Item 5. Market for The Registrant's Common Equity,
Item 6. Selected Financial Data
Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
Item 9A. Controls and Procedures
Item 9B. Other Information
Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers, and Corporate Governance
Item 11. Executive Compensation
Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions And
Item 14. Principal Accountant Fees and Services
Item 15. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules
First Midwest Bancorp Earnings 2018-12-31
FMBI 10K Annual Report
10-K 1 fmbi1231201810-k.htm 10-K Document
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
Annual Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018
Transition Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the transition period from to
Commission File Number 0-10967
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
(IRS Employer Identification No.)
8750 West Bryn Mawr Avenue, Suite 1300
Chicago, Illinois 60631-3655
(Address of principal executive offices) (zip code)
Registrant's telephone number, including area code: (708) 831-7483
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common stock, $0.01 Par Value
The NASDAQ Stock Market
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes [X] No [ ].
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes [ ] No [X].
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes [X] No [ ].
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes [X] No [ ].
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. [X].
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer [X]
Accelerated filer [ ]
Non-accelerated filer [ ]
Smaller reporting company [ ]
Emerging growth company [ ]
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. [ ]
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell Company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes [ ] No [X].
The aggregate market value of the registrant's outstanding voting common stock held by non-affiliates on June 30, 2018, determined using a per share closing price on that date of $25.47, as quoted on the NASDAQ Stock Market, was $2,568,432,801.
As of February 26, 2019, there were 106,848,075 shares of common stock, $0.01 par value, outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the Registrant's Proxy Statement for the 2019 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated by reference into Part III.
First Midwest Bancorp, Inc. (the "Company," "we," "us," or "our") is a Delaware corporation incorporated in 1982 and headquartered in Chicago, Illinois. The Company is one of Illinois' largest independent publicly-traded bank holding companies, with assets of $15.5 billion as of December 31, 2018, and is registered under the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended (the "BHC Act"). The Company's common stock, $0.01 par value per share ("Common Stock"), is listed on the NASDAQ Stock Market and trades under the symbol "FMBI."
In 1983, the Company became a bank holding company through the simultaneous acquisition of over 20 affiliated financial institutions. Our principal subsidiary, First Midwest Bank (the "Bank"), is an Illinois state-chartered bank and provides a full range of commercial, retail, treasury management, and wealth management products and services to commercial and industrial, agricultural, commercial real estate, municipal, and consumer customers. The Bank operates primarily throughout the metropolitan Chicago area, northwest Indiana, central and western Illinois, and eastern Iowa through 120 banking locations.
The Company maintains a philosophy that focuses on helping its customers achieve financial success through its long-standing commitment to delivering highly-personalized service. The Company has grown and expanded its market footprint by opening new locations, growing existing locations, enhancing its internet and mobile capabilities, and acquiring financial institutions, branches, and non-banking organizations. As of December 31, 2018, the Company and its subsidiaries employed a total of 2,046 full-time equivalent employees.
The Company is responsible for the overall conduct, direction, and performance of its subsidiaries. In addition, the Company provides various services to its subsidiaries, establishes policies and procedures, and provides other resources as needed, including capital. As of December 31, 2018, the following were the Company's primary subsidiaries:
First Midwest Bank
The Bank, through its predecessors, has provided banking services for nearly 80 years and offers a variety of financial products and services that are designed to meet the financial needs of the customers and communities it serves. As of December 31, 2018, the Bank had total assets of $15.4 billion, total loans of $11.4 billion, and total deposits of $12.2 billion.
The Bank operates the following wholly-owned subsidiaries:
First Midwest Equipment Finance Co. ("FMEF"), an Illinois corporation providing equipment loans and leases and commercial financing alternatives to traditional bank financing.
First Midwest Securities Management, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company managing investment securities.
Synergy Property Holdings, LLC, an Illinois limited liability company managing the majority of the Bank's other real estate owned ("OREO") properties.
Plank Road, LLC, an Illinois limited liability company acquired during 2016 that manages certain of the Bank's OREO properties.
First Midwest Holdings, Inc., a Delaware corporation managing investment securities, principally municipal obligations, and providing corporate management services to its wholly-owned subsidiary, FMB Investments Ltd., a Bermuda corporation. FMB Investments Ltd. manages investment securities.
The Boulevard, Inc., an Indiana corporation acquired during 2017 that provides insurance brokerage services to individual and institutional customers.
Catalyst Asset Holdings, LLC
Catalyst Asset Holdings, LLC ("Catalyst"), an Illinois limited liability company, manages certain non-performing assets of the Company. Catalyst has one wholly-owned subsidiary, Restoration Asset Management, LLC, an Illinois limited liability company that manages Catalyst's OREO properties.
Premier Asset Management LLC
Premier Asset Management, LLC ("Premier"), an Illinois limited liability company, is a registered investment adviser under the Investment Advisors Act of 1940. Premier provides wealth management services to individual and institutional customers.
First Midwest Capital Trust I, Great Lakes Statutory Trust II, Great Lakes Statutory Trust III, and Northern States
Statutory Trust I
First Midwest Capital Trust I, a Delaware statutory business trust, was formed in 2003. Great Lakes Statutory Trust II, Great Lakes Statutory Trust III, and Northern States Statutory Trust I are Delaware statutory business trusts that were acquired through acquisitions. These trusts were established for the purpose of issuing trust-preferred securities and lending the proceeds to the Company in return for junior subordinated debentures of the Company. The Company guarantees payments of distributions on the trust-preferred securities and payments on redemption of the trust-preferred securities on a limited basis.
These trusts qualify as variable interest entities for which the Company is not the primary beneficiary. Consequently, the accounts of those entities are not consolidated in the Company's financial statements. However, the combined $60.7 million in trust-preferred securities held by the four trusts as of December 31, 2018 are included in Tier 2 capital of the Company for regulatory capital purposes. For additional discussion of the regulatory capital treatment of trust-preferred securities, see the section of this Item 1 titled "Capital Requirements" below.
The Company has one reportable segment. The Company's chief operating decision maker evaluates the operations of the Company using consolidated information for the purposes of allocating resources and assessing performance.
The Bank has been in the business of commercial and retail banking for nearly 80 years, attracting deposits, making loans, and providing treasury and wealth management services. The Bank operates in the most active and diverse markets in Illinois, including the metropolitan Chicago market and central and western Illinois. The Bank's other market areas include northwestern Indiana and eastern Iowa. These areas encompass urban, suburban, and rural markets, and contain a diversified mix of industry groups.
No individual or single group of related accounts is considered material in relation to the assets or deposits of the Bank or in relation to the overall business of the Company. The Bank does not engage in any sub-prime lending, nor does it engage in investment banking activities.
Deposit and Retail Services
The Bank offers a full range of deposit products and services, including checking, NOW, money market, and savings accounts and various types of short and long-term certificates of deposit. These products are tailored to our market areas at competitive rates. In addition to these products, the Bank offers debit and automated teller machine ("ATM") cards, credit cards, internet and mobile banking, telephone banking, and financial education services.
Corporate and Consumer Lending
The Bank originates commercial and industrial, agricultural, commercial real estate, and consumer loans, primarily to businesses and residents in the Bank's market areas. In addition to originating loans, the Bank offers capital market products to commercial customers, which include derivatives and interest rate risk mitigation products. The Bank's largest category of lending is commercial real estate, followed by commercial and industrial. For detailed information regarding the Company's loan portfolio, see the "Loan Portfolio and Credit Quality" section of "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" in Item 7 of this Form 10-K.
Commercial and Industrial and Agricultural Loans
The Bank provides commercial and industrial loans to middle market businesses generally located in the metropolitan Chicago area. Our broad range of financing products includes supporting working capital needs, accounts receivable financing, inventory and equipment financing, and select sector-based lending, such as healthcare, asset-based lending, structured finance, and syndications. The Bank provides agricultural loans to meet seasonal production, equipment, and farm real estate borrowing needs of individual and corporate crop and livestock producers.
Commercial Real Estate Loans
The Bank provides a wide array of financing products to developers, investors, other real estate professionals, and owners of various businesses, which include funding for the construction, purchase, refinance, or improvement of commercial real estate properties. The mix of properties securing the loans in the Bank's commercial real estate portfolio is balanced between owner-occupied and investor categories and is diverse in terms of type and geographic location, generally within the Bank's market areas.
Consumer loan products include mortgages, home equity lines and loans, personal loans, specialty loans, and consumer secured loans. These products are primarily provided to the residents who live and work within the Bank's market areas. The Bank also provides these consumer loan products to customers outside of its primary market area that fall within the Bank's credit guidelines.
Our treasury management products and services provide commercial customers the ability to manage cash flow. These products include receivable services such as Automated Clearing House ("ACH") collections, lockbox, remote deposit capture, and financial electronic data interchange, payables and payroll services such as wire transfer, account reconciliation, controlled disbursement, direct deposit, and positive pay, information reporting services, liquidity management, corporate credit cards, fraud prevention, and merchant services.
The Bank's wealth management group and Premier provide investment management services to institutional and individual customers, including corporate and public retirement plans, foundations and endowments, high net worth individuals, and multi-employer trust funds. Services include fiduciary and executor services, financial planning solutions, investment advisory services, employee benefit plans, and private banking services. These services are provided through credentialed investment, legal, tax, and wealth management professionals who identify opportunities and provide services tailored to our customers' goals and objectives.
Growth and Acquisitions
In the normal course of business, the Company explores potential opportunities for expansion in our primary and adjacent market areas through organic growth and the acquisition of financial institutions, branches, and non-banking organizations. As a matter of policy, the Company generally does not comment on any dialogue or negotiations with potential targets or possible acquisitions until a definitive acquisition agreement is signed. The Company's ability to engage in certain merger or acquisition transactions depends on the bank regulators' views at the time as to the capital levels, quality of management, and overall condition of the Company, in addition to their assessment of a variety of other factors, including our compliance with law. The Company has announced and successfully completed a number of acquisitions, which include the following recent transactions:
During 2018, the Company entered into a definitive agreement to acquire Bridgeview Bancorp, Inc. ("Bridgeview"), the holding company for Bridgeview Bank Group. The acquisition is subject to customary regulatory approvals, the approval of Bridgeview's stockholders, and the completion of various closing conditions, and is expected to close in the second quarter of 2019.
On January 16, 2019, the Company completed the acquisition of Northern Oak Wealth Management, Inc. ("Northern Oak"), a registered investment adviser.
During 2018, the Company completed the acquisition of Northern States Financial Corporation, ("Northern States"), the holding company for NorStates Bank.
During 2017, the Company completed the acquisitions of Standard Bancshares, Inc. ("Standard"), the holding company for Standard Bank and Trust Company, and Premier, a registered investment adviser.
During 2016, the Company completed the acquisition of NI Bancshares Corporation ("NI Bancshares"), the holding company for The National Bank & Trust Company of Sycamore.
During 2015, the Company completed the acquisition of Peoples Bancorp, Inc. ("Peoples"), the holding company for The Peoples' Bank of Arlington Heights.
During 2014, the Company completed the acquisitions of the Chicago area banking operations of Banco Popular North America ("Popular"), doing business as Popular Community Bank, Great Lakes Financial Resources, Inc. ("Great Lakes"), the holding company for Great Lakes Bank, National Association, and National Machine Tool Financial Corporation ("National Machine Tool"), now known as FMEF.
Additional detail regarding certain recent acquisitions is contained in Note 3 of "Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements" in Item 8 of this Form 10-K.
The banking and financial services industry in the markets in which the Company operates (and particularly the metropolitan Chicago area) is highly competitive. Generally, the Company competes with other local, regional, national, and internet banks and savings and loan associations, personal loan and finance companies, credit unions, mutual funds, credit funds, and investment brokers.
Competition is driven by a number of factors, including interest rates charged on loans and paid on deposits, the ability to attract new deposits, the scope and type of banking and financial services offered, the hours during which business can be conducted, the location of bank branches and ATMs, the availability, ease of use, and range of banking services provided on the internet and through mobile devices, the availability of related services, and a variety of additional services, such as investment advisory services.
In providing investment advisory services, the Company also competes with retail and discount stockbrokers, investment advisors, mutual funds, insurance companies, and other financial institutions for wealth management customers. Competition is generally based on the variety of products and services offered to customers and the performance of funds under management. The Company's main competitors are financial service providers both within and outside of the market areas in which the Company maintains offices.
The Company faces competition in attracting and retaining qualified employees. Its ability to continue to compete effectively will depend on its ability to attract new employees and retain and motivate existing employees.
Intellectual property is important to the success of our business. We own a variety of trademarks, service marks, trade names, and logos and spend time and resources maintaining our intellectual property portfolio. We control access to our intellectual property through license agreements, confidentiality procedures, non-disclosure agreements with third-parties, employment agreements, and other contractual arrangements protecting our intellectual property.
Supervision and Regulation
The Bank is an Illinois state-chartered bank and a member of the Federal Reserve System. The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (the "Federal Reserve") has the primary federal authority to examine and supervise the Bank in coordination with the Illinois Department of Financial and Professional Regulation (the "IDFPR"). The Company is a single bank holding company and is also subject to the primary regulatory authority of the Federal Reserve. The Company and its subsidiaries are also subject to extensive secondary regulation and supervision by various state and federal governmental regulatory authorities, including the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation ("FDIC"), which insures deposits and assets covered by loss share agreements with the FDIC (the "FDIC Agreements"), and the United States ("U.S.") Department of the Treasury (the "Treasury"), which enforces money laundering and currency transaction regulations. As a public company, the Company is also subject to the regulatory authority of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC") and the disclosure and regulatory requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the "Securities Act"), and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the "Exchange Act").
Federal and state laws and regulations generally applicable to financial institutions regulate the Company's and the subsidiaries' scope of business, investments, reserves against deposits, capital levels, the nature and amount of collateral for loans, the establishment of branches, mergers, acquisitions, dividends, and other matters. This supervision and regulation is intended primarily for the protection of the FDIC's deposit insurance fund ("DIF"), the bank's depositors, and the stability of the U.S. financial system, rather than the stockholders or debt holders of a financial institution.
The following sections describe the significant elements of the material statutes and regulations affecting the Company and its subsidiaries, some of which are not yet effective or remain subject to ongoing revision and rulemaking.
Bank Holding Company Act of 1956
Generally, the BHC Act governs the acquisition and control of banks and non-banking companies by bank holding companies and requires bank holding companies to register with the Federal Reserve. The BHC Act requires a bank holding company to file an annual report of its operations and such additional information as the Federal Reserve may require. A bank holding company and its subsidiaries are subject to examination and supervision by the Federal Reserve.
