20-F 1 futu-20211231x20f.htm 20-F
0001754581--12-312021FYfalse000000Futu Holdings LtdFUTU73794491459013976049455205149455205100P1YP3YP3YP3YP4YP4Y00017545812019-01-012021-12-310001754581dei:AdrMember2021-12-310001754581srt:MaximumMemberdei:AdrMember2021-11-030001754581us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMemberfutu:FollowOnPublicOfferingMember2020-01-012020-12-310001754581futu:FollowOnPublicOfferingMember2020-01-012020-12-310001754581us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMemberus-gaap:IPOMember2019-01-012019-12-310001754581us-gaap:IPOMember2019-01-012019-12-310001754581us-gaap:CommonClassAMember2020-01-012020-12-310001754581us-gaap:CommonClassAMemberus-gaap:CommonStockMemberfutu:FollowOnPublicOfferingMember2020-01-012020-12-310001754581us-gaap:CommonClassAMemberus-gaap:CommonStockMemberus-gaap:IPOMember2019-01-012019-12-310001754581us-gaap:CommonClassBMemberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2020-01-012020-12-310001754581us-gaap:CommonClassAMemberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2019-01-012019-12-310001754581us-gaap:TreasuryStockMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:TreasuryStockMember2020-12-310001754581us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2020-12-310001754581us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2020-12-310001754581us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2020-12-310001754581us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2019-12-310001754581us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2019-12-310001754581us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2019-12-310001754581us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2018-12-310001754581us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2018-12-310001754581us-gaap:MoneyMarketFundsMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:CommonClassBMemberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:CommonClassAMemberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:CommonClassBMemberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2020-12-310001754581us-gaap:CommonClassAMemberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2020-12-310001754581us-gaap:CommonStockMember2020-12-310001754581us-gaap:CommonClassBMemberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2019-12-310001754581us-gaap:CommonClassAMemberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2019-12-310001754581us-gaap:CommonStockMember2018-12-310001754581us-gaap:CommonClassAMemberus-gaap:PrivatePlacementMember2020-12-310001754581us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMemberfutu:ShareIncentivePlanTwoThousandAndFourteenAndShareIncentivePlanTwoThousandAndNineteenMemberMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMemberfutu:ShareIncentivePlanTwoThousandAndFourteenAndShareIncentivePlanTwoThousandAndNineteenMemberMember2020-12-310001754581us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMemberfutu:ShareIncentivePlanTwoThousandAndFourteenAndShareIncentivePlanTwoThousandAndNineteenMemberMember2019-12-310001754581us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMemberfutu:ShareIncentivePlanTwoThousandAndFourteenAndShareIncentivePlanTwoThousandAndNineteenMemberMember2019-01-012019-12-310001754581us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMemberfutu:ShareIncentivePlanTwoThousandAndFourteenAndShareIncentivePlanTwoThousandAndNineteenMemberMember2021-01-012021-12-310001754581us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMemberfutu:ShareIncentivePlanTwoThousandAndFourteenAndShareIncentivePlanTwoThousandAndNineteenMemberMember2020-01-012020-12-310001754581us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMemberfutu:ShareIncentivePlanTwoThousandAndFourteenMember2014-10-310001754581srt:MinimumMember2020-01-012020-12-310001754581srt:MaximumMember2020-01-012020-12-310001754581us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMemberfutu:ShareIncentivePlanTwoThousandAndFourteenMember2014-10-012014-10-310001754581us-gaap:RestrictedStockMember2020-12-310001754581us-gaap:RestrictedStockMemberfutu:ShareIncentivePlanTwoThousandAndNineteenMember2021-01-012021-12-310001754581us-gaap:RestrictedStockMemberfutu:ShareIncentivePlanTwoThousandAndNineteenMember2020-01-012020-12-310001754581us-gaap:RestrictedStockMemberfutu:ShareIncentivePlanTwoThousandAndNineteenMember2019-01-012019-12-310001754581srt:MinimumMemberus-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2021-01-012021-12-310001754581srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2021-01-012021-12-310001754581srt:MinimumMemberus-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2014-10-012014-10-310001754581srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2014-10-012014-10-310001754581futu:EsopManagementServiceMemberfutu:TencentHoldingsLimitedAndItsSubsidiariesMember2021-01-012021-12-310001754581futu:BrokerageServicesAndMarginLoansMemberfutu:PrincipalShareholdersAndDirectorsAndImmediateFamilyMemberOfManagementMember2021-01-012021-12-310001754581futu:EsopManagementServiceMemberfutu:TencentHoldingsLimitedAndItsSubsidiariesMember2020-01-012020-12-310001754581futu:BrokerageServicesAndMarginLoansMemberfutu:PrincipalShareholdersAndDirectorsAndImmediateFamilyMemberOfManagementMember2020-01-012020-12-310001754581futu:EsopManagementServiceMemberfutu:TencentHoldingsLimitedAndItsSubsidiariesMember2019-01-012019-12-310001754581futu:BrokerageServicesAndMarginLoansMemberfutu:PrincipalShareholdersAndDirectorsAndImmediateFamilyMemberOfManagementMember2019-01-012019-12-310001754581futu:HandlingAndSettlementFeeIncomeMember2021-01-012021-12-310001754581futu:BrokerageCommissionIncomeMember2021-01-012021-12-310001754581futu:HandlingAndSettlementFeeIncomeMember2020-01-012020-12-310001754581futu:BrokerageCommissionIncomeMember2020-01-012020-12-310001754581futu:HandlingAndSettlementFeeIncomeMember2019-01-012019-12-310001754581futu:BrokerageCommissionIncomeMember2019-01-012019-12-310001754581futu:SmsChannelServicesMemberfutu:TencentHoldingsLimitedAndItsSubsidiariesMember2021-01-012021-12-310001754581futu:PurchaseOfSoftwareMemberfutu:TencentHoldingsLimitedAndItsSubsidiariesMember2021-01-012021-12-310001754581futu:PurchaseOfEquipmentMemberfutu:TencentHoldingsLimitedAndItsSubsidiariesMember2021-01-012021-12-310001754581futu:CloudServicesMemberfutu:TencentHoldingsLimitedAndItsSubsidiariesMember2021-01-012021-12-310001754581futu:SmsChannelServicesMemberfutu:TencentHoldingsLimitedAndItsSubsidiariesMember2020-01-012020-12-310001754581futu:PurchaseOfSoftwareMemberfutu:TencentHoldingsLimitedAndItsSubsidiariesMember2020-01-012020-12-310001754581futu:PurchaseOfEquipmentMemberfutu:TencentHoldingsLimitedAndItsSubsidiariesMember2020-01-012020-12-310001754581futu:CloudServicesMemberfutu:TencentHoldingsLimitedAndItsSubsidiariesMember2020-01-012020-12-310001754581futu:AdvertisingExpensesMemberfutu:TencentHoldingsLimitedAndItsSubsidiariesMember2020-01-012020-12-310001754581futu:SmsChannelServicesMemberfutu:TencentHoldingsLimitedAndItsSubsidiariesMember2019-01-012019-12-310001754581futu:PurchaseOfEquipmentMemberfutu:TencentHoldingsLimitedAndItsSubsidiariesMember2019-01-012019-12-310001754581futu:CloudServicesMemberfutu:TencentHoldingsLimitedAndItsSubsidiariesMember2019-01-012019-12-310001754581futu:AdvertisingExpensesMemberfutu:TencentHoldingsLimitedAndItsSubsidiariesMember2019-01-012019-12-310001754581futu:TencentHoldingsLimitedAndItsSubsidiariesMember2021-01-012021-12-310001754581futu:HumanResourceServicesMember2021-01-012021-12-310001754581futu:TencentHoldingsLimitedAndItsSubsidiariesMember2020-01-012020-12-310001754581futu:TencentHoldingsLimitedAndItsSubsidiariesMember2019-01-012019-12-310001754581srt:MinimumMemberus-gaap:OfficeEquipmentMember2021-01-012021-12-310001754581srt:MinimumMemberus-gaap:FurnitureAndFixturesMember2021-01-012021-12-310001