10-Q 1 fss-20220630.htm 10-Q fss-20220630
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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
___________________________________ 
FORM 10-Q
(Mark One)
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended June 30, 2022
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                      to                     
Commission file number: 1-6003
  _____________________________________________
 fss-20220630_g1.jpg
FEDERAL SIGNAL CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware36-1063330
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
1415 West 22nd Street, Oak Brook, Illinois
(Address of principal executive offices)
60523
(Zip code)
(630954-2000
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
  _____________________________________________
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $1.00 per shareFSSNew York Stock Exchange
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No  
As of June 30, 2022, the number of shares outstanding of the registrant’s common stock was 60,626,682.


FEDERAL SIGNAL CORPORATION
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
PART I.
Item 1.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
PART II.
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Item 5.
Item 6.


FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q (“Form 10-Q”) is being filed by Federal Signal Corporation and its subsidiaries (referred to collectively as the “Company,” “we,” “our” or “us” herein, unless the context otherwise indicates) with the United States (“U.S.”) Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”), and includes comments made by management that may contain words such as “may,” “will,” “believe,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “plan,” “project,” “estimate” and “objective” or similar terminology, or the negative thereof, concerning the Company’s future financial performance, business strategy, plans, goals and objectives. These expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), and the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements include information concerning the Company’s possible or assumed future performance or results of operations and are not guarantees. While these statements are based on assumptions and judgments that management has made in light of industry experience as well as perceptions of historical trends, current conditions, expected future developments and other factors believed to be appropriate under the circumstances, they are subject to risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause the Company’s actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different.
These risks and uncertainties, some of which are beyond the Company’s control, include the risk factors described under Part I, Item 1A, Risk Factors, of the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021, which was filed with the SEC on March 1, 2022. These factors may not constitute all factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those discussed in any forward-looking statement. The Company operates in a continually changing business environment and new factors emerge from time to time, including, for example, the ongoing coronavirus pandemic and the government response to the pandemic. The Company cannot predict such factors, nor can it assess the impact, if any, of such factors on its results of operations, financial condition or cash flow. Accordingly, forward-looking statements should not be relied upon as a predictor of actual results. The Company disclaims any responsibility to update any forward-looking statement provided in this Form 10-Q.
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
The Company is subject to the reporting and information requirements of the Exchange Act and, as a result, is obligated to file Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and other reports and information with the SEC, as well as amendments to those reports. The Company makes these filings available free of charge through our website at www.federalsignal.com as soon as reasonably practicable after such materials are filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. Information on our website does not constitute part of this Form 10-Q. In addition, the SEC maintains a website at www.sec.gov that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically.
1

PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Item 1.     Financial Statements (Unaudited).
FEDERAL SIGNAL CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS (Unaudited)
 Three Months Ended
June 30,
Six Months Ended
June 30,
(in millions, except per share data)2022202120222021
Net sales$366.7 $334.7 $696.9 $613.5 
Cost of sales276.9 253.1 531.4 463.1 
Gross profit89.8 81.6 165.5 150.4 
Selling, engineering, general and administrative expenses42.1 40.0 85.7 78.2 
Amortization expense3.2 2.8 6.5 5.4 
Acquisition and integration-related (benefits) expenses(1.7)0.3 (1.4)0.5 
Operating income46.2 38.5 74.7 66.3 
Interest expense1.9 1.1 3.2 2.2 
Other income, net(0.3)(0.3)(0.7)(0.8)
Income before income taxes44.6 37.7 72.2 64.9 
Income tax expense11.1 8.0 18.2 13.0 
Net income$33.5 $29.7 $54.0 $51.9 
Earnings per share:
Basic$0.55 $0.49 $0.89 $0.85 
Diluted0.55 0.48 0.88 $0.84 
Weighted average common shares outstanding:
Basic60.4 60.9 60.6 60.8 
Diluted60.9 61.8 61.1 61.8 
See notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.
2

FEDERAL SIGNAL CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (Unaudited)
 Three Months Ended
June 30,
Six Months Ended
June 30,
(in millions)2022202120222021
Net income $33.5 $29.7 $54.0 $51.9 
Other comprehensive (loss) income:
Change in foreign currency translation adjustment(8.6)2.0 (10.2)0.8 
Change in unrecognized net actuarial loss and prior service cost related to pension benefit plans, net of income tax expense of $0.1, $0.3, $0.5 and $0.5, respectively
2.1 1.0 3.1 1.7 
Change in unrealized gain or loss on interest rate swaps, net of income tax expense of $0.1, $0.0, $0.8 and $0.3, respectively
0.2  2.3 0.8 
Total other comprehensive (loss) income(6.3)3.0 (4.8)3.3 
Comprehensive income$27.2 $32.7 $49.2 $55.2 
See notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.
3

FEDERAL SIGNAL CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
June 30,
2022
December 31,
2021
(in millions, except per share data)(Unaudited) 
ASSETS
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$31.2 $40.5 
Accounts receivable, net of allowances for doubtful accounts of $2.4 and $2.1, respectively
169.9 136.0 
Inventories259.6 229.1 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets19.2 25.4 
Total current assets479.9 431.0 
Properties and equipment, net of accumulated depreciation of $159.1 and $151.6, respectively
172.2 141.9 
Rental equipment, net of accumulated depreciation of $43.8 and $43.8, respectively
111.6 108.4 
Operating lease right-of-use assets26.7 29.8 
Goodwill430.7 432.2 
Intangible assets, net of accumulated amortization of $49.1 and $42.7, respectively
203.4 205.7 
Deferred tax assets7.7 8.4 
Other long-term assets11.6 8.7 
Total assets$1,443.8 $1,366.1 
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
Current liabilities:
Current portion of long-term borrowings and finance lease obligations$0.7 $0.6 
Accounts payable77.9 64.8 
Customer deposits23.6 21.9 
Accrued liabilities:
Compensation and withholding taxes28.9 29.9 
Current operating lease liabilities6.7 8.8 
Other current liabilities41.9 44.4 
Total current liabilities179.7 170.4 
Long-term borrowings and finance lease obligations326.1 282.2 
Long-term operating lease liabilities20.7 22.1 
Long-term pension and other postretirement benefit liabilities36.6 40.4 
Deferred tax liabilities57.7 53.2 
Other long-term liabilities13.9 13.8 
Total liabilities634.7 582.1 
Stockholders’ equity:
Common stock, $1 par value per share, 90.0 shares authorized, 69.2 and 68.9 shares issued, respectively
69.2 68.9 
Capital in excess of par value262.4 256.7 
Retained earnings726.7 683.6 
Treasury stock, at cost, 8.6 and 8.0 shares, respectively
(170.2)(151.0)
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(79.0)(74.2)
Total stockholders’ equity809.1 784.0 
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity$1,443.8 $1,366.1 
See notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.
4

