10-Q 1 fss-20240331.htm 10-Q fss-20240331
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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
___________________________________ 
FORM 10-Q
(Mark One)
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2024
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                      to                     
Commission file number: 1-6003
  _____________________________________________
 fsslogocoverq22015a07.jpg
FEDERAL SIGNAL CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware36-1063330
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
1415 West 22nd Street, Oak Brook, Illinois
(Address of principal executive offices)
60523
(Zip code)
(630954-2000
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
  _____________________________________________
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $1.00 per shareFSSNew York Stock Exchange
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No  
As of March 31, 2024, the number of shares outstanding of the registrant’s common stock was 61,101,063.


FEDERAL SIGNAL CORPORATION
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
PART I.
Item 1.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
PART II.
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Item 5.
Item 6.








FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q (“Form 10-Q”) is being filed by Federal Signal Corporation and its subsidiaries (referred to collectively as the “Company,” “we,” “our” or “us” herein, unless the context otherwise indicates) with the United States (“U.S.”) Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”), and includes comments made by management that may contain words such as “may,” “will,” “believe,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “plan,” “project,” “estimate” and “objective” or similar terminology, or the negative thereof, concerning the Company’s future financial performance, business strategy, plans, goals and objectives. These expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), and the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements include information concerning the Company’s possible or assumed future performance or results of operations and are not guarantees. While these statements are based on assumptions and judgments that management has made in light of industry experience as well as perceptions of historical trends, current conditions, expected future developments and other factors believed to be appropriate under the circumstances, they are subject to risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause the Company’s actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different.
These risks and uncertainties, some of which are beyond the Company’s control, include the risk factors described under Part I, Item 1A, Risk Factors, of the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023, which was filed with the SEC on February 27, 2024. These factors may not constitute all factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those discussed in any forward-looking statement. The Company operates in a continually changing business environment and new factors emerge from time to time. The Company cannot predict such factors, nor can it assess the impact, if any, of such factors on its results of operations, financial condition or cash flow. Accordingly, forward-looking statements should not be relied upon as a predictor of actual results. The Company disclaims any responsibility to update any forward-looking statement provided in this Form 10-Q.
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
The Company is subject to the reporting and information requirements of the Exchange Act and, as a result, is obligated to file Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and other reports and information with the SEC, as well as amendments to those reports. The Company makes these filings available free of charge through our website at www.federalsignal.com as soon as reasonably practicable after such materials are filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. The Company also uses our website as a means of disclosing material non-public information and to comply with our disclosure requirements under Regulation FD. Information on our website does not constitute part of this Form 10-Q. In addition, the SEC maintains a website at www.sec.gov that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically.
1

PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Item 1.     Financial Statements (Unaudited).
FEDERAL SIGNAL CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS (Unaudited)
 Three Months Ended
March 31,
(in millions, except per share data)20242023
Net sales$424.9 $385.5 
Cost of sales308.9 289.7 
Gross profit116.0 95.8 
Selling, engineering, general and administrative expenses57.2 52.0 
Amortization expense3.6 3.6 
Acquisition and integration-related expenses, net0.9 0.7 
Operating income54.3 39.5 
Interest expense, net3.2 4.7 
Other expense, net0.2 0.1 
Income before income taxes50.9 34.7 
Income tax (benefit) expense(0.7)7.3 
Net income$51.6 $27.4 
Earnings per share:
Basic$0.85 $0.45 
Diluted0.84 0.45 
Weighted average common shares outstanding:
Basic60.9 60.7 
Diluted61.6 61.3 
See notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.
2

FEDERAL SIGNAL CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (Unaudited)
 Three Months Ended
March 31,
(in millions)20242023
Net income $51.6 $27.4 
Other comprehensive income (loss):
Change in foreign currency translation adjustment(3.9)1.5 
Change in unrecognized net actuarial loss and prior service cost related to pension benefit plans, net of income tax expense of $0.2 and $0.0 respectively
0.6  
Change in unrealized gain or loss on interest rate swaps, net of income tax expense (benefit) of $0.2 and $(0.3) respectively
0.5 (0.9)
Total other comprehensive (loss) income(2.8)0.6 
Comprehensive income$48.8 $28.0 
See notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.
3

FEDERAL SIGNAL CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
March 31,
2024
December 31,
2023
(in millions, except per share data)(Unaudited) 
ASSETS
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$48.9 $61.0 
Accounts receivable, net of allowances for doubtful accounts of $2.4 and $2.5, respectively
191.4 186.2 
Inventories322.7 303.4 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets32.3 19.6 
Total current assets595.3 570.2 
Properties and equipment, net of accumulated depreciation of $177.9 and $173.3, respectively
193.0 190.8 
Rental equipment, net of accumulated depreciation of $49.2 and $47.5, respectively
143.8 134.8 
Operating lease right-of-use assets20.7 21.0 
Goodwill470.2 472.7 
Intangible assets, net of accumulated amortization of $74.3 and $70.7, respectively
204.6 207.5 
Deferred tax assets11.7 12.0 
Other long-term assets12.1 11.5 
Total assets$1,651.4 $1,620.5 
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
Current liabilities:
Current portion of long-term borrowings and finance lease obligations$5.5 $4.7 
Accounts payable88.8 66.7 
Customer deposits28.7 27.1 
Accrued liabilities:
Compensation and withholding taxes23.4 42.3 
Current income taxes payable12.9 3.2 
Current operating lease liabilities6.6 6.8 
Other current liabilities45.1 45.0 
Total current liabilities211.0 195.8 
Long-term borrowings and finance lease obligations266.8 294.3 
Long-term operating lease liabilities14.7 14.9 
Long-term pension and other postretirement benefit liabilities44.9 44.2 
Deferred tax liabilities54.1 53.2 
Other long-term liabilities15.5 16.2 
Total liabilities607.0 618.6 
Stockholders’ equity:
Common stock, $1 par value per share, 90.0 shares authorized, 70.2 and 70.0 shares issued, respectively
70.2 70.0 
Capital in excess of par value296.8 291.1 
Retained earnings960.1 915.8 
Treasury stock, at cost, 9.1 and 9.0 shares, respectively
(198.6)(193.7)
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(84.1)(81.3)
Total stockholders’ equity1,044.4 1,001.9 
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity$1,651.4 $1,620.5 
See notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.
4

FEDERAL SIGNAL CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS (Unaudited)
 Three Months Ended
March 31,
(in millions)20242023
Operating activities:
Net income$51.6 $27.4 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities:
Depreciation and amortization15.4 14.3 
Stock-based compensation expense4.4 2.0 
Changes in fair value of contingent consideration (0.2)
Amortization of interest rate swap settlement gain(0.6)(0.6)
Deferred income taxes0.8 (0.3)
Changes in operating assets and liabilities(40.3)(35.5)
Net cash provided by operating activities31.3 7.1 
Investing activities:
Purchases of properties and equipment(8.4)(6.0)
Payments for acquisition-related activity, net of cash acquired (13.5)
Other, net0.8 0.1 
Net cash used for investing activities(7.6)(19.4)
Financing activities:
(Decrease) increase in revolving lines of credit, net(23.5)12.6 
Payments on long-term borrowings(0.8) 
Purchases of treasury stock(0.1) 
Redemptions of common stock to satisfy withholding taxes related to stock-based compensation(4.1)(3.8)
Payments for acquisition-related activity (0.5)
Cash dividends paid to stockholders(7.3)(5.5)
Proceeds from stock-based compensation activity0.8 0.4 
Other, net(0.3)(0.1)
Net cash (used for) provided by financing activities(35.3)3.1 
Effects of foreign exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents(0.5)0.1 
Decrease in cash and cash equivalents(12.1)(9.1)
Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of year61.0 47.5 
Cash and cash equivalents at end of period$48.9 $38.4 

See notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.
5

FEDERAL SIGNAL CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY (Unaudited)
Three Months Ended March 31, 2024
(in millions)Common
Stock
Capital in
Excess of
Par
Value
Retained
Earnings
Treasury
Stock
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Loss
Total
Balance at January 1, 2024$70.0 $291.1 $915.8 $(193.7)$(81.3)$1,001.9 
Net income51.6 51.6 
Total other comprehensive loss(2.8)(2.8)
Cash dividends declared ($0.12 per share)
(7.3)(7.3)
Stock-based payments:
Stock-based compensation4.4 4.4 
Stock option exercises and other0.1 1.4 (1.2)0.3 
Performance share unit transactions0.1 (0.1)(3.6)(3.6)
Stock repurchase program(0.1)(0.1)
Balance at March 31, 2024$70.2 $296.8 $960.1 $(198.6)$(84.1)$1,044.4 


