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UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
Annual Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of The Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
Transition Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of The Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the transition period from                      to                     
Commission file number 001-31940

F.N.B. CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Pennsylvania25-1255406
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
One North Shore Center, 12 Federal Street, Pittsburgh, PA15212
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: 800-555-5455
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each ClassTrading Symbol(s)Name of Exchange on which Registered
Common Stock, par value $0.01 per shareFNBNew York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  ☒    No  ☐
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes  ☐    No  ☒
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  ☒    No  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes  ☒    No  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large Accelerated FilerAccelerated Filer
Non-accelerated FilerSmaller reporting company
Emerging Growth Company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.  
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.  
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes  ☐    No  
The aggregate market value of the registrant’s outstanding voting common stock held by non-affiliates on June 30, 2023, determined using a per share closing price on that date of $11.44, as quoted on the New York Stock Exchange, was $3,967,705,593.
As of January 31, 2024, the registrant had outstanding 358,945,531 shares of common stock.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of F.N.B. Corporation’s definitive proxy statement to be filed pursuant to Regulation 14A for the Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be held on May 8, 2024 are incorporated by reference into Part III, Items 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14, of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. F.N.B. Corporation will file its definitive proxy statement with the Securities and Exchange Commission on or before April 1, 2024.


                 
INDEX
PAGE
PART I
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 1B.
Item 1C.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
PART II
Item 5.
Item 7.
Item 7A.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
Item 9C.
PART III
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
PART IV
Item 15.
Item 16.


                 
Glossary of Acronyms and Terms
Acronym
Description
Acronym
Description
ACLAllowance for credit lossesFTCFederal Trade Commission
AFS
Available for sale
FTEFully taxable equivalent
ALCO
Asset/Liability Committee
FVO
Fair value option
AOCI
Accumulated other comprehensive income
GAAP
U.S. generally accepted accounting principles
ASC
Accounting Standards Codification
GLB Act
Gramm-Leach Bliley Act of 1999
ASU
Accounting Standards Update
HTM
Held to maturity
AULC
Allowance for unfunded loan commitments
Howard
Howard Bancorp, Inc.
BOLI
Bank owned life insurance
HUD
Department of Housing and Urban Development
Basel III
Basel III Capital Rules
IDIInsured depository institution
BHC Act
Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended
IRLC
Interest rate lock commitment
CECL
Current expected credit losses
LCR
Liquidity Coverage Ratio
CET1
Common equity tier 1
LGD
Loss given default
CFPB
Consumer Financial Protection Bureau
LIBOR
London Inter-bank Offered Rate
COVID-19
Novel coronavirus disease of 2019
LIHTC
Low income housing tax credit
CRA
Community Reinvestment Act of 1977
MCH
Months of Cash on Hand
DIF
Deposit Insurance Fund
MD&A
Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial
Condition and Results of Operations
Dodd-Frank
Act
Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer
Protection Act of 2010
MSA
Mortgage servicing asset
DOJ
U.S. Department of Justice
MSRs
Mortgage servicing rights
DTA
Deferred tax asset
NYSE
New York Stock Exchange
DTL
Deferred tax liability
OCI
Other comprehensive income
Economic
Growth Act
Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief and
Consumer Protection Act
OCC
Office of the Comptroller of the Currency
ERISA
Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974
OREO
Other real estate owned
EVEEconomic value of equity
PCD
Purchase credit deteriorated
FASB
Financial Accounting Standards Board
Penn-Ohio
Penn-Ohio Life Insurance Company
FDI ActFederal Deposit Insurance Act
RESPA
Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act
FDIC
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
RRRReference rate reform
FDICIA
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
Improvement Act of 1991
R&S
Reasonable and supportable
FHLB
Federal Home Loan Bank
SBA
Small Business Administration
FICO
Fair Isaac Corporation
SEC
Securities and Exchange Commission
FINRA
Financial Industry Regulatory Authority
SOFRSecured Overnight Financing Rate
FNB
F.N.B. Corporation
SOX
Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002
FNBIA
F.N.B. Investment Advisors, Inc.
TDR
Troubled debt restructuring
FNBPA
First National Bank of Pennsylvania
TILA
Truth in Lending Act
FNIA
First National Insurance Agency, LLC
TPS
Trust preferred securities
FNTC
First National Trust Company
UnionUB Bancorp
FOMC
Federal Open Market Committee
U.S.
United States of America
FRB
Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve
System
UST
U.S. Department of the Treasury
FSOC
Financial Stability Oversight Council
VIEVariable interest entity



                 
PART I
Forward-Looking Statements: From time to time F.N.B. Corporation has made and may continue to make written or oral forward-looking statements with respect to our outlook or expectations for earnings, revenues, expenses, capital and liquidity levels, asset quality or other future financial or business performance, strategies or expectations, or the impact of legal, regulatory or supervisory matters on our business operations or performance. This Annual Report on Form 10-K (the Report) also includes forward-looking statements. See Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Information in Item 7 of this Report.
The terms “FNB,” “the Corporation,” “we,” “us” and “our” throughout this Report mean F.N.B. Corporation and its subsidiaries, when appropriate.
ITEM 1.    BUSINESS
Overview
We are a Pennsylvania corporation, a bank holding company and a financial holding company. We are incorporated under the laws of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and through our subsidiaries, we have been in business since 1864. Our headquarters is located at 12 Federal Street, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15212. As a diversified financial services holding company, FNB, through our subsidiaries, provides a full range of financial services, principally to consumers, corporations, governments and small- to medium-sized businesses in our market areas through our subsidiary network, which is led by our largest subsidiary, FNBPA. Our business strategy focuses primarily on providing quality, consumer- and commercial-based financial services adapted to the needs of each of the markets we serve. We seek to maintain our community orientation by providing local management with certain autonomy in decision making, enabling them to respond to customer requests more quickly and to concentrate on transactions within their market areas. We seek to preserve some decision making at a local level, however, we have centralized legal, loan review, credit underwriting, accounting, investment, audit, loan operations, deposit operations and data processing functions. The centralization of these processes enables us to maintain consistent quality of these functions and to achieve certain economies of scale.
As of December 31, 2023, we have three reportable business segments: Community Banking, Wealth Management and Insurance, with the remaining operations described in Other. As of December 31, 2023, we have 346 Community Banking branches in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Maryland, West Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Washington, D.C. and Virginia.
As of December 31, 2023, we had total assets of $46 billion, loans of $32 billion and deposits of $35 billion. See Item 7, MD&A, and Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data,” of this Report.
Internet Information
Our website is at www.fnbcorporation.com and information regarding FNB and investor relations is located under the heading "About Us." We use our website to distribute company information, including as a means of disclosing material, non-public information and for complying with our disclosure obligations under Regulation FD. We generally post and make accessible before or promptly following the first time we use financially-related press releases, including earnings releases and supplemental financial information, various SEC filings, including annual, quarterly and current reports and proxy statements, presentation materials associated with earnings and other investor calls or events on our corporate website. Under some circumstances, the information may be relevant to investors but be directed to customers, in which case it may be accessed directly through our website's home page rather than “About Us-Investor Information.” Investors should monitor the Investor Relations portion of our website, in addition to following our press releases, SEC filings, public conference calls and webcasts. For earnings and other conference calls or events, we generally include in our posted materials a cautionary statement regarding forward-looking and non-GAAP financial information, and we provide GAAP reconciliations when we provide non-GAAP financial information. Such GAAP reconciliations may be in materials for the applicable presentations, in materials for prior presentations or in our annual, quarterly or current reports.
Securities and Exchange Commission Reports and Corporate Governance Information
We are subject to the informational requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (Exchange Act) and, in accordance with the Exchange Act, we file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements, and other information with the SEC. Our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act are available on the "About Us" portion of our website under the heading Investor Information (accessible by clicking on the SEC Filings link) as soon as reasonably
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practicable after we electronically file such reports with, or furnish them to, the SEC and at the SEC’s website, www.sec.gov. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the information contained on our website as referenced in this paragraph is not incorporated by reference into this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Also, under the "About Us" portion of our website under the heading Investors you may click on Corporate Governance to view the following: (i) our Code of Conduct and Code of Ethics; (ii) our Corporate Governance Guidelines; (iii) the charter of each active committee of our Board of Directors; and (iv) our Policy With Respect to Related Persons Transactions. We also intend to disclose any amendments to our Code of Conduct and waivers of our Code of Conduct required to be disclosed by the rules of the SEC and the NYSE on the Investor Information portion of our website. All of these corporate governance materials are also available free of charge in print to shareholders who request them in writing to: F.N.B. Corporation, Attention: Office of the Corporate Secretary, 12 Federal Street, 5th Floor, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 15212.
Our registered investment adviser subsidiary is subject to the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 and related rules and regulations promulgated by the SEC. Our investment adviser subsidiary is also subject to additional regulation by states or local jurisdictions. The SEC has active enforcement functions that oversee investment advisers and can bring actions that result in fines, restitution, a limitation on permitted activities, disqualification to continue to conduct certain activities and an inability to rely on certain favorable exemptions. Certain types of infractions and violations also can affect our ability to expeditiously issue new securities into the capital markets.
Business Segments
In addition to the following information relating to our business segments, more detailed information is contained in Note 25, “Business Segments” in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, which is included in Item 8 of this Report. As of December 31, 2023, FNB had three business segments, with the largest being the Community Banking segment consisting of a regional community bank. The Wealth Management segment consists of a federally chartered trust company, a registered investment advisor and a subsidiary that offers broker-dealer services through a third-party networking arrangement with a non-affiliated licensed broker-dealer entity. The Insurance segment consists of an insurance agency and a reinsurer.
Community Banking
Our Community Banking segment consists of FNBPA, which offers commercial and consumer banking services. Commercial banking solutions include corporate banking, small business banking, investment real estate financing, business credit, capital markets and lease financing. Consumer banking products and services include deposit products, mortgage lending, consumer lending and a complete suite of mobile and online banking services. Additionally, Bank Capital Services, LLC, a subsidiary of FNBPA, offers commercial loans and leases to customers in need of new or used equipment. As of December 31, 2023, our Community Banking segment operated in seven states and the District of Columbia. Our branch network spans several major metropolitan areas including: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Baltimore, Maryland; Cleveland, Ohio; Washington, D.C.; Charlotte, Raleigh, Durham and the Piedmont Triad (Winston-Salem, Greensboro and High Point) in North Carolina; and Charleston, South Carolina.
The goals of the Community Banking segment are to generate high-quality, profitable revenue growth through increased business with our current customers, attract new customer relationships through FNBPA’s current branches and expand into new and existing markets through de novo branch openings and the establishment of loan production offices. We consider the Community Banking segment an important source of revenue opportunity through the cross-selling of products and services offered by our other business segments.
The lending philosophy of the Community Banking segment is to establish high-quality customer relationships, while minimizing credit losses by following strict credit approval standards (which include independent analysis of realizable collateral value), diversifying our loan portfolio by industry, geography, product and borrower, and conducting ongoing review and management of the loan portfolio. Commercial loans are generally made to established businesses within the geographic market areas served by the Community Banking segment.
The Community Banking segment maintains formal policies which establish underwriting standards and processes. Our commercial loan policy requires, among other things, that commercial loans be underwritten to document the borrower’s financial capacity to support the cash flow required to repay the loan. The commercial loan policy also contains additional guidelines and requirements applicable to specific loan products or lines of business. Consumer loan products are designed to meet the diverse credit needs of consumers in our markets for personal and household purposes. Our consumer loan policies and procedures require prospective borrowers to provide appropriate and accurate financial information that will assist our loan underwriting personnel in making credit decisions. Specific information requirements vary based on loan type, risk profile and secondary investor requirements where applicable.
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No material portion of the loans or deposits of the Community Banking segment has been obtained from a single customer or small group of customers, and the loss of any one customer’s loans or deposits or a small group of customers’ loans or deposits by the Community Banking segment would not have a material adverse effect on the Community Banking segment specifically or on FNB generally. The substantial majority of the loans and deposits have been generated within the geographic market areas in which the Community Banking segment operates.
Wealth Management
Our Wealth Management segment delivers wealth management services to individuals, corporations and retirement funds, as well as existing customers of the Community Banking segment, located primarily within our geographic markets.
Our Wealth Management operations are conducted through three subsidiaries of FNBPA. FNTC provides a broad range of personal and corporate fiduciary services, including the administration of decedent and trust estates. As of December 31, 2023, the fair value of trust assets under management was approximately $8.6 billion. FNTC is required to maintain certain minimum capitalization levels in accordance with regulatory requirements. FNTC periodically measures its capital position to ensure all minimum capitalization levels are maintained.
Our Wealth Management segment also includes two other subsidiaries. First National Investment Services Company, LLC offers a broad array of investment products and services for customers of the Wealth Management segment through a networking relationship with a third-party licensed brokerage firm. FNBIA, an investment advisor registered with the SEC, offers customers of the Wealth Management segment comprehensive investment programs featuring mutual funds, annuities, stocks and bonds.
No material portion of the business of the Wealth Management segment has been obtained from a single customer or small group of customers, and the loss of any one customer’s business or the business of a small group of customers by the Wealth Management segment would not have a material adverse effect on the Wealth Management segment specifically or on FNB generally.
Insurance
Our Insurance segment operates principally through FNIA, which is a subsidiary of FNB. FNIA is a full-service insurance brokerage agency offering numerous lines of commercial and personal insurance through major carriers to businesses and individuals primarily within FNB’s geographic markets. The goal of FNIA is to grow revenue through cross-selling to existing clients of the Community Banking segment and to gain new clients through its own channels.
Our Insurance segment also includes a reinsurance subsidiary, Penn-Ohio. Penn-Ohio is not actively underwriting new policies. Additionally, FNBPA owns a direct subsidiary, First National Corporation, which offers title insurance products.
No material portion of the business of the Insurance segment has been obtained from a single customer or small group of customers, and the loss of any one customer’s business or the business of a small group of customers by the Insurance segment would not have a material adverse effect on the Insurance segment specifically or on FNB generally.
Other
We also operate other non-banking subsidiaries which are not considered to be reportable segments of FNB. F.N.B. Capital Corporation, LLC (FNBCC) was formed as a merchant banking subsidiary to offer mezzanine financing options for small- to medium-sized businesses that need financial assistance beyond the parameters of typical commercial bank lending products. Waubank Securities LLC is a limited broker-dealer subsidiary which passively participates in corporate and municipal underwritings. We have four companies that issued TPS to third-party investors: F.N.B. Statutory Trust II, Yadkin Valley Statutory Trust I, FNB Financial Services Capital Trust I and Patapsco Statutory Trust I, the last three of which were assumed in acquisitions. FNB Financial Services, Inc. and FNB Consumer Financial Services, Inc. are subsidiaries of FNB and are the general partner and limited partner, respectively, of FNB Financial Services, LP, a company established to issue, administer and repay subordinated notes. The proceeds received from these subordinated note issuances are a general funding source for FNB. Certain financial information concerning these subsidiaries, along with the parent company and intercompany eliminations, are included in the “Parent and Other” category in Note 25, “Business Segments” in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, which is included in Item 8 of this Report.
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Recent Events
FNBPA, in both its own capacity and as successor by merger to Yadkin Bank, has entered into an agreement with the DOJ and the State of North Carolina to resolve their fair lending allegations related to their assessment of mortgage lending activities in the Winston-Salem and Charlotte, NC, markets that began prior to Yadkin’s merger with FNBPA in March 2017. The DOJ investigation encompassed both mortgage lending activity by Yadkin prior to the acquisition and FNBPA in the early years following its entry into the North Carolina markets. Although FNBPA denies the DOJ’s allegations, FNBPA cooperated fully to reach a settlement agreement in this inherited matter as a good faith effort to avoid prolonged litigation. Pursuant to the settlement agreement, FNBPA will provide $11.75 million in mortgage loan subsidies over a five-year period, leveraging its previously announced commitment to underserved communities across the footprint, including those located in the Charlotte and Winston-Salem markets. FNBPA has also agreed to spend approximately $1.75 million over the five-year period on community partnerships, advertising, community outreach and consumer education. FNBPA has also agreed to open three new branch offices in predominantly Black and Hispanic neighborhoods, with two in Charlotte and one in Winston Salem, North Carolina. FNBPA believes the terms of the settlement agreement are consistent with it’s broad focus on promoting equity and economic prosperity in the markets that it serves. The settlement does not include any civil money penalties against FNBPA.
Market Area and Competition
We operate in seven states and the District of Columbia. Our market coverage spans several major metropolitan areas including: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Baltimore, Maryland; Cleveland, Ohio; Washington, D.C.; Charlotte, Raleigh, Durham and the Piedmont Triad (Winston-Salem, Greensboro and High Point) in North Carolina; and Charleston, South Carolina.
We compete for loans, deposits and financial services business with a large number of bank and non-bank financial institutions and other lenders engaged in the business of extending credit, including financial technology companies and marketplace lenders. Competition for loans comes principally from commercial banks, savings banks, mortgage banking companies, credit unions, insurance companies and other financial services companies. The most direct competition for deposits comes from commercial banks, savings banks and credit unions. Competition for deposits also comes from non-depository competitors such as financial technology companies, mutual funds, securities and brokerage firms and insurance companies. In providing wealth and asset management services, as well as insurance brokerage services, our subsidiaries compete with many other financial services firms, brokerage firms, mutual fund complexes, investment management firms, trust and fiduciary service providers and insurance agencies. Competition for loans and deposits depends on a number of factors, including, among others, customer service, quality and range of products and services offered, price, reputation, interest rates on loans and deposits and lending limits. Also, our ability to continue to compete effectively depends in large part on retaining and motivating our employees and attracting new employees, while effectively managing compensation and other expenses, especially given recent inflationary wage pressures.
The ability to deploy and use technology effectively is an important competitive factor in the financial services industry. Technology is not only important with respect to the delivery of financial services, risk management, regulatory compliance and security of customer information, but also in processing information. FNB and each of our subsidiaries must continually make technological investments to remain competitive in the financial services industry. FNBPA has executed several initiatives that have integrated and streamlined its physical branch and e-delivery channels, including a growing fleet of ATMs with video TellerChat capabilities. Our flagship digital technology is eStore®, our proprietary online, mobile and in-branch platform where customers can shop and apply for deposit and loan products, access financial education and schedule appointments. FNBPA has enhanced eStore with our one-of-a-kind, universal eStore Common Application, which customers will be able to use to apply for almost all of our products and services simultaneously. These select examples, coupled with our investment in data science and analytics, contribute to our ability to efficiently grow and expand customer relationships.
Human Capital
We are committed to attracting, retaining and developing exceptional talent who reflect the communities we serve.
FNB’s leadership team has made long-standing investments in a competitive compensation and benefits program that promotes work-life balance, financial and mental health, and overall well-being. The comprehensive package includes robust development resources that encourage advancement and increased representation at all levels of the Company, furthering our strategic focus on building and sustaining a diverse workforce. Through our comprehensive approach, we have created an inclusive environment that fosters collaboration, innovation and a passion to win, all of which translate to strong performance and a rewarding employee experience.
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Our superior culture is evidenced by more than 60 workplace awards we have received from respected third-party organizations since 2020. In 2023, highlights again included national, regional and industry-specific recognition from Energage, an independent research firm, based entirely on feedback from our own team. As part of its award program, Energage highlighted FNB’s cultural excellence in categories such as innovation, leadership, work-life flexibility, DEI practices, compensation and benefits, professional development, and employee appreciation and well-being. Additionally, our commitment to providing an inclusive, employee-centric workplace was further reinforced by various national media outlets, including appearances on Newsweek’s lists of America’s Greatest Workplaces for Diversity, LGBTQ+, Veterans and Parents and Families.
FNB has also repeatedly been named to JUST Capital’s prestigious annual list of companies that demonstrate just business behavior based on our performance in categories that matter most to the American public and is, in part, an assessment of our employee practices relative to benefits, income inequality, racial equity and employee opportunity.
As of December 31, 2023, FNB and our subsidiaries had 4,008 full-time and 220 part-time employees.
Recruitment. We are committed to building a diverse and inclusive workforce and have found great success cultivating and fostering mutually beneficial partnerships with job and recruiting centers, colleges and universities, including historically black colleges and universities, diverse student groups within universities, and diversity-focused organizations that help us to identify and attract top candidates. All members of our talent acquisition team hold the designation of Certified Diversity Recruiter, and our leaders participate in events hosted by these partners to further our brand as an employer of choice. We use internally created digital marketing developed algorithms and data tools to increase job posting visibility within diverse job boards. We have committed to creating a strong and growing internship program to funnel high potential talent into our Development Programs within FNB to help with career growth and build succession and are devoted to following the Fair Hiring Practices Act and Fair Chance Act.
Employee Development. We focus resources on programs to develop leaders and promote internal advancement within the organization. This includes mentoring and coaching programs, succession planning reviews, and leadership development programs, administered by our dedicated learning and development team to further develop the talent that our recruitment efforts have attracted. In addition, we offer tuition reimbursement for employees seeking post-secondary education, including college and graduate school.
Diversity. We have a Manager of Diversity and Inclusion with over 20 years of professional experience who works directly with FNB’s Diversity Council and together they are collectively engaged in proactive-leadership, strategies, and initiatives to promote diversity, equity and inclusion in our culture that supports our mission to build a workforce in which all employees can learn, grow and prosper. Our Manager of Diversity and Inclusion and the Diversity Council work with our leadership to support both corporate and employee initiatives promoting an inclusive culture and a workplace environment that attracts, retains and develops the best talent from a broad spectrum to create a diverse, highly productive workforce throughout our organization. The membership composition of the Diversity Council reflects the diversity within our organization. In addition, the membership represents every region in the organization, and various lines of business and position levels.
Engagement. We regularly seek feedback from our employees and in 2023 participated in several regional Top Workplace surveys. Our outstanding scores continue to help us achieve external recognition as an employer of choice.
Compensation. Our compensation philosophy is to maintain a program that supports our mission and values. The compensation program is a management tool that, when aligned with an effective communication plan, is designed to support, reinforce, and align our values, business strategy, operational and financial needs with our strategic goals.
We believe that compensation programs, through competitive base salary, short-term incentive plans, and long-term incentive plans, are essential for encouraging the behavior to set performance expectations, improving service quality and productivity, and recognizing contributions to our success, while also avoiding incentivizing undue risk to our financial condition.
Our executive compensation program is overseen by the Compensation Committee of our Board of Directors, in collaboration with a leading independent compensation advisory firm. In addition, the oversight and review of our company-wide compensation philosophy and programs are conducted by the Management Compensation Committee. This team, chaired by FNB’s Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer, regularly meets to promote compensation programs that are fair and equitable, to achieve a performance-driven work culture that generates company growth and to reward employees for focusing on customer needs, while avoiding inappropriate conduct regarding our clients, and demonstrating appropriate risk management behaviors.