FEDERAL SIGNAL CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS (Unaudited)
 Six Months Ended
June 30,
(in millions)20222021
Operating activities:
Net income$54.0 $51.9 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities:
Depreciation and amortization27.1 24.8 
Stock-based compensation expense5.4 3.8 
Deferred income taxes3.2  
Changes in operating assets and liabilities(67.3)(41.2)
Net cash provided by operating activities22.4 39.3 
Investing activities:
Purchases of properties and equipment(41.5)(9.3)
Payments for acquisition-related activity, net of cash acquired(5.9)(52.2)
Other, net1.4 0.2 
Net cash used for investing activities(46.0)(61.3)
Financing activities:
Increase in revolving lines of credit, net44.1 10.0 
Purchases of treasury stock(16.1)(0.2)
Redemptions of common stock to satisfy withholding taxes related to stock-based compensation(2.5)(7.7)
Cash dividends paid to stockholders(10.9)(11.0)
Proceeds from stock-based compensation activity0.1 3.8 
Other, net0.2 0.1 
Net cash provided by (used for) financing activities14.9 (5.0)
Effects of foreign exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents(0.6)(0.2)
Decrease in cash and cash equivalents(9.3)(27.2)
Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of year40.5 81.7 
Cash and cash equivalents at end of period$31.2 $54.5 
See notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.
5

FEDERAL SIGNAL CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY (Unaudited)
Three Months Ended June 30, 2022
(in millions)Common
Stock
Capital in
Excess of
Par
Value
Retained
Earnings
Treasury
Stock
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Loss
Total
Balance at April 1, 2022$69.1 $259.3 $698.6 $(166.5)$(72.7)$787.8 
Net income33.5 33.5 
Total other comprehensive loss(6.3)(6.3)
Cash dividends declared ($0.09 per share)
(5.4)(5.4)
Stock-based payments:
Stock-based compensation2.3 2.3 
Stock option exercises and other0.1 0.8 (1.2)(0.3)
Stock repurchase program(2.5)(2.5)
Balance at June 30, 2022$69.2 $262.4 $726.7 $(170.2)$(79.0)$809.1 
Three Months Ended June 30, 2021
(in millions)Common
Stock
Capital in
Excess of
Par
Value
Retained
Earnings
Treasury
Stock
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Loss
Total
Balance at April 1, 2021$68.4 $245.2 $621.7 $(124.3)$(91.4)$719.6 
Net income29.7 29.7 
Total other comprehensive income3.0 3.0 
Cash dividends declared ($0.09 per share)
(5.5)(5.5)
Stock-based payments:
Stock-based compensation1.9 1.9 
Stock option exercises and other0.3 2.5 (5.3)(2.5)
Stock repurchase program(0.2)(0.2)
Balance at June 30, 2021$68.7 $249.6 $645.9 $(129.8)$(88.4)$746.0 

Six Months Ended June 30, 2022
(in millions)Common
Stock
Capital in
Excess of
Par
Value
Retained
Earnings
Treasury
Stock
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Loss
Total
Balance at January 1, 2022$68.9 $256.7 $683.6 $(151.0)$(74.2)$784.0 
Net income54.0 54.0 
Total other comprehensive loss(4.8)(4.8)
Cash dividends declared ($0.18 per share)
(10.9)(10.9)
Stock-based payments:
Stock-based compensation4.7 4.7 
Stock option exercises and other0.2 1.1 (1.8)(0.5)
Performance share unit transactions0.1 (0.1)(1.3)(1.3)
Stock repurchase program(16.1)(16.1)
Balance at June 30, 2022$69.2 $262.4 $726.7 $(170.2)$(79.0)$809.1 
See notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.

6

Six Months Ended June 30, 2021
(in millions)Common
Stock
Capital in
Excess of
Par
Value
Retained
Earnings
Treasury
Stock
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Loss
Total
Balance at January 1, 2021$67.8 $240.8 $605.0 $(119.8)$(91.7)$702.1 
Net income51.9 51.9 
Total other comprehensive income3.3 3.3 
Cash dividends declared ($0.18 per share)
(11.0)(11.0)
Stock-based payments:
Stock-based compensation3.2 3.2 
Stock option exercises and other0.7 5.8 (6.0)0.5 
Performance share unit transactions0.2 (0.2)(3.8)(3.8)
Stock repurchase program(0.2)(0.2)
Balance at June 30, 2021$68.7 $249.6 $645.9 $(129.8)$(88.4)$746.0 
See notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.
7