The BHC Act, the Bank Merger Act, and other federal and state statutes regulate acquisitions of commercial banks. The BHC Act requires the prior approval of the Federal Reserve for the direct or indirect acquisition by a bank holding company of more than 5.0% of the voting shares of a commercial bank or its holding company. Under the BHC Act or the Bank Merger Act, the prior approval of the Federal Reserve or other appropriate bank regulatory authority is required for a bank holding company to acquire
another bank or for a member bank to merge with another bank or purchase the assets or assume the deposits of another bank. In reviewing applications seeking approval of merger and acquisition transactions, the bank regulatory authorities will consider, among other things, the competitive effect and public benefits of the transactions, the capital position of the combined organization, the risks to the stability of the U.S. banking or financial system, the applicant's managerial and financial resources, the applicant's performance record under the Community Reinvestment Act of 1977, as amended (the "CRA"), fair housing laws and other consumer compliance laws, and the effectiveness of the banks in combating money laundering activities.
In addition, the BHC Act prohibits (with certain exceptions) a bank holding company from acquiring direct or indirect control or ownership of more than 5.0% of the voting shares of any "non-banking" company unless the non-banking activities are found by the Federal Reserve to be "so closely related to banking as to be a proper incident thereto." Under current regulations of the Federal Reserve, a bank holding company and its non-bank subsidiaries are permitted to engage in such banking-related business ventures as consumer finance, equipment leasing, data processing, mortgage banking, financial and investment advice, securities brokerage services, and other activities.
The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act of 1999, as amended (the "GLB Act"), allows certain bank holding companies to elect to be treated as a financial holding company (a "FHC") that may offer customers a more comprehensive array of financial products and services. At this time, the Company has not elected to be a FHC.
Transactions with Affiliates
Any transactions between the Bank and the Company and their respective subsidiaries are regulated by the Federal Reserve. The Federal Reserve's regulations limit the types and amounts of covered transactions engaged in between the Company and the Bank and generally require those transactions to be on terms at least as favorable to the Bank as if the transaction were conducted with an unaffiliated third-party. Covered transactions are defined by statute to include:
A loan or extension of credit to an affiliate, as well as a purchase of securities issued by an affiliate, by the Bank.
The purchase of assets by the Bank from an affiliate, unless otherwise exempted by the Federal Reserve.
Certain derivative transactions involving the Bank that create a credit exposure to an affiliate.
The acceptance by the Bank of securities issued by an affiliate as collateral for a loan.
The issuance of a guarantee, acceptance, or letter of credit by the Bank on behalf of an affiliate.
In general, these regulations require that any extension of credit by the Bank (or its subsidiaries) with an affiliate must be secured by designated amounts of specified collateral and must be limited to certain thresholds on an individual and aggregate basis.
The Bank is also limited as to how much and on what terms it may lend to its insiders and the insiders of its affiliates, including executive officers and directors.
Source of Strength
Federal Reserve policy and federal law require bank holding companies to act as a source of financial and managerial strength to their subsidiary banks. Under this requirement, a holding company is expected to commit resources to support its bank subsidiary even at times when the holding company may not be in a financial position to provide such resources or when the holding company may not be inclined to provide it. Any capital loans by a bank holding company to its subsidiary bank are subordinate in right of payment to deposits and to certain other indebtedness of such subsidiary bank. In the event of a bank holding company's bankruptcy, any commitment by the bank holding company to a federal bank regulatory agency to maintain the capital of a bank subsidiary will be assumed by the bankruptcy trustee and entitled to priority of payment.
Community Reinvestment Act of 1977
The CRA requires depository institutions to assist in meeting the credit needs of their market areas consistent with safe and sound banking practices. Under the CRA, each depository institution is required to help meet the credit needs of its market areas by, among other things, providing credit to low-income and moderate-income individuals and communities. Federal regulators conduct CRA examinations on a regular basis to assess the performance of financial institutions and assign one of four ratings to the institution's record of meeting the credit needs of its community. Banking regulators take into account CRA ratings when considering approval of a proposed merger or acquisition. As of its last examination report issued in May 2017, the Bank received a rating of "outstanding," the highest rating available. The Bank has received an overall "outstanding" rating in each of its CRA performance evaluations since 1998. In April 2018, the U.S. Department of Treasury issued a memorandum to the federal banking regulators with recommended changes to the CRA’s implementing regulations to reduce their complexity and associated burden on banks. Management will continue to evaluate any changes to the CRA's regulations and their impact to the Company's financial condition, results of operations, or liquidity.
Under the GLB Act, a financial institution may not disclose non-public personal information about a consumer to unaffiliated third-parties unless the institution satisfies various disclosure requirements and the consumer has not elected to opt out of the information sharing. The financial institution must provide its customers with a notice of its privacy policies and practices. The Federal Reserve, the FDIC, and other financial regulatory agencies issued regulations implementing notice requirements and restrictions on a financial institution's ability to disclose non-public personal information about consumers to unaffiliated third-parties.
Bank Secrecy Act and USA PATRIOT Act
The Bank Secrecy and USA PATRIOT Acts require financial institutions to develop programs to prevent them from being used for money laundering, terrorist, and other illegal activities. If such activities are detected or suspected, financial institutions are obligated to file suspicious activity reports with the U.S. Treasury's Office of Financial Crimes Enforcement Network. These rules require financial institutions to establish procedures for identifying and verifying the identity of customers seeking to open new accounts. Failure to comply with these requirements could have serious financial, legal, and reputational consequences, including the imposition of civil money penalties or causing applicable bank regulatory authorities not to approve merger or acquisition transactions.
Office of Foreign Assets Control Regulation
The U.S. imposes economic sanctions that affect transactions with designated foreign countries, nationals, and others. These sanctions are administered by the U.S. Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control ("OFAC"). These sanctions include: (i) restrictions on trade with or investment in a sanctioned country, including prohibitions against direct or indirect imports from and exports to a sanctioned country and prohibitions on "U.S. persons" engaging in financial transactions relating to making investments in, or providing investment-related advice or assistance to, a sanctioned country, and (ii) blocking assets in which the government or specially designated nationals of the sanctioned country have an interest by prohibiting transfers of property subject to U.S. jurisdiction (including property in the possession or control of U.S. persons). Blocked assets (e.g., property and bank deposits) cannot be paid out, withdrawn, set off, or transferred in any manner without a license from OFAC. Failure to comply with these sanctions could have serious financial, legal, and reputational consequences for the institution, including the imposition of civil money penalties or causing applicable bank regulatory authorities not to approve merger or acquisition transactions.
Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act
The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the "Dodd-Frank Act") significantly restructured the financial regulatory regime in the U.S. Some of the Dodd-Frank Act's provisions, which are described in more detail below, may have the consequence of increasing the Company's expenses, decreasing the Company's revenues, and changing the activities in which the Company chooses to engage.
Enhanced Prudential Standards
The Dodd-Frank Act, as amended by the Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act of 2018 ("EGRRCPA"), which was signed into law on May 24, 2018, directs the Federal Reserve to monitor emerging risks to financial stability and enact enhanced supervision and prudential standards applicable to bank holding companies with total consolidated assets of $250 billion or more and non-bank covered companies designated as systemically important by the Financial Stability Oversight Council (often referred to as systemically important financial institutions). The Dodd-Frank Act mandates that certain regulatory requirements applicable to systemically important financial institutions be more stringent than those applicable to other financial institutions. In general, EGRRCPA increased the statutory asset threshold above which the Federal Reserve is required to apply these enhanced prudential standards from $50 billion to $250 billion (subject to certain discretion by the Federal Reserve to apply any enhanced prudential standard requirement to any BHC with between $100 billion and $250 billion in total consolidated assets that would otherwise be exempt under EGRRCPA). BHCs with $250 billion or more in total consolidated assets remain fully subject to the Dodd-Frank Act’s enhanced prudential standards requirements.
In February 2014, the Federal Reserve adopted rules to implement certain of these enhanced prudential standards. These rules require publicly traded bank holding companies with $10 billion or more in total consolidated assets to establish risk committees and require bank holding companies with $50 billion or more in total consolidated assets to comply with enhanced liquidity and overall risk management standards. The Company has established a risk committee in accordance with this requirement. In October 2018, the Federal Reserve and the other federal bank regulators proposed rules that would tailor the application of the enhanced prudential standards to BHCs and depository institutions pursuant to the EGRRCPA amendments, including by raising the asset threshold for application of many of these standards. If the proposed rules are adopted as proposed, publicly traded bank holding companies with between $10 billion and $50 billion in total consolidated assets, including the Company, would no longer be required to maintain a risk committee. The Company has determined that it would nevertheless retain its risk committee.
The Dodd-Frank Act created the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau ("CFPB") as a new and independent unit within the Federal Reserve. The powers of the CFPB currently include primary enforcement and exclusive supervision authority for federal consumer financial laws over insured depository institutions with assets of $10 billion or more, such as the Bank, and their affiliates. This includes the right to obtain information about an institution's activities and compliance systems and procedures and to detect and assess risks to consumers and markets.
The CFPB engages in several activities, including (i) investigating consumer complaints about credit cards and mortgages, (ii) launching supervisory programs, (iii) conducting research for and developing mandatory financial product disclosures, and (iv) engaging in consumer financial protection rulemaking.
The Bank is also subject to a number of regulations intended to protect consumers in various areas, such as equal credit opportunity, fair lending, customer privacy, identity theft, and fair credit reporting. For example, the Bank is subject to the Federal Truth in Savings Act, the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, and the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act. Electronic banking activities are subject to federal law, including the Electronic Funds Transfer Act. Wealth management activities of the Bank are subject to the Illinois Corporate Fiduciaries Act. Consumer loans made by the Bank are subject to applicable provisions of the Federal Truth in Lending Act. Other consumer financial laws include the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, Fair Credit Reporting Act, Fair Debt Collection Practices Act, and applicable state laws.
In addition, state authorities are responsible for monitoring the Company's compliance with all state consumer laws. Failure to comply with these federal and state requirements could have serious legal and reputational consequences for the Company and the Bank, including causing applicable bank regulatory authorities not to approve merger or acquisition transactions.
Under the Durbin Amendment of the Dodd-Frank Act ("Durbin"), the Federal Reserve established a maximum permissible interchange fee equal to no more than 21 cents plus five basis points of the transaction value for many types of debit interchange transactions. Interchange fees, or "swipe" fees, are charges that merchants pay to card-issuing banks, such as the Bank, for processing electronic payment transactions. The Federal Reserve also adopted a rule to allow a debit card issuer to recover one cent per transaction for fraud prevention purposes if the issuer complies with certain fraud-related requirements required by the Federal Reserve. The Company is in compliance with these fraud-related requirements. The Federal Reserve also has rules governing routing and exclusivity that require issuers to offer two unaffiliated networks for routing transactions on each debit or prepaid product. The interchange fee limitations became effective for the Company on July 1, 2017.
The Company and the Bank are each required to comply with applicable capital adequacy standards established by the Federal Reserve. In July 2013, the federal bank regulators approved final rules (the "Basel III Capital Rules") implementing the Basel III framework set forth by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (the "Basel Committee") as well as certain provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act.
Under the Basel III Capital Rules, bank holding companies with less than $15 billion in consolidated assets as of December 31, 2009 are permitted to include trust-preferred securities in Additional Tier 1 Capital. During 2018, the Company exceeded $15 billion in consolidated assets as the result of both organic growth and acquisition-related activity. As a result, the Tier 1 treatment of its outstanding trust-preferred securities ended, and those securities are instead treated as Tier 2 capital. As of December 31, 2018, the Company had $60.7 million of trust-preferred securities included in Tier 2 capital.
Since full phase-in on January 1, 2019, the Basel III Capital Rules have required the Company and the Bank to maintain the following:
A minimum ratio of Common equity Tier 1 ("CET1") to risk-weighted assets of at least 4.5%, plus a 2.5% "capital conservation buffer" (resulting in a minimum ratio of CET1 to risk-weighted assets of at least 7.0%).
A minimum ratio of Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets of at least 6.0%, plus the capital conservation buffer (resulting in a minimum Tier 1 capital ratio of 8.5%).
A minimum ratio of total capital (Tier 1 capital plus Tier 2 capital) to risk-weighted assets of at least 8.0%, plus the capital conservation buffer (resulting in a minimum total capital ratio of 10.5%).
A minimum leverage ratio of 4.0%, calculated as the ratio of Tier 1 capital to average assets.
The capital conservation buffer is designed to absorb losses during periods of economic stress. Banking institutions with a ratio of CET1 to risk-weighted assets above the minimum, but below the conservation buffer, will face constraints on dividends, equity repurchases, and compensation based on the amount of the shortfall and the institution’s "eligible retained income" (that is, four
quarter trailing net income, net of distributions and tax effects not reflected in net income). The implementation of the capital conservation buffer began on January 1, 2016 at the 0.625% level and was phased-in over a four-year period (increasing by that amount on each subsequent January 1 until it reached 2.5% on January 1, 2019).
The Basel III Capital Rules also provide for a number of deductions from and adjustments to CET1 that were phased-in over a four-year period through January 1, 2019 (beginning at 40% on January 1, 2015 and an additional 20% per year thereafter). In November 2017, the Federal Reserve issued a final rule that retains certain existing transition provisions related to deductions from and adjustments to CET1. Examples of these include the requirement that mortgage servicing rights, deferred tax assets depending on future taxable income, and significant investments in non-consolidated financial entities be deducted from CET1 to the extent that any one such category exceeds 10% of CET1 or all such categories in the aggregate exceed 15% of CET1. Under the Basel III Capital Rules, the effects of certain accumulated other comprehensive items are included for purposes of determining regulatory capital ratios; however, the Company and the Bank made a one-time permanent election to exclude these items.
Management believes that as of December 31, 2018, the Company and the Bank would meet all capital adequacy requirements under the Basel III Capital Rules on a fully phased-in basis as if such requirements were currently in effect.
In September 2017, the federal bank regulators proposed to revise and simplify the capital treatment for certain deferred tax assets, mortgage servicing assets, investments in non-consolidated financial entities and minority interests for banking organizations, such as the Company and the Bank, that are not subject to the advanced approaches framework. In November 2017, the federal banking regulators revised the Basel III Rules to extend the current transitional treatment of these items for non-advanced approaches banking organizations until the September 2017 proposal is finalized.
In December 2017, the Basel Committee published standards that it described as the finalization of the Basel III post-crisis regulatory reforms (the standards are commonly referred to as "Basel IV"). Among other things, these standards revise the Basel Committee's standardized approach for credit risk (including the recalibration of risk weights and introducing new capital requirements for certain "unconditionally cancellable commitments," such as unused credit card lines of credit) and provide a new standardized approach for operational risk capital. Under the Basel framework, these standards will generally be effective on January 1, 2022, with an aggregate output floor phasing in through January 1, 2027. Under the current U.S. capital rules, operational risk capital requirements and a capital floor apply only to advanced approaches banking organizations, and not to the Company or the Bank. The impact of Basel IV on the Company and the Bank will depend on the manner in which it is implemented by the federal bank regulators.
