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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
Form 10-K
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from to
Commission File Number 001-38088
Five Point Holdings, LLC
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
27-0599397
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
2000 FivePoint
4th Floor
Irvine
California
92618
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)
(Zip code)
(949) 349-1000
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Class A common sharesFPHNew York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes No
The aggregate market value of common shares held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2023, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, based on the closing sale price per share as reported by the New York Stock Exchange on such date, was approximately $170.5 million.
As of February 29, 2024, 69,056,196 Class A common shares and 79,233,544 Class B common shares were outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant's Proxy Statement for the 2024 Annual Meeting of Shareholders are incorporated herein by reference in Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K to the extent stated herein. Such proxy statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days of the registrant's fiscal year ended December 31, 2023.




FIVE POINT HOLDINGS, LLC

TABLE OF CONTENTS

FORM 10-K
Page
PART I.
ITEM 1.
ITEM 1A.
ITEM 1B.
ITEM 1C.
ITEM 2.
ITEM 3.
ITEM 4.
PART II.
ITEM 5.
ITEM 6.
ITEM 7.
ITEM 7A.
ITEM 8.
ITEM 9.
ITEM 9A.
ITEM 9B.
ITEM 9C.
PART III.
ITEM 10.
ITEM 11.
ITEM 12.
ITEM 13.
ITEM 14.
PART IV.
ITEM 15.
ITEM 16.
Signatures
Financial Statement Schedules




CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This report contains forward-looking statements that are subject to risks and uncertainties. These statements concern expectations, beliefs, projections, plans and strategies, anticipated events or trends and similar expressions concerning matters that are not historical facts. When used, the words “anticipate,” “believe,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “might,” “plan,” “estimate,” “project,” “should,” “will,” “would,” “result” and similar expressions that do not relate solely to historical matters are intended to identify forward-looking statements. This report may contain forward-looking statements regarding: our expectations of our future revenues, costs and financial performance; the impact of inflation and interest rates; future demographics and market conditions, including housing supply levels, in the areas where our communities are located; the outcome of pending litigation and its effect on our operations; the timing of our development activities; and the timing of future real estate purchases or sales, including anticipated deliveries of homesites and anticipated amenities in our communities.
We caution you that any forward-looking statements presented in this report are based on our current views and information currently available to us. Forward-looking statements are subject to risks, trends, uncertainties and factors that are beyond our control. We believe these risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to, the following:
uncertainties and risks related to public health issues such as a major epidemic or pandemic;
risks associated with the real estate industry;
downturns in economic conditions or demographic changes at the national, regional or local levels, particularly in the areas where our properties are located;
uncertainty and risks related to zoning and land use laws and regulations, including environmental planning and protection laws;
risks associated with development and construction projects;
adverse developments in the economic, political, competitive or regulatory climate of California;
loss of key personnel;
uncertainties and risks related to adverse weather conditions, natural disasters and climate change;
fluctuations in interest rates;
the availability of cash for distribution and debt service and exposure to risk of default under debt obligations;
exposure to liability relating to environmental and health and safety matters;
exposure to litigation or other claims;
insufficient amounts of insurance or exposure to events that are either uninsured or underinsured;
intense competition in the real estate market and our ability to sell properties at desirable prices;
fluctuations in real estate values;
changes in property taxes;
risks associated with our trademarks, trade names and service marks;
conflicts of interest with our directors;
general volatility of the capital and credit markets and the price of our Class A common shares; and
risks associated with public or private financing or the unavailability thereof.
Please see the “Risk Factors” under Part I, Item 1A of this report for a more detailed discussion of these and other risks.
Should one or more of these risks or uncertainties materialize, or should underlying assumptions prove incorrect, actual results may vary materially from those anticipated, estimated or projected. We caution you therefore against relying on any of these forward-looking statements.
While forward-looking statements reflect our good faith beliefs, they are not guarantees of future performance. They are based on estimates and assumptions only as of the date of this report. We undertake no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statement to reflect changes in underlying assumptions or factors, new information, data or methods, future events or other changes, except as required by applicable law.

DEFINITIONS
In this report:
“acres” refers to gross acres, which includes unsaleable land, such as land on which major roads will be constructed, public parks, water quality basins, public school sites and open space;
“Castlelake” refers to Castlelake, L.P.;
“company,” “our company,” “us,” “we,” and “our” refer to Five Point Holdings, LLC, together with its consolidated subsidiaries;
“CPHP” refers to CPHP Development, LLC and its subsidiaries, the entities that acquired certain assets, and assumed certain liabilities, from the San Francisco Venture immediately prior to the formation transactions;
“Five Point Gateway Campus” refers to approximately 73 acres of commercial land in the Great Park Neighborhoods, on which four buildings have been constructed with an aggregate of one million square feet of research and development, medical and office space;
“formation transactions” refers to the transactions effected on May 2, 2016, in which, among other things, (1) we acquired an interest in, and became the managing member of, the San Francisco Venture, (2) the limited liability company agreement of the San Francisco Venture was amended and restated to provide for the possible future exchange of the remaining interests in the San Francisco Venture for interests in our operating company, (3) we acquired a 37.5% percentage interest in the Great Park Venture, and became the administrative member of the Great Park Venture, and (4) we acquired the management company. See “Part I, Item 1. Business—Structure and Formation of Our Company”;
“FP LP” refers to Five Point Communities, LP, a Delaware limited partnership;
“FP LP Class B partnership interests” or “Class B partnership interests in FP LP” refer to partnership interests in FP LP owned by Lennar and FPC-HF that are entitled to receive distributions equal to the amount of any incentive compensation payments under the amended and restated development management agreement that are attributable to payments on legacy interests in the Great Park Venture;
“FP Inc.” refers to Five Point Communities Management, Inc., a Delaware corporation, which is the general partner of, and owns a 0.5% Class A limited partnership interest in, FP LP;
“FPC-HF” refers to FPC-HF Venture I, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company, which is owned, directly or indirectly, by an affiliate of Castlelake, an affiliate of Lennar and certain employees of the management company;
“FPL” refers to our subsidiary, Five Point Land, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company, which owns Newhall Land & Farming;
“fully exchanged basis” assumes (1) the exchange of all outstanding Class A units of the operating company for our Class A common shares on a one-for-one basis, (2) the exchange of all outstanding Class A units of the San Francisco Venture for our Class A common shares on a one-for-one basis and (3) the conversion of all of our outstanding Class B common shares into Class A common shares;
“Gateway Commercial Venture” refers to Five Point Office Venture Holdings I, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company, which owns portions of the Five Point Gateway Campus;
“Great Park Venture” refers to Heritage Fields LLC, a Delaware limited liability company, which is developing Great Park Neighborhoods;
“homes” includes single-family detached homes, single-family attached homes and apartments for rent;
“homesite” refers to a residential lot or a portion thereof on which a home will be built;
“legacy interests” refers to membership interests in the Great Park Venture, which are currently held by the entities that owned the Great Park Venture immediately prior to the formation transactions, and entitle them to receive priority distributions from the Great Park Venture in an aggregate amount equal to $565 million ($547 million of which has been paid as of the date of this report);
“Lennar” refers to Lennar Corporation and its subsidiaries;
“management company” refers, collectively, to FP LP and FP Inc., which have historically managed the development of Great Park Neighborhoods and Valencia;
“Newhall Land & Farming” refers to The Newhall Land and Farming Company, a California limited partnership, which is developing Valencia;
“operating company” refers to Five Point Operating Company, LP, a Delaware limited partnership;
“our communities” refers to the communities that we are developing, including Valencia in Los Angeles County, Candlestick and The San Francisco Shipyard in the City of San Francisco, and Great Park Neighborhoods in Orange County;
“percentage interests” refers to membership interests in the Great Park Venture that entitle the holders to receive all distributions from the Great Park Venture after priority distributions have been paid to the holders of the legacy interests in the Great Park Venture; and
“San Francisco Venture” refers to The Shipyard Communities, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company, which is developing Candlestick and The San Francisco Shipyard.


PART I
ITEM 1.    Business
We are an owner and developer of mixed-use planned communities in California. Our three existing communities have the general plan and zoning approvals necessary for the construction of thousands of homesites and millions of square feet of commercial space, and they represent a significant portion of the real estate available for development in three major markets in California—Los Angeles County, San Francisco County and Orange County. In total, our communities consist of approximately 23 million square feet of built or planned commercial space and approximately 40,000 homes built or planned.
Structure and Formation of Our Company
In 2009, our company was formed as a limited liability company to acquire ownership through the operating company of Newhall Land & Farming, which is developing our Valencia community. In May 2016, we completed the formation transactions in which we acquired an interest in the San Francisco Venture, which is developing our Candlestick and The San Francisco Shipyard communities, a 37.5% percentage interest in the Great Park Venture, which is developing Great Park Neighborhoods, and the management company that has been the development manager of Great Park Neighborhoods since 2010. In August 2017, we acquired a 75% interest in the Gateway Commercial Venture, the entity that owns portions of the Five Point Gateway Campus.
Our company has an entity structure in which our two largest equity owners, Lennar and Castlelake, and our founder and Chairman Emeritus, Emile Haddad, separately hold, in addition to interests in our common shares, equity interests in either or both the operating company or the San Francisco Venture that can be exchanged for, at our option, either our Class A common shares or cash. The diagram below presents a simplified depiction of our current organizational structure.