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Values & Training. We strive to maintain sound financial practices and governance processes through a commitment to ethical behavior, a solid reputation and a firm record of compliance and stability that these strengths create, both within our Corporation and for our customers. Employees complete quarterly and annual training, including regulatory and compliance requirements and ethical standards, to maintain and increase knowledge of standards required of the financial services industry. Additionally, we provide employees various avenues to confidentially and anonymously report perceived unethical behavior without repercussions to them, such as FNB’s Ethics Hotline. We encourage employees to report any issues that could result in financial or reputational harm to us.
Wellness. Our commitment to the personal and professional well-being of each employee extends beyond a competitive compensation and benefits package. Innovative employee-friendly programs and policies designed to help team members maintain a healthy, meaningful work/life balance by providing resources to support mental, physical and financial health are offered and regularly expanded. This includes parental and caregiver leave, monetary employer contributions to employee Health Savings Accounts, adoption assistance and back-up child-care programs built to provide employees with the financial support and time away from work that they need to focus on their new family members.
Safety. Employee and customer safety remain paramount concerns for us. We demonstrate this commitment to each group through varying initiatives and procedures to ensure that employees and customers alike leave our spaces as safely as they came. We provide our employees detailed information and training explaining the safety features, evacuation and emergency procedures process. The development of a new state of the art headquarters building will ensure that employee safety is met in a facility that is fully ADA compliant, has full security access controls and will more closely manage and monitor guests and visitors entering our space. As a response to the health and safety risks exposed during the COVID-19 outbreak our new headquarters building will also feature HVAC systems that are specifically designed to mitigate risks from airborne pathogens using state of the art filtration, Air Handling and Ionization indoor air systems.
Government Supervision and Regulation
The following summary sets forth certain material elements of the regulatory framework applicable to FNB, FNBPA and our subsidiaries and affiliates. The financial services industry is subject to extensive regulatory oversight and, in particular, bank holding companies, banks and their affiliates (depending upon charter and business activities) are subject to supervision, regulation and examination by the FRB, OCC, FDIC, CFPB, SEC, FINRA and various state regulatory agencies. The statutory and regulatory framework that governs FNB and our affiliates is generally intended to protect depositors and customers, the federal DIF, the U.S. banking and financial system, and financial markets as a whole; however, this framework is not specifically for the protection of stockholders. Significant elements of the laws and regulations applicable to FNB and our affiliates are described in this section. To the extent that the following information describes statutory and regulatory provisions or governmental policies, such descriptions are qualified in their entirety by reference to the full text of the statutes, regulations and policies referenced herein. In addition, certain of FNB’s public disclosure, internal control environment, risk and capital management and corporate governance principles are subject to SOX, the Dodd-Frank Act, as modified by the 2018 Economic Growth Act, and related regulations and rules of the SEC under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the Exchange Act. Also, FNB is subject to the rules of the NYSE for listed companies.
Political, economic, and industry events and other factors may influence changes to the banking laws, regulations and policies by the U.S. Congress, state legislatures and federal and state regulatory agencies. In addition to laws and regulations, state and federal bank regulatory agencies may issue policy statements, interpretive letters and similar written guidance, which sometimes materially changes regulatory expectations. Any change in the statutes, regulations or regulatory policies applicable to us, including changes in their interpretation, expectations or implementation, could have a material effect on our business or organization.
Both the scope of the laws and regulations, as well as expectations regarding risk management, and the intensity of the supervision to which we are subject have increased in recent years in response to the financial crisis, as well as other factors such as technological and market changes. Regulatory enforcement and fines have also significantly increased across the banking and financial services sector. Many of these changes have occurred as a result of the enactment of the Dodd-Frank Act and adoption of implementing regulations, most of which are now in place.
The OCC regulations implemented under the Economic Growth Act raised the minimum asset threshold for covered banks to conduct stress tests from $10 billion to $250 billion. This resulted in FNB and FNBPA no longer being subject to Dodd-Frank Act stress testing requirements, however we continue to voluntarily perform capital stress testing consistent with the safety and soundness expectations of our banking regulators.
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The Economic Growth Act also enacted several important changes in some compliance areas, for which the banking agencies have issued guidance documents and implementing regulations, including:
Prohibiting the federal banking regulators from imposing higher capital standards on high volatility commercial real estate exposures (HVCRE) unless they are for acquisition, development or construction (ADC) loans, and clarifying ADC status;
Requiring the federal banking regulators to amend the LCR Rule such that all qualifying investment-grade, liquid and readily-marketable municipal securities are treated as level 2B liquid assets, making them more attractive investment alternatives;
Exempting from appraisal requirements certain transactions involving real property in rural areas and valued at less than $400,000; and
Directing the CFPB to provide guidance on the applicability of the TILA-RESPA Integrated Disclosure rule to mortgage assumption transactions and construction-to-permanent home loans, as well as the extent to which lenders can rely on model disclosures that do not reflect recent regulatory changes. (See discussion under Risk Factors - caption “We could be adversely affected by changes in the law, especially changes in the regulation of the banking industry”).
General
FNB is a legal entity separate and distinct from our subsidiaries. FNB is regulated as a bank holding company under the BHC Act, as amended, which generally restricts bank holding companies from engaging in business activities other than the business of banking and certain closely related activities. FNB elected to become a financial holding company under the BHC Act and, as such, may engage in a broader range of financial and related activities than a bank holding company. The ability to elect and maintain status as a financial holding company is subject to certain conditions. As a financial holding company and a bank holding company, FNB is regulated under the BHC Act, as amended, and is subject to regulation, inspection, examination and supervision by the FRB.
Under the BHC Act, the FRB is the “umbrella” regulator of a financial holding company. In addition, a financial holding company’s operating entities, including its subsidiary broker-dealers, investment managers, investment advisory companies, insurance companies and banks, as applicable, are subject to the jurisdiction of various federal and state “functional” regulators and self-regulatory organizations, such as FINRA.
Our subsidiary bank, FNBPA, and FNBPA’s subsidiary trust company, FNTC, are organized as national banking associations, which are subject to regulation, supervision and examination by the OCC, which is a bureau of the UST. FNBPA is also subject to certain regulatory requirements of the CFPB, the FDIC, the FRB and other federal and state regulatory agencies, including but not limited to, requirements to maintain reserves against deposits, capital requirements, limitations regarding dividends, restrictions on the types and amounts of loans that may be granted and the interest that may be charged on loans, affiliate transactions, CRA, consumer compliance and anti-discrimination laws and unfair, deceptive or abusive acts and practices prohibitions, monitoring obligations under the federal bank secrecy act and anti-money laundering requirements, limitations on the types of investments that may be made, cybersecurity and consumer privacy requirements, activities that may be engaged in and types of services that may be offered. In addition to supervision, regulation and enforcement of federal banking laws, and regulations by the federal bank regulatory agencies, FNB and our subsidiaries are subject to various other laws and regulations and supervision and examination by other regulatory agencies, all of which directly or indirectly affect the operations and management of FNB and our ability to make distributions to our stockholders. If we fail to comply with these or other applicable laws and regulations, we may be subject to civil monetary penalties, imposition of cease and desist orders or other written directives, removal of management and, in certain cases, criminal penalties imposed by our regulators.
Pursuant to the GLB Act, bank holding companies such as FNB that have qualified as financial holding companies because they are “well-capitalized” and “well managed” have broad authority to engage in activities that are financial in nature or incidental to such financial activity, including insurance underwriting and brokerage, merchant banking, securities underwriting, dealing and market-making; and such additional activities as the FRB in consultation with the Secretary of the UST determines to be financial in nature, incidental thereto or complementary to a financial activity. As a result of the GLB Act, a bank holding company may engage in those activities directly or through subsidiaries by qualifying as a “financial holding company.” As a financial holding company, FNB may engage directly or indirectly in activities considered financial in nature, either de novo or by acquisition, provided that FNB continues such status and gives the FRB after-the-fact notice of the new activities. The GLB Act also permits national banks, such as FNBPA, to engage in activities considered financial in nature through a financial
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subsidiary, subject to certain conditions and limitations and with the approval of the OCC (see discussion under the caption “Financial Holding Company Status and Activities”).
As a regulated financial holding company, FNB’s relationships and good standing with our regulators are of fundamental importance to the continuation and growth of our businesses. The FRB, OCC, FDIC, CFPB and SEC have broad enforcement powers and authority to approve, deny or refuse to act upon applications or notices of FNB or our subsidiaries to open new or close existing offices, conduct new activities, acquire or divest businesses or assets or reconfigure existing operations. In addition, FNB, FNBPA, FNTC and other affiliates are subject to examination by various federal and state regulators, which involves periodic examinations and supervisory inquiries, the results of which are not publicly available and can impact the conduct and growth of our businesses. These examinations consider not only safety and soundness principles, but also compliance with applicable laws and regulations, including anti-money laundering requirements, loan quality and administration, capital levels, asset quality and risk management ability and performance, earnings, liquidity, consumer compliance, anti-discrimination laws, unfair, deceptive or abusive acts and practices prohibitions, community reinvestment, cybersecurity and consumer privacy requirements, and various other factors. The federal banking regulators' interagency Guidelines for Establishing Standards for Safety and Soundness set forth compliance considerations and guidance with respect to the following operations of banking organizations: (1) internal controls and information systems; (2) internal audit systems; (3) loan documentation; (4) credit underwriting; (5) interest rate exposure; (6) asset growth; (7) executive compensation, fees and benefits; (8) asset quality; and (9) earnings. Significant adverse safety and soundness findings or violations of laws or regulations by any of FNB’s federal bank regulators could potentially result in the imposition of significant fines, penalties, reimbursements, enforcement actions and compliance plans as well as limitations and prohibitions on the activities and growth of FNB and our subsidiaries.
There are numerous laws, regulations and rules governing the activities of financial institutions - including non-bank financial institutions, such as financial technology companies and marketplace lenders, which provide products and services comparable to banking organizations, including - financial holding companies and bank holding companies. The following discussion is general in nature and seeks to highlight some of the more significant of these regulatory requirements, but does not purport to be complete or to describe all of the laws and regulations that apply to us and our subsidiaries.
Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010
The Dodd-Frank Act continues to have a broad impact on the financial services industry by imposing significant regulatory and compliance requirements including, among other things:
enhanced authority over troubled and failing banks and their holding companies;
increased capital and liquidity requirements;
increased regulatory examination fees;
increased assessments banks must pay the FDIC for federal deposit insurance; and
specific provisions designed to improve supervision and oversight of bank safety and soundness and consumer practices, by imposing restrictions and limitations on the scope and type of banking and financial activities.
In addition, the Dodd-Frank Act established a new framework for systemic risk oversight within the financial system that is enforced by new and existing federal regulatory agencies and authorities, including the FSOC, FRB, OCC, FDIC and CFPB. The following description briefly summarizes certain impacts of the Dodd-Frank Act on the operations and activities, both currently and prospectively, of FNB, FNBPA, and our subsidiaries and affiliates.
Deposit Insurance.  The Dodd-Frank Act established a $250,000 deposit insurance limit for insured deposits. Amendments to the FDI Act also revised the assessment base against which an IDI’s deposit insurance premiums paid to the FDIC’s DIF are calculated. Under the amendments, the FDIC assessment base is no longer the institution’s deposit base, but rather its average consolidated total assets less its average tangible equity. The Dodd-Frank Act requires a phase-in of the minimum designated reserve ratio for the DIF, increasing it from 1.15% to 1.35% of the estimated amount of total insured deposits which was achieved as of the third quarter of 2018. FDIC regulations provide that, among other things, upon reaching the minimum, surcharges on IDIs with total consolidated assets of $10 billion or more cease. The last quarterly surcharge was reflected in FNBPA’s December 2018 assessment invoice. FNBPA’s assessment invoices have not included a quarterly surcharge since that time. In addition, the Dodd-Frank Act eliminated the requirement for the FDIC to pay dividends to depository institutions when the reserve ratio exceeds certain thresholds. The FDIC may pay dividends to depository institutions when the reserve ratio exceeds 1.5%, but the FDIC has sole discretion to determine whether to suspend or limit the declaration or payment of dividends from the DIF. The FDIC has set the target designated reserve ratio at 2% since 2010. Assessment rates, which
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declined for all banks when the reserve ratio first surpassed 1.15% in the third quarter of 2016, increased for all insurance depository institutions by 2 basis points in the first quarter of 2023. The increase in assessment rate schedules is intended to increase the likelihood that the reserve ratio of the DIF reaches the statutory minimum of 1.35 % by the statutory deadline of September 30, 2028. Assessment rates will remain in effect unless and until the reserve ratio meets or exceeds 2%.
In addition, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (TCJA) disallows the deduction of FDIC deposit insurance premium payments for banking organizations with total consolidated assets of $50 billion or more. For banks with less than $50 billion in total consolidated assets, such as FNBPA, the premium deduction is phased-out based on the proportion of the bank’s assets exceeding $10 billion.
The FDIC issued a final rule in November 2023 to implement a special assessment on banks with over $5 billion in total assets to recover the loss to the DIF associated with protecting uninsured depositors following the closures of Silicon Valley Bank and Signature Bank during the first quarter of 2023. The special assessment rate is 13.44 basis points and will be paid over eight quarters beginning in June 2024. Our total assessment accrued and expensed during 2023 totaled $29.9 million. The special assessment is not considered an FDIC premium under the TCJA and therefore is tax deductible for federal income tax purposes. After eight quarters, there is a possibility for the FDIC to impose a one-time shortfall special assessment if the amount collected by the special assessment does not meet the final loss amounts of Silicon Valley Bank and Signature Bank after the termination of the receiverships.
Brokered Deposits. Section 29 of the FDI Act and FDIC regulations issued thereunder limit the ability of an IDI, such as FNBPA, to accept, renew or roll over brokered deposits unless the IDI is well-capitalized under the “prompt corrective action” framework described below, or unless it is adequately capitalized and obtains a waiver from the FDIC. In addition, IDIs that are less than well-capitalized are subject to restrictions on the interest rates that they may pay on deposits. The characterization of deposits as “brokered” may result in the imposition of higher deposit assessments on such deposits. As mandated by the Economic Growth Act, the FDIC adopted a final rule in February 2019 to include a limited exception for reciprocal deposits for IDIs that are well-managed and well-capitalized (or adequately capitalized and have obtained a waiver from the FDIC, as mentioned above). Under the limited exception, qualified IDIs, like FNBPA, are able to exclude from treatment as “brokered” deposits up to $5 billion or 20% of the institution’s total liabilities in reciprocal deposits (which is defined as deposits received by a financial institution through a deposit placement network with the same maturity (if any) in the same aggregate amount as deposits placed by the institution in other network member banks).
On December 15, 2020, the FDIC issued a final rule amending its brokered deposit regulations. The rule sought to clarify and modernize the FDIC's regulatory framework for brokered deposits. Notable aspects of the rule include: (i) defining the operative prongs of the definition of a “deposit broker;” (ii) the identification of a number of business relationships in which the agent or nominee is automatically not deemed to be a "deposit broker" because their "primary purpose" is not the placement of funds with depository institutions; (iii) the establishment of a more transparent application process for entities that seek to rely upon the "primary purpose" exception, but do not qualify for one of the identified business relationships to which the exception is automatically applicable; and (iv) the clarification that third parties that have an exclusive deposit-placement arrangement with one IDI are not considered a "deposit broker." The final rule took effect on April 1, 2021, and full compliance was required by January 1, 2022.
Interest on Demand Deposits.  Under the Dodd-Frank Act, depository institutions are permitted to pay interest on demand deposits. In accordance therewith, we pay interest on certain classes of commercial demand deposits.
Volcker Rule. Section 619 of the Dodd-Frank Act (known as the Volcker Rule) prohibits IDIs and their holding companies from engaging in proprietary trading, except under limited circumstances, and prohibits them from owning equity interests in excess of 3% of Tier 1 capital in private equity and hedge funds. The Volcker Rule regulations prohibit banking entities from (1) engaging in short-term proprietary trading for their own accounts, and (2) having certain ownership interests in and relationships with hedge funds or private equity funds, which are referred to as “covered funds.” The Volcker Rule regulations are intended to provide greater clarity with respect to both the extent of those primary prohibitions and of the related exemptions and exclusions. The Volcker Rule regulations also require each regulated entity to establish an internal compliance program that is consistent with the extent to which it engages in activities covered by the Volcker Rule, which must include (for the largest entities) making regular reports about those activities to the entity’s regulators.
Effective January 1, 2020, the Volcker Rule regulations were amended to specify that compliance requirements are based on the amount of assets and liabilities that an IDI trades. IDIs with significant trading activities (i.e., those with $20 billion or more in trading assets and liabilities) have heightened compliance obligations. Compliance with the revised Volcker Rule regulations was required on January 1, 2021.
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In July 2020, the OCC amended the Volcker Rule regulations to streamline the “covered funds” portion addressing the treatment of certain foreign funds, and permitting banking entities to offer financial services and engage in other permissible activities that do not raise concerns that the Volcker Rule was intended to address. Principally, this amendment permits banks to engage in certain low-risk fund activities that do not present the risks that the Volcker Rule was intended to address.
The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau.  The CFPB’s responsibility is to establish, implement and enforce laws, rules and regulations under certain federal consumer financial laws, as defined by the Dodd-Frank Act and interpreted by the CFPB, with respect to the conduct of both bank and non-bank providers of certain consumer financial products and services. The CFPB has rulemaking and enforcement authority under many of the statutes that govern products and services banks offer to consumers. The CFPB has authority to prevent unfair, deceptive or abusive acts and practices in connection with the offering of consumer financial products and services. In 2022, and continuing into 2023, the CFPB has taken an increasingly aggressive approach and expanded its reach and has made it clear that the CFPB is interpreting its statutory authorities broadly to expand the CFPB's ability to pursue violations of the consumer financial and fair lending laws in consumer financial markets, including issuing guidance indicating certain bank overdraft and mortgage lending practices constitute violations of the Unfair, Deceptive or Abusive Acts or Practices statute. In addition, the Dodd-Frank Act permits states to adopt consumer protection regulations that are more stringent than the regulations promulgated by the CFPB, and state attorneys general have the authority to enforce consumer protection rules that the CFPB adopts against state-chartered institutions and against, with respect to certain non-preempted laws, national banks. Compliance with any such new regulation or other precedent established by the CFPB and/or states could reduce our revenue, increase our cost of operations and compliance, and limit, prevent, or make more costly, our ability to expand into certain products and services. Over the past several years, the CFPB has been active in bringing enforcement actions against banks and non-bank financial institutions to enforce federal consumer financial laws. Other federal financial regulatory agencies, including the OCC, as well as state attorneys general and state banking agencies and other state financial regulators also have been increasingly active in this area with respect to institutions over which they have jurisdiction. We have incurred and may in the future incur additional costs in complying with these requirements.
Debit Card Interchange Fees.  The FRB, pursuant to its authority under the Dodd-Frank Act, has implemented rules regarding interchange fees charged for electronic debit transactions by payment card issuers having assets over $10 billion, adopting a per-transaction interchange cap base of $0.21 plus 0.05% of the transaction total (and an additional one cent to account for fraud protection costs). In October 2023, the FRB proposed to lower the base component of regulated debit from 21 cents to 14.4 cents. In addition, the ad valorem component would decline to 4 basis points, from its current rate of 5 basis points. However, the fraud-prevention adjustment would increase from 1.0 cents to 1.3 cents. The maximum permissible interchange fee for a $50 debit card transaction would be 17.7 cents under the proposal, down from 24.5 cents under the current rule. The FRB is also proposing that the interchange rate cap will be automatically updated every two years based on the data collected from issuers.
Transactions with Affiliates.  Pursuant to Sections 23A and 23B of the Federal Reserve Act, as implemented by Regulation W, banks are subject to restrictions that limit certain types of transactions between banks and their non-bank affiliates. In general, banks are subject to quantitative and qualitative limits on extensions of credit, purchases of assets and certain other transactions involving non-bank affiliates. Also, transactions between banks and their non-bank affiliates are required to be on arm's-length terms and consistent with safe and sound banking practices. The Dodd-Frank Act enhances the requirements for certain transactions with affiliates under Sections 23A and 23B of the Federal Reserve Act, including an expansion of the definition of “covered transactions” to include the borrowing or lending of securities or derivative transactions, and an increase in the amount of time for which collateral requirements regarding covered transactions must be maintained. In addition, the provisions of the Volcker Rule apply similar restrictions on transactions between a bank and any “covered fund” that the bank advises or sponsors.
Transactions with Insiders.  The Dodd-Frank Act expands insider transaction limitations through the strengthening of loan restrictions to insiders and extending the types of transactions subject to the various requirements to include derivative transactions, repurchase agreements, reverse repurchase agreements and securities lending and borrowing transactions. The Dodd-Frank Act also places restrictions on certain asset sales to and from an insider of an IDI, including requirements that such sales be on market terms and, in certain circumstances, receive the approval of the IDI’s board of directors.
Enhanced Lending Limits.  Federal banking law limits a national bank’s ability to extend credit to one person or group of related persons to an amount that does not exceed certain thresholds. Among other things, the Dodd-Frank Act expanded the scope of these restrictions to include credit exposure arising from derivative transactions, repurchase agreements and securities lending and borrowing transactions.
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The changes resulting from the Dodd-Frank Act continue to impact our profitability, including limitations on fee income opportunities, increased compliance costs, imposition of more stringent capital, liquidity and leverage requirements that affect our business. We cannot predict what effect any newly implemented, presently contemplated or future changes in the laws or regulations or their interpretations may have on us.
Capital and Operational Requirements
The FRB, OCC and FDIC issued substantially similar risk-based and leverage capital guidelines applicable to U.S. banking organizations. In addition, these regulatory agencies may from time to time require that a banking organization maintain capital above the minimum levels, due to its financial condition or actual or anticipated growth.
FNB, like other bank holding companies, is required to maintain CET1, tier 1 and total capital (the sum of tier 1 and tier 2 capital) equal to at least 7.00%, 8.50% and 10.50%, respectively, of our total risk-weighted assets (including various off-balance sheet items). The risk-based capital standards are designed to make regulatory capital requirements more sensitive to differences in credit and market risk profiles among banks and financial holding companies, to account for off-balance sheet exposure, and to minimize disincentives for holding liquid assets. Assets and off-balance sheet items are assigned to broad risk categories, each with appropriate weights. The resulting capital ratios represent capital as a percentage of total risk-weighted assets and off-balance sheet items. At December 31, 2023, our CET1, tier 1 and total capital ratios under these guidelines were 10.04%, 10.33% and 12.16%, respectively. At December 31, 2023, we had $298.4 million of capital securities and subordinated debt that qualified as tier 2 capital.