Three Months Ended March 31, 2023
(in millions)Common
Stock
Capital in
Excess of
Par
Value
Retained
Earnings
Treasury
Stock
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Loss
Total
Balance at January 1, 2023$69.5 $271.8 $782.2 $(178.6)$(84.0)$860.9 
Net income27.4 27.4 
Total other comprehensive income0.6 0.6 
Cash dividends declared ($0.09 per share)
(5.5)(5.5)
Stock-based payments:
Stock-based compensation2.0 2.0 
Stock option exercises and other0.1 1.0 (1.2)(0.1)
Performance share unit transactions0.1 (0.1)(3.3)(3.3)
Balance at March 31, 2023$69.7 $274.7 $804.1 $(183.1)$(83.4)$882.0 

6

FEDERAL SIGNAL CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(Unaudited)
NOTE 1 – SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Organization and Description of the Business
Federal Signal Corporation was founded in 1901 and was reincorporated as a Delaware corporation in 1969. References herein to the “Company,” “we,” “our” or “us” refer collectively to Federal Signal Corporation and its subsidiaries.
Products manufactured and services rendered by the Company are divided into two reportable segments: Environmental Solutions Group and Safety and Security Systems Group. The individual operating businesses are organized as such because they share certain characteristics, including technology, marketing, distribution and product application, which create long-term synergies. These segments are discussed in Note 11 – Segment Information.
Basis of Presentation and Consolidation
The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements represent the consolidation of Federal Signal Corporation and its subsidiaries included herein and have been prepared by the Company pursuant to the rules and regulations of the United States (“U.S.”) Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). Certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in financial statements prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) have been condensed or omitted pursuant to such rules and regulations, although the Company believes that the disclosures presented herein are adequate to ensure the information presented is not misleading. Except as otherwise noted, these condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with the Company’s accounting policies described in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023, and should be read in conjunction with those consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto.
These condensed consolidated financial statements include all normal and recurring adjustments that we considered necessary to present a fair statement of our results of operations, financial condition and cash flow. Intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. In addition, certain prior-year amounts have been reclassified to conform to current-year presentation.
The results reported in these condensed consolidated financial statements should not be regarded as necessarily indicative of results that may be expected for the entire year, which may differ materially due to, among other things, the risk factors described under Part I, Item 1A, Risk Factors, of the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023, which was filed with the SEC on February 27, 2024. While we label our quarterly information using a calendar convention whereby our first, second and third quarters are labeled as ending on March 31, June 30 and September 30, respectively, it is our longstanding practice to establish interim quarterly closing dates based on a 13-week period ending on a Saturday, with our fiscal year ending on December 31. The effects of this practice are not material and exist only within a reporting year.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements and Accounting Changes
In November 2023, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2023-07, Segment Reporting (Topic 280): Improvements to Reportable Segment Disclosures, which expands annual and interim disclosure requirements for reportable segments, including enhanced disclosures regarding significant segment expenses. ASU 2023-07 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2023, and for interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2024, with early adoption permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of adopting this guidance on its financial statement disclosures.
In December 2023, the FASB issued ASU 2023-09, Income Taxes (Topics 740): Improvements to Income Tax Disclosures, which expands the disclosure requirements for income taxes, specifically related to the rate reconciliation and income taxes paid. ASU 2023-09 is effective prospectively for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2024, with early adoption and retrospective application permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of adopting this guidance on its financial statement disclosures.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect (i) the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, (ii) the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and (iii) the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the
7

FEDERAL SIGNAL CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (CONTINUED)
(Unaudited)
reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Significant Accounting Policies
There have been no changes to the Company’s significant accounting policies as disclosed in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023.
NOTE 2 – ACQUISITIONS
Acquisition of Trackless
On April 3, 2023, the Company completed the acquisition of substantially all the assets and operations of Trackless Vehicles Limited and Trackless Vehicles Asset Corp, including the wholly-owned subsidiary Work Equipment Ltd. (collectively, “Trackless”), a leading Canadian manufacturer of off-road, multi-purpose maintenance vehicles and attachments. The Company expects that the Trackless acquisition will further bolster its position as an industry leading diversified industrial manufacturer of specialized vehicles for maintenance and infrastructure markets with leading brands of premium, value-adding products, and a strong supporting aftermarket platform.
The initial cash consideration paid by the Company to acquire Trackless was C$56.3 million (approximately $41.9 million), inclusive of certain closing adjustments. In addition, there is a contingent earn-out payment of up to C$6.0 million (approximately $4.4 million), based upon the achievement of certain financial targets over a specified performance period. The purchase price was funded through existing cash and borrowings under the Company’s credit agreement.
During the three months ended March 31, 2024, the Company recognized measurement period adjustments, which primarily resulted from obtaining third-party valuations of contingent consideration and acquired intangible assets, that reduced the estimated fair value of contingent consideration by $0.2 million and increased the carrying value of acquired intangible assets by $1.1 million, resulting in a corresponding $1.3 million decrease to the carrying value of Goodwill, from the $8.0 million previously recognized as of December 31, 2023. The measurement period adjustments did not have a material impact on the Company’s Consolidated Statements of Operations for the three months ended March 31, 2024. As of March 31, 2024, the Company’s purchase price allocation for the Trackless acquisition is considered to be final.
8

FEDERAL SIGNAL CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (CONTINUED)
(Unaudited)
The following table summarizes the fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed as of the acquisition date:
(in millions)
Purchase price, inclusive of closing adjustments$41.9 
Estimated fair value of additional consideration (a)
4.3 
Total consideration46.2 
Accounts receivable4.7 
Inventories15.0 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets0.1 
Rental equipment1.6 
Properties and equipment4.4 
Customer relationships (b)
11.1 
Trade names (c)
4.6 
Accounts payable(1.5)
Accrued liabilities(0.5)
Net assets acquired39.5
Goodwill (d)
$6.7 
(a)    Represents the estimated fair value of the contingent earn-out payment as of the acquisition date, which is included in Other long-term liabilities on the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. See Note 12 – Fair Value Measurements for discussion of the methodology used to determine the fair value of the contingent earn-out payment.
(b)    Represents the fair value assigned to customer relationships, which are considered to be definite-lived intangible assets, with an estimated useful life of approximately 12 years.
(c)    Represents the fair value assigned to trade names, which are considered to be indefinite-lived intangible assets.
(d)    Goodwill, which is primarily tax-deductible, has been allocated to the Environmental Solutions Group on the basis that the synergies identified will primarily benefit this segment..
9

FEDERAL SIGNAL CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (CONTINUED)
(Unaudited)
NOTE 3 – REVENUE RECOGNITION
The following table presents the Company’s Net sales disaggregated by geographic region, based on the location of the end customer, and by major product line:
Three Months Ended
March 31,
(in millions)20242023
Geographic Region:
U.S.$334.3 $309.1 
Canada59.3 43.9 
Europe/Other31.3 32.5 
Total net sales$424.9 $385.5 
Major Product Line:
Environmental Solutions
Vehicles and equipment (a)
$272.3 $245.3 
Parts61.0 54.8 
Rental income (b)
12.0 11.0 
Other (c)
8.7 7.7 
Total354.0 318.8 
Safety and Security Systems
Public safety and security equipment44.9 40.2 
Industrial signaling equipment16.9 18.6 
Warning systems9.1 7.9 
Total70.9 66.7 
Total net sales$424.9 $385.5 
(a)    Includes net sales from the sale of new and used vehicles and equipment, including sales of rental equipment.
(b)    Represents income from vehicle and equipment lease arrangements with customers.
(c)    Primarily includes revenues from services, such as maintenance and repair work, and the sale of extended warranty contracts.
Contract Balances
The Company recognizes contract liabilities when cash payments, such as customer deposits, are received in advance of the Company’s satisfaction of the related performance obligations. Contract liabilities are recognized as Net sales when the related performance obligations are satisfied, which generally occurs within three to six months of the cash receipt. Contract liability balances are not materially impacted by any other factors. The Company’s contract liabilities were $32.4 million and $30.9 million as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively. Contract assets, such as unbilled receivables, were not material as of any of the periods presented herein.
NOTE 4 – INVENTORIES
The following table summarizes the components of Inventories:
(in millions)March 31,
2024
December 31,
2023
Finished goods$118.7 $116.1 
Raw materials169.8 154.6 
Work in process34.2 32.7 
Total inventories$322.7 $303.4 
10

