability to provide certain products and services, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial conditions, or results of operations. Our failure to comply with privacy, data protection, and information security laws could result in potentially significant regulatory or governmental investigations or actions, litigation, fines, sanctions, and damage to our reputation, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, or results of operations.
Moreover, many U.S. and foreign laws and regulations, including those promulgated by the SEC, require companies to provide notice of cybersecurity incidents involving certain types of personal data or unauthorized access to, or interference with, our information systems to the public, certain individuals, the media, government authorities, or other third parties. Certain of these laws and regulations include notice or disclosure obligations contingent upon the result of complex analyses, including in some cases a determination of materiality. The nature of cybersecurity incidents can make it difficult to assess an incident’s overall impact quickly and comprehensively to our business, and we may make errors in our assessments. If we are unable to appropriately assess a cybersecurity incident in the context of required analyses then we could face compliance issues under these laws and regulations, and we could be subject to lawsuits, regulatory fines or investigations, or other liabilities, any of which could adversely affect our business and operating results. Furthermore, cybersecurity incidents experienced by us, or by our customers or vendors, that lead to public disclosures may also lead to widespread negative publicity and increased government or regulatory scrutiny. Any security compromise in our industry, whether actual or perceived, could harm our reputation; erode customer confidence in our security measures; negatively affect our ability to attract new customers; or subject us to third-party lawsuits, regulatory fines or investigations, or other liability, any of which could adversely affect our business and operating results. Even the perception of inadequate security may damage our reputation and negatively impact our ability to win new customers and retain existing customers.
Additionally, we could be required to expend significant capital and other resources to investigate and address any actual or suspected cybersecurity incident or to prevent further or additional incidents. To maintain business relationships, we may find it necessary or desirable to incur costs to provide remediation and incentives to customers or other business partners following an actual or suspected security incident. We also cannot be sure that our existing cybersecurity insurance will continue to be available on acceptable terms, in sufficient amounts to cover any claims we submit, or at all. Further, we cannot be sure that insurers will not deny coverage as to any claim, and some security incidents may be outside the scope of our coverage, including in instances where they are considered force majeure events. Security incidents may result in increased costs for cybersecurity insurance. One or more large, successful claims against us in excess of our available insurance coverage, or changes in our insurance policies, including premium increases or large deductible or co-insurance requirements, could have an adverse effect on our business, operating results, and financial condition.
Our goodwill and other intangible assets may become impaired, which may adversely impact our results of operations and financial condition.
The excess purchase price over the fair value of net assets from acquisitions, or goodwill, is evaluated for impairment at least annually and on an interim basis if an event or circumstance indicates it is likely an impairment has occurred. In testing for impairment, the Company performs a qualitative assessment to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is in excess of its carrying value. If it is not more likely than not that the fair value of the reporting unit is in excess of the carrying value, the fair value of net assets is estimated based on analyses of our market value, discounted cash flows, and peer values. Consequently, the determination of the fair value of goodwill is sensitive to market-based economics and other key assumptions. Variability in market conditions or in key assumptions could result in impairment of goodwill, which is recorded as a non-cash adjustment to income. An impairment of goodwill could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. As of December 31, 2023, we had goodwill of $1,100.9 million, or 34.1% of our total stockholders’ equity.
Identifiable intangible assets other than goodwill consist of core deposit intangibles and other intangible assets (primarily customer relationships). Adverse events or circumstances could impact the recoverability of these intangible assets including loss of core deposits, significant losses of customer accounts and/or balances, increased competition or adverse changes in the economy. To the extent these intangible assets are deemed unrecoverable, a non-cash impairment charge would be recorded which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
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The Company relies on other companies to provide certain key components of its business infrastructure.
We are reliant upon certain external vendors to provide products and services necessary to maintain our day-to-day operations and we outsource many of our major systems, such as certain data processing, loan servicing, and deposit processing systems. Through our contractual relationships, external vendors are subject to some of the same rules and regulations that are applicable to the Company and their compliance with regulatory requirements is our responsibility. While the Company has selected these external vendors and systems carefully and continues to manage and oversee these vendors, it does not control their operations. Failure of certain external vendors or systems to perform or provide services in accordance with contractual arrangements could be disruptive to our operations and limit our ability to provide certain products and services demanded by our clients. Because our information technology and telecommunications systems interface with and depend on third-party systems, we could experience disruptions if demand for such services exceeds capacity or such third-party systems fail or experience interruptions. If significant, sustained, or repeated, a system failure or disruption could compromise our ability to operate effectively, damage our reputation, result in a loss of client business, and/or subject us to additional regulatory scrutiny and possible financial liability. Any of the failures or disruptions mentioned above could negatively impact our financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, and prospects. Replacing these third-party vendors could also entail significant delay and expense.
Our reputation is very important to our ability to maintain, attract and retain client relationships and if our reputation were impaired, it could have an adverse effect on the Company.
Our clients expect us to deliver personalized financial services with the highest standards of performance, professionalism, compliance, and ethics. Damage to our reputation could undermine retention of our current clients and our ability to attract potential clients while also impairing the confidence of our counterparties and vendors, the result of which affects our ability to effect transactions. Maintaining our reputation depends, in part, on our ability to identify and address issues that may arise such as potential conflicts of interest, anti-money laundering, fair lending issues, client personal information and privacy issues, cybersecurity, employee, client and other third-party fraud, record-keeping, regulatory investigations, and any litigation that may arise from the failure or perceived failure of us to comply with legal and regulatory requirements. To maintain our reputation, we also must prevent third parties from infringing on the “First Interstate Bank” brand and associated trademarks and our other intellectual property. Our reputation or prospects could be significantly damaged by adverse publicity or negative information regarding our Company, whether or not true, that may be posted on social media, reported in the news, or posted in other parts of the internet. Defending our reputation, trademarks, and other intellectual property, including through litigation, could result in costs that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, or results of operations.
The results of mainstream media and social media contagion and speculation could impact the banking system and have an adverse effect on us.
Dissemination of information by mainstream media and social media platforms is extensive and can occur at a rapid pace. Adverse conditions at financial institutions of significant size can negatively impact