Prompt Corrective Action
The Federal Deposit Insurance Act, as amended ("FDIA"), requires the federal banking agencies to take "prompt corrective action" for depository institutions that do not meet the minimum capital requirements. The FDIA includes the following five capital tiers: "well-capitalized," "adequately capitalized," "undercapitalized," "significantly undercapitalized" and "critically undercapitalized." A depository institution's capital tier will depend on how its capital levels compare with various relevant capital measures and certain other factors, as established by regulation. The relevant capital measures are the total risk-based capital ratio, the Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio, the CET1 capital ratio, and the leverage ratio.
A bank will be:
"Well-capitalized" if the institution has a total risk-based capital ratio of 10.0% or greater, a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of 8.0% or greater, a CET1 capital ratio of 6.5% or greater, and a leverage ratio of 5.0% or greater, and is not subject to any order or written directive by any such regulatory authority to meet and maintain a specific capital level for any capital measure.
"Adequately capitalized" if the institution has a total risk-based capital ratio of 8.0% or greater, a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of 6.0% or greater, a CET1 capital ratio of 4.5% or greater, and a leverage ratio of 4.0% or greater and is not "well-capitalized."
"Undercapitalized" if the institution has a total risk-based capital ratio of less than 8.0%, a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of less than 6.0%, a CET1 capital ratio of less than 4.5%, or a leverage ratio of less than 4.0%.
"Significantly undercapitalized" if the institution has a total risk-based capital ratio of less than 6.0%, a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of less than 4.0%, a CET1 capital ratio of less than 3.0% or a leverage ratio of less than 3.0%.
"Critically undercapitalized" if the institution's tangible equity is equal to or less than 2.0% of average quarterly tangible assets.
An institution may be downgraded to, or deemed to be in, a capital category that is lower than indicated by its capital ratios if it is determined to be in an unsafe or unsound condition or if it receives an unsatisfactory examination rating for certain matters. A bank's capital category is determined solely for the purpose of applying prompt corrective action regulations, and the capital
category may not constitute an accurate representation of the bank's overall financial condition or prospects for other purposes. As of December 31, 2018, the Bank was "well-capitalized" based on its ratios as defined above.
The FDIA prohibits an insured depository institution from accepting brokered deposits or offering interest rates on any deposits significantly higher than the prevailing rate in the bank's normal market area or nationally (depending upon where the deposits are solicited), unless it is well-capitalized or is adequately capitalized and receives a waiver from the FDIC. A depository institution that is adequately capitalized and accepts brokered deposits under a waiver from the FDIC may not pay an interest rate on any deposits in excess of 75 basis points over certain prevailing market areas.
In addition, the FDIA generally prohibits a depository institution from making any capital distributions (including payment of a dividend) or paying any management fee to its parent holding company if the depository institution would thereafter be "undercapitalized." "Undercapitalized" institutions are subject to growth limitations and are required to submit a capital restoration plan. The agencies may not accept such a plan without determining that the plan is based on realistic assumptions and is likely to succeed in restoring the depository institution's capital. In addition, the depository institution's parent holding company must guarantee that the institution will comply with the capital restoration plan and must also provide appropriate assurances of performance for a plan to be acceptable. The aggregate liability of the parent holding company is limited to the lesser of an amount equal to 5.0% of the depository institution's total assets at the time it became undercapitalized and the amount that is necessary (or would have been necessary) to bring the institution into compliance with all capital standards applicable to the institution as of the time it fails to comply with the plan. If a depository institution fails to submit an acceptable plan, it is treated as if it is "significantly undercapitalized."
"Significantly undercapitalized" depository institutions may be subject to a number of requirements and restrictions, including orders to sell sufficient voting stock to become "adequately capitalized," requirements to reduce total assets, and cessation of receipt of deposits from correspondent banks. "Critically undercapitalized" institutions are subject to the appointment of a receiver or conservator.
The so-called "Volcker Rule" issued under the Dodd-Frank Act, which became effective in July 2015, restricts the ability of the Company and its subsidiaries, including the Bank, to sponsor or invest in private funds or to engage in certain types of proprietary trading. In July 2018, the Federal Reserve, Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (the "OCC"), FDIC, CFTC and SEC issued a notice of proposed rulemaking intended to tailor the application of the Volcker Rule based on the size and scope of a banking entity’s trading activities and to clarify and amend certain definitions, requirements and exemptions. The ultimate impact of any amendments to the Volcker Rule will depend on, among other things, further rulemaking and implementation guidance from the relevant U.S. federal regulatory agencies and the development of market practices and standards. The Company generally does not engage in the businesses prohibited by the Volcker Rule; therefore, the Volcker Rule does not have a material effect on the operations of the Company and its subsidiaries.
Illinois Banking Law
The Illinois Banking Act ("IBA") governs the activities of the Bank as an Illinois state-chartered bank. Among other things, the IBA (i) defines the powers and permissible activities of an Illinois state-chartered bank, (ii) prescribes corporate governance standards, (iii) imposes approval requirements on merger and acquisition activity of Illinois state banks, (iv) prescribes lending limits, and (v) provides for the examination and supervision of state banks by the IDFPR. The Banking on Illinois Act ("BIA") amended the IBA to provide a wide range of new activities allowed for Illinois state-chartered banks, including the Bank. The provisions of the BIA are to be construed liberally to create a favorable business climate for banks in Illinois. The main features of the BIA are to expand bank powers through a "wild card" provision that authorizes Illinois state-chartered banks to offer virtually any product or service that any bank or thrift may offer anywhere in the country, subject to restrictions imposed on those other banks and thrifts, certain safety and soundness considerations, and prior notification to the IDFPR and the FDIC.
Dividends and Repurchases
The Company's primary source of liquidity is dividend payments from the Bank. In addition to requirements to maintain adequate capital above regulatory minimums, the Bank is limited in the amount of dividends it can pay to the Company under the IBA. Under the IBA, the Bank is permitted to declare and pay dividends in amounts up to the amount of its accumulated net profits, provided that it retains in its surplus at least one-tenth of its net profits since the date of the declaration of its most recent dividend until those additions to surplus, in the aggregate, equal the paid-in capital of the Bank. While it continues its banking business, the Bank may not pay dividends in excess of its net profits then on hand (after deductions for losses and bad debts). In addition, the Bank is limited in the amount of dividends it can pay under the Federal Reserve Act and Regulation H. For example, dividends cannot be paid that would constitute a withdrawal of capital, dividends cannot be declared or paid if they exceed a bank's undivided profits, and a bank may not declare or pay a dividend if all dividends declared during the calendar year are greater than current year net income plus retained net income of the prior two years without Federal Reserve approval.
Since the Company is a legal entity, separate and distinct from the Bank, its dividends to stockholders are not subject to the bank dividend guidelines discussed above. However, the Company is subject to other regulatory policies and requirements related to the payment of dividends, including requirements to maintain adequate capital above regulatory minimums. The Federal Reserve and the IDFPR are authorized to determine that the payment of dividends by the Company would be an unsafe or unsound practice and to prohibit payment under certain circumstances related to the financial condition of a bank or bank holding company. The Federal Reserve has taken the position that dividends that would create pressure or undermine the safety and soundness of a subsidiary bank are inappropriate. Additionally, it is Federal Reserve policy that bank holding companies generally should pay dividends on common stock only out of net income available to common shareholders over the past year and only if the prospective rate of earnings retention appears consistent with the organization's current and expected future capital needs, asset quality and overall financial condition.
In addition, financial institutions, such as the Company and the Bank, with average total consolidated assets greater than $10 billion were previously required by the Dodd-Frank Act to conduct an annual company-run stress test of capital, report results to the Federal Reserve, and publicly disclose a summary of the results. As a result of EGRRCPA, the Company and the Bank are no longer required to perform these actions.
Under the Basel III Capital Rules, any repurchase or redemption of a regulatory capital instrument is subject to prior regulatory approval. Accordingly, the Company may not repurchase its common stock or redeem its preferred stock or subordinated debt without the prior approval of the Federal Reserve.
FDIC Insurance Premiums
The Bank's deposits are insured through the DIF, which is administered by the FDIC. As insurer, the FDIC imposes deposit insurance premiums and is authorized to conduct examinations of, and to require reporting by, FDIC-insured institutions. It may also prohibit any FDIC-insured institution from engaging in any activity the FDIC determines by regulation or order to pose a serious risk to the DIF. Insurance of deposits may be terminated by the FDIC upon a finding that the institution engaged or is engaging in unsafe and unsound practices, is in an unsafe or unsound condition to continue operations, or violated any applicable law, regulation, rule, order, or condition imposed by the FDIC or written agreement entered into with the FDIC.
The FDIC utilizes a risk-based assessment system that imposes insurance premiums based on a risk matrix that takes into account a bank's capital level and supervisory rating. The risk matrix utilizes four risk categories, which are distinguished by capital levels and supervisory ratings. For deposit insurance assessment purposes, an insured depository institution is placed into one of the four risk categories each quarter. An institution's assessment is determined by multiplying its assessment rate by its assessment base, which is asset based.
In addition, institutions with deposits insured by the FDIC are required to pay assessments to fund interest payments on bonds issued by the Financing Corporation, a U.S. government-sponsored enterprise established in 1987 to serve as a financing vehicle for the failed Federal Savings and Loan Association. These assessments will continue until the Financing Corporation bonds mature in 2019.
In October 2010, the FDIC adopted a new DIF restoration plan to ensure that the fund reserve ratio reaches 1.35% by September 30, 2020, as required by the Dodd-Frank Act. In August 2016, the FDIC announced that the DIF reserve ratio had surpassed 1.15% as of June 30, 2016. As a result, beginning in the third quarter of 2016, the range of initial assessment ranges for all institutions were adjusted downward such that the initial base deposit insurance assessment rate ranges from 3 to 30 basis points on an annualized basis. After the effect of potential base-rate adjustments, the total base assessment rate could range from 1.5 to 40 basis points on an annualized basis. In March 2016, the FDIC adopted a final rule that imposed a surcharge on the assessments of depository institutions with $10 billion or more in assets, including the Bank, from the third quarter of 2016 through September 30, 2018, when the reserve ratio of the DIF reached 1.36%, exceeding the statutorily required minimum reserve ratio of 1.35%. As a result, the surcharge no longer applies and the last quarterly surcharge was reflected in the Bank's December 2018 assessment invoice.
The FDIA provides that, in the event of the "liquidation or other resolution" of an insured depository institution, the claims of depositors of the institution, including the claims of the FDIC as subrogee of insured depositors, and certain claims for administrative expenses of the FDIC as a receiver, will have priority over the other general unsecured claims against the institution. If an insured depository institution fails, insured and uninsured depositors, along with the FDIC, will have priority in payment ahead of unsecured, non-deposit creditors, including depositors whose deposits are payable only outside of the U.S. and the bank holding company, with respect to any extensions of credit they have made to such insured depository institution.
In 2010, the Federal Reserve, along with the other federal banking agencies, issued guidance applying to all banking organizations that requires that their incentive compensation policies be consistent with safety and soundness principles. Under this guidance, financial organizations must review their compensation programs to ensure that they: (i) provide employees with incentives that appropriately balance risk and reward and that do not encourage imprudent risk, (ii) are compatible with effective controls and risk management, and (iii) are supported by strong corporate governance, including active and effective oversight by the banking organization's board of directors. Monitoring methods and processes used by a banking organization should be commensurate with the size and complexity of the organization and its use of incentive compensation.
During the second quarter of 2016, as required by the Dodd-Frank Act, the federal bank regulatory agencies and the SEC proposed revised rules on incentive-based payment arrangements at specified regulated entities having at least $1 billion in total assets (including the Company and the Bank). The proposed rules would establish general qualitative requirements applicable to all covered entities, which would include (i) prohibiting incentive arrangements that encourage inappropriate risks by providing excessive compensation, (ii) prohibiting incentive arrangements that encourage inappropriate risks that could lead to a material financial loss, (iii) establishing requirements for performance measures to appropriately balance risk and reward, (iv) requiring board of director oversight of incentive arrangements, and (v) mandating appropriate record-keeping. Under the proposed rules, larger financial institutions with total consolidated assets of at least $50 billion would also be subject to additional requirements applicable to such institutions' "senior executive officers" and "significant risk-takers." These additional requirements would not be applicable to the Company or the Bank, each of which currently have less than $50 billion in total consolidated assets. If the rules are adopted in the form proposed, they may restrict our flexibility with respect to the manner in which we structure compensation and adversely affect our ability to compete for talent.
The federal banking agencies have established certain expectations with respect to institutions' information security and cybersecurity programs, with an increasing focus on risk management, processes related to information technology and operational resiliency, and the use of third-parties in the provision of financial services. In October 2016, the federal banking agencies jointly issued an advance notice of proposed rulemaking on enhanced cybersecurity risk-management and resilience standards that would address five categories of cyber standards which include (i) cyber risk goverance, (ii) cyber risk management, (iii) internal dependency management, (iv) external dependency management, and (v) incident response, cyber resilience, and situational awareness. As proposed, these enhanced standards would apply only to depository institutions and depository institution holding companies with total consolidated assets of $50 billion or more; however, it is possible that if these enhanced standards are implemented, even if the $50 billion threshold is increased, the Federal Reserve will consider them in connection with the examination and supervision of banks below the $50 billion threshold. The federal banking agencies have not yet taken further action on these proposed standards.
State regulators have also been increasingly active in implementing privacy and cybersecurity standards and regulations. Recently, several states have adopted regulations requiring certain financial institutions to implement cybersecurity programs and providing detailed requirements with respect to these programs, including data encryption requirements. Many states have also recently implemented or modified their data breach notification and data privacy requirements. We expect this trend of state-level activity in those areas to continue, and are continually monitoring developments in the states in which the Company operates.
In late 2017, the SEC announced that it plans to issue guidelines governing the manner in which public companies report cybersecurity breaches to investors. Any SEC guidelines would be in addition to notification and disclosure requirements under state and federal banking law and regulations.
Future Legislation and Regulation
In addition to the specific legislation and regulations described above, various laws and regulations are being considered by federal and state governments and regulatory agencies that may change banking statutes and the Company's operating environment in substantial and unpredictable ways and may increase reporting requirements and compliance costs. These changes could increase or decrease the cost of doing business, limit or expand permissible activities, or affect the competitive balance among banks, savings associations, credit unions, and other financial institutions in ways that could adversely affect the Company.