FEDERAL SIGNAL CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(Unaudited)
NOTE 1 – SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Organization and Description of the Business
Federal Signal Corporation was founded in 1901 and was reincorporated as a Delaware corporation in 1969. References herein to the “Company,” “we,” “our” or “us” refer collectively to Federal Signal Corporation and its subsidiaries.
Products manufactured and services rendered by the Company are divided into two reportable segments: Environmental Solutions Group and Safety and Security Systems Group. The individual operating businesses are organized as such because they share certain characteristics, including technology, marketing, distribution and product application, which create long-term synergies. These segments are discussed in Note 10 – Segment Information.
Basis of Presentation and Consolidation
The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements represent the consolidation of Federal Signal Corporation and its subsidiaries included herein and have been prepared by the Company pursuant to the rules and regulations of the United States (“U.S.”) Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). Certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in financial statements prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) have been condensed or omitted pursuant to such rules and regulations, although the Company believes that the disclosures presented herein are adequate to ensure the information presented is not misleading. Except as otherwise noted, these condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with the Company’s accounting policies described in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021, and should be read in conjunction with those consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto.
These condensed consolidated financial statements include all normal and recurring adjustments that we considered necessary to present a fair statement of our results of operations, financial condition and cash flow. Intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. During the current year, the Company is separately presenting Amortization expense on the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations. Accordingly, prior-year amounts have been reclassified from Selling, engineering, general and administrative (“SEG&A”) expenses to conform to current-year presentation.
The results reported in these condensed consolidated financial statements should not be regarded as necessarily indicative of results that may be expected for the entire year, which may differ materially due to, among other things, the risk factors described under Part I, Item 1A, Risk Factors, of the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021, which was filed with the SEC on March 1, 2022. While we label our quarterly information using a calendar convention whereby our first, second and third quarters are labeled as ending on March 31, June 30 and September 30, respectively, it is our longstanding practice to establish interim quarterly closing dates based on a 13-week period ending on a Saturday, with our fiscal year ending on December 31. The effects of this practice are not material and exist only within a reporting year.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements and Accounting Changes
In October 2021, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (the “FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2021-08, Business Combinations (Topic 805), Accounting for Contract Assets and Liabilities from Contracts with Customers, which requires an acquirer to recognize and measure contract assets and liabilities acquired in a business combination in accordance with Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606) rather than adjust them to fair value at the acquisition date. This ASU, which is applied on a prospective basis, is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022, and early adoption is permitted. The Company early adopted this ASU effective January 1, 2022, and the guidance will be applied on a prospective basis to future business combinations, as applicable.
There are no new accounting pronouncements issued, but not yet adopted, that are expected to have a material impact on the Company’s results of operations, financial position or cash flow.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect (i) the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, (ii) the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and (iii) the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
8

FEDERAL SIGNAL CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (CONTINUED)
(Unaudited)
Significant Accounting Policies
There have been no changes to the Company’s significant accounting policies as disclosed in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021.
NOTE 2 – REVENUE RECOGNITION
The following table presents the Company’s Net sales disaggregated by geographic region, based on the location of the end customer, and by major product line:
Three Months Ended
June 30,
Six Months Ended
June 30,
(in millions)2022202120222021
Geographic Region:
U.S.$299.8 $243.7 $564.2 $459.2 
Canada44.0 66.1 86.3 106.7 
Europe/Other22.9 24.9 46.4 47.6 
Total net sales$366.7 $334.7 $696.9 $613.5 
Major Product Line:
Environmental Solutions
Vehicles and equipment (a)
$235.8 $213.7 $453.2 $392.7 
Parts45.1 39.5 85.9 75.2 
Rental income (b)
16.1 13.2 25.8 20.7 
Other (c)
9.3 14.9 15.6 20.8 
Total306.3 281.3 580.5 509.4 
Safety and Security Systems
Public safety and security equipment37.5 32.1 73.6 63.4 
Industrial signaling equipment15.1 14.3 29.3 27.7 
Warning systems7.8 7.0 13.5 13.0 
Total60.4 53.4 116.4 104.1 
Total net sales$366.7 $334.7 $696.9 $613.5 
(a)    Includes net sales from the sale of new and used vehicles and equipment, including sales of rental equipment.
(b)    Represents income from vehicle and equipment lease arrangements with customers.
(c)    Primarily includes revenues from services, such as maintenance and repair work, and the sale of extended warranty contracts.
Contract Balances
The Company recognizes contract liabilities when cash payments, such as customer deposits, are received in advance of the Company’s satisfaction of the related performance obligations. Contract liabilities are recognized as Net sales when the related performance obligations are satisfied, which generally occurs within three to six months of the cash receipt. Contract liability balances are not materially impacted by any other factors. The Company’s contract liabilities were $27.0 million and $25.3 million as of June 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively. Contract assets, such as unbilled receivables, were not material as of any of the periods presented herein.
9

FEDERAL SIGNAL CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (CONTINUED)
(Unaudited)
NOTE 3 – INVENTORIES
The following table summarizes the components of Inventories:
(in millions)June 30,
2022
December 31,
2021
Finished goods$92.3 $87.9 
Raw materials136.4 116.4 
Work in process30.9 24.8 
Total inventories$259.6 $229.1 
NOTE 4 – DEBT
The following table summarizes the components of Long-term borrowings and finance lease obligations:
(in millions)June 30,
2022
December 31, 2021
2019 Credit Agreement (a)
$324.5 $280.7 
Finance lease obligations2.3 2.1 
Total long-term borrowings and finance lease obligations, including current portion326.8 282.8 
Less: Current finance lease obligations0.7 0.6 
Total long-term borrowings and finance lease obligations$326.1 $282.2 
(a)     Defined as the Second Amended and Restated Credit Agreement, dated July 30, 2019, as amended.
As more fully described within Note 11 – Fair Value Measurements, the Company uses a three-level fair value hierarchy that prioritizes the inputs used to measure fair value. The fair value of long-term debt is based on interest rates that we believe are currently available to us for issuance of debt with similar terms and remaining maturities (Level 2 input).
The following table summarizes the carrying amounts and estimated fair values of the Company’s long-term borrowings:
 June 30, 2022December 31, 2021
 (in millions)
Notional
Amount
Fair
Value
Notional
Amount
Fair
Value
Long-term borrowings (a)
$326.8 $326.8 $282.8 $282.8 
(a)     Long-term borrowings includes current finance lease obligations of $0.7 million and $0.6 million as of June 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively.
Borrowings under the 2019 Credit Agreement bear interest, at the Company’s option, at a base rate or a Eurocurrency or SONIA daily rate (as each is defined in the 2019 Credit Agreement), plus, in each case, an applicable margin. The applicable margin ranges from zero to 0.75% for base rate borrowings and 1.00% to 1.75% for Eurocurrency or SONIA daily rate borrowings. The Company must also pay a commitment fee to the lenders ranging between 0.10% to 0.25% per annum on the unused portion of the $500 million revolving credit facility along with other standard fees. Letter of credit fees are payable on outstanding letters of credit in an amount equal to the applicable Eurocurrency or SONIA daily rate margin plus other customary fees.
The Company is subject to certain net leverage ratio and interest coverage ratio financial covenants under the 2019 Credit Agreement that are to be measured at each fiscal quarter-end. The Company was in compliance with all such covenants as of June 30, 2022.
As of June 30, 2022, there was $324.5 million of cash drawn and $9.8 million of undrawn letters of credit under the 2019 Credit Agreement, with $165.7 million of net availability for borrowings. As of December 31, 2021, there was $280.7 million cash drawn and $10.1 million of undrawn letters of credit under the 2019 Credit Agreement, with $209.2 million of net availability for borrowings.
10