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(1) Through a wholly owned subsidiary, we serve as sole managing general partner of the operating company, and as of December 31, 2023, we owned approximately 62.6% of the outstanding Class A units of the operating company. We conduct all of our businesses in or through the operating company, which owns, directly or indirectly, equity interests in, and controls the management of FPL, the San Francisco Venture and the management company. Class A units of the operating company that we do not own are held by affiliates of Lennar, Castlelake, and Mr. Haddad and can be exchanged on a one-for-one basis, at our option, for either Class A common shares or cash equal to the fair market value of such shares. Until Class A units of the operating company are exchanged or redeemed, the capital associated with Class A units of the operating company not held by us is presented within “noncontrolling interests” on our consolidated balance sheet. Based on the closing price of our Class A common shares on February 29, 2024 ($3.27), our market capitalization on a fully exchanged basis was approximately $485.0 million.
(2) The operating company owns all of the outstanding Class B units of the San Francisco Venture. The Class A units of the San Francisco Venture, which are owned by affiliates of Lennar and Castlelake, are intended to be economically equivalent to Class A
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units of the operating company. As the holder of all outstanding Class B units of the San Francisco Venture, the operating company is entitled to receive 99% of available cash from the San Francisco Venture after the holders of Class A units in the San Francisco Venture have received distributions equivalent to the distributions, if any, paid on Class A units of the operating company. Class A units of the San Francisco Venture can be exchanged, on a one-for-one basis, for Class A units of the operating company. Until exchanged or redeemed through the operating company, the capital associated with Class A units of the San Francisco Venture is presented within “noncontrolling interests” on our consolidated balance sheet.
(3) We hold our interest in FPL directly and indirectly through the operating company and the management company.
(4) Through a wholly owned subsidiary, the operating company owns a 37.5% percentage interest in the Great Park Venture. Holders of legacy interests in the Great Park Venture were entitled to receive priority distributions up to an aggregate amount of $565.0 million, of which $546.9 million has been distributed as of February 29, 2024. We are the administrative member of the Great Park Venture. However, management of the Great Park Venture is vested in the four voting members, who have a total of five votes. Major decisions generally require the approval of at least 75% of the votes of the voting members. We have two votes, and the other three voting members each have one vote, so we are unable to approve any major decision without the consent or approval of at least two of the other voting members. We do not include the Great Park Venture as a consolidated subsidiary, but rather as an equity method investee, in our consolidated financial statements.
(5) Through a wholly owned subsidiary, the operating company owns a 75% interest in the Gateway Commercial Venture and serves as its manager. However, the manager’s authority is limited. Major decisions by the Gateway Commercial Venture generally require unanimous approval by an executive committee composed of two people designated by us and two people designated by another investor. Some decisions require approval by all of the members of the Gateway Commercial Venture. The Gateway Commercial Venture owns one of the four buildings and approximately 50 acres of commercial land with additional development rights at the Five Point Gateway Campus. We do not include the Gateway Commercial Venture as a consolidated subsidiary, but rather as an equity method investee, in our consolidated financial statements.
Tax Classification
We have elected to be treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes. As a result, an owner of our shares will not report our items of income, gain, loss and deduction on its U.S. federal income tax return, nor will an owner of our shares receive a Schedule K-1. Our shareholders also will not be subject to state income tax filings in the various states in which we conduct operations as a result of owning our shares. Distributions on our shares will be treated as dividends on corporate stock for U.S. federal income tax purposes to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits and will be reported on Form 1099, to the extent applicable.
Our Business
We are primarily engaged in the business of planning and developing our three mixed-use planned communities, and our principal source of revenue is the sale of residential and commercial land sites to homebuilders, commercial developers and commercial buyers. We may also retain a portion of the commercial and multi-family properties in our communities as income-producing assets.
Our planning and development process involves the following components:
Mixed-use planning.    We design all aspects of our communities, creating highly desirable places to live, work, shop and enjoy an active lifestyle. Our designs include a wide range of amenities, such as high quality public schools, parks and recreational areas, entertainment venues and walking and biking trails. Each community is comprised of several villages or neighborhoods, each of which offers a range of housing types, sizes and prices. In addition to the mixed-use land planning we undertake for each community, we typically create the floorplans and elevations for each home, as well as the landscape design for each neighborhood, considering each neighborhood’s individual character within the context of the overall plan for the community. For the commercial aspects of our communities, we look for commercial enterprises that will best add value to the community by providing needed services, additional amenities or local jobs. In designing the overall program at each community, we consider the appropriate balance of housing and employment opportunities, access to transportation, resource conservation and enhanced public open spaces and wildlife habitats. We continually evaluate our plans for each community and make adjustments that we deem appropriate based on changes in local economic factors and other market dynamics.
Entitlements.    We typically obtain all discretionary entitlements and approvals necessary to develop the infrastructure within our communities and prepare our residential and commercial lots for construction. We also typically obtain all discretionary entitlements and approvals that the homebuilder or commercial builder will need to build homes or commercial buildings on our lots, although we may from time to time allocate responsibility for obtaining certain discretionary entitlements to a homebuilder or commercial builder. Although we have general plan and zoning approvals for our communities, individual development areas within our communities are at various stages of planning and development and have received different levels of discretionary entitlements and approvals. For additional information, see “—Our Communities” below.
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Horizontal development (infrastructure).    We refer to the process of preparing the land for construction of homes or commercial buildings as “horizontal development.” This involves significant investments in a community’s infrastructure and common improvements, including grading and installing roads, sidewalks, gutters, utility improvements (such as storm drains, water, gas, sewer, power and communications), landscaping and shared amenities (such as community buildings, neighborhood parks, trails and open spaces) and other actions necessary to prepare residential and commercial lots for vertical development.
Land sales.    After horizontal development for a given development area or parcel is completed, graded lots are typically sold to homebuilders, commercial builders or commercial buyers. We typically sell homesites to a diverse group of high-quality homebuilders in a competitive process, although in some cases we may negotiate directly with a single homebuilder. In addition to the base purchase price, our residential land sales typically involve participation provisions that allow us to share in the profits realized by the homebuilders. We sell commercial lots to developers through a competitive process or negotiate directly with the buyer. We also regularly assess our development plan and may retain a portion of the commercial and multi-family properties within our communities as income-producing assets.
Vertical development (construction).    We refer to the process of building structures (buildings or houses) and preparing them for occupancy as “vertical development.” Single-family residences in our communities are built by third-party homebuilders. Commercial buildings in our communities are usually built by a third-party developer or the buyer. For commercial or multi-family properties that we retain, we may construct the building ourselves or enter into a joint venture with an established developer to construct a particular property.
Community programming.    Our community building efforts go beyond development and construction. We offer numerous community programs, including music, food and art events, educational programs, gardening and cooking lessons and various holiday festivities. We plan and program all of our events with a goal of building a community that transcends the physical features of our development and connects neighbors through their interests. We believe community building efforts create loyal residents that can become repeat customers within our multi-generational communities.
Sequencing.    In order to balance the timing of our revenues and expenditures, we typically sequence the development of individual neighborhoods or villages within our communities. As a result, many of the mixed-use planning, entitlement, development, sales and other activities described above may occur at the same time in different locations within a single community. Further, depending on the specific plans for each community and market conditions, we may vary the timing of certain of these activities. Throughout this process, we continually analyze each community relative to its market to determine which portions to sell, which portions to build and then sell, and which portions that we might retain as part of a portfolio of commercial and multi-family properties.
Our Segments
We have organized our operations into four reportable segments, three of which are tied to our communities (our Valencia, San Francisco and Great Park segments) and one relating to our commercial operations (our Commercial segment). Our operations relating to these segments are discussed in more detail below in the sections titled “Our Communities” and “Commercial.”
Our Communities
Valencia
Valencia is a mixed-use planned community in Los Angeles County that spans approximately 15,000 acres and can include up to approximately 21,500 homesites, approximately 11.5 million square feet of commercial space, approximately 50 miles of trails, approximately 275 acres of community parks and approximately 10,000 acres of protected open space. The actual commercial square footage and number of homesites are subject to change based on ultimate use and land planning.
Valencia is located in an unincorporated portion of Los Angeles County along the Santa Clara River in the western portion of the Santa Clarita Valley. The property is located approximately 35 miles northwest of downtown Los Angeles, 15 miles north of the San Fernando Valley and is adjacent to the City of Santa Clarita. Valencia is adjacent to Interstate 5 and State Highway 126. Valencia is also approximately 45 miles north of the Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) and 21 miles northwest of the Hollywood Burbank (Bob Hope) Airport (BUR) in Burbank.
In December 2019, we completed our first residential land sales in the first development area at Valencia. As of December 31, 2023, we had sold 2,595 homesites, and builders had sold 1,244 homes to homebuyers since home sales commenced in May 2021.
Candlestick and The San Francisco Shipyard
Candlestick and The San Francisco Shipyard, located on approximately 800 acres of bayfront property in the City of San Francisco, can include up to approximately 12,000 homesites, approximately 6.3 million square feet of commercial space,
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approximately 100,000 square feet of community space, artist studios and approximately 355 acres of parks and open space. The actual commercial square footage and number of homesites are subject to change based on ultimate use and land planning.
The Candlestick and The San Francisco Shipyard communities are located almost equidistant between downtown San Francisco and the San Francisco International Airport (SFO). They consist of two distinct, but contiguous, parcels of real estate. Candlestick, the southern parcel, consists of approximately 280 acres on San Francisco’s waterfront. This nationally recognized site was the location of Candlestick Park stadium, former home of the San Francisco 49ers and the San Francisco Giants. The San Francisco Shipyard, the northern parcel, consists of approximately 495 acres on the former site of the Hunters Point Navy Shipyard. We commenced horizontal development activities at Candlestick in 2015.
In October 2019, we received approval from the City of San Francisco on a revised development plan for the first phase of Candlestick that is currently planned to include approximately 750,000 square feet of office space, 1,600 homes, and 300,000 square feet of lifestyle amenities centered around retail and entertainment. As currently planned, Candlestick ultimately is expected to include approximately 7,000 homes.
At The San Francisco Shipyard, approximately 408 acres are still owned by the U.S. Navy and will not be conveyed to us until the U.S. Navy satisfactorily completes its finding of suitability to transfer, or “FOST,” process, which involves multiple levels of environmental and governmental investigation, analysis, review, comment and approval. Based on our discussions with the U.S. Navy, we had previously expected the U.S. Navy to deliver this property between 2019 and 2022. However, allegations that Tetra Tech, Inc. and Tetra Tech EC, Inc. (collectively, “Tetra Tech”), contractors hired by the U.S. Navy, misrepresented sampling results at The San Francisco Shipyard have resulted in data reevaluation, governmental investigations, criminal proceedings, lawsuits, and a determination by the U.S. Navy and other regulatory agencies to undertake additional sampling. As part of the 2018 Congressional spending bill, the U.S. Department of Defense allocated $36.0 million to help fund resampling efforts at The San Francisco Shipyard. An additional $60.4 million to fund resampling efforts was approved as part of a 2019 military construction spending bill. These activities have delayed the remaining land transfers from the U.S. Navy and could lead to additional legal claims or government investigations, all of which could in turn further delay or impede our future development of such parcels. Our development plans were designed with the flexibility to adjust for potential land transfer delays, and we have the ability to shift the phasing of our development activities to account for potential delays caused by U.S. Navy retesting, but there can be no assurance that these matters and other related matters that may arise in the future will not materially impact our development plans. Accordingly, our immediate development focus is on our Candlestick community that is not subject to land transfers from the U.S. Navy. For additional information about the finding of suitability to transfer process, see “—Regulation—FOST Process.”
Great Park Neighborhoods
Great Park Neighborhoods, located in Irvine, California, is an approximately 2,100 acre mixed-use planned community that is being developed on the former site of the U.S. Marine Corp’s El Toro Air base (“El Toro Base”) in Orange County. Great Park Neighborhoods can include up to approximately 10,500 homesites (including up to 1,056 affordable homesites), approximately 4.9 million square feet of commercial space, approximately 61 acres of parks and approximately 138 acres of trails and open space. The actual commercial square footage and number of homesites are subject to change based on ultimate use and land planning.
Great Park Neighborhoods is approximately seven miles from the Pacific Ocean, approximately nine miles from the University of California, Irvine (UCI) and approximately 17 miles from Disneyland. It is adjacent to the Orange County Great Park, a metropolitan public park that will be nearly twice the size of New York’s Central Park upon completion. Great Park Neighborhoods is close to Interstate 5, Interstate 405, State Route 133 and John Wayne Airport (SNA) in Orange County.
The first homesites at the Great Park Neighborhoods were sold in April 2013, and as of December 31, 2023, the Great Park Venture had sold 8,124 homesites (including 853 affordable homesites) and 153 acres of commercial land, including the Five Point Gateway Campus, allowing for development of up to approximately 3.5 million square feet of commercial office and research and development space. As of December 31, 2023, builder sales totaled 6,376 market rate homes at the Great Park Neighborhoods (including 38 homes under a fee build arrangement). The Great Park Venture reacquired the development rights equivalent to approximately one million square feet that had been previously sold with the Five Point Gateway Campus. For additional information about the Five Point Gateway Campus commercial land sale, see “—Commercial” below.
Commercial
We currently expect to develop and operate certain commercial properties within our existing mixed-use planned communities. We may develop and operate these properties on our own, or we may choose from time to time to develop and/or operate a particular property or properties in a strategic joint venture or other financing or entity structure with a third-party.
Factors we consider in determining whether or not to proceed with a particular commercial investment include (1) our existing knowledge of the mixed-use planned communities we are currently developing and understanding their respective needs, (2) whether, in our judgment, a particular commercial property or investment will create additional value for our remaining land within the community, in addition to achieving desired investment returns on such property or investment on a stand-alone basis, (3) existing entitlements and our ability to change them, (4) compatibility of the physical site with our proposed uses, and (5) environmental considerations, traffic patterns and access to the site.
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In August 2017, the Gateway Commercial Venture, in which we own a 75% interest, acquired the Five Point Gateway Campus, consisting of approximately 73 acres of commercial land in the Great Park Neighborhoods that the Great Park Venture previously sold to a third party. The Five Point Gateway Campus currently includes approximately one million square feet planned for research and development, medical and office space in four buildings, which are designed to accommodate thousands of employees. In May 2020, the Gateway Commercial Venture closed on the sale of one building including approximately 11 acres of land within the campus to City of Hope. City of Hope operates the building as a comprehensive cancer care center and is currently constructing a hospital adjacent to the cancer care center. In August 2020, the Gateway Commercial Venture closed on the sale of two buildings to a real estate management company and operator. Our corporate headquarters are located in the fourth building, which remains owned by the Gateway Commercial Venture. In addition to the fourth building, the Gateway Commercial Venture owns approximately 50 acres of commercial land with additional development rights at the campus.
Other Properties
We own approximately 16,000 acres adjacent to our Valencia community in Ventura County that are primarily used for agriculture and energy operations. We also own remnant commercial, residential and open space land in Los Angeles County that is planned to be sold or deeded to third parties as we develop our Valencia community.
Development Management Services
Through the management company, we receive fees for providing development management services for Great Park Neighborhoods and for providing property management services to the Gateway Commercial Venture.
Competition
We compete with other residential, retail and commercial property developers in the development of properties in the Northern and Southern California markets. Significant factors that we believe allow us to compete effectively in this business include:
the size and scope of our mixed-use planned communities located in desirable and supply constrained California coastal markets;
the recreational and cultural amenities available within our communities;
the commercial centers in our communities;
our relationships with homebuilders;
the proximity of our communities to major metropolitan areas;
experienced and proven leadership with expertise in partnering with governmental entities;
significant discretion in timing and amount of land development expenditures; and
flexible capital structure with a conservative operating philosophy.
Seasonality
Our business and results of operations are not materially impacted by seasonality, however, we have historically experienced, and expect to continue to experience, variability in results of operations between comparable periods as a result of the sequencing of the development of our communities.
Regulation
Entitlement Process
Land use and zoning authority is exercised by local municipalities through the adoption of ordinances, regulations or zoning codes to direct the use and development of private property by controlling the use, size, density and location of and access to developments on private land. Such ordinances, regulations or codes typically divide uses of land into two categories—permitted uses and discretionary uses. Permitted uses are presumptively permitted, while discretionary uses are subject to a discretionary approval process, usually involving an application, an environmental review and a public hearing with input from other locally affected property owners and stake holders. In order to grant a discretionary use entitlement, the municipality must find that the use does not negatively impact surrounding properties and may condition such an entitlement with special requirements or limitations unique to each individual case. We typically obtain all discretionary entitlements and approvals necessary to develop the infrastructure within our communities and prepare our residential and commercial lots for construction. We also typically obtain all discretionary entitlements and approvals that the homebuilder or commercial builder will need to build homes or commercial buildings on our lots, although we may from time to time allocate responsibility for obtaining certain discretionary entitlements to a homebuilder or commercial builder.
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We have incurred significant costs and expenses over the last 10 to 15 years in order to obtain the primary entitlements (general plan and zoning approvals) for our communities. Once these primary entitlements are obtained, we continue to refine the mixed-use plan for each community by planning specific development areas and obtaining the necessary governmental approvals for a development area. Among other things, we typically need to obtain the following approvals for each development area: (1) approval of the subdivision maps (such as vesting tentative tract maps and parcel maps) that allow the land to be divided into separate legal lots for residential, commercial and other improvements; (2) approval of the improvement plans that set forth certain design, engineering and other elements of infrastructure, parks, homes, commercial buildings and other improvements; (3) approval of the final map that allows for the conveyance of individual homesites and commercial lots; and (4) any other discretionary approvals needed to construct, finance, sell, lease or maintain the homes or commercial buildings within a development area.
We may also need to obtain state and federal permits for land development activities in certain development areas, including, for example, permits and approvals issued by state and federal resource agencies authorizing impacts to species covered by endangered species acts or impacts to state and federal waters or wetlands.
Development areas within our communities are at various stages of planning and development and, therefore, have received different levels of discretionary entitlements and approvals. In some cases, development areas have obtained entitlements and approvals allowing homes and commercial buildings to be built and sold, and in other cases development areas require further discretionary entitlements or approvals prior to the commencement of construction. In the past, our approvals have been challenged by third parties.
Environmental Matters
Under various federal, state and local laws and regulations relating to the environment, as a current or former owner or operator of real property, we may be liable for costs and damages resulting from the presence or discharge of hazardous or toxic substances, waste or petroleum products at, on, in, under or migrating from such property, including costs to investigate and clean up such contamination and liability for damage to natural resources. Such laws often impose liability without regard to whether the owner or operator knew of, or was responsible for, the presence of such contamination, and the liability may be joint and several. These liabilities could be substantial and the cost of any required remediation, removal, fines or other costs could exceed the value of the property or our aggregate assets. In addition, the presence of contamination or the failure to remediate contamination at our properties may expose us to third-party liability for costs of remediation or personal or property damage or materially adversely affect our ability to sell, lease or develop our properties or to borrow using the properties as collateral. In addition, environmental laws may create liens on contaminated sites in favor of the government for damages and costs it incurs to address such contamination. Moreover, if contamination is discovered on our properties, environmental laws may impose restrictions on the manner in which property may be used or businesses may be operated, and these restrictions may require substantial expenditures. Such remaining contamination encountered during our construction and development activities also may require investigation or remediation, and we could incur costs or experience construction delays as a result of such discoveries.
Some of our properties were used in the past for commercial or industrial purposes, or are currently used for commercial purposes, that involve or involved the use of petroleum products or other hazardous or toxic substances, or are adjacent to or near properties that have been or are used for similar commercial or industrial purposes. As a result, some of our properties have been or may be impacted by contamination arising from the releases of such substances. For example, oil and gas wells have formerly operated or are currently operating at Valencia. In certain cases, prior owners or operators have in the past investigated or remediated, or are currently investigating or remediating, such conditions, but contamination may continue to be present at these sites, and future remedial activities could delay or otherwise impede property development on sites where contamination is present.
In addition, The San Francisco Shipyard and Great Park Neighborhoods properties were formerly operated by the U.S. Navy as defense plants. As a result of these historic operations, portions of these properties have been or currently are listed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (“USEPA”) National Priorities List as sites requiring cleanup under federal environmental laws. While investigation and cleanup activities have been substantially completed for Great Park Neighborhoods, significant work is contemplated over the next few years for certain parcels within The San Francisco Shipyard, which will delay the transfer of such parcels to us for development.
The National Environmental Policy Act (“NEPA”) requires federal agencies to integrate environmental values into their decision making processes by considering the environmental impacts of their proposed actions and reasonable alternatives to those actions. To meet NEPA requirements federal agencies prepare a detailed statement known as an Environmental Impact Statement (“EIS”). Additionally, all Department of Defense installations (such as The San Francisco Shipyard and the El Toro Base) selected for closure or realignment pursuant to the Base Closure and Realignment Acts of 1988 or 1990 and being considered for transfer by deed, and where a release or disposal of hazardous substances or petroleum products has occurred, are subject to an environmental review process and may not be transferred until a finding of suitability for transfer (“FOST”) is documented. In addition, our development projects are subject to the California Environmental Quality Act (“CEQA”), which is similar in scope to NEPA, and requires potential environmental impacts of projects subject to discretionary governmental approval to be studied by the California governmental entity approving the proposed projects. Projects with significant expected impacts require an Environmental Impact Report (“EIR”) while more limited projects may be approved based on a Mitigated Negative Declaration. All of our development sites and projects have
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either been or continue to be investigated, remediated or reviewed (with documented EISs, FOSTs and EIRs, as applicable) in accordance with the above-described and other applicable environmental laws to determine the suitability of their proposed uses and to protect human health and the environment.
New or additional permitting requirements, new interpretations of requirements, changes in our operations or litigation or community objections over the adequacy of conducted reviews and other response and mitigation actions could also trigger the need for either amended or new reviews or actions, which could result in increased costs or delays of, modification of, or denial of rights to conduct, our development programs. For additional information on legal challenges to our projects under environmental laws see “Item 3. Legal Proceedings.”
When we identify conditions that require a response under environmental laws, we endeavor to address identified contamination or mitigate risks associated with such contamination as required (or ensure that such actions are taken by other parties, such as prior owners and operators); however, we cannot assure you that we will not need to take additional action, incur additional costs, or delay or modify our development plans to address these conditions or other environmental conditions that may be discovered in the future. As a result of the foregoing, we could potentially incur material liabilities.
We are also subject to a variety of other local, state, federal and other laws and regulations concerning the environment, including those governing air emissions, wastewater discharges and use and disposal of hazardous or toxic substances. The particular environmental laws that apply to any given property vary according to multiple factors, including the property’s location, its environmental conditions and the present and former uses of the property, as well as adjoining properties. These issues may result in delays, may cause us to incur substantial compliance and other costs, and can prohibit or severely restrict development activity in environmentally sensitive regions or areas. For example, in those cases where wetlands or an endangered or threatened species are impacted by proposed development, environmental rules and regulations can result in the restriction or elimination of development in such identified environmentally sensitive areas.
Environmental laws also govern the presence, maintenance and removal of asbestos-containing materials (“ACM”) and may impose fines and penalties for failure to comply with these requirements or expose us to third-party liability (such as liability for personal injury associated with exposure to asbestos). Such laws require that owners or operators of buildings containing ACM (and employers in such buildings) properly manage and maintain the asbestos, adequately notify or train those who may come into contact with asbestos and undertake special precautions, including removal or other abatement, if asbestos would be disturbed during renovation or demolition of a building. In addition, soils at Candlestick and The San Francisco Shipyard are known to contain naturally occurring asbestos, which must be managed, including through dust management plans. In the past, we have been subject to penalties for failure to monitor asbestos dust during development activities at The San Francisco Shipyard, and although we endeavor to maintain (and to cause our contractors to maintain) compliance, we could incur such fines or penalties in the future.
FOST Process
The U.S. Navy is implementing its cleanup program at The San Francisco Shipyard pursuant to various federal laws and authorities. The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (“CERCLA”) requires the U.S. Navy to remediate The San Francisco Shipyard in accordance with a federal facilities agreement entered into with the USEPA and the State of California, which sets forth procedures and timeframes for remedial decisions and deliverables. In accordance with the federal facilities agreement, the National Contingency Plan, 40 C.F.R. Part 300 and Department of Defense procedures, the U.S. Navy’s cleanup process involves (1) preparation of a series of reports documenting various investigative and remedial activities and (2) securing approval of those reports from the USEPA and the State of California. The remedial steps and related reports, each of which is subject to review, comment and approval, are as follows:
    Preliminary assessment/site inspection.    This is an initial review of the site, including review of historical records and visual inspections. Limited sampling and analysis of soil, surface water and groundwater may also occur.
    Remedial investigation.    The remedial investigation involves a closer look into each of the areas of concern identified in the preliminary assessment/site inspection and involves collecting and analyzing samples of multiple media (soil, soil gas, sediment, groundwater, etc.). The remedial investigation addresses the nature and extent of contamination at each area of concern identified in the parcel. The remedial investigation also includes preparation of a Human Health Risk Assessment and an Ecological Risk Assessment, as appropriate. The Human Health Risk Assessment identifies the contaminants that could pose a health risk under different exposure scenarios and identifies potential numeric remediation goals.
    Feasibility study.    The feasibility study evaluates the effectiveness, implementability and cost of various alternative remedial technologies that could be used to reduce site risk to acceptable levels, based on the results of the risk assessment and other data collected during the remedial investigation.
    Proposed plan.    The proposed plan summarizes the findings of the remedial investigation and proposes a preferred remedial approach for each area of concern in the parcel based on the options evaluated in the feasibility study. This step includes a public meeting to provide the public with relevant information and an opportunity to comment on the preferred cleanup alternative.
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    Record of decision.    Once the U.S. Navy, the USEPA and the State of California select and approve the remedy for the parcel, the U.S. Navy documents and publishes the decision in the record of decision, which responds to all comments on the proposed plan.
    Remedial design.    The remedial design sets forth details of how the remedies identified in the record of decision will be carried out. The remedial design includes a detailed engineering design for implementing, operating and maintaining the selected cleanup alternative. The U.S. Navy also distributes a fact sheet to the public before beginning work on the cleanup.
    Remedial action work plan/remedial action implementation.    The U.S. Navy conducts remedial action in accordance with an approved remedial action work plan, which is based on the remedial design.
    Remedial action completion report.    Once complete, the cleanup is documented in a remedial action completion report.
    FOST.    Prior to conveyance of real property, CERCLA requires the U.S. Navy to remediate hazardous substances to a level consistent with the protection of human health and the environment. Following the completion and approval of the remedial action completion report, the U.S. Navy documents its findings that such remediation has occurred and that the property is suitable for transfer, consistent with all applicable laws and authorities, in a FOST.
Investment Policies
Investments in Real Estate or Interests in Real Estate
We are a real estate development and operating company that specializes in the development and operation of mixed-use planned communities. Our goal is to create sustainable, long-term growth and value for our shareholders. We do not currently have an investment policy; however, our board of directors may adopt one in the future.
We expect to pursue our investment objectives primarily through the ownership, development, operation and disposition of our communities: (1) Valencia; (2) Candlestick and The San Francisco Shipyard; and (3) Great Park Neighborhoods. Although we currently have no definitive agreements to acquire other properties, we may do so in the future. Our future investment or development activities will not necessarily be limited to any geographic area, product type or to a specified percentage of our assets.
We may also participate with third parties in property ownership, development and operation, through joint ventures, private equity real estate funds or other types of co-ownership. We also may acquire real estate or interests in real estate in exchange for the issuance of our Class A common shares, our preferred shares, options to purchase shares or Class A units of the operating company. These types of investments may permit us to own interests in larger assets without unduly restricting our diversification and, therefore, provide us with flexibility in structuring our portfolio.
We will limit our investment in any securities so that we do not fall within the definition of an “investment company” under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended.
Investments in Real Estate Mortgages
We may, at the discretion of our board of directors, invest in mortgages and other types of real estate interests, but we do not currently, nor do we currently intend to, engage in these activities. If we choose to invest in mortgages, we would expect to invest in mortgages secured by real property interests. We do not have a policy that restricts the proportion of our assets that may be invested in a type of mortgage or any single mortgage or type of mortgage loan.
Securities of, or Interests in, Persons Primarily Engaged in Real Estate Activities and Other Issuers
We do not currently intend to invest in securities of other entities engaged in real estate activities or securities of other issuers, including for the purpose of exercising control over such entities. However, we may do so in the future.
Investments in Other Securities
Other than as described above and for short-term securities pending long-term commitment, we do not currently intend to invest in any additional securities such as bonds, preferred shares or common shares.
Human Capital
We are innovators and collaborators in the evolution of cities in coastal California, and our associates are the force behind the success of our communities. We believe in cultivating a work environment that fosters inclusion, diversity of thought, professional development and opportunities to grow and share innovative ideas across all our community elements. Our associates are expected to exhibit and promote honest, ethical and respectful conduct in the workplace. All of our associates must adhere to a code of business conduct and ethics that sets standards for appropriate behavior and participate in required training on preventing and identifying harassment and discrimination.
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We believe that diversity within our employee base helps us to incorporate a wide range of perspectives into the development of our communities. We feel that the many cultures that live in our communities reflect the diverse mix of our associates. At December 31, 2023, women constituted approximately 46% of our workforce, and ethnic and racial minorities constituted approximately 45% of our workforce.
We have designed our compensation and benefits programs to attract, retain and engage talented individuals. Our associates are eligible for medical, dental and vision insurance, a 401(k) plan with matching contributions, health savings and flexible spending accounts, paid time off, life and disability insurance, various wellness programs, paid parental leave and employee assistance programs. In order to support the mental health and wellness of our associates, we also offer programming on self-care, nutrition, and financial well-being. We also conduct annual performance reviews for all associates. The compensation committee of our board of directors annually reviews the terms of our benefits programs made available to our associates.
We are dedicated to supporting and engaging with our communities through charitable donations, community outreach programs and the development of public schools, parks and other amenities. In addition to charitable initiatives of the company, we encourage and provide the flexibility to allow our associates to pursue outside interests and to make a difference in their local communities.
At December 31, 2023, we had approximately 90 employees, all of whom were working full-time.
Information about our Executive Officers
The following individuals are our executive officers:
NameAge  Position
Daniel Hedigan70Chief Executive Officer
Michael Alvarado 58 Chief Operating Officer, Chief Legal Officer, Vice President and Secretary
Greg McWilliams 72 Chief Policy Officer
Kim Tobler64
Chief Financial Officer, Treasurer and Vice President
Daniel Hedigan.    Mr. Hedigan has been our Chief Executive Officer since February 2022. Prior to his appointment, Mr. Hedigan served as President of Land Sales and Home Building for the Irvine Company from 2013 to 2021, where he oversaw the design, building and sales of new homes in the master-planned villages of the Irvine Ranch in Orange County, California.
Michael Alvarado.    Mr. Alvarado was appointed our Chief Operating Officer in February 2024 and has been our Chief Legal Officer, Vice President and Secretary since May 2016. From 2011 until May 2016, Mr. Alvarado served as General Counsel for the management company. Prior to joining the management company, Mr. Alvarado spent nearly 20 years at Allen Matkins Leck Gamble Mallory & Natsis LLP, a California-based law firm.
Greg McWilliams.    Mr. McWilliams has been our Chief Policy Officer since March 2018. From May 2016 until his appointment as Chief Policy Officer, Mr. McWilliams served as our Regional President-Southern California. From 2004 until May 2016, Mr. McWilliams was President of Newhall Land & Farming.
Kim Tobler.    Mr. Tobler was appointed our Chief Financial Officer in September 2023. Mr. Tobler joined us in 2016, and prior to his appointment as Chief Financial Officer, he most recently served as our Vice President – Treasury and Tax. He was a tax partner at Ernst & Young LLP from 2008 to 2016, and from 2003 to 2008, he worked at the Irvine Company as Senior Vice President – Finance and Reporting.
Available Information
Our website is www.fivepoint.com. We make available free of charge through our website our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to these reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(d) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the “Exchange Act”) as soon as reasonably practicable after being filed with, or furnished to, the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). In addition, you may obtain the documents that we file with the SEC from the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov.
We use our investor relations website as a means of disclosing material non-public information and for complying with our disclosure obligations under Regulation FD. Investors should monitor such website, in addition to following our press releases, SEC filings and public conference calls and webcasts. Information relating to our corporate governance is also included on our investor relations website. The information contained in, or that can be accessed through, our website is not incorporated by reference and is not a part of this annual report on Form 10-K.
    