FEDERAL SIGNAL CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (CONTINUED)
(Unaudited)
NOTE 5 – DEBT
The following table summarizes the components of Long-term borrowings and finance lease obligations:
(in millions)March 31,
2024
December 31, 2023
2022 Credit Agreement (a)
$270.9 $297.4 
Finance lease obligations1.4 1.6 
Total long-term borrowings and finance lease obligations, including current portion272.3 299.0 
Less: Current maturities4.7 3.9 
Less: Current finance lease obligations0.8 0.8 
Total long-term borrowings and finance lease obligations$266.8 $294.3 
(a)     Defined as the Third Amended and Restated Credit Agreement, dated October 21, 2022, as amended.
As more fully described within Note 12 – Fair Value Measurements, the Company uses a three-level fair value hierarchy that prioritizes the inputs used to measure fair value. The fair value of the Company’s long-term borrowings and finance lease obligations is based on interest rates that we believe are currently available to us for issuance of debt with similar terms and remaining maturities (Level 2 input). The carrying amounts of the Company’s long-term borrowings and finance lease obligations approximate their fair values as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023.
The 2022 Credit Agreement is a senior secured credit facility which provides the Company and certain of its foreign subsidiaries access to an aggregate principal amount of $800 million, consisting of (i) a revolving credit facility in an amount up to $675 million (the “Revolver”) and (ii) a term loan facility in an amount up to $125 million. The 2022 Credit Agreement matures on October 21, 2027.
Borrowings under the 2022 Credit Agreement bear interest, at the Company’s option, at a base rate or an Adjusted Term Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”), Adjusted Eurocurrency Rate or Adjusted Daily Simple SONIA Rate (as each is defined in the 2022 Credit Agreement), plus, in each case, an applicable margin. The applicable margin ranges from zero to 0.75% for base rate borrowings and 1.00% to 1.75% for Adjusted Term SOFR, Adjusted Eurocurrency Rate or Adjusted Daily Simple SONIA Rate borrowings. The Company must also pay a commitment fee to the lenders ranging between 0.10% to 0.25% per annum on the unused portion of the Revolver along with other standard fees. Applicable margin, issuance fees and other customary expenses are payable on outstanding letters of credit.
The Company is subject to certain net leverage ratio and interest coverage ratio financial covenants under the 2022 Credit Agreement that are measured at each fiscal quarter-end. The Company was in compliance with all such covenants as of March 31, 2024.
As of March 31, 2024, there was $147.5 million of cash drawn on the Revolver, $123.4 million outstanding under the term loan facility and $11.1 million of undrawn letters of credit under the 2022 Credit Agreement, with $516.4 million of net availability for borrowings. As of December 31, 2023, there was $173.2 million of cash drawn on the Revolver, $124.2 million outstanding under the term loan facility and $9.1 million of undrawn letters of credit under the 2022 Credit Agreement, with $492.7 million of net availability for borrowings.
The following table summarizes the gross borrowings and gross payments under the Company’s revolving credit facilities:
Three Months Ended
March 31,
(in millions)20242023
Gross borrowings$10.0 $37.6 
Gross payments 33.5 25.0 
Interest Rate Swaps
On October 21, 2022, the Company entered into an interest rate swap (the “2022 Swap”) with a notional amount of $75.0 million, as a means of fixing the floating interest rate component on $75.0 million of its variable-rate debt. The 2022 Swap is designated as a cash flow hedge, with an original maturity date of October 31, 2025.
11

FEDERAL SIGNAL CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (CONTINUED)
(Unaudited)
On July 11, 2023, the Company entered into an additional interest rate swap (the “2023 Swap”) with a notional amount of $75.0 million, as a means of fixing the floating interest rate component on $75.0 million of its variable-rate debt. The 2023 Swap is designated as a cash flow hedge, with an original maturity date of August 1, 2025.
As a result of the application of hedge accounting treatment, all unrealized gains and losses related to the derivative instruments are recorded in Accumulated other comprehensive loss and are reclassified into operations in the same period in which the hedged transaction affects earnings. Hedge effectiveness is assessed quarterly. The Company does not use derivative instruments for trading or speculative purposes.
The fair value of the Company’s interest rate swaps is derived from a discounted cash flow analysis based on the terms of the contract and the interest rate curve (Level 2 inputs) and measured on a recurring basis in our Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets.
At March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, the fair value of the Company’s interest rate swaps was an asset of $0.5 million and a liability of $0.7 million, which were included in Other long-term assets and Other long-term liabilities on the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets, respectively. During the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, unrealized pre-tax gains of $1.2 million and unrealized pre-tax losses of $0.5 million, respectively, were recorded in Accumulated other comprehensive loss. No ineffectiveness was recorded in either period.
In connection with entering into the 2022 Credit Agreement in October 2022, the Company terminated an interest rate swap initially entered into in 2019, receiving proceeds of $4.3 million upon settlement. The settlement gain was recorded in Accumulated other comprehensive loss and is being amortized into earnings ratably through the original maturity date of July 30, 2024. During the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, the Company recognized non-cash settlement gains of $0.6 million and $0.6 million, respectively, as a component of Interest expense, net on the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations. At March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, an unrealized settlement gain of $0.8 million and $1.4 million, respectively, was included in Accumulated other comprehensive loss on the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets.
NOTE 6 – INCOME TAXES
During the year ended December 31, 2023, the Company filed amended U.S. federal income tax returns for the 2015 through 2018 tax years to claim a worthless stock deduction. As of December 31, 2023, the amended tax returns were under examination by the applicable tax authorities and recovery of the refund claim was not considered more-likely-than-not. Accordingly, the aggregate refund claim of $13.6 million, including interest of $1.8 million, was recorded as an income tax receivable as of December 31, 2023, fully offset by a corresponding liability for unrecognized tax benefits.
During the three months ended March 31, 2024, the tax authorities notified the Company that the amended tax returns had been approved, at which point receipt of the refund claim was considered more-likely-than-not. As a result, the Company released the associated liability for unrecognized tax benefits and recognized a $13.0 million discrete tax benefit for the refund claim, net of taxes on the associated interest, during the three months ended March 31, 2024. The associated income tax receivable is recognized within Prepaid expenses and other current assets on the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets as of March 31, 2024.
Including the aforementioned discrete tax benefit and the recognition of $0.8 million in excess tax benefits associated with stock-based compensation activity, the Company recognized an income tax benefit of $0.7 million during the three months ended March 31, 2024, compared to income tax expense of $7.3 million during the prior-year quarter, with the impact of the discrete tax benefit being partially offset by higher pre-tax income levels. The Company’s effective tax rate for the three months ended March 31, 2024 was a benefit of 1.4%, compared to expense of 21.0% in the prior-year quarter.
12

FEDERAL SIGNAL CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (CONTINUED)
(Unaudited)
NOTE 7 – PENSIONS
The following table summarizes the components of Net periodic pension expense (benefit): 
 U.S. Benefit PlanNon-U.S. Benefit Plan
 Three Months Ended
March 31,
Three Months Ended
March 31,
(in millions)2024202320242023
Interest cost1.4 1.5 0.4 0.4 
Amortization of actuarial loss0.5 0.3 0.2 0.2 
Expected return on plan assets(1.8)(1.9)(0.5)(0.5)
Net periodic pension expense (benefit)$0.1 $(0.1)$0.1 $0.1 
The items that comprise Net periodic pension expense (benefit), other than service cost, are included as a component of Other expense, net on the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations.
NOTE 8 – COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENCIES
Financial Commitments
The Company provides indemnifications and other guarantees in the ordinary course of business, the terms of which range in duration and often are not explicitly defined. Specifically, the Company is occasionally required to provide letters of credit and bid and performance bonds to various customers, principally to act as security for retention levels related to casualty insurance policies and to guarantee the performance of subsidiaries that engage in export and domestic transactions. At March 31, 2024, the Company had outstanding performance and financial standby letters of credit, as well as outstanding bid and performance bonds, aggregating to $23.7 million. If any such letters of credit or bonds are called, the Company would be obligated to reimburse the issuer of the letter of credit or bond. The Company believes the likelihood of any currently outstanding letter of credit or bond being called is remote.
Product Warranties
The Company issues product performance warranties to customers with the sale of its products. The specific terms and conditions of these warranties vary depending upon the product sold and country in which the Company does business, with warranty periods generally ranging from one to five years. The Company estimates the costs that may be incurred under its basic limited warranty and records a liability in the amount of such costs at the time the sale of the related product is recognized. Factors that affect the Company’s warranty liability include (i) the number of units under warranty, (ii) historical and anticipated rates of warranty claims and (iii) costs per claim. The Company periodically assesses the adequacy of its recorded warranty liabilities and adjusts the amounts as necessary.
The following table summarizes the changes in the Company’s warranty liabilities during the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023:
(in millions)20242023
Balance at January 1$9.6 $9.3 
Provisions to expense2.2 1.8 
Acquisitions 0.1 
Payments(2.0)(2.0)
Balance at March 31$9.8 $9.2 
Legal Proceedings
The Company is subject to various claims, including pending and possible legal actions for product liability and other damages, and other matters arising in the ordinary course of the Company’s business. On a quarterly basis, the Company reviews uninsured material legal claims against the Company and accrues for the costs of such claims as appropriate in the exercise of management’s best judgment and experience. However, due to a lack of factual information available to the Company about a claim, or the procedural stage of a claim, it may not be possible for the Company to reasonably assess either the probability of a
13