In addition, the FRB has established minimum leverage ratio guidelines for bank holding companies. These guidelines currently provide for a minimum ratio of tier 1 capital to average total assets, less goodwill and certain other intangible assets (the leverage ratio), of 4.0% for bank holding companies that meet certain specified criteria, including the highest regulatory rating. The guidelines also provide that bank holding companies, depending on the types, quality and quantity of risk associated with its activities (e.g., acquisitions, internal growth), will be expected to maintain strong capital positions above the minimum supervisory levels without significant reliance on intangible assets. Our leverage ratio at December 31, 2023 was 8.72%.
Increased Capital Standards and Enhanced Supervision
The Dodd-Frank Act’s regulatory capital requirements are intended to ensure that financial institutions hold sufficient capital to absorb losses during future periods of financial distress and requires the federal banking agencies to establish minimum leverage and risk-based capital requirements on a consolidated basis for IDIs, their holding companies and non-bank financial companies that have been determined to be systemically important by the FSOC.
Basel III Capital Rules
The FRB, the OCC, and the FDIC have adopted risk-based capital regulations implementing certain provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act and the Basel III framework. These regulations were initially implemented in 2013 to strengthen the components of regulatory capital, increase risk-based capital requirements, and to make selected changes to the calculation of risk-weighted assets. In general, subject to certain exceptions as discussed further below, minimum capital standards established under the risk-based capital regulations include a CET1 capital to risk-weighted assets ratio of 4.5 percent, a Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets ratio of 6.0 percent, a total capital to risk-weighted assets ratio of 8.0 percent, and a Tier 1 capital to adjusted average total assets leverage ratio of 4.0 percent. In determining the amount of risk-weighted assets for purposes of calculating risk-based capital ratios, all assets, including certain off-balance sheet assets (for example, recourse obligations, direct credit substitutes and residual interests) are multiplied by a risk-weight factor assigned by the regulations based on the risks believed inherent in the type of asset. Higher levels of capital are required for asset categories believed to present greater risk. CET1 capital is generally defined as common shareholders’ equity and retained earnings. Tier 1 capital is generally defined as CET1 and additional Tier 1 capital. Additional Tier 1 capital includes certain noncumulative perpetual preferred stock and related surplus and minority interests in equity accounts of consolidated subsidiaries. Total capital includes Tier 1 capital (CET1 capital plus additional Tier 1 capital) and Tier 2 capital. Tier 2 capital is comprised of capital instruments and related surplus, meeting specified requirements, and may include cumulative preferred stock and long-term perpetual preferred stock, mandatory convertible securities, intermediate preferred stock and subordinated debt. Also included in Tier 2 capital is the allowance for loan losses limited to a maximum of 1.25 percent of risk-weighted assets. Calculation of all types of regulatory capital is subject to deductions and adjustments specified in the regulations. In assessing an institution’s capital adequacy, the OCC takes into consideration not only these numeric factors, but qualitative factors as well, and has the authority to establish higher capital requirements for individual institutions where deemed necessary.
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In addition to establishing the minimum regulatory capital requirements, the capital regulations limit capital distributions and certain discretionary bonus payments to management if the institution does not hold a capital conservation buffer consisting of 2.5% of CET1 capital to risk-weighted assets above the amount necessary to meet its minimum risk-based capital requirements.
Through subsequent rulemaking, the federal banking agencies provided certain forms of relief to banking organizations that are not subject to the capital rules’ advanced approaches, such as FNB. For instance, non-advanced approaches institutions, such as FNB and FNBPA, are subject to a more simple regulatory capital treatment for MSAs, certain DTAs arising from temporary differences, investments in the capital of unconsolidated financial institutions and requirements for the amount of capital issued by a consolidated subsidiary of a banking organization and held by third parties (sometimes referred to as a minority interest) that is includable in regulatory capital.
In addition, certain general requirements of the capital regulations have been eliminated in respect of non-advanced approaches institutions, including: (i) the 10% CET1 capital deduction threshold that applies individually to MSAs, temporary difference DTAs, and significant investments in the capital of unconsolidated financial institutions in the form of common stock; (ii) the aggregate 15% CET1 capital deduction threshold that subsequently applies on a collective basis across such items; (iii) the 10% CET1 capital deduction threshold for non-significant investments in the capital of unconsolidated financial institutions; and (iv) the deduction treatment for significant investments in the capital of unconsolidated financial institutions not in the form of common stock. Accordingly, banking organizations not subject to the advanced approaches capital rule may deduct from CET1 capital any amount of MSAs, temporary difference DTAs, and investments in the capital of unconsolidated financial institutions that individually exceeds 25% of CET1 capital.
Management believes that as of December 31, 2023, FNB and FNBPA meet all capital adequacy requirements under Basel III.
The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision published the last version of the Basel III accord in 2017, generally referred to as “Basel IV.” The Basel Committee stated that a key objective of the revisions incorporated into the framework is to reduce excessive variability of risk-weighted assets, which will be accomplished by enhancing the robustness and risk sensitivity of the standardized approaches for credit risk and operational risk, which will facilitate the comparability of banks’ capital ratios; constraining the use of internally modeled approaches; and complementing the risk-weighted capital ratio with a finalized leverage ratio and a revised and robust capital floor. Leadership of the FRB, OCC, and FDIC, who are tasked with implementing Basel IV, supported the revisions. Although it is uncertain at this time, we anticipate some, if not all, of the Basel IV accord may be incorporated into the regulatory capital requirements framework applicable to FNB and FNBPA.
In August 2020, the federal banking agencies issued a final rule providing banking institutions that had adopted the CECL accounting standard in the 2020 calendar year with the option to delay for two years the estimated impact of CECL on regulatory capital, followed by a three-year transition period to phase out the aggregate amount of the capital benefit provided during the initial two-year delay (i.e., a five-year transition in total). In connection with its adoption of CECL on January 1, 2020, FNB elected to utilize the five-year CECL transition. In addition, the federal banking agencies continue to review bank capital requirements in light of the finalization of the Basel III framework by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision. No proposals for any of the components of finalizing the Basel III framework has yet been published by the agencies. On September 9, 2022, the U.S. banking agencies issued a press release reaffirming “their commitment to implementing enhanced regulatory capital requirements that align with the final set of ‘Basel III’ standards” and stating that they “are currently developing a joint proposed rule for issuance as soon as possible.”
Stress Testing
As part of the regulatory relief provided by the Economic Growth Act, the asset threshold requiring IDIs to conduct and report to their primary federal bank regulators annual company-run stress tests was raised from $10 billion to $250 billion in total consolidated assets and makes the requirement “periodic” rather than annual. The Economic Growth Act also provided that bank holding companies under $100 billion in assets were no longer subject to stress testing requirements and provided the FRB with discretion to subject bank holding companies with more than $100 billion in total assets to enhanced supervision. Notwithstanding these amendments, the federal banking agencies indicated through interagency bank regulatory guidance that the capital planning and risk management practices of institutions with total assets less than $100 billion would continue to be reviewed through the regular supervisory process. We continue to monitor and stress test our capital consistent with the safety and soundness expectations of our banking regulators.
Prompt Corrective Action
FDICIA, among other things, classifies IDIs into five capital categories (well-capitalized, adequately capitalized, undercapitalized, significantly undercapitalized and critically undercapitalized) and requires the respective federal regulatory
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agencies to implement systems for “prompt corrective action” for IDIs that do not meet minimum capital requirements within such categories. FDICIA imposes progressively more restrictive constraints on operations, management and capital distributions, depending on the category in which an institution is classified. Failure to meet the capital guidelines could also subject a banking institution to capital-raising requirements, restrictions on its business and a variety of enforcement remedies, including the termination of deposit insurance by the FDIC, and in certain circumstances the appointment of a conservator or receiver. An “undercapitalized” bank must develop a capital restoration plan and its parent holding company must guarantee that bank’s compliance with the plan. The liability of the parent holding company under any such guarantee is limited to the lesser of 5% of the bank’s assets at the time it became “undercapitalized” or the amount needed to comply with the plan. Furthermore, in the event of the bankruptcy of the parent holding company, the obligation under such guarantee would take priority over the parent’s general unsecured creditors. In addition, FDICIA requires the various regulatory agencies to prescribe certain non-capital standards for safety and soundness relating generally to operations and management, asset quality and executive compensation and permits regulatory action against an IDI that does not meet such standards.
The various regulatory agencies have adopted substantially similar regulations that define the five capital categories identified by FDICIA, using the total risk-based capital, tier 1 risk-based capital, CET1 and leverage capital ratios as the relevant capital measures. Such regulations establish various degrees of corrective action to be taken when an institution is considered undercapitalized. Under the regulations, a “well-capitalized” institution must have a CET1 risk-based capital ratio of at least 6.5%, a tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of at least 8.0%, a total risk-based capital ratio of at least 10.0% and a leverage ratio of at least 5.0% and not be subject to a capital directive order. Under these guidelines, FNBPA was considered well-capitalized as of December 31, 2023.
When determining the adequacy of an IDI’s capital, federal regulators must also take into consideration (a) concentrations of credit risk; (b) interest rate risk (when the interest rate sensitivity of an institution’s assets does not match the sensitivity of its liabilities or its off-balance sheet position) and (c) risks from non-traditional activities, as well as an institution’s ability to manage those risks. This evaluation is made as part of the IDI’s regular safety and soundness examination. In addition, any IDI with significant trading activity, must incorporate a measure for market risk in their regulatory capital calculations.
Community Reinvestment Act and Fair Lending
The CRA requires depository institutions to assist in meeting the credit needs of their market areas consistent with safe and sound banking practices. Under the CRA, each depository institution is required to help meet the credit needs of its market areas by, among other things, providing credit to and investments in low- and moderate-income individuals and communities. Depository institutions are periodically examined for compliance with the CRA and are assigned ratings. In order for a financial holding company to commence any new activity permitted by the BHC Act, or to acquire any company engaged in any new activity permitted by the BHC Act, each IDI subsidiary of the financial holding company must have received a rating of at least “satisfactory” in its most recent examination under the CRA. In its most recent CRA examination, FNBPA received an “outstanding” rating. Furthermore, federal banking regulators take into account CRA ratings when considering acquisitions of control and new activities. FNB is one of fewer than 10 percent of banks to receive the highest possible CRA rating. The "outstanding" CRA rating reaffirms our success in fulfilling our strategic and cultural commitment to supporting traditionally underserved communities.
Fair lending laws prohibit discrimination in the provision of banking services, and the enforcement of these laws has been an increasing focus for the CFPB, HUD, and other regulators. Fair lending laws include the Equal Credit Opportunity Act (ECOA) and the Fair Housing Act, which outlaw discrimination in credit and residential real estate transactions on the basis of prohibited factors including, among others, race, color, national origin, gender, and religion. A lender may be liable for policies that result in a disparate treatment of or have a disparate impact on a protected class of applicants or borrowers. Moreover, in 2022, the CFPB issued an advisory opinion and amended its examination procedures to assert that the ECOA applies to all phases of the loan cycle and asserted its authority to determine that violations of the fair lending laws may also constitute a violation of the Unfair, Deceptive or Abusive Acts or Practices Acts. If a pattern or practice of lending discrimination is alleged by a regulator, then that agency may refer the matter to the DOJ for investigation. The DOJ and CFPB have a Memorandum of Understanding under which the agencies have agreed to share information, coordinate investigations and have generally committed to strengthen their coordination efforts. The current Presidential Administration has indicated a focus on prioritizing enforcement of the federal anti-discrimination laws, and as a result, the CFPB may adopt more strict anti-discrimination enforcement policies in the area of fair lending, loan servicing, collections and other consumer-related areas. In October 2021, the DOJ announced an initiative to combat redlining through utilization of its fair lending prosecutorial authority and has announced the settlement of a number of bank investigations concerning redlining and other violations of the fair lending laws, including a February 5, 2024 announcement that Yadkin Bank (Yadkin) and its successor by merger, FNBPA, reached a settlement with the DOJ and the State of North Carolina to resolve their fair lending allegations related to the assessment of mortgage lending activities during a five-year period in the Winston-Salem and Charlotte, North Carolina majority Black and
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Hispanic census tracts (MBHCTs) that began prior to Yadkin’s merger with the FNBPA in March 2017. FNBPA is required to have a fair lending program that is of sufficient scope to monitor fair lending and that appropriately remediates issues which were identified during the DOJ investigation as well as add additional branches, increase marketing and mortgage and home equity loan subsidies in these MBHCTs.
On May 5, 2022, the federal banking agencies issued a joint notice of proposed rulemaking to revise the regulations implementing the CRA. Under the proposed rule, the agencies would evaluate bank performance across the varied activities they conduct and the communities in which they operate, and tailor CRA evaluations and data collection based on bank size and type. Further, the agencies would also emphasize smaller value loans and investments that may have a greater impact on and be more responsive to the needs of low- and moderate-income (LMI) persons and would update CRA assessment areas to include activities associated with online and mobile banking, branchless banking, and hybrid models. In addition, the proposed rule would establish a metrics-based approach to CRA evaluations of retail lending and community development financing activities, including through the establishment of public benchmarks, and would clarify eligible CRA activities, such as affordable housing, that are focused on LMI, underserved and rural communities. The prospects and timing for the adoption by the agencies of a final rule are not certain at this time.
Financial Privacy
In accordance with the GLB Act, federal banking regulators adopted rules that limit the ability of banks, financial institutions and third parties that are not financial institutions but that receive non-public personal information from non-affiliated banks and financial institutions to disclose non-public information about consumers to non-affiliated third parties. These limitations require disclosure of privacy policies to consumers and, in some circumstances, allow consumers to prevent disclosure of certain personal information to a non-affiliated third party. The privacy provisions of the GLB Act affect how consumer information is transmitted through diversified financial companies and conveyed to outside vendors.
Cybersecurity
The federal banking agencies have adopted guidelines for establishing information security standards and cybersecurity programs for implementing safeguards under the supervision of a banking organization’s board of directors. These guidelines, along with related regulatory materials, increasingly focus on risk management, processes related to information technology and operational resiliency, and the use of third parties in the provision of financial services. In October 2016, the federal banking agencies issued an advance notice of proposed rulemaking on enhanced cybersecurity risk-management and resilience standards that would apply to large and interconnected banking organizations and to services provided by third parties to these firms. These enhanced standards would apply only to depository institutions and depository institution holding companies with total consolidated assets of $50 billion or more; however, it is possible that, if these enhanced standards are implemented, the OCC will consider them in connection with the examination and supervision of banks below the $50 billion threshold. The federal banking agencies have not yet taken further action on these proposed standards. The OCC, however, as part of its bank supervision operational plan has prioritized review of national bank’s information security, data protection and third-party risk management, including the extent to which national banks are positioned to assess the evolving cyber-threat environment and maintain resilient defenses against such threats.
On November 23, 2021, the federal financial regulatory agencies published a final rule that will impose upon banking organizations and their non-affiliated service providers new notification requirements for significant cybersecurity incidents. Specifically, the final rule requires banking organizations to notify their primary federal regulator as soon as possible and no later than 36 hours after the discovery of a "computer security incident" that rises to the level of a "notification incident" within the meaning attributed to those terms by the final rule. Banks' non-affiliated service providers are required under the final rule to notify any affected bank to or on behalf of which the service provider provides services "as soon as possible" after determining that it has experienced an incident that materially disrupts or degrades, or is reasonably likely to materially disrupt or degrade, covered services provided to such bank for as much as four hours. The final rule took effect on April 1, 2022, and banks and their non-affiliated service providers had to be in compliance with the requirements of the rule by May 1, 2022.
Further, in 2022, the enactment of the Strengthening American Cybersecurity Act (SACA), and the SEC proposed rules to enhance disclosures regarding cybersecurity risk management strategy, governance and incident reporting are designed to standardize cybersecurity processes and disclosure requirements. SACA requires critical infrastructure companies, such as financial institutions, to report "significant cyber-incidents" and all ransom payments to the U.S. Department of Homeland Security's Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA). The definition of a "covered cyber-incident" will be determined by CISA rulemaking, but the Act provides that, at a minimum, an incident must be reported if it: (1) causes a "substantial loss of confidentiality, integrity or availability" of information or a "serious impact on the safety and resiliency of
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operational systems and processes"; (2) causes a "disruption of business or industrial operations, including due to a denial of service attack, ransomware attack or exploitation of a zero day vulnerability"; or (3) involves "unauthorized access or disruption of business or industrial operations" due to a "compromise of a cloud service provider, managed service provider or other third-party data hosting provider or by a supply chain compromise". In July 2023, the SEC adopted a final rule requiring mandatory annual disclosures of companies’ cybersecurity risk management policies, including board oversight of cybersecurity risks, as well as mandatory reporting of material cybersecurity incidents.
Anti-Money Laundering Initiatives and the USA PATRIOT Act
A major focus of governmental policy on financial institutions in recent years has been aimed at combating money laundering and terrorist financing. The USA PATRIOT Act of 2001 (USA PATRIOT Act), which amended the Bank Secrecy Act of 1970 (BSA), substantially broadened the scope of U.S. anti-money laundering laws and regulations by imposing significant new compliance and due diligence obligations, creating new crimes and penalties and expanding the extra-territorial jurisdiction of the U.S. The UST has issued a number of regulations that apply various requirements of the USA PATRIOT Act to financial institutions such as FNBPA. These regulations require financial institutions to maintain appropriate policies, procedures and controls to detect, prevent and report money laundering and terrorist financing and to verify the identity of their customers. These regulations include express requirements regarding risk-based procedures for conducting ongoing customer due diligence. Such procedures require banks to take appropriate steps to understand the nature and purpose of customer relationships. In addition, absent an applicable exclusion, banks must identify and verify the identity of the beneficial owners of all legal entity customers at the time a new account is established. The failure of a financial institution to maintain and implement adequate programs to combat money laundering and terrorist financing, or to comply with all of the relevant laws or regulations, could have serious legal, including criminal law enforcement, and reputational consequences for the institution.
On January 1, 2021, Congress passed the National Defense Authorization Act, which enacted the most significant overhaul of the BSA and related anti-money laundering laws since the USA PATRIOT Act. Notable amendments include: (i) significant changes to the collection of beneficial ownership information and the establishment of a beneficial ownership registry maintained by the UST’s Financial Crime Enforcement Network (FinCEN); (ii) enhanced whistleblower provisions; (iii) increased penalties for violations of the BSA; (iv) improvements to existing information-sharing provisions that permit financial institutions to share information relating to suspicious activity reports with certain foreign branches, subsidiaries, and affiliates; and (v) expanded duties and powers of FinCEN. Many of the amendments require the UST and FinCEN to promulgate rules. On September 29, 2022, FinCEN issued a final regulation implementing the beneficial owner information (BOI) reporting requirements. On December 22, 2023, FinCEN published a final rule that establishes standards for financial institutions and government entities to access BOI reported to FinCEN.
Office of Foreign Assets Control Regulation
The U.S. has instituted economic sanctions which affect transactions with designated foreign countries, nationals and others. These are typically known as the “OFAC rules” because they are administered by the UST Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC). The OFAC-administered sanctions target countries in various ways. Generally, however, they contain one or more of the following elements: (i) restrictions on trade with or investment in a sanctioned country, including prohibitions against direct or indirect imports from and exports to a sanctioned country, and prohibitions on “U.S. persons” engaging in financial transactions which relate to investments in, or providing investment-related advice or assistance to, a sanctioned country; and (ii) a blocking of assets in which the government or specially designated nationals of the sanctioned country have an interest, by prohibiting transfers of property subject to U.S. jurisdiction (including property in the possession or control of U.S. persons). Blocked assets (such as property and bank deposits) cannot be paid out, withdrawn, set off or transferred in any manner without a license from OFAC. Failure to comply with these sanctions could have serious legal and reputational consequences.
Consumer Protection Statutes and Regulations
In addition to the consumer regulations promulgated by the FRB, OCC and state agencies, and the regulations issued by the CFPB pursuant to its authority under the Dodd-Frank Act, FNBPA is subject to various federal consumer protection statutes including the TILA, Truth in Savings Act, Equal Credit Opportunity Act (ECOA), Fair Housing Act, RESPA, Fair Debt Collection Practices Act, Fair Credit Reporting Act, Electronic Fund Transfer Act and Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, CRA and regulations and guidance promulgated thereunder by the CFPB and the federal banking agencies. Among other things, these laws and regulations:
require banks to disclose credit terms in meaningful and consistent ways;
prohibit discrimination against an applicant in any consumer or business credit transaction;
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prohibit discrimination in housing-related lending activities;
require banks to collect and report applicant and borrower data regarding loans for home purchases or improvement projects;
require lenders to provide borrowers with more detailed information regarding the nature and cost of real estate settlements;
prohibit certain lending practices and limit escrow account amounts with respect to real estate transactions;
prescribe possible penalties for violations of the requirements of consumer protection statutes and regulations;
require prescribed consumer disclosures and the adoption of error resolution procedures and other consumer protection protocols with respect to electronic fund transfers; and
prohibit unfair, deceptive or abusive acts and practices in connection with consumer loans, the collection of debt, and the provision of other consumer financial products and services.
In April 2023, the OCC issued final guidance on Overdraft Protection Programs. This guidance addresses certain practices that may result in heightened risk exposure, including the risk of violating section 5 of the FTC Act (Section 5), which prohibits unfair or deceptive acts or practices,4 and Section 1036 of the Consumer Financial Protection Act of 2010, which prohibits unfair, deceptive, or abusive acts or practices. These practices include assessing overdraft fees on debit card transactions that are authorized when a consumer’s available account balance is positive but later post to the account when the available balance is negative, also referred to as “authorize positive, settle negative” (APSN) and assessing an additional fee each time a third party resubmits the same transaction for payment after a bank returns the transaction for non-sufficient funds (NSF) (referred to as “representment fees”). The guidance also describes certain practices that may help to manage risks associated with overdraft protection programs, including assisting consumers in avoiding unduly high costs in relation to the face value of the item being presented, the amount of their regular deposits, and their average account balances and implementing fees and practices that bear a reasonable relationship to the risks and costs of providing overdraft protection program services.
We have incurred and may in the future incur additional costs in complying with the above-identified consumer requirements.
Pursuant to the Dodd-Frank Act, the FDIC has backup enforcement authority over a bank holding company, such as FNB, if the conduct or threatened conduct (including any acts or omissions) of such holding company poses a risk to the DIF, although such authority may not be used if the holding company is in generally sound condition and does not pose a foreseeable and material risk to the DIF. The Dodd-Frank Act may have a material impact on FNB and FNBPA's operations, particularly through increased compliance costs resulting from evolving future consumer and fair lending regulations.