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ITEM 1A.     Risk Factors
You should carefully consider the following material risks, as well as the other information contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the consolidated financial statements and the related notes. If any of the following risks actually occur, our business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects could be materially and adversely affected. In such an event, the trading price of our Class A common shares could decline and you could lose part or all of your investment.
Risks Related to Our Business and Industry
There are significant risks associated with our development and construction projects that may prevent completion on budget and on schedule.
At our projects, we are engaged in extensive construction activity to develop each community’s infrastructure, including grading and installing roads, sidewalks, gutters, utility improvements, landscaping and shared amenities and other actions necessary to prepare each residential and commercial lot for construction. In addition, although we primarily rely on homebuilders to purchase homesites at our communities and construct homes, we may in the future construct a portion of the homes ourselves. For commercial or multi-family properties that we retain or acquire in the future, we may also construct the buildings ourselves. Our development and construction activities entail risks that could make our projects less profitable and otherwise adversely impact our financial condition and results of operations, including:
increased construction costs, unavailability of raw materials when needed, and permitting or construction delays;
claims for construction-related injuries, as well as claims for warranty, product liability and construction defects;
labor stoppages or slowdowns and/or disputes with contractors, subcontractors or other third parties on whom we rely;
federal, state and local grants to complete certain highways, interchange, bridge projects or other public improvements may not be available;
unforeseen engineering, environmental or geological problems, including the potential impacts of climate change;
compliance with environmental planning and protection regulations and related legal proceedings, including governmental regulations intended to reduce greenhouse gas emissions or ameliorate projected climate change impacts;
liabilities, expenses or project delays, stoppages or interruptions as a result of challenges by third parties in legal proceedings;
delay or inability to acquire property, rights of way or easements; and
weather-related and geological interference, including landslides, earthquakes, floods, drought, wildfires and other events, including rising sea-levels due to climate change.
We cannot assure you that projects will be completed on schedule or that construction costs will not exceed budgeted amounts. Failure to complete development or construction activities on budget or on schedule may adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
We will have to make significant investments at our properties before we realize significant revenues.
We currently plan to spend material amounts on horizontal development at our communities. Those expenditures primarily reflect the costs of developing the infrastructure at our properties, including grading and installing roads, sidewalks, gutters, utility improvements, landscaping and shared amenities and other actions necessary to prepare each residential and commercial lot for construction. We may experience cost increases, our plans may change, new regulations and regulatory plan modifications or court rulings may affect our ability to develop or the cost to develop the project or circumstances may arise that result in our needing additional capital to execute our development plan. We are also required to provide performance bonds and letters of credit in the ordinary course of business to governmental authorities and others to ensure the completion of our projects or in support of obligations to build community improvements. If we are not successful in obtaining additional financing to enable us to complete our projects or are unable to obtain performance bonds or letters of credit when required, we may experience further delays or increased costs, and our financial condition and results of our operations may be adversely affected.
Our communities are all located in California, which makes us susceptible to risks in that state.
Our communities are all located in California. We have no current plans to acquire any additional properties or operations outside of California and we expect, at least for a number of years, to be dependent upon our existing projects for all of our cash flow. As a result, we are susceptible to greater risks than if we owned a larger or more geographically diverse portfolio. California also continues to suffer from severe budgetary constraints, which may result in the layoff or furlough of government employees, and California is regarded as more litigious and more highly regulated and taxed than many other states. Any adverse change in the economic, political, competitive or regulatory climate in California, or the counties and cities where our properties are located, could adversely affect our real estate development activities and have a negative impact on our financial condition and results of operations.
In addition, historically, California has been subject to natural disasters, including earthquakes, droughts, floods, wildfires and severe weather, and coastal locations may be particularly susceptible to climate stress events or adverse localized effects of climate change, such as sea-level rise and increased storm frequency or intensity. We therefore have greater exposure to the risks of natural disasters, which can lead to power shortages, shortages of labor and materials, increased costs, and delays in development. The occurrence of natural disasters may also negatively impact the availability of homeowners insurance and the demand for new homes in
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affected areas. If our insurance does not fully cover losses resulting from these events, our financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected. Additionally, if drought conditions occur within California, state and local authorities could enact restrictions or moratoriums on building permits and access to utilities, such as water and sewer taps, which could delay or prevent our construction activities, as well as the construction of homes and commercial buildings, even when we have obtained water rights for our communities.
We are highly dependent on homebuilders.
We are highly dependent on our relationships with homebuilders to purchase lots at our residential communities. Our business will be adversely affected if homebuilders do not view our residential communities as desirable locations for homebuilding operations. Also, some homebuilders may be unwilling or unable to close on previously committed land parcel purchases due to factors outside of our control. As a result, we may sell fewer land parcels and may have lower revenues from sales, which could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
Title to our property may be impaired by title defects.
We cannot give any assurance that title to our properties will not be challenged or impugned, and we cannot be certain that we have or will acquire valid title to our properties. Further, we cannot give any assurance that there are not any liens, encumbrances, mortgages, impositions, fines, violations, levies, superior title claims or other title defects or title issues (collectively, “title defects”) with respect to our properties. The lack of good, marketable fee title, or the existence of any existing title defects with respect to our properties, could materially and adversely affect our properties, including by resulting in: (1) chain of title issues (such as impediments to the potential sale, transfer, assignment or grant of any fee or leasehold interests in all or any portion of our properties); (2) financing issues (such as impediments to qualifying for a line of credit, mortgage or private equity financing); (3) development issues (such as impediments to qualifying for governmental licenses and permits or construction financing, delays in operations, or additional costs incurred in connection with any required corrective measures); (4) foreclosure, forfeiture and loss of fee title (such as resulting from a mortgage foreclosure, tax levy or rescission rights); (5) reduction of asset value; or (6) loss of revenue, capital or anticipated profits.
Although the San Francisco Venture holds title insurance on the portions of Candlestick and The San Francisco Shipyard that it currently owns and the Great Park Venture holds title insurance on Great Park Neighborhoods, we do not hold title insurance on Valencia. In any event, an owner’s title insurance policy only provides insurance coverage as of the issuance date of such policy and does not protect against transfers or other title defects that impact the properties from and after the title policy issuance dates. Accordingly, for all of our properties, whether or not we hold title insurance, it is possible that there may be title defects for which we will have no title insurance coverage.
In addition, the title insurance policies we do hold may not insure for the current aggregate market value of our properties, and we do not intend to increase our title insurance coverage as the market value of our portfolio increases. As a result, we may not have sufficient coverage against all losses that we may experience, including from adverse title claims.
Inflation may adversely affect us by increasing costs that we may not be able to recover.
Inflation can adversely affect us by increasing costs of materials and labor. In addition, inflation is often accompanied by higher interest rates, which could have a negative impact on demand for homes and the cost of debt financing. In a highly inflationary environment, depending on industry and other economic conditions, we may be unable to raise prices enough to keep up with the rate of inflation, which would reduce our profit margins. For example, we have been experiencing increases in the prices of labor and materials across all of our communities, which may adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. While inflation moderated somewhat in the latter half of 2023, interest rates and mortgage rates remain elevated relative to recent rate levels, which can decrease demand by homebuyers for new homes and soften demand by our guest builders for home sites.
Our business could be materially and adversely affected by an epidemic or pandemic, or similar public threat, or fear of such an event, and the measures that international, federal, state and local governments, agencies, law enforcement and/or health authorities implement to address it.
The U.S. and other countries have experienced, and may experience in the future, outbreaks of contagious diseases that affect public health and public perception of health risk. Federal, state and local governments and private entities in impacted regions may take actions in an effort to slow the spread of such contagious diseases, including quarantines, restrictions on travel, stay-at-home orders, social distancing measures, restrictions on types of business that may continue to operate and/or restrictions on types of construction projects that may continue, which could adversely affect our ability to operate our business. Our results of operations are affected by economic conditions, including macroeconomic conditions and levels of business confidence and consumer confidence, and our business could be negatively impacted by disruptions related to any such contagious disease. In addition, these risks and uncertainties may also have the effect of heightening many of the other risks described in this section.
Significant competition could have an adverse effect on our business.
We compete with other residential, retail and commercial property developers in the development of properties in the Northern and Southern California markets. We compete with a number of residential, retail and commercial developers, some with greater financial resources, in seeking resources for development and prospective purchasers. Competition from other real estate
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developers may adversely affect our ability to attract purchasers and sell or lease residential, retail and commercial properties, attract and retain experienced real estate development personnel or obtain construction materials and labor. These competitive conditions could make it difficult to sell properties at desirable prices and could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
Fluctuations in real estate values may require us to write down the carrying value of our real estate assets or real estate investments.
Our industry is subject to significant variability and fluctuations in real estate values. The valuation of our real estate assets or real estate investments is inherently subjective and based on the individual characteristics of each asset. Factors such as competitive market supply and demand for inventory, changes in laws and regulations, political and economic conditions and interest and inflation rate fluctuations subject our valuations to uncertainty. Our valuations are made on the basis of assumptions that may not prove to reflect economic or demographic reality. If the real estate market deteriorates, we may reevaluate the assumptions used in our analysis. As a result, adverse market conditions may require us to write down the book value of certain real estate assets or real estate investments and some of those write-downs could be material. Any material write-downs of assets could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. Also, a material write-down of assets could adversely affect our ability to meet specified financial ratios or satisfy financial condition tests under the terms of our indebtedness and could adversely affect our ability to utilize certain exceptions from various debt covenants that impose operating restrictions on us, including limitations on our ability to: pay dividends, redeem or repurchase capital stock or make other restricted payments; make certain investments; incur additional indebtedness or issue preferred stock; create certain liens; or consolidate, merge or transfer all or substantially all of our assets. See “—Risks Related to Our Organization and Structure—Our substantial indebtedness may have a material adverse effect on our business, our financial condition and results of operations and our ability to secure additional financing in the future.”
Our property taxes could increase due to rate increases or reassessments or the imposition of new taxes or assessments, which may adversely impact our financial condition and results of operations.
We will be required to pay state and local real property taxes and assessments on our properties. The real property taxes and assessments on our properties may increase as property or special tax rates increase or if our properties are assessed or reassessed at a higher value by taxing authorities. If we are obligated to pay new taxes or if there are increases in the property taxes and assessments that we currently pay, our financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
Risks Related to Laws and Regulations
Zoning and land use laws and regulations may increase our expenses, limit the number of homes or commercial square footage that can be built or delay completion of our projects and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
Our communities are subject to numerous local, state, and federal laws and other statutes, ordinances, rules and regulations concerning zoning, development, building design, construction and similar matters that impose restrictive zoning and density requirements in order to limit the number of homes or commercial square feet that can eventually be built within the boundaries of a particular area, as well as governmental taxes, fees and levies on the acquisition and development of land parcels. These regulations often provide broad discretion to the administering governmental authorities as to the conditions for our projects being approved, if approved at all. Further, if the terms and conditions of our existing development agreements with the Cities of Irvine and San Francisco are not complied with, existing entitlements under those agreements could be lost, including (in the case of San Francisco) the right to acquire certain portions of the land on which development activity is expected. New housing and commercial developments are often subject to determinations by the administering governmental authorities as to the adequacy of water and sewage facilities, roads and other local services, and may also be subject to various assessments for schools, parks, streets, affordable housing and other public improvements. As a result, the development of properties may be subject to periodic delays in certain areas due to the conditions imposed by the administering governmental authorities. Due to building moratoriums, zoning changes or “slow-growth” or “no-growth” initiatives that could be implemented in the future in the areas in which our properties are located, our communities may also be subject to periodic delays, or we could be precluded entirely from developing in certain communities or otherwise restricted in our business activities. Such moratoriums or zoning changes can occur either prior or subsequent to commencement of our development operations, without notice or recourse. Local and state governments also have broad discretion regarding the imposition of development fees for projects in their jurisdictions. Projects for which we have received land use and development entitlements or approvals may still require a variety of other governmental approvals and permits during the development process and can also be impacted adversely by unforeseen health, safety, and welfare issues, which can further delay these projects or prevent their development. As a result, revenue from land sales or leasing of retail or other commercial space may be adversely affected, or costs may increase, which could negatively affect our financial condition and results of operations.
We incur significant costs, and may be subject to delays, in obtaining entitlements, permits and approvals before we can begin development or construction of our projects and begin to recover our costs.
Before any of our projects can generate revenues, we make material expenditures to obtain entitlements, permits and development approvals. It generally takes several years to complete this process and completion times vary based on complexity of the project and the community and regulatory issues involved. Changing market conditions during the entitlement period could negatively impact our revenue from land sales or leasing of retail or other commercial space. Historically, certain of our entitlements, permits and
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development approvals have been challenged by third parties, such as environmental groups. Future entitlements, permits and development approvals that we will need to obtain for development areas within our communities may be similarly challenged.
As a result of the time and complexity involved in obtaining approvals for our projects, we face the risk that demand for residential and commercial properties may decline, and we may be forced to sell or lease properties at prices or rates that generate lower profit margins than we anticipated or that would result in losses. If values decline, we may be required to make material write-downs of the book value of our real estate assets or real estate investments.
Our projects are subject to environmental planning and protection laws and regulations that require us to obtain permits and approvals that may be delayed, withheld or challenged by third parties in legal proceedings.
Our projects are subject to various environmental and health and safety laws and regulations. These laws and regulations require us to obtain and maintain permits and approvals, undergo environmental review processes and implement environmental and health and safety programs and procedures to mitigate the physical impact our communities will have on the environment (such as traffic impacts, health and safety impacts, impacts on public services and impacts on endangered, threatened or other protected plants and species) and to control risks associated with the siting, development, construction and operation of our projects, all of which involve a significant investment of time and expense. The particular environmental requirements that apply to a project vary depending on, among other things, location, environmental conditions, current and former uses of a property, the presence or absence of certain wildlife or habitats, and nearby conditions. We expect that increasingly stringent environmental requirements will be imposed on developers in the future in light of growing concern from advocacy groups, government agencies and the general public over the effects of climate change on the environment.
Transition risks posed by new government restrictions, standards or regulations intended to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and potential climate change impacts are emerging and may increase in the future. These future environmental requirements and restrictions could affect the timing or cost of our development and could increase our operating and compliance costs or require additional technology and capital investment, which could adversely affect our results of operations. In addition, future environmental requirements or restrictions could reduce the number of homesites or amount of commercial square feet we are able to develop, increase our financial commitments to local or state agencies or organizations or otherwise reduce the profitability of the project. Failure to comply with these laws, regulations and permit requirements may result in delays, administrative, civil and criminal penalties, denial or revocation of permits or other authorizations, other liabilities and costs, the issuance of injunctions to limit or cease operations and the imposition of additional requirements for future compliance as a result of past failures.
Certain of our environmental permits and approvals have been challenged in the past by third parties, such as environmental groups. Future environmental permits and approvals that we will need to obtain for development areas within our communities may be similarly challenged.
As an owner and operator of real property, we could incur liability for environmental contamination issues.
We have incurred costs and expended funds, and may do so again in the future, to comply with environmental requirements, such as those relating to discharges or threatened discharges to air, water and land, the handling and disposal of solid and hazardous waste and the cleanup of properties affected by hazardous substances, including asbestos-containing materials. Under these and other environmental requirements, as a property owner or operator, we may be required to investigate and clean up hazardous or toxic substances or chemical releases at our communities or properties currently or formerly owned or operated by us, including as a result of the current and former oil and gas leasing operations at Valencia or as a result of prior activities conducted at the El Toro Base or The San Francisco Shipyard. Some of our properties have been or may be impacted by contamination arising from these or other prior uses of these properties or adjacent properties. In this regard, certain portions of the El Toro Base and The San Francisco Shipyard have been or currently are listed on the USEPA’s National Priorities List as sites requiring cleanup under federal environmental law. Although the U.S. Navy has been primarily responsible for investigation and cleanup activities at these properties and will continue to have liability for future contamination that is discovered, we also may incur costs for investigation or cleanup of contamination that is discovered or disturbed during the course of our future development activities or otherwise. Similarly, in the event that oil and gas operators at Valencia do not fully remediate contamination resulting from such operations, we may incur such costs. As an owner and operator of real property, we could be held responsible to a governmental entity or third parties for property damage, personal injury and investigation and cleanup costs incurred by them in connection with any contamination at or from such real property. We may also be liable for the costs of remediating contamination at off-site disposal or treatment facilities when we arrange for disposal or treatment of hazardous substances or waste at such facilities, without regard to whether we comply with environmental laws in doing so.
Environmental laws and requirements typically impose cleanup responsibility and liability without regard to whether the owner or operator knew of or caused the presence of the contaminants. The liability under the laws related to such requirements has been interpreted to be joint and several, meaning a governmental entity or third-party may seek recovery of the entire amount from us even if there are other responsible parties, unless the harm is divisible and there is a reasonable basis for allocation of the responsibility. The costs of investigation, remediation or removal of those substances, or fines, penalties and other sanctions and damages from third-party claims for property damage or personal injury, may be substantial, and the presence of those substances, or the failure to remediate a property properly, may impair our ability to sell, lease or otherwise use our property. While we currently
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have and may maintain insurance policies from time to time to mitigate some or all of these risks, insurance coverage for such claims may be limited or nonexistent. In addition, to the extent that we have indemnification rights against third parties relating to any such environmental liability or remediation costs, the indemnification may not fully cover such costs or we may not be able to collect the full amount of the indemnification from the third-party. Significant investigation and cleanup activities are contemplated over the next few years for certain of The San Francisco Shipyard parcels, which will delay transfer of such parcels to us for development.
Although most of our properties have been subjected to environmental assessments by independent environmental consultants or in the case of Great Park Neighborhoods and The San Francisco Shipyard, extensive environmental assessments by the U.S. government, these environmental assessments may not include or identify all potential environmental liabilities or risks associated with the properties. We cannot assure you that these or other environmental assessments identified all potential environmental liabilities or that we will not incur material environmental liabilities in the future. We cannot predict with any certainty the magnitude of our future expenditures relating to environmental compliance or the long-range effect, if any, of environmental laws on our operations. Compliance with such laws could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and competitive position in the future.
Increasing scrutiny and evolving expectations from investors, regulators, and other stakeholders regarding our environmental, social and governance practices and reporting may impose additional costs on us or expose us to new or additional risks.
Companies are facing increasing scrutiny related to corporate responsibility practices and reporting. Investor advocacy groups, investment funds and influential investors are also increasingly focused on these practices, especially as they relate to the environment, health and safety, board and workforce diversity, and human capital. It is possible that stakeholders may not be satisfied with our practices or the speed at which we implement new initiatives. New government regulations could also result in new or more stringent forms of oversight and could expand mandatory monitoring, reporting, diligence, and disclosure. Increased compliance costs could result in increases to our overall operational costs, and any failure to adapt to or comply with regulatory requirements or investor or stakeholder expectations and standards could negatively impact our reputation, ability to do business with certain partners, and share price.
We may from time to time be subject to litigation, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
We may from time to time be subject to various claims and routine litigation arising in the ordinary course of business. Among other things, we are, and are likely to continue to be, affected by litigation against governmental agencies related to environmental and similar approvals that we receive or seek to obtain or relating to historical contamination at our properties that have had prior industrial uses, such as The San Francisco Shipyard. For additional information on recent litigation relating to our properties, see “Item 3. Legal Proceedings.”
Litigation and other claims may result in potentially significant defense costs, settlements, fines or judgments against us, some of which may not be covered by insurance. Payment of any such costs, settlements, fines or judgments that are not insured or that exceed our insurance limits could have an adverse impact on our financial condition and results of operations. In addition, certain litigation or the resolution of certain litigation may affect the availability or cost of some of our insurance coverage and adversely affect our results of operations, expose us to increased risks that would be uninsured or adversely impact our ability to attract officers and directors. Such litigation could adversely affect the length of time and the cost required to obtain the necessary governmental approvals. In addition, adverse decisions or publicity arising from any litigation could increase the cost and length of time to obtain ultimate approval of a project, could require us to abandon all or portions of a project and could adversely affect the design, scope, plans and profitability of a project, any of which could negatively affect our financial condition and results of operations.
We may be subject to increased costs of insurance or limitations on coverage.
We maintain comprehensive insurance coverage for general liability, property, workers’ compensation and other risks on all of our properties and operations, including insurance covering certain environmental risks and liabilities. We believe the policy specifications and insured limits of these policies are adequate and appropriate. There are some risks of loss for which we may be unable to purchase insurance coverage. For example, losses associated with certain environmental risks or liabilities, floods, landslides, earthquakes and other weather-related or geologic events may not be insurable and other losses, such as those arising from terrorism, may not be economically insurable. In addition, there is no assurance that certain types of risks that are currently insurable will continue to be insurable on an economically feasible basis, and we may discontinue certain insurance coverage on some or all of our properties in the future if the cost of premiums for any of these policies in our judgment exceeds the value of the coverage discounted for the loss. If an uninsured loss or a loss in excess of insured limits occurs, we may have to incur uninsured costs to mitigate such losses or lose all or a portion of the capital invested in a property, as well as the anticipated future revenue from the property. We might also remain obligated for any financial obligations related to the property, even if the property is irreparably damaged. Future changes in the insurance industry’s risk assessment approach and pricing structure could increase the cost of insuring our properties and operations or decrease the scope of insurance coverage, either of which could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
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Moreover, we carry several different lines of insurance, placed with several large insurance carriers. If any one of these large insurance carriers were to become insolvent, we would be forced to replace the existing insurance coverage with another suitable carrier and any outstanding claims would be at risk for collection. In such an event, we cannot be certain that we would be able to replace the coverage at similar or otherwise favorable terms. Replacing insurance coverage at unfavorable rates and the potential of uncollectible claims due to carrier insolvency could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
Risks Related to Our Organization and Structure
In order to be successful, we must attract, engage, retain and integrate key personnel and have adequate succession plans in place, and failure to do so could have an adverse effect on our business.
Our success depends to a significant degree upon our ability to attract, engage, retain and integrate qualified executives and other key employees throughout all areas of our business. Identifying, developing internally or hiring externally, training and retaining highly-skilled personnel, in particular with experience in identifying, acquiring, developing, financing and managing real estate assets, are critical to our future, and competition for experienced employees can be intense. Failure to successfully hire executives and other key employees or the loss of any executives or key employees could materially and adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations. Further, such a loss could be negatively perceived in the capital markets.
Effective succession planning is also important to our long-term success. Failure to ensure effective transfer of knowledge and smooth transitions involving executives and other key employees could hinder our strategic planning, execution and future performance. Further, changes in our management team may be disruptive to our business, and any failure to successfully integrate key new hires or promoted employees could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
As a holding company, we are entirely dependent upon the operations of the operating company and its ability to make distributions to provide cash flow to us or to pay taxes and other expenses.
We are a holding company and our only investment is our interest in the operating company. The operating company conducts all of our operations and owns all of our assets. As a result, our cash flow depends upon the cash flow of the operating company and its ability to provide funds to us in the form of distributions, loans or otherwise. The distributions that we receive from the operating company are based on our ownership interest in it, which was 62.6%, as of December 31, 2023. The operating company is treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes and, as such, is generally not subject to U.S. federal income tax. Instead, taxable income is allocated to the operating company’s partners, including us. Accordingly, we incur income taxes on our proportionate share of any net taxable income of the operating company. Under the terms of the limited partnership agreement for the operating company, the operating company is obligated to make tax distributions to its partners, including us, subject to the restrictions described below. These tax distributions are generally made on a pro-rata basis. In addition to tax expenses, we also incur expenses related to our operations, including expenses under the tax receivable agreement (“TRA”), which we expect could be significant.