FEDERAL SIGNAL CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (CONTINUED)
(Unaudited)
The following table summarizes the gross borrowings and gross payments under the Company’s revolving credit facilities:
Six Months Ended
June 30,
(in millions)20222021
Gross borrowings$67.0 $109.0 
Gross payments 22.9 99.0 
Interest Rate Swap
On October 2, 2019, the Company entered into an interest rate swap (the “Swap”) with a notional amount of $75.0 million, as a means of fixing the floating interest rate component on $75.0 million of its variable-rate debt. The Swap is designated as a cash flow hedge, with a maturity date of July 30, 2024.
As a result of the application of hedge accounting treatment, all unrealized gains and losses related to the derivative instrument are recorded in Accumulated other comprehensive loss and are reclassified into operations in the same period in which the hedged transaction affects earnings. Hedge effectiveness is assessed quarterly. The Company does not use derivative instruments for trading or speculative purposes.
The fair value of the Company’s interest rate swaps is derived from a discounted cash flow analysis based on the terms of the contract and the interest rate curve (Level 2 inputs) and measured on a recurring basis in our Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets.
At June 30, 2022, the fair value of the Swap was an asset of $2.4 million, which was included in Other long-term assets on the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet. At December 31, 2021, the fair value of the Swap was a liability of $0.7 million, which was included in Other long-term liabilities on the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet. During the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, unrealized pre-tax gains of $0.2 million and $3.1 million, respectively, were recorded in Accumulated other comprehensive loss. During the three months ended June 30, 2021, no unrealized pre-tax gain or loss was recorded in Accumulated other comprehensive loss, whereas during the six months ended June 30, 2021, an unrealized pre-tax gain of $1.1 million was recorded. No ineffectiveness was recorded in either period.
NOTE 5 – INCOME TAXES
For the three months ended June 30, 2022, the Company recognized income tax expense of $11.1 million, resulting in an effective tax rate of 24.9%. For the three months ended June 30, 2021, the Company recognized income tax expense of $8.0 million, resulting in an effective tax rate of 21.2%. The Company’s income tax expense and effective tax rate in the current-year quarter were higher primarily due to increased pre-tax income and a $1.5 million reduction in excess tax benefits associated with stock-based compensation activity compared to the prior-year quarter.
For the six months ended June 30, 2022, the Company recognized income tax expense of $18.2 million, resulting in an effective tax rate of 25.2%. For the six months ended June 30, 2021, the Company recognized income tax expense of $13.0 million, resulting in an effective tax rate of 20.0%. The Company’s income tax expense and effective tax rate in the current-year period were higher primarily due to increased pre-tax income and a $3.4 million reduction in excess tax benefits associated with stock-based compensation activity compared to the prior-year period.
11