Community Reinvestment Act
Federal Regulators issued a joint final rule that makes extensive amendments to the regulations that implement the CRA. The agencies’ stated goal in issuing the Final Rule is to “strengthen and modernize” the CRA regulations, which have not been significantly revised in nearly three decades. Under the new requirements, FNB would be subject to new performance tests that would make it difficult to achieve a “Satisfactory” or “Outstanding” rating. The Final Rule also establishes new standardized metrics and quantitative standards for evaluating banks’ CRA performance under various performance tests. The new requirements will be an extensive overhaul of the current data collection, calculations and reporting under the existing CRA rule and would require additional costs to come into compliance. Most of the Final Rule’s requirements will be effective beginning January 1, 2026. Additional requirements, including new data reporting requirements, will be applicable on January 1, 2027.
Dividend Restrictions
Our primary source of funds for cash distributions to our stockholders, and funds used to pay principal and interest on our indebtedness, is dividends received from FNBPA. FNBPA is subject to federal laws and regulations governing its ability to pay dividends to FNB, including requirements to maintain capital above regulatory minimums. Under federal law, the amount of dividends that a national bank, such as FNBPA, may pay in a calendar year is dependent on the amount of its net income for the current year combined with its retained net income for the two preceding years. The OCC has the authority to prohibit the payment of dividends by a national bank on the basis that paying dividends that deplete a bank's capital base to an inadequate level would be an unsafe and unsound banking practice and that banking organizations should generally pay dividends only out of current operating earnings. In addition to dividends from FNBPA, other sources of parent company liquidity for FNB include cash, short-term investments and issuance of debt instruments, as well as dividends and loan repayments from other subsidiaries.
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In addition, the ability of FNB and FNBPA to pay dividends may be affected by the various minimum capital requirements previously described in the “Capital and Operational Requirements,” “Basel III Capital Rules” and “Stress Testing” discussions herein, and the capital and non-capital standards established under FDICIA, as described above. The right of FNB, our stockholders and our creditors to participate in any distribution of the assets or earnings of our subsidiaries is further subject to the prior claims of creditors of the respective subsidiaries.
Source of Strength
According to the Dodd-Frank Act and FRB policy, a financial or bank holding company is expected to act as a source of financial strength to each of its subsidiary banks and to commit resources to support each such subsidiary. Consistent with the “source of strength” policy, the FRB has stated that, as a matter of prudent banking, a bank or financial holding company generally should not maintain a rate of cash dividends unless its net income has been sufficient to fully fund the dividends and the prospective rate of earnings retention appears to be consistent with our capital needs, asset quality and overall financial condition. This support may be required at times when the parent holding company may not be able to provide such support.
In addition, if FNBPA was no longer “well-capitalized” and “well-managed” within the meaning of the BHC Act and FRB rules (which take into consideration capital ratios, examination ratings and other factors), the expedited processing of certain types of FRB applications would not be available to us. Moreover, examination ratings of “3” or lower, “unsatisfactory” ratings, capital ratios below well-capitalized levels, regulatory concerns regarding management, controls, assets, operations or other factors can all potentially result in the loss of financial holding company status, practical limitations on the ability of a bank or bank (or financial) holding company to engage in new activities, grow, acquire new businesses, repurchase its stock or pay dividends or continue to conduct existing activities.
Financial Holding Company Status and Activities
Under the BHC Act, an eligible bank holding company may elect to be a “financial holding company” and thereafter may engage in a range of activities that are financial in nature and that were not previously permissible for banks and bank holding companies. FNB is a financial holding company under the BHC Act. The financial holding company may engage directly or through a subsidiary in certain statutorily authorized activities (subject to certain restrictions and limitations imposed by the Dodd-Frank Act). A financial holding company may also engage in any activity that has been determined by rule or order to be financial in nature, incidental to such financial activity, or (with prior FRB approval) complementary to a financial activity and that does not pose substantial risk to the safety and soundness of an institution or to the financial system generally. In addition to these activities, a financial holding company may engage in those activities permissible for a bank holding company that has not elected to be treated as a financial holding company.
For a bank holding company to be eligible for financial holding company status, all of its subsidiary U.S. depository institutions must be “well-capitalized” and “well-managed.” The FRB generally must deny expanded authority to any bank holding company with a subsidiary IDI that received less than a satisfactory rating on its most recent CRA review as of the time it submits its request for financial holding company status. If, after becoming a financial holding company and undertaking activities not permissible for a bank holding company under the BHC Act, the company fails to continue to meet any of the requirements for financial holding company status, the company must enter into an agreement with the FRB to comply with all applicable capital and management requirements. If the company does not return to compliance within 180 days, the FRB may order the company to divest its subsidiary banks or the company may discontinue or divest investments in companies engaged in activities permissible only for a bank holding company that has elected to be treated as a financial holding company.
Activities and Acquisitions
The BHC Act requires a bank or financial holding company to obtain the prior approval of the FRB before:
the company may acquire direct or indirect ownership or control of any voting shares of any bank or savings and loan association, if after such acquisition the bank holding company will directly or indirectly own or control more than 5% of any class of voting securities of the institution;
any of the company’s subsidiaries, other than a bank, may acquire all or substantially all of the assets of any bank or savings and loan association; or
the company may merge or consolidate with any other bank or financial holding company.
The Riegle-Neal Interstate Banking and Branching Efficiency Act of 1994 (Interstate Banking Act) generally permits bank holding companies to acquire banks in any state and preempts all state laws restricting the ownership by a holding company of
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banks in more than one state. A bank is subject to any state requirement that the bank has been organized and operating in for a minimum period of time and the requirement that the bank holding company, after the proposed transaction, controls no more than 10% of the total amount of deposits of IDIs in the U.S. and no more than 30% or such lesser or greater amount set by the state law of such deposits in that state. The Interstate Banking Act also permits:
a bank to merge with an out-of-state bank and convert any offices into branches of the resulting bank;
a bank to acquire branches from an out-of-state bank; and
a bank to establish and operate de novo interstate branches whenever the host state permits de novo branching of its own state-chartered banks.
Bank and financial holding companies and banks seeking to engage in mergers authorized by the Interstate Banking Act must be at least adequately capitalized as of the date that the application is filed, and the resulting institution must be well-capitalized and well-managed upon consummation of the transaction.
Pursuant to the Dodd-Frank Act, national and state-chartered banks may open an initial branch in a state other than its home state (e.g., a host state) by establishing a de novo branch at any location in such host state at which a bank chartered in such host state could establish a branch. Applications to establish such branches must still be filed with the OCC.
The Change in Bank Control Act prohibits a person, entity or group of persons or entities acting in concert, from acquiring “control” of a bank holding company or bank unless the FRB has been given prior notice and has not objected to the transaction. Under current FRB regulations, the acquisition of 10% or more (but less than 25%) of the voting stock of a corporation would, under the circumstances set forth in the regulations, create a rebuttable presumption of acquisition of control of the corporation.
Effective September 30, 2020, the FRB finalized a rule to codify and simplify its interpretations regarding regulatory presumptions of control for the purpose of the BHC Act and, on March 31, 2021, the FRB published interpretive guidance regarding the rule and related regulatory control matters. The amended control rule thus far has had, and will likely continue to have, a meaningful impact on control determinations related to investments in banks and bank holding companies and investments by bank holding companies in non-bank companies.
Incentive Compensation
Guidelines adopted by the federal banking agencies pursuant to the FDI Act prohibit excessive compensation as an unsafe and unsound practice. The federal banking agencies also jointly adopted the Guidance on Sound Incentive Compensation Policies intended to ensure that banking organizations do not undermine the safety and soundness of such organizations by encouraging excessive risk-taking. This guidance, which covers all employees that have the ability to expose the organization to material amounts of risk, either individually or as part of a group, is based upon the key principles that a banking organization’s incentive compensation arrangements should (i) provide employee incentives that appropriately balance risk in a manner that does not encourage employees to expose their organizations to imprudent risk, (ii) be compatible with effective controls and risk management, and (iii) be supported by strong corporate governance, including active and effective oversight by the organization’s board of directors. Monitoring methods and processes used by a banking organization should be commensurate with the size and complexity of the organization and its use of incentive compensation. Any deficiencies in the compensation practices of FNB or its subsidiaries and affiliates could lead to supervisory or enforcement action.
Section 956 of the Dodd-Frank Act requires the federal banking agencies and the SEC to establish joint regulations or guidelines prohibiting incentive-based payment arrangements at specified regulated entities, such as FNB, having at least $1 billion in total assets that encourage inappropriate risk-taking by providing an executive officer, employee, director or principal shareholder with excessive compensation, fees, or benefits or that could lead to material financial loss to the entity. In addition, these regulators must establish regulations or guidelines requiring enhanced disclosure to regulators of incentive-based compensation arrangements. In October 2022, the SEC adopted a final regulation implementing the incentive-based recovery (or "clawback") provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act. The final regulation directed stock exchanges to require listed companies to implement clawback policies to recover incentive-based compensation paid to current or former executive officers in the event of material non-compliance with any financial reporting requirement under the securities laws, even if there was no misconduct or failure of oversight on the part of an individual executive officer, and to disclose their clawback policies and their actions under those policies. We timely adopted an executive compensation clawback policy in order to comply with this regulation and the listing standards of the NYSE, and a copy of the policy is filed as an exhibit to this Annual Report. Incentive compensation and sales practices, particularly in connection with certain products and services that are viewed as high-risk from a supervisory perspective, such as cross-selling and overdraft services, continue to be priority issues on the examination and supervision
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agendas of the CFPB and the federal banking agencies. The scope and content of the U.S. banking regulators' policies on executive compensation may continue to evolve.
Securities and Exchange Commission
FNBIA is registered with the SEC as an investment advisor and, therefore, is subject to the requirements of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 and other applicable SEC regulations. The principal purpose of the regulations applicable to investment advisors is the protection of investment advisory clients and the securities markets, rather than the protection of creditors and stockholders of investment advisors. The regulations applicable to investment advisors cover all aspects of the investment advisory business, including limitations on the ability of investment advisors to charge performance-based or non-refundable fees to clients, record-keeping, operating, marketing and reporting requirements, disclosure requirements, limitations on principal transactions between an advisor or its affiliates and advisory clients, as well as other anti-fraud prohibitions. FNBIA also may be subject to certain state securities laws and regulations.
Additional legislation, changes in or new rules promulgated by the SEC and other federal and state regulatory authorities and self-regulatory organizations or changes in the interpretation or enforcement of existing laws and rules, may directly affect the method of operation and profitability of FNBIA. The profitability of FNBIA could also be affected by rules and regulations that impact the business and financial communities in general, including changes to the laws governing taxation, antitrust regulation, homeland security and electronic commerce.
Under various provisions of the federal and state securities laws, including in particular those applicable to broker-dealers, investment advisors and registered investment companies and their service providers, a determination by a court or regulatory agency that certain violations have occurred at a company or its affiliates can result in a limitation of permitted activities and disqualification to continue to conduct certain activities.
FNBIA also may be required to conduct its business in a manner that complies with rules and regulations promulgated by the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) under the ERISA, among others. The principal purpose of these regulations is the protection of clients and ERISA plan and individual retirement account assets and beneficiaries, rather than the protection of stockholders and creditors. Significantly, in June 2018, the U.S. Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals vacated the DOL's "fiduciary rule" and related prohibited transaction exemptions. However, on June 29, 2020, the DOL released a proposed prohibited transaction class exemption and associated guidance, intended as the “fiduciary rule[s]” replacement. Under the proposal, investment advice fiduciaries to IRAs and ERISA plans (and similar tax-favored accounts) are permitted to receive variable compensation and other transaction-based fees in connection with providing investment advice as a fiduciary. Also, investment advice fiduciaries are permitted under the proposal to engage in certain principal transactions, without violating the prohibited transaction rules of ERISA and the IRS Code. Further, the proposal called for fiduciary status to be determined under the longstanding five-part test and, unlike the “fiduciary rule,” the regulatory definition of "fiduciary" is not expanded. DOL finalized the proposed exemption in December 2020 and FNBPA and FNTC subsequently conformed their business practices to comply therewith, including applicable DOL transition guidance, to the extent applicable.
Separately, in 2019 the SEC adopted Regulation Best Interest, which, among other things, established a new standard of conduct for a broker-dealer to act in the best interest of a retail consumer when making a recommendation of any securities transaction or investment strategy involving securities to such consumer. The new rule by the SEC requires us to review and possibly modify our compliance activities, which is causing us to incur additional costs. In addition, state laws that impose a fiduciary duty also may require monitoring, as well as require that we undertake additional compliance measures.
Insurance Agencies
FNIA is subject to licensing requirements and extensive regulation under the laws of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and the various states in which FNIA conducts its insurance agency business. These laws and regulations are primarily for the protection of policyholders. In all jurisdictions, the applicable laws and regulations are subject to amendment or interpretation by regulatory authorities. Generally, those authorities are vested with relatively broad discretion to grant, renew and revoke licenses and approvals and to implement regulations. Licenses may be denied or revoked for various reasons, including for regulatory violations or upon conviction for certain crimes. Possible sanctions that may be imposed for violation of regulations include the suspension of individual employees, limitations on engaging in a particular business for a specified period of time, revocation of licenses, censures and fines.
Penn-Ohio is subject to examination by the Arizona Department of Insurance. Representatives of the Arizona Department of Insurance periodically determine whether Penn-Ohio has maintained required reserves, established adequate deposits under a reinsurance agreement and complied with reporting requirements under the applicable Arizona statutes.
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Other Laws and Regulations Pertaining to Banks and Financial Services Companies
FNB, FNBPA and our subsidiaries and affiliates are also subject to a variety of other laws and regulations in addition to those already discussed herein with respect to the operation of our businesses, including but not limited to Expedited Funds Availability (and its implementing Regulation CC), Reserve Requirements (and its implementing Regulation D), Margin Stock Loans (and its implementing Regulation U), Right To Financial Privacy Act, Flood Disaster Protection Act, Homeowners Protection Act, Servicemembers Civil Relief Act, Telephone Consumer Protection Act, CAN-SPAM Act, Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act, and the John Warner National Defense Authorization Act.
In addition, SOX addresses, among other issues, corporate governance, auditing and accounting, executive compensation, and enhanced and timely disclosure of corporate information. As directed by SOX, our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer are required to certify that our quarterly and annual reports do not contain any untrue statement of a material fact. The rules adopted by the SEC under SOX have several requirements, including having these officers certify that: they are responsible for establishing, maintaining and regularly evaluating the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting; they have made certain disclosures to our auditors and the audit committee of the Board of Directors about our internal control over financial reporting; and they have included information in our quarterly and annual reports about their evaluation and whether there have been changes in our internal control over financial reporting or in other factors that could materially affect internal control over financial reporting.
Climate-Related Risk Management and Regulation
In recent years the federal banking agencies have increased their focus on climate-related risks impacting the operations of banks, the communities they serve and the broader financial system. Accordingly, the agencies have begun to enhance their supervisory expectations regarding the climate risk management practices of larger banking organizations, including by encouraging such banks to: ensure that management of climate-related risk exposures has been incorporated into existing governance structures; evaluate the potential impact of climate-related risks on the bank’s financial condition, operations and business objectives as part of its strategic planning process; account for the effects of climate change in stress testing scenarios and systemic risk assessments; revise expectations for credit portfolio concentrations based on climate-related factors; consider investments in climate-related initiatives and lending to communities disproportionately impacted by the effects of climate change; evaluate the impact of climate change on the bank’s borrowers and consider possible changes to underwriting criteria to account for climate-related risks to mortgaged properties; incorporate climate-related financial risk into the bank’s internal reporting, monitoring and escalation processes; and prepare for the transition risks to the bank associated with the adjustment to a low-carbon economy and related changes in laws, regulations, governmental policies, technology, and consumer behavior and expectations.
On October 21, 2021, the FSOC published a report identifying climate-related financial risks as an “emerging threat” to financial stability. On December 16, 2021, the OCC issued proposed principles for climate-related financial risk management for national banks with more than $100 billion in total assets. Further, on March 30, 2022 and December 2, 2022, respectively, the FDIC and the FRB issued their own proposed principles for climate risk management, which are applicable to larger banking organizations. Although these risk management principles, if adopted as proposed, would not apply to FNBPA directly based upon our current size, the OCC has indicated that all banks, regardless of their size, may have material exposures to climate-related financial and other risks that require prudent management. The federal banking agencies, either independently or on an interagency basis, are expected to adopt a more formal climate risk management framework for larger banking organizations. In October 2023, the OCC issued its Risk Management: Principles for Climate-Related Financial Risk Management for Large Financial Institutions governing financial institutions with consolidated assets over $100 billion. These risk management principles are deemed safety and soundness concerns and are designed to provide guidance to large financial institutions regarding climate risk considerations relative to physical risks and transition risks associated with climate change. It is anticipated that the OCC will consider climate risk elements related to these principles in their supervisory oversight of financial institutions with less than $100 billion in assets. Also, the FRB announced on September 29, 2022 that six of the largest U.S. banking organizations will participate in a climate scenario analysis pilot program in order to assess the resilience of such organizations under various hypothetical scenarios involving physical and transition climate-related risks on specific residential and commercial real estate in their portfolios for the purpose of using scenarios on current policies and policies targeting zero emissions by 2050. The FRB states the overriding purpose of the pilot climate risk assessment study is to deepen the understanding of climate risk management practices and advance the development of the capacity to better identify, measure, monitor and manage climate-related risks. The SEC has issued a proposed rule that, if adopted, would require public companies to provide detailed reporting of climate-related risks (material risks and strategic implications), green-house gas emissions and net-zero transition plans (targets pertaining to planned reductions). As climate-related supervisory guidance is formalized, and relevant risk areas and corresponding control expectations are further refined, we may be required to expend
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significant capital and incur compliance, operating, maintenance and remediation costs in order to conform to such requirements.
In addition, states are considering taking similar actions on climate-related financial risks, including certain states in which we operate. For example, in January 2022, North Carolina Governor Roy Cooper issued Executive Order No. 246, which establishes science-based goals of a 50% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 and net-zero emissions by 2050 and affirmed the state’s commitment to climate action and environmental justice. Additionally, in June 2022, Maryland’s Climate Solutions Now Act of 2022 went into effect. The Act requires the state to reduce statewide greenhouse gas emissions by, among other things, developing energy efficiency and emissions reduction requirements for certain buildings. Under the Act, Maryland targets a net zero goal by 2045 for greenhouse gas emissions. In July 2022, District of Columbia policymakers approved two bills aimed at decarbonization through reduction of greenhouse gases and setting decarbonization targets for the District’s homes and buildings. Maryland Attorney General Brian E. Frosh and District of Columbia Attorney General Karl A. Racine also both joined a coalition of 19 attorneys general in supporting the SEC’s Proposed Rules for The Enhancement and Standardization of the Climate-Related Disclosure for Investors. State and local climate-related legislative and regulatory initiatives may require us to expend capital to conform to applicable requirements.
Digital Asset Regulation
On January 3, 2023, the federal banking agencies issued additional guidance in the form of a joint statement addressing digital asset-related risks to banking organizations. That statement noted the recent volatility and exposure of vulnerabilities in the digital asset sector and indicated that the agencies are continuing to assess whether or how the digital asset-related activities of banking organizations can be conducted in a safe and sound manner and in compliance with all applicable laws and regulations. The statement stressed that each agency has developed, and expects banking organizations to follow, supervisory processes for evaluating proposed and existing digital asset activities. We do not invest in digital assets or so-called cryptocurrencies.
Governmental Policies
The operations of FNB and our subsidiaries are affected not only by general economic conditions, but also by the policies of various regulatory authorities and the current Presidential Administration. In particular, the FRB regulates monetary policy and interest rates in order to influence general economic conditions. These policies have a significant influence on overall growth and distribution of loans, investments and deposits and affect interest rates charged on loans or paid for deposits. In fact, in the midst of rising inflation and pressure to raise interest rates, in its FOMC policy statement issued on January 26, 2022, the FRB strongly signaled that it would soon be time to raise the target range for the Federal funds rate, and the FOMC has since increased the target Federal funds rate eleven times during 2022 and 2023 to a range of 5.25% to 5.50% as of December 31, 2023. The FOMC signaled that current FRB direction is to begin lowering rates at some point during 2024 as inflation returns to more normalized levels. FRB monetary policies have had a significant effect on the operating results of all financial institutions in the past and may continue to do so in the future.
In view of changing conditions in the national economy and in money markets, as well as the effect of credit policies by monetary and fiscal authorities, including the FRB, it is difficult to predict the impact of possible future changes in interest rates, deposit levels and loan demand, or their effect on our business and earnings or on the financial condition of our various customers (see discussion under Risk Factors - caption “We could be adversely affected by changes in the law, especially changes in the regulation of the banking industry”).
Available Information
We make available through our website at www.fnbcorporation.com, free of charge, our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and Current Reports on Form 8-K (and amendments to any of the foregoing) as soon as reasonably practicable after such reports are filed with or furnished to the SEC. Information on our website is not incorporated by reference into this document and should not be considered part of this Report. Our common stock is traded on the NYSE under the symbol “FNB”.
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ITEM 1A.    RISK FACTORS
We are subject to numerous risks, many of which are inherent to our business. As a financial services organization, we must balance revenue generation and profitability with the risks associated with our business activities. For information about how our risk oversight and management process operates, see Item 7 of this Report, MD&A – "Risk Management.” The following discussion highlights specific risks that could affect us and our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Based on the information currently known, we believe that the following information identifies the material risk factors affecting us. The risks and uncertainties we face are not limited to those described below. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known or that we currently believe to be immaterial may also adversely affect our business.
You should carefully consider each of the following risks and all the other information set forth in this Report. If any of the following risks and uncertainties develop into actual events or if the circumstances described in the risks and uncertainties occur or continue to occur, these events or circumstances could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flows. These events could also have a negative effect on the trading price of our securities.
1. Credit Risk
Our results of operations are significantly affected by the ability of our borrowers to repay their loans.
Lending money is an essential part of the banking business. However, for various reasons, borrowers do not always repay their loans. The risk of non-payment is affected by credit risks of a particular borrower, changes in economic conditions that impact certain geographic markets or industries, fluctuations in interest rates on adjustable-rate loans, the duration of the loan, and in the case of a collateralized loan, uncertainties as to the future value of the collateral.
Generally, commercial loans and leases present a greater risk of non-payment by a borrower than other types of loans. They typically involve larger loan balances and are particularly sensitive to economic conditions. The borrower’s ability to repay usually depends on the successful operation of its business and income stream. Some of our commercial borrowers have multiple loans outstanding with us, which means that an adverse development with respect to one loan or one credit relationship can expose us to a significantly greater risk of loss. In the case of commercial and industrial loans, collateral often consists of accounts receivable, inventory, property and equipment, which may not yield substantial recovery of principal losses incurred, and is susceptible to deterioration, declining valuations, or other losses in advance of liquidation of such collateral. Consumer loan collections are dependent on the borrower’s continuing financial stability, and thus are more likely to be affected by adverse personal circumstances. Furthermore, the application of various federal and state laws may limit the amount that can be recovered on these loans. For additional information, see the Lending Activity section of MD&A, which is included in Item 7 of this Report.
Our mortgage banking profitability could be significantly reduced if we are not able to originate and resell a high volume of mortgage loans.
Mortgage banking is generally considered a volatile source of income because it depends largely on the volume of loans we originate and sell in the secondary market. If our originations of mortgage loans decrease, resulting in fewer loans that are available to be sold to investors, this would result in a decrease in mortgage revenues and a corresponding decrease in non-interest income.
Mortgage loan production levels are sensitive to changes in economic conditions and activity, strengths or weaknesses in the housing market, changes in FRB monetary policies, interest rate fluctuations and the availability of an active secondary market or originations that could shift to adjustable-rate products which may be held in the portfolio. Generally, any sustained period of decreased economic activity or higher interest rates could reduce demand for mortgage loans and refinancings, while, conversely, any sustained period of increased economic activity and decreasing interest rates could increase the demand for mortgage loans and loan repayments. In addition, our results of operations are affected by the amount of non-interest expense associated with mortgage banking activities, such as salaries, commissions and employee benefits, occupancy, equipment and data processing expense and other operating costs. During periods of reduced loan demand, our results of operations may be adversely affected to the extent that we are unable to reduce expenses commensurate with the decline in loan originations.
Future changes to our eligibility to participate in the programs offered by the government-sponsored entities (GSEs) and other secondary purchasers, or the loan criteria of the GSEs and other secondary purchasers could also result in a lower volume of corresponding loan originations and sales.
The estimates of revenues produced by the models we use to assess the impact of interest rates on mortgage-related revenues are dependent on estimates and assumptions of future loan demand, prepayment speeds and other factors which may differ from actual subsequent experience.
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Our financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected if we must further increase our provision for credit losses or if our ACL is not sufficient to absorb actual losses.
There is no precise method of predicting loan losses. We can give no assurance that our ACL will be sufficient to absorb actual loan losses. Excess loan losses could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
The level of the ACL reflects the judgment and estimates of management regarding the amount and timing of future cash flows, current fair value of the underlying collateral and other qualitative risk factors that may affect the loan. Determination of the allowance is inherently subjective and is based on factors that are susceptible to significant change. Continuing deterioration in economic conditions affecting borrowers, new information regarding existing loans, suspected fraud, identification of additional problem loans and other factors, both within and outside of our control, may require an increase in the ACL. In addition, bank regulatory agencies periodically review our ACL and may require an increase in the provision for credit losses or the recognition of additional loan charge-offs, based on judgments different from those of management. In addition, if charge-offs in future periods exceed the ACL, we will need additional provisions to increase the ACL. Any increases in the ACL will result in a decrease in net income and capital and may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. For additional discussion relating to this matter, refer to the Allowance and Provision for Credit Losses section of MD&A, which is included in Item 7 of this Report.
2. Market Risk
Our business and financial performance is impacted significantly by market interest rates and changes in those rates. The monetary, tax and other policies of governmental agencies, including the UST and the FRB, have a direct impact on interest rates and overall financial market performance over which we have no control and which may not be able to be predicted with reasonable accuracy.
As a result of the high percentage of our assets and liabilities that are in the form of interest-bearing or interest-related instruments, changes in interest rates, in the shape of the yield curve or in spreads between different market interest rates can have a material effect on our business, profitability and the value of our financial assets and liabilities. Such scenarios may include the following:
changes in interest rates or interest rate spreads can affect the difference between the interest earned on assets and the interest paid on liabilities, which impacts FNBPA’s overall net interest income and profitability;
such changes can affect the ability of borrowers to meet obligations under variable or adjustable-rate loans and other debt instruments and can, in turn, affect our loss rates on those assets;
such changes may decrease the demand for interest rate-based products or services, including bank loans and deposit products and the subordinated notes offered by our subsidiary, FNB Financial Services, LP;
such changes can also affect our ability to hedge various forms of market and interest rate risks and may decrease the profitability or increase the risk associated with such hedges; and
movements in interest rates also affect mortgage repayment speeds and could result in impairments of MSAs or otherwise affect the profitability of such assets.
The monetary, tax and other policies of the U.S. Government and its agencies also have a significant impact on interest rates and overall financial market performance. The FRB regulates the national supply of bank credit and certain interest rates through the implementation of certain monetary policies and actions. Due to elevated levels of inflation and corresponding pressure to raise interest rates, the FRB announced in January 2022 that it would be slowing the pace of its bond purchasing and increasing the target range for the federal funds rate over time, which it did from March 2022 to July 2023. The FOMC has since paused increases to the target federal funds rate. Although economists are projecting that the target funds rate will likely decline in small periodic increments, the timing, extent, and frequency of such reductions remain uncertain.
Changes in monetary policy, including changes in interest rates, could influence not only the interest we receive on loans and investments and the amount of interest we pay on deposits and borrowings, but such changes could also affect (i) our ability to originate loans and obtain deposits; (ii) the fair value of our financial assets and liabilities; and (iii) the average duration of our mortgage portfolio and other interest-earning assets. If the interest rates paid on deposits and other borrowings increase at a faster rate than the interest rates received on loans and other investments, our net interest income, and therefore earnings, could be adversely affected. Earnings could also be adversely affected if the interest rates received on loans and other investments fall more quickly than the interest rates paid on deposits and other borrowings. Interest rate risk may also result from timing differences in the maturity and re-pricing characteristics of assets and liabilities, changes in the shape of the yield curve, hedging activity and the potential exercise of explicit or embedded options.
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Any substantial, unexpected, prolonged change in market interest rates could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations, and any related economic downturn, especially domestically and in the regions in which we operate, may adversely affect our asset quality, deposit levels, loan demand and results of operations. Also, our interest rate risk modeling techniques and assumptions likely may not fully predict or capture the impact of actual or future interest rate changes on our balance sheet.
Changes in interest rates could reduce the value of our AFS securities holdings which would increase our accumulated other comprehensive loss and thereby negatively impact stockholders’ equity.
We maintain an investment portfolio consisting of various high-quality liquid fixed-income securities. The total carrying value of the AFS securities portfolio as of December 31, 2023 was $3.3 billion and the estimated duration of the portfolio was approximately 3 years. The nature of fixed-income securities is such that changes in market interest rates impact the value of these assets. Based on the duration of our AFS securities portfolio, a one percent increase or decrease in market rates is projected to positively or negatively impact the market value of the AFS securities portfolio by approximately $100.1 million. Increases or decreases in market interest rates are expected to further increase or decrease our AOCI (loss) and thereby decrease stockholders’ equity. Further, the FRB and the OCC may consider increases in AOCI when evaluating our regulatory capital position, although current capital regulations permit AOCI to be excluded from capital for institutions of our size.
3. Liquidity Risk
Liquidity risk could impair our ability to fund operations and meet our obligations as they become due.
Our ability to implement our business strategy will depend on our liquidity and ability to obtain funding for loan originations, working capital and other general purposes. Liquidity is needed to fund various obligations, including credit commitments to borrowers, mortgage and other loan originations, withdrawals by depositors, repayment of borrowings, dividends to shareholders, operating expenses and capital expenditures. Liquidity risk is the potential that we will be unable to meet our obligations as they come due, capitalize on growth opportunities as they arise, or pay regular dividends on our common stock because of illiquid assets or an inability to obtain satisfactory funding. Our preferred sources for funding are deposits and customer repurchase agreements, which are low cost and stable sources of funding for us. We compete with commercial banks, savings banks and credit unions, as well as numerous non-depository competitors for deposits and customer repurchase agreements. If a significant portion of our deposits were to be withdrawn within a short period of time or if we are unable to attract and maintain sufficient levels of deposits and customer repurchase agreements to fund our loan growth and liquidity objectives, we may be subject to paying higher funding costs by raising interest rates that are paid on deposits and customer repurchase agreements or cause us to source funds from third-party providers which may be higher cost funding, impacting our net interest margin and overall profitability. Additionally, our ability to attract depositors during a time of actual or perceived distress or instability in the marketplace may be limited. Because our AFS investment securities lose value when interest rates rise, after-tax proceeds resulting from the sale of such assets may be diminished during periods when interest rates are elevated. However, the sale of all or a material portion of our securities portfolio to increase liquidity in the face of withdrawals would cause the realization of significant losses that would, in turn, reduce our regulatory capital position.
Our growth may require us to raise additional capital in the future, but that capital may not be available when it is needed.
We are required by federal and state regulatory authorities to maintain adequate levels of capital to support our operations (see discussion under “Government Supervision and Regulation” included in Item 1 of this Report). As a financial holding company, we seek to maintain capital sufficient to meet the “well-capitalized” standard set by regulators. While we anticipate that our current capital resources will satisfy our capital requirements for the foreseeable future, we may, at some point need to raise additional capital to support current operations or continued growth.
The availability of additional capital or financing will depend on a variety of factors, many of which are outside of our control, including market conditions, credit availability, our credit ratings and credit capacity, marketability of our stock, and the possibility that lenders and investors could develop a negative perception of our long- or short-term financial prospects if we incur large credit losses or if the level of business activity decreases due to economic conditions. Accordingly, there can be no assurance of our ability to expand our operations through organic growth or acquisitions. As such, we may be forced to delay raising capital, issue shorter-term securities than desired or bear an unattractive cost of capital, which could decrease profitability and significantly reduce financial flexibility. In addition, if we decide to raise additional equity capital, it could be dilutive to our existing stockholders.
We are dependent on dividends from our subsidiaries to meet our financial obligations and pay dividends to stockholders.
We are a holding company and conduct almost all our operations through our subsidiaries. We do not have any significant assets other than cash and the stock of our subsidiaries. Accordingly, we depend on dividends from our subsidiaries, in
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particular FNBPA, to meet our financial obligations and to pay dividends to stockholders. Our right to participate in any distribution of earnings or assets of our subsidiaries is subject to the prior claims of creditors of such subsidiaries. Under federal law, the amount of dividends that a national bank, such as FNBPA, may pay in a calendar year is dependent on the amount of our net income for the current year combined with our retained net income for the two preceding years. The OCC has the authority to prohibit FNBPA from paying dividends if it determines such payment would be an unsafe and unsound banking practice. Likewise, our state-based entities are subject to state laws governing dividend practices and payments.
Regulatory authorities may restrict our ability to pay dividends on, and make repurchases of, our common stock.
Dividends on our common stock will be payable only if, when and as authorized and declared by our Board of Directors; however, our ability to pay dividends and make stock repurchases may be limited due to banking laws and regulations and limitations imposed by our banking regulators (including OCC limiting dividends from FNBPA). In certain circumstances, we will not be able to make a capital distribution unless the FRB approves such distribution, including if the dividend could not be fully funded by our net income over the last four quarters (net of dividends paid), our prospective rate of earnings retention appears inconsistent with our capital needs, asset quality, and overall financial condition, or we will not be able to continue meeting the minimum required capital ratios. As a bank holding company, we also are required to consult with the FRB before increasing dividends or redeeming or repurchasing capital instruments. Additionally, the FRB could prohibit or limit our payment of dividends if it determines that payment of the dividend would constitute an unsafe or unsound practice. There can be no assurance that we will declare and pay any dividends or repurchase any shares of our common stock in the future.
We have outstanding securities senior to common stock which could limit our ability to pay dividends on our common stock.
We have outstanding TPS that are senior to our common stock and could adversely affect our ability to declare or pay dividends or distributions on our common stock. The terms of the TPS prohibit us from declaring or paying dividends or making distributions on our junior capital stock, including the common stock, or purchasing, acquiring, or making a liquidation payment on any junior capital stock, if: (1) an event of default has occurred and is continuing under the junior subordinated debentures underlying the TPS, (2) we are in default with respect to a guarantee payment under the guarantee of the related TPS, or (3) we have given notice of our election to defer interest payments, but the related deferral period has not yet commenced or a deferral period is continuing. If we experience a material deterioration in our financial condition, liquidity, capital, results of operations or risk profile, our regulators may not permit us to make future payments on our TPS, which would also prevent us from paying any dividends on our common stock.
4. Reputation Risk
Our key assets include our brand and reputation and our business may be affected by how we are perceived by the public.
Our brand and our reputation are our key assets. Our ability to attract and retain banking, insurance, wealth management and corporate clients and employees is highly dependent upon external perceptions of our culture, level of service, security, trustworthiness, business practices and financial condition. Negative perceptions or publicity regarding these matters could damage our reputation among existing customers and corporate clients and employees, which could make it difficult for us to attract new clients and employees and retain existing ones. Adverse developments with respect to our financial services activities, the financial services industry or sociopolitical events and circumstances may also, by association, negatively impact our reputation, or result in greater regulatory or legislative scrutiny or litigation against us. Although we monitor developments for areas of potential risk to our reputation and brand, negative perceptions or publicity could materially and adversely affect our revenues and profitability.
We are subject to environmental, social and governance (ESG) risks that could adversely affect our reputation and the market price of our securities.
We are subject to a variety of risks arising from ESG matters. ESG matters include climate risk, hiring practices, the diversity of our work force, and equitable treatment of our employees, customers and third parties with whom we otherwise do business. Risks arising from ESG matters, including shifts in investor approaches related to ESG, may adversely affect, among other things, our reputation and the market price of our securities.
Further, we may be exposed to negative publicity (e.g., traditional and social media) based on the identity and activities of those to whom we lend and with which we otherwise do business, and the public’s view of the approach and performance of our customers and business partners with respect to ESG matters. Such negative publicity could adversely impact our relationships and reputation with our existing and prospective customers and potentially have an adverse effect on our ability to attract and retain customers and employees and could have a negative impact on the market price for our securities.
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Investors may consider the steps taken and resources allocated by financial institutions and other commercial organizations to address ESG matters when making investment decisions. Certain investors have incorporated the business risks of climate change and the adequacy of companies’ responses to the risks posed by climate change into their investment theses.
Increased attention to ESG matters also has caused public officials, including certain state attorneys general, treasurers, and legislators, to take various actions to impact the extent to which ESG principles are considered by private investors, including actions to limit business with government entities or the initiation of an investigation or enforcement action because of what is perceived to be, depending on the governmental authority, either our unwarranted focus or lack of focus on ESG matters.
5. Operational Risk
Our failure to continue to recruit and retain qualified banking professionals could adversely affect our ability to compete successfully and affect our profitability.
Our continued success and future growth depend heavily on our ability to attract and retain highly skilled, diverse and motivated banking professionals. We compete against many institutions with greater financial resources both within our industry and in other industries to attract these qualified individuals. Our failure to recruit and retain adequate talent could reduce our ability to compete successfully and adversely affect our business and profitability.
The financial soundness of other financial institutions may adversely affect FNB, FNBPA and other affiliates.
Financial institutions are interrelated as a result of trading, clearing, counterparty and other relationships. FNB, FNBPA and other affiliates are exposed to many different industries and counterparties and they routinely execute transactions with counterparties in the financial services industry, including brokers and dealers, commercial banks, investment banks and other institutional clients. Many of these types of transactions expose FNB, FNBPA and other affiliates to credit risk in the event of default of the counterparty or client. In addition, FNBPA and other affiliates’ credit risks may be exacerbated when the collateral held by us cannot be realized or is liquidated at prices that are not sufficient to recover the full amount of the loan or derivative exposure that we are due.
We are subject to operational risk that could damage our reputation and our business. We engage in a variety of businesses and rely on systems, employees, service providers and counterparties to properly process a high volume of transactions.
Like all businesses, we are subject to operational risk, which represents the risk of loss resulting from inadequate or failed internal processes in our systems, human error and external events. Operational risk also encompasses technology, compliance and legal risk. Many strategic initiatives, including those related to products, staffing, and business processes, could substantially increase operational risk. We are also exposed to operational risk through our outsourcing arrangements, and the effect the changes in circumstances or capabilities of our outsourcing vendors can have on our ability to continue to perform operational functions necessary to our business.
External and internal risk has proliferated in recent years.
The shift in recent years to digital, mobile, and online platforms have resulted in a large volume of payment transactions being executed more quickly leaving banks less time to identify and counteract fraud, and recover the funds misappropriated by fraudulent actors. Moreover, the level of sophistication of fraud has increased in part due to greater collaboration among bad actors, including the exchange of stolen data, new techniques and expertise available on the dark web. The financial services industry is continually developing and forcing countermeasures to prevent, detect and remediate the ever-shifting fraud landscape and the ability to quickly adapt to new threats is a critical element of fraud prevention.
Changes and instability in economic conditions and financial markets, including a contraction of economic activity, could adversely impact our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Our financial performance depends, to a certain extent, upon global, domestic and local economic and political conditions, as well as governmental monetary policies. Conditions such as changes in interest rates, money supply, levels of employment and other factors beyond our control may have a negative impact on economic activity. Any contraction of economic activity, including an economic recession or an inflationary environment, may adversely affect our asset quality, deposit levels and loan demand and, therefore, our earnings. In particular, interest rates are highly sensitive to many factors that are beyond our control, including global, domestic and local economic conditions and the policies of various governmental and regulatory agencies and, specifically, the FRB. Throughout 2022 and 2023, the FOMC raised the target range for the federal funds rate on 11 separate occasions citing economic and geopolitical disruptions, and signaled that current FRB direction is to begin lowering rates at some point during 2024 as inflation returns to more normalized levels.
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Financial institutions also face a comparatively heightened credit risk. Of note, because we have a significant amount of real estate loans, decreases in real estate values could adversely affect the value of property used as collateral, which, in turn, can adversely affect the value of our loan and investment portfolios. Adverse economic developments, specifically including inflation-related impacts, may have a negative effect on the ability of our borrowers to make timely repayments of their loans or to finance future home purchases. According to the FRB’s October 2023 Financial Stability Report, commercial real estate (CRE) values remained elevated relative to fundamentals, even as prices continued to decline. While CRE values continue to fluctuate, some markets are showing signs of stabilizing prices. However, the outlook for CRE remains dependent on the broader economic environment and, specifically, how major subsectors respond to a rising interest rate environment and higher prices for commodities, goods and services. In any case, credit performance over the medium-and long-term is susceptible to economic and market forces and therefore forecasts remain uncertain, with some degree of instability in the CRE markets expected in the coming quarters as loans are refinanced in markets with higher vacancy rates under current economic conditions. Instability and uncertainty in the commercial and residential real estate markets, as well as in the broader commercial and retail credit markets, could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Macroeconomic and geopolitical challenges and uncertainties affecting the stability of regions and countries around the globe could have a negative impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations. For instance, in response to the Russia-Ukraine war, the U.S. has imposed, and is likely to continue to impose, significant financial and economic sanctions and export controls against certain Russian organizations and individuals, with similar actions being taken by the European Union, the United Kingdom and other jurisdictions. The Russian invasion and subsequent sanctions had and could continue to have certain negative impacts on global and regional financial markets and economic conditions. In addition, the attacks by Hamas on Israel in October 2023, Israel’s response and a potential broader armed conflict in the Middle East are likely to continue impacting the global economy, including that of the United States and have added to concerns of a widening conflict in the Middle East. In particular, oil prices have become increasingly volatile in the aftermath of the attacks on Israel. Each of the developments described above, or any combination of them, could adversely affect our businesses, financial condition and results of operations.
Our business could be adversely affected by difficult economic conditions in the regions in which we operate.
We operate in seven states and the District of Columbia. Most of our customers are individuals and small- and medium-sized businesses that are dependent upon their regional economies. The economic conditions in these local markets may be different from, and in some instances worse than, economic conditions in the U.S. as a whole. Challenging macroeconomic, recessionary and employment conditions in the market areas we serve could result in the following consequences, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations, such as: demand for our loans, deposits and services may decline; loan delinquencies, problem assets, foreclosures and charge-offs may increase; weak economic conditions could limit the demand for loans by creditworthy borrowers, limiting our capacity to leverage our retail deposits and maintain our net interest income; collateral for our loans may decline in value; and the amount of our low-cost or non-interest-bearing deposits may decrease.
The banking and financial services industry continually encounters technological change, especially in the systems that are used to deliver products to, and execute transactions on behalf of customers. If we fail to continue to invest in technological improvements as they become appropriate or necessary, our ability to compete effectively could be severely impaired.
The banking and financial services industry continually undergoes technological changes, with frequent introductions of new technology-driven products and services, including recent and rapid developments in artificial intelligence. The effective use of technology increases efficiency and enables financial institutions to better compete for and serve customers and reduce costs. Our future success will depend, in part, on our ability to address customer needs by using secure technology to provide products and services that will satisfy customer demands, as well as create additional efficiencies in our operations. Many of our larger competitors have greater resources to invest in technological improvements, and we may not effectively implement new technology-driven products and services or do so as quickly as our competitors. Failure to successfully keep pace with technological change affecting the banking and financial services industry could negatively affect our revenue and profitability.
In addition, transactions utilizing digital assets, including cryptocurrencies, stablecoins and other similar assets, have increased over the course of the last several years. Certain characteristics of digital asset transactions, including their speed and anonymity are appealing to certain consumers notwithstanding the various risks posed by such transactions. Accordingly, digital asset service providers - which, at present are not subject to the extensive regulation as banking organizations and other financial institutions - have become active competitors for our customers' banking business. The process of eliminating banks as intermediaries, known as "disintermediation," could result in the loss of fee income, as well as the loss of customer deposits and the related income generated from those deposits. Further, an initiative by the CFPB, as prompted by the Biden Administration, to promote “open and decentralized banking” through the proposal of a Personal Financial Data Rights rule designed to facilitate the transfer of customer information at the direction of the customer to other financial institutions could lead to greater
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competition for products and services among banks and non-banks alike if a final rule is adopted. The timing of and prospects for any such action are uncertain at this time. The loss of these revenue streams and the higher cost of deposits as a source of funds could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
An interruption in or breach in security of our information systems, or other cybersecurity risks, could result in a loss of customer business, increased compliance and remediation costs, civil litigation or governmental regulatory action, and have an adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
As part of our business, we collect, process and retain sensitive and confidential client and customer information in both paper and electronic form and rely heavily on communications and information systems for these functions. This information includes non-public, personally-identifiable information that is protected under applicable federal and state laws and regulations. Additionally, certain of these data processing functions are not handled by us directly, but are outsourced to third-party providers. We have experienced cyber-attacks in the past, none of which have had a material impact on our business or operations, and expect to continue to be the target of cyber-attacks. Our current facilities and systems, as well as those of our third-party service providers, may be vulnerable to security breaches, acts of vandalism and other physical security threats, computer viruses or compromises, ransomware attacks, misplaced or lost data, programming and/or human errors or other similar events. While we have policies, procedures and practices designed to prevent or limit the effect of the failure, interruption, or security breach of our communications and information systems, we cannot completely ensure that any such failures, interruptions, or security breaches will not occur or, if they do occur, that they will be adequately addressed. Any security breach involving the misappropriation, loss or other unauthorized disclosure of our confidential business, employee or customer information, whether originating with us, our vendors or retail businesses, could severely damage our reputation, expose us to the risks of civil litigation and liability, require the payment of regulatory fines or penalties or undertaking of costly remediation efforts with respect to third parties affected by a security breach, disrupt our operations, and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The cost of our day-to-day cybersecurity monitoring and protection systems and controls may increase over time. We may also need to expend substantial resources to comply with the data security breach notification requirements adopted by banking regulators and the states, which have varying levels of individual, consumer, regulatory or law enforcement notification and remediation requirements in certain circumstances in the event of a security breach.