We file annual, quarterly, and current reports, proxy statements, and other information with the SEC, and we make this information available free of charge on the investor relations section of our website at www.firstmidwest.com/investorrelations. In addition, the SEC maintains an internet site at http://www.sec.gov that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC. The following documents are also posted on our website or are available in print upon the request of any stockholder to our Corporate Secretary:
Restated Certificate of Incorporation.
Amended and Restated By-Laws.
Charters for our Audit, Compensation, and Nominating and Corporate Governance Committees.
Related Person Transaction Policies and Procedures.
Corporate Governance Guidelines.
Code of Ethics and Standards of Conduct (the "Code of Conduct"), which governs our directors, officers, and employees.
Code of Ethics for Senior Financial Officers.
Within the time period required by the SEC and the NASDAQ Stock Market, we will post on our website any amendment to the Code of Conduct and any waiver applicable to any executive officer, director, or senior financial officer (as defined in the Code of Conduct). In addition, our website includes information concerning purchases and sales of our securities by our executive officers and directors. The accounting and reporting policies of the Company and its subsidiaries conform to U.S. generally accepted accounting principles ("GAAP") and general practices within the banking industry. We post on our website any disclosure relating to non-GAAP financial measures (as defined in the SEC's Regulation G) that we use in our written and oral statements.
Our Corporate Secretary can be contacted by writing to First Midwest Bancorp, Inc., 8750 West Bryn Mawr Avenue, Suite 1300, Chicago, Illinois 60631, attention: Corporate Secretary. The Company's Investor Relations Department can be contacted by telephone at (708) 831-7483 or by e-mail at firstname.lastname@example.org.
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
An investment in the Company is subject to risks inherent in our business. The material risks and uncertainties that management believes affect the Company are described below. Before making an investment decision with respect to any of the Company's securities, you should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties as described below, together with all of the information included herein. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only risks and uncertainties the Company faces. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known or currently deemed immaterial also may have a material adverse effect on the Company's results of operations and financial condition. If any of the following risks actually occur, the Company's business, financial condition, and results of operations could be adversely affected, possibly materially. In that event, the trading price of the Company's Common Stock or other securities could decline. The risks discussed below also include forward-looking statements, and actual results or outcomes may differ substantially from those discussed or implied in these forward-looking statements.
Risks Related to the Company's Business
Interest Rate and Credit Risks
The Company is subject to interest rate risk.
The Company's earnings and cash flows largely depend on its net interest income. Net interest income equals the difference between interest income and fees earned on interest-earning assets (such as loans and securities) and interest expense incurred on interest-bearing liabilities (such as deposits and borrowed funds). Interest rates are highly sensitive to many factors that are beyond the Company's control, including general economic conditions and policies of various governmental and regulatory agencies, particularly the Federal Reserve. Changes in monetary policy, including changes in interest rates, could influence the amount of interest the Company earns on loans and securities and the amount of interest it pays on deposits and borrowings. These changes could also affect (i) the Company's ability to originate loans and obtain deposits, (ii) the fair value of the Company's financial assets and liabilities, and (iii) the average duration of the Company's securities portfolio. If the interest rates paid on deposits and other borrowings increase at a faster rate than the interest rates received on loans and other investments, the Company's net interest income and, therefore, earnings could be adversely affected. Earnings could also be adversely affected if the interest rates received on loans and other investments fall more quickly than the interest rates paid on deposits and other borrowings.
Although management believes it implements effective asset and liability management strategies to reduce the potential effects of changes in interest rates on the Company's results of operations, any substantial, unexpected, or prolonged change in market interest rates could have a material adverse effect on the Company's business, financial condition, and results of operations. See "Net Interest Income" in Item 7, "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations," of this Form 10-K for further discussion related to the Company's management of interest rate risk.
Changes in the method pursuant to which the LIBOR and other benchmark rates are determined could adversely impact our business and results of operations.
Our floating-rate funding, certain hedging transactions and certain of the products that we offer, such as floating-rate loans and mortgages, determine the applicable interest rate or payment amount by reference to a benchmark rate, such as the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”), or to an index, currency, basket or other financial metric. LIBOR and certain other benchmark rates are the subject of recent national, international, and other regulatory guidance and proposals for reform. In July 2017, the Chief Executive of the FCA announced that the FCA intends to stop persuading or compelling banks to submit rates for the calculation of LIBOR after 2021. This announcement indicates that the continuation of LIBOR on the current basis cannot and will not be guaranteed after 2021. Consequently, at this time, it is not possible to predict whether and to what extent banks will continue to provide submissions for the calculation of LIBOR. Similarly, it is not possible to predict whether LIBOR will continue to be viewed as an acceptable market benchmark, what rate or rates may become accepted alternatives to LIBOR, or what the effect of any such changes in views or alternatives may be on the markets for LIBOR-linked financial instruments.
The discontinuation of LIBOR, changes in LIBOR or changes in market perceptions of the acceptability of LIBOR as a benchmark could result in changes to our risk exposures (for example, if the anticipated discontinuation of LIBOR adversely affects the availability or cost of floating-rate funding and, therefore, our exposure to fluctuations in interest rates) or otherwise result in losses on a product or having to pay more or receive less on securities that we own or have issued. In addition, such uncertainty could result in pricing volatility and increased capital requirements, loss of market share in certain products, adverse tax or accounting impacts, and compliance, legal and operational costs and risks associated with client disclosures, discretionary actions taken or negotiation of fallback provisions, systems disruption, business continuity, and model disruption.
The Company is subject to lending risk and lending concentration risk.
There are inherent risks associated with the Company's lending activities. Underwriting and documentation controls cannot mitigate all credit risks, especially those outside the Company's control. These risks include the impact of changes in interest rates, changes in the economic conditions in the markets in which the Company operates and across the U.S., and the ability of borrowers to repay loans based on their respective circumstances. Increases in interest rates or weakening economic conditions could adversely impact the ability of borrowers to repay outstanding loans or the value of the collateral securing those loans.
In particular, economic weakness in real estate and related markets could increase the Company's lending risk as it relates to its commercial real estate loan portfolio and the value of the underlying collateral.
As of December 31, 2018, the Company's loan portfolio consisted of 79.9% of corporate loans, the majority of which were secured by commercial real estate, and 20.1% of consumer loans. The deterioration of these loans could cause a significant increase in non-performing loans. An increase in non-performing loans could result in a net loss of earnings from these loans, an increase in the provision for loan losses, and an increase in loan charge-offs, all of which could have a material adverse effect on the Company's business, financial condition, and results of operations. See "Loan Portfolio and Credit Quality" in Item 7, "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations," of this Form 10-K for further discussion related to corporate and consumer loans.
Real estate market volatility and future changes in disposition strategies could result in net proceeds that differ significantly from fair value appraisals of loan collateral and OREO and could negatively impact the Company's business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Many of the Company's non-performing real estate loans are collateral-dependent, and the repayment of these loans largely depends on the value of the collateral securing the loans and the successful operation of the property. For collateral-dependent loans, the Company estimates the value of the loan based on the appraised value of the underlying collateral less costs to sell. The Company's OREO portfolio consists of properties acquired through foreclosure in partial or total satisfaction of certain loans as a result of borrower defaults.
In determining the value of OREO properties and other loan collateral, an orderly disposition of the property is generally assumed, except where a different disposition strategy is expected. The disposition strategy (e.g., "as-is", "orderly liquidation", or "forced liquidation") the Company has in place for a non-performing loan will determine the appraised value it uses. Significant judgment is required in estimating the fair value of property, and the period of time within which such estimates can be considered current is significantly shortened during periods of market volatility.
In response to market conditions and other economic factors, the Company may utilize sale strategies other than orderly dispositions as part of its disposition strategy, such as immediate liquidation sales. In this event, the net proceeds realized could differ significantly from estimates used to determine the fair value of the properties as a result of the significant judgments required in estimating fair value and the variables involved in different methods of disposition. This could have a material adverse effect on the Company's business, financial condition, and results of operations.
The Company's allowance for credit losses may be insufficient.
The Company maintains an allowance for credit losses at a level believed adequate to absorb estimated losses inherent in its existing loan portfolio. The level of the allowance for credit losses reflects management's continuing evaluation of industry concentrations, specific credit risks, credit loss experience, current loan portfolio quality, present economic and business conditions, changes in competitive, legal, and regulatory conditions, and unidentified losses inherent in the current loan portfolio. Determination of the allowance for credit losses is inherently subjective since it requires significant estimates and management judgment of credit risks and future trends, which are subject to material changes. Deterioration in economic conditions affecting borrowers, new information regarding existing loans, identification of additional problem loans, changes in accounting principles, and other factors, both within and outside of the Company's control, may require an increase in the allowance for credit losses. In addition, bank regulatory agencies periodically review the Company's allowance for credit losses and may require an increase in the provision for loan losses or the recognition of additional loan charge-offs based on judgments different from those of management. Furthermore, if charge-offs in future periods exceed the allowance for credit losses, the Company will need additional provisions to increase the allowance. Any increases in the allowance for credit losses will result in a decrease in net income and capital and may have a material adverse effect on the Company's financial condition and results of operations. See Note 1 of "Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements" in Item 8 of this Form 10-K for further discussion related to the Company's process for determining the appropriate level of the allowance for credit losses.
Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") 2016-13, Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments, which is effective for annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2019, will substantially change the accounting for credit losses on loans and other financial assets held by banks, financial institutions and other organizations. The standard changes the existing incurred loss model in GAAP for recognizing credit losses and instead requires companies to reflect their estimate of current expected credit losses over the life of the financial assets. Management is evaluating the guidance and the impact to the Company's financial condition, results of operations, or liquidity.
Financial services companies depend on the accuracy and completeness of information about customers and counterparties.
The Company may rely on information furnished by or on behalf of customers and counterparties in deciding whether to extend credit or enter into other transactions. This information could include financial statements, credit reports, business plans, and other information. The Company may also rely on representations of those customers, counterparties, or other third-parties, such as independent auditors, as to the accuracy and completeness of that information. Reliance on inaccurate or misleading financial statements, credit reports, or other information could have a material adverse impact on the Company's business, financial condition, and results of operations.
The Company is a bank holding company and its sources of funds are limited.
The Company is a bank holding company, and its operations are primarily conducted by the Bank, which is subject to significant federal and state regulation. Cash available to pay dividends to stockholders of the Company is derived primarily from dividends received from the Bank. The Company's ability to receive dividends or loans from its subsidiaries is restricted by law. Dividend payments by the Bank to the Company in the future will require generation of future earnings by the Bank and could require regulatory approval if the proposed dividend is in excess of prescribed guidelines. Further, the Company's right to participate in the assets of the Bank upon its liquidation, reorganization, or otherwise will be subject to the claims of the Bank's creditors, including depositors, which will take priority except to the extent the Company may be a creditor with a recognized claim. As of December 31, 2018, the Company's subsidiaries had deposits and other liabilities of $13.4 billion.
The Company could experience an unexpected inability to obtain needed liquidity.
Liquidity measures the ability to meet current and future cash flow needs as they become due. The liquidity of a financial institution reflects its ability to meet loan requests, to accommodate possible outflows in deposits, and to take advantage of interest rate market opportunities. The ability of a financial institution to meet its current financial obligations is a function of its balance sheet structure, its ability to liquidate assets, and its access to alternative sources of funds. A substantial majority of our liabilities are demand deposits, savings deposits, NOW accounts and money market accounts, which are payable on demand or upon several days’ notice, while by comparison, a substantial portion of our assets are loans, which cannot be called or sold in the same time frame. We may not be able to replace maturing deposits and advances as necessary in the future, especially if a large number of
our depositors sought to withdraw their accounts, regardless of the reason. The Company seeks to ensure its funding needs are met by maintaining an adequate level of liquidity through asset and liability management. If the Company becomes unable to obtain funds when needed, it could have a material adverse effect on the Company's business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Loss of customer deposits could increase the Company's funding costs.
The Company relies on bank deposits to be a low cost and stable source of funding. The Company competes with banks and other financial services companies for deposits. If the Company's competitors raise the rates they pay on deposits, the Company's funding costs may increase, either because the Company raises its rates to avoid losing deposits or because the Company loses deposits and must rely on more expensive sources of funding. Higher funding costs could reduce the Company's net interest margin and net interest income and could have a material adverse effect on the Company's business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Any reduction in the Company's credit ratings could increase its financing costs.
Various rating agencies publish credit ratings for the Company's debt obligations, based on their evaluations of a number of factors, some of which relate to Company performance and some of which relate to general industry conditions. Management routinely communicates with each rating agency and anticipates the rating agencies will closely monitor the Company's performance and update their ratings from time to time during the year.
The Company cannot give any assurance that its current credit ratings will remain in effect for any given period of time or that a rating will not be lowered or withdrawn entirely by a rating agency if, in its judgment, circumstances in the future so warrant. Downgrades in the Company's credit ratings may adversely affect its borrowing costs and its ability to borrow or raise capital, and may adversely affect the Company's reputation.
The Company's current credit ratings are as follows:
Standard & Poor's Rating Group, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Moody's Investor Services, Inc.
Regulatory requirements, future growth, or operating results may require the Company to raise additional capital, but that capital may not be available or be available on favorable terms, or it may be dilutive.
The Company is required by federal and state regulatory authorities to maintain adequate levels of capital to support its operations. The Company may be required to raise capital if regulatory requirements change, the Company's future operating results erode capital, or the Company elects to expand through loan growth or acquisition.
The Company's ability to raise capital will depend on conditions in the capital markets, which are outside of its control, and on the Company's financial performance. Accordingly, the Company cannot be assured of its ability to raise capital when needed or on favorable terms. If the Company cannot raise additional capital when needed, it will be subject to increased regulatory supervision and the imposition of restrictions on its growth and business. These could negatively impact the Company's ability to operate or further expand its operations through acquisitions or the establishment of additional branches and may result in increases in operating expenses and reductions in revenues that could have a material adverse effect on its business, financial condition, and results of operations.
The Company’s reported financial results may be impacted by management’s selection of accounting methods and certain assumptions and estimates.
The Company's financial performance is impacted by accounting principles, policies, and guidelines. Some of these policies require the use of estimates and assumptions that may affect the value of the Company's assets or liabilities and financial results. Some of the Company's accounting policies are critical because they require management to make subjective and complex judgments about matters that are inherently uncertain and because it is likely that materially different amounts would be reported under different conditions or using different assumptions. If such estimates or assumptions are incorrect, the Company may experience material losses. See "Critical Accounting Estimates" in Item 7, "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations," of this Form 10-K for further discussion.