The ability of the operating company to make distributions in an amount sufficient to allow us to pay our taxes and operating expenses, including any payments under the TRA, is subject to the obligations of the operating company and its subsidiaries to their respective creditors. In addition, future financing arrangements may contain negative covenants limiting the ability of the operating company to make distributions to us. Furthermore, the ability of the operating company’s subsidiaries and the Great Park Venture to pay distributions to the operating company may be limited by their obligations to their respective creditors and other investors. For example, the distribution rights of the holders of legacy interests in the Great Park Venture and the Class B partnership interests in Five Point Communities, LP will reduce the cash available for distribution to the operating company. Similarly, we may be limited in our ability to move capital among the operating company and its subsidiaries as a result of future financing arrangements and obligations to creditors.
As an equity investor in the operating company and, indirectly, in our other subsidiaries and the Great Park Venture and the Gateway Commercial Venture, our right (and, therefore, the rights of our shareholders) to receive assets upon the liquidation or reorganization of the operating company and its subsidiaries, or the Great Park Venture or the Gateway Commercial Venture, will be structurally subordinated to the claims of their creditors. Even if we are recognized as a creditor of the operating company, our claims may still be subordinated to any security interest in or other lien on its assets and any debt or other obligations. Therefore, in the event of our bankruptcy, liquidation or reorganization, our consolidated assets will be available to satisfy the claims of our shareholders only after all of our liabilities and the liabilities of the operating company have been paid in full.
Lennar is our largest equity owner and will be engaging in transactions with us and may compete with us.
As of December 31, 2023, Lennar owned Class A common shares and Class B common shares representing approximately 39% of our outstanding voting interests. One of our directors is the Executive Chairman of Lennar. Lennar is one of the nation’s largest homebuilders and has in the past purchased properties from us. In the future, we expect that we will sell additional properties to Lennar. Transactions between Lennar and us must be approved by our conflicts committee. Our conflicts committee also reviews transactions between the Great Park Venture and Lennar, which are ultimately subject to approval by a majority of the members of the Great Park Venture (excluding us). Nonetheless, Lennar’s relationship with us could give it an advantage in bidding for properties that we own.
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Lennar may also compete with us and may in the future bid for, and acquire for itself, properties that we may seek to acquire. Our operating agreement contains provisions that will permit Lennar to engage in such activities and transactions.
Lennar and Castlelake and their respective affiliates control approximately 56% of the voting power of our outstanding common shares and, as a result, are able to exercise significant influence over all matters requiring shareholder approval.
Holders of our Class A common shares and our Class B common shares vote together as a single class on all matters (including the election of directors) submitted to a vote of shareholders, with a share of each class entitling the holder to one vote. As of December 31, 2023, Lennar and Castlelake and their respective affiliates beneficially owned, in the aggregate, Class A common shares and Class B common shares representing approximately 39% and 17%, respectively, of the voting power of our outstanding common shares. As a result, if these shareholders act together (which they have not agreed to do), they and their affiliates are able to exercise significant influence over all matters requiring shareholder approval, including the election of directors and approval of significant corporate transactions, which may have the effect of delaying or preventing a third-party from acquiring control of us. These transactions may include those that other shareholders deem to be in their best interests and in which those other shareholders might otherwise receive a premium for their shares over their current prices.
We will be required to pay certain investors for certain expected tax benefits.
Holders of Class A units of the operating company may exchange their units for, at our option, either Class A common shares on a one-for-one basis (subject to adjustment in the event of share splits, distributions of shares, warrants or share rights, specified extraordinary distributions and similar events), or cash in an amount equal to the market value of such shares at the time of exchange. This exchange right is currently exercisable by all holders of outstanding Class A units of the operating company. We expect that basis adjustments resulting from these transactions, if they occur, will reduce the amount of income tax we would otherwise be required to pay in the future.
Moreover, Section 704(c) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), and the U.S. Treasury regulations promulgated thereunder, require that items of income, gain, loss and deduction that are attributable to the operating company’s directly and indirectly held property, including property contributed to the operating company pursuant to the formation transactions, must be allocated among the partners of the operating company to take into account the difference between the fair market value and the adjusted tax basis of such assets on the date the formation transactions are consummated. As a result, the operating company will be required to make certain special allocations of its items of income, gain, loss and deduction that are attributable to such assets. These allocations, like the increases in tax basis described above, are likely to reduce the amount of income tax we would otherwise be required to pay.
Simultaneously with the completion of the formation transactions, we entered into a TRA with the holders of Class A units of the operating company and the holders of Class A units of the San Francisco Venture. The TRA provides for payments by us to such investors or their successors equal to 85% of the amount of cash savings, if any, in income tax we realize as a result of the structure of the formation transactions.
We expect that during the expected term of the TRA, the payments that we make to the parties to the TRA could be substantial. The actual amount and timing of any payments under the TRA will vary depending upon a number of factors, including the timing of exchanges of Class A units of the operating company, the price of our Class A common shares at the time of such exchanges, the extent to which such exchanges are taxable and our ability to use the potential tax benefits, which will depend on the amount and timing of our taxable income and the rate at which we pay income tax.
Due to the various factors that will affect the amount and timing of the tax benefits we will receive, it is not possible to determine the exact amount of payments that will be made under the TRA. If the TRA had been terminated on December 31, 2023, we estimate that the termination payment would have been approximately $106.7 million, assuming no material changes to the relevant tax law, that the aggregate value of our properties is equal to the value implied by such per share price and that SOFR is 4.8%. However, this is merely an estimate, and the actual payments made under the TRA in the event that it is terminated or otherwise could be significantly greater.
In certain circumstances, payments under the tax receivable agreement could exceed the actual tax benefits we realize.
The TRA provides that, upon a merger, asset sale or other form of business combination or certain other changes of control or if, at any time, we materially breach any of our obligations under the TRA or elect an early termination, our (or our successor’s) obligations with respect to exchanged or acquired units (whether exchanged or acquired before or after such change of control, early termination or breach) will be based on certain assumptions, including that (1) we will have sufficient taxable income to fully utilize the increased tax deductions and other benefits anticipated by the TRA, (2) all of our properties will be disposed of ratably over the period ending on the fifteenth anniversary of the date of the TRA for fair market value and (3) any Class A units of the operating company or any class A units of the San Francisco Venture that have not been exchanged will be deemed exchanged for the market value of our Class A common shares at the time of such change of control, early termination or breach. Consequently, it is possible in these circumstances that the actual cash tax savings realized by us may be significantly less than the corresponding TRA payments.
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We will not be able to recover payments made under the tax receivable agreement if the related tax benefits are subsequently disallowed.
The Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”) may challenge all or part of the tax basis increases or the special allocations upon which we calculate payments under the TRA, and a court might sustain such a challenge. Although we are not aware of any issue that would cause the IRS to challenge potential tax basis increases or other tax benefits covered under the TRA, if such basis increases or other benefits are subsequently disallowed (in whole or in part), the parties to the TRA will not be required to return any payments made in respect of such disallowed basis or other tax benefit. Consequently, it is possible in these circumstances that the actual tax savings realized by us may be significantly less than the corresponding TRA payments. However, because payments under the TRA in a year are based upon the amount by which 85% of the Company’s cumulative net tax savings exceed the payments previously made under the TRA, disallowance of basis increases or other tax benefits would reduce payments under the TRA in years after the disallowance.
Certain provisions in the operating company’s limited partnership agreement may delay or prevent acquisitions of us.
Provisions in the operating company’s limited partnership agreement may delay, or make more difficult, an acquisition or change of control of us. These provisions could discourage third parties from making proposals involving an acquisition or change of control of us, although some holders of our Class A common shares might consider such proposals, if made, desirable. These provisions include:
a requirement that the partners consent to a merger, consolidation or other combination involving the company or any sale, lease, exchange or other transfer of all or substantially all of our assets or all or any portion of our interest in the operating company unless certain criteria are satisfied; and
our ability, as sole managing general partner, to cause the operating company to issue units with terms that could delay, defer or prevent a merger or other change of control without the consent of the other partners.
Anti-takeover provisions in our operating agreement or provisions of Delaware law could prevent or delay a change in control, even if a change of control would benefit our shareholders.
Provisions of our operating agreement, as well as provisions of Delaware law, could discourage, delay or prevent a merger, acquisition or other change in control, even if a change in control would benefit our shareholders. These provisions include the following: (1) there is no cumulative voting in the election of directors; (2) our board of directors is classified so that approximately one-third of the directors are elected at each annual meeting of shareholders; (3) our board of directors is authorized to issue “blank check” preferred shares to increase the number of outstanding shares without shareholder approval; (4) shareholder action by written consent is not permitted; and (5) there are advance notice requirements for nominations for election to the board of directors or for proposing matters that can be acted upon by shareholders at shareholder meetings.
In addition, our operating agreement provides that Section 203 of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware (the “DGCL”) will be deemed to apply to us as if we were a Delaware corporation. Section 203 of the DGCL may affect the ability of an “interested shareholder” to engage in certain business combinations, including mergers, consolidations or acquisitions of additional shares, for a period of three years following the time that the shareholder becomes an “interested shareholder.” An “interested shareholder” is defined to include persons owning directly or indirectly 15% or more of the outstanding voting shares of a company.
Risks Related to Financing and Indebtedness
We may need additional capital to execute our development plan, and we may be unable to raise additional capital on favorable terms.
We may need additional capital to execute our development plan with respect to vertical development. There can be no assurance that we will be able to obtain new debt or equity financing on favorable terms, or at all, including as a result of volatility in the credit and capital markets, increases in interest rates or a decline in the value of our properties or portions thereof.
In addition, we currently expect to obtain a portion of our capital from forms of public financing, including Community Facilities District (“CFD”) bond issuances, tax increment financing, and state and federal grants, which depend, in part, on factors outside of our control. CFDs are established when local government agencies impose a special property tax on real estate located within a specific district for the purpose of financing public improvements, including streets, water, sewage, drainage, electricity, public schools, parks and fire and police protection. Our ability to obtain funds from CFDs is dependent on the value of developed property in the specific district, the collection of general property taxes from property owners in the specific district, collection of special taxes from property owners in the specific district and market interest rates at the time the CFD bonds are issued. For tax increment financing, the amount of property tax that a specific district generates is set at a base amount and as property values increase, property tax growth above that base amount, net of property taxes retained by the municipal agencies, can be used to fund redevelopment projects within the district. Our ability to obtain funds from tax increment financing is dependent on the value of developed property in the specific district, the collection of general property taxes from property owners in the specific district, the time it takes the tax assessor to update the tax rolls and market interest rates at the time the tax increment bonds are issued.
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If we need to obtain additional financing, and such financing is not available in a timely manner or on terms substantially similar to our existing financing, it could increase our cost of capital and we may experience delays or increases in costs, and our financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
Our substantial indebtedness may have a material adverse effect on our business, our financial condition and results of operations and our ability to secure additional financing in the future.
As of December 31, 2023, we had approximately $625.0 million of total indebtedness of our 7.875% senior notes due 2025. We also had $125.0 million available to be borrowed under our revolving credit facility as of December 31, 2023. In January 2024, we exchanged $623.5 million of our existing 7.875% senior notes due November 2025 for $100.0 million in cash and $523.5 million in new 10.500% initial rate senior notes due January 2028. Our indebtedness could subject us to many risks that, if realized, would adversely affect us, including the following:
our cash flow from operations may be insufficient to make required payments of principal of and interest on the debt, and a failure to pay would likely result in acceleration of such debt and could result in cross accelerations or cross defaults on other debt;
our debt may increase our vulnerability to adverse economic and industry conditions;
to the extent that we use a portion of our cash flow from operations to make payments on our debt, it reduces our funds available for operations, development, capital expenditures and future investment opportunities or other purposes;
debt covenants may limit our ability to borrow additional amounts for working capital, capital expenditures, debt service requirements, executing our development plan or other purposes;
restrictive debt covenants may limit our flexibility in operating our business, including limitations on our ability to make certain investments; incur additional indebtedness; create certain liens; incur obligations that restrict the ability of our subsidiaries to make payments to us; consolidate, merge or transfer all or substantially all of our assets; or enter into transactions with affiliates;
to the extent that our indebtedness bears interest at a variable rate (such as our revolving credit facility), we are exposed to the risk of increased interest rates;
debt covenants may limit our subsidiaries’ ability to make distributions to us; and
if any debt is refinanced, the terms of any refinancing may not be as favorable as the terms of the debt being refinanced.
A breach of any of our debt covenants could result in an event of default under that indebtedness. Such a default may allow the creditors to accelerate the related indebtedness and may result in the acceleration of other indebtedness to which a cross-acceleration or cross-default provision applies. In addition, an event of default under the credit agreement governing our revolving credit facility would permit the lenders to terminate commitments to extend further credit under that facility.
If we do not have sufficient funds to repay our debt at maturity or upon an earlier acceleration, it may be necessary to refinance the debt through additional debt or equity financings. If, at the time of any refinancing, prevailing interest rates or other factors result in a higher interest rate on such refinancing, increases in interest expense could adversely affect our cash flows and results of operations. If we are unable to refinance our debt on acceptable terms, we may be forced to dispose of our assets on disadvantageous terms, postpone investments in the development of our properties or default on our debt. In addition, to the extent we cannot meet any future debt service obligations, we will risk losing some or all of our assets that are pledged to secure such obligations.
We may increase leverage in executing our development plan, which could further exacerbate the risks associated with our substantial indebtedness.
We may decide to increase leverage to execute our development plan. Our board of directors will consider a number of factors when evaluating our level of indebtedness and when making decisions regarding the incurrence of new indebtedness, including the estimated market value of our assets and the ability of particular assets, and our company as a whole, to generate cash flow to cover the expected debt service. Although the indenture relating to our senior notes due 2028 limits our ability to incur additional indebtedness, our operating agreement does not limit the amount of debt we may incur, and our board of directors may change our target debt levels at any time without the approval of our shareholders. We may incur additional indebtedness from time to time in the future to finance working capital, capital expenditures, investments or acquisitions, or for other purposes. If we do so, the risks related to our indebtedness could intensify.
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Future debt financings, which would rank senior to our Class A common shares upon our bankruptcy or liquidation, and future offerings of equity securities that may be senior to our Class A common shares for the purposes of liquidating or other distributions, may adversely affect the market price of our Class A common shares.
In the future, we may attempt to increase our capital resources by obtaining additional debt financing (including by offering debt securities) or making additional offerings of equity securities. Upon bankruptcy or liquidation, holders of our debt and our preferred shares and lenders with respect to other borrowings will receive distributions of our available assets prior to the holders of our Class A common shares. Additional equity offerings may dilute the holdings of our existing shareholders or reduce the market price of our Class A common shares, or both. Any convertible or exchangeable securities that we issue in the future may have rights, preferences and privileges more favorable than those of our Class A common shares and may result in dilution to the holders of our Class A common shares. Holders of our Class A common shares are not entitled to preemptive rights or other protections against dilution. Our preferred shares, if issued, could have a preference on liquidating or other distributions that could limit our ability to make distributions to the holders of our Class A common shares. Our decision to issue securities in any future offering will depend on market conditions and other factors beyond our control. As a result, we cannot predict or estimate the amount, timing or nature of our future offerings, and holders of our Class A common shares bear the risk of our future offerings reducing the market price of our Class A common shares and diluting their ownership interest in our company.
We do not expect to be able to generate sufficient cash flow from operations to service all of our indebtedness and may be forced to take other actions to satisfy our obligations under our indebtedness, which may not be successful.
Our ability to make scheduled payments on or refinance our debt obligations, including our senior notes, depends on our financial condition and operating performance, which are subject to prevailing economic and competitive conditions and to certain financial, business, legislative, regulatory and other factors beyond our control. We may be unable to maintain a level of cash flows from operating activities sufficient to permit us to pay the principal, premium, if any, and interest on our indebtedness. Until such time as we can service our indebtedness with cash flow from operations, we intend to service our indebtedness, including interest on our senior notes and the revolving credit facility, from cash on hand.
If our cash flows, cash on hand and other capital resources are insufficient to fund our debt service obligations, we could face substantial liquidity problems and could be forced to reduce or delay investments and capital expenditures or to dispose of material assets or operations, seek additional indebtedness or equity capital, or restructure or refinance our indebtedness. We may not be able to effect any such alternative measures, if necessary, on commercially reasonable terms or at all and, even if successful, those alternative actions may not allow us to meet our scheduled debt service obligations. The credit agreement governing the revolving credit facility and the indenture relating to the senior notes due 2028 restrict our ability to dispose of assets and use the proceeds from those dispositions and may also restrict our ability to raise indebtedness or equity capital to be used to repay other indebtedness when it becomes due. We may not be able to consummate those dispositions or to obtain proceeds in an amount sufficient to meet any debt service obligations then due.
Our inability to generate sufficient cash flows to satisfy our debt obligations, or to refinance our indebtedness on commercially reasonable terms or at all, would materially and adversely affect our financial position and results of operations.
If we cannot make scheduled payments on our indebtedness, we will be in default and holders of our senior notes could declare all outstanding principal and interest to be due and payable, the lenders under the revolving credit facility could terminate their commitments to loan money, other indebtedness could be accelerated and we could be forced into bankruptcy or liquidation.
Risks Related to Ownership of Our Class A Common Shares
An active trading market for our Class A common shares may not be sustained and the price of our Class A common shares may be volatile.
Although our Class A common shares are listed on the NYSE, an active trading market for our Class A common shares may not be sustained. Accordingly, no assurance can be given as to the liquidity of any market for our Class A common shares, the ability of our shareholders to sell their Class A common shares or the price at which such shares may be sold. In addition, the trading market for our Class A common shares is influenced by whether industry or securities analysts publish research and reports about us, our business, our market or our competitors and, if any analysts do publish such reports, what they publish in those reports. Any analysts who do cover us may make adverse recommendations regarding our shares. If analysts fail to cover us or publish reports about us at all, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which in turn could cause our share price or trading volume to decline.
We also believe we have relatively low trading volume. Because of this limited trading volume, purchases and sales of large numbers of our shares may cause rapid price swings in our common shares. In addition, securities markets in general have experienced extreme volatility that has often been unrelated to the operating performance of particular companies. In the past, securities class action litigation has often been instituted against companies following periods of volatility in the price of their common shares. This type of litigation could result in substantial costs and divert our management’s attention and resources, which could have an adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and per share trading price of our common shares. Any broad market fluctuations may adversely affect the trading price of our Class A common shares.
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We may issue additional Class A common shares in the future in lieu of incurring indebtedness, which may dilute existing shareholders, or we may issue securities that have rights and privileges that are more favorable than the rights and privileges accorded to holders of our Class A common shares.
We may issue additional securities, including Class A common shares, options, rights and warrants, for any purpose and for such consideration and on such terms and conditions as our board of directors may determine. Our board of directors will be able to determine the class, designations, preferences, rights, powers and duties of any additional securities, including any rights to share in our profits, losses and distributions, any rights to receive assets upon dissolution or liquidation and any redemption, conversion and exchange rights. Our board of directors may use such authority to issue additional securities exchangeable for our Class A common shares, such as the Class A units of the operating company, which would dilute existing holders of our Class A common shares, or to issue securities with rights and privileges that are more favorable than those of our Class A common shares. You will not have any right to consent to or otherwise approve the issuance of any such securities or the terms on which any such securities may be issued.
Substantial amounts of our Class A common shares could be sold in the near future, which could depress our share price and result in dilution of your shares.
The sale or issuance of a substantial number of Class A common shares or other equity-related securities in the public markets, or the perception that such sales could occur, could depress the market price of our Class A common shares and impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional equity securities.
As of December 31, 2023, we had outstanding 69,199,938 Class A common shares. In addition, 79,257,314 Class A common shares are reserved for issuance upon exchange of Class A units of the operating company (including 37,870,273 Class A units of the operating company issuable upon exchange of Class A units of the San Francisco Venture) and conversion of our Class B common shares.
Holders of Class A units of the operating company may exchange their units for, at our option, either Class A common shares on a one-for-one basis (subject to adjustment for share splits and similar events) or cash in an amount equal to the market value of such shares at the time of exchange. This exchange right is currently exercisable by all holders of outstanding Class A units of the operating company. Holders of Class A units of the San Francisco Venture may exchange their units for Class A units of the operating company on a one-for-one basis (with no holding period), subject to certain exceptions.
We have an effective shelf registration statement on Form S-3 under which we registered with the SEC the resale of Class A common shares held by certain of our existing shareholders and the Class A common shares that we may issue in exchange for Class A units of the operating company or Class A units of the San Francisco Venture. We are required to use our reasonable efforts to keep the Form S-3 registration statement (or a successor registration statement) effective until there are no longer any registrable securities other than Class A common shares that can be sold under Rule 144 without any limitation as to volume or manner of sale. In addition, 7,582,152 Class A common shares were available for future issuance under our incentive award plan as of December 31, 2023.
We cannot predict whether future issuances or sales of our Class A common shares or the availability of shares for resale in the open market will decrease the per share trading price of our Class A common shares. The per share trading price of our Class A common shares may decline significantly when the restrictions on resale by certain of our shareholders lapse or upon the registration of additional Class A common shares pursuant to registration rights granted to certain shareholders.
We do not intend to pay distributions on our Class A common shares for the foreseeable future.
We have no current plans to pay distributions on our Class A common shares in the foreseeable future. We intend to retain our earnings, if any, to use in our ongoing operations. Any decision to declare and pay distributions in the future will be made at the sole discretion of our board of directors and will depend on, among other things, our financial condition, results of operations, cash requirements, contractual restrictions and other factors that our board of directors may deem relevant. In addition, because we are a holding company and our only investment is our interest in the operating company, we will only be able to pay distributions from funds we receive from the operating company. Our board of directors has the authority to issue one or more series of preferred shares without action of our shareholders. The issuance of preferred shares could have the effect of limiting distributions on our Class A common shares. Accordingly, you may need to sell your Class A common shares to realize a return on your investment, and you may not be able to sell your shares at or above the price you paid for them.
General Risk Factors
Cyber-attacks or acts of cyber-terrorism could disrupt our business operations and information technology systems or result in the loss or exposure of confidential or sensitive employee or company information.
Our business operations and information technology systems, and the information technology systems we use that are provided or managed by third-party service providers, may be attacked by individuals or organizations intending to disrupt our business operations and information technology systems and those of our third-party service providers, whether through cyber-attacks or cyber-intrusions over the Internet, malware, computer viruses, attachments to e-mails, persons inside our organization, or persons with access to systems inside our organization. The risk of a security breach or disruption, particularly through cyber-attacks or cyber-intrusion, including by computer hackers, foreign governments, and cyber terrorists, has generally increased as the number, intensity
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and sophistication of attempted attacks and intrusions from around the world have increased. We rely on information technology systems to conduct important operational activities and to maintain our business and employee records and financial data. Disruption of those systems could adversely impact our ability to conduct development activities and to otherwise operate our business. Accordingly, if such an attack or act of terrorism were to occur, our operations and financial results could be adversely affected.
In addition, we use our information technology systems to protect confidential or sensitive employee and company information developed and maintained in the normal course of our business. Any attack on such systems that would result in the unauthorized release or loss of employee or other confidential or sensitive data could have a material adverse effect on our business. There can be no assurance that our cybersecurity risk management program and processes, including our policies, controls or procedures, will be fully implemented, complied with or effective in protecting our systems and information. If we fail, or are perceived to have failed, to properly respond to security breaches of our or third-party’s information technology systems or fail to properly respond to consumer requests under applicable privacy laws, we could experience reputational damage, an increase in our costs and exposure to additional material legal claims and liability. As a result, our operations and financial results and our share price could be adversely affected.
Unstable market and economic conditions may have serious adverse consequences on our business, financial condition and stock price.
From time to time, the global credit and financial markets have experienced extreme volatility and disruptions, including severely diminished liquidity and credit availability, declines in consumer confidence, declines in economic growth, increases in unemployment rates and uncertainty about economic stability. There can be no assurance that future deterioration in credit and financial markets and confidence in economic conditions will not occur. Our business strategy and performance may be adversely affected by any such economic downturn, volatile business environment or continued unpredictable and unstable market conditions. The financial markets and the global economy may also be adversely affected by the current or anticipated impact of military conflict, terrorism or other geopolitical events. Sanctions imposed by the United States and other countries in response to such conflicts may also adversely impact the financial markets and the global economy, and any economic countermeasures by the affected countries or others could exacerbate market and economic instability. If the current equity and credit markets deteriorate, it may make any necessary debt or equity financing more difficult, more costly and more dilutive. Failure to secure any necessary financing in a timely manner and on favorable terms could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and stock price.
ITEM 1B.    Unresolved Staff Comments
None.