FEDERAL SIGNAL CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (CONTINUED)
(Unaudited)
favorable or unfavorable outcome of the claim or to reasonably estimate the amount of loss should there be an unfavorable outcome. Therefore, for many claims, the Company cannot reasonably estimate a range of loss.
The Company believes, based on current knowledge and after consultation with counsel, that the outcome of such claims and actions will not have a material adverse effect on the Company’s results of operations or financial condition. However, in the event of unexpected future developments, it is possible that the ultimate resolution of such matters, if unfavorable, could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s results of operations, financial condition or cash flow.
Hearing Loss Litigation
The Company has been sued for monetary damages by firefighters claiming that exposure to the Company’s sirens impaired their hearing and the sirens are therefore defective. Between 1999 and 2013, 40 cases were filed on behalf of a total of 2,816 plaintiffs in the Circuit Court of Cook County, Illinois. The trial of the first 27 of these plaintiffs’ claims occurred in 2008, whereby a Cook County jury returned a unanimous verdict in favor of the Company. In 2009, a trial was held on behalf of nine Chicago firefighter plaintiffs and concluded with a verdict for the plaintiffs in varying amounts totaling $0.4 million. Following appeals, the Company satisfied the judgments, resulting in the final dismissal of the cases. A third consolidated trial involving eight Chicago firefighter plaintiffs occurred in November 2011. The jury returned a unanimous verdict in favor of the Company. Thereafter, the trial court scheduled a fourth consolidated trial involving three firefighter plaintiffs. Prior to trial, the claims of two of the firefighter plaintiffs were dismissed, and on December 17, 2012, the jury entered a complete defense verdict for the Company. On December 20, 2021, the parties executed a settlement agreement to resolve claims of approximately 462 firefighters still involved in the litigation, agreeing to pay a lump sum of $0.2 million based upon an assessment of firefighters who met minimal bilateral hearing loss standards. The estimated settlement amount was accrued by the Company. The settlement agreement did not require the payment of any attorney fees by the Company and provided that plaintiffs’ attorney would withdraw from representing firefighters who did not agree to the settlement. In July 2022, the Company issued the settlement payment for eligible plaintiffs who submitted a release. The claims of all other eligible plaintiffs were dismissed for want of prosecution on August 5, 2022.
The Company also filed motions to dismiss cases involving firefighters who worked for fire departments located outside of Illinois based on improper venue. On February 24, 2017, the Circuit Court of Cook County dismissed the cases of 1,770 such firefighter plaintiffs. In 2017, the Company entered into a global settlement agreement (the “2017 Settlement Agreement”) with two attorneys who represented approximately 1,090 of these plaintiffs offering to pay $700 per plaintiff to settle these cases, and 717 plaintiffs accepted this offer as a final settlement. The 2017 Settlement Agreement did not require the payment of any attorney fees by the Company. The attorneys representing these plaintiffs agreed to withdraw from representing plaintiffs who did not respond to the settlement offer. It is the Company’s position that the non-settling plaintiffs who failed to timely refile their cases are barred from doing so by the statute of limitations.
The Company was also sued on this issue outside of the Cook County, Illinois venue. Between 2007 and 2009, lawsuits involving 71 plaintiffs were filed in the Court of Common Pleas, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania. Three of these cases were dismissed pursuant to pretrial motions, one case was voluntarily dismissed, and others were settled for nominal sums. Three trials were held in these cases. In the first trial, a jury returned a verdict for the plaintiff, finding that the Company’s siren was not defectively designed but that the Company negligently constructed the siren. The jury awarded damages in an amount less than $0.1 million. In 2010, a jury returned a defense verdict for the Company as to the claims of nine plaintiffs. In a third trial, the jury returned a defense verdict for the Company as to the claims of nine plaintiffs. Following the defense verdicts in the last two Philadelphia trials, in order to avoid the inconvenience, uncertainty and distraction of the lawsuits, the Company entered into a global settlement agreement (the “2010 Settlement Agreement”) on behalf of 1,125 claimants (the “Claimants”). The 2010 Settlement Agreement provided that the Company pay a total amount of $3.8 million to settle the claims (including the costs, fees and other expenses of the law firm in connection with its representation of the Claimants), subject to certain terms, conditions and procedures set forth in the 2010 Settlement Agreement. On April 22, 2011, the Company confirmed that the terms and conditions of the 2010 Settlement Agreement had been met and made an adjusted payment of $3.6 million to conclude the settlement. The amount was based upon the Company’s receipt of 1,069 signed releases provided by Claimants. The Company generally denies the allegations made in the lawsuits and denies that its products caused any injuries to the Claimants.
From 2007 through 2009, firefighters also brought hearing loss claims against the Company in New Jersey, Missouri, Maryland and Kings County, New York, all of which were dismissed prior to trial.
14

FEDERAL SIGNAL CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (CONTINUED)
(Unaudited)
In 2012, 20 new cases were filed in Philadelphia on behalf of 20 Philadelphia firefighters against various defendants in addition to the Company. Five of these cases were dismissed. The first trial involving these cases occurred in December 2014 and involved three firefighter plaintiffs. The jury returned a verdict in favor of the Company. Following the trial, the parties agreed to settle cases involving seven firefighter plaintiffs for nominal amounts.
In January 2015, plaintiffs’ attorneys filed two new complaints in Philadelphia on behalf of approximately 70 additional firefighter plaintiffs. One of the complaints, which involved 11 firefighter plaintiffs from the District of Columbia, was removed to federal court in the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. Plaintiffs voluntarily dismissed all claims in that case on May 31, 2016. The Company thereafter moved to recover fees and costs in this case, asserting that plaintiffs’ counsel failed to properly investigate the claims prior to filing suit. The Court granted the motion, awarding $0.1 million to the Company, and the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit affirmed the decision awarding fees and costs to the Company. The Court granted the Company’s motion to dismiss the remaining out-of-state firefighters. In 2015, another nine new cases involving a total of 193 firefighters were filed in Philadelphia. The court dismissed all claims filed by out-of-state firefighters, a decision affirmed by the appellate court.
In 2016 and 2017, plaintiffs filed new cases involving a total of 155 Philadelphia firefighters in Philadelphia state court, and the cases were transferred to the mass tort program in Philadelphia for pretrial purposes. In November 2017, a trial involving one Philadelphia firefighter occurred, and the jury returned a verdict in favor of the Company.
In 2014, an action was brought in the Court of Common Pleas of Erie County, Pennsylvania on behalf of 61 firefighters against various defendants in addition to the Company. Also in 2014, 20 lawsuits involving a total of 193 Buffalo Fire Department firefighters were filed in the Supreme Court of the State of New York, Erie County. In 2015, the Company was served with a complaint filed in Union County, New Jersey state court, involving 34 New Jersey firefighters. In 2016, nine cases were filed in Suffolk County, Massachusetts state court, naming the Company as a defendant. These cases involved 194 firefighters who lived and worked in the Boston area. In 2017, plaintiffs’ attorneys filed additional hearing loss cases in Florida. Prior to a dismissal of these cases pursuant to the Tolling Agreement discussed below, there was a total of 1084 firefighters involved in these cases.
In 2013, cases were filed in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania on behalf of 247 plaintiff firefighters from Pittsburgh and against various defendants including the Company. In 2016, cases were filed against an additional 19 Pittsburgh firefighters. After the Company filed pretrial motions, the Court dismissed claims of 55 Pittsburgh firefighter plaintiffs. Prior to the first scheduled trial, the Court granted the Company’s motion for summary judgment and dismissed all claims asserted by plaintiff firefighters involved in this trial. Following an appeal by the plaintiff firefighters, the appellate court affirmed this dismissal. A jury rendered a verdict in favor of the Company in 2017.
In 2017, five cases involving 70 firefighter plaintiffs were filed in Lackawanna County, Pennsylvania.
A second trial involving Pittsburgh firefighters began in 2018. At the outset of this trial, plaintiffs’ attorneys, who represent all firefighters who filed cases in Allegheny County, Philadelphia, Buffalo, New Jersey, Massachusetts, and Florida requested that the Company consider settlement of various cases. In March 2018, the parties agreed in principle on a framework (the “Settlement Framework”) to resolve hearing loss claims and cases in all jurisdictions involved in the hearing loss litigation except Cook County, Illinois and Lackawanna County, Pennsylvania and a case involving one firefighter in New York City, cases being handled by different attorneys. The Company later settled the cases in Lackawanna County and settled the case involving one firefighter in New York City for nominal amounts.
In order to minimize the parties’ respective legal costs and expenses during this settlement process, on July 5, 2018, the parties entered into a tolling agreement (the “Tolling Agreement”). Pursuant to the Tolling Agreement, counsel for the settling firefighters agreed to dismiss the pending lawsuits in all jurisdictions except for the Allegheny County (Pittsburgh), Pennsylvania cases, and the Company agreed to a tolling of any statute of limitations applicable to the dismissed cases. The Tolling Agreement continued in place until the parties executed a global settlement agreement (the “2019 Settlement Agreement”) on November 4, 2019. After execution of the 2019 Settlement Agreement, the Allegheny County (Pittsburgh) cases were dismissed.
Pursuant to the 2019 Settlement Agreement, the Company would pay $700 to each firefighter who filed a lawsuit and is eligible to be part of the settlement and $300 to each firefighter who has not yet filed a case and is eligible to be part of the settlement. To be eligible for settlement, among other things, firefighters must provide proof that they have high frequency noise-induced hearing loss. There are approximately 2,160 firefighters whose claims may be considered as part of this settlement, including approximately 921 firefighters who have ongoing filed lawsuits. The 2019 Settlement Agreement requires plaintiffs’ attorneys
15