754581srt:MinimumMemberfutu:ComputersAndEquipmentMember2021-01-012021-12-310001754581srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:OfficeEquipmentMember2021-01-012021-12-310001754581srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:FurnitureAndFixturesMember2021-01-012021-12-310001754581srt:MaximumMemberfutu:ComputersAndEquipmentMember2021-01-012021-12-310001754581us-gaap:VehiclesMember2021-01-012021-12-310001754581srt:OfficeBuildingMember2021-01-012021-12-310001754581us-gaap:CommonClassAMemberus-gaap:PrivatePlacementMember2020-12-012020-12-310001754581us-gaap:CommonClassAMember2021-04-242021-04-240001754581us-gaap:CommonClassAMember2020-08-222020-08-2200017545812017-12-3100017545812016-12-3100017545812015-12-3100017545812014-12-310001754581futu:ThFundLpMember2021-12-012021-12-310001754581futu:NewflowAmityFundILpMember2021-12-012021-12-310001754581futu:ZhixiangTechnologyShenzhenCo.LtdMember2019-01-012019-01-310001754581us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2020-01-012020-12-310001754581us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2019-01-012019-12-310001754581futu:OtherAdvancesMember2021-12-310001754581futu:MarginLoansMember2021-12-310001754581futu:InitialPublicOfferingLoansMember2021-12-310001754581futu:MarginLoansMember2020-12-310001754581futu:InitialPublicOfferingLoansMember2020-12-310001754581futu:ThirdPartyMember2020-12-310001754581us-gaap:CommonClassBMemberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2021-01-012021-12-310001754581us-gaap:TreasuryStockMember2021-01-012021-12-310001754581us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2021-01-012021-12-310001754581us-gaap:CommonStockMember2021-01-012021-12-310001754581us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2021-01-012021-12-310001754581us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2020-01-012020-12-310001754581us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2019-01-012019-12-310001754581futu:ShenzhenFutuNetworkTechnologyCo.LtdMember2021-12-310001754581futu:ShenSiNetworkTechnologyBeijingCo.LtdMember2021-12-310001754581futu:FutuSingaporePte.LtdMember2021-12-310001754581futu:FutuSecuritiesInternationalHongKongLimitedMember2021-12-310001754581futu:FutuSecuritiesAustraliaLtd.Member2021-12-310001754581futu:FutuNetworkTechnologyShenzhenCo.LtdMember2021-12-310001754581futu:FutuNetworkTechnologyLimitedMember2021-12-310001754581futu:FutuClearingInc.Member2021-12-310001754581futu:BanksMember2021-12-310001754581futu:BanksMember2020-12-310001754581us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2020-01-012020-12-310001754581us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2019-01-012019-12-310001754581us-gaap:ComputerSoftwareIntangibleAssetMember2021-01-012021-12-310001754581us-gaap:LicenseMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:LicenseMember2020-12-310001754581us-gaap:OtherIntangibleAssetsMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:ComputerSoftwareIntangibleAssetMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:OtherIntangibleAssetsMember2020-12-310001754581us-gaap:ComputerSoftwareIntangibleAssetMember2020-12-310001754581futu:ThFundLpMember2021-12-310001754581futu:NewflowAmityFundILpMember2021-12-310001754581futu:ZhixiangTechnologyShenzhenCo.LtdMember2019-01-310001754581futu:ThFundLpMember2019-01-310001754581futu:LeiLiMemberfutu:ShenzhenFutuNetworkTechnologyCo.LtdMember2007-12-180001754581futu:LeafHuaLiMemberfutu:ShenzhenFutuNetworkTechnologyCo.LtdMember2007-12-180001754581futu:ZhixiangTechnologyShenzhenCo.LtdMember2021-01-012021-12-310001754581futu:ThFundLpMember2021-01-012021-12-310001754581futu:NewflowAmityFundILpMember2021-01-012021-12-310001754581futu:ZhixiangTechnologyShenzhenCo.LtdMember2020-01-012020-12-3100017545812019-01-310001754581us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:RestrictedStockMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:RestrictedStockMember2021-01-012021-12-310001754581us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2021-01-012021-12-310001754581us-gaap:ForeignPlanMember2021-01-012021-12-310001754581us-gaap:ForeignPlanMember2020-01-012020-12-310001754581country:US2021-01-012021-12-310001754581country:SG2021-01-012021-12-310001754581country:HK2021-01-012021-12-310001754581country:HKfutu:AssessableProfitsOnFirstHk2MillionMember2018-04-012018-04-010001754581country:HKfutu:AssessableProfitsInExcessOfHk2MillionMember2018-04-012018-04-010001754581country:US2017-12-222017-12-220001754581country:US2017-12-212017-12-210001754581futu:SmsChannelServicesMemberfutu:TencentHoldingsLimitedAndItsSubsidiariesMember2021-12-310001754581futu:EsopManagementServiceMemberfutu:TencentHoldingsLimitedAndItsSubsidiariesMember2021-12-310001754581futu:CloudEquipmentAndServicesMemberfutu:TencentHoldingsLimitedAndItsSubsidiariesMember2021-12-310001754581futu:SmsChannelServicesMemberfutu:TencentHoldingsLimitedAndItsSubsidiariesMember2020-12-310001754581futu:EsopManagementServiceMemberfutu:TencentHoldingsLimitedAndItsSubsidiariesMember2020-12-310001754581futu:CloudEquipmentAndServicesMemberfutu:TencentHoldingsLimitedAndItsSubsidiariesMember2020-12-310001754581futu:PayablesToCustomersMember2021-12-310001754581futu:PayablesToCustomersMember2020-12-310001754581futu:AmountsDueToClearingOrganizationMember2021-12-310001754581futu:AmountsDueToClearingOrganizationMember2020-12-310001754581futu:AmountsDueFromClearingOrganizationMember2021-12-310001754581futu:AmountsDueFromClearingOrganizationMember2020-12-310001754581country:SG2021-01-012021-12-310001754581country:CN2021-01-012021-12-310001754581country:SG2020-01-012020-12-310001754581country:CN2020-01-012020-12-310001754581us-gaap:CommonClassBMember2019-03-310001754581us-gaap:CommonClassAMember2019-03-310001754581futu:CustomerLoyaltyProgramMember2021-12-310001754581futu:CustomerLoyaltyProgramMember2020-12-310001754581us-gaap:CommonClassBMember2020-12-310001754581us-gaap:CommonClassAMember2020-12-310001754581us-gaap:CommonClassAMember2019-03-0800017545812019-03-0800017545812016-09-2200017545812016-09-210001754581futu:PreFundedWarrantsMemberus-gaap:CommonClassAMemberus-gaap:PrivatePlacementMember2020-12-310001754581futu:PreFundedWarrantsMemberus-gaap:CommonClassAMember2020-12-310001754581us-gaap:VariableInterestEntityPrimaryBeneficiaryMember2021-01-012021-12-310001754581us-gaap:VariableInterestEntityPrimaryBeneficiaryMember2020-01-012020-12-310001754581us-gaap:VariableInterestEntityPrimaryBeneficiaryMember2019-01-012019-12-310001754581us-gaap:VariableInterestEntityPrimaryBeneficiaryMember2018-12-3100017545812018-12-310001754581futu:TencentHoldingsLimitedAndItsSubsidiariesMember2021-12-310001754581futu:TencentHoldingsLimitedAndItsSubsidiariesMember2020-12-3100017545812019-12-310001754581us-gaap:VariableInterestEntityPrimaryBeneficiaryMember2019-12-310001754581us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Member2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:VariableInterestEntityPrimaryBeneficiaryMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:VariableInterestEntityPrimaryBeneficiaryMember2020-12-310001754581us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2021-01-012021-12-310001754581us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2020-01-012020-12-310001754581us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2019-01-012019-12-310001754581us-gaap:SellingAndMarketingExpenseMember2021-01-012021-12-310001754581us-gaap:ResearchAndDevelopmentExpenseMember2021-01-012021-12-310001754581us-gaap:GeneralAndAdministrativeExpenseMember2021-01-012021-12-310001754581us-gaap:SellingAndMarketingExpenseMember2020-01-012020-12-310001754581us-gaap:ResearchAndDevelopmentExpenseMember2020-01-012020-12-310001754581us-gaap:GeneralAndAdministrativeExpenseMember2020-01-012020-12-310001754581us-gaap:SellingAndMarketingExpenseMember2019-01-012019-12-310001754581us-gaap:ResearchAndDevelopmentExpenseMember2019-01-012019-12-310001754581us-gaap:GeneralAndAdministrativeExpenseMember2019-01-012019-12-310001754581us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2020-01-012020-12-310001754581us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2019-01-012019-12-310001754581us-gaap:VehiclesMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:OfficeEquipmentMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:FurnitureAndFixturesMember2021-12-310001754581srt:OfficeBuildingMember2021-12-310001754581futu:ComputersAndEquipmentMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:VehiclesMember2020-12-310001754581us-gaap:OfficeEquipmentMember2020-12-310001754581us-gaap:FurnitureAndFixturesMember2020-12-310001754581srt:OfficeBuildingMember2020-12-310001754581futu:ComputersAndEquipmentMember2020-12-310001754581futu:FutuSingaporePteLtd.Member2021-12-310001754581futu:FutuSecuritiesHongKongLimitedMember2021-12-310001754581futu:FutuInsuranceBrokersHongKongLimitedMember2021-12-310001754581futu:FutuIncMember2021-12-310001754581futu:FutuClearingIncMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:CommonClassAMember2020-12-032020-12-030001754581us-gaap:CommonClassBMemberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2019-01-012019-12-310001754581us-gaap:CommonStockMember2019-01-012019-12-310001754581us-gaap:CommonClassAMemberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2020-01-012020-12-310001754581futu:PreFundedWarrantsMemberus-gaap:CommonClassAMember2021-12-310001754581futu:PreFundedWarrantsMemberus-gaap:CommonClassAMemberus-gaap:PrivatePlacementMember2021-06-110001754581us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMemberfutu:ShareIncentivePlanTwoThousandAndFourteenMember2019-12-312019-12-310001754581srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMemberfutu:ShareIncentivePlanTwoThousandAndNineteenMember2018-12-012018-12-3100017545812019-03-012019-03-310001754581futu:FutuNetworkTechnologyShenzhenCo.LtdMembercountry:CN2020-01-012020-12-310001754581futu:FutuNetworkTechnologyShenzhenCo.LtdMembercountry:CN2019-01-012019-12-310001754581country:CN2021-01-012021-12-310001754581futu:FutuNetworkTechnologyShenzhenCo.LtdMembercountry:CN2019-01-012020-12-310001754581currency:CNY2021-12-310001754581currency:CNY2020-12-310001754581us-gaap:CommonClassBMember2019-03-082019-03-080001754581us-gaap:CommonClassAMember2019-03-082019-03-0800017545812016-09-222016-09-220001754581srt:MinimumMember2021-01-012021-12-310001754581srt:MaximumMember2021-01-012021-12-310001754581us-gaap:EstimateOfFairValueFairValueDisclosureMemberus-gaap:SecuritiesSoldUnderAgreementsToRepurchaseMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:EstimateOfFairValueFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:PayablesToInterestMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:EstimateOfFairValueFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:PayablesToFundManagementCompaniesAndFundDistributorsMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:EstimateOfFairValueFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:PayablesToClientsMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:EstimateOfFairValueFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:PayablesToClearingOrganizationMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:EstimateOfFairValueFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:PayablesToBrokersMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:EstimateOfFairValueFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:PayablesToBorrowingsMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:EstimateOfFairValueFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:OtherFinancialLiabilitiesMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:EstimateOfFairValueFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:OperatingLeaseLiabilitiesMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:EstimateOfFairValueFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:AmountsDueToRelatedPartiesMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:CarryingReportedAmountFairValueDisclosureMemberus-gaap:SecuritiesSoldUnderAgreementsToRepurchaseMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:CarryingReportedAmountFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:PayablesToInterestMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:CarryingReportedAmountFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:PayablesToFundManagementCompaniesAndFundDistributorsMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:CarryingReportedAmountFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:PayablesToClientsMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:CarryingReportedAmountFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:PayablesToClearingOrganizationMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:CarryingReportedAmountFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:PayablesToBrokersMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:CarryingReportedAmountFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:PayablesToBorrowingsMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:CarryingReportedAmountFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:OtherFinancialLiabilitiesMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:CarryingReportedAmountFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:OperatingLeaseLiabilitiesMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:CarryingReportedAmountFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:AmountsDueToRelatedPartiesMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:EstimateOfFairValueFairValueDisclosureMemberus-gaap:SecuritiesSoldUnderAgreementsToRepurchaseMember2020-12-310001754581us-gaap:EstimateOfFairValueFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:PayablesToInterestMember2020-12-310001754581us-gaap:EstimateOfFairValueFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:PayablesToFundManagementCompaniesAndFundDistributorsMember2020-12-310001754581us-gaap:EstimateOfFairValueFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:PayablesToClientsMember2020-12-310001754581us-gaap:EstimateOfFairValueFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:PayablesToBrokersMember2020-12-310001754581us-gaap:EstimateOfFairValueFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:PayablesToBorrowingsMember2020-12-310001754581us-gaap:EstimateOfFairValueFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:OtherFinancialLiabilitiesMember2020-12-310001754581us-gaap:EstimateOfFairValueFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:OperatingLeaseLiabilitiesMember2020-12-310001754581us-gaap:EstimateOfFairValueFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:AmountsDueToRelatedPartiesMember2020-12-310001754581us-gaap:CarryingReportedAmountFairValueDisclosureMemberus-gaap:SecuritiesSoldUnderAgreementsToRepurchaseMember2020-12-310001754581us-gaap:CarryingReportedAmountFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:PayablesToInterestMember2020-12-310001754581us-gaap:CarryingReportedAmountFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:PayablesToFundManagementCompaniesAndFundDistributorsMember2020-12-310001754581us-gaap:CarryingReportedAmountFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:PayablesToClientsMember2020-12-310001754581us-gaap:CarryingReportedAmountFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:PayablesToBrokersMember2020-12-310001754581us-gaap:CarryingReportedAmountFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:PayablesToBorrowingsMember2020-12-310001754581us-gaap:CarryingReportedAmountFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:OtherFinancialLiabilitiesMember2020-12-310001754581us-gaap:CarryingReportedAmountFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:OperatingLeaseLiabilitiesMember2020-12-310001754581us-gaap:CarryingReportedAmountFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:AmountsDueToRelatedPartiesMember2020-12-310001754581us-gaap:EstimateOfFairValueFairValueDisclosureMemberus-gaap:LoansAndFinanceReceivablesMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:EstimateOfFairValueFairValueDisclosureMemberus-gaap:FederalFundsSoldAndSecuritiesBorrowedOrPurchasedUnderAgreementsToResellMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:EstimateOfFairValueFairValueDisclosureMemberus-gaap:CashAndCashEquivalentsMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:EstimateOfFairValueFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:RestrictedCashMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:EstimateOfFairValueFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:ReceivablesFromInterestMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:EstimateOfFairValueFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:ReceivablesFromFundManagementCompaniesAndFundDistributorsMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:EstimateOfFairValueFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:ReceivablesFromClientsMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:EstimateOfFairValueFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:ReceivablesFromClearingOrganizationMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:EstimateOfFairValueFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:ReceivablesFromBrokersMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:EstimateOfFairValueFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:OtherFinancialAssetsMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:EstimateOfFairValueFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:CashHeldOnBehalfOfClientsMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:CarryingReportedAmountFairValueDisclosureMemberus-gaap:LoansAndFinanceReceivablesMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:CarryingReportedAmountFairValueDisclosureMemberus-gaap:FederalFundsSoldAndSecuritiesBorrowedOrPurchasedUnderAgreementsToResellMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:CarryingReportedAmountFairValueDisclosureMemberus-gaap:CashAndCashEquivalentsMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:CarryingReportedAmountFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:RestrictedCashMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:CarryingReportedAmountFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:ReceivablesFromInterestMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:CarryingReportedAmountFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:ReceivablesFromFundManagementCompaniesAndFundDistributorsMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:CarryingReportedAmountFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:ReceivablesFromClientsMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:CarryingReportedAmountFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:ReceivablesFromClearingOrganizationMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:CarryingReportedAmountFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:ReceivablesFromBrokersMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:CarryingReportedAmountFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:OtherFinancialAssetsMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:CarryingReportedAmountFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:CashHeldOnBehalfOfClientsMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:EstimateOfFairValueFairValueDisclosureMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:CarryingReportedAmountFairValueDisclosureMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:EstimateOfFairValueFairValueDisclosureMemberus-gaap:LoansAndFinanceReceivablesMember2020-12-310001754581us-gaap:EstimateOfFairValueFairValueDisclosureMemberus-gaap:CashAndCashEquivalentsMember2020-12-310001754581us-gaap:EstimateOfFairValueFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:TermDepositsMember2020-12-310001754581us-gaap:EstimateOfFairValueFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:ReceivablesFromInterestMember2020-12-310001754581us-gaap:EstimateOfFairValueFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:ReceivablesFromFundManagementCompaniesAndFundDistributorsMember2020-12-310001754581us-gaap:EstimateOfFairValueFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:ReceivablesFromClientsMember2020-12-310001754581us-gaap:EstimateOfFairValueFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:ReceivablesFromClearingOrganizationMember2020-12-310001754581us-gaap:EstimateOfFairValueFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:ReceivablesFromBrokersMember2020-12-310001754581us-gaap:EstimateOfFairValueFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:OtherFinancialAssetsMember2020-12-310001754581us-gaap:EstimateOfFairValueFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:CashHeldOnBehalfOfClientsMember2020-12-310001754581us-gaap:CarryingReportedAmountFairValueDisclosureMemberus-gaap:LoansAndFinanceReceivablesMember2020-12-310001754581us-gaap:CarryingReportedAmountFairValueDisclosureMemberus-gaap:CashAndCashEquivalentsMember2020-12-310001754581us-gaap:CarryingReportedAmountFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:TermDepositsMember2020-12-310001754581us-gaap:CarryingReportedAmountFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:ReceivablesFromInterestMember2020-12-310001754581us-gaap:CarryingReportedAmountFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:ReceivablesFromFundManagementCompaniesAndFundDistributorsMember2020-12-310001754581us-gaap:CarryingReportedAmountFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:ReceivablesFromClientsMember2020-12-310001754581us-gaap:CarryingReportedAmountFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:ReceivablesFromClearingOrganizationMember2020-12-310001754581us-gaap:CarryingReportedAmountFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:ReceivablesFromBrokersMember2020-12-310001754581us-gaap:CarryingReportedAmountFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:OtherFinancialAssetsMember2020-12-310001754581us-gaap:CarryingReportedAmountFairValueDisclosureMemberfutu:CashHeldOnBehalfOfClientsMember2020-12-310001754581us-gaap:EstimateOfFairValueFairValueDisclosureMember2020-12-310001754581us-gaap:CarryingReportedAmountFairValueDisclosureMember2020-12-310001754581us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2021-01-012021-12-310001754581us-gaap:CommonClassAMemberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2021-01-012021-12-3100017545812021-12-3100017545812020-12-310001754581currency:CNY2021-01-012021-12-310001754581currency:CNY2020-01-012020-12-310001754581us-gaap:CommonClassBMember2019-03-080001754581futu:IpoSubscriptionServiceChargeExpensesMember2021-01-012021-12-310001754581futu:CommissionHandlingAndSettlementExpensesMember2021-01-012021-12-310001754581futu:IpoSubscriptionServiceChargeExpensesMember2020-01-012020-12-310001754581futu:CommissionHandlingAndSettlementExpensesMember2020-01-012020-12-3100017545812020-01-012020-12-310001754581futu:IpoSubscriptionServiceChargeExpensesMember2019-01-012019-12-310001754581futu:CommissionHandlingAndSettlementExpensesMember2019-01-012019-12-3100017545812019-01-012019-12-310001754581us-gaap:CommonClassAMember2021-01-012021-12-310001754581dei:AdrMember2021-01-012021-12-310001754581us-gaap:CommonClassBMember2021-12-310001754581us-gaap:CommonClassAMember2021-12-310001754581dei:BusinessContactMember2021-01-012021-12-3100017545812021-01-012021-12-31iso4217:SGDiso4217:USDiso4217:HKDfutu:segmentxbrli:sharesiso4217:HKDiso4217:USDxbrli:pureiso4217:HKDxbrli:sharesiso4217:USDxbrli:sharesiso4217:CNYfutu:Voteiso4217:CNYxbrli:shares