FEDERAL SIGNAL CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (CONTINUED)
(Unaudited)
NOTE 6 – PENSIONS
The following table summarizes the components of Net periodic pension benefit: 
 U.S. Benefit PlanNon-U.S. Benefit Plan
 Three Months Ended
June 30,
Six Months Ended
June 30,
Three Months Ended
June 30,
Six Months Ended
June 30,
(in millions)20222021202220212022202120222021
Service cost$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $0.1 
Interest cost1.0 1.2 2.1 2.4 0.2 0.1 0.4 0.3 
Amortization of actuarial loss0.6 0.9 1.1 1.9 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 
Amortization of prior service cost    0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 
Expected return on plan assets(1.8)(2.4)(3.5)(4.8)(0.5)(0.5)(1.0)(1.0)
Net periodic pension benefit$(0.2)$(0.3)$(0.3)$(0.5)$(0.1)$(0.1)$(0.2)$(0.1)
The items that comprise Net periodic pension benefit, other than service cost, are included as a component of Other income, net on the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations.
NOTE 7 – COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENCIES
Financial Commitments
The Company provides indemnifications and other guarantees in the ordinary course of business, the terms of which range in duration and often are not explicitly defined. Specifically, the Company is occasionally required to provide letters of credit and bid and performance bonds to various customers, principally to act as security for retention levels related to casualty insurance policies and to guarantee the performance of subsidiaries that engage in export and domestic transactions. At June 30, 2022, the Company had outstanding performance and financial standby letters of credit, as well as outstanding bid and performance bonds, aggregating to $34.1 million. If any such letters of credit or bonds are called, the Company would be obligated to reimburse the issuer of the letter of credit or bond. The Company believes the likelihood of any currently outstanding letter of credit or bond being called is remote.
The Company has transactions involving the sale of equipment to certain of its customers which include (i) guarantees to repurchase the equipment for a fixed price at a future date and (ii) guarantees to repurchase the equipment from the third-party lender in the event of default by the customer. As of June 30, 2022, both the single year and maximum potential cash payments the Company could be required to make to repurchase equipment under these agreements amounted to $2.6 million. The Company’s risk under these repurchase arrangements would be partially mitigated by the value of the products repurchased as part of the transaction. Historical cash requirements and losses associated with these obligations have not been significant but could increase if customer defaults exceed current expectations.
The Company has certain lease agreements for facilities owned by affiliates which include provisions requiring the Company to guarantee any remaining lease payments in the event of default. As of June 30, 2022, the total amount of future payments guaranteed under these agreements was approximately $1.4 million. The Company believes the likelihood of defaulting on these leases is remote.
Product Warranties
The Company issues product performance warranties to customers with the sale of its products. The specific terms and conditions of these warranties vary depending upon the product sold and country in which the Company does business, with warranty periods generally ranging from one to five years. The Company estimates the costs that may be incurred under its basic limited warranty and records a liability in the amount of such costs at the time the sale of the related product is recognized. Factors that affect the Company’s warranty liability include (i) the number of units under warranty, (ii) historical and anticipated rates of warranty claims and (iii) costs per claim. The Company periodically assesses the adequacy of its recorded warranty liabilities and adjusts the amounts as necessary.
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NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (CONTINUED)
(Unaudited)
The following table summarizes the changes in the Company’s warranty liabilities during the six months ended June 30, 2022 and 2021:
(in millions)20222021
Balance at January 1$9.7 $10.2 
Provisions to expense3.5 3.5 
Acquisitions 0.2 
Payments(3.9)(4.3)
Balance at June 30$9.3 $9.6 
Legal Proceedings
The Company is subject to various claims, including pending and possible legal actions for product liability and other damages, and other matters arising in the ordinary course of the Company’s business. On a quarterly basis, the Company reviews uninsured material legal claims against the Company and accrues for the costs of such claims as appropriate in the exercise of management’s best judgment and experience. However, due to a lack of factual information available to the Company about a claim, or the procedural stage of a claim, it may not be possible for the Company to reasonably assess either the probability of a favorable or unfavorable outcome of the claim or to reasonably estimate the amount of loss should there be an unfavorable outcome. Therefore, for many claims, the Company cannot reasonably estimate a range of loss.
The Company believes, based on current knowledge and after consultation with counsel, that the outcome of such claims and actions will not have a material adverse effect on the Company’s results of operations or financial condition. However, in the event of unexpected future developments, it is possible that the ultimate resolution of such matters, if unfavorable, could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s results of operations, financial condition or cash flow.
Hearing Loss Litigation
The Company has been sued for monetary damages by firefighters who claim that exposure to the Company’s sirens has impaired their hearing and that the sirens are therefore defective. There were 33 cases filed during the period of 1999 through 2004, involving a total of 2,443 plaintiffs, in the Circuit Court of Cook County, Illinois. These cases involved more than 1,800 firefighter plaintiffs from locations outside of Chicago. In 2009, six additional cases were filed in Cook County, involving 299 Pennsylvania firefighter plaintiffs. During 2013, another case was filed in Cook County involving 74 Pennsylvania firefighter plaintiffs.
The trial of the first 27 of these plaintiffs’ claims occurred in 2008, whereby a Cook County jury returned a unanimous verdict in favor of the Company.
An additional 40 Chicago firefighter plaintiffs were selected for trial in 2009. Plaintiffs’ counsel later moved to reduce the number of plaintiffs from 40 to nine. The trial for these nine plaintiffs concluded with a verdict against the Company and for the plaintiffs in varying amounts totaling $0.4 million. The Company appealed this verdict. On September 13, 2012, the Illinois Appellate Court rejected this appeal. The Company thereafter filed a petition for rehearing with the Illinois Appellate Court, which was denied on February 7, 2013. The Company sought further review by filing a petition for leave to appeal with the Illinois Supreme Court on March 14, 2013. On May 29, 2013, the Illinois Supreme Court issued a summary order declining to accept review of this case. On July 1, 2013, the Company satisfied the judgments entered for these plaintiffs, which resulted in final dismissal of these cases.
A third consolidated trial involving eight Chicago firefighter plaintiffs occurred during November 2011. The jury returned a unanimous verdict in favor of the Company at the conclusion of this trial.
Following this trial, on March 12, 2012 the trial court entered an order certifying a class of the remaining Chicago Fire Department firefighter plaintiffs for trial on the sole issue of whether the Company’s sirens were defective and unreasonably dangerous. The Company petitioned the Illinois Appellate Court for interlocutory appeal of this ruling. On May 17, 2012, the Illinois Appellate Court accepted the Company’s petition. On June 8, 2012, plaintiffs moved to dismiss the appeal, agreeing with the Company that the trial court had erred in certifying a class action trial in this matter. Pursuant to plaintiffs’ motion, the Illinois Appellate Court reversed the trial court’s certification order.