Cybersecurity risks appear to be growing and, as a result, the cyber-resilience of banking organizations is of increased importance to federal and state banking agencies and other regulators. New or revised laws and regulations may significantly impact our current and planned privacy, data protection and information security-related practices, the collection, use, sharing, retention and safeguarding of consumer and employee information, and current or planned business activities. Compliance with current, proposed, or future privacy, data protection and information security laws to which we are subject could result in higher compliance and technology costs and could restrict our ability to provide certain products and services, which could materially and adversely affect our profitability.
As technology advances, the ability and speed to initiate transactions and access data has also become more widely distributed among mobile devices, personal computers, automated teller machines, remote deposit capture sites and similar access points, some of which are not controlled or secured by us. It is possible that we could have exposure to liability and suffer losses as a result of a security breach or cyber-attack that occurred through no fault of ours. Although we maintain specific “cyber” insurance coverage, the amount or form of coverage may not be adequate in any particular case. As cyber threats continue to evolve and increase, we may be required to spend significant additional resources to continue to modify or enhance our protective and preventative measures or to investigate and remediate any information security vulnerabilities.
Our day-to-day operations rely heavily on the proper functioning of products, information systems and services provided by third-party, external vendors.
We rely on certain external vendors to provide products, information systems and services necessary, including our core processing system, to maintain our day-to-day operations. These third parties provide key components of our business operations such as data processing, recording and monitoring transactions, online banking interfaces and services, Internet connections and network access. Any complications caused by these third parties, including those resulting from disruptions in communication services provided by a vendor, failure of a vendor to handle current or higher volumes, cyber-attacks and security breaches at a vendor (including zero-day attacks associated with vulnerabilities in third-party software that were not previously known), failure of a vendor to comply with applicable laws and regulations or to conform to our internal controls and risk management procedures, and failure of a vendor to provide services for any reason or poor performance of services, could adversely affect our ability to deliver products and services to our customers and otherwise conduct our business.

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There may be risks resulting from the extensive use of models in our business.
We rely on quantitative models to measure risks and to estimate certain financial values. Models may be used in such processes as determining the pricing of various products, developing presentations made to market analysts and others, creating loans and extending credit, measuring interest rate and other market risks, predicting losses, assessing capital adequacy, developing strategic planning initiatives, capital stress testing and calculating regulatory capital levels, as well as to estimate the value of financial instruments and Balance Sheet items. Poorly designed or implemented models present the risk that our business decisions based on information incorporating models will be adversely affected due to the inadequacy of such information. Also, information we provide to the public or to our regulators based on poorly designed or implemented models could be inaccurate or misleading. Certain decisions that the regulators make, including those related to capital distributions and dividends to our stockholders, could be adversely affected due to the regulator’s perception that the quality of the models used to generate our relevant information is insufficient.
Our asset valuations may include methodologies, estimations and assumptions that are subject to differing interpretations and this, along with market factors such as volatility in one or more markets or industries, could result in changes to asset valuations that may materially adversely affect our results of operations or financial condition.
We must use estimates, assumptions and judgments when assets are measured and reported at fair value. Assets carried at fair value inherently result in a higher degree of financial statement volatility. Because the assets are carried at fair value, a decline in their value may cause us to incur losses even if the assets in question present minimal risk. Fair values and information used to record valuation adjustments for certain assets and liabilities are based on quoted market prices and/or other observable inputs provided by independent third-party resources, when available. When such third-party information is not available, we estimate fair value primarily by using cash flow and other financial modeling techniques utilizing assumptions such as credit quality, liquidity, interest rates and other relevant inputs. Changes in underlying factors or assumptions in any of the areas underlying these estimates could materially impact our future financial condition and results of operations.
Hurricanes, tornadoes, excessive rainfall, droughts or other adverse weather events, and public health emergencies could negatively affect the local economies in the markets of our footprint, or disrupt our operations in those markets, which could have an adverse effect on our business or results of operations.
The economy of the markets in our footprint is affected, from time to time, by adverse weather events and other disruptions, including as a result of public health issues. We cannot predict whether, or to what extent, damage caused by future weather conditions or other disruptions will affect our operations, customers or the economies in our markets. Weather events could cause a disruption in our day-to-day business activities in branches within our markets, a decline in loan originations, destruction or decline in the value of properties securing our loans, or an increase in the risks of delinquencies, foreclosures, and loan losses. Even if a weather event does not cause any physical damage in our markets, it could affect the market value of property within our footprint, particularly agricultural interests, which are highly sensitive to excessive rainfall or droughts.
6. Legal and Compliance Risk
Fiscal challenges facing the U.S. government could negatively impact financial markets which in turn could have an adverse effect on our financial position or results of operations.
A U.S. government debt default, threatened or wide spread perception of a potential debt default, or downgrade of the sovereign credit ratings of the U.S. by credit rating agencies, could have an adverse impact on financial markets, interest rates and economic conditions in the U.S. and worldwide.
Federal budget deficit concerns and the potential for political conflict over legislation to fund U.S. government operations and raise the U.S. government's debt limit may increase the possibility of a default by the U.S. government on its debt obligations, related credit-rating downgrades, or an economic recession in the U.S. Many of our investment securities are issued by the U.S. government and government agencies and sponsored entities. As a result of uncertain domestic political conditions, including potential future federal government shutdowns, possible reductions in federal government spending, and the possibility of the federal government defaulting on its obligations for a period of time, investments in financial instruments issued or guaranteed by the federal government pose liquidity risks. A further downgrade, or a downgrade by other rating agencies, as well as sovereign debt issues facing the governments of other countries, could have a material adverse impact on financial markets and economic conditions in the U.S. and worldwide.
In addition to affecting the price and liquidity of U.S. government securities, a government default or threat of default could disrupt the market for or affect the pricing of repurchase agreements in U.S. government securities (Repos) a type of secured financing transaction used by many financial institutions, including FNBPA, to manage short-term funding needs, invest short-term cash balances and manage inventories of government securities. Overnight rates on Repo transactions are used by the
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FRB to calculate SOFR. A disruption in the Repo markets could affect interest rates paid on SOFR-benchmarked loans and payments on swaps and other financial contracts that use SOFR as a benchmark rate.
A debt default or further downgrades to the U.S. government’s sovereign credit rating or its perceived creditworthiness could also adversely affect the ability of the U.S. government to support the financial stability of Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac and the FHLBs, with which we do business, obtains financing, engages with for sales of mortgages, and in whose securities we invest.
Our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected by changes in federal, state or local tax rules and regulations, or interpretations.
We are subject to legislative tax rate changes that could increase our effective tax rates. Depending on enactment dates, these law changes may be retroactive to previous periods which could negatively affect our current and future financial performance.
Our future effective tax rates could be affected by additional changes in the federal tax rates and in tax rates in jurisdictions where our income is earned, by changes in or our interpretation of tax rules and regulations in the jurisdictions in which we do business, by unexpected negative changes in business and market conditions that could reduce certain tax benefits, or by changes in the valuation of our DTAs and DTLs. Changes in statutory tax rates or DTAs and DTLs may adversely affect our profitability and results of operations in future periods.
Our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected by changes in accounting policies, standards and interpretations.
The FASB, regulatory agencies and other bodies that establish accounting standards periodically change the financial accounting and reporting standards governing the preparation of our financial statements. Additionally, those bodies that establish and interpret the accounting standards (such as the FASB, SEC and banking regulators) may change prior interpretations or positions on how these standards should be applied. Changes resulting from these new standards may result in materially different financial results and may require that we change how we process, analyze and report financial information and that we change financial reporting controls.
Climate change and related legislative and regulatory initiatives may result in operational changes and expenditures that could significantly impact our business.
The current and anticipated effects of climate change are creating an increasing level of concern for the state of the global environment. The U.S. Congress, state legislatures and federal and state regulatory agencies have continued to propose and advance numerous legislative and regulatory initiatives seeking to mitigate the effects of climate change. Such initiatives have been pursued with rigor under the current Presidential Administration. The leadership of the federal banking agencies, including the FRB and the OCC, have emphasized that their supervisory charge is not to regulate climate concerns, but rather focus on climate-related risks that are faced by banking organizations of all types and sizes, specifically including physical and transition risks, and are in the process of enhancing supervisory expectations through the implementation of climate related regulations and guidelines governing banks' risk management practices, which will likely result in increased compliance costs and other compliance-related risks.
The above measures may also result in the imposition of taxes and fees, the required purchase of emission credits, and the implementation of significant operational changes, each of which may require us to expend significant capital and incur compliance, operating, maintenance and remediation costs. Given the lack of empirical data on the credit and other financial risks posed by climate change, it is impossible to predict how climate change may impact our financial condition and operations; however, as a banking organization, the physical effects of climate change may present certain unique risks to us.
Additionally, in March 2022, the SEC proposed new climate-related disclosure rules, which if adopted, would require new climate-related disclosures in SEC filings and audited financial statements. If adopted, these rules would impose increased costs, which could materially and adversely affect our financial performance.
We could be adversely affected by changes in the law, especially changes in the regulation of the banking industry.
We operate in a highly regulated environment and our businesses are subject to supervision, regulation, enforcement and prosecution by numerous governmental agencies, including at the federal and state levels. Regulations are generally intended to provide protection for depositors, borrowers and other customers, as well as the stability of the financial services industry, rather than for investors in our securities. We are subject to changes in federal and state law, regulations, governmental policies, agency supervisory and enforcement policies and priorities, and tax laws and accounting principles. Changes in regulations or the regulatory environment could adversely affect the banking and financial services industry as a whole and could limit our growth and the return to investors by restricting such activities as, the payment of dividends and stock repurchases, balance sheet growth, investments, loans and interest rates, assessments of fees, such as overdraft and interchange fees, the provision of
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securities, insurance, brokerage or trust services, mergers with or acquisitions of other institutions or branches, the types of deposit and non-deposit activities in which our subsidiaries may engage, and offering of new products and services.
Under regulatory capital adequacy guidelines and other regulatory requirements, FNB and FNBPA must meet guidelines subject to qualitative judgments by regulators about components, risk weightings and other factors. On July 27, 2023, the federal banking agencies, including the OCC, issued a proposed rule to implement the final components of the Basel III standards. Among other things, the proposed rule would substantially change the existing calculation of risk-weighted assets and require banking organizations to use revised models for such calculations. While the proposed rule would not apply to FNB or FNBPA directly based upon our current asset size, many of the principles included in this proposed rulemaking could result in increased supervisory expectations and closer regulatory scrutiny for institutions that experience substantial growth. For example, the proposed rule would add back the impact of AOCI (loss) to the calculation of regulatory capital for institutions above $100 billion in assets and institutions below that threshold would be subject to federal banking agencies' discretion to require institutions to have higher capital cushions to address a variety of supervisory concerns, which may include a high level of AOCI (loss). Changes to present capital and liquidity requirements could restrict our activities and require us to maintain additional capital. Compliance with heightened capital standards may reduce our ability to generate or originate revenue-producing assets and thereby restrict revenue generation from banking and non-banking operations. If we fail to meet these minimum capital guidelines and other regulatory requirements, our financial condition would be materially and adversely affected.
In response to several large bank failures in the spring of 2023, the federal banking agencies have engaged in rulemaking that likely will significantly increase compliance costs should we grow in excess of $50 billion in assets.
Our overdraft protection programs and corresponding revenue may be impacted by possible new federal regulatory requirements or scrutiny or industry trends regarding such practices.
Members of Congress and the leadership of the OCC, FDIC and CFPB have expressed a heightened interest in bank overdraft protection programs. The CFPB has used its supervision process to obtain additional information about financial institutions’ overdraft practices and has indicated that it intends to pursue enforcement actions against financial institutions, and their executives, that oversee overdraft practices that are deemed to be unlawful. The CFPB also has published guidance containing instructions for financial institutions to avoid the imposition of unlawful overdraft fees. In January 2024, the CFPB proposed two rules addressing financial institutions’ consumer overdraft and non-sufficient funds (NSF) fee practices by narrowing an existing exemption from the Truth in Lending Act (Regulation Z) for the extension of overdraft credit, thereby subjecting overdraft credit to disclosure and other regulatory compliance obligations, and under those authorities prohibiting the imposition of NSF fees on transactions that are declined instantaneously or near-instantaneously. Further, in 2023, the CFPB brought enforcement actions and imposed substantial civil money penalties against certain financial institutions for overdraft practices and inadequate disclosures that the CFPB alleged to be unlawful and inadequately disclosed for, among other things, systematically and repeatedly charging fees to customers with insufficient funds in their accounts, charging overdraft fees without proper consent, and misleading customers about the terms and costs of overdraft coverage. Each of these actions is part of the CFPB’s broader supervision and enforcement initiative targeting so-called consumer “junk fees.”
In addition, the OCC issued a bulletin in April 2023 to address the risks associated with national banks’ overdraft protection programs and overdraft fees. Specifically, the OCC noted in the bulletin that “authorize positive, settle negative” (APSN) transaction and representment fee practices may present a heightened risk of violations of Section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act of 2010, which prohibits unfair, deceptive, or abusive acts or practices. An APSN transaction refers to the practice of assessing overdraft fees on debit card transactions that authorize when a customer’s available balance is positive but later post to the account when the available balance is negative. Representment fees refer to assessing an additional fee each time a third party submits the same transaction for payment after a bank returns the transaction for non-sufficient funds. The OCC further noted that banks should establish and maintain sound risk management of overdraft protection programs by establishing effective board and management oversight and appropriate procedures and practices for managing risks associated with overdraft protection programs.
In response to this increased governmental scrutiny of the financial services industry, and in anticipation of possible enhanced supervision and enforcement of overdraft protection practices in the future, certain banking organizations including FNB have modified their overdraft protection programs, including by discontinuing the imposition of overdraft transaction fees. These competitive pressures from our peers, as well as any adoption by our regulators of new rules or supervisory guidance, including the new rules proposed by the CFPB, or more aggressive examination and enforcement policies in respect of banks’ overdraft protection practices, could cause us to modify our program and practices in ways that may have a negative impact on our revenue and earnings. In addition, as supervisory expectations and industry practices regarding overdraft protection programs change, our continued offering of overdraft protection may result in negative public opinion and increased reputation risk. Despite our effort to modify our overdraft practices to conform to recent regulatory guidance and expectations, and industry
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practices, we may remain subject to regulatory criticism or potential enforcement action, particularly in view of the CFPB's aggressive interpretations and guidance regarding bank overdraft practices, and potentially subject to negative public reaction through our continued offering of certain of these products and services.
Certain provisions of our Articles of Incorporation and By-laws and Pennsylvania law may discourage takeovers.
Our Articles of Incorporation and By-laws contain certain anti-takeover provisions that may discourage or may make more difficult or expensive a tender offer, change in control or takeover attempt that is opposed by our Board of Directors. In particular, our Articles of Incorporation and By-laws:
require shareholders to give us advance notice to nominate candidates for election to our Board of Directors or to solicit proxies in support of such candidates, or to make shareholder proposals at a shareholders’ meeting;
permit our Board of Directors to issue, without approval of our common shareholders unless otherwise required by law, preferred stock with such terms as our Board of Directors may determine;
require the vote of the holders of at least 75% of our voting shares for shareholder amendments to our By-laws;
in the case of a proposed business combination with a shareholder owning 10% or more of the voting shares of FNB, the vote of the holders of at least two-thirds of the voting shares not owned by such shareholder is required to approve the business combination, unless it is approved by a majority of FNB’s disinterested directors.
Under Pennsylvania law, only shareholders holding at least 25% of a corporation’s outstanding stock may call a special meeting for any purpose. In addition, Pennsylvania law provides that in discharging their duties, including in the context of a takeover attempt, the board of directors, committees of the board and individual directors may consider a broad range of factors as they deem pertinent, which may include but is not limited to shareholders’ interests, in considering the best interests of the corporation.
These provisions of our Articles of Incorporation and By-laws and of Pennsylvania law could discourage potential acquisition proposals and could delay or prevent a change in control, even though the holders of a majority of our stock may consider such proposals desirable. Such provisions could also make it more difficult for third parties to remove and replace members of our Board of Directors. Moreover, these provisions could diminish the opportunities for shareholders to participate in certain tender offers, including tender offers at prices above the then-current market price of our common stock, and may also inhibit increases in the trading price of our common stock that could result from takeover attempts.
Volatility in the banking sector, triggered by the failures of Silicon Valley Bank, Signature Bank and First Republic Bank, has resulted in agency rulemaking activities and changes in agency policies and priorities that could subject FNB and FNBPA to enhanced government regulation and supervision.
On March 10, 2023, Silicon Valley Bank (SIVB) was closed by the California Department of Financial Protection and Innovation (the CDFPI). Two days later, on March 12, 2023, Signature Bank (SBNY) also failed. Nearly two months later, on May 1, 2023, First Republic Bank (FRC) was closed by the CDFPI. In each case, the FDIC was appointed as receiver. Each of these institutions experienced significant deposit losses in the run-up to their ultimate failures. Investor and customer confidence in the banking sector—particularly with regard to mid-size and larger regional banking organizations—waned in response to these failures.
Further evaluation of recent developments in the banking sector has led to governmental initiatives intended to prevent future bank failures and stem significant deposit outflows from the banking sector, including (i) agency rulemaking to modify and enhance relevant regulatory requirements, specifically with respect to liquidity risk management, deposit concentrations, capital adequacy, stress testing and contingency planning, and safe and sound banking practices; and (ii) enhancement of the agencies’ supervision and examination policies and priorities. Examiners at the federal banking agencies generally have increased their focus on levels of uninsured deposits, liquidity and contingency funding plans.
We cannot predict with certainty which proposed rules will be adopted or if other initiatives may be pursued by lawmakers and agency leadership, nor can we predict the terms and scope of any such initiatives, including whether we would be impacted. However, any of the proposed or potential changes could, among other things, subject us to additional costs, limit the types of financial services and products we may offer, and limit our future growth, any of which could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations or financial condition.

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The proportion of our deposit account balances that exceed FDIC insurance limits may expose FNBPA to enhanced liquidity risk in times of financial distress.
In the wake of the failures of SIVB, SBNY, and FRC, which the FDIC concluded were generated by, in significant part, a high volume of uninsured deposits, many large depositors across the industry have withdrawn deposits in excess of applicable deposit insurance limits and deposited these funds in other financial institutions. In many instances, depositors moved these funds into money market mutual funds or other similar securities accounts in an effort to diversify the risk of further bank failure(s).
Uninsured deposits historically have been viewed by the FDIC as less stable than insured deposits. The federal banking agencies, including the FDIC and OCC, issued an interagency policy statement in July 2023, noting that banks should maintain actionable contingency funding plans that take into account a range of possible stress scenarios, assess the stability of their funding and maintain a broad range of funding sources, ensure that collateral is available for borrowing, and review and revise contingency funding plans periodically and more frequently as market conditions and strategic initiatives change.
If a significant portion of our deposits were to be withdrawn within a short period of time such that additional sources of funding would be required to meet withdrawal demands, we may be unable to obtain funding at favorable terms, which may have an adverse effect on our net interest margin. Moreover, obtaining adequate funding to meet our deposit obligations may be more challenging during periods of elevated prevailing interest rates, such as the present period. Our ability to attract depositors during a time of actual or perceived distress or instability in the marketplace may be limited. Further, interest rates paid for borrowings generally exceed the interest rates paid on deposits. This spread may be exacerbated by higher prevailing interest rates. In addition, because our AFS investment securities lose value when interest rates rise, after-tax proceeds resulting from the sale of such assets may be diminished during periods when interest rates are elevated. Under such circumstances, we may be required to access funding from sources such as the Federal Reserve’s discount window in order to manage our liquidity risk.
We have experienced increases in our FDIC insurance assessments due to the bank failures that occurred in 2023.
The losses incurred by the DIF in connection with the resolution of SIVB and SBNY are required by law to be recovered through one or more special assessments on depository institutions and, potentially, their holding companies if the FDIC determines such action to be appropriate and the Secretary of the UST concurs with the FDIC’s determination. On November 16, 2023, the FDIC issued its final rule that would impose such special assessments. There is the possibility for the FDIC to impose a one-time shortfall special assessment. This will occur if the total amount collected by the FDIC special assessment does not meet the final loss amounts of SIVB and SBNY after the termination of the receiverships. FNBPA had uninsured deposits of $16.1 billion as of December 31, 2022, and we accrued and expensed a special assessment of $29.9 million based on the assessment base of $11.1 billion, which excludes the first $5 billion of FNBPA’s uninsured deposits as of December 31, 2022. Although we cannot predict if there will be a subsequent shortfall after the eight quarters, any additional increase in our assessment fees could have a materially adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
Adverse changes to our credit ratings could limit our access to funding and increase our borrowing costs.
Credit ratings are subject to ongoing review by rating agencies, which consider a number of factors, including our financial strength, performance, prospects and operations as well as factors not under our control. Other factors that influence our credit ratings include changes to the rating agencies’ methodologies for our industry or certain security types; the rating agencies’ assessment of the general operating environment for financial services companies; our relative positions in the markets in which we compete; our various risk exposures and risk management policies and activities; pending litigation and other contingencies; our reputation; our liquidity position, diversity of funding sources and funding costs; the current and expected level and volatility of our earnings; our capital position and capital management practices; our corporate governance; current or future regulatory and legislative initiatives; and the agencies’ views on whether the U.S. government would provide meaningful support to FNB or its subsidiaries in a crisis. Rating agencies could make adjustments to our credit ratings at any time, and there can be no assurance that they will maintain our ratings at current levels or that downgrades will not occur.