FEDERAL SIGNAL CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (CONTINUED)
(Unaudited)
to withdraw from representing firefighters who elect not to participate in the settlement and does not include the payment of any attorney fees by the Company. Pursuant to the 2019 Settlement Agreement, the parties are now in the process of determining how many of the approximately 2,160 firefighters will be eligible to participate in the settlement.
As of March 31, 2024, the Company has recognized an estimated liability for the potential settlement amount under the Settlement Framework. While it is reasonably possible that the ultimate resolution of this matter may result in a loss in excess of the amount accrued, the incremental loss is not expected to be material.
NOTE 9 – EARNINGS PER SHARE
The Company computes earnings per share (“EPS”) in accordance with ASC 260, Earnings per Share, which requires that non-vested restricted stock containing non-forfeitable dividend rights should be treated as participating securities pursuant to the two-class method. Under the two-class method, net income is reduced by the amount of dividends declared in the period for common stock and participating securities. The remaining undistributed earnings are then allocated to common stock and participating securities as if all of the net income for the period had been distributed. The amounts of distributed and undistributed earnings allocated to participating securities for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 were insignificant and did not materially impact the calculation of basic or diluted EPS.
Basic EPS is computed by dividing income available to common stockholders by the weighted average number of shares of common stock and non-vested restricted stock awards outstanding for the period.
Diluted EPS is computed using the weighted average number of shares of common stock and non-vested restricted stock awards outstanding for the year, plus the effect of dilutive potential common shares outstanding during the period. The dilutive effect of common stock equivalents is determined using the more dilutive of the two-class method or alternative methods. The Company uses the treasury stock method to determine the potentially dilutive impact of our employee stock options and restricted stock units, and the contingently issuable method for our performance-based restricted stock unit awards.
For both the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, the number of options to purchase shares of the Company’s stock that had an antidilutive effect on EPS was immaterial.
The following table reconciles Net income to basic and diluted EPS:
 Three Months Ended
March 31,
(in millions, except per share data)20242023
Net income$51.6 $27.4 
Weighted average shares outstanding – Basic60.9 60.7 
Dilutive effect of common stock equivalents0.7 0.6 
Weighted average shares outstanding – Diluted61.6 61.3 
Earnings per share:
Basic$0.85 $0.45 
Diluted0.84 0.45 
NOTE 10 – STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
Dividends
On February 20, 2024, the Company’s Board of Directors (the “Board”) declared a quarterly cash dividend of $0.12 per common share. The dividend totaled $7.3 million and was distributed on March 28, 2024 to stockholders of record at the close of business on March 15, 2024.
On April 23, 2024, the Board declared a quarterly cash dividend of $0.12 per common share payable on May 31, 2024 to stockholders of record at the close of business on May 17, 2024.
Stock Repurchase Program
In March 2020, the Board authorized a stock repurchase program of up to $75.0 million of the Company’s common stock, with the remaining authorization under our previously described repurchase program adopted in 2014 being subject to the March
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FEDERAL SIGNAL CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (CONTINUED)
(Unaudited)
2020 program. The stock repurchase program is intended primarily to facilitate purchases of Company stock as a means to provide cash returns to stockholders, enhance stockholder returns and manage the Company’s capital structure. Under its stock repurchase program, the Company is authorized to repurchase, from time to time, shares of its outstanding common stock. Stock repurchases by the Company are subject to market conditions and other factors and may be commenced, suspended or discontinued at any time.
During the three months ended March 31, 2024, the Company repurchased 1,600 shares for a total of $0.1 million under its stock repurchase programs. No shares were repurchased during the three months ended March 31, 2023.
Accumulated Other Comprehensive Loss
The following tables summarize the changes in each component of Accumulated other comprehensive loss, net of tax in the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023:
(in millions) (a)
Actuarial LossesPrior Service CostsForeign
Currency Translation
Interest Rate SwapsTotal
Balance at January 1, 2024$(69.7)$(2.0)$(10.1)$0.5 $(81.3)
Other comprehensive income (loss) before reclassifications0.1  (3.9)1.2 (2.6)
Amounts reclassified from accumulated other comprehensive loss0.5   (0.7)(0.2)
Net current-period other comprehensive income (loss)0.6  (3.9)0.5 (2.8)
Balance at March 31, 2024$(69.1)$(2.0)$(14.0)$1.0 $(84.1)
(in millions) (a)
Actuarial LossesPrior Service CostsForeign
Currency Translation
Interest Rate SwapsTotal
Balance at January 1, 2023$(68.6)$(2.0)$(16.0)$2.6 $(84.0)
Other comprehensive (loss) income before reclassifications(0.4) 1.5 (0.4)0.7 
Amounts reclassified from accumulated other comprehensive loss0.4   (0.5)(0.1)
Net current-period other comprehensive income (loss)  1.5 (0.9)0.6 
Balance at March 31, 2023$(68.6)$(2.0)$(14.5)$1.7 $(83.4)
(a)    Amounts in parentheses indicate losses.
The following table summarizes the amounts reclassified from Accumulated other comprehensive loss, net of tax, in the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 and the affected line item in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations:
Details about Accumulated Other Comprehensive Loss Components Amount Reclassified from Accumulated Other Comprehensive LossAffected Line Item in Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations
20242023
(in millions) (a)
Amortization of actuarial losses of defined benefit pension plans$(0.7)$(0.5)Other expense, net
Interest rate swaps0.9 0.7 Interest expense, net
Total before tax0.2 0.2 
Income tax expense (0.1)Income tax (benefit) expense
Total reclassifications for the period, net of tax$0.2 $0.1 
(a)    Amounts in parentheses indicate losses.
17