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NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (CONTINUED)
(Unaudited)
Thereafter, the trial court scheduled a fourth consolidated trial involving three firefighter plaintiffs, which began in December 2012. Prior to the start of this trial, the claims of two of the three firefighter plaintiffs were dismissed. On December 17, 2012, the jury entered a complete defense verdict for the Company.
Following this defense verdict, plaintiffs again moved to certify a class of Chicago Fire Department plaintiffs for trial on the sole issue of whether the Company’s sirens were defective and unreasonably dangerous. Over the Company’s objection, the trial court granted plaintiffs’ motion for class certification on March 11, 2013 and scheduled a class action trial to begin on June 10, 2013. The Company filed a petition for review with the Illinois Appellate Court on March 29, 2013 seeking reversal of the class certification order.
On June 25, 2014, a unanimous three-judge panel of the First District Illinois Appellate Court issued its opinion reversing the class certification order of the trial court. Specifically, the Appellate Court determined that the trial court’s ruling failed to satisfy the class-action requirements that the common issues of the firefighters’ claims predominate over the individual issues and that there is an adequate representative for the class. During a status hearing on October 8, 2014, plaintiffs represented to the Court that they would again seek to certify a class of firefighters on the issue of whether the Company’s sirens were defective and unreasonably dangerous. On January 12, 2015, plaintiffs filed motions to amend their complaints to add class action allegations with respect to Chicago firefighter plaintiffs, as well as the approximately 1,800 firefighter plaintiffs from locations outside of Chicago. On March 11, 2015, the trial court granted plaintiffs’ motions to amend their complaints. On April 24, 2015, the cases were transferred to Cook County chancery court to decide the class certification issues. On March 23, 2018, plaintiffs filed a motion to certify as a class all firefighters from the Chicago Fire Department who have filed lawsuits in this matter. The Company objected to certification and the parties engaged in discovery and other matters related to this motion.
Thereafter, on December 20, 2021, the parties executed a settlement agreement to resolve claims of approximately 462 firefighters still involved in the Cook County litigation, as well as the DuPage County litigation discussed below. Under the terms of the settlement agreement, the Company agreed to pay a lump sum of $0.2 million to resolve the claims of these firefighters. The estimated settlement amount was accrued by the Company. The Company agreed to pay this lump sum amount based upon its assessment of firefighters who meet minimal bilateral hearing loss standards, which is a subset of the larger group referenced above. The settlement agreement did not require the payment of any attorney fees by the Company. The settlement agreement also provided that plaintiffs’ attorney would withdraw from representing firefighters who do not agree to the settlement. The Company had discretion to void the settlement agreement if less than 93% of these firefighters agreed to settle their claims; the settlement agreement would also be voided if less than 70% of eligible firefighters agreed to the settlement. The settlement agreement was subject to review and approval by the Court. In July 2022, the Company issued the $0.2 million settlement payment for eligible plaintiffs who submitted a release. Other eligible plaintiffs may appear in court on August 5, 2022, with new counsel or their cases will be dismissed for want of prosecution.
The Company also filed motions to dismiss cases involving firefighters who worked for fire departments located outside of the State of Illinois based on improper venue. On February 24, 2017, the Circuit Court of Cook County entered orders dismissing the cases of 1,770 such firefighter plaintiffs from the jurisdiction of the State of Illinois. Pursuant to these orders, these plaintiffs had six months thereafter to refile their cases in jurisdictions where these firefighters are located. Prior to this six-month deadline, attorneys representing some of these plaintiffs contacted the Company regarding possible settlement of their cases. During the year ended December 31, 2017, the Company entered into a global settlement agreement with two attorneys who represented approximately 1,090 of these plaintiffs. Under the terms of the settlement agreement, the Company offered $700 per plaintiff to settle these cases and 717 plaintiffs accepted this offer as a final settlement. The settlement agreement did not require the payment of any attorney fees by the Company. The attorneys representing these plaintiffs agreed to withdraw from representing plaintiffs who did not respond to the settlement offer. It is the Company’s position that the non-settling plaintiffs who failed to timely refile their cases following the February 2017 dismissal by the Circuit Court of Cook County are now barred from doing so by the statute of limitations. The Company filed a venue motion seeking to transfer to DuPage County cases involving 10 plaintiffs who reside and work in Illinois but outside of Cook County. The Court granted this motion on June 28, 2017.
The Company was also sued on this issue outside of the Cook County, Illinois venue. Between 2007 and 2009, a total of 71 lawsuits involving 71 plaintiffs were filed in the Court of Common Pleas, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania. Three of these cases were dismissed pursuant to pretrial motions filed by the Company. Another case was voluntarily dismissed. Prior to trial in four cases, the Company paid nominal sums to obtain dismissals.
Three trials occurred in Philadelphia involving these cases filed in 2007 through 2009. The first trial involving one of these plaintiffs occurred in 2010, when the jury returned a verdict for the plaintiff. The jury found that the Company’s siren was not
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NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (CONTINUED)
(Unaudited)
defectively designed, but that the Company negligently constructed the siren. The jury awarded damages in the amount of less than $0.1 million. The Company appealed this verdict. Another trial, involving nine Philadelphia firefighter plaintiffs, also occurred in 2010 when the jury returned a defense verdict for the Company as to all claims and all plaintiffs involved in that trial. The third trial, also involving nine Philadelphia firefighter plaintiffs, was completed during 2010 when the jury returned a defense verdict for the Company as to all claims and all plaintiffs involved in that trial.
Following defense verdicts in the last two Philadelphia trials, the Company negotiated settlements with respect to all remaining filed cases in Philadelphia at that time, as well as other firefighter claimants represented by the attorney who filed the Philadelphia cases. On January 4, 2011, the Company entered into a Global Settlement Agreement (the “Settlement Agreement”) with the law firm of the attorney representing the Philadelphia claimants, on behalf of 1,125 claimants the firm represented (the “Claimants”) and who had asserted product claims against the Company (the “Claims”). Three hundred eight of the Claimants had lawsuits pending against the Company in Cook County, Illinois.
The Settlement Agreement provided that the Company pay a total amount of $3.8 million (the “Settlement Payment”) to settle the Claims (including the costs, fees and other expenses of the law firm in connection with its representation of the Claimants), subject to certain terms, conditions and procedures set forth in the Settlement Agreement. In order for the Company to be required to make the Settlement Payment: (i) each Claimant who agreed to settle his or her claims had to sign a release acceptable to the Company (a “Release”), (ii) each Claimant who agreed to the settlement and who was a plaintiff in a lawsuit, had to dismiss his or her lawsuit with prejudice, (iii) by April 29, 2011, at least 93% of the Claimants identified in the Settlement Agreement must have agreed to settle their claims and provide a signed Release to the Company and (iv) the law firm had to withdraw from representing any Claimants who did not agree to the settlement, including those who filed lawsuits. If the conditions to the settlement were met, but less than 100% of the Claimants agreed to settle their Claims and sign a Release, the Settlement Payment would be reduced by the percentage of Claimants who did not agree to the settlement.