ITEM 1C.    Cybersecurity
Risk Management and Strategy
We understand the importance of identifying and managing cybersecurity risks that could materially disrupt our business operations. We rely on information technology systems to conduct important operational activities and to maintain business and employee records and financial data. Disruption of these systems could adversely impact our ability to conduct business activities.
We have implemented a cybersecurity risk management program intended to protect the security and availability of our critical systems and information. Our program incorporates certain guiding principles from the National Institute of Standards and Technology Cybersecurity Framework (“NIST CSF”). This does not imply that we meet any particular technical standards, specifications, or requirements, only that we use the NIST CSF as a guide to help us identify, assess, and manage cybersecurity risks relevant to our business. Our program includes a cybersecurity incident response plan that consists of incident identification, classification, investigation and diagnosis, response, and recovery.
Our process for managing cybersecurity risk is a collaborative effort that includes key members of our information technology, legal, and finance departments, as well as internal audit and third-party cybersecurity firms. Our cybersecurity program takes into consideration the identification of critical data assets, information technology systems, third party service providers, and business processes that may be susceptible to cybersecurity threats. Potential technology vendor relationships are vetted based on the nature of services or technology being provided, and we continue to evaluate these relationships to determine the ongoing necessity of the services and the vendor’s risk management posture.
As part of our cybersecurity program, we have implemented various strategies and processes to manage cybersecurity risks, which include:
providing training and guidance to our employees on cybersecurity threats and emerging trends, including phishing simulations to increase awareness of potential critical security threats;
obtaining independent and objective assessments by our internal audit department;
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annual review of Service Organization Controls (“SOC”) reports from our critical third-party vendors based upon a determination of their relative importance and risk level;
implementing preventative and detective security tools; and
using both internal resources and third-party security firms to provide ongoing monitoring of both internal systems as well as activity within third-party environments.
We also maintain insurance coverage for cybersecurity incidents. We have not identified risks from known cybersecurity threats, including as a result of any prior cybersecurity incidents, that have materially affected or are reasonably likely to materially affect us, including our operations, business strategy, results of operations, or financial condition. We describe the risks from cybersecurity threats that could affect our operations and financial results under the heading “Cyber-attacks or acts of cyber-terrorism could disrupt our business operations and information technology systems or result in the loss or exposure of confidential or sensitive employee or company information.” included as part of our Item 1A. Risk Factors of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, which disclosures are incorporated by reference herein.
Governance
Our board of directors has designated the audit committee to oversee our exposure to risk, including risks related to cybersecurity threats, and the steps management has taken to monitor and control such risks. The audit committee receives periodic updates from our Vice President – Information Systems on our cybersecurity program and potential material cybersecurity threats. The audit committee is regularly informed about (1) the results of independent and objective assessments of key components of our cybersecurity program as reported by our internal audit department and (2) material risks that could impact our operations or financial condition and the measures implemented to adequately mitigate relevant risks. The audit committee regularly reports to our board of directors regarding its activities, including those related to cybersecurity risk oversight, and members of our board of directors periodically discuss cybersecurity matters with members of management.
We have established a security committee, which contains management representation from our information technology, legal, and finance groups. The security committee includes our Vice President – Information Systems, who has more than 15 years of experience in the following information technology areas: compliance, security, auditing, vendor management, and systems and network operations. The security committee oversees our cybersecurity incident response plan and is responsible for assessing and managing cybersecurity threats and evaluating the potential impact of such threats on our business strategy, results of operations, and overall financial condition. The security committee supervises efforts to prevent, detect, mitigate, and remediate cybersecurity risks and incidents through various means, which may include threat intelligence and other information obtained from governmental, public or private sources, including external consultants engaged by us; and alerts and reports produced by security tools deployed in the information technology systems environment. Our Vice President - Information Systems is responsible for proposing strategies and tactics to mitigate cybersecurity threats, which are subject to review and approval by the security committee.
ITEM 2.     Properties
We lease and maintain our principal executive office located in Irvine, California. We also lease and maintain offices in Valencia, California and San Francisco, California near our mixed-use planned communities in those respective areas. We believe our present facilities are sufficient to support our operations.
We are developing new, vibrant and sustainable communities that, in addition to homesites, include commercial, retail, educational and recreational elements, as well as civic areas, parks and open spaces. We are the initial developer of our three communities that are designed to include approximately 40,000 residential homes and approximately 23 million square feet of commercial space over a period of more than 10 years. The properties we are developing at our mixed-use planned communities are held as inventory in the ordinary course of the planning and development process. Please review “Part I, Item 1. Business—Our Communities” for a description of each of our communities and our commercial venture.
ITEM 3.     Legal Proceedings
On February 27, 2020, we and CP Development Co., LLC (an indirect subsidiary of ours) filed two lawsuits in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California. These lawsuits name as defendants the United States of America and Tetra Tech (and a Tetra Tech subsidiary), respectively. The lawsuits allege damages with respect to the financial harm resulting from (among other things) the delayed delivery to us of the remaining parcels of The San Francisco Shipyard, which parcels remain subject to further retesting by the U.S. Navy as a result of Tetra Tech’s allegedly fraudulent conduct. These lawsuits seek, in part, compensatory damages, equitable indemnification for the costs incurred in defending against the other lawsuits filed against us related to Tetra Tech’s activities, and attorneys’ fees.
Please refer to Note 13 of our consolidated financial statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this report, which is incorporated herein by reference, for descriptions of additional legal proceedings to which we are a party.
ITEM 4.     Mine Safety Disclosures
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Not applicable.
PART II
ITEM 5.     Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Our Class A common shares are traded on the New York Stock Exchange (the “NYSE”) under the symbol “FPH.” Our shares have been publicly traded since May 10, 2017. Our Class B common shares are neither listed nor traded on any stock exchange.
No distributions on our Class A or Class B common shares have been declared or paid since the formation transactions. Any future determination related to our distribution policy will be made at the sole discretion of our board of directors and will depend on, among other things, our financial condition, results of operations, cash requirements, contractual restrictions and other factors our board of directors may deem relevant. Because we are a holding company and our only investment is our interest in the operating company, we will only be able to pay distributions from funds we receive from the operating company. In addition, the operating company’s ability to pay distributions to us will depend on the ability of its consolidated and nonconsolidated subsidiaries to pay dividends or distributions to the operating company. The priority distribution rights of the holders of legacy interests in the Great Park Venture and the Class B partnership interests in FP LP will limit the cash available for distribution to the operating company until such rights are satisfied in full.
Holders of our Class B common shares are entitled to receive distributions of the same type and at the same time as any distribution payable on our outstanding Class A common shares in an amount per Class B common share equal to the amount of distributions paid on 0.0003 Class A common shares.
As of February 29, 2024, there were 50 and 8 holders of record of our Class A and Class B common shares, respectively.
Our board of directors may, from time to time, in its sole discretion, authorize our company to repurchase our outstanding shares. There were no repurchases of our shares during the year ended December 31, 2023.
Performance Graph
The following graph compares the cumulative total return of our Class A common shares with the S&P 500 and the S&P Homebuilders Select Industry Index from December 31, 2018 through December 31, 2023. The graph assumes $100 was invested at the market close on December 31, 2018 in our Class A common shares, the S&P 500 and the S&P Homebuilders Select Industry Index, and the reinvestment of all dividends.
2023 Performance Graph.jpg
Recent Sale of Unregistered Securities
We conduct all of our business in or through our subsidiary, the operating company. Under the Limited Partnership Agreement of the operating company, holders (the “Class A Unit Holders”) of Class A units of the operating company (“Class A Units”) may exchange their Class A Units for, at our option, either (1) Class A common shares on a one-for-one basis (subject to adjustment in the event of share splits, distributions of shares, warrants or share rights, specified extraordinary distributions and similar events), or (2) cash in an amount equal to the market value of such shares at the time of exchange.
During the year ended December 31, 2023, no redemption notices were received from Class A Unit Holders.
ITEM 6.     [Reserved]
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ITEM 7.    Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Forward-Looking Statements
The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our consolidated audited financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this report. This discussion contains forward-looking statements and involves numerous risks and uncertainties, including but not limited to those described in the “Item 1A. Risk Factors” section of this report. Actual results could differ materially from those set forth in any forward-looking statements. See “Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”
Overview
Our Company
We conduct all of our business in or through our operating company, Five Point Operating Company, LP (the “operating company”). We are, through a wholly owned subsidiary, the sole managing general partner and owned, as of December 31, 2023, approximately 62.6% of the operating company. The operating company directly or indirectly owns equity interests in:
Five Point Land, LLC, which owns The Newhall Land & Farming Company, a California limited partnership, the entity that is developing Valencia, our community in northern Los Angeles County, California;
The Shipyard Communities, LLC (the “San Francisco Venture”), which is developing Candlestick and The San Francisco Shipyard, our communities in the City of San Francisco, California;
Heritage Fields LLC (the “Great Park Venture”), which is developing Great Park Neighborhoods, our community in Orange County, California;
Five Point Office Venture Holdings I, LLC (the “Gateway Commercial Venture”), which owns portions of the Five Point Gateway Campus, a commercial office, research and development and medical campus located within the Great Park Neighborhoods; and
Five Point Communities, LP and Five Point Communities Management, Inc. (together, the “management company”), which provide development and property management services for the Great Park Neighborhoods and the Five Point Gateway Campus.
The operating company consolidates and controls the management of all of these entities, except for the Great Park Venture and the Gateway Commercial Venture. The operating company owns a 37.5% percentage interest in the Great Park Venture and a 75% interest in the Gateway Commercial Venture and accounts for its interest in both using the equity method. Please review “Structure and Formation of Our Company”, “Our Communities” and “Commercial” under Part I, Item 1 of this report for a description of our organizational structure, each of our communities and our commercial venture.
Operational Highlights and Outlook
In 2023, we continued to focus on three main priorities: generating revenue and positive cash flow, managing our capital spend to match near-term revenue opportunities, and controlling our selling, general and administrative (“SG&A”) costs. Our execution on these priorities allowed us to have a strong year, notwithstanding the challenging economic environment. In 2023, California’s housing dynamics remained favorable for new home sales, driven in part by California’s housing shortage and compounded by production constraints created by the limited availability of land, labor and materials. Based in part on these continuing dynamics, we believe that we will see strong demand in 2024 for our land from the homebuilders in our markets. We are also cautiously optimistic that improvement in the capital markets will allow for commercial land demand to rebound potentially in the latter half of 2024.
At Valencia, we closed the sale of 729 homesites on approximately 72 acres for an aggregate purchase price of $162.4 million in 2023. With a focus on managing capital spend to optimize the timing and amount of spending in relation to anticipated revenues, we were able to work with our homebuilder partners to shift some of the final land development costs to the builder, and we adjusted our sales pricing accordingly. We will continue to look to minimize our capital spend between revenue opportunities. Valencia guest homebuilders sold 297 homes during 2023, for a total of 1,244 homes sold since sales began in May 2021. By the end of 2023, 12 of our initial 18 neighborhoods had sold out, and our guest homebuilders had also opened three additional neighborhoods at our newest development area. Homes in these neighborhoods consist of a wide mix of attached and detached single family homes that are attracting first time buyers along with trade-up buyers.
At the Great Park Neighborhoods, in which we have a 37.5% percentage interest and manage all aspects of the development cycle, the Great Park Venture recognized land sale revenue of $532.0 million from the sale of 38 acres of commercial land and 798 homesites on approximately 84 acres of land. For the homesite sales, the Great Park Venture recognized $357.8 million in revenue, consisting of $214.7 million paid at closing, plus $143.1 million of additional revenue representing estimated variable consideration
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from future price participation payments expected to be received when homes are sold to homebuyers. The Great Park Venture made distributions and related participating payments with proceeds from the land sales, of which we received approximately $195.8 million for both our ownership interests and incentive management fee compensation. Home sales by guest homebuilders totaled 628 homes in 2023, with very limited inventory available at the end of the year. Our next neighborhood, Luna Park, is comprised of 798 homes across 13 builder collections and is expected to open in phases from March 2024 through December 2024.
At December 31, 2023, we had $353.8 million in cash and $125.0 million available under our revolving credit facility, giving us total liquidity of $478.8 million. In January 2024, we utilized a portion of our cash in completing a senior notes exchange transaction in which we exchanged $623.5 million of our existing 7.875% senior notes due November 2025 for $100.0 million in cash and $523.5 million in new 10.500% initial rate senior notes due January 2028. The new senior notes due January 2028 will accrue interest at a rate of 10.500% until November 2025, at a rate of 11.000% from November 2025 to November 2026, and at a rate of 12.000% from November 2026 through the maturity date.
Factors That May Influence our Results of Operations
Fluctuations in the Economy and Market Conditions
Our results of operations are subject to various risks and fluctuations in value and demand, many of which are beyond our control. Our business could be impacted by, among other things, downturns in economic conditions at the national, regional or local levels, particularly where our communities are located, inflation and increases in interest rates, significant job losses and unemployment levels, and declines in consumer confidence and spending.
Inflation poses a risk to our business due to the possibility that higher prices would increase our development expenditures. In particular, our development expenditures are influenced by the price of oil, which is used in our development activities, including grading and paving roads. However, inflation can also indirectly improve our revenues by increasing the amount that homebuyers and commercial buyers are willing to pay for newly constructed homes and commercial buildings, which in turn, increases the amount that homebuilders and commercial developers are willing to pay for our residential and commercial lots.
Supply and Demand for Residential and Commercial Properties
We generate most of our revenue from land sales, which are dependent on demand from homebuilders, commercial developers and commercial buyers, which is in turn dependent on the prices that homebuyers, commercial buyers and renters are expected to pay. In addition, sales of homesites typically include participation provisions that allow us to share in the profits realized by the homebuilders if the overall profitability of a block of homes exceeds an agreed-upon margin. Because our revenue is influenced by the prices that homebuyers and commercial buyers are willing to pay for homes or commercial buildings in our region, our results of operations may be influenced by, among other things, the overall supply and demand for housing and commercial properties, the prevailing interest rates for mortgages, and the availability of mortgage financing for residential and commercial developers and residential and commercial buyers.
Timing of Obtaining the Necessary Approvals for Development Activities
As a developer of real property in California, we are subject to numerous land use and environmental laws and regulations. Before we can begin developing our communities or development areas within them, we must obtain entitlements, permits and approvals. Depending upon the type of the approval being sought, we may also need to complete an environmental impact report, remediate environmental impacts or agree to finance or develop public infrastructure within the community or applicable development area, each of which would impose additional costs on us. In the event that we materially modify any of our existing entitlements, approvals or permits, we may also need to go through a discretionary approval process before the relevant governmental authority or go through an additional or supplemental environmental review and certification process.
In addition, laws and regulations governing the approval processes provide third parties with the opportunity to challenge our entitlements, permits and approvals. The prospect of these third-party challenges creates additional uncertainty. Third-party challenges in the form of litigation can adversely affect the length of time or the cost required to obtain the necessary governmental approvals to develop, or result in the denial of our right to develop the particular community or development area in accordance with our current development plans. Furthermore, adverse decisions arising from any litigation can increase the cost or length of time to obtain ultimate approval of a project, if such approval is obtained at all, and can adversely affect the design, scope, plans and profitability of a project, which can negatively affect our financial condition and results of operations. See Part I, Item 3, of this report for a discussion of legal proceedings.
As a result of many of the factors described above, we have historically experienced, and expect to continue to experience, variability in results of operations between comparable periods.
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Segments
Our four reportable operating segments include our three community segments, Valencia, San Francisco and Great Park, and our Commercial segment:
Our Valencia segment includes operating results related to the Valencia community and agricultural operations in Los Angeles and Ventura Counties, California. Our investment in the Valencia Landbank Venture is also reported in the Valencia segment.
Our San Francisco segment includes operating results for the Candlestick and The San Francisco Shipyard communities.
Our Great Park segment includes operating results for the Great Park Neighborhoods community as well as development management services provided by the management company for the Great Park Venture.
Our Commercial segment includes the operating results of the Gateway Commercial Venture’s ownership in the Five Point Gateway Campus as well as property management services provided by the management company for the Gateway Commercial Venture.
Results of Operations
The following tables and related discussions on the results of operations are for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022. Refer to Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” under Part II of our annual report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022 for financial data and related comparative discussions on results of operations for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, which is incorporated herein by reference.
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The Company
The following table summarizes our consolidated historical results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022.
Year Ended December 31,
20232022
(in thousands)
Statement of Operations Data
REVENUES:
Land sales
$160,796 $913 
Land sales—related party
595 7,512 
Management services—related party
47,621 31,433 
Operating properties
2,720 2,836 
Total revenues
211,732 42,694 
COSTS AND EXPENSES:
Land sales
105,651 (996)
Management services
22,170 20,261 
Operating properties
6,167 8,230 
Selling, general, and administrative
51,495 54,591 
Restructuring— 19,437 
Total costs and expenses
185,483 101,523 
OTHER INCOME (EXPENSE):
Interest income
7,230 826 
Miscellaneous
(776)245 
Total other income
6,454 1,071 
EQUITY IN EARNINGS FROM UNCONSOLIDATED ENTITIES76,595 21,513 
INCOME (LOSS) BEFORE INCOME TAX BENEFIT109,298 (36,245)
INCOME TAX BENEFIT4,418 1,471 
NET INCOME (LOSS)113,716 (34,774)
LESS NET INCOME (LOSS) ATTRIBUTABLE TO NONCONTROLLING INTERESTS58,322 (19,371)
NET INCOME (LOSS) ATTRIBUTABLE TO THE COMPANY$55,394 $(15,403)
Revenues. Revenues increased by $169.0 million, to $211.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, from $42.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2022. The increase in revenues was primarily due to land sales at our Valencia segment in 2023 compared to no land sales in 2022 and an increase in management services revenue at our Great Park segment in 2023.
Cost of land sales. The cost of land sales for the year ended December 31, 2023 was attributable to land sales at our Valencia segment.
Cost of management services. Cost of management services increased by $1.9 million, or 9.4%, to $22.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, from $20.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2022. The increase was primarily due to an increase in intangible asset amortization expense at our Great Park segment.
Selling, general, and administrative. SG&A expenses decreased by $3.1 million, or 5.7%, to $51.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, from $54.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2022. The decrease was mainly attributable to a decrease in employee related and selling and marketing expenses.
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Restructuring. On February 9, 2022, Daniel Hedigan was appointed as our Chief Executive Officer. Preceding Mr. Hedigan’s appointment, Emile Haddad stepped down from his roles as Chairman, Chief Executive Officer and President effective as of September 30, 2021 and transitioned into a senior advisory role pursuant to a three-year advisory agreement. Mr. Haddad remains a member of our board of directors serving as Chairman Emeritus. Concurrent with Mr. Hedigan’s appointment, Lynn Jochim transitioned from her position as President and Chief Operating Officer into an advisory role pursuant to a three-year advisory agreement. Upon the appointment of Mr. Hedigan as our Chief Executive Officer, we accrued a related party liability of $15.6 million attributed to advisory agreement payments due to Mr. Haddad and Ms. Jochim over the term of the respective advisory agreements. In addition, we determined the service condition associated with Mr. Haddad’s and Ms. Jochim’s unvested restricted share awards had been modified. As a result of this modification, we recognized approximately $3.0 million in share-based compensation expense as a restructuring cost during the year ended December 31, 2022.
In addition to our executive management restructuring activities, during the year ended December 31, 2022, we incurred $0.9 million in restructuring costs for severance benefits from layoffs that occurred in March 2022.
Equity in earnings from unconsolidated entities. Our consolidated results reflect our share in the earnings or losses of our interests in our unconsolidated entities, including the Great Park Venture and the Gateway Commercial Venture, within equity in earnings from unconsolidated entities on our consolidated statement of operations. Our segment results for the Great Park segment and the Commercial segment present the results of the Great Park Venture and the Gateway Commercial Venture at the book basis of the ventures within the respective segments.
Equity in earnings from unconsolidated entities increased by $55.1 million, to $76.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, from $21.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2022. Equity in earnings for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022 was primarily a result of recognizing our share of the net income of the Great Park Venture generated from land sales in 2023 and land and home sales in 2022.
Income taxes. All operations are carried on through our subsidiaries, the majority of which are pass-through entities that are generally not subject to federal or state income taxation, as all of the taxable income, gains, losses, deductions, and credits are passed through to the partners, including the partners of the operating company and the San Francisco Venture. We are responsible for income taxes on our allocable share of the operating company's income or gain. Pre-tax income of $109.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2023 resulted in a tax benefit of $4.4 million. The tax benefit was primarily the result of the increase in net deferred tax assets exceeding the net increase in deferred tax liabilities including the $17.6 million release of our valuation allowance. We assessed the realization of the net deferred tax asset and the need for a valuation allowance, based on positive and negative evidence, and determined that at December 31, 2023, it was more likely than not that such net deferred tax assets would be fully realized, and our valuation allowance was released. Pre-tax loss of $36.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2022 resulted in a tax benefit of $1.5 million. The tax benefit was primarily the result of the increase in net deferred tax assets exceeding the net increase in deferred tax liabilities after changes in our valuation allowance. We assessed the realization of the net deferred tax asset and the need for a valuation allowance, based on positive and negative evidence, and determined that at December 31, 2022, it was more likely than not that such net deferred tax assets would not be fully realized. Our effective tax rate for the year ended December 31, 2023 decreased from the year ended December 31, 2022 due to the release of the valuation allowance in the current period, net of changes in permanent differences, including executive compensation subject to limitations.
Net income (loss) attributable to noncontrolling interests. Until exchanged for our Class A common shares or, at our election, cash, noncontrolling interests represent interests held by other partners in the operating company and other members of the San Francisco Venture. Net income or loss attributable to the noncontrolling interests on the consolidated statement of operations represents the portion of earnings or losses attributable to the interests in our subsidiaries held by the noncontrolling interests.
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Segment Results and Financial Information
The following tables reconcile the results of operations of our segments to our consolidated results for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022 (in thousands).
Year Ended December 31, 2023
ValenciaSan FranciscoGreat ParkCommercial
Total reportable segments
Corporate and unallocatedTotal under management
Removal of unconsolidated entities(1)
Total consolidated
REVENUES:
Land sales$160,796 $— $538,612 $— $699,408 $— $699,408 $(538,612)$160,796 
Land sales—related party595 — 16,213 — 16,808 — 16,808 (16,213)595 
Management services—related party(2)
— — 47,190 431 47,621 — 47,621 — 47,621 
Operating properties2,066 654 — 8,482 11,202 — 11,202 (8,482)2,720 
Total revenues163,457 654 602,015 8,913 775,039 — 775,039 (563,307)211,732 
COSTS AND EXPENSES:
Land sales105,651 — 237,148 — 342,799 — 342,799 (237,148)105,651 
Home sales— — 161 — 161 — 161 (161)— 
Management services(2)
— — 22,170 — 22,170 — 22,170 — 22,170 
Operating properties6,167 — — 3,488 9,655 — 9,655 (3,488)6,167 
Selling, general, and administrative11,577 3,989 10,927 6,406 32,899 35,929 68,828 (17,333)51,495 
Management fees—related party— — 65,395 — 65,395 — 65,395 (65,395)— 
Total costs and expenses123,395 3,989 335,801 9,894 473,079 35,929 509,008 (323,525)185,483 
OTHER INCOME (EXPENSE):
Interest income— 22 7,490 58 7,570 7,208 14,778 (7,548)7,230 
Interest expense— — — (2,531)(2,531)— (2,531)2,531 — 
Miscellaneous1,012 — — — 1,012 (1,788)(776)— (776)
Total other income (expense)1,012 22 7,490 (2,473)6,051 5,420 11,471 (5,017)6,454 
EQUITY IN EARNINGS FROM UNCONSOLIDATED ENTITIES562 — 1,926 — 2,488 — 2,488 74,107 76,595 
SEGMENT PROFIT (LOSS)/INCOME BEFORE INCOME TAX BENEFIT41,636 (3,313)275,630 (3,454)310,499 (30,509)279,990 (170,692)109,298 
INCOME TAX BENEFIT— — — — — 4,418 4,418 — 4,418 
SEGMENT PROFIT (LOSS)/NET INCOME$41,636 $(3,313)$275,630 $(3,454)$310,499 $(26,091)$284,408 $(170,692)$113,716 
(1) Represents the removal of the Great Park Venture and Gateway Commercial Venture operating results, which are included in the Great Park segment and Commercial segment operating results at 100% of each venture’s historical basis, respectively, but are not included in our consolidated results as we account for our investment in each venture using the equity method of accounting.
(2) For the Great Park and Commercial segments, represents the revenues and expenses attributable to the management company for providing services to the Great Park Venture and the Gateway Commercial Venture, as applicable.