The Company and its subsidiaries are subject to changes in accounting principles, policies, or guidelines.
From time to time, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") and the SEC change the financial accounting and reporting standards, or the interpretation of those standards, that govern the preparation of the Company's external financial statements. These changes are beyond the Company's control, can be difficult to predict, and could materially impact how the Company reports its results of operations and financial condition. For example, in June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments, which is effective for annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2019 and will substantially change the accounting for credit losses on loans and other financial assets held by banks, financial institutions and other organizations. The standard changes the existing incurred loss model in GAAP for recognizing credit losses and instead requires companies to reflect their estimate of current expected credit losses over the life of the financial assets. Companies must consider all relevant information when estimating expected credit losses, including details about past events, current conditions, and reasonable and supportable forecasts. In April 2018, the Federal Reserve, OCC and FDIC released a joint proposal to revise their regulatory capital rules to address this upcoming change to the treatment of credit expense and allowances and provide an optional three-year phase-in period for the day-one adverse regulatory capital effects upon adopting the standard to address concerns with the impact on capital and capital planning. The impact of this proposal on the Company and the Bank will depend on the manner in which it is implemented by the Federal banking agencies and whether we elect to phase-in the impact of the standard over a three-year period under any final rule. Management is evaluating the guidance and the impact to the Company's allowance and capital upon adoption. It is also possible that the Company’s ongoing reported earnings and lending activity will be negatively impacted in periods following adoption.
The Company's controls and procedures may fail or be circumvented.
Management regularly reviews and updates the Company's loan underwriting and monitoring process, internal controls, disclosure controls and procedures, compliance controls and procedures, and corporate governance policies and procedures. Any system of controls, however well designed and operated, is based on certain assumptions and can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurances that the objectives of the system are met. Any failure or circumvention of the Company's controls and procedures or failure to comply with regulations related to controls and procedures could have a material adverse effect on the Company's business, financial condition, and results of operations.
The Company's accounting estimates and risk management processes rely on analytical and forecasting models.
The processes the Company uses to estimate its loan losses and to measure the fair value of financial instruments, as well as the processes used to estimate the effects of changing interest rates and other market measures on the Company's financial condition and results of operations, depend on the use of analytical and forecasting models. These models reflect assumptions that may not be accurate, particularly in times of market stress or other unforeseen circumstances. Even if these assumptions are adequate, the models may prove to be inadequate or inaccurate because of other flaws in their design or their implementation. If the models the Company uses for interest rate risk and asset-liability management are inadequate, the Company may incur increased or unexpected losses resulting from changes in market interest rates or other market measures. If the models the Company uses for estimating its loan losses are inadequate, the allowance for credit losses may not be sufficient to support future charge-offs. If the models the Company uses to measure the fair value of financial instruments are inadequate, the fair value of these financial instruments may fluctuate unexpectedly or may not accurately reflect what the Company could realize on the sale or settlement. Any failure in the Company's analytical or forecasting models could have a material adverse effect on the Company's business, financial condition, and results of operations.
The Company may not be able to attract and retain skilled people.
The Company's success depends on its ability to attract and retain skilled people. Competition for the best people in most activities in which the Company engages can be intense, and the Company may not be able to hire people or retain them.
The unexpected loss of services of certain of the Company's skilled personnel could have a material adverse effect on the Company's business because of their skills, knowledge of the Company's market, years of industry experience, customer relationships, and the difficulty of promptly finding qualified replacement personnel. In addition, the scope and content of the federal banking agencies' policies on incentive compensation, as well as changes to those policies, could adversely affect the ability of the Company to hire, retain and motivate its key personnel.
The Company's information systems may experience an interruption or breach in security, including due to cyber-attacks.
The Company relies heavily on internal and outsourced digital technologies, communications, and information systems to conduct its business operations and store sensitive data. As the Company's reliance on technology systems increases, the potential risks of technology-related operation interruptions in the Company's customer relationship management, general ledger, deposit, loan, or other systems or the occurrence of cyber incidents also increases. Cyber incidents can result from unintentional events or from deliberate attacks including, among other things, (i) gaining unauthorized access to digital systems for purposes of misappropriating
assets or sensitive information, corrupting data, or causing potentially debilitating operational disruptions, (ii) causing denial-of-service attacks on websites, or (iii) intelligence gathering and social engineering aimed at obtaining information. Cyber-attacks can originate from a variety of sources and the techniques used are increasingly sophisticated.
The occurrence of any failures, interruptions, or security breaches of the Company's technology systems could damage the Company's reputation, result in a loss of customer business, result in the unauthorized release, gathering, monitoring, misuse, loss, or destruction of proprietary information, subject the Company to additional regulatory scrutiny, or expose the Company to civil litigation and possible financial liability, any of which could have a material adverse effect on the Company's business, financial condition, and results of operations, as well as its reputation or stock price. A successful cyber-attack could persist for an extended period of time before being detected, and, following detection, it could take considerable time and expense for us to obtain full and reliable information about the cybersecurity incident and the extent, amount and type of information compromised. During the course of an investigation, we may not necessarily know the effects of the incident or how to remediate it, and actions, decisions and mistakes that are taken or made may further increase the costs and other negative consequences of the incident. Risks and exposures related to cybersecurity attacks are expected to remain high for the foreseeable future due to the rapidly evolving nature and sophistication of these threats, as well as due to the expanding use of internet and mobile banking and other technology-based products and services, by the Company and its customers. As cyber threats continue to evolve, the Company expects it will be required to spend additional resources on an ongoing basis to continue to modify and enhance its protective measures and to investigate and remediate any information security vulnerabilities.
The Company depends on outside third-parties for processing and handling of Company records and data.
The Company relies on software developed by third-party vendors to process various Company transactions. In some cases, the Company has contracted with third-parties to run their proprietary software on its behalf. These systems include, but are not limited to, general ledger, payroll, employee benefits, wealth management record keeping, loan and deposit processing, merchant processing, and securities portfolio management. While the Company performs a review of controls instituted by the vendors over these programs in accordance with industry standards and performs its own testing of user controls, the Company must rely on the continued maintenance of these controls by the outside party, including safeguards over the security of customer data. In addition, the Company maintains backups of key processing output daily in the event of a failure on the part of any of these systems. Nonetheless, the Company may incur a temporary disruption in its ability to conduct its business or process its transactions or incur damage to its reputation if the third-party vendor, or the third-party vendor's vendor, fails to adequately maintain internal controls or institute necessary changes to systems. Such disruption or breach of security may have a material adverse effect on the Company's business, financial condition, and results of operations.
The Company continually encounters technological change.
The banking and financial services industry continually undergoes technological changes, with frequent introductions of new technology-driven products and services. In addition to better meeting customer needs, the effective use of technology increases efficiency and enables financial institutions to reduce costs. The Company's future success will depend, in part, on its ability to address the needs of its customers by using technology to provide products and services that enhance customer convenience and that create additional efficiencies in the Company's operations. Many of the Company's competitors have greater resources to invest in technological improvements, and the Company may not effectively implement new technology-driven products and services, or do so as quickly as its competitors, which could reduce its ability to effectively compete. In addition, the necessary process of updating technology can itself lead to disruptions in availability or functioning of systems. Failure to successfully keep pace with technological change affecting the financial services industry could have a material adverse effect on the Company's business, financial condition, and results of operations.
New lines of business or new products and services may subject the Company to additional risks.
From time to time, the Company may implement new lines of business or offer new products or services, within existing lines of business. There can be substantial risks and uncertainties associated with these efforts, particularly in instances where the markets are not fully developed. In developing and marketing new lines of business and/or new products or services, the Company may invest significant time and resources. Initial timetables for the introduction and development of new lines of business and new products or services may not be achieved, and price and profitability targets may not prove feasible. External factors, such as compliance with regulations, competitive alternatives, and shifting market preferences, may also impact the successful implementation of a new line of business or a new product or service. Furthermore, any new line of business and new product or service could have a significant impact on the effectiveness of the Company's system of internal controls. Failure to successfully manage these risks in the development and implementation of new lines of business or new products or services could have a material adverse effect on the Company's business, financial condition, and results of operations.
The Company operates in a highly competitive industry and market area.
The Company faces substantial competition in all areas of its operations from a variety of different competitors, including traditional competitors that may be larger and have more financial resources and non-traditional competitors that may be subject to fewer regulatory constraints and may have lower cost structures. Traditional competitors primarily include national, regional, and community banks within the markets in which the Company operates. The Company also faces competition from many other types of financial institutions, including savings and loan associations, credit unions, personal loan and finance companies, retail and discount stockbrokers, investment advisors, mutual funds, insurance companies, and other financial intermediaries. In addition, technology has lowered barriers to entry and made it possible for non-banks to offer products and services, traditionally provided by banks, such as loans, automatic fund transfer and automatic payment systems. In particular, the activity and prominence of so-called marketplace lenders and other technology-driven financial services companies have grown significantly over recent years and are expected to continue growing.
The financial services industry could become even more competitive as a result of legislative, regulatory, and technological changes, further illiquidity in the credit markets, and continued consolidation. Banks, securities firms, and insurance companies can merge under the umbrella of a FHC, which can offer virtually any type of financial service, including banking, securities underwriting, insurance, and merchant banking. Due to their size, many competitors may be able to achieve economies of scale and, as a result, may offer a broader range of products and services, as well as better pricing for those products and services, than the Company can offer.
The Company's ability to compete successfully depends on a number of factors, including:
Developing, maintaining, and building long-term customer relationships.
Expanding the Company's market position.
Offering products and services at prices and with the features that meet customers' needs and demands.
Introducing new products and services.
Maintaining a satisfactory level of customer service.
Anticipating and adjusting to changes in industry and general economic trends.
Continued development and support of internet-based services.
Failure to perform in any of these areas could significantly weaken the Company's competitive position, which could adversely affect the Company's growth and profitability. This, in turn, could have a material adverse effect on the Company's business, financial condition, and results of operations.
The Company's business may be adversely affected by conditions in the financial markets and economic conditions generally.
The Company's financial performance depends to a large extent on the business environment in the suburban metropolitan Chicago market, the states of Illinois, Indiana, and Iowa, and the U.S. as a whole. In particular, the business environment impacts the ability of borrowers to pay interest on and repay principal of outstanding loans as well as the value of collateral securing those loans. A favorable business environment is generally characterized by economic growth, low unemployment, efficient capital markets, low inflation, high business and investor confidence, strong business earnings, and other factors. Unfavorable or uncertain economic and market conditions can be caused by declines in economic growth, business activity, or investor or business confidence, limitations on the availability or increases in the cost of credit and capital, increases in inflation or interest rates, high unemployment, natural disasters, or a combination of these or other factors.
During and after the so-called "Great Recession," the suburban metropolitan Chicago market, the states of Illinois, Indiana, and Iowa, and the U.S. as a whole experienced a downward economic cycle, including a significant recession. While business growth across a wide range of industries and regions in the U.S. has gradually recovered, local governments and many businesses continue to experience financial difficulty. Since the recession, economic growth has been slow and uneven and there are continuing concerns related to the level of U.S. government debt and fiscal actions that may be taken to address that debt. In addition, there are significant concerns regarding the fiscal affairs and status of the State of Illinois. There can be no assurance that economic conditions will continue to improve, and these conditions could worsen. Periods of increased volatility in financial and other markets, such as those experienced recently with regard to oil and other commodity prices and current rates, concerns over European sovereign debt risk, trade with China, and those that may arise from global and political tensions can have a direct or indirect negative impact on the Company and our customers and introduce greater uncertainty into credit evaluation decisions and prospects for growth. Economic pressure on consumers and uncertainty regarding continuing economic improvement may also result in changes in consumer and business spending, borrowing and saving habits.
Such conditions could have a material adverse effect on the credit quality of the Company's loans or its business, financial condition, or results of operations, as well as other potential adverse impacts, including:
There could be an increased level of commercial and consumer delinquencies, lack of consumer confidence, increased market volatility, and widespread reduction of business activity generally.
There could be an increase in write-downs of asset values by financial institutions, such as the Company.
The Company's ability to assess the creditworthiness of customers could be impaired if the models and approaches it uses to select, manage, and underwrite credits become less predictive of future performance.
The process the Company uses to estimate losses inherent in the Company's loan portfolio requires difficult, subjective, and complex judgments. This process includes analysis of economic conditions and the impact of these economic conditions on borrowers' ability to repay their loans. The process could no longer be capable of accurate estimation and may, in turn, impact its reliability.
The Bank could be required to pay significantly higher FDIC premiums in the future if losses further deplete the DIF.
The Company could face increased competition due to intensified consolidation of the financial services industry and from non-traditional financial services providers.
The Company may be adversely affected by the soundness of other financial institutions, which are interrelated as a result of trading, clearing, counterparty, or other relationships.
Although market and economic conditions have improved in recent years, there can be no assurance that this improvement will continue. Deterioration in market or economic conditions could have an adverse effect, which may be material, on the Company's ability to access capital and on the its business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Turmoil in the financial markets could result in lower fair values for the Company's investment securities.
Major disruptions in the capital markets experienced over the past decade have adversely affected investor demand for all classes of securities, excluding U.S. Treasury securities, and resulted in volatility in the fair values of the Company's investment securities. Significant prolonged reduced investor demand could manifest itself in lower fair values for these securities and may result in the recognition of other-than-temporary impairment ("OTTI"), which could have a material adverse effect on the Company's business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Municipal securities can also be impacted by the business environment of their geographic location. Although this type of security historically experienced extremely low default rates, municipal securities are subject to systemic risk since cash flows generally depend on (i) the ability of the issuing authority to levy and collect taxes or (ii) the ability of the issuer to charge for and collect payment for essential services rendered. If the issuer defaults on its payments, it may result in the recognition of OTTI or total loss, which could have a material adverse effect on the Company's business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Managing reputational risk is important to attracting and maintaining customers, investors, and employees.
Threats to the Company's reputation can come from many sources, including adverse sentiment about financial institutions generally, unethical practices, employee misconduct, failure to deliver minimum standards of service or quality, compliance deficiencies, and questionable or fraudulent activities of the Company's customers. The Company has policies and procedures in place that seek to protect its reputation and promote ethical conduct. Nonetheless, negative publicity may arise regarding the Company's business, employees, or customers, with or without merit, and could result in the loss of customers, investors, and employees, costly litigation, a decline in revenues, and increased governmental oversight. Negative publicity could have a material adverse impact on the Company's reputation, business, financial condition, results of operations, and liquidity.
The Company is subject to environmental liability risk associated with lending activities.