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

FORM 20-F

(Mark One)

REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR 12(g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

OR

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021.

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

OR

SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

Date of event requiring this shell company report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

For the transition period from to

Commission file number: 001-38820

Futu Holdings Limitfved

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

N/A

(Translation of Registrant’s name into English)

Cayman Islands

(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

11/F, Bangkok Bank Building

No. 18 Bonham Strand W, Sheung Wan

Hong Kong S.A.R., People’s Republic of China

+852 2523-3588

(Address of principal executive offices)

Arthur Yu Chen, Chief Financial Officer

Telephone: +852 2523-3588

Email: ir@futuholdings.com

11/F, Bangkok Bank Building

No. 18 Bonham Strand W, Sheung Wan

Hong Kong S.A.R., People’s Republic of China

(Name, Telephone, Email and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class

    

Trading Symbol(s)

   

Name of each exchange on which registered

American depositary shares (one American depositary share representing eight Class A ordinary shares, par value US$0.00001 per share)

FUTU

The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
(The Nasdaq Global Market)

Class A ordinary shares, par value
US$0.00001 per share*

The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
(The Nasdaq Global Market)

*    Not for trading, but only in connection with the listing on The Nasdaq Global Market of American depositary shares.

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

None

(Title of Class)

Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act:

None

(Title of Class)

Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report.

As of December 31, 2021, 708,482,154 Class A ordinary shares (excluding treasury shares and Class A ordinary shares issued to the depositary bank for bulk issuance of ADSs reserved for future issuances upon the exercise or vesting of awards granted under our share incentive plans) and 494,552,051 Class B ordinary shares, par value US$0.00001 per share, were issued and outstanding.

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.   Yes   No

If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.   Yes   No

Note – Checking the box above will not relieve any registrant required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 from their obligations under those Sections.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.   Yes   No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).   Yes   No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer 

Accelerated filer 

Non-accelerated filer  

Emerging growth company  

If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  Yes   No

† The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.     Yes   No

Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:

U.S. GAAP 

International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the
International Accounting Standards Board  

Other  

If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow.   Item 17   Item 18

If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).   Yes   No

(APPLICABLE ONLY TO ISSUERS INVOLVED IN BANKRUPTCY PROCEEDINGS DURING THE PAST FIVE YEARS)

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed all documents and reports required to be filed by Sections 12, 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 subsequent to the distribution of securities under a plan confirmed by a court.   Yes   No

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

Page

INTRODUCTION

1

 

 

FORWARD-LOOKING INFORMATION

2

EXPLANATORY NOTE

4

 

 

PART I

13

Item 1.

Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers

13

Item 2.

Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable

13

Item 3.

Key Information

13

Item 4.

Information on the Company

72

Item 4A.

Unresolved Staff Comments

147

Item 5.

Operating and Financial Review and Prospects

147

Item 6.

Directors, Senior Management and Employees

164

Item 7.

Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions

174

Item 8.

Financial Information

176

Item 9.

The Offer and Listing

178

Item 10.

Additional Information

178

Item 11.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

194

Item 12.

Description of Securities Other than Equity Securities

195

 

 

 

PART II

197

Item 13.

Defaults, Dividend Arrearages and Delinquencies

197

Item 14.

Material Modifications to the Rights of Security Holders and Use of Proceeds

197

Item 15.

Controls and Procedures

198

Item 16A.

Audit Committee Financial Expert

199

Item 16B.

Code of Ethics

199

Item 16C.

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

199

Item 16D.

Exemptions from the Listing Standards for Audit Committees

199

Item 16E.

Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers

199

Item 16F.

Change in Registrant’s Certifying Accountant

200

Item 16G.

Corporate Governance

200

Item 16H.

Mine Safety Disclosure

200

Item 16I.

Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections

200

 

 

 

PART III

200

Item 17.

Financial Statements

200

Item 18.

Financial Statements

201

Item 19.

Exhibits

201

 

 

 

SIGNATURES

203

i

INTRODUCTION

Unless otherwise indicated or the context otherwise requires, references in this annual report to:

“ADSs” are to American depositary shares, each of which represents eight Class A ordinary shares;
“availability rate” are to the ratio of the total time a service system is capable of being used during the market hours of the relevant equity markets;
“average DAUs” in a given period are to the average of the DAUs on each trading day during that period;
“China ,” “Mainland China” and the “PRC” are to the People’s Republic of China, excluding, for the purposes of this annual report only, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan;
“churn rate” are to the percentage of the decrease in the same paying client cohort between the beginning and ending of a given period divided by the number of paying clients at the beginning of the same period;
“client asset balance” are to the asset balance in the trading accounts of our paying clients;
“Class A ordinary shares” are to our Class A ordinary shares, par value US$0.00001 per share;
“Class B ordinary shares” are to our Class B ordinary shares, par value US$0.00001 per share;
“DAUs” are to the number of user accounts and visitors who access our platforms Futubull and/or moomoo, at least once on a given trading day. Some visitors may access our platforms using more than one device on a given trading day and we calculate the number of visitors who access our platforms based on the number of the devices used by the visitors to access our platforms;
“Futu,” “we,” “us,” “our company,” “our” and “Group” are to Futu Holdings and its subsidiaries and, in the context of describing our operations and consolidated financial information, also include the VIE and its subsidiaries, unless the context otherwise requires;
“Futu Holdings” are to Futu Holdings Limited, our Cayman Islands holding company;
“Futu International Hong Kong” are to Futu Securities International (Hong Kong) Limited, our wholly-owned subsidiary incorporated in Hong Kong;
“Futu Hong Kong” are to Futu Securities (Hong Kong) Limited, our wholly-owned subsidiary incorporated in Hong Kong;
“HK$” and “Hong Kong dollars” are to the legal currency of Hong Kong;
“HK SFC” are to the Securities and Futures Commission of Hong Kong;
“MAUs” are to the number of user accounts and visitors who access our platforms Futubull and/or moomoo at least once during the calendar month in question. Some visitors may access Futubull or moomoo using more than one device in a given month and we calculate the number of visitors who access our platforms based on the number of the devices used by the visitors to access our platforms;
NiuNiu/Moo Community” are to our social network services on Futubull or moomoo platform, including the interactive tools and functions offered on such platform;
“paying clients” are to the clients with assets in their trading accounts with us;

1

“registered clients” and “clients” are to the users who open one or more trading accounts with us;
“RMB” and “Renminbi” are to the legal currency of China;
“shares” and “ordinary shares” are to our Class A ordinary shares and Class B ordinary shares;
“US$,” “U.S. dollars,” “$,” and “dollars” are to the legal currency of the United States;
“users” are to the number of user accounts registered with our applications or websites;
“VIE” and “Shenzhen Futu” are to Shenzhen Futu Network Technology Co., Ltd., a company incorporated in the PRC that has entered into a series of contractual arrangements with the WFOE; and
“WFOE” and “Shensi Beijing” are to Shensi Network Technology (Beijing) Co., Ltd., our wholly-owned subsidiary incorporated in the PRC.

For each relevant period prior to January 1, 2021, “users,” “MAUs” and “average DAUs” figures disclosed in this annual report are only inclusive of those under Futubull, due to insignificant figures recorded under moomoo. Since January 1, 2021, the numbers disclosed in this annual report include figures under Futubull and moomoo for each subsequent period.

For each relevant period prior to January 1, 2021, “clients,” “registered clients,” “paying clients,” “client asset balance,” “trading volume” and other client-based figures disclosed in this annual report are only inclusive of those under Futu International Hong Kong, due to insignificant figures recorded under Futu Inc. Since January 1, 2021, the figures disclosed in this annual report include those under Futu Securities International (Hong Kong) Limited, Futu Inc. and Futu Singapore Pte. Ltd. for each subsequent period.

Unless otherwise noted, all translations from Hong Kong dollars to U.S. dollars and from U.S. dollars to Hong Kong dollars in this annual report were made at a rate of HK$7.7996 to US$1.00, the exchange rate as of December 30, 2021 as set forth in the H.10 statistical release of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. We make no representation that any Hong Kong dollars or U.S. dollar amounts could have been, or could be, converted into U.S. dollars or Hong Kong dollars, as the case may be, at any particular rate, or at all.

FORWARD-LOOKING INFORMATION

This annual report contains forward-looking statements that reflect our current expectations and views of future events. The forward-looking statements are contained principally in the sections entitled “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors,” “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview” and “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects.” Known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors, including those listed under “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors,” may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements.