FEDERAL SIGNAL CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (CONTINUED)
(Unaudited)
NOTE 11 – SEGMENT INFORMATION
The Company has two reportable segments: the Environmental Solutions Group and the Safety and Security Systems Group. Business units are organized under each reportable segment because they share certain characteristics, such as technology, marketing, distribution and product application, which create long-term synergies.
The following tables summarize the Company’s operations by segment, including Net sales, Operating income (loss), and Total assets:
 Three Months Ended
March 31,
(in millions)20242023
Net sales:
Environmental Solutions$354.0 $318.8 
Safety and Security Systems70.9 66.7 
Total net sales$424.9 $385.5 
Operating income (loss):
Environmental Solutions$51.7 $37.6 
Safety and Security Systems13.8 12.1 
Corporate and eliminations(11.2)(10.2)
Total operating income54.3 39.5 
Interest expense, net3.2 4.7 
Other expense, net0.2 0.1 
Income before income taxes$50.9 $34.7 
(in millions)March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
Total assets:
Environmental Solutions$1,322.0 $1,290.9 
Safety and Security Systems287.3 288.1 
Corporate and eliminations42.1 41.5 
Total assets$1,651.4 $1,620.5 
NOTE 12 – FAIR VALUE MEASUREMENTS
The Company uses a three-level fair value hierarchy that prioritizes the inputs used to measure fair value. This hierarchy maximizes the use of observable inputs and minimizes the use of unobservable inputs. Observable inputs are developed based on market data obtained from independent sources, while unobservable inputs reflect the Company’s assumptions about valuation based on the best information available in the circumstances. The three levels of inputs are classified as follows:
Level 1 — quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities;
Level 2 — observable inputs, other than quoted prices included in Level 1, such as quoted prices for markets that are not active, or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data; and
Level 3 — unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity and that are significant to the fair value of the assets or liabilities, including certain pricing models, discounted cash flow methodologies and similar techniques that use significant unobservable inputs.
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FEDERAL SIGNAL CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (CONTINUED)
(Unaudited)
In determining fair value, the Company uses various valuation approaches within the fair value measurement framework. The valuation methodologies used for the Company’s assets and liabilities measured at fair value and their classification in the valuation hierarchy are summarized below.
Cash Equivalents
Cash equivalents primarily consist of time-based deposits and interest-bearing instruments with maturities of three months or less. The Company classified cash equivalents as Level 1 due to the short-term nature of these instruments and measured the fair value based on quoted prices in active markets for identical assets.
Interest Rate Swaps
As described in Note 5 – Debt, the Company may, from time to time, execute interest rate swaps as a means of fixing the floating interest rate component on a portion of its floating-rate debt. The Company classifies its interest rate swaps as Level 2 due to the use of a discounted cash flow model based on the terms of the contract and the interest rate curve (Level 2 inputs) to calculate the fair value of the swaps.
Contingent Consideration
At March 31, 2024, the Company had contingent obligations to transfer up to $7.5 million, $6.2 million, and C$6.0 million (approximately $4.4 million), to the former owners of Deist Industries, Inc. and certain of its affiliates (collectively, “Deist”), Blasters, Inc. and Blasters Technologies, LLC (collectively, “Blasters”), and Trackless, respectively, if specified financial results are met over future reporting periods (i.e., an earn-out). The Deist, Blasters, and Trackless acquisitions were completed on December 30, 2021, January 3, 2023, and April 3, 2023, respectively. The Deist and Trackless contingent earn-out payments, if earned, would be due to be paid following the third anniversary of the closing date. The Blasters contingent earn-out payments, if earned, would be due to be paid annually, in each of the three years following the anniversary of the closing date. There was no contingent earn-out payable for the first annual measurement period ended December 31, 2023. During the three months ended March 31, 2023, the Company paid $0.5 million to settle the contingent consideration obligation due to the former owners of Mark Rite Lines Equipment Company, Inc. (“MRL”), which was acquired on July 1, 2019.
Liabilities for contingent consideration are measured at fair value each reporting period, with the acquisition-date fair value included as part of the consideration transferred. Subsequent changes in fair value are included as a component of Acquisition and integration-related expenses, net on the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations.
The Company uses an income approach to value the contingent consideration liability based on the present value of risk-adjusted future cash flows under either a scenario-based or option-pricing method, as appropriate. Due to the lack of relevant observable market data over fair value inputs, such as prospective financial information or probabilities of future events as of March 31, 2024, the Company has classified the contingent consideration liability within Level 3 of the fair value hierarchy outlined in ASC 820, Fair Value Measurements.
The following table summarizes the Company’s assets and liabilities that are measured at fair value on a recurring basis as of March 31, 2024:
Fair Value Measurement at Reporting Date Using
(in millions)Level 1Level 2Level 3Total
Assets:
Cash equivalents$9.3 $ $ $9.3 
Interest rate swaps 0.5  0.5 
Liabilities:
Contingent consideration  4.6 4.6 
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FEDERAL SIGNAL CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (CONTINUED)
(Unaudited)
The following table provides a roll-forward of the fair value of recurring Level 3 fair value measurements in the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023:
(in millions)20242023
Contingent consideration liability, at January 1$4.9 `$2.7 
Acquisitions, including measurement period adjustments(0.2)4.0 
Settlements of contingent consideration liabilities (0.5)
Foreign currency translation(0.1) 
Total gains included in earnings (a)
 (0.2)
Contingent consideration liability, at March 31$4.6 $6.0 
(a)    Included as a component of Acquisition and integration-related expenses, net on the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations.
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Item 2.     Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (“MD&A”) is designed to provide information that is supplemental to, and should be read together with, the condensed consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes contained in this Form 10-Q, as well as Federal Signal Corporation’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023. References herein to the “Company,” “we,” “our,” or “us” refer collectively to Federal Signal Corporation and its subsidiaries. Information in MD&A is intended to assist the reader in obtaining an understanding of (i) the condensed consolidated financial statements, (ii) the Company’s business segments and how the results of those segments impact the Company’s results of operations and financial condition as a whole and (iii) how certain accounting principles affect the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements. The Company’s results for interim periods should not be regarded as necessarily indicative of results that may be expected for the entire year, which may differ materially due to, among other things, the risk factors described under Part I, Item 1A, Risk Factors, of the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023, which was filed with the SEC on February 27, 2024.
Executive Summary
The Company is a leading global manufacturer and supplier of (i) vehicles and equipment for maintenance and infrastructure end-markets, including sewer cleaners, industrial vacuum loaders, vacuum- and hydro-excavation trucks (collectively, “safe-digging trucks”), street sweepers, waterblasting equipment, road-marking and line-removal equipment, dump truck bodies, trailers, metal extraction support equipment and multi-purpose maintenance vehicles, and (ii) public safety equipment, such as vehicle lightbars and sirens, industrial signaling equipment, public warning systems and general alarm/public address systems. In addition, we engage in the sale of parts, service and repair, equipment rentals and training as part of a comprehensive aftermarket offering to our customer base. We operate 23 principal manufacturing facilities in five countries and provide products and integrated solutions to municipal, governmental, industrial and commercial customers in all regions of the world.
As described in Note 11 – Segment Information to the accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements, the Company’s business units are organized in two reportable segments: the Environmental Solutions Group and the Safety and Security Systems Group.
Operating Results
Net sales for the three months ended March 31, 2024 increased by $39.4 million, or 10%, compared to the prior-year quarter, primarily due to higher sales volumes, inclusive of the effects of acquisitions and pricing actions. Our Environmental Solutions Group reported a net sales increase of $35.2 million, or 11%, primarily due to increases in sales of safe-digging trucks, refuse trucks, multi-purpose maintenance vehicles, metal extraction support equipment, dump truck bodies and road-marking and line-removal equipment of $7.2 million, $6.7 million, $6.6 million, $4.9 million, $2.8 million and $2.1 million, respectively. In addition, aftermarket revenues improved by $4.7 million. Partially offsetting these improvements was a $3.5 million reduction in sales of sewer cleaners, including the effects of a component supply issue that delayed the timing of certain unit shipments. Within our Safety and Security Systems Group, net sales increased by $4.2 million, or 6%, primarily due to improvements in sales of public safety equipment and warning systems of $4.7 million and $1.1 million, respectively, partially offset by a $1.6 million reduction in sales of industrial signaling equipment.
Operating income for the three months ended March 31, 2024 increased by $14.8 million, or 37%, compared to the prior-year quarter, primarily driven by a $20.2 million improvement in gross profit, partially offset by a $5.2 million increase in Selling, Engineering, General and Administrative (“SEG&A”) expenses and a $0.2 million increase in acquisition and integration-related expenses. Consolidated operating margin for the three months ended March 31, 2024 was 12.8%, compared to 10.2% in the prior-year quarter.
Income before income taxes for the three months ended March 31, 2024 increased by $16.2 million, or 47%, compared to the prior-year quarter. The increase resulted from the higher operating income and a $1.5 million reduction in interest expense, partially offset by a $0.1 million increase in other expense.
Net income for the three months ended March 31, 2024 increased by $24.2 million compared to the prior-year quarter, largely due to the aforementioned increase in income before taxes and a $8.0 million reduction in income tax expense. The effective tax rate for the three months ended March 31, 2024 was a benefit of 1.4%, compared to expense of 21.0% in the prior-year quarter. We currently expect our full-year effective tax rate to be approximately 20%, excluding additional discrete items.
Total orders for the three months ended March 31, 2024 were $503 million, an increase of $28 million, or 6%, as compared to the prior-year quarter. Our Environmental Solutions Group reported total orders of $428 million in the three months ended March 31, 2024, an increase of $32 million, or 8% in comparison to the prior-year quarter. Orders in the three months ended March 31, 2024 within our Safety and Security Systems Group were $75 million, a decrease of $4 million, or 5%, compared to the prior-year quarter.
21

Our consolidated backlog at March 31, 2024 was $1.10 billion, an increase of $132 million, or 14%, compared to the prior-year quarter.
Results of Operations
The following table summarizes our Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and illustrates the key financial indicators used to assess our consolidated financial results:
 Three Months Ended March 31,
($ in millions, except per share data)20242023Change
Net sales$424.9 $385.5 $39.4 
Cost of sales308.9 289.7 19.2 
Gross profit116.0 95.8 20.2 
Selling, engineering, general and administrative expenses57.2 52.0 5.2 
Amortization expense3.6 3.6 — 
Acquisition and integration-related expenses, net0.9 0.7 0.2 
Operating income54.3 39.5 14.8 
Interest expense, net3.2 4.7 (1.5)
Other expense, net0.2 0.1 0.1 
Income before income taxes50.9 34.7 16.2 
Income tax (benefit) expense(0.7)7.3 (8.0)
Net income$51.6 $27.4 $24.2 
Operating data:
Operating margin12.8 %10.2 %2.6 %
Diluted earnings per share$0.84 $0.45 $0.39 
Total orders502.7 474.7 28.0 
Backlog1,099.4 967.6 131.8 
Depreciation and amortization15.4 14.3 1.1 
Net sales
Net sales for the three months ended March 31, 2024 increased by $39.4 million, or 10%, compared to the prior-year quarter, primarily due to higher sales volumes, inclusive of the effects of acquisitions and pricing actions. The Environmental Solutions Group reported a net sales increase of $35.2 million, or 11%, primarily due to increases in sales of safe-digging trucks, refuse trucks, multi-purpose maintenance vehicles, metal extraction support equipment, dump truck bodies and road-marking and line-removal equipment of $7.2 million, $6.7 million, $6.6 million, $4.9 million, $2.8 million and $2.1 million, respectively. In addition, aftermarket revenues improved by $4.7 million. Partially offsetting these improvements was a $3.5 million reduction in sales of sewer cleaners, including the effects of a component supply issue that delayed the timing of certain unit shipments. Within the Safety and Security Systems Group, net sales increased by $4.2 million, or 6%, primarily due to improvements in sales of public safety equipment and warning systems of $4.7 million and $1.1 million, respectively, partially offset by a $1.6 million reduction in sales of industrial signaling equipment.
Cost of sales
Cost of sales increased by $19.2 million, or 7%, for the three months ended March 31, 2024 compared to the prior-year quarter, largely due to an increase of $18.7 million, or 8%, within the Environmental Solutions Group, primarily related to higher sales volumes, inclusive of the effects of acquisitions, and increased material costs. Within the Safety and Security Systems Group, cost of sales increased by $0.5 million, or 1%, primarily related to higher sales volumes.
Gross profit
Gross profit increased by $20.2 million, or 21%, for the three months ended March 31, 2024 compared to the prior-year quarter, primarily due to a $16.5 million improvement within the Environmental Solutions Group and a $3.7 million increase within the Safety and Security Systems Group. Gross profit as a percentage of revenues (“gross profit margin”) for the three months ended March 31, 2024 was 27.3%, compared to 24.9% in the prior-year quarter, primarily due to improvements within the
22