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Year Ended December 31, 2022
ValenciaSan FranciscoGreat ParkCommercial
Total reportable segments
Corporate and unallocatedTotal under management
Removal of unconsolidated entities(1)
Total consolidated
REVENUES:
Land sales$913 $— $270,882 $— $271,795 $— $271,795 $(270,882)$913 
Land sales—related party7,512 — 12,520 — 20,032 — 20,032 (12,520)7,512 
Home sales— — 40,475 — 40,475 — 40,475 (40,475)— 
Management services—related party(2)
— — 31,015 418 31,433 — 31,433 — 31,433 
Operating properties2,146 690 — 8,395 11,231 — 11,231 (8,395)2,836 
Total revenues10,571 690 354,892 8,813 374,966 — 374,966 (332,272)42,694 
COSTS AND EXPENSES:
Land sales(996)— 155,692 — 154,696 — 154,696 (155,692)(996)
Home sales— — 29,692 — 29,692 — 29,692 (29,692)— 
Management services(2)
— — 20,261 — 20,261 — 20,261 — 20,261 
Operating properties8,230 — — 2,645 10,875 — 10,875 (2,645)8,230 
Selling, general, and administrative13,602 4,087 18,127 4,289 40,105 36,902 77,007 (22,416)54,591 
Restructuring— — — — — 19,437 19,437 — 19,437 
Management fees—related party— — 53,298 — 53,298 — 53,298 (53,298)— 
Total costs and expenses20,836 4,087 277,070 6,934 308,927 56,339 365,266 (263,743)101,523 
OTHER INCOME (EXPENSE):
Interest income1,532 — 1,534 824 2,358 (1,532)826 
Interest expense— — — (1,541)(1,541)— (1,541)1,541 — 
Loss on extinguishment of debt— — — (89)(89)— (89)89 — 
Miscellaneous245 — — — 245 — 245 — 245 
Total other income (expense)246 1,532 (1,630)149 824 973 98 1,071 
EQUITY IN EARNINGS FROM UNCONSOLIDATED ENTITIES1,196 — 354 — 1,550 — 1,550 19,963 21,513 
SEGMENT (LOSS) PROFIT/LOSS BEFORE INCOME TAX BENEFIT(8,823)(3,396)79,708 249 67,738 (55,515)12,223 (48,468)(36,245)
INCOME TAX BENEFIT— — — — — 1,471 1,471 — 1,471 
SEGMENT (LOSS) PROFIT/NET LOSS$(8,823)$(3,396)$79,708 $249 $67,738 $(54,044)$13,694 $(48,468)$(34,774)
(1) Represents the removal of the Great Park Venture and Gateway Commercial Venture operating results, which are included in the Great Park segment and Commercial segment operating results at 100% of each venture’s historical basis, respectively, but are not included in our consolidated results as we account for our investment in each venture using the equity method of accounting.
(2) For the Great Park and Commercial segments, represents the revenues and expenses attributable to the management company for providing services to the Great Park Venture and the Gateway Commercial Venture, as applicable.
Valencia Segment
Our Valencia property consists of approximately 15,000 acres in northern Los Angeles County and can include up to approximately 21,500 homesites and approximately 11.5 million square feet of commercial space. The actual commercial square footage and number of homesites are subject to change based on ultimate use and land planning. The current communities under development in Valencia complement the neighboring communities that were previously developed by us. We began selling homesites in the first development area at Valencia in 2019, and as of December 31, 2023 we had sold 2,595 homesites for aggregate consideration of approximately $583.7 million. Homebuilders sold 297 homes at Valencia during the year ended December 31, 2023 and have sold a total of 1,244 homes since home sales began in May 2021.
Land sales and related party land sales revenues. Total land sales revenues increased by $153.0 million to $161.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, from $8.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2022. The increase in total land sales revenues was attributable to the recognition of revenue from the sale of land entitled for an aggregate of 729 homesites on approximately 72 acres during the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to no land sales during the year ended December 31, 2022. The aggregate base purchase price was $162.4 million for the 2023 sales. In 2023, 583 of the homesites were sold to an
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unaffiliated land banking entity whereby a related party retained the option to acquire the homesites in the future from the land bank entity.
Cost of land sales. Cost of land sales during the year ended December 31, 2023 was $105.7 million, compared to a credit of $1.0 million to cost of land sales during year ended December 31, 2022. The cost of land sales includes both actual and estimated future capitalized costs allocated based upon relative sales values. Since this method requires us to estimate future development costs and the expected sales prices for future land sales, the profit margin on subsequent parcels sold will be affected by both changes in the estimated total revenues, as well as any changes in the estimated total cost of the project.
Selling, general, and administrative. SG&A expenses decreased by $2.0 million, or 14.9%, to $11.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, from $13.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2022. The decrease was mainly attributable to a decrease in community related selling and marketing expenses and a decrease in employee related expenses.
Equity in earnings from unconsolidated entity. Equity in earnings from the Valencia Landbank Venture of $0.6 million and $1.2 million for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively, was primarily a result of recognition of our pro-rata share of profits from land sold by the Valencia Landbank Venture to third-party homebuilders.
San Francisco Segment
Located almost equidistant between downtown San Francisco and the San Francisco International Airport, Candlestick and The San Francisco Shipyard consist of approximately 800 acres of bayfront property in the City of San Francisco. Candlestick and The San Francisco Shipyard can include up to approximately 12,000 homesites and approximately 6.3 million square feet of commercial space. The actual commercial square footage and number of homesites are subject to change based on ultimate use and land planning.
In October 2019, we received approval from the City of San Francisco on a revised development plan for the first phase of Candlestick that is currently planned to include approximately 750,000 square feet of office space, 1,600 homes, and 300,000 square feet of lifestyle amenities centered around retail and entertainment. As currently planned, Candlestick ultimately is expected to include approximately 7,000 homes.
Our development at Candlestick and The San Francisco Shipyard is not subject to San Francisco’s Proposition M growth control measure, which imposes annual limitations on office development and is applicable to all other developers with projects in the city. This means the full amount of permitted commercial square footage at Candlestick and The San Francisco Shipyard can be constructed as we determine, including all at once, even though Proposition M may delay new office developments elsewhere in San Francisco. In 2018, our disposition and development agreement with the City of San Francisco was amended to increase the total amount of commercial use at Candlestick and The San Francisco Shipyard by over two million square feet and increases our total commercial space to approximately 6.3 million square feet.
At The San Francisco Shipyard, approximately 408 acres are still owned by the U.S. Navy and will not be conveyed to us until the U.S. Navy satisfactorily completes its finding of suitability to transfer, or “FOST,” process, which involves multiple levels of environmental and governmental investigation, analysis, review, comment and approval. Based on our discussions with the U.S. Navy, we had previously expected the U.S. Navy to deliver this property between 2019 and 2022. However, allegations that Tetra Tech, Inc. and Tetra Tech EC, Inc. (collectively, “Tetra Tech”), contractors hired by the U.S. Navy, misrepresented sampling results at The San Francisco Shipyard have resulted in data reevaluation, governmental investigations, criminal proceedings, lawsuits, and a determination by the U.S. Navy and other regulatory agencies to undertake additional sampling. As part of the 2018 Congressional spending bill, the U.S. Department of Defense allocated $36.0 million to help fund resampling efforts at The San Francisco Shipyard. An additional $60.4 million to fund resampling efforts was approved as part of a 2019 military construction spending bill. These activities have delayed the remaining land transfers from the U.S. Navy and could lead to additional legal claims or government investigations, all of which could in turn further delay or impede our future development of such parcels. Our development plans were designed with the flexibility to adjust for potential land transfer delays, and we have the ability to shift the phasing of our development activities to account for potential delays caused by U.S. Navy retesting, but there can be no assurance that these matters and other related matters that may arise in the future will not materially impact our development plans.
We have been, and may in the future be, named as a defendant in lawsuits seeking damages and other relief arising out of alleged contamination at The San Francisco Shipyard and Tetra Tech’s alleged misrepresentations of related sampling work. See Part I, Item 3 of this report for additional information. Given the preliminary nature of the claims to date, we cannot predict the outcome of these matters.
Great Park Segment
We have a 37.5% percentage interest in the Great Park Venture, and we account for our investment using the equity method of accounting. We have a controlling interest in the management company, an entity which performs development management services at Great Park Neighborhoods. We do not include the Great Park Venture as a consolidated subsidiary in our consolidated financial statements. However, because of the relationship between the management company and the Great Park Venture, we assess
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our investment in the Great Park Venture based on the financial information for the Great Park Venture in its entirety, and not just our equity interest in it. As a result, our Great Park segment consists of the operations of both the Great Park Venture and the development management services provided by the management company at the Great Park Venture.
Great Park Neighborhoods consists of approximately 2,100 acres in Orange County and is being built around the approximately 1,300 acre Orange County Great Park, a metropolitan public park that is under construction. Great Park Neighborhoods can include up to approximately 10,500 homesites and approximately 4.9 million square feet of commercial space. The actual commercial square footage and number of homesites are subject to change based on ultimate use and land planning.
The Great Park Venture sold the first homesites in April 2013 and, as of December 31, 2023, had sold 8,124 homesites (including 853 affordable homesites) and 153 acres of commercial land, including the Five Point Gateway Campus, allowing for development of up to approximately 3.5 million square feet of commercial office and research and development space for aggregate consideration of approximately $3.8 billion.
Interests in the Great Park Venture are either “percentage interests” or “legacy interests.” Holders of the legacy interests were entitled to receive priority distributions in an aggregate amount equal to $476.0 million and up to an additional $89.0 million from participation in subsequent distributions. The holders of percentage interests are entitled to all other distributions. During the year ended December 31, 2023, the Great Park Venture made aggregate distributions of $48.2 million to holders of legacy interests and $411.2 million to holders of percentage interests. The Company received $154.2 million for its 37.5% percentage interest. As of December 31, 2021, the Great Park Venture had fully satisfied the $476.0 million priority distribution rights, and the remaining maximum participating legacy interest distribution rights at December 31, 2023 were $18.1 million. The remaining $18.1 million legacy interest will be paid on a pro-rata basis, with approximately 10% of future distributions paid to the holders of legacy interests and approximately 90% of such distributions paid to the holders of the percentage interests, until such time as the remaining balance has been fully paid.
Land sales and related party land sales revenues. Land sales and related party land sales revenues increased by $271.4 million to $554.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, from $283.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2022. In 2023, the Great Park Venture closed 38 acres of commercial land and land entitled for an aggregate of 798 homesites on approximately 84 acres. In 2022, the Great Park Venture sold approximately 42 acres of commercial land and land entitled for an aggregate of 61 homesites on approximately three acres.
Revenue recognized of $357.8 million for the 2023 homesite land sales consisted of $214.7 million paid at closing, plus $143.1 million in estimated variable consideration from future price participation payments expected to be received when homes are sold to homebuyers. The 798 homesites were sold to an unaffiliated land banking entity whereby a related party retained the option to acquire the homesites in the future from the land bank entity. The aggregate purchase price was $174.2 million for the 2023 commercial land sales.
The purchase price was $240.0 million for the 2022 commercial land sale. The Great Park Venture recognized approximately $238.0 million in revenue at the close of the land sale and deferred $2.0 million in consideration related to potential development work on the sold land that will be completed by the Great Park Venture at a later date at the buyer’s discretion. The base purchase price was $23.9 million for the 2022 homesite land sales. The Great Park Venture also recognized $0.6 million in the transaction price as an estimate of the amount of variable consideration from marketing fees that it expects to be entitled to receive for the 2022 homesite sales.
During the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, revenues also included changes in estimates of variable consideration, including profit participation, from those amounts previously recorded by the Great Park Venture. During the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, the Great Park Venture recognized $21.0 million and $19.6 million in profit participation revenue, respectively.
Cost of land sales. Cost of land sales during the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022 were $237.1 million and $155.7 million, respectively. The cost of land sales includes both actual and estimated future capitalized costs allocated based upon relative sales values. Since this method requires the Great Park Venture to estimate future development costs and the expected sales prices for future land sales, the profit margin on subsequent parcels sold will be affected by both changes in the estimated total revenues, as well as any changes in the estimated total cost of the project.
Home sale revenues. The Great Park Venture had a fee build agreement with an unrelated third-party (“Fee Builder”) that the Great Park Venture contracted to build and act as a sales agent for 38 homesites within the Great Park Neighborhoods. The Fee Builder initially incurred all costs to build, market and sell the residential homes, and the Great Park Venture reimbursed the Fee Builder as construction progressed and paid the Fee Builder certain fees during the construction phase of the homes and when homes were sold to homebuyers. All homes subject to the fee build agreement had been sold and closed escrow as of December 31, 2022. During the year ended December 31, 2022, the Great Park Venture closed the sales of 22 homes to homebuyers generating $40.5 million in home sale revenues.
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Cost of home sales. Cost of home sales includes an allocation of land basis for each home sold in addition to home construction costs the Great Park Venture reimbursed to the Fee Builder and fees paid to the Fee Builder for the services provided. During the year ended December 31, 2022, the Great Park Venture recognized $29.7 million in cost of home sales.
Management fee revenues. Management fee revenues are revenues generated by the management company from development management services provided to the Great Park Venture. Previously, the management company received a fixed base fee, reimbursement for certain variable costs and the right to receive certain variable incentive compensation. The initial term of our development management agreement with the Great Park Venture expired on December 31, 2021 but had been extended by mutual agreement of the parties through December 31, 2022 (the “2022 extension”) and further renewed by mutual agreement of the parties through December 31, 2024. In connection with the 2022 extension of the development management agreement, the variable cost reimbursement component was eliminated and the annual fixed base fee was increased to $12.0 million for 2022. For the year ended December 31, 2023, we recognized $12.0 million in revenues attributable to the revised base fee, and as a result of changes in estimates of the amount of variable incentive compensation, we recognized $35.2 million in additional revenue. For the year ended December 31, 2022, we recognized $12.0 million in revenues attributable to the revised base fee, and as a result of changes in estimates of the amount of variable incentive compensation, we recognized $19.0 million in additional revenue.
Management services costs and expenses. Included within management services costs and expenses are general and administrative costs and expenses incurred directly by the management company’s project team that is managing the development of the Great Park Neighborhoods. We also include amortization expense related to the intangible asset attributable to the incentive compensation provisions of the development management agreement with the Great Park Venture. Corporate and non-project team salaries and overhead incurred by us are not allocated to management services costs and expenses or to our reportable segments and are reported in SG&A costs in the consolidated statement of operations. During the year ended December 31, 2023, management services costs and expenses increased by $1.9 million, or 9.4%, to $22.2 million, from $20.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2022. The increase was mainly attributable to an increase in intangible asset amortization expense recognized, partially offset by a decrease in employee related project team expenses during the year ended December 31, 2023.
Selling, general, and administrative. SG&A expenses are comprised of the Great Park Venture’s marketing related costs, property maintenance expenses and other administrative costs. SG&A costs decreased by $7.2 million, or 39.7%, to $10.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, from $18.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2022. The lower expense during the year ended December 31, 2023 was mainly attributable to a decrease in marketing expenses and property maintenance expenses and the elimination of the variable cost reimbursement component under the development management agreement that became effective in the second quarter of 2022. Prior to the 2022 extension, project team and certain other administrative costs that were reimbursed to the management company were included in SG&A costs.
Management fees—related party. Management fees increased by $12.1 million, to $65.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, from $53.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2022. Management fees incurred by the Great Park Venture were comprised of base development management fees and incentive compensation fees. In general, incentive compensation fees will be paid as a percentage of distributions made to holders of the Great Park Venture’s membership interests. When payments are deemed probable of being made, the Great Park Venture recognizes the expense ratably over the period services are expected to be provided. When estimates of the amount of incentive compensation probable of being paid change, the Great Park Venture records a cumulative adjustment in the period in which the estimate changes. The increase in management feesrelated party was mainly attributable to an increased estimate of the amount of incentive compensation fees probable of being paid. The Great Park Venture recognized expense of $53.4 million and $44.0 million for incentive compensation fees during the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively.
The table below reconciles the Great Park segment results for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022 to the equity in earnings from our investment in the Great Park Venture that is reflected in the consolidated statements of operations for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively.
Year Ended December 31,
20232022
(in thousands)
Segment profit from operations$275,630 $79,708 
Less net income of management company attributed to the Great Park segment
25,020 10,754 
Net income of Great Park Venture250,610 68,954 
The Company’s share of net income of the Great Park Venture93,979 25,858 
Basis difference amortization, net(15,032)(5,414)
Equity in earnings from Great Park Venture$78,947 $20,444 
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Commercial Segment
We have a 75% interest in the Gateway Commercial Venture that is held through a wholly owned subsidiary of the operating company, and we serve as the manager of the Gateway Commercial Venture. However, the manager’s authority is limited. Major decisions by the Gateway Commercial Venture generally require unanimous approval by an executive committee composed of two people designated by us and two people designated by another investor. Some decisions require approval by all of the members of the Gateway Commercial Venture. We do not include the Gateway Commercial Venture as a consolidated subsidiary in our consolidated financial statements. However, as a result of our 75% economic interest and our role as manager, we assess our investment in the Gateway Commercial Venture based on the financial information of the Gateway Commercial Venture in its entirety, and we include the Gateway Commercial Venture’s financial results within the Commercial segment. Additionally, the management company has been engaged by the Gateway Commercial Venture to provide property management services to the Five Point Gateway Campus. We include the management company’s results of operations related to these property management services within the Commercial segment.
The Five Point Gateway Campus is a commercial campus consisting of approximately 73 acres of land in the Great Park Neighborhoods acquired by the Gateway Commercial Venture in 2017. The Five Point Gateway Campus currently includes approximately one million square feet planned for research and development, medical and office space in four buildings. In 2020, the Gateway Commercial Venture sold three of the buildings and approximately 11 acres of land at the campus. Our corporate headquarters are located in the fourth building, which remains owned by the Gateway Commercial Venture. In addition to the fourth building, the Gateway Commercial Venture owns approximately 50 acres of commercial land with additional development rights at the campus.
The table below reconciles the Commercial segment results for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022 to the equity in loss from our investment in the Gateway Commercial Venture that is reflected in the consolidated statements of operations for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively.
Year Ended December 31,
20232022
(in thousands)
Segment (loss) profit from operations$(3,454)$249 
Less net income of management company attributed to the Commercial segment
431 418 
Net loss of Gateway Commercial Venture(3,885)(169)
Equity in loss from Gateway Commercial Venture$(2,914)$(127)
Liquidity and Capital Resources
At December 31, 2023, we had $353.8 million of consolidated cash and cash equivalents, compared to $131.8 million at December 31, 2022. As of December 31, 2023, no funds had been drawn on and no letters of credit were outstanding on the operating company’s $125.0 million revolving credit facility.
Our short-term cash needs consist primarily of general and administrative expenses and development expenditures at Valencia and the Candlestick and The San Francisco Shipyard communities, interest payments under our senior notes and payments under a related party reimbursement obligation. In January 2024, we exchanged $623.5 million of our existing 7.875% senior notes due November 2025 for $100.0 million in cash and $523.5 million in new 10.500% initial rate senior notes due January 2028. The new senior notes due January 2028 will accrue interest at a rate of 11.000% starting in November 2025 and at a rate of 12.000% starting from November 2026 through the maturity date. In 2024, we will make aggregate interest payments of $54.1 million on our existing and new senior notes, and $46.1 million in principal payments that were deferred from 2023 and are due under our related party reimbursement obligation. Reimbursement payments may be deferred when our related party receives an extension on the maturity date of the associated EB-5 loan liability. Our related party has a history of receiving maturity date extensions, however, such further extensions are not within our control and there can be no assurance that any such extensions will be obtained in the future.
The development stages of our communities continue to require significant cash outlays on both a short-term and long-term basis, and we expect to invest significant amounts on continued horizontal development at Valencia over the next 12 months. We manage our development activities and expenditures to coincide with projected demand for our residential and commercial land with the objective of maintaining an appropriate level of liquidity. We expect to meet our cash requirements for at least the next 12 months with available cash, distributions from our unconsolidated entities, collection of management fees under our development management agreement with the Great Park Venture, proceeds from land sales, reimbursements from public financing in Valencia and access to financing sources, including our revolving credit facility.
Our long-term cash needs relate primarily to future horizontal development expenditures and investments in or vertical construction costs for properties that we may acquire or develop for an income-producing portfolio, along with debt service and
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general and administrative expenses. We budget our cash development costs on an annual basis. Budgeted amounts are subject to change due to delays or accelerations in construction or regulatory approvals, changes in inflation rates and other increases (or decreases) in costs. We may also modify our development plans or change the sequencing of our communities in response to changing economic conditions, consumer preferences and other factors, which could have a material impact on the timing and amount of our development costs. Budgeted amounts are expected to be funded through a combination of available cash, cash flows from our communities and reimbursements from public financing, including community facilities districts, tax increment financing and local, state and federal grants. Cash flows from our communities may occur in uneven patterns as cash is primarily generated by land sales and reimbursements, which can occur at various points over the life cycle of our communities.
We currently expect to have sufficient capital to fund the horizontal development of our communities in accordance with our development plan for several years. The level of capital expenditures in any given year may vary due to, among other things, the number of communities or neighborhoods under development and the number of planned deliveries, which may vary based on market conditions. We may seek to raise additional capital by accessing the debt or equity capital markets or with one or more revolving or term loan facilities or other public or private financing alternatives, including entering into joint ventures. These financings may not be available on attractive terms, or at all.
We are a party to a tax receivable agreement (“TRA”) with current and former holders of Class A units of the operating company and the holders of Class A units of the San Francisco Venture. The TRA provides for payments by us to such investors or their successors in aggregate amounts equal to 85% of the cash savings, if any, in income tax that we realize as a result of (a) increases in tax basis that are attributable to exchanges of Class A units of the operating company for our Class A common shares or cash or certain other taxable acquisitions of equity interests by us, (b) allocations that result from the application of the principles of Section 704(c) of the Code and (c) tax benefits related to imputed interest or guaranteed payments deemed to be paid or incurred by us as a result of the TRA. We expect the TRA payments to be substantial, however, the actual amount and timing of any payments under the TRA will vary depending upon a number of factors, including the timing of exchanges of Class A units of the operating company, the price of our Class A common shares at the time of such exchanges, the extent to which such exchanges are taxable and our ability to use the potential tax benefits, which will depend on the amount and timing of our taxable income and the rate at which we pay income tax. As of December 31, 2023, there were no amounts currently payable under the TRA and based on current projections, we do not expect to make any payments for the next several years.
We are committed under various performance bonds and letters of credit (“LOCs”) to perform certain development activities and provide certain guarantees in the normal course of the entitlement and development process.
We had outstanding performance bonds of $306.9 million as of December 31, 2023 predominantly related to our Valencia community.
At December 31, 2023, the San Francisco Venture had outstanding guarantees benefiting a municipal agency for infrastructure and construction of certain park and open space obligations with aggregate maximum obligations of $198.3 million.
Outstanding LOCs totaled $1.0 million at each of December 31, 2023 and 2022. At both December 31, 2023 and 2022, we had $1.0 million in restricted cash and certificates of deposit securing certain of our LOCs. Additionally, under our revolving credit facility, we are able to utilize undrawn capacity to support the issuance of LOCs. As of December 31, 2023, no capacity under the revolving credit facility was used to support LOCs.
In 2004, our defined benefit pension plan was amended to cease future benefit accruals for services provided by participants of the plan and to close the plan to new participants. We do not anticipate making material contributions to our pension plan over the next twelve months. We believe the pension plan is currently appropriately funded, however, declines in the value of the plan’s assets could result in increased funding requirements in the long-term.
The following table aggregates certain of our material cash obligations and commitments as of December 31, 2023:
Payment due by period
(in thousands)
TotalLess than
1 year
1-3 years3-5 yearsMore than
5 years
Senior notes payable (1)
$625,000 $100,000 $1,500 $523,500 $— 
Interest commitment on senior notes (1)
240,049 54,091 112,669 73,289 — 
Operating lease obligations
15,251 2,548 5,933 6,291 479 
Water purchase agreement (2)
29,749 1,447 3,037 3,237 22,028 
Related party reimbursement obligation (3)
60,810 47,997 12,813 — — 
Total
$970,859 $206,083 $135,952 $606,317 $22,507 
(1)In January 2024, we exchanged $623.5 million of our existing 7.875% senior notes due November 2025 for $100.0 million in cash and $523.5 million in new 10.500% initial rate senior notes due January 2028. The new senior notes due January 2028 will
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accrue interest at a rate of 11.000% starting in November 2025 and at a rate of 12.000% starting from November 2026 through the maturity date. The table above reflects our material cash obligations and commitments after giving effect to the January 2024 exchange.
(2)We are subject to a water purchase agreement requiring annual payments in exchange for the delivery of water for our exclusive use. The agreement has an initial 35-year term, which expires in 2039 with an option for a second 35-year term.
(3)Prior to our acquisition of the San Francisco Venture, certain subsidiaries of the San Francisco Venture entered into EB-5 loan agreements with lenders that are authorized by the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services to raise capital from foreign nationals who seek to obtain permanent residency in the United States. Prior to our acquisition, related parties assumed the EB-5 loan liabilities, and the San Francisco Venture entered into reimbursement agreements pursuant to which it agreed to reimburse the related parties for a portion of the EB-5 loan liabilities and related interest. The amounts set forth in the above table include interest based on the weighted average interest rate of 4.6%. Reimbursement payments may be deferred when the related parties receive an extension on the maturity date of the associated EB-5 loan liability.
The above table does not present accounts payable and other development liabilities incurred in the normal course of business.
Summary of Cash Flows
The following table outlines the primary components of net cash provided by (used in) operating, investing and financing activities (in thousands):
Year Ended December 31,
20232022
Operating activities
$154,123 $(188,302)
Investing activities
77,111 63,990 
Financing activities
(9,204)(9,717)
Cash Flows from Operating Activities. Cash flows from operating activities are primarily comprised of cash inflows from land sales, management services and operating property results. Cash outflows are comprised primarily of cash outlays for horizontal development costs, net of reimbursements and recoveries, employee compensation, and SG&A costs. Our operating cash flows may vary significantly each year due to the timing of land sales and the development efforts related to our mixed-use planned communities.
Net cash provided by operating activities was $154.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to $188.3 million net cash used in operating activities for the year ended December 31, 2022. Major components of operating cash used in both periods consist of our continued investment in horizontal development at our communities, SG&A costs and the payment of $49.2 million each year for interest due on our senior notes. Our horizontal development costs for the year ended December 31, 2023 were offset by $18.9 million in public financing reimbursements for public infrastructure development costs we incurred in Valencia and a nonrecurring $44.5 million recovery from a third party related to certain project development costs in Valencia. Our horizontal development costs for the year ended December 31, 2022 were offset by $27.7 million in public financing reimbursements for public infrastructure development costs we incurred in Valencia.
During the year ended December 31, 2023, we received $162.4 million from the sale of land at our Valencia segment. We also received incentive compensation payments of $41.6 million under our development management agreement with the Great Park Venture. The payment is net of $4.9 million that we concurrently distributed to the holders of the management company's Class B units. Additionally, we received total distributions of $154.2 million from the Great Park Venture, of which $78.2 million is reflected as a return on our investment (operating activity) in the statement of cash flows with the balance reflected as an investing activity.
During the year ended December 31, 2022, we received incentive compensation payments of $14.2 million under our development management agreement with the Great Park Venture. The payment is net of $1.7 million that we concurrently distributed to the holders of the management company's Class B units. Additionally, we received total distributions of $8.6 million from the Gateway Commercial Venture, of which $0.4 million is reflected as a return on our investment (operating activity) in the statement of cash flows with the balance reflected as an investing activity.
Cash Flows from Investing Activities. Net cash provided by investing activities was $77.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to the net cash provided by investing activities of $64.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2022.
During the year ended December 31, 2023, we received total distributions of $154.2 million from the Great Park Venture, of which $76.0 million is reflected as a return of our investment (investing activity) in the statement of cash flows with the balance
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reflected as an operating activity. Additionally, we received total distributions of $1.1 million from the Valencia Landbank Venture, which is reflected as a return of our investment (investing activity) in the statement of cash flows.
For the year ended December 31, 2022, we received distributions of $52.7 million and $3.3 million from the Great Park Venture and Valencia Landbank Venture, respectively, which is reflected as a return of our investment (investing activity) in the statement of cash flows. Additionally, we received total distributions of $8.6 million from the Gateway Commercial Venture, of which $8.3 million is reflected as a return of our investment (investing activity) in the statement of cash flows with the balance reflected as an operating activity.
Cash Flows from Financing Activities. Net cash used in financing activities was $9.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to net cash used in financing activities of $9.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2022.
During the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, we made tax distributions of $4.0 million and $0.4 million, respectively, to noncontrolling interests in accordance with the operating company's Limited Partnership Agreement (“LPA”). The tax distribution is treated as an advance distribution under the LPA. We also made payments of $4.3 million and $6.5 million to reduce our related party reimbursement obligation during the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. We used $0.2 million and $2.7 million during the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively, to net settle certain share-based compensation awards with employees for tax withholding purposes. During the year ended December 31, 2022, we borrowed and repaid $15.0 million under our revolving credit facility.
Changes in Capital Structure
During the year ended December 31, 2023, our ownership percentage in the operating company increased slightly to 62.6%, primarily due to our issuance of shared-based compensation in the form of 0.2 million restricted Class A common shares, partially offset by our reacquisition of approximately 0.1 million restricted Class A common shares from employees for income tax withholding purposes upon vesting. The issuances and settlements resulted in the operating company issuing to us an equal number of Class A units of the operating company or retiring an equal number of Class A units of the operating company that we previously held.
The table below summarizes outstanding Class A units of the operating company and Class A units of the San Francisco Venture, which are redeemable on a one-for-one basis for Class A units of the operating company, at December 31, 2023 and 2022 held by us and those held by noncontrolling interest members.
20232022
Class A units of the operating company:
Held by us69,199,938 69,068,354 
Held by noncontrolling interest members41,363,271 41,363,271 
110,563,209 110,431,625 
Class A units of the San Francisco Venture held by noncontrolling interest members37,870,273 37,870,273 
148,433,482 148,301,898 
At December 31, 2023, we had 79,233,544 Class B common shares outstanding that were held by the noncontrolling interest members of the operating company and the Class A unitholders of the San Francisco Venture. The Class B common shares will automatically convert to Class A common shares at a ratio of 0.0003 Class A common shares for each Class B common share. The conversions will occur when the holders of Class A units of the operating company, including Class A units that have been issued upon redemption of Class A units of the San Francisco Venture, are redeemed for our Class A common shares or cash, at our election.
Significant Related Party and Third-Party Revenues
In the ordinary course of our business, we have sold and expect to continue to sell homesites to Lennar, which is our largest equity owner, or its affiliates, subsidiaries or joint ventures in which it is a member. We did not sell homesites directly to Lennar during the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022, and 2021 but did recognize revenues related to certain fees or profit participation associated with homes sold by Lennar to homebuyers at Valencia. For the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, we recognized $0.6 million and $7.5 million, respectively, of revenue from Lennar, which primarily consisted of profit participation. During the year ended December 31, 2023, we sold homesites to an unaffiliated land banking entity and recognized $101.8 million of such revenue. Lennar has retained the option to acquire these homesites in the future from the unaffiliated land banking entity. We also provide management services to the Great Park Venture pursuant to a development management agreement. In addition to our 37.5% percentage interest in the Great Park Venture, Lennar owns a 25% legacy interest in the Great Park Venture. Lennar, along with an affiliate of Castlelake, also owns interests in an entity that owns a 12.5% legacy interest in the Great Park Venture. For the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, we recognized $47.2 million and $31.0 million, respectively, of revenue from management services provided to the Great Park Venture. Other than the Great Park Venture, no related party customer accounted for more than 10% of our
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revenue during the year ended December 31, 2023. Other than Lennar and the Great Park Venture, no related party customer accounted for more than 10% of our revenue during the year ended December 31, 2022.
In addition to the related party revenues, during the year ended December 31, 2023, we recognized an aggregate of $21.7 million and $39.4 million of revenue from two third-party home builders, respectively, which primarily consisted of homesites sold to the two third-party home builders and which separately accounted for more than 10% of total consolidated revenues. Other than the third-party home builders and the unaffiliated land bank entity, no third-party customer accounted for more than 10% of our revenue during the year ended December 31, 2023. No third-party customer accounted for more than 10% of our revenue during the year ended December 31, 2022.
Critical Accounting Estimates
Critical accounting estimates are those that are both significant to the overall presentation of our financial condition and results of operations and require management to make difficult, complex or subjective judgments. Our critical accounting estimates are discussed below. For a summary of our significant accounting policies, see Note 2 to the notes to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8, Part II of this report.
Cost of Land Sales
Capitalized inventory costs include land, horizontal development, indirect project costs, real estate taxes and interest related to financing development and construction. The allocation of capitalized inventory costs to individual parcels within a project utilizes the relative sales value method. Under the relative sales value method, each parcel in the project under development is allocated costs in proportion to the estimated overall sales price of the project. Since this method requires us to estimate future development costs and the expected sales price for future land sales, the profit margin on subsequent parcels sold will be affected by both changes in the estimated total revenues, as well as any changes in the estimated total cost of the project.
We believe that the accounting estimates related to cost of land sales are critical accounting estimates because of the use of projected cash flows in the estimate. Cash flows are significantly affected by estimates and assumptions related to market supply and demand, the local economy, projected pace of sales of homesites, pricing and price appreciation over the estimated selling period, the length of the estimated development and selling periods, remaining development obligations and the cost of completing development, general and administrative costs, and other factors. In determining these estimates and assumptions, we utilize historical trends from our past development projects, in addition to internal and external market studies and trends, which generally include, but are not limited to, statistics on population demographics and unemployment rates. Using all available information, we calculate our best estimate of projected cash flows for each asset. While many of the estimates are calculated based on historical and projected trends, all estimates are subjective and change as market and economic conditions change.
Incentive Management Agreement Fees
Revenues from management services are recognized as the customer consumes the benefits of the performance obligation over time. The transaction price pertaining to our management agreement with the Great Park Venture is comprised of fixed and variable components, including incentive compensation fee provisions that are contingent on the performance of the Great Park Venture. In making estimates of incentive compensation we expect to be entitled to receive in exchange for providing management services, we make significant assumptions and judgments in evaluating the factors that may determine the amount of consideration we will ultimately receive. In doing so, we typically utilize cash flow projections for the community. We believe that the accounting estimate related to incentive management fees is a critical accounting estimate because when changes in our estimates and assumptions occur, our estimate of the amount of incentive compensation we expect to be entitled to receive may change, resulting in a cumulative adjustment being recorded in the period of the change that may be material.
Investments in Unconsolidated Entities
For investments in entities that we do not control, but over which we exercise significant influence, we use the equity method of accounting. Investments accounted for under the equity method of accounting are recorded at cost and adjusted for our share in the earnings (losses) of the venture and cash contributions and distributions.
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We evaluate our investments in unconsolidated entities for other-than-temporary impairment by reviewing each investment for any indicators of impairment, including the fair value of such investments compared to their carrying amounts. We typically estimate the fair value of our investments using a discounted cash flow of distributions we expect to receive from the venture. Significant input assumptions used in estimating the distributions we expect to receive from the venture include revenue and development cost estimates. The determination of fair value also requires discounting the estimated cash flows at a rate that we believe a market participant would determine to be commensurate with the inherent risks associated with the investment and related estimated cash flow streams. The discount rate used in determining each investment’s fair value generally depends on the investment’s projected life and development stage. If the carrying value of the investment is greater than the estimated fair value, management makes an assessment of whether the impairment is “temporary” or “other-than-temporary.” In making this assessment, management considers (1) the length of time and the extent to which fair value has been less than cost, (2) the financial condition and near-term prospects of the entity and (3) our intent and ability to retain our interest long enough for a recovery in market value. If management concludes that the impairment is “other-than-temporary,” we reduce the investment to its estimated fair value.
We believe that the accounting related to investments in unconsolidated entities is a critical accounting estimate because our impairment evaluation uses significant estimates in determining the fair value of our investments, including projected cash flows and the selected discount rate. Changes in these estimates can have a significant impact on the assessment of fair value, which could result in material impairment losses.
ITEM 7A.     Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Market risk is the risk of loss from adverse changes in market prices and interest rates. Our future earnings, cash flows and fair values relative to financial instruments are dependent upon prevailing market interest rates. Our primary market risk results from our indebtedness, which bears interest at fixed rates. Although we do not currently do so, we may in the future manage our market risk on floating rate debt by entering into swap arrangements to in effect fix the rate on all or a portion of the debt for varying periods up to maturity. This would, in turn, reduce the risks of variability of cash flows created by floating rate debt and mitigate the risk of increases in interest rates. Our objective when undertaking such arrangements would be to reduce our floating rate exposure, as we do not plan to enter into hedging arrangements for speculative purposes.
As of December 31, 2023, we had outstanding consolidated indebtedness of $622.2 million, none of which bears interest based on floating interest rates.
We have not entered into any transactions using derivative financial instruments or derivative commodity instruments.
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ITEM 8.     Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