You can identify some of these forward-looking statements by words or phrases such as “may,” “will,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “aim,” “estimate,” “intend,” “plan,” “believe,” “is/are likely to,” “potential,” “continue” or other similar expressions. We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy and financial needs. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements relating to:

our mission, goals and strategies;
our future business development, financial conditions and results of operations;
the trends in, expected growth and the market size of the online and mobile trading and other financial services industry in China, Hong Kong, the United States, Singapore and globally;

2

expected changes in our revenues, costs or expenditures;
our expectations regarding demand for and market acceptance of our products and services;
our expectations regarding our relationships with users, clients and third-party business partners;
competition in our industry;
our proposed use of proceeds;
the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic;
relevant government policies and regulations relating to our industry; and
general economic, business and socio-political conditions in China, Hong Kong, the United States, Singapore and other markets we have businesses or operations.

These forward-looking statements involve various risks and uncertainties. You should read thoroughly this annual report and the documents that we refer to with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from and worse than what we expect. Important risks and factors that could cause our actual results to be materially different from our expectations are generally set forth in “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors,” “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview” and “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” and other sections in this annual report. Moreover, we operate in an evolving environment. New risk factors and uncertainties emerge from time to time and it is not possible for our management to predict all risk factors and uncertainties, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.

This annual report contains certain data and information that we obtained from various government and private publications. Although we believe the data and information to be reliable, we have not independently verified the accuracy or completeness of the data and information contained in these publications. Statistical data in these publications also include projections based on a number of assumptions. The online brokerage and related industries may not grow at the rate projected by market data, or at all. Failure of these markets to grow at the projected rate may have a material and adverse effect on our business and the market price of the ADSs. In addition, the rapidly evolving nature of the online brokerage industry results in significant uncertainties for any projections or estimates relating to the growth prospects or future condition of our market. Furthermore, if any one or more of the assumptions underlying the market data are later found to be incorrect, actual results may differ from the projections based on these assumptions. You should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements.

You should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. We undertake no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, after the date on which the statements are made or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events. You should read this annual report and the documents that we refer to in this annual report and have filed as exhibits to this annual report, of which this annual report is a part, completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect.

3

EXPLANATORY NOTE

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. Please carefully consider the risks discussed under the section entitled “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors” in this annual report. We provide the following disclosure to help investors better understand our corporate structure, operations in China and the associated risks.

As used in this annual report, (i) “Futu,” “we,” “us,” “our company,” or “our” refer to Futu Holdings and its subsidiaries and, in the context of describing our operations and consolidated financial information, also include the VIE and its subsidiaries, unless the context otherwise requires; (ii) “Futu Holdings” refers to Futu Holdings Limited, our Cayman Islands holding company; (iii) “Futu Hong Kong” refers to Futu Securities (Hong Kong) Limited, our wholly-owned subsidiary incorporated in Hong Kong; (iv) “VIE” or “Shenzhen Futu” refers to Shenzhen Futu Network Technology Co., Ltd., a company incorporated in the PRC that has entered into a series of contractual arrangements with the WFOE; and (v) “WFOE” or “Shensi Beijing” refers to Shensi Network Technology (Beijing) Co., Ltd., our wholly-owned subsidiary incorporated in the PRC.

Our Corporate Structure and Operation in China

Futu Holdings is not an operating company but a Cayman Islands holding company conducting a significant portion of our operations through our wholly-owned subsidiaries, including in Hong Kong, Singapore and the United States. Because Futu Holdings is an exempted company incorporated in the Cayman Islands, it is classified as a foreign enterprise, and our wholly-owned PRC subsidiaries are foreign-invested enterprises, under PRC laws and regulation, and none of them is generally allowed to own more than 50% of the equity interests in PRC companies that are value-added telecommunication service providers.

In order to provide certain value-added telecommunication services in China while ensuring compliance with PRC laws and regulations, the WFOE has entered into a series of contractual arrangements with the VIE and its shareholders. The contractual agreements are designed to provide us economic exposure to the VIE’s value-added telecommunication services in China where PRC law prohibits, restricts or impose conditions on direct equity investment in the VIE. For a detailed description about these contractual arrangements, see “Item 4. Information on the Company—C. Organizational Structure—Contractual Arrangements with the VIE and Its Shareholders.”

As a result of the contractual agreements with the VIE, Futu Holdings becomes the primary beneficiary of the VIE for accounting purposes and treat it as a PRC consolidated entity under U.S. GAAP. Neither we nor our investors own any equity ownership in, direct foreign investment in, or control of the VIE as a result of the WFOE’s contractual agreements with the VIE and its shareholders. As a result, holders of the ADSs are not purchasing equity interest in the VIE or its subsidiaries but instead are purchasing equity interest in Futu Holdings, a Cayman Islands holding company whose consolidated financial results include those of the VIE and its subsidiaries under U.S. GAAP.

Our contractual arrangements with the VIE and its shareholders have not been tested in a court of law in the PRC and foreign investors may never be allowed to hold equity interests in the VIE and its subsidiaries under PRC laws and regulations. Chinese regulatory authorities could in the future disallow these agreements, which would likely affect our operations in China. Please see “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Operations in China—If the PRC government deems that the contractual arrangements in relation to the VIE do not comply with PRC regulatory restrictions on foreign investment in the relevant industries, or if these regulations or the interpretation of existing regulations change in the future, we could be subject to severe penalties or be forced to relinquish our interests in those operations.”

We and the VIE face various legal and operational risks and uncertainties related to Our Operations in China, including complex and evolving PRC laws and regulations. For example, we and/or the VIE face risks associated with regulatory approvals on offshore offerings, the use of variable interest entities, anti-monopoly regulatory actions, and oversight on cybersecurity and data privacy, as well as the lack of inspection by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, or PCAOB, on our independent registered public accounting firm, which may impact our ability to conduct certain businesses, accept foreign investments, or list on a U.S. or other foreign exchange. These risks could result in a material adverse change in our operations and the value of the ADSs, significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors and cause such securities to significantly decline in value, as further explained below:

4

The PRC government has significant authority to regulate or intervene in a company’s operations in China at any time, such as ours, whether such operations are conducted through a subsidiary or a consolidated variable interest entity. Therefore, investors in the ADSs and our business face potential uncertainty from the PRC government’s policy. The Chinese government may intervene or influence our operations at any time, or may exert more oversight and control over offerings conducted overseas and/or foreign investment in China-based issuers, which could result in a material change in our operations and/or the value of our ADSs. Any actions by the Chinese government to exert more oversight and control over offerings that are conducted overseas and/or foreign investment in China-based issuers could significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors and cause the value of such securities to significantly decline. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Operations in China—The PRC government has significant authority to regulate or intervene in a company’s operations in China at any time, such as ours, whether such operations are conducted through a subsidiary or a consolidated variable interest entity. Therefore, investors in the ADSs and our business face potential uncertainty from the PRC government’s policy”;
We believe that our corporate structure and contractual arrangements with the VIE comply with the current applicable PRC laws and regulations. As of the date of this annual report, we believe that our PRC subsidiaries and the VIE are not required to obtain permission or approval from the Chinese Securities Regulatory Commission, or the CSRC, or the Cyberspace Administration of China, or the CAC, to operate their respective business in China or to approve our contractual arrangements with the VIE and its shareholders. However, PRC laws and regulations governing the conditions and the requirements of such approval are uncertain and the relevant government authorities have broad discretion in interpreting these laws and regulations. Accordingly, the PRC regulatory authorities may take a different view. There can be no assurance that the PRC government authorities such as the Ministry of Commerce, or the MOFCOM, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, or the MIIT, or other authorities that regulate our business and other participants in the telecommunications industry, would agree that our corporate structure or any of the above contractual arrangements comply with PRC licensing, registration or other regulatory requirements, with existing policies or with requirements or policies that may be adopted in the future. As of the date of this annual report, we have not received any inquiry, notice, warning, or sanctions regarding our corporate structure and contractual arrangements from the CSRC, CAC or any other PRC governmental agency. If we, our subsidiaries or the VIE inadvertently conclude that approvals are not required, or if these regulations change or are interpreted differently and we are required to obtain approval in the future, our ADSs may significantly decline in value or become worthless if we are unable to assert our contractual control rights over the economic benefits and assets of the VIE and its subsidiaries. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Operations in China—If the PRC government deems that the contractual arrangements in relation to the VIE do not comply with PRC regulatory restrictions on foreign investment in the relevant industries, or if these regulations or the interpretation of existing regulations change in the future, we could be subject to severe penalties or be forced to relinquish our interests in those operations”;
Recently, the PRC government initiated a series of regulatory actions and released guidelines to regulate business operations in China with little advance notice, including those related to data security or anti-monopoly concerns, which may have an impact on our ability to conduct certain business in China, accept foreign investments, or list on a U.S. or other foreign exchange. If we are unable to address any data security or information protection concerns, any compromise of security that results unauthorized disclosure or transfer of personal data, or to comply with the then applicable laws and regulations, we may incur additional costs and liability and result in governmental enforcement actions, litigation, fines and penalties or adverse publicity and could cause our users and clients to lose trust in us, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects. And if certain of our activities in Mainland China were deemed by relevant regulators as violation of the laws and regulations on anti-monopoly, it may result in governmental investigations, fines and/or other sanctions against us. As of the date of this annual report, we have not been subject to any administrative penalties, regulatory actions or inquires in connection with anti-monopoly or data security or data privacy. We may also be subject to new laws, regulations or standards, or new interpretations of existing laws, regulations or standards, including those in the areas of data security, data privacy and anti-monopoly, which could require us to incur additional costs and restrict our business operations. For a detailed description of risks and regulations related to our operations in China, see “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Operations in China”, “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulation—Overview of the Laws and Regulations Relating to Our Business and Operations in China—Regulations on Cybersecurity and Privacy” and “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulation—Overview of the Laws and Regulations Relating to Our Business and Operations in China—Regulations on Anti-monopoly Matters related to Internet Platform Companies”;

5

We rely on contractual arrangements with the VIE and its shareholders for a limited part of our business operations in China, and these contractual arrangements may not be as effective as direct ownership in providing us with control over the VIE. We rely on the performance by the VIE and its shareholders of their obligations under the contracts to exercise control over the VIE. The shareholders of the VIE may not act in the best interests of us or may not perform their obligations under these contracts. Such risks exist throughout the period in which we intend to operate certain portion of our business through the contractual arrangements with the VIE. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business and Industry—We depend on contractual arrangements with the VIE and its shareholders to operate a limited part of our operations in China, which may not be as effective as direct ownership in providing operational control”; and
Our independent registered public accounting firm is located in and organized under the laws of the PRC, a jurisdiction where the PCAOB is currently unable to conduct inspections without the approval of the Chinese authorities, and therefore our auditors are currently not inspected by the PCAOB. On December 16, 2021, the PCAOB issued a report relaying to the SEC its determinations that the PCAOB is unable to inspect or investigate completely registered public accounting firms in Mainland China and Hong Kong due to positions taken by Chinese authorities. The report, issued under Rule 6100, lists dozens of accounting firms based in Mainland China and Hong Kong subject to the determinations, including our independent registered public accounting firm. Under Rule 6100, the PCAOB will reassess its determinations at least annually. Our ADSs will be delisted or trading in our ADSs would be prohibited under the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act if the PCAOB is unable to inspect auditors who are located in China for three consecutive years. The delisting of our ADSs, or the threat of their being delisted, may materially and adversely affect the value of your investment. Additionally, the inability of the PCAOB to conduct inspections deprives our investors with the benefits of such inspections. On June 22, 2021, the U.S. Senate passed the “Accelerating Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act”, which, if passed by the U.S. House of Representatives and signed into law by the President, would decrease the number of non-inspection years for foreign companies to comply with PCAOB audits from three to two years, thus reducing the time period before their securities may be prohibited from trading or delisted. On February 4, 2022, the U.S. House of Representatives passed the America Competes Act of 2022 which includes the exact same amendments as the bill passed by the Senate. The America Competes Act however includes a broader range of legislation not related to the HFCAA in response to the U.S. Innovation and Competition Act passed by the Senate in 2021. The U.S. House of Representatives and U.S. Senate will need to agree on amendments to these respective bills to align the legislation and pass their amended bills before the President can sign into law. It is unclear when the U.S. Senate and U.S. House of Representatives will resolve the differences in the U.S. Innovation and Competition Act and the America Competes Act of 2022 bills currently passed, or when the U.S. President will sign on the bill to make the amendment into law, or at all. In the case that the bill becomes the law, it will reduce the time period before our ADSs could be delisted from the exchange and prohibited from over-the-counter trading in the U.S. from 2024 to 2023. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Operations in China—Our ADSs will be delisted and our ADSs and shares may be prohibited from trading in the over-the-counter market under the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, or the HFCAA, if the PCAOB is unable to inspect or fully investigate auditors located in China. On December 16, 2021, PCAOB issued the HFCAA Determination Report, according to which our auditor is subject to the determinations that the PCAOB is unable to inspect or investigate completely. In March 2022, the SEC issued its first “Conclusive list of issuers identified under the HFCAA” indicating that those companies are now formally subject to the delisting provisions if they remain on the list for three consecutive years. We anticipate being added to the list shortly after the filing of this annual report on Form 20-F. Under the current law, delisting and prohibition from over-the-counter trading in the U.S. will start taking place in 2024. If this happens there is no certainty that we will be able to list our ADS or shares on a non-U.S. exchange or that a market for our shares will develop outside of the U.S. In addition, legislations are currently being considered in the United States to shorten the number of non-inspection years from three years to two, which, if adopted, could cause our ADSs to be delisted from the exchange and prohibited from over-the-counter trading in the U.S. as early as 2023. If our ADSs are delisted from the U.S. Exchange and are prohibited from trading in the over-the-counter market in the U.S. there is no certainty that we will be able to list on a non-U.S. exchange or that a market for our shares will develop outside of the U.S. If our ADSs are delisted from the U.S. Exchange and are prohibited from trading in the over-the-counter market in the U.S. there is no certainty that we will be able to list on a non-U.S. exchange or that a market for our shares will develop outside of the U.S. The delisting of our ADSs and inability to trade, or the threat thereof, may materially and adversely affect the value of your investment.”

6

Disaggregated Financial Information relating to the VIE

Historically, the VIE and its subsidiaries accounted for a small portion of our financial position, results of operations and cash flows. Set forth below are the condensed consolidating schedule showing the financial position as of December 31, 2020 and 2021, and results of operations and cash flows for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2020 and 2021 for (i) Futu Holdings, or the Parent; (ii) the WFOE (which is the primary beneficiary of the VIE); (iii) our other subsidiaries (excluding the WFOE); (iv) the VIE and its subsidiaries; (v) eliminating adjustments; and (vi) consolidated totals.