On April 22, 2011, the Company confirmed that the terms and conditions of the Settlement Agreement had been met and made a payment of $3.6 million to conclude the settlement. The amount was based upon the Company’s receipt of 1,069 signed releases provided by Claimants, which was 95% of all Claimants identified in the Settlement Agreement.
The Company generally denies the allegations made in the claims and lawsuits by the Claimants and denies that its products caused any injuries to the Claimants. Nonetheless, the Company entered into the Settlement Agreement for the purpose of minimizing its expenses, including legal fees, and avoiding the inconvenience, uncertainty and distraction of the claims and lawsuits.
During April through October 2012, 20 new cases were filed in the Court of Common Pleas, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania. These cases were filed on behalf of 20 Philadelphia firefighters and involved various defendants in addition to the Company. Five of these cases were subsequently dismissed. The first trial involving these 2012 Philadelphia cases occurred during December 2014 and involved three firefighter plaintiffs. The jury returned a verdict in favor of the Company. Following this trial, all of the parties agreed to settle cases involving seven firefighter plaintiffs set for trial during January 2015 for nominal amounts per plaintiff.
In January 2015, plaintiffs’ attorneys filed two new complaints in the Court of Common Pleas, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on behalf of approximately 70 additional firefighter plaintiffs. The vast majority of the firefighters identified in these complaints were located outside of Pennsylvania. One of the complaints in these cases, which involved 11 firefighter plaintiffs from the District of Columbia, was removed to federal court in the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. Plaintiffs voluntarily dismissed all claims in this case on May 31, 2016. The Company thereafter moved to recover various fees and costs in this case, asserting that plaintiffs’ counsel failed to properly investigate these claims prior to filing suit. The Court granted this motion on April 25, 2017, awarding $0.1 million to the Company (the “Order”). After plaintiffs appealed this Order, the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit affirmed the lower court decision awarding fees and costs to the Company.
With respect to claims of other out-of-state firefighters involved in these two cases, the Company moved to dismiss these claims as improperly filed in Pennsylvania. The Court granted this motion and dismissed these claims on November 5, 2015. During August through December 2015, another nine new cases were filed in the Court of Common Pleas, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania. These cases involved a total of 193 firefighters, most of whom were located outside of Pennsylvania. The Company again moved to dismiss all claims filed by out-of-state firefighters in these cases as improperly filed in Pennsylvania. On May 24, 2016, the Court granted this motion and dismissed these claims. Plaintiffs appealed this decision and, on September 25, 2018, the appellate court reversed this dismissal. The Company then filed a petition with the appellate court requesting that the court reconsider its ruling. On December 7, 2018, the appellate court granted the Company’s petition
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FEDERAL SIGNAL CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (CONTINUED)
(Unaudited)
and withdrew its prior decision. On June 25, 2020, the Court issued a decision affirming the trial court’s dismissal of these cases with prejudice.
On May 13, 2016, four new cases were filed in Philadelphia state court, involving a total of 55 Philadelphia firefighters who live in Pennsylvania. During August 2016, the Company settled a case for nominal amounts involving four Philadelphia firefighters that had been set for trial in Philadelphia state court during September 2016. During 2017, plaintiffs filed additional cases in the Court of Common Pleas, Philadelphia County, involving over 100 Philadelphia firefighter plaintiffs. During January 2017, plaintiffs filed a motion to consolidate and bifurcate, similar to a motion filed in the Pittsburgh hearing loss cases, as described below. The Company filed an opposition to this motion. These cases were then transferred to the mass tort program in Philadelphia for pretrial purposes. Plaintiffs’ counsel thereafter dismissed several plaintiffs. During November 2017, a trial involving one Philadelphia firefighter occurred. The jury returned a verdict in favor of the Company in this trial. Prior to a dismissal of these cases pursuant to the Tolling Agreement, discussed below, there was a total of 75 firefighters involved in cases pending in the Philadelphia mass tort program.
During March 2014, an action also was brought in the Court of Common Pleas of Erie County, Pennsylvania on behalf of 61 firefighters. This case likewise involves various defendants in addition to the Company. After the Company filed pretrial motions, 33 Erie County firefighter plaintiffs voluntarily dismissed their claims. Prior to a dismissal of these cases pursuant to the Tolling Agreement, discussed below, there was a total of 28 firefighters involved in cases filed in Erie County.
During August 2017, five cases involving 70 firefighter plaintiffs were filed in Lackawanna County, Pennsylvania. These cases involve firefighter plaintiffs who originally filed in Cook County several years ago and were dismissed pursuant to the Company’s forum nonconveniens motion.
On September 17, 2014, 20 lawsuits, involving a total of 193 Buffalo Fire Department firefighters, were filed in the Supreme Court of the State of New York, Erie County. All of the cases filed in Erie County, New York were removed to federal court in the Western District of New York. Plaintiffs filed a motion to consolidate and bifurcate these cases, similar to the motion filed in the Pittsburgh hearing loss cases, as described below. The Company filed an opposition to the motion. During February 2015, a lawsuit involving one New York City firefighter plaintiff was filed in the Supreme Court of the State of New York, New York County. The plaintiff named the Company as well as several other parties as defendants. That case subsequently was transferred to federal court in the Northern District of New York and thereafter dismissed. During April 2015 through January 2016, 29 new cases involving a total of 235 firefighters were filed in various counties in the New York City area. During December 2016 through October 2017, additional cases were filed in these jurisdictions. On February 5, 2018, the Company was served with a complaint in an additional case filed in Kings County, New York. This case involved one plaintiff. Prior to a dismissal of these cases pursuant to the Tolling Agreement, discussed below, there was a total of 536 firefighters involved in cases filed in the State of New York.
During November 2015, the Company was served with a complaint filed in Union County, New Jersey state court, involving 34 New Jersey firefighters. This case was transferred to federal court in the District of New Jersey. During the period from January through May 2016, eight additional cases were filed in various New Jersey state courts. Most of the firefighters in these cases resided in New Jersey and worked at New Jersey fire departments. During December 2016, a case involving one New Jersey firefighter was filed in the United States District Court of New Jersey. On May 2, 2017, plaintiffs filed a motion to consolidate and bifurcate in the pending federal court case in New Jersey. This motion was similar to bifurcation motions filed by plaintiffs in Pittsburgh, Buffalo and Philadelphia. The Court denied the motion as premature. Pursuant to a petition filed by both parties, all New Jersey state court cases were consolidated for pretrial purposes. Prior to a dismissal of these cases pursuant to the Tolling Agreement, discussed below, there was a total of 61 firefighters involved in cases filed in New Jersey.
During May through October 2016, nine cases were filed in Suffolk County, Massachusetts state court, naming the Company as a defendant. These cases involved 194 firefighters who lived and worked in the Boston area. During August 2017, plaintiffs filed additional cases in Suffolk County court. The Company moved to transfer various cases filed in Suffolk County to other counties in Massachusetts where plaintiffs resided and worked. Prior to a dismissal of these cases pursuant to the Tolling Agreement, discussed below, there was a total of 218 firefighters involved in cases filed in Massachusetts.