To the shareholders and the Board of Directors of Five Point Holdings, LLC
Opinion on the Financial Statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Five Point Holdings, LLC and subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive income (loss), capital, and cash flows, for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2023, and the related notes and schedule III—real estate and accumulated depreciation (collectively referred to as the “financial statements”). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2023, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
We have also audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the Company's internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control — Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission and our report dated March 1, 2024, expressed an unqualified opinion on the Company's internal control over financial reporting.
Basis for Opinion
These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company's financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
Critical Audit Matter
The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current-period audit of the financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that (1) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.
Investment in unconsolidated entities – Other-than-temporary impairment assessment of Heritage Fields LLC (“Great Park Venture”)— Refer to Notes 2 and 4 to the financial statements
Critical Audit Matter Description
As of December 31, 2023, the Company’s investments in unconsolidated entities consist of three investments totaling $252.8 million, and the carrying value of the investment in Great Park Venture is $213.8 million of the total balance. The Company evaluates its investments in unconsolidated entities for other-than-temporary impairment by reviewing its investments for an absence of an ability to recover the carrying amount of the investment, by considering indicators of impairment including the fair value of the investment determined by a discounted cash flow of distributions. If the carrying value of the investment in unconsolidated entities is greater than its estimated fair value, management makes an assessment of whether the impairment is other-than-temporary. In making this assessment, management considers the length of time and the extent to which the fair value of the investment has been less than its carrying value.
In the event that an impairment is other-than-temporary, the Company will reduce the carrying value of the investment to its estimated fair value and recognize an impairment expense within the consolidated statements of comprehensive income (loss) in the period it is identified as incurred. For the year ended December 31, 2023, management identified no indicators of impairment and no impairment loss has been recognized.
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Given the quantitative significance of the investment in Great Park Venture and the complexities and judgments involved in identifying impairment indicators and developing the significant inputs used to develop management’s Great Park Venture discounted cash flow of distributions, a high degree of auditor judgment and an increased extent of effort, including the need to involve our fair value specialists, was deployed in performing audit procedures to evaluate the reasonableness of management’s identification of impairment indicators, and its estimates and assumptions related to significant inputs, including discount rate, residential revenues, and development cost estimates used in the Great Park Venture discounted cash flow of distributions.
How the Critical Audit Matter Was Addressed in the Audit
Our audit procedures related to management’s evaluation of indicators of impairment and the fair value of the investment in Great Park Venture included the following, among others:
We tested the effectiveness of controls over management’s evaluation of indicators of impairment and the fair value of the investment in Great Park Venture, including those over significant input assumptions, including the discount rate, residential revenues, and development cost estimates.
We tested the Company’s evaluation of indicators of impairment and significant input assumptions, including the discount rate, residential revenues, and development cost estimates by (1) evaluating the source information used by management, (2) independently obtaining and evaluating market data, (3) performing retrospective reviews, and (4) engaging our internal fair value specialists.
We tested the mathematical accuracy of the discounted cash flow of distributions.