Environmental Solutions Group and the Safety and Security Systems Group of 250 basis points and 290 basis points, respectively.
SEG&A expenses
SEG&A expenses for the three months ended March 31, 2024 increased by $5.2 million, or 10%, compared to the prior-year quarter, primarily due to increases of $2.3 million and $2.0 million within the Environmental Solutions Group and the Safety and Security Systems Group, respectively, in addition to a $0.9 million increase in Corporate SEG&A expenses. As a percentage of net sales, SEG&A expenses were 13.5% in the current-year quarter, unchanged from the prior-year quarter.
Operating income
Operating income for the three months ended March 31, 2024 increased by $14.8 million, or 37%, compared to the prior-year quarter, primarily driven by a $20.2 million improvement in gross profit, partially offset by a $5.2 million increase in SEG&A expenses and a $0.2 million increase in acquisition and integration-related expenses. Consolidated operating margin for the three months ended March 31, 2024 was 12.8%, compared to 10.2% in the prior-year quarter.
Interest expense, net
Interest expense, net, for the three months ended March 31, 2024 decreased by $1.5 million compared to the corresponding periods of the prior year, largely due to a reduction in average debt levels.
Other expense, net
Other expense, net, for the three months ended March 31, 2024 increased by $0.1 million, compared to the prior-year quarter, primarily due to higher net periodic pension expense.
Income tax (benefit) expense
During the year ended December 31, 2023, the Company filed amended U.S. federal income tax returns for the 2015 through 2018 tax years to claim a worthless stock deduction. As of December 31, 2023, the amended tax returns were under examination by the applicable tax authorities and recovery of the refund claim was not considered more-likely-than-not. Accordingly, the aggregate refund claim of $13.6 million, including interest of $1.8 million, was recorded as an income tax receivable as of December 31, 2023, fully offset by a corresponding liability for unrecognized tax benefits.
During the three months ended March 31, 2024, the tax authorities notified the Company that the amended tax returns had been approved, at which point receipt of the refund claim was considered more-likely-than-not. As a result, the Company released the associated liability for unrecognized tax benefits and recognized a $13.0 million discrete tax benefit for the refund claim, net of taxes on the associated interest, during the three months ended March 31, 2024. The associated income tax receivable is recognized within Prepaid expenses and other current assets on the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets as of March 31, 2024.
Including the aforementioned discrete tax benefit and the recognition of $0.8 million in excess tax benefits associated with stock-based compensation activity, the Company recognized an income tax benefit of $0.7 million during the three months ended March 31, 2024, compared to income tax expense of $7.3 million during the prior-year quarter, with the impact of the discrete tax benefit being partially offset by higher pre-tax income levels. The Company’s effective tax rate for the three months ended March 31, 2024 was a benefit of 1.4%, compared to expense of 21.0% in the prior-year quarter.
Net income
Net income for the three months ended March 31, 2024 increased by $24.2 million compared to the prior-year quarter, largely due to the aforementioned improvement in operating income, the $1.5 million decrease in interest expense, and the $8.0 million reduction in income tax expense, partially offset by the $0.1 million increase in other expense.
23

Environmental Solutions
The following table summarizes the Environmental Solutions Group’s operating results as of and for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023: 
 Three Months Ended March 31,
($ in millions)20242023Change
Net sales$354.0 $318.8 $35.2 
Operating income51.7 37.6 14.1 
Operating data:
Operating margin14.6 %11.8 %2.8 %
Total orders$427.7 $395.8 $31.9 
Backlog1,037.4 901.8 135.6 
Depreciation and amortization14.3 13.2 1.1 
Total orders for the three months ended March 31, 2024 increased by $31.9 million, or 8%, compared to the prior-year quarter. U.S. orders decreased by $15.7 million, primarily due to reductions in orders for street sweepers, safe-digging trucks, trailers and industrial vacuum loaders of $26.7 million, $8.8 million, $8.5 million and $5.4 million, respectively. Partially offsetting these reductions were improvements in orders of dump truck bodies, sewer cleaners, refuse trucks and waterblasting equipment of $20.5 million, $9.0 million, $2.3 million and $1.9 million, respectively. Non-U.S. orders increased by $47.6 million, largely due to a $31.3 million improvement in orders for refuse trucks, inclusive of certain large fleet orders, as well as increases in orders for multi-purpose maintenance vehicles, metal extraction support equipment, aftermarket offerings and street sweepers of $31.3 million, $5.4 million, $3.9 million, $3.3 million and $2.8 million, respectively.
Net sales for the three months ended March 31, 2024 increased by $35.2 million, or 11%, compared to the prior-year quarter, primarily due to higher sales volumes, inclusive of the effects of acquisitions and pricing actions. For the three months ended March 31, 2024, U.S. sales increased by $19.9 million, largely due to increases in sales of safe-digging trucks, multi-purpose maintenance vehicles, metal extraction support equipment, road-marking and line-removal equipment, dump truck bodies and street sweepers of $8.3 million, $3.6 million, $3.3 million, $2.2 million, $1.3 million and $1.2 million, respectively. Additionally, aftermarket revenues increased by $2.4 million. Partially offsetting these improvements was a $5.3 million reduction in sales of sewer cleaners, including the effects of a component supply issue that delayed the timing of certain unit shipments. Non-U.S. sales increased by $15.3 million, largely due to increases in sales of refuse trucks, multi-purpose maintenance vehicles and sewer cleaners of $6.4 million, $3.0 million and $1.8 million, respectively. In addition, aftermarket revenues increased by $2.3 million.
Cost of sales for the three months ended March 31, 2024 increased by $18.7 million, or 8%, compared to the prior-year quarter, primarily related to higher sales volumes, inclusive of the effects of acquisitions, and increased material costs. Gross profit margin for the three months ended March 31, 2024 was 24.5%, compared to 22.0% in the prior-year quarter, with the improvement primarily attributable to improved operating leverage from higher sales volumes and benefits from pricing actions.
SEG&A expenses for the three months ended March 31, 2024 increased by $2.3 million, or 8%, compared to the prior-year quarter, primarily due to additional costs from acquired businesses, as well as increases in sales commissions and incentive-based compensation expense. As a percentage of net sales, SEG&A expenses were 8.7% in the current-year quarter, down from 9.0% in the prior-year quarter.
Operating income for the three months ended March 31, 2024 increased by $14.1 million, or 38%, compared to the prior-year quarter, largely due to a $16.5 million improvement in gross profit, partially offset by the $2.3 million increase in SEG&A expenses and a $0.1 million increase in acquisition and integration-related costs.
Backlog was $1.04 billion at March 31, 2024, compared to $902 million at March 31, 2023.
24