A significant portion of the Company's loan portfolio is secured by real property. During the ordinary course of business, the Company may foreclose on and take title to properties securing certain loans. There is a risk that hazardous or toxic substances could be found on these properties. If hazardous or toxic substances are found, the Company may be liable for remediation costs, as well as for personal injury and property damage. Environmental laws may require the Company to incur substantial expenses and could materially reduce the affected property's value or limit the Company's ability to sell the affected property or to repay the indebtedness secured by the property. In addition, future laws or more stringent interpretations or enforcement policies with respect to existing laws may increase the Company's exposure to environmental liability. Although the Company has policies and procedures to perform an environmental review before initiating any foreclosure action on real property, these reviews may not be sufficient to detect all potential environmental hazards. The remediation costs and any other financial liabilities associated with an environmental hazard could have a material adverse effect on the Company's business, financial condition, results of operations, and liquidity.
Changes in the federal, state or local tax laws may negatively impact the Company’s financial performance.
We are subject to changes in tax law that could increase our effective tax rates. These law changes may be retroactive to previous periods and as a result could negatively affect our current and future financial performance. Furthermore, the full impact of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act ("federal income tax reform") on us and our customers is unknown at present, creating uncertainty and risk related to our customers' future demand for credit and our future results. Increased economic activity expected to result from the decrease in federal income tax rates on businesses generally could spur additional economic activity that would encourage additional borrowing. At the same time, some customers may elect to use their additional cash flow from lower taxes to fund their existing levels of activity, decreasing borrowing needs. The elimination of the federal income tax deductibility of business interest expense for a significant number of our customers effectively increases the cost of borrowing and makes equity or hybrid funding relatively more attractive. This could have a long-term negative impact on business customer borrowing. We experienced a significant increase in our after-tax net income available to stockholders in 2018, which we expect to continue in future years, as a result of the decrease in our effective tax rate. Some or all of this benefit could be lost to the extent that the banks and financial services companies we compete with elect to lower interest rates and fees and we are forced to respond in order to remain competitive. There is no assurance that presently anticipated benefits of federal income tax reform for the Company will be realized.
The Company and the Bank are subject to extensive government regulation and supervision and possible enforcement and other legal action.
The Company and the Bank are subject to extensive federal and state regulations and supervision. Banking regulations are primarily intended to protect depositors' funds, FDIC funds, and the banking system as a whole, not security holders. These regulations affect the Company's lending practices, capital structure, investment practices, dividend policy, and growth. Congress and federal regulatory agencies continually review banking laws, regulations, policies, and other supervisory guidance for possible changes. Changes to statutes, regulations, regulatory policies, or other supervisory guidance, including changes in the interpretation or implementation of those regulations or policies, could affect the Company in substantial and unpredictable ways and could have a material adverse effect on the Company's business, financial condition, and results of operations. These changes could subject the Company to additional costs, limit the types of financial products and services the Company may offer, limit the activities it is permitted to engage in, and increase the ability of non-banks to offer competing financial products and services. Failure to comply with laws, regulations, policies, or other regulatory guidance could result in civil or criminal sanctions by regulatory agencies, civil monetary penalties, and damage to the Company's reputation. Government authorities, including the bank regulatory agencies, are pursuing aggressive enforcement actions with respect to compliance and other legal matters involving financial activities. Any of these actions could have a material adverse effect on the Company's business, financial condition, and results of operations. While the Company has policies and procedures designed to prevent any such violations, there can be no assurance that such violations will not occur. See "Supervision and Regulation" in Item 1, "Business," and Note 18 of "Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements" in Item 8 of this Form 10-K.
The Company's business may be adversely affected in the future by the passage and implementation of legal and regulatory changes regarding banks and financial institutions.
The Dodd-Frank Act significantly changed the bank regulatory structure and affects the lending, deposit, investment, trading, and operating activities of financial institutions and their holding companies. The Dodd-Frank Act required various federal agencies to adopt a broad range of new rules and regulations and to prepare numerous studies and reports for Congress. Compliance with these laws and regulations has resulted, and will continue to result, in additional operating costs that have had an effect on the Company's business, financial condition, and results of operations.
There have been significant revisions to the laws and regulations applicable to financial institutions that have been enacted or proposed in recent months. These and other rules to implement the changes have yet to be finalized, and the final timing, scope and impact of these changes to the regulatory framework applicable to financial institutions remain uncertain.
See "Supervision and Regulation" in Item 1, "Business" of this Form 10-K for a discussion of several significant elements of the regulatory framework applicable to us, including the Volcker Rule and recent regulatory developments.
Compliance with any new requirements may cause the Company to hire additional compliance or other personnel, design and implement additional internal controls, or incur other significant expenses, any of which could have a material adverse effect on the Company's business, financial condition, or results of operations. To ensure compliance with new requirements when effective, the Company's regulators may require it to fully comply with these requirements or take actions to prepare for compliance even before it might otherwise be required, which may cause the Company to incur compliance-related costs before it might otherwise be required. The Company's regulators may also consider its preparation for compliance with these regulatory requirements when examining its operations generally or considering any request for regulatory approval the Company may make, even requests for approvals on unrelated matters.
The level of the commercial real estate loan portfolio may subject the Company to additional regulatory scrutiny.
The FDIC, the Federal Reserve, and the OCC issued joint guidance on sound risk management practices for financial institutions with concentrations in commercial real estate lending. Under the guidance, a financial institution that is actively involved in commercial real estate lending should perform a risk assessment to identify concentrations. A financial institution may have a concentration in commercial real estate lending if (i) total reported loans for construction, land development, and other land represent 100% or more of total capital or (ii) total reported loans secured by multi-family and non-farm residential properties, loans for construction, land development, and other land loans otherwise sensitive to the general commercial real estate market, including loans to commercial real estate related entities, represent 300% or more of total capital. The joint guidance requires heightened risk management practices including board and management oversight and strategic planning, development of underwriting standards, risk assessment, and monitoring through market analysis and stress testing. The Company is currently in compliance with these regulations. If regulators determine the Company is in violation of these restrictions or has not adequately implemented risk management practices, they could impose additional regulatory restrictions against the Company, which could have a material adverse impact on the Company's business, financial condition, and results of operations.
The Company is a defendant in a variety of litigation and other actions.
We are subject to claims and litigation pertaining to fiduciary responsibilities and certain other legal proceedings. Currently, there are certain legal proceedings pending against the Company and its subsidiaries in the ordinary course of business. While the outcome of any legal proceeding is inherently uncertain, the Company's management believes that any liabilities arising from pending legal matters would be immaterial based on information currently available. However, if actual results differ from management's expectations, it could have a material adverse effect on the Company's financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows. For a detailed discussion on current legal proceedings, see Item 3, "Legal Proceedings," and Note 20 of "Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements" in Item 8 of this Form 10-K.
Risks Related to Acquisition Activity
Future acquisitions may disrupt the Company's business and dilute stockholder value.
The Company strategically looks to acquire whole banks, branches of other banks, and non-banking organizations. The Company has recently been active in the merger and acquisition market and may consider future acquisitions to supplement internal growth opportunities, as permitted by regulators. Acquiring other banks, branches, or non-banks involves potential risks that could have a material adverse impact on the Company's business, financial condition, and results of operations, including:
Exposure to unknown or contingent liabilities of acquired institutions.
Disruption of the Company's business.
Loss of key employees and customers of acquired institutions.
Short-term decreases in profitability.
Diversion of management's time and attention.
Issues arising during transition and integration.
Dilution in the ownership percentage of holders of the Company's Common Stock.
Difficulty in estimating the value of the target company.
Payment of a premium over book and market values that may dilute the Company's tangible book value and earnings per share in the short and long-term.
Volatility in reported income as goodwill impairment losses could occur irregularly and in varying amounts.
Inability to realize the expected revenue increases, cost savings, increases in geographic or product presence, and/or other projected benefits.
Changes in banking or tax laws or regulations that could impair or eliminate the expected benefits of merger and acquisition activities.
From time to time, the Company may evaluate merger and acquisition opportunities and conduct due diligence activities related to possible transactions with other financial institutions and financial services companies. As a result, merger or acquisition discussions and negotiations may take place and future mergers or acquisitions involving cash, debt, or equity securities may occur at any time. Acquisitions may involve the payment of a premium over book and market values and, therefore, some dilution of the Company's tangible book value and net income per common share may occur in connection with any future transaction. Furthermore, failure to realize the expected revenue increases, cost savings, increases in geographic or product presence, or other projected benefits from an acquisition could have a material adverse effect on the Company's financial condition and results of operations. In addition, from time to time, banking regulators may restrict the Company from making acquisitions. See "Growth
and Acquisitions" and "Supervision and Regulation" in Item 1, "Business," of this Form 10-K for additional detail and further discussion of these matters.
Competition for acquisition candidates is intense.
Numerous potential acquirers compete with the Company for acquisition candidates. The Company may not be able to successfully identify and acquire suitable targets, which could slow the Company's growth and have a material adverse effect on its ability to compete in its markets.
Acquisitions may be delayed, impeded, or prohibited due to regulatory issues.
Acquisitions by financial institutions, including by the Company, are subject to approval by a variety of federal and state regulatory agencies (collectively, "regulatory approvals"). The process for obtaining these required regulatory approvals has become substantially more difficult in recent years. Regulatory approvals could be delayed, impeded, restrictively conditioned or denied due to new regulatory issues the Company may have with regulatory agencies, including, without limitation, issues related to Bank Secrecy Act compliance, CRA issues, fair lending laws, fair housing laws, consumer protection laws, unfair, deceptive, or abusive acts or practices regulations and other similar laws and regulations. The Company may fail to pursue, evaluate, or complete strategic and competitively significant acquisition opportunities as a result of its inability, or perceived or anticipated inability, to obtain regulatory approvals in a timely manner, under reasonable conditions, or at all. Difficulties associated with potential acquisitions that may result from these factors could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The valuations of acquired loans and OREO, including those acquired in FDIC-assisted transactions and the related FDIC indemnification asset, rely on estimates that may be inaccurate.
The Company performs a valuation of acquired loans and OREO. Although management makes various assumptions and judgments about the collectability of the acquired loans, including the creditworthiness of borrowers and the value of the real estate and other assets serving as collateral for the repayment of secured loans associated with these transactions, its estimates of the fair value of assets acquired could be inaccurate. Valuing these assets using inaccurate assumptions could materially and adversely affect the Company's business, financial condition, and results of operations.
For loans acquired in FDIC-assisted transactions that include FDIC Agreements, the Company records an FDIC indemnification asset that reflects its estimate of the timing and amount of reimbursements for future losses that are anticipated to occur. In determining the size of the FDIC indemnification asset, the Company analyzes the loan portfolio based on historical loss experience, volume and classification of loans, volume and trends in delinquencies and non-accruals, local economic conditions, and other pertinent information. Changes in the Company's estimate of the timing of those losses, specifically if those losses are to occur beyond the applicable loss-share periods, may result in charges related to the impairment of the FDIC indemnification asset, which would have a material adverse effect on the Company's financial condition and results of operations. If the assumptions related to the timing or amount of expected losses are incorrect, there could be a negative impact on the Company's operating results. Increases in the amount of future losses in response to different economic conditions or adverse developments in the acquired loan portfolio may result in increased charge-offs, which would also negatively impact the Company's business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Risks Associated with the Company's Common Stock
The Company's stock price can be volatile.
Stock price volatility may make it more difficult for you to resell your Common Stock when you want and at prices you find attractive. The Company's Common Stock price can fluctuate significantly in response to a variety of factors including:
Actual or anticipated variations in quarterly results of operations.
Recommendations by securities analysts.
Operating and stock price performance of other companies that investors deem comparable to the Company.
News reports relating to trends, concerns, and other issues in the financial services industry.
Perceptions in the marketplace regarding the Company and/or its competitors.
New technology used or services offered by competitors.
Significant acquisitions or business combinations, strategic partnerships, joint ventures, or capital commitments by or involving the Company or its competitors.
Failure to integrate acquisitions or realize anticipated benefits from acquisitions.
Changes in government regulations.
Geopolitical conditions, such as acts or threats of terrorism or military conflicts.
General market fluctuations, industry factors, and general economic and political conditions and events, such as economic slowdowns or recessions, interest rate changes, or credit loss trends, could also cause the Company's Common Stock price to decrease regardless of operating results.
The Company's Restated Certificate of Incorporation and Amended and Restated By-laws, as well as certain banking laws, may have an anti-takeover effect.
Provisions of the Company's Restated Certificate of Incorporation and Amended and Restated By-laws and federal banking laws, including regulatory approval requirements, could make it more difficult for a third-party to acquire the Company, even if doing so would be perceived to be beneficial by the Company's stockholders. The combination of these provisions effectively inhibits a non-negotiated merger or other business combination, which, in turn, could adversely affect the market price of the Company's Common Stock.
The Company may issue additional securities, which could dilute the ownership percentage of holders of the Company's Common Stock.
The Company may issue additional securities to raise additional capital, finance acquisitions, or for other corporate purposes, or in connection with its share-based compensation plans or retirement plans, and, if it does, the ownership percentage of holders of the Company's Common Stock could be diluted, potentially materially.
The Company has not established a minimum dividend payment level, and it cannot ensure its ability to pay dividends in the future.
The Company's fourth quarter 2018 cash dividend was $0.12 per share. The Company has not established a minimum dividend payment level, and the amount of its dividend, if any, may fluctuate. All dividends will be made at the discretion of the Company's Board of Directors (the "Board") and will depend on the Company's earnings, financial condition, and such other factors as the Board may deem relevant from time to time. The Board may, at its discretion, further reduce or eliminate dividends or change its dividend policy in the future.
In addition, the Federal Reserve issued Federal Reserve Supervision and Regulation Letter SR-09-4, which requires bank holding companies to inform and consult with Federal Reserve supervisory staff prior to declaring and paying a dividend that exceeds earnings for the period for which the dividend is being paid. Under this regulation, if the Company experiences losses in a series of consecutive quarters, it may be required to inform and consult with the Federal Reserve supervisory staff prior to declaring or paying any dividends. In this event, there can be no assurance that the Company's regulators will approve the payment of such dividends.
Offerings of debt, which would be senior to the Company's Common Stock upon liquidation, and/or preferred equity securities, which may be senior to the Company's Common Stock for purposes of dividend distributions or upon liquidation, may adversely affect the market price of the Company's Common Stock.
The Company may attempt to increase capital or raise additional capital by making additional offerings of debt or preferred equity securities, including trust-preferred securities, senior or subordinated notes, and preferred stock. In the event of liquidation, holders of the Company's debt securities and shares of preferred stock and lenders with respect to other borrowings will receive distributions of the Company's available assets prior to the holders of the Company's Common Stock. Additional equity offerings may dilute the holdings of the Company's existing stockholders or reduce the market price of the Company's Common Stock, or both. Holders of the Company's Common Stock are not entitled to preemptive rights or other protections against dilution.