/s/ DELOITTE & TOUCHE LLP

Costa Mesa, California
March 1, 2024

We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2009.

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FIVE POINT HOLDINGS, LLC
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(In thousands, except shares)

December 31,
20232022
ASSETS
INVENTORIES
$2,213,479 $2,239,125 
INVESTMENT IN UNCONSOLIDATED ENTITIES
252,816 331,594 
PROPERTIES AND EQUIPMENT, NET
29,145 30,243 
INTANGIBLE ASSET, NET—RELATED PARTY
25,270 40,257 
CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS
353,801 131,771 
RESTRICTED CASH AND CERTIFICATES OF DEPOSIT
992 992 
RELATED PARTY ASSETS
83,970 97,126 
OTHER ASSETS
9,815 14,676 
TOTAL
$2,969,288 $2,885,784 
LIABILITIES AND CAPITAL
LIABILITIES:
Notes payable, net
$622,186 $620,651 
Accounts payable and other liabilities
81,649 94,426 
Related party liabilities
78,074 93,086 
Deferred income tax liability, net
7,067 11,506 
Payable pursuant to tax receivable agreement
173,208 173,068 
Total liabilities
962,184 992,737 
COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENT LIABILITIES (Note 13)
REDEEMABLE NONCONTROLLING INTEREST
25,000 25,000 
CAPITAL:
Class A common shares; No par value; Issued and outstanding: 2023—69,199,938 shares; 2022—69,068,354 shares
Class B common shares; No par value; Issued and outstanding: 2023—79,233,544 shares; 2022—79,233,544 shares
Contributed capital
591,606 587,733 
Retained earnings
88,780 33,386 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss
(2,332)(2,988)
Total members’ capital
678,054 618,131 
Noncontrolling interests
1,304,050 1,249,916 
Total capital
1,982,104 1,868,047 
TOTAL
$2,969,288 $2,885,784 

See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.
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FIVE POINT HOLDINGS, LLC
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(In thousands, except share and per share amounts)

Year Ended December 31,
202320222021
REVENUES:
Land sales
$160,796 $913 $139,500 
Land sales—related party
595 7,512 43,286 
Management services—related party
47,621 31,433 39,081 
Operating properties
2,720 2,836 2,527 
Total revenues
211,732 42,694 224,394 
COSTS AND EXPENSES:
Land sales
105,651 (996)106,012 
Management services
22,170 20,261 31,459 
Operating properties
6,167 8,230 6,822 
Selling, general, and administrative
51,495 54,591 77,118 
Restructuring 19,437  
Total costs and expenses
185,483 101,523 221,411 
OTHER INCOME (EXPENSE):
Interest income
7,230 826 94 
Miscellaneous
(776)245 3,720 
Total other income
6,454 1,071 3,814 
EQUITY IN EARNINGS FROM UNCONSOLIDATED ENTITIES76,595 21,513 6,188 
INCOME (LOSS) BEFORE INCOME TAX BENEFIT109,298