Safety and Security Systems
The following table summarizes the Safety and Security Systems Group’s operating results as of and for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023: 
 Three Months Ended March 31,
($ in millions)20242023Change
Net sales$70.9 $66.7 $4.2 
Operating income13.8 12.1 1.7 
Operating data:
Operating margin19.5 %18.1 %1.4 %
Total orders$75.0 $78.9 $(3.9)
Backlog62.0 65.8 (3.8)
Depreciation and amortization1.0 1.1 (0.1)
Total orders for the three months ended March 31, 2024 decreased by $3.9 million, or 5%, compared to the prior-year quarter. U.S. orders increased by $4.1 million, primarily due to improvements in orders for public safety equipment and industrial signaling equipment of $4.7 million and $1.1 million, respectively, partially offset by a $1.7 million reduction in orders for warning systems. Non-U.S. orders decreased by $8.0 million, primarily due to a $6.9 million reduction in orders for public safety equipment in comparison to the prior-year quarter, which included a large fleet order from a customer in Mexico.
Net sales for the three months ended March 31, 2024 increased by $4.2 million, or 6%, compared to the prior-year quarter, inclusive of the effects of higher sales volumes and pricing actions. U.S. sales increased by $5.3 million, driven by improvements in sales of public safety equipment and warning systems of $4.9 million and $1.1 million, respectively, partially offset by a $0.7 million reduction in sales of industrial signaling equipment. Non-U.S. sales decreased by $1.1 million, largely due to reductions in sales of industrial signaling equipment and public safety equipment of $0.9 million and $0.2 million, respectively.
Cost of sales for the three months ended March 31, 2024 increased by $0.5 million, or 1%, compared to the prior-year quarter, primarily related to higher sales volumes. Gross profit margin for the three months ended March 31, 2024 was 41.3%, compared to 38.4% in the prior-year quarter, with the improvement primarily attributable to improved operating leverage from higher sales volumes and benefits from pricing actions.
SEG&A expenses for the three months ended March 31, 2024 increased by $2.0 million, or 15%, compared to the prior-year quarter, primarily due to higher sales commissions and incentive-based compensation expense. As a percentage of net sales, SEG&A expenses were 21.9% in the current-year quarter, compared to 20.2% in the prior-year quarter.
Operating income for the three months ended March 31, 2024 increased by $1.7 million, or 14%, compared to the prior-year quarter, primarily due to a $3.7 million improvement in gross profit, partially offset by the $2.0 million increase in SEG&A expenses.
Backlog was $62 million at March 31, 2024, compared to $66 million at March 31, 2023.
Corporate Expenses
Corporate operating expenses for the three months ended March 31, 2024 were $11.2 million, compared to $10.2 million in the prior-year quarter, with the increase primarily due to higher stock compensation and incentive-based compensation expense, partially offset by a $1.8 million gain associated with an insurance recovery.
Seasonality of Company’s Business
Certain of the Company’s businesses are susceptible to the influences of seasonal factors, including buying patterns, delivery patterns and productivity influences from holiday periods and weather. In general, the Company tends to have lower equipment sales in the first calendar quarter of each year compared to other quarters as a result of these factors. In addition, rental income and parts sales are generally higher in the second and third quarters of the year, because many of the Company’s products are used for maintenance activities in North America, where usage is typically lower during periods of harsher weather conditions.
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Financial Condition, Liquidity and Capital Resources
The Company uses its cash flow from operations to fund growth and to make capital investments that sustain its operations, reduce costs, or both. Beyond these uses, remaining cash is used to pay down debt, repurchase shares, fund dividend payments and make pension contributions. The Company may also choose to invest in the acquisition of businesses. In the absence of significant unanticipated cash demands, we believe that the Company’s existing cash balances, cash flow from operations and borrowings available under the Company’s credit facility will provide funds sufficient for these purposes. As of March 31, 2024, there was $147.5 million of cash drawn on the Revolver, $123.4 million outstanding under the term loan facility and $11.1 million of undrawn letters of credit under the 2022 Credit Agreement, with $516.4 million of availability for borrowings. The net cash flows associated with the Company’s rental equipment transactions are included in cash flow from operating activities.
The Company’s cash and cash equivalents totaled $48.9 million and $61.0 million as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively. As of March 31, 2024, $26.4 million of cash and cash equivalents was held by foreign subsidiaries. Cash and cash equivalents held by subsidiaries outside the U.S. typically are held in the currency of the country in which it is located. The Company uses this cash to fund the operating activities of its foreign subsidiaries and for further investment in foreign operations. Generally, the Company has considered such cash to be permanently reinvested in its foreign operations and the Company’s current plans do not demonstrate a need to repatriate such cash to fund U.S. operations. However, in the event that these funds are needed to fund U.S. operations or to satisfy U.S. obligations, they generally could be repatriated. The repatriation of these funds may cause the Company to incur additional U.S. income tax expense, dependent on income tax laws and other circumstances at the time any such amounts are repatriated.
Net cash of $31.3 million was provided by operating activities in the three months ended March 31, 2024, compared to $7.1 million in the prior-year period, with the year-over-year increase primarily due to working capital improvements and higher net income, partially offset by higher incentive-based compensation payments.
Net cash of $7.6 million was used for investing activities in the three months ended March 31, 2024, compared to $19.4 million in the prior-year period. During the three months ended March 31, 2024, the Company funded $8.4 million of capital expenditures. During the three months ended March 31, 2023, the Company paid initial consideration of $13.4 million to acquire Blasters, and funded $6.0 million of capital expenditures.
Net cash of $35.3 million was used for financing activities in the three months ended March 31, 2024, whereas in the prior-year period, net cash of $3.1 million was provided by financing activities. In the three months ended March 31, 2024, the Company paid down $23.5 million of borrowings under its revolving credit facility and $0.8 million under its term loan facility, funded cash dividends and share repurchases of $7.3 million and $0.1 million, respectively, and redeemed $4.1 million of stock in order to remit funds to tax authorities to satisfy employees’ tax withholdings following the vesting of stock-based compensation and the exercise of stock options. In the three months ended March 31, 2023, the Company increased debt borrowings by $12.6 million, funded cash dividends of $5.5 million and redeemed $3.8 million of stock in order to remit funds to tax authorities to satisfy employees’ tax withholdings following the vesting of stock-based compensation and the exercise of stock options. During the three months ended March 31, 2023, the Company also paid $0.5 million to settle the contingent consideration obligation due to the former owners of MRL.
The Company is subject to certain net leverage ratio and interest coverage ratio financial covenants under the 2022 Credit Agreement that are measured at each fiscal quarter-end. The Company was in compliance with all such covenants as of March 31, 2024.
The Company anticipates that capital expenditures for 2024 will be in the range of $35 million to $40 million.
The Company believes that its financial resources and major sources of liquidity, including cash flow from operations and borrowing capacity, will be adequate to meet its operating needs, capital needs and financial commitments.
Contractual Obligations and Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
During the three months ended March 31, 2024, there have been no material changes in the Company’s contractual obligations and off-balance sheet arrangements as described in Item 7, Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, of the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023.
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Item 3.     Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk.
See Item 7A, Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk, of the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023. During the three months ended March 31, 2024, there have been no significant changes in our exposure to market risk.
Item 4.     Controls and Procedures.
As required by Rule 13a-15 under the Exchange Act, the Company’s management, with the participation of the Company’s Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, evaluated the effectiveness of the design and operation of the Company’s disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rule 13a-15(e) or Rule 15d-15(e) under the Exchange Act) as of March 31, 2024. Based on that evaluation, the Company’s Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer concluded that the Company’s disclosure controls and procedures were effective as of March 31, 2024.
As a matter of practice, the Company’s management continues to review and document internal control and procedures for financial reporting. From time to time, the Company may make changes aimed at enhancing the effectiveness of the controls and ensuring that the systems evolve with the business. There were no changes in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting during the three months ended March 31, 2024.
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PART II. OTHER INFORMATION
Item 1.    Legal Proceedings.
The information set forth under the heading “Legal Proceedings” in Note 8 – Commitments and Contingencies to the accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements as included in Part I of this Form 10-Q is incorporated herein by reference.
Item 1A. Risk Factors.
There have been no material changes in the Company’s risk factors as described in Item 1A, Risk Factors, of the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023.
Item 2.    Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds.
The following table provides a summary of the Company’s repurchase activity for its common stock during the three months ended March 31, 2024:
PeriodTotal Number of Shares PurchasedAverage Price Paid Per ShareTotal Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or ProgramsMaximum Dollar Value of Shares That May Yet Be Purchased Under the Plans or Programs (a)
January 2024 (1/1/24 - 2/3/24)— $— — $53,544,951 
February 2024 (2/4/24 - 3/2/24)— — — 53,544,951 
March 2024 (3/3/24 - 3/30/24)1,600 79.0199 1,600 53,418,519 
(a)    In March 2020, the Board authorized a stock repurchase program of up to $75.0 million of the Company’s common stock, with the remaining authorization under our previously described repurchase program adopted in 2014 being subject to the March 2020 program.
Item 3.    Defaults upon Senior Securities.
None.
Item 4.    Mine Safety Disclosures.
Not applicable.
Item 5.    Other Information.
On April 30, 2024, the Company issued a press release announcing its financial results for the three months ended March 31, 2024. The presentation slides for the first quarter 2024 earnings call were also posted on the Company’s website at that time. The full text of the first quarter financial results press release and earnings presentation are attached hereto as Exhibits 99.1 and 99.2, respectively, to this Form 10-Q.
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Item 6.    Exhibits.
3.1
3.2
31.1
31.2
32.1
32.2
99.1
99.2
101.INSXBRL Instance Document (the instance document does not appear in the Interactive Data File because its XBRL tags are embedded within the Inline XBRL document).
101.SCHInline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Schema Document.
101.CALInline XBRL Taxonomy Calculation Linkbase Document.
101.DEFInline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Definition Linkbase Document.
101.LABInline XBRL Taxonomy Label Linkbase Document.
101.PREInline XBRL Taxonomy Presentation Linkbase Document.
104Cover Page Interactive Data File (formatted as inline XBRL and contained in Exhibit 101).

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SIGNATURE
Pursuant to the requirements of Section 13 or 15 (d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized.
 
 Federal Signal Corporation
Date:April 30, 2024/s/ Ian A. Hudson
 Ian A. Hudson
 Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
(Principal Financial Officer)
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