Any downgrade in our credit ratings could potentially adversely affect the cost and other terms upon which we are able to borrow or obtain funding, increase our cost of capital and/or limit our access to capital markets. Credit rating downgrades or negative watch warnings could negatively impact our reputation with lenders, investors and other third parties, which could also impair our ability to compete in certain markets or engage in certain transactions. In particular, holders of deposits which exceed FDIC insurance limits may perceive such a downgrade or warning negatively and withdraw all or a portion of such deposits. While certain aspects of a credit rating downgrade are quantifiable, the impact that such a downgrade would have on our liquidity, business and results of operations in future periods is inherently uncertain and would depend on a number of interrelated factors, including, among other things, the magnitude of the downgrade, the rating relative to peers, the rating assigned by the relevant agency pre-downgrade, individual client behavior and future mitigating actions we might take.
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We are subject to supervision and examination by U.S. government authorities and may become subject to investigations, enforcement actions, fines, and other adverse effects.
The federal banking agencies, including the OCC, the CFPB, as well as the DOJ, have in recent years adopted a more aggressive enforcement posture in line with general enforcement priorities - specifically with respect to consumer protection issues and anti-discrimination lending laws. These government agencies have expressed a heightened interest in fair lending and loan servicing, mortgage loan origination and mortgage loan servicing, bank and financial institution sales practices, management of consumer accounts and the charging of overdraft and various other fees, fair credit reporting, predatory lending, debt collection, and meaningful disclosure of credit and savings terms, among others, and perform periodic reviews, examinations, and investigations in these areas. An adverse finding or outcome of any such review, examination, or investigation that involves an assertion of regulatory noncompliance or a violation of law could result in possible fines, penalties, restitution, or other forms of remediation that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, or reputation.
Further evaluation of recent developments after the failures of SIVB, SBNY, and FRC may lead to legislative and regulatory initiatives intended to prevent future bank failures, raise capital requirements and stem significant deposit outflows from the banking sector. Although we cannot predict with certainty which initiatives may be pursued by lawmakers and agency leadership, nor can we predict the terms and scope of any such initiatives, any potential changes could, among other things, subject us to additional costs and capital requirements, limit the types of financial services and products we may offer, and limit our future growth, any of which could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations or financial condition.
We are subject to the CRA and fair lending laws, and failure to comply with these laws could lead to material penalties.
The CRA, the Equal Credit Opportunity Act (ECOA), the Fair Housing Act and other fair lending laws and regulations impose nondiscriminatory lending requirements on financial institutions. The CRA requires the OCC, in connection with its examination of a national bank, to assess the institution’s record of meeting the credit needs of its community and to take such record into account in its evaluation of certain applications by such institution. All institutions insured by the FDIC must publicly disclose their rating. On October 24, 2023, the federal banking agencies issued a joint final rule to revise the regulations implementing CRA. FNBPA is considered a “large bank” under the final rule and therefore will be evaluated under new lending, retail services and products, community development financing and community development services tests in respect of our compliance with the statute and rule. The final rule also imposes certain data reporting requirements that will apply to FNBPA. As we prepare for implementation of the final rule, we expect to incur increased compliance costs, and we may be exposed to compliance-related risks after the final rule has been implemented in full.
The fair lending laws prohibit discrimination in the provision of banking services on the basis of prohibited factors including, among others, race, color, national origin, gender, and religion. The enforcement of these laws has been an increasing focus for the CFPB and other regulators. Of note, in March 2022, the Director of the CFPB has indicated that the CFPB will prioritize enforcement of ECOA, as implemented by the CFPB’s Regulation B, which prohibits discrimination in any aspect of a credit transaction, by revising its Supervision and Examination Manual to explicitly incorporate anti-discrimination considerations in respect of evaluations of potential unfair, deceptive, or abusive acts and practices (UDAAPs). The CFPB’s action represents not only a continuation of the agency’s commitment to a more aggressive enforcement approach, but also a shift in supervision and examination policy and procedure that may result in the commencement of enforcement actions against financial institutions involving a broader range of cited violations of the federal consumer financial laws and expanded allegations of UDAAPs.
Under the fair lending laws, we may be liable if our policies result in a disparate treatment of or have a disparate impact on a protected class of applicants or borrowers and may also be subject to investigation by the DOJ. A successful challenge to our institution’s performance under the CRA or fair lending laws and regulations could result in a wide variety of sanctions, including the required payment of damages and civil money penalties, injunctive relief, imposition of restrictions on mergers and acquisitions activity and restrictions on expansion activity. Private parties may also have the ability to challenge our performance under fair lending laws in private class action litigation.
The consent orders entered into by FNBPA with the DOJ and the North Carolina State Department of Justice will cause us to incur additional compliance costs, may harm our reputation and may restrict our ability to engage in certain business activities and transactions, and our failure to comply with the terms of such consent orders may subject us to further enforcement actions.
On February 5, 2024, FNBPA announced its entry into consent orders (together, the "Consent Orders") with the DOJ and the North Carolina State Department of Justice. The Consent Orders resolve allegations that, from 2017 to 2021, FNBPA—including as a successor in interest to Yadkin Bank, which FNBPA acquired in 2017, committed violations of the Fair Housing Act and the Equal Credit Opportunity Act (Regulation B), as well as the North Carolina Unfair and Deceptive Practices Act,
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within the Charlotte, North Carolina, and Winston-Salem, North Carolina assessment areas. The Consent Orders were approved by the U.S. District Court for the Middle District of North Carolina on February 13, 2024.
We are committed to full compliance with the Consent Orders; however, achieving such compliance will require attention from our management, and will cause us to bear costs to implement their terms. Actions taken to achieve compliance with the Consent Orders may affect our business or financial performance, and may require us to reallocate resources away from existing operations or to alter our business practices, operations, products and services, and risk management practices. Our failure to comply with the requirements of the Consent Orders could cause us to incur additional significant compliance costs or subject us to additional enforcement action, and any deficiencies in our compliance practices, as well as the terms of the Consent Orders, could result in additional inquiries, investigations or enforcement actions. Further, the existence of the Consent Orders may adversely affect our reputation in the communities we serve and among third parties with which we conduct business.
Under the current regulatory framework governing proposed business combinations, an institution’s compliance with the fair lending laws and whether it is subject to an open or pending enforcement action are significant factors for the federal banking agencies in determining whether a proposed transaction is consistent with safe and sound banking principles. Further, the OCC has announced a proposed rule to amend and enhance its regulatory framework for review of proposed national bank merger transactions under the Bank Merger Act (BMA). Under the OCC’s proposed rule, the OCC staff is unlikely to view a proposed merger transaction involving an acquirer with an open or pending fair lending enforcement action as being consistent with approval under the BMA. Although the Consent Orders constitute the resolution of open enforcement actions, under the OCC’s proposed rule ongoing compliance in a timely manner with the Consent Orders would be an important factor in the OCC’s evaluation of any proposed transaction we may present to the OCC for approval. The Consent Orders will be in effect for a minimum of five years, which term could be longer depending upon the extent and timing of the requisite loan subsidies that will be paid by FNBPA to qualified applicants. Accordingly, if the OCC’s proposed rule is adopted as proposed, our ability to pursue strategic growth initiatives involving combinations with other banking organizations may be substantially limited. As a result, should we pursue future bank acquisitions, we expect the bank regulatory approval process to be prolonged and more costly than we have experienced in the past, which restrictions could materially adversely affect our business, results of operation and financial condition.
7. Strategic Risk
If we are not able to continue our historical levels of growth, we may not be able to maintain our historical revenue trends.
To achieve our past levels of growth, we have focused on both organic growth and acquisitions. We may not be able to sustain our historical rate of growth or may not be able to grow at all. More specifically, we may not be able to obtain the financing necessary to fund additional growth. Various factors, such as economic conditions, regulatory and other governmental concerns and competition, may impede or prohibit the opening of new retail branches or optimizing our existing branch network. If we are not able to continue our historical levels of growth, we may not be able to maintain our historical revenue trends.
On January 29, 2024, the OCC announced a proposed rule to amend the procedures and principles followed by the OCC when reviewing proposed national bank merger transactions under the BMA. If adopted as proposed, the proposed rule would eliminate existing regulatory procedures under the OCC’s regulations providing for expedited review and streamlining of BMA applications for acquiring institutions that meet certain minimum qualifications and implement certain principles to be followed by the OCC when reviewing applications under the BMA. Such principles would, among other things, establish indicators of proposed transactions that generally are consistent with regulatory approval, as well as those that raise supervisory or regulatory concerns and therefore would require applicants to address or remediate specific areas of concern in order to secure regulatory approval. Of note, any transaction whereby the resulting institution would have combined assets of $50 billion or more would not be generally consistent with regulatory approval, nor would any transaction for which the applicant has insufficient CRA or examination ratings, is the subject of an open or pending BSA/anti-money laundering (AML) or fair lending enforcement action, or has failed to comply with the terms of an existing enforcement action. In such cases, BMA applications would be subject to additional scrutiny and are more likely to involve extended processing periods and/or result in denials of approval or regulatory requests to withdraw the application. The proposed rule is subject to a public comment period and the timing and prospects for the adoption by the OCC of a final rule are not certain at this time. If the proposed rule is adopted as proposed, our ability to further grow through bank acquisitions may be substantially limited based upon our current asset size and the recent consent orders entered into by FNBPA with the DOJ and the North Carolina State Department of Justice to resolve allegations of fair lending violations. Further, should we pursue future bank acquisitions, we expect the bank regulatory approval process to be prolonged and more costly than we have experienced in the past.
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ITEM 1B.    UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
NONE.
ITEM 1C.    CYBERSECURITY
The Information Security Department reports to the Chief Information Security Officer and then directly to the Chief Risk Officer, to ensure the coordinated and consistent implementation of risk management initiatives and strategies on a day-to-day basis. Results of the information and cybersecurity efforts and recommendations are reported to the Risk Management Council no less than quarterly which is then shared with the Board Risk Committee. The Board Risk Committee is primarily responsible for overseeing risk management, including risks associated with cybersecurity and potential threats thereto. Our management is directly involved in assessing and managing cybersecurity risks. As noted, we employ a Chief Risk Officer, along with information security personnel in our Information Security Department. The Chief Risk Officer regularly reports to our Risk Management Council, which is comprised of our senior leadership. See “Risk Management” in section of MD&A for an overview of our risk management framework.
The Information Security Department uses the National Institute of Standards and Technology framework for improving critical infrastructure by measuring and evaluating the effectiveness of information and cybersecurity controls. We have various processes for risk assessment, vulnerability management, threat management, independent penetration testing, security architecture, access management, network security management, security event monitoring and security awareness. Certain processes involve the use of third parties. A summary of each process is below.
Risk Assessment Process. On an annual basis, a risk assessment and maturity analysis is performed for the FNB environment based on the NIST CSF Framework. The risk assessment takes into consideration a combination of risks related to the identification, prevention, detection, response, and recovery from cyber events. The risk assessment considers the inherent risk and controls implemented in the FNB environment and measures the residual risk to ensure it is within the FNB risk tolerance.
Vulnerability Management Process. Regular internal and external vulnerability scanning is conducted at varying intervals to proactively identify configuration weaknesses, missing patches and other vulnerabilities in the FNB information systems environment. Identified vulnerabilities are classified and scored based on their Common Vulnerability Scoring System or CVSS score, known exploitation or malware impacting the vulnerability, and the age in the environment. We prioritize the patching of critical and severe vulnerabilities.
Threat Management Process. In addition to the regular and routine vulnerability scanning, FNB relies on various threat intelligence feeds for the identification and awareness of potential threats that could impact the FNB environment. Using third party vendors to assist, threats are integrated into our monitoring solutions, email filtering, web-browsing controls, malware detection, and perimeter firewalls to proactively prevent, detect and deter threats with the capability to impact the FNB environment.
Independent Penetration Testing. On an annual basis, we engage with an independent third-party provider to perform various penetration tests of the environment. The penetration tests look at our customer facing applications, how we respond to social engineering activities, overall external attack surface and internal vulnerabilities. Issues identified from the penetration tests are tracked and escalated to ensure appropriate remediation occurs before closure.
Security Architecture. To ensure the secure configuration, design, and implementation of our internally hosted and third-party hosted systems, security architecture reviews are conducted. The architecture reviews entail a series of questions. These questions are reviewed with internal IT and third-party vendor contacts to ensure the implementation is meeting policies, is configured with strong security practices, and utilizes appropriate access controls.
Access Management. Utilizing a least privilege, need-to-know access methodology, access is controlled through a centralized user access management function responsible for the provisioning, transfer and deprovisioning of users’ access. Access management also performs routine reviews of application and systems access to ensure access remains appropriate. For third-party hosted environments, access management works with security architecture to ensure single sign-on controls are employed or additional factors are utilized to prevent unauthorized access to these environments.
Network Security Management. The security of the FNB network infrastructure is maintained via
internal and perimeter firewalls with intrusion detection,
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the use of some network segmentation to isolate access to certain applications and systems,
VLANs or virtual local area networks,
email filtering to identify spam, malware, and phishing messages in received email messages,
malware detection,
data loss prevention controls to prevent the theft, or mass exfiltration of data,
Virtual Private Networks (VPN) to control remote access to our network,
intrusion detection capabilities,
network access controls (NAC) to prevent unauthorized assets from connecting to the network, and
web filtering.
Security Event Monitoring. A centralized security monitoring team is responsible for the response to alerts generated from a consolidated log collection system. Log collection occurs from various assets and hosted environments. The monitoring tool is third-party provided SIEM, and enables threat identification, detects suspicious activity in the environment using the MITRE Att&ck® framework, performs user behavior analytics, and endpoint detection and response. Alerts are investigated to ascertain whether a cyber incident is occurring or not.
Security Awareness. Annual training is conducted for continuing education for all employees. Routine phishing tests are administered routinely. We also post articles on our intranet of common attack schemes for our employee’s awareness.
We have a Vendor Management department that established policies and procedures to follow when utilizing external third-parties. Third-party vendors are thoroughly vetted, approved and inventoried before partnership begins. Vendor Management ensures key risk components are mitigated based on acceptable Company standards. Any third parties used in any cybersecurity processes are vetted through our vendor management process.
Risks from Cybersecurity threats or previous incidents have not materially affected business strategy, results of operations, or financial condition.
See cybersecurity risk factors in Item 1A. Risk Factors.
ITEM 2.    PROPERTIES
Our corporate headquarters are located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The Pittsburgh headquarters, which are leased, are also occupied by employees of the Community Banking, Wealth Management and Insurance segments, including customer support and operations personnel. We also lease office space for regional headquarters in the Cleveland, Ohio, Baltimore, Maryland, and Raleigh, Charlotte and Greensboro, North Carolina markets. In Hermitage, Pennsylvania, we continue to maintain administrative offices, as well as offices for personnel of the Community Banking and Wealth Management segments, in a six-story office building, and a data processing and technology center in a two-story office building, both of which are owned by us. Additionally, we lease other office space in Harrisburg and Hermitage, Pennsylvania, and in Raleigh, North Carolina which houses various support departments.
The operating leases for the branches/retail offices of the Community Banking segment expire at various dates through the year 2051 and generally include options to renew. We have other operating leases that have not commenced, including the lease, with a related party, of the future new FNB headquarters building in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. During 2023, several floors of the FNB headquarters building have been made available to FNB for the purpose of constructing our office spaces, and we commenced the lease of those floors. For additional information regarding the lease commitments, see Note 11, “Leases” in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, which is included in Item 8 of this Report.
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Following is a table that shows the branches/retail offices, by state, and the branches/retail offices owned and leased for the Community Banking segment:
December 31, 2023Community Banking
Pennsylvania184 
Ohio27 
Maryland31 
West Virginia
North Carolina93 
South Carolina
Washington, D.C.
Virginia
Total number of branches/retail offices346 
Total branches/retail offices owned192 
Total branches/retail offices leased154 
ITEM 3.    LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
We are involved in various pending and threatened legal proceedings in which claims for monetary damages and other relief are asserted. These claims result from ordinary business activities relating to our current and/or former operations. Although the ultimate outcome for any asserted claim cannot be predicted with certainty, we believe that we have valid defenses for all asserted claims. In accordance with applicable accounting guidance, when a loss is considered probable and reasonably estimable, we, in conjunction with internal and outside counsel handling the matter, record a liability in the amount of our best estimate for the ultimate loss. We continue to monitor the matter for further developments that could affect the amount of the accrued liability that has previously been established.
Litigation expense represents a key area of judgment and is subject to uncertainty and factors outside of our control. Significant judgment is required in making these estimates and our financial liabilities may ultimately be more or less than the current estimate.
The information required by this Item is set forth in the “Other Legal Proceedings” discussion in Note 17, “Commitments, Credit Risk and Contingencies” in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements, which is included in Item 8 of this Report, and which is incorporated herein by reference in response to this Item.

ITEM 4.    MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not Applicable.

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INFORMATION ABOUT OUR EXECUTIVE OFFICERS
The name, age and principal occupation for each of our executive officers as of January 31, 2024 are set forth below:
NameAgePrincipal Occupation
Vincent J. Delie, Jr.59Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer
Vincent J. Calabrese, Jr.61Chief Financial Officer
Gary L. Guerrieri63Chief Credit Officer
James G. Orie65Chief Legal Officer and Corporate Secretary
James L. Dutey50Corporate Controller and Principal Accounting Officer
David B. Mitchell, II66Chief Wholesale Banking Officer
Barry C. Robinson60Chief Consumer Banking Officer
There are no family relationships among any of the above executive officers, and there is no arrangement or understanding between any of the above executive officers and any other person pursuant to which he was selected as an officer. The executive officers are elected by our Board of Directors, subject in certain cases to the terms of an employment agreement between the officer and us.
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PART II.
ITEM 5.    MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Our common stock is listed on the NYSE under the symbol “FNB.” As of January 31, 2024, there were 14,596 holders of record of our common stock. In April 2022, our Board of Directors authorized an additional $150 million available to repurchase shares of our common stock, bringing the total amount authorized for repurchase to $300 million.
The information required by this Item 5 with respect to securities authorized for issuance under equity compensation plans is set forth in Part III, Item 12 of this Report.
We did not purchase any of our own equity securities during the fourth quarter of 2023.
STOCK PERFORMANCE GRAPH
Comparison of Total Return on F.N.B. Corporation’s Common Stock with Certain Averages
The following five-year performance graph compares the cumulative total shareholder return (assuming reinvestment of dividends) on our common stock (t), the S&P MidCap 400 Index (n), KBW NASDAQ Regional Banking Index (p) and Russell 1000 Index (l). This stock performance graph assumes $100 was invested on December 31, 2018, and the cumulative return is measured as of each subsequent fiscal year end.
F.N.B. Corporation Five-Year Stock Performance
Total Return, Including Stock and Cash Dividends
599
    Source: S & P Global Market Intelligence
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ITEM 7.     MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
MD&A represents an overview of and highlights material changes to our financial condition and consolidated results of operations. This MD&A should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and Notes presented in Item 8 of this Report. Results of operations for the periods included in this review are not necessarily indicative of results to be obtained during any future period.
CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING INFORMATION
This Report may contain statements regarding our outlook for earnings, revenues, expenses, tax rates, capital and liquidity levels and ratios, asset quality levels, financial position and other matters regarding or affecting our current or future business and operations. These statements can be considered “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These forward‑looking statements involve various assumptions, risks and uncertainties which can change over time. Actual results or future events may be different from those anticipated in our forward-looking statements and may not align with historical performance and events. As forward-looking statements involve significant risks and uncertainties, caution should be exercised against placing undue reliance upon such statements. Forward-looking statements are typically identified by words such as "believe," "plan," "expect," "anticipate," "intend," "outlook," "estimate," "forecast," "will," "should," "project," "goal," and other similar words and expressions. We do not assume any duty to update forward-looking statements, except as required by federal securities laws.
Our forward-looking statements are subject to the following principal risks and uncertainties:
Our business, financial results and balance sheet values are affected by business, economic and political circumstances, including, but not limited to: (i) developments with respect to the U.S. and global financial markets; (ii) supervision, regulation, enforcement and other actions by several governmental agencies, including the FRB, FDIC, FSOC, DOJ, CFPB, UST, OCC and HUD, state attorney generals and other governmental agencies whose actions may affect, among other things, our consumer and mortgage lending and deposit practices, capital structure, investment practices, dividend policy, annual FDIC insurance premium assessment and growth, money supply, market interest rates or otherwise affect business activities of the financial services industry; (iii) a slowing of the U.S. economy in general and regional and local economies within our market area; (iv) inflation concerns; (v) the impacts of tariffs or other trade policies of the U.S. or its global trading partners; and (vi) the sociopolitical environment in the U.S.
Business and operating results are affected by our ability to identify and effectively manage risks inherent in our businesses, including, where appropriate, through effective use of systems and controls, third-party insurance, derivatives, and capital management techniques, and to meet evolving regulatory capital and liquidity standards.
Competition can have an impact on customer acquisition, growth and retention, and on credit spreads, deposit gathering and product pricing, which can affect market share, loans, deposits and revenues. Our ability to anticipate, react quickly and continue to respond to technological changes and significant adverse industry and economic events can also impact our ability to respond to customer needs and meet competitive demands.
Business and operating results can also be affected by difficult to predict uncertainties, such as widespread natural and other disasters, wars, pandemics, including post-pandemic return to normalcy, global events and geopolitical instability, including the Ukraine-Russia conflict, and the emerging military conflict in Israel and Gaza, shortages of labor, supply chain disruptions and shipping delays, terrorist activities, system failures, security breaches, significant political events, cyber-attacks, international hostilities or other extraordinary events which are beyond our control and may significantly impact the U.S. or global economy and financial markets generally, or us or our counterparties, customers or third-party vendors specifically.
Legal, regulatory and accounting developments could have an impact on our ability to operate and grow our businesses, financial condition, results of operations, competitive position, and reputation. Reputational impacts could affect matters such as business generation and retention, liquidity, funding, and the ability to attract and retain talent. These developments could include:
Policies and priorities of the current U.S. presidential administration, including legislative and regulatory reforms, more aggressive approaches to supervisory or enforcement priorities with consumer and antidiscrimination lending laws by the federal banking regulatory agencies and the DOJ, changes affecting oversight of the financial services industry, regulatory obligations or restrictions, consumer protection, taxes,
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employee benefits, compensation practices, pension, bankruptcy and other industry aspects, and changes in accounting policies and principles.
Ability to continue to attract, develop and retain key talent.