The Board is authorized to issue one or more series of preferred stock from time to time without any action on the part of the Company's stockholders. The Board also has the power, without stockholder approval, to set the terms of any such classes or series of preferred stock that may be issued, including voting rights, dividend rights, and preferences over the Company's Common Stock with respect to dividends or upon the Company's dissolution, winding-up, liquidation, and other terms. If the Company issues preferred stock in the future that has a preference over the Company's Common Stock with respect to the payment of dividends or upon liquidation, or if the Company issues preferred stock with voting rights that dilute the voting power of the Company's Common Stock, the rights of holders of the Company's Common Stock or the market price of the Company's Common Stock could be adversely affected.
The corporate headquarters of the Company are located at 8750 West Bryn Mawr Avenue, Suite 1300, Chicago, Illinois, and are leased from an unaffiliated third-party. The Company conducts business through 120 banking locations largely located in various communities throughout the greater Chicago metropolitan area, as well as northwest Indiana, central and western Illinois, and eastern Iowa. Approximately 70%, of the Company's banking locations are leased and 30% are owned.
The Company owns 177 ATMs, most of which are housed at banking locations. Some ATMs are independently located. In addition, the Company owns other real property that, when considered individually or in the aggregate, is not material to the Company's financial position.
The Company believes its facilities in the aggregate are suitable and adequate to operate its banking business. Additional information regarding premises and equipment is presented in Note 8 of "Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements" in Item 8 of this Form 10-K.
ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
In the ordinary course of business, there were certain legal proceedings pending against the Company and its subsidiaries at December 31, 2018. While the outcome of any legal proceeding is inherently uncertain, based on information currently available, the Company's management does not expect that any liabilities arising from pending legal matters will have a material adverse effect on the Company's business, financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows.
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR THE REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY,
RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS, AND
ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
The Company's Common Stock is traded under the symbol "FMBI" in the NASDAQ Global Select Market tier of the NASDAQ Stock Market. As of December 31, 2018, there were 2,265 stockholders of record, a number that does not include beneficial owners who hold shares in "street name" (or stockholders from previously acquired companies that had not yet exchanged their stock).
Market price of Common Stock
Cash dividends declared per
Payment of future dividends is within the discretion of the Board and will depend on the Company's earnings, capital requirements, financial condition, dividends from the Bank to the Company, and such other factors as the Board may deem relevant from time to time. The Board makes the dividend determination on a quarterly basis. Further discussion of the Company's approach to the payment of dividends is included in the "Management of Capital" section of "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" in Item 7 of this Form 10-K.
A discussion regarding the regulatory restrictions applicable to the Bank's ability to pay dividends to the Company is included in the "Business – Supervision and Regulation – Dividends" and "Risk Factors – Risks Associated with the Company's Common Stock" sections in Items 1 and 1A, respectively, of this Form 10-K.
For a description of the securities authorized for issuance under equity compensation plans, see Item 12, "Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters," of this Form 10-K.
The graph below illustrates the cumulative total return (defined as stock price appreciation assuming the reinvestment of all dividends) to stockholders of the Company's Common Stock compared to a broad-market total return equity index, the NASDAQ Composite, and a published industry total return equity index, the NASDAQ Banks, over a five-year period.
Comparison of Five-Year Cumulative Total Return Among
First Midwest Bancorp, Inc., the NASDAQ Composite, and the NASDAQ Banks(1)
First Midwest Bancorp, Inc.
Assumes $100 invested on December 31, 2013 with the reinvestment of all related dividends.
To the extent this Form 10-K is incorporated by reference into any other filing by the Company under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act, the foregoing "Stock Performance Graph" will not be deemed incorporated, unless specifically provided otherwise in such filing and shall not otherwise be deemed filed under such acts.
The following table summarizes the Company's monthly Common Stock purchases during the fourth quarter of 2018. The Board approved a stock repurchase program on November 27, 2007. Up to 2,500,000 shares of the Company's Common Stock may be repurchased, and the total remaining authorization under the program was 2,487,947 shares as of December 31, 2018. The repurchase program has no set expiration or termination date.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Average Price Paid per Share
Part of a
May Yet Be
October 1 – October 31, 2018
November 1 – November 30, 2018
December 1 – December 31, 2018
Consists of shares acquired pursuant to the Company's share-based compensation plans and not the Company's Board-approved stock repurchase program. Under the terms of the Company's share-based compensation plans, the Company accepts previously owned shares of Common Stock surrendered to satisfy tax withholding obligations associated with the vesting of restricted shares.
Consolidated financial information reflecting a summary of the results of operations and financial condition of the Company for each of the five years in the period ended December 31, 2018 is presented in the following table. This summary should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements, and accompanying notes thereto, and other financial information included in Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data," of this Form 10-K. A more detailed discussion and analysis of the factors affecting the Company's financial condition and results of operations is presented in Item 7, "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations," of this Form 10-K.
As of or for the Years Ended December 31,
Results of Operations (Amounts in thousands, except per share data)
Net income applicable to common shares
Per Common Share Data
Basic earnings per common share
Diluted earnings per common share
Diluted earnings per common share, adjusted(1)
Common dividends declared
Book value at year end
Market price at year end
Return on average common equity
Return on average common equity, adjusted(1)
Return on average tangible common equity
Return on average tangible common equity, adjusted(1)
Return on average assets
Return on average assets, adjusted(1)
Tax-equivalent net interest margin(1)
Non-performing loans to total loans
Non-performing assets to total loans plus OREO
Balance Sheet Highlights
Senior and subordinated debt
Allowance for credit losses to total loans
Net charge-offs to average loans
Total capital to risk-weighted assets(2)
Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets(2)
CET1 to risk-weighted assets(2)
Tier 1 capital to average assets(2)
Tangible common equity to tangible assets
Dividend payout ratio
Dividend payout ratio, adjusted(1)
N/M – Not meaningful.
This ratio is a non-GAAP measure. For a discussion of non-GAAP financial measures, see the "Non-GAAP Financial Information and Reconciliations" section of "Management Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" in item 7 of this Form 10-K.
Basel III Capital Rules became effective for the Company on January 1, 2015. These rules revise the risk-based capital requirements and introduce a new capital measure, CET1 to risk-weighted assets. As a result, ratios subsequent to December 31, 2014 are computed using the new rules and prior periods presented are reported using the regulatory guidance applicable at that time.
ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL
CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
First Midwest Bancorp, Inc. is a bank holding company headquartered in Chicago, Illinois with operations throughout metropolitan Chicago, northwest Indiana, central and western Illinois, and eastern Iowa. Our principal subsidiary, First Midwest Bank, and other affiliates provide a full range of commercial, treasury management, equipment leasing, consumer, wealth management, trust, and private banking products and services to commercial and industrial, commercial real estate, municipal, and consumer customers through 120 banking locations. We are committed to meeting the financial needs of the people and businesses in the communities where we live and work by providing customized banking solutions, quality products, and innovative services that fulfill those financial needs.
The following discussion and analysis is intended to address the significant factors affecting our Consolidated Statements of Income for the three years ended December 31, 2018 and Consolidated Statements of Financial Condition as of December 31, 2018 and 2017. Certain reclassifications were made to prior year amounts to conform to the current year presentation. When we use the terms "First Midwest," the "Company," "we," "us," and "our," we mean First Midwest Bancorp, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries. When we use the term "Bank," we are referring to our wholly-owned banking subsidiary, First Midwest Bank. Management's discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements, accompanying notes thereto, and other financial information presented in Item 8 of this Form 10-K.
Our results of operations are affected by various factors, many of which are beyond our control, including interest rates, local and national economic conditions, business spending, consumer confidence, legislative and regulatory changes, certain seasonal factors, and changes in real estate and securities markets. Our management evaluates performance using a variety of qualitative and quantitative metrics. The primary quantitative metrics used by management include:
Net Interest Income – Net interest income, our primary source of revenue, equals the difference between interest income and fees earned on interest-earning assets and interest expense incurred on interest-bearing liabilities.
Net Interest Margin – Net interest margin equals tax-equivalent net interest income divided by total average interest-earning assets.
Noninterest Income – Noninterest income is the income we earn from fee-based revenues, investment in bank-owned life insurance ("BOLI"), other income, and non-operating revenues.
Noninterest Expense – Noninterest expense is the expense we incur to operate the Company, which includes salaries and employee benefits, net occupancy and equipment, professional services, and other costs.
Asset Quality – Asset quality represents an estimation of the quality of our loan portfolio, including an assessment of the credit risk related to existing and potential loss exposure, and can be evaluated using a number of quantitative measures, such as non-performing loans to total loans.
Regulatory Capital – Our regulatory capital is classified in one of the following tiers: (i) Common Equity Tier 1 capital ("CET1"), which consists of common equity and retained earnings, less goodwill and other intangible assets and a portion of disallowed deferred tax assets ("DTAs"), (ii) Tier 1 capital, which consists of CET1 and the remaining portion of disallowed deferred tax assets, and (iii) Tier 2 capital, which includes qualifying subordinated debt, qualifying trust-preferred securities, and the allowance for credit losses, subject to limitations. During 2018, the Company's total assets surpassed $15 billion, requiring the Company to treat outstanding trust-preferred securities as Tier 2 capital instead of Tier 1 capital.
Some of these metrics may be presented on a basis not in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles ("non-GAAP") basis. For detail on our non-GAAP measures, see the discussion in the section of this Item 7 titled "Non-GAAP Financial Information and Reconciliations." Unless otherwise stated, all earnings per common share data included in this section and throughout the remainder of this discussion are presented on a fully diluted basis.
A quarterly summary of operations for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 is included in the section of this Item 7 titled "Quarterly Earnings."
This Form 10-K may contain certain "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. In some cases, forward-looking statements can be identified by the use of words such as "may," "might," "will," "would," "should," "could," "expect," "plan," "intend," "anticipate," "believe," "estimate," "predict," "probable," "potential," "possible," "target," "continue," "look forward," or "assume," and words of similar import. Forward-looking statements are not historical facts but instead express only management's beliefs regarding future results or events, many of which, by their nature,
are inherently uncertain and outside of management's control. It is possible that actual results and events may differ, possibly materially, from the anticipated results or events indicated in these forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance or outcomes, and we caution you not to place undue reliance on these statements. Forward-looking statements are made only as of the date of this report, and we undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements contained in this report to reflect new information or events or conditions after the date hereof.
Forward-looking statements may be deemed to include, among other things, statements relating to our future financial performance, including the related outlook for 2019, the performance of our loan or securities portfolio, the expected amount of future credit reserves or charge-offs, corporate strategies or objectives, including the impact of certain actions and initiatives, our Delivering Excellence initiative, including actions, goals, and expectations, as well as costs and benefits associated therewith and the timing thereof, anticipated trends in our business, regulatory developments, the impact of federal income tax reform legislation, acquisition transactions, including our proposed acquisition of Bridgeview, estimated synergies, cost savings and financial benefits of completed transactions, and growth strategies, including possible future acquisitions. These statements are subject to certain risks, uncertainties, and assumptions. These risks, uncertainties, and assumptions include, among other things, the following:
Management's ability to reduce and effectively manage interest rate risk and the impact of interest rates in general on the volatility of our net interest income.
Asset and liability matching risks and liquidity risks.
Fluctuations in the value of our investment securities.
The ability to attract and retain senior management experienced in banking and financial services.
The sufficiency of the allowance for credit losses to absorb the amount of actual losses inherent in the existing loan portfolio.
The models and assumptions underlying the establishment of the allowance for credit losses and estimation of values of collateral and various financial assets and liabilities may be inadequate.
Credit risks and risks from concentrations (by geographic area and by industry) within our loan portfolio.
The effects of competition from other commercial banks, thrifts, mortgage banking firms, consumer finance companies, credit unions, securities brokerage firms, insurance companies, money market and other mutual funds, and other financial institutions operating in our markets or elsewhere providing similar services.
Changes in the economic environment, competition, or other factors that may influence the anticipated growth rate of loans and deposits, the quality of the loan portfolio, and loan and deposit pricing.
Changes in general economic or industry conditions, nationally or in the communities in which we conduct business.
Volatility of rate sensitive deposits.
Our ability to adapt successfully to technological changes to compete effectively in the marketplace.
Operational risks, including data processing system failures, vendor failures, fraud, or breaches.
Our ability to successfully pursue acquisition and expansion strategies and integrate any acquired companies.
The impact of liabilities arising from legal or administrative proceedings, enforcement of bank regulations, and enactment or application of laws or regulations.
Governmental monetary and fiscal policies and legislative and regulatory changes (including those implementing provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act) that may result in the imposition of costs and constraints through, for example, higher FDIC insurance premiums, significant fluctuations in market interest rates, increases in capital or liquidity requirements, operational limitations, or compliance costs.
Changes in federal and state tax laws or interpretations, including changes affecting tax rates, income not subject to tax under existing law and interpretations, income sourcing, or consolidation/combination rules.
Changes in accounting principles, policies, or guidelines affecting the businesses we conduct.
Acts of war or terrorism, natural disasters, and other external events.
Other economic, competitive, governmental, regulatory, and technological factors affecting our operations, products, services, and prices.
For a further discussion of these risks, uncertainties and assumptions, you should refer to the section entitled "Risk Factors" in Item 1A in this report, this "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and our subsequent filings made with the SEC. However, these risks and uncertainties are not exhaustive. Other sections of this report describe additional factors that could adversely impact our business and financial performance.
During 2018, the Company initiated certain actions in connection with its Delivering Excellence initiative. This initiative further demonstrates the Company's ongoing commitment to providing service excellence to its clients, as well as maximizing both the efficiency and scalability of its operating platform. Components of Delivering Excellence include improved delivery of services to clients through streamlined processes, the consolidation or closing of 19 locations, organizational realignments, and several revenue growth opportunities. The implementation of this initiative resulted in pre-tax implementation costs of $20.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2018, associated with property valuation adjustments on locations identified for closure, employee severance, and general restructuring and advisory services.
Impact of Federal Income Tax Reform
On December 22, 2017, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act ("federal income tax reform") was enacted into law. This federal income tax reform, among other things, reduced the federal corporate income tax rate from 35% to 21%, effective January 1, 2018. As a result, in 2017 the Company revalued its DTAs, expanded investments in its colleagues and communities, and took certain actions related to its securities portfolio.
Northern Oak Wealth Management, Inc.
On January 16, 2019, the Company completed its acquisition of Northern Oak, a registered investment adviser based in Milwaukee, Wisconsin with approximately $800.0 million of assets under management at closing.