During August and September 2017, plaintiffs’ attorneys filed additional hearing loss cases in Florida. The Company was the only named defendant. These cases were filed in several different counties in Florida, including Tampa, Miami and Orlando municipalities. Prior to a dismissal of these cases pursuant to the Tolling Agreement, discussed below, there was a total of 166 firefighters involved in cases filed in Florida.
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FEDERAL SIGNAL CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (CONTINUED)
(Unaudited)
During April through July 2013, additional cases were filed in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania on behalf of 247 plaintiff firefighters from Pittsburgh and against various defendants, including the Company. During May 2016, two additional cases were filed against the Company in Allegheny County involving 19 Pittsburgh firefighters. After the Company filed pretrial motions, the Court dismissed claims of 55 Pittsburgh firefighter plaintiffs. The Court scheduled trials for May, September and November 2016, for eight firefighters per trial. Prior to the first scheduled trial in Pittsburgh, the Court granted the Company’s motion for summary judgment and dismissed all claims asserted by plaintiff firefighters involved in this trial. Following an appeal by the plaintiff firefighters, the appellate court affirmed this dismissal. The next trial for six Pittsburgh firefighters started on November 7, 2016. Shortly after this trial began, plaintiffs’ counsel moved for a mistrial because a key witness suddenly became unavailable. The Court granted this motion and rescheduled this trial for March 6, 2017. During January 2017, plaintiffs also moved to consolidate and bifurcate trials involving Pittsburgh firefighters. In particular, plaintiffs sought one trial involving liability issues to apply to all Pittsburgh firefighters who filed suit against the Company. The Company filed an opposition to this motion. On April 18, 2017, the trial court granted plaintiffs’ motion to bifurcate the next Pittsburgh trial. Pursuant to a motion for clarification filed by the Company, the Court ruled that the bifurcation order would only apply to six plaintiffs who were part of the next trial group in Pittsburgh. The Company thereafter sought an interlocutory appeal of the Court’s bifurcation order. The appellate court declined to accept the appeal at that time. A bifurcated trial began on September 27, 2017 in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. Prior to and during trial, two plaintiffs were dismissed, resulting in four plaintiffs remaining for trial. After approximately two weeks of trial, the jury found that the Company’s siren product was not defective or unreasonably dangerous and rendered a verdict in favor of the Company.
A second trial involving Pittsburgh firefighters began during January 2018. At the outset of this trial, plaintiffs’ attorneys, who represent all firefighters who have filed cases in Allegheny County, Philadelphia, Buffalo, New Jersey, Massachusetts, and Florida, as described above, requested that the Company consider settlement of various cases. This trial was continued to allow the parties to further discuss possible settlement. During March 2018, the parties agreed in principle on a framework (the “Settlement Framework”) to resolve hearing loss claims and cases in all jurisdictions involved in the hearing loss litigation except in Cook County and Lackawanna County, and excluding one case involving one firefighter in New York City. The firefighters excluded from the Settlement Framework are represented by different attorneys. The Company settled the cases in Lackawanna County and settled the case involving one firefighter in New York City for nominal amounts. Pursuant to the Settlement Framework, the Company would pay $700 to each firefighter who filed a lawsuit and is eligible to be part of the settlement. The Company would pay $300 to each firefighter who has not yet filed a case and is eligible to be part of the settlement. The settlement agreement does not include the payment of any attorney fees by the Company. To be eligible for settlement, among other things, firefighters must provide proof that they have high frequency noise-induced hearing loss. There are approximately 3,700 firefighters whose claims may be considered as part of this settlement, including approximately 1,320 firefighters who have ongoing filed lawsuits. This Settlement Framework was finalized in a global settlement agreement executed on November 4, 2019. Pursuant to this global settlement agreement, the parties are now in the process of determining how many of the approximately 3,700 firefighters will be eligible to participate in the settlement. In order to minimize the parties’ respective legal costs and expenses during this settlement process, on July 5, 2018, the parties entered into a tolling agreement (the “Tolling Agreement”). Pursuant to the Tolling Agreement, counsel for the settling firefighters agreed to dismiss the pending lawsuits in all jurisdictions except for the Allegheny County (Pittsburgh), Pennsylvania cases, and the Company agreed to a tolling of any statute of limitations applicable to the dismissed cases. The Tolling Agreement continued in place until the parties executed the global settlement agreement on November 4, 2019. After execution of the global settlement agreement, the Allegheny County (Pittsburgh) cases were dismissed. The global settlement agreement requires plaintiffs’ attorneys to withdraw from representing firefighters who elect not to participate in this settlement.
As of June 30, 2022, the Company has recognized an estimated liability for the potential settlement amount under the Settlement Framework. While it is reasonably possible that the ultimate resolution of this matter may result in a loss in excess of the amount accrued, the incremental loss is not expected to be material.
From 2007 through 2009, firefighters also brought hearing loss claims against the Company in New Jersey, Missouri, Maryland and Kings County, New York. All of those cases, however, were dismissed prior to trial, including four cases in the Supreme Court of Kings County, New York that were dismissed upon the Company’s motion in 2008. On appeal, the New York appellate court affirmed the trial court’s dismissal of these cases.
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FEDERAL SIGNAL CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (CONTINUED)
(Unaudited)
NOTE 8 – EARNINGS PER SHARE
The Company computes earnings per share (“EPS”) in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 260, Earnings per Share, which requires that non-vested restricted stock containing non-forfeitable dividend rights should be treated as participating securities pursuant to the two-class method. Under the two-class method, net income is reduced by the amount of dividends declared in the period for common stock and participating securities. The remaining undistributed earnings are then allocated to common stock and participating securities as if all of the net income for the period had been distributed. The amounts of distributed and undistributed earnings allocated to participating securities for the three and six months ended June 30, 2022 and 2021 were insignificant and did not materially impact the calculation of basic or diluted EPS.
Basic EPS is computed by dividing income available to common stockholders by the weighted average number of shares of common stock and non-vested restricted stock awards outstanding for the period.
Diluted EPS is computed using the weighted average number of shares of common stock and non-vested restricted stock awards outstanding for the year, plus the effect of dilutive potential common shares outstanding during the period. The dilutive effect of common stock equivalents is determined using the more dilutive of the two-class method or alternative methods. The Company uses the treasury stock method to determine the potentially dilutive impact of our employee stock options and restricted stock units, and the contingently issuable method for our performance-based restricted stock unit awards.
For the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, options to purchase 0.3 million and 0.2 million shares, respectively, of the Company’s common stock had an anti-dilutive effect on EPS, and accordingly, were excluded from the calculation of diluted EPS. For both the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, options to purchase 0.2 million shares of the Company’s common stock had an anti-dilutive effect on EPS, and accordingly, were excluded from the calculation of diluted EPS.
The following table reconciles Net income to basic and diluted EPS:
 Three Months Ended
June 30,
Six Months Ended
June 30,
(in millions, except per share data)2022202120222021
Net income$33.5 <