Changes to regulations or accounting standards governing bank capital requirements, loan loss reserves and liquidity standards.
Changes in monetary and fiscal policies, including interest rate policies and strategies of the FOMC.
Unfavorable resolution of legal proceedings or other claims and regulatory and other governmental investigations or inquiries. These matters may result in monetary judgments or settlements, enforcement actions or other remedies, including fines, penalties, restitution or alterations in our business practices, including financial and other types of commitments, and in additional expenses and collateral costs, and may cause reputational harm to FNB.
Results of the regulatory examination and supervision process, including our failure to satisfy requirements imposed by the federal bank regulatory agencies or other governmental agencies.
Business and operating results are affected by our ability to effectively identify and manage risks inherent in our businesses, including, where appropriate, through effective use of policies, processes, systems and controls, third-party insurance, derivatives, and capital and liquidity management techniques.
The impact on our financial condition, results of operations, financial disclosures and future business strategies related to the impact on the ACL due to changes in forecasted macroeconomic conditions as a result of applying the “current expected credit loss” accounting standard, or CECL.
A failure or disruption in or breach of our operational or security systems or infrastructure, or those of third parties, including as a result of cyber-attacks or campaigns.
Increased funding costs and market volatility due to market illiquidity and competition for funding.
We caution that the risks identified here are not exhaustive of the types of risks that may adversely impact us and actual results may differ materially from those expressed or implied as a result of these risks and uncertainties, including, but not limited to, the risk factors and other uncertainties described under Item 1A. Risk Factors and the Risk Management sections in this Annual Report on Form 10-K (including the MD&A section), our subsequent 2024 Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q (including the risk factors and risk management discussions) and our other subsequent filings with the SEC, which are available on our corporate website at https://www.fnb-online.com/about-us/investor-information/reports-and-filings or the SEC's website at www.sec.gov. We have included our web address as an inactive textual reference only. Information on our website is not part of our SEC filings.
APPLICATION OF CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Our Consolidated Financial Statements are prepared in accordance with GAAP. Application of these principles requires management to make estimates, assumptions and judgments that affect the amounts reported in the Consolidated Financial Statements and accompanying Notes. These estimates, assumptions and judgments are based on information available as of the date of the Consolidated Financial Statements; accordingly, as this information changes, the Consolidated Financial Statements could reflect different estimates, assumptions and judgments. Certain policies inherently are based to a greater extent on estimates, assumptions and judgments of management and, as such, have a greater possibility of producing results that could be materially different than originally reported.
The most significant accounting policies followed by FNB are presented in Note 1, “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, which is included in Item 8 of this Report. These policies, along with the disclosures presented in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, provide information on how we value significant assets and liabilities in the Consolidated Financial Statements, how we determine those values and how we record transactions in the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Management views critical accounting policies to be those which are highly dependent on subjective or complex judgments, estimates and assumptions, and where changes in those estimates and assumptions could have a significant impact on the Consolidated Financial Statements. Management currently views the determination of the ACL, fair value of financial instruments, goodwill and other intangible assets, and income taxes and DTAs to be critical accounting policies.
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Allowance for Credit Losses
The ACL is a valuation account that is deducted from the amortized cost basis of loans and leases resulting in the net amount expected to be collected. We charge off loans against the ACL in accordance with our policies or if a loss-confirming event occurs. Expected recoveries do not exceed the aggregate of the amounts previously charged-off and expected to be charged-off. The model used to calculate the ACL is dependent on the portfolio composition and credit quality, as well as historical experience, current conditions and forecasts of economic conditions and interest rates. Specifically, the following considerations are incorporated into the ACL calculation: a third-party macroeconomic forecast scenario; a 24-month R&S forecast period for macroeconomic factors with a reversion to the historical mean on a straight-line basis over a 12-month period; and the historical through-the-cycle default mean calculated using an expanded period to include a prior recessionary period. Adjustments are made to the calculation of expected losses to address differences in current loan-specific risk characteristics such as differences in lending policies and procedures, underwriting standards, experience and depth of relevant personnel, the quality of our credit review function, concentrations of credit, external factors such as the regulatory, legal and technological environments; competition; and events such as natural disasters and other relevant factors. Such factors are used to adjust the quantitative output based on historical probabilities of default and severity of loss so that they reflect management's expectation of future conditions based on a R&S forecast. To the extent the lives of the loans in the portfolio extend beyond the period for which a R&S forecast can be made, the model reverts over 12 months on a straight-line basis back to the historical rates of default and severity of loss over the remaining life of the loans.
Determining the appropriateness of the ACL is complex and requires significant management judgment about the effect of matters that are inherently uncertain. Due to those significant management judgments and the factors included in the calculation, significant changes to the ACL level could occur in future periods.
The Provision for Credit Losses section in the Results of Operations includes a discussion of the factors affecting changes in the ACL during the current period. See Note 1, “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” and Note 6, “Loans and Leases” in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for further information on the ACL.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
We use fair value measurements to record fair value adjustments to certain financial assets and liabilities and determine fair value disclosures. Additionally, from time to time we may be required to record at fair value other assets on a non-recurring basis, such as loans held for sale, certain impaired loans, MSRs, OREO and certain other assets. The accounting guidance for fair value measurements includes a three-level hierarchy for disclosure of assets and liabilities recorded at fair value based on whether the inputs to the valuation methodology used for measurement are observable or unobservable. Judgment is required to determine which level of the three-level hierarchy certain assets or liabilities measured at fair value are classified.
Fair value represents the price that would be received to sell a financial asset or paid to transfer a financial liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. We use significant and complex estimates, assumptions and judgments when certain assets and liabilities are required to be recorded at or adjusted to fair value. Where available, fair value and information used to record valuation adjustments for certain assets or liabilities is based on either quoted market prices or are provided by independent third-party sources, including appraisers and valuation specialists. When such third-party information is not available, we may estimate fair value by using cash flow and other financial modeling techniques. Our assumptions about what a market participant would use in pricing an asset or liability is developed based on the best information available in the circumstances. These estimates are inherently subjective and can result in significant changes in the fair value estimates over the life of the asset or liability. Assets and liabilities carried at fair value inherently result in a higher degree of financial statement volatility.
See Note 1, “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” and Note 26, “Fair Value Measurements” in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion of accounting for financial instruments.
Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets
As a result of acquisitions, we have recorded goodwill and other identifiable intangible assets on our Consolidated Balance Sheets. Goodwill represents the cost of acquired companies in excess of the fair value of net assets, including identifiable intangible assets, at the acquisition date. Our recorded goodwill relates to value inherent in our Community Banking, Wealth Management and Insurance segments.
The value of goodwill and other identifiable intangibles is dependent upon our ability to provide high quality, cost-effective services in the face of competition. As such, these values are supported ultimately by revenue that is driven by the volume of
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business transacted. A decline in earnings as a result of a lack of growth or our inability to deliver cost-effective services over sustained periods can lead to impairment in value, which could result in additional expense and adversely impact earnings in future periods.
Goodwill and other intangibles are subject to impairment testing at the reporting unit level, which must be conducted at least annually. We perform annual impairment testing during the fourth quarter, or more frequently if impairment indicators exist. We also continue to monitor other intangibles for impairment and to evaluate carrying amounts, as necessary.
In connection with the preparation of the year-end 2023 financial statements, we completed our annual goodwill impairment test as of October 1, 2023. No impairment was identified in any of our reporting units. We also performed a qualitative analysis through year-end and concluded that it was not more-likely-than-not that the fair value of one or more of our reporting units was below its respective carrying amount, and therefore no triggering event has occurred, as of December 31, 2023.
Inputs and assumptions used in estimating fair value include projected future cash flows, discount rates reflecting the risk inherent in future cash flows, long-term growth rates, anticipated cost savings and an evaluation of market comparables and recent transactions. Goodwill assessments are highly sensitive to economic projections and the related assumptions and estimates used by management. In the event of a prolonged economic downturn or deterioration in the economic outlook, interim quantitative assessments of our goodwill balance could be required in future periods. Any impairment charge would not directly affect our capital ratios, tangible common equity, tangible book value per share or liquidity position.
See Note 1, “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” and Note 10, “Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets” in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion of accounting for goodwill and other intangible assets.
Income Taxes and Deferred Tax Assets
We are subject to the income tax laws of federal, state and other taxing jurisdictions where we conduct business. The laws are complex and subject to different interpretations by the taxpayer and various taxing authorities. In determining the provision for income taxes, management must make judgments and estimates about the application of these inherently complex tax statutes, related regulations and case law. In the process of preparing our tax returns, management attempts to make reasonable interpretations of the tax laws. These interpretations are subject to challenge by the taxing authorities or based on management’s ongoing assessment of the facts and evolving case law.
We determine deferred income taxes using the balance sheet method. Under this method, the net DTA or DTL is based on the tax effects of the differences between the book and tax bases of assets and liabilities, and recognizes the effect of enacted changes in tax rates and laws in the period in which they occur. That effect would be included in income in the reporting period that includes the enactment date of the change. See the Results of Operations, Income Taxes section later in this MD&A for further tax-related discussion.
On a quarterly basis, management assesses the reasonableness of our effective tax rate based on management’s current best estimate of pretax earnings and the applicable taxes for the full year. DTAs and DTLs are assessed on an annual basis, or sooner, if business events or circumstances warrant. DTAs represent amounts available to reduce income taxes payable on taxable income in future years. Such assets arise because of temporary differences between the financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities, and from operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. We evaluate the recoverability of these future tax deductions and credits by assessing the adequacy of future expected taxable income from all sources, including reversal of taxable temporary differences, forecasted operating earnings and available tax planning strategies.
We establish a valuation allowance when it is more likely than not that we will not be able to realize a benefit from our DTAs, or when future deductibility is uncertain. Periodically, the valuation allowance is reviewed and adjusted based on management’s assessments of realizable DTAs.
See Note 1, “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” and Note 20, “Income Taxes” in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion of accounting for income taxes.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements and Developments
Note 2, “New Accounting Standards” in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, which is included in Item 8 of this Report, discusses new accounting pronouncements adopted by us in 2023 and the expected impact of accounting pronouncements recently issued but not yet required to be adopted.
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USE OF NON-GAAP FINANCIAL MEASURES AND KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS
To supplement our Consolidated Financial Statements presented in accordance with GAAP, we use certain non-GAAP financial measures, such as operating net income available to common stockholders, operating earnings per diluted common share, return on average tangible common equity, operating return on average tangible common equity, return on average tangible assets, tangible book value per common share, the ratio of tangible equity to tangible assets, the ratio of tangible common equity to tangible assets, net loan charge-offs, excluding an isolated commercial loan charge-off due to alleged fraud to total average loans and leases, operating non-interest income, operating non-interest expense, efficiency ratio and net interest margin (FTE) to provide information useful to investors in understanding our operating performance and trends, and to facilitate comparisons with the performance of our peers. Management uses these measures internally to assess and better understand our underlying business performance and trends related to core business activities. The non-GAAP financial measures and key performance indicators we use may differ from the non-GAAP financial measures and key performance indicators other financial institutions use to assess their performance and trends.
These non-GAAP financial measures should be viewed as supplemental in nature, and not as a substitute for, or superior to, our reported results prepared in accordance with GAAP. When non-GAAP financial measures are disclosed, the SEC's Regulation G requires: (i) the presentation of the most directly comparable financial measure calculated and presented in accordance with GAAP and (ii) a reconciliation of the differences between the non-GAAP financial measure presented and the most directly comparable financial measure calculated and presented in accordance with GAAP. Reconciliations of non-GAAP operating measures to the most directly comparable GAAP financial measures are included later in this report under the heading “Reconciliations of Non-GAAP Financial Measures and Key Performance Indicators to GAAP”.
Management believes items such as merger expenses, FDIC special assessment, realized loss on securities restructuring, valuation allowance on auto loans held-for-sale, initial provision for non-PCD loans acquired and branch consolidation costs are not organic to run our operations and facilities. These items are considered significant items impacting earnings as they are deemed to be outside of ordinary banking activities. These costs are specific to each individual transaction and may vary significantly based on the size and complexity of the transaction.
To facilitate peer comparisons of net interest margin and efficiency ratio, we use net interest income on a taxable-equivalent basis in calculating net interest margin by increasing the interest income earned on tax-exempt assets (loans and investments) to make it fully equivalent to interest income earned on taxable investments (this adjustment is not permitted under GAAP). Taxable-equivalent amounts for 2023, 2022 and 2021 were calculated using a federal statutory income tax rate of 21%.

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OVERVIEW
FNB, headquartered in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, is a diversified financial services company operating in seven states and the District of Columbia. Our market coverage spans several major metropolitan areas including: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Baltimore, Maryland; Cleveland, Ohio; Washington, D.C.; Charlotte, Raleigh, Durham and the Piedmont Triad (Winston-Salem, Greensboro and High Point) in North Carolina; and Charleston, South Carolina. As of December 31, 2023, we had 346 branches throughout Pennsylvania, Ohio, Maryland, West Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Washington D.C. and Virginia. We provide a full range of commercial banking, consumer banking, insurance and wealth management solutions through our subsidiary network which is led by our largest affiliate, FNBPA. Commercial banking solutions include corporate banking, small business banking, investment real estate financing, government banking, business credit, capital markets and lease financing. Consumer banking products and services include deposit products, mortgage lending, consumer lending and a complete suite of mobile and online banking services. Wealth management services include asset management, private banking and insurance.
FINANCIAL SUMMARY
For the full year of 2023, net income available to common stockholders was $476.8 million, or $1.31 per diluted common share. Comparatively, full-year 2022 net income available to common stockholders totaled $431.1 million, or $1.22 per diluted common share. On an operating basis, full-year 2023 earnings per diluted common share (non-GAAP) was $1.57, excluding $116.2 million (pre-tax) of significant items impacting earnings. Operating earnings per diluted common share (non-GAAP) for the full year of 2022 was $1.40, excluding $80.8 million (pre-tax) of significant items impacting earnings.
The beginning of 2023 started with the banking industry disruption caused by the Silicon Valley Bank and Signature Bank failures. We were well-positioned to meet the needs of our customers and communities through those challenges given our strategic focus to maintain a diversified and granular deposit base, conservative and prudent balance sheet management for the long-term, and sound risk management policies and governance as we achieved full year operating earnings per diluted common share (non-GAAP) totaling a record $1.57, record revenue of $1.6 billion and tangible book value per common share (non-GAAP) growth of $1.20, or 14.5%, year-over-year, to an all-time high of $9.47. Total average deposits grew $568.3 million, or 1.7%, and we ended the year with approximately 78% of total deposits insured by the FDIC or collateralized.
As part of our strategy to optimize the balance sheet and improve future earnings, in the fourth quarter of 2023, we completed the sale of $648.7 million of AFS investment securities and transferred $355 million of indirect auto loans to held-for-sale as part of our ongoing proactive balance sheet management strategy. The sale of AFS investment securities resulted in a realized loss (pre-tax) of $67.4 million. We reinvested proceeds from the sale of those investment securities with an average yield of 1.08% into investment securities with yields approximately 350 basis points higher with a similar duration and convexity profile. The transfer of the indirect auto loans to held-for-sale resulted in a negative valuation allowance impact of $16.7 million (pre-tax) recognized in other non-interest expense due primarily to changes in interest rates from time of origination. The sale of these loans closed in February 2024 with the proceeds used to repay borrowings that have a similar yield to the sold loans. The transfer to held-for-sale benefited the loan-to-deposit ratio by approximately 100 basis points. The cumulative impact of these balance sheet actions has a tangible book value earn back period of less than one year, versus an earn-back period of five years for a stock buyback, an alternative use of capital, and significantly higher earnings accretion from the repositioned investment securities yields. We also announced the February 2024 redemption of all $110 million of Series E preferred stock.
Income Statement Highlights (2023 compared to 2022)
Record total revenue of $1.6 billion, an increase of $127.5 million, or 8.8%, led to net income available to common stockholders of $476.8 million, an increase of $45.7 million, or 10.6%, and operating net income available to common stockholders (non-GAAP) of $568.6 million, an increase of $73.7 million, or 14.9%.
Earnings per diluted common share was $1.31, compared to $1.22, an increase of 7.4%.
Operating earnings per diluted common share (non-GAAP) was $1.57, compared to $1.40, an increase of 12.1%.
Net interest income was $1.3 billion, compared to $1.1 billion, up 17.6%, primarily due to the benefit of growth in earning assets, the impact from the higher interest rate environment and deposit growth accompanied by prudent management of deposit betas.
Net interest margin (FTE) (non-GAAP) increased 32 basis points to 3.35% from 3.03%. The FOMC raised the target federal funds rate by a total of 100 basis points in 2023. The yield on earning assets (non-GAAP) increased 153 basis points to 5.00%, primarily reflecting higher yields on loans, investment securities and interest-bearing deposits
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with banks due to the impact of the higher interest rate environment. The cost of funds increased 127 basis points to 1.73% due to the costs of interest-bearing deposits increasing 164 basis points to 2.13%, short-term borrowings increasing 203 basis points and long-term debt increasing 110 basis points primarily from the August 2022 offering of $350 million in senior notes, partially offset by the maturity of $300 million in 2.20% fixed-rate senior notes in February of 2023.
The provision for credit losses totaled $71.8 million, compared to $64.2 million which included $28.5 million of initial provision for non-PCD loans associated with the Howard and Union acquisitions in 2022. The provision for credit losses for 2023 was primarily due to loan growth, the previously disclosed $31.9 million isolated commercial loan that was charged off in the third quarter of 2023 due to alleged fraud and other charge-off activity.
Non-interest income was $254.3 million, decreasing $69.2 million, or 21.4%, compared to $323.6 million, primarily due to a $67.4 million realized loss (pre-tax) on investment securities restructuring. On an operating basis (non-GAAP), non-interest income totaled $321.7 million, when adjusting for the investment securities restructuring and decreases in service charges, capital markets income and other non-interest income, partially offset by an increase in wealth management revenues, interchange and card transaction fees and dividends on non-marketable equity securities.
Non-interest expense was $915.4 million, compared to $826.4 million. Excluding significant items totaling $48.8 million in 2023 and $52.3 million in 2022, operating non-interest expense (non-GAAP) increased $92.5 million, or 11.9%. Salaries and employee benefits increased $35.4 million, or 8.3%, due to normal merit increases, production-related commissions and the addition of the acquired Union expense base. Occupancy and equipment increased $17.2 million, or 11.9%, primarily from technology-related investments.
FDIC insurance expense of $60.8 million included a $29.9 million FDIC special assessment. The special assessment was considered a significant item impacting earnings as it reflected replenishment of the FDIC's DIF associated with protecting uninsured depositors following the closures of Silicon Valley Bank and Signature Bank.
The efficiency ratio (non-GAAP) remained at a favorable level of 51.2%, compared to 52.1%.
Income tax expense decreased $14.8 million, or 13.1%. The effective tax rate was 16.9%, compared to 20.6%, primarily due to renewable energy investment tax credits recognized in 2023 as part of a solar project financing transaction originated by our commercial leasing business.
Return on average tangible common equity ratio (non-GAAP) was 15.5%, compared to 15.3%.
Balance Sheet Highlights (period-end balances, 2023 compared to 2022, unless otherwise indicated)
Total assets were $46.2 billion, compared to $43.7 billion, an increase of $2.4 billion, or 5.6%, primarily from organic growth in loans.
Average loans totaled $31.4 billion, an increase of $3.5 billion, or 12.7%, due to healthy organic growth across our footprint, as well as adding the Union loans to portfolio balances. Growth in average commercial loans totaled $1.9 billion, or 10.7%, including growth of $1.0 billion, or 9.3%, in commercial real estate and $793.7 million, or 12.2%, in commercial and industrial loans. Growth in total average consumer loans totaled $1.6 billion, or 16.5%, and was due to an increase in residential mortgage loans of $1.4 billion, or 31.3%, indirect installment loans of $134.8 million, or 9.8%, and direct home equity installment loans of $68.6 million, or 2.6%.
Total average investment securities were $7.2 billion, compared to $7.1 billion, an increase of $14.1 million, or 0.2%.
Total average deposits grew $568.3 million, or 1.7%, led by an increase in average time deposits of $2.2 billion, or 72.3%, offset by declines of $739.2 million, or 6.4% in non-interest-bearing deposits, $655.3 million, or 4.4%, in interest-bearing demand deposits and $209.4 million, or 5.3%, in savings deposits. The increase in average time deposits offset the decline in other deposit categories as customers continue to migrate deposit balances into higher-yielding deposit products.
The ratio of loans to deposits was 93.1%, compared to 87.0%, as loan growth outpaced deposit growth on a year-over-year basis.
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The ratio of non-performing loans plus OREO to total loans and lease plus OREO decreased 5 basis points to 0.34%. Total delinquency decreased 1 basis point to 0.70%, compared to 0.71%. Both measures continue to remain at historically low levels.
Net charge-offs totaled $67.7 million, or 0.22% of total average loans, compared to $16.2 million, or 0.06%. Excluding the previously mentioned charge-off, net charge-offs would have been $35.9 million, or 0.11% of total average loans (non-GAAP), remaining at historically low levels.
The dividend payout ratio for 2023 was 36.5%, compared to 39.5%.
During 2023, we repurchased nearly 3.1 million shares of our common stock at a weighted average share price of $11.61 for $36.5 million. There currently is $139.1 million of the authorized amount remaining for future repurchase activity.
The ratio of the ACL to total loans and leases was 1.25%, compared to 1.33%, reflecting net loan growth and charge-off activity. The ACL on loans and leases totaled $406 million at December 31, 2023, compared to $402 million with the increase reflecting net loan growth.
Tangible book value per common share (non-GAAP) of $9.47 increased 14.5% from year-end 2022. AOCI reduced the tangible book value per common share (non-GAAP) by $0.65 as of December 31, 2023, compared to $0.99 at the end of 2022, primarily due to the impact of higher interest rates on the fair value of AFS securities.
The CET1 regulatory capital ratio was 10.04%, benefiting from retained earnings growth, compared to 9.82%.
TABLE 1
Year-to-Date Results Summary20232022
Reported results
Net income available to common stockholders (millions)$476.8 $431.1 
Net income per diluted common share1.31 1.22 
Book value per common share (period-end)16.56 15.39 
Operating results (non-GAAP)
Operating net income available to common stockholders (millions)$568.6 $494.9 
Operating net income per diluted common share1.57 1.40 
Average diluted common shares outstanding (thousands)362,898 354,052 
Significant items impacting earnings (1) (millions)
Pre-tax merger-related expenses$(2.2)$(45.3)
After-tax impact of merger-related expenses(1.8)(35.8)
Pre-tax provision expense related to acquisitions (28.5)
After-tax impact of provision expense related to acquisitions