Northern States Financial Corporation
On October 12, 2018, the Company completed its acquisition of Northern States, the holding company for NorStates Bank, based in Waukegan, Illinois. At closing, the Company acquired $578.7 million of total assets, $463.2 million of deposits, and $284.9 million of loans. The merger consideration totaled $83.3 million and consisted of 3.3 million shares of Company common stock. All Northern States operating systems were converted during the fourth quarter of 2018.
Premier Asset Management LLC
On February 28, 2017, the Company completed the acquisition of Premier, a registered investment adviser based in Chicago, Illinois with approximately $550.0 million of assets under management at closing.
Standard Bancshares, Inc.
On January 6, 2017, the Company completed its acquisition of Standard. With the acquisition, the Company acquired 35 banking offices located primarily in the southwest Chicago suburbs and adjacent markets in northwest Indiana, and added approximately $2.6 billion of total assets, $2.0 billion of deposits, and $1.8 billion of loans. The merger consideration totaled $580.7 million and consisted of $533.6 million of Company common stock and $47.1 million of cash. All operating systems were converted during the first quarter of 2017.
Bridgeview Bancorp, Inc.
On December 6, 2018, the Company entered into a merger agreement to acquire Bridgeview Bancorp, Inc. ("Bridgeview"), the holding company for Bridgeview Bank Group. With the acquisition, the Company would acquire 13 banking offices located across greater Chicagoland and several suburbs. As of September 30, 2018, Bridgeview had approximately $1.2 billion of assets, $1.1 billion of deposits, and $800 million of loans, excluding Bridgeview's mortgage division, which the Company is not acquiring. The merger agreement provides for a fixed exchange ratio of 0.2767 shares of Company common stock, plus $1.79 in cash, for each share of Bridgeview common stock, subject to certain adjustments. As of the date of announcement, the overall transaction was valued at approximately $145 million. The acquisition is subject to customary regulatory approvals, the approval of Bridgeview’s stockholders, and the completion of various closing conditions, and is anticipated to close in the second quarter of 2019.
(Dollar amounts in thousands, except per share data)
Years Ended December 31,
Net interest income
Provision for loan losses
Income before income tax expense
Income tax expense
Weighted-average diluted common shares outstanding
Diluted earnings per common share
Diluted earnings per common share, adjusted(1)
Return on average common equity
Return on average common equity, adjusted(1)
Return on average tangible common equity
Return on average tangible common equity, adjusted(1)
Return on average assets
Return on average assets, adjusted(1)
Tax-equivalent net interest margin(1)(2)
Efficiency ratio, prior presentation(1)(3)
This item is a non-GAAP financial measure. For a discussion of non-GAAP financial measures, see the section of this Item 7 titled "Non-GAAP Financial Information and Reconciliations."
See the section of this Item 7 titled "Earnings Performance" below for additional discussion and calculation of this metric.
Presented as calculated prior to 2018, which included a tax-equivalent adjustment for BOLI. Management believes that removing this adjustment from the current calculation of this metric enhances comparability for peer comparison purposes.
90 days or more past due loans, still accruing interest(1)
Total non-performing loans
Accruing troubled debt restructurings ("TDRs")
Total non-performing assets
30-89 days past due loans(1)
Non-performing assets to loans plus OREO
Allowance for Credit Losses
Allowance for credit losses
Allowance for credit losses to total loans(2)
Allowance for credit losses to total loans, excluding
Allowance for credit losses to non-accrual loans(2)
Purchased credit impaired ("PCI") loans with accretable yield are considered current and are not included in past due loan totals.
This ratio includes acquired loans that are recorded at fair value through an acquisition adjustment, which incorporates credit risk as of the acquisition date with no allowance for credit losses being established at that time. As the acquisition adjustment is accreted into income over future periods, an allowance for credit losses on acquired loans is established as necessary to reflect credit deterioration. A discussion of the allowance for acquired loan losses and the related acquisition adjustment is presented in the section of this Item 7 titled "Loan Portfolio and Credit Quality."
This item is a non-GAAP financial measure. For a discussion of non-GAAP financial measures, see the section of this Item 7 titled "Non-GAAP Financial Information and Reconciliations."
Performance Overview for 2018 Compared with 2017
Net income for 2018 was $157.9 million, or $1.52 per share, compared to net income of $98.4 million, or $0.96 per share, for 2017. Performance for 2018 was impacted by Delivering Excellence implementation costs and income tax benefits. Both 2018 and 2017 were impacted by acquisition and integration related expenses associated with completed and pending acquisitions. In addition, performance for 2017 was impacted by various actions taken by the Company in light of tax reform which include the revaluation of DTAs, certain actions resulting in securities losses and gains, a special bonus to colleagues, and a charitable contribution to the First Midwest Charitable Foundation. Excluding these adjustments, earnings per share was $1.67 for 2018 and $1.35 for 2017. For additional detail on these adjustments, see the section of this Item 7 titled "Non-GAAP Financial Information and Reconciliations." The increase in net income, adjusted, and earnings per share, adjusted, compared to 2017 reflects higher net interest income, controlled noninterest expense, and a lower effective income tax rate, partially offset by higher provision for loan losses and lower noninterest income.
Tax-equivalent net interest margin was 3.90% for 2018 compared to 3.87% for 2017, driven primarily by higher interest rates, which more than offset the rise in funding costs, lower acquired loan accretion, and a decline in the tax-equivalent adjustment as a result of lower federal income tax rates.
Total noninterest income was $144.6 million for 2018 compared to $163.1 million for 2017. The decrease was primarily driven by the impact of Durbin, which became effective for the Company in the third quarter of 2017, and the reclassification in 2018 of certain noninterest expense line items to noninterest income as a result of the adoption of accounting guidance, partially offset by growth in wealth management fees.
Total noninterest expense of $416.3 million for 2018 was consistent with 2017. The reclassification in 2018 of certain noninterest expense line items to noninterest income as a result of the adoption of accounting guidance, lower acquisition and integration related expenses, as well as the recurring benefits of the Company's Delivering Excellence initiative, substantially offset increases in expenses associated with organizational growth and Delivering Excellence integration costs.
A detailed discussion of net interest income and noninterest income and expense is presented in the following section of this Item 7 titled "Earnings Performance."
As of December 31, 2018, our securities available-for-sale portfolio totaled $2.3 billion, up 20.6%, from December 31, 2017. For a detailed discussion of our securities portfolio, see the section of this Item 7 titled "Investment Portfolio Management."
Total loans of $11.4 billion as of December 31, 2018 reflects growth of $1.0 billion, or 9.7%, from December 31, 2017. This growth was driven primarily by sales production of the corporate and consumer lending teams, loan purchases, and loans acquired in the Northern States transaction.
Non-performing assets represented 0.70% of total loans plus OREO as of December 31, 2018 compared to 0.89% as of December 31, 2017.
For a detailed discussion of our loan portfolio and credit quality, see the section of this Item 7 titled "Loan Portfolio and Credit Quality."
Total average funding sources of $12.6 billion for 2018 increased by $785.9 million from 2017, primarily from time deposits and FHLB advances. For a detailed discussion of our funding sources see the section of this Item 7 titled "Funding and Liquidity Management."
Performance Overview for 2017 Compared with 2016
Net income for 2017 was $98.4 million, or $0.96 per share, compared to net income of $92.3 million, or $1.14 per share, for 2016. Performance for 2017 and 2016 was impacted by revaluation of DTAs related to federal income tax reform and changes in Illinois income tax rates (2017), a special bonus to colleagues (2017), a charitable contribution to the First Midwest Charitable Foundation (2017), certain actions resulting in securities losses and gains (2017), acquisition and integration related expenses associated with completed and pending acquisitions (both 2017 and 2016), a lease cancellation fee recognized as a result of the Company's planned 2018 corporate headquarters relocation (2016), and a net gain on a sale-leaseback transaction (2016). Excluding these adjustments, earnings per share was $1.35 for 2017 and $1.22 for 2016. The increase in net income and earnings per share reflects the benefit of the Standard and Premier acquisitions completed in the first quarter of 2017 and the full year impact of the NI Bancshares acquisition completed during the first quarter of 2016, organic loan growth, and increases in fee-based revenues, partially offset by higher noninterest expenses.
Tax-equivalent net interest margin was 3.87% for 2017 compared to 3.60% for 2016, driven primarily by an increase in acquired loan accretion, higher rates, and the additional portfolio of higher-yielding fixed rate loans acquired in the Standard transaction, partially offset by growth in the securities portfolio and the continued shift of loan originations and mix to lower-yielding floating rate loans.
Total noninterest income was $163.1 million for 2017 compared to $159.3 million for 2016. Total fee-based revenues increased by 6.9% for 2017 compared to 2016, due primarily to services provided to customers acquired in the Standard and Premier transactions and organic growth in wealth management and treasury management services, partly offset by lower card-based fees.
Total noninterest expense was $415.9 million for 2017, increasing by 22.5% compared to 2016. This increase is primarily the result of operating costs associated with the Standard and Premier transactions and compensation costs associated with merit increases and investments in additional talent to support organizational growth.
As of December 31, 2017, our securities available-for-sale portfolio totaled $1.9 billion, down 1.8%, from December 31, 2017.
Total loans of $10.4 billion as of December 31, 2017 reflects growth of $2.2 billion, or 26.5%, from December 31, 2016. This growth was driven primarily by loans acquired in the Standard transaction and sales production of the corporate and consumer lending teams.
Non-performing assets represented 0.89% of total loans plus OREO as of December 31, 2017 compared to 1.12% as of December 31, 2016.
Total average funding sources of $11.9 billion for 2017 increased by $2.3 billion from 2016, due primarily to the deposits assumed in the Standard acquisition.
Net interest income is our primary source of revenue and is impacted by interest rates and the volume and mix of interest-earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities. The accounting policies for the recognition of interest income on loans, securities, and other interest-earning assets are presented in Note 1 of "Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements" in Item 8 of this Form 10-K.
Our accounting and reporting policies conform to GAAP and general practices within the banking industry. For purposes of this discussion, both net interest income and net interest margin have been adjusted to a fully tax-equivalent basis to more appropriately compare the returns on certain tax-exempt loans and securities to those on taxable interest-earning assets. The effect of this adjustment is shown at the bottom of Table 2. Although we believe that these non-GAAP financial measures enhance investors' understanding of our business and performance, they should not be considered an alternative to GAAP. For a discussion of non-GAAP financial measures, see the section of this Item 7 titled "Non-GAAP Financial Information and Reconciliations."
Table 2 summarizes our average interest-earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017, and 2016, the related interest income and interest expense for each earning asset category and funding source, and the average interest rates earned and paid. Table 3 details differences in interest income and expense from prior years and the extent to which any changes are attributable to volume and rate fluctuations.
As a result of accounting guidance adopted in 2018, equity securities are no longer presented within trading securities or securities available-for-sale and are now presented as equity securities in the Consolidated Statements of Financial Condition for periods subsequent to December 31, 2017.
Interest income and yields on tax-exempt securities and loans are presented on a tax-equivalent basis, assuming the applicable federal income tax rate for each period presented. As a result, interest income and yields on tax-exempt securities and loans subsequent to December 31, 2017 are presented at the current federal income tax rate of 21% and the prior periods are presented using the federal income tax rate applicable at that time of 35%. The corresponding income tax impact related to tax-exempt items is recorded in income tax expense. These adjustments have no impact on net income. For a discussion of tax-equivalent net interest income/margin, net interest income (GAAP), and tax-equivalent net interest income/margin, adjusted, see the section of this Item 7 titled "Non-GAAP Financial Information and Reconciliations."
Non-accrual loans, which totaled $56.9 million as of December 31, 2018, $66.9 million as of December 31, 2017, and $59.3 million as of December 31, 2016, are included in loans for purposes of this analysis. Additional detail regarding non-accrual loans is presented in the section of this Item 7 titled "Non-Performing Assets and Performing Potential Problem Loans."
Net interest income was $516.6 million for 2018 compared to $472.0 million for 2017, an increase of 9.5%. The rise in net interest income resulted primarily from higher interest rates, growth in loans and securities, and the acquisition of interest-earning assets from the Northern States transaction early in the fourth quarter of 2018, partially offset by higher cost of funds and lower acquired loan accretion.
Acquired loan accretion contributed $19.5 million and $33.9 million to net interest income for 2018 and 2017, respectively.
Tax-equivalent net interest margin was 3.90% for 2018, increasing by 3 basis points from 2017. Compared to 2017, the benefit of higher interest rates more than offset the rise in funding costs, a 13 basis point decrease in acquired loan accretion, and a 3 basis point reduction in the tax-equivalent adjustment as a result of lower federal income tax rates.
Total average interest-earning assets were $13.4 billion for 2018, an increase of $937.4 million, or 7.5%, from 2017. The increase resulted from growth in loans and securities as well as the acquisition of interest-earning assets from the Northern States transaction.
Total average interest-bearing liabilities were $9.0 billion for 2018 compared to $8.3 billion for 2017, an increase of $706.2 million, or 8.5%. The increase resulted from time deposits, FHLB advances, and funding sources acquired in the Northern States transaction.
2017 Compared to 2016
Net interest income was $472.0 million for 2017 compared to $349.7 million for 2016, an increase of 35.0%. This increase was driven primarily by the acquisition of interest-earning assets and acquired loan accretion from the Standard transaction early in the first quarter of 2017, organic loan growth, and higher interest rates.
Acquired loan accretion contributed $33.9 million and $14.6 million to net interest income for 2017 and 2016, respectively.
Tax-equivalent net interest margin was 3.87% for 2017, increasing by 27 basis points from 2016. The rise in tax-equivalent net interest margin was driven primarily by a 13 basis point increase in acquired loan accretion combined with the positive impact of higher interest rates. In addition, the impact of adding a portfolio of higher-yielding fixed-rate loans acquired from Standard contributed to the increase, partially offset by growth in the securities portfolio and the continued shift of loan originations and mix to lower-yielding floating rate loans.
Total average interest-earning assets were $12.4 billion for 2017, an increase of $2.5 billion, or 24.8%, from 2016. The increase resulted from interest-earning assets acquired in the Standard transaction, loan growth, and security purchases. In addition, interest-earning assets acquired in the NI Bancshares transaction late in the first quarter of 2016 contributed to the increase.
Total average interest-bearing liabilities increased by $1.5 billion to $8.3 billion for 2017 from $6.8 billion for 2016. The increase resulted primarily from deposits acquired in the Standard transaction and the addition of FHLB advances during 2017. Deposits acquired in the NI Bancshares transaction also contributed to the increase.