    

As of December 31, 2020

    

As of December 31, 2021

    

Parent

    

Other
Subsidiaries

    

WFOE

    

VIE and
VIE’s
subsidiaries

    

Eliminating
Adjustments

    

Consolidated
Totals

    

Parent

    

Other
Subsidiaries

    

WFOE

    

VIE and
VIE’s
subsidiaries

    

Eliminating
Adjustments

    

Consolidated
Totals

HK$(in thousands)

HK$(in thousands)

Condensed Consolidating Schedule of Financial Position

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Assets

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Cash and cash equivalents

 

37,349

 

993,561

 

20

 

3,738

 

 

1,034,668

 

37,574

 

4,514,736

 

35

 

2,751

 

 

4,555,096

Cash held on behalf of clients

 

 

42,487,090

 

 

 

 

42,487,090

 

 

54,734,351

 

 

 

 

54,734,351

Restricted cash

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2,065

 

 

 

 

2,065

Term deposit

 

 

300,000

 

 

 

 

300,000

 

 

 

 

 

 

Short-term investments

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1,169,741

 

 

 

 

 

1,169,741

Amounts due from internal companies(1)

 

4,184,401

 

30,525

 

2,043

 

117,085

 

(4,334,054)

 

 

6,969,446

 

46,296

 

2,102

 

190,424

 

(7,208,268)

 

Loans and advances

 

 

18,825,366

 

 

 

 

18,825,366

 

 

29,587,306

 

 

 

 

29,587,306

Securities purchased under agreements to resell

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

106,203

 

 

 

 

106,203

Receivables

 

 

8,077,032

 

 

 

 

8,077,032

 

 

10,447,794

 

 

 

 

10,447,794

Prepaid assets

 

 

9,502

 

 

1,920

 

 

11,422

 

 

11,366

 

 

6,940

 

 

18,306

Investment in subsidiaries(2)

 

5,086,681

 

19,089

 

 

 

(5,105,770)

 

 

13,514,216

 

80,292

 

 

 

(13,594,508)

 

Investment in VIE(2)

17,204

(17,204)

78,398

(78,398)

Long-term investments

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

23,394

 

 

 

 

23,394

Operating lease right-of-use assets

 

 

176,963

 

 

31,900

 

 

208,863

 

 

210,887

 

 

40,415

 

(7,443)

 

243,859

Other assets

 

9,655

 

375,417

 

 

8,254

 

 

393,326

 

21,620

 

614,707

 

 

14,072

 

 

650,399

Total assets

 

9,318,086

 

71,294,545

 

19,267

 

162,897

 

(9,457,028)

 

71,337,767

 

21,712,597

 

100,379,397

 

80,535

 

254,602

 

(20,888,617)

 

101,538,514

Liabilities

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Amounts due to related parties

 

 

87,169

 

 

 

 

87,169

 

 

87,459

 

 

 

 

87,459

Amounts due to internal companies(1)

 

15,833

 

4,245,538

 

177

 

72,506

 

(4,334,054)

 

 

21,955

 

7,105,635

 

243

 

80,435

 

(7,208,268)

 

Securities sold under agreements to repurchase

 

 

5,453,037

 

 

 

 

5,453,037

 

 

4,467,861

 

 

 

 

4,467,861

Payables

 

695

 

51,052,929

 

 

 

 

51,053,624

 

131

 

67,192,372

 

 

 

 

67,192,503

Borrowings

 

977,735

 

4,505,083

 

 

 

 

5,482,818

 

689,869

 

5,667,536

 

 

 

 

6,357,405

Lease liabilities

 

 

189,646

 

 

32,585

 

 

222,231

 

 

217,694

 

 

42,628

 

257

 

260,579

Accrued expenses and other liabilities

 

16,133

 

674,463

 

 

40,602

 

 

731,198

 

15,083

 

2,129,186

 

 

53,141

 

(10,262)

 

2,187,148

Total liabilities

 

1,010,396

 

66,207,865

 

177

 

145,693

 

(4,334,054)

 

63,030,077

 

727,038

 

86,867,743

 

243

 

176,204

 

(7,218,273)

 

80,552,955

Total shareholders’ equity(2)

 

8,307,690

 

5,086,680

 

19,090

 

17,204

 

(5,122,974)

 

8,307,690

 

20,985,559

 

13,511,654

 

80,292

 

78,398

 

(13,670,344)

 

20,985,559

7

For the year ended December 31, 2019

For the year ended December 31, 2020

For the year ended December 31, 2021

  

Parent

  

Other
Subsidiaries

  

WFOE

  

VIE and
VIE’s
subsidiaries

  

Eliminating
Adjustments

  

Consolidated
Totals

  

Parent

  

Other
Subsidiaries

  

WFOE

  

VIE and
VIE’s
subsidiaries

  

Eliminating
Adjustments

  

Consolidated
Totals

  

Parent

  

Other
Subsidiaries

WFOE

  

VIE and
VIE’s
subsidiaries

  

Eliminating
Adjustments

  

Consolidated
Totals

HK$(in thousands)

HK$(in thousands)

HK$(in thousands)

Condensed Consolidating Schedule of Results of Operations

  

  

  

  

  

  

  

  

  

  

  

  

  

  

  

  

  

  

Third-party revenues

 

1,240

 

1,058,376

 

 

1,939

 

 

1,061,555

 

3,189

 

3,298,700

 

 

8,933

 

 

3,310,822

 

2,766

 

7,090,167

 

 

22,387

 

 

7,115,320

Inter-company revenues(3)

63,742

(63,742)

94,500

(94,500)

187,774

(187,774)

Total costs(3)

 

(3,930)

 

(332,321)

 

 

(9,195)

 

63,742

 

(281,704)

 

(191)

 

(777,589)

 

 

(12,674)

 

94,500

 

(695,954)

 

 

(1,382,062)

 

 

(11,776)

 

187,774

 

(1,206,064)

Total expenses

 

(22,529)

 

(519,967)

 

(1)

 

(49,399)

 

 

(591,896)

 

(23,388)

 

(1,051,012)

 

(53)

 

(72,554)

 

 

(1,147,007)

 

(26,854)

 

(2,558,736)

 

(46)

 

(140,807)

 

 

(2,726,443)

Equity in gain of subsidiaries/ VIE(2)

 

192,322

 

8,806

 

8,807

 

 

(209,935)

 

 

1,347,485

 

21,088

 

20,727

 

 

(1,389,300)

 

 

2,816,673

 

52,695

 

52,741

 

 

(2,922,109)

 

Others, net

 

(1,439)

 

(7,014)

 

 

(1,009)

 

 

(9,462)

 

(1,572)

 

(17,955)

 

413

 

1,876

 

 

(17,238)

 

17,625

 

(14,841)

 

 

(306)

 

 

2,478

Income before income tax expenses

 

165,664

 

207,880

 

8,806

 

6,078

 

(209,935)

 

178,493

 

1,325,523

 

1,473,232

 

21,087

 

20,081

 

(1,389,300)

 

1,450,623

 

2,810,210

 

3,187,223

 

52,695

 

57,272

 

(2,922,109)

 

3,185,291

Share of loss from equity method investments

 

 

(543)

 

 

 

 

(543)

 

 

(307)

 

 

 

 

(307)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Income tax expense

 

 

(15,015)

 

 

2,729

 

 

(12,286)

 

 

(125,439)

 

 

646

 

 

(124,793)

 

 

(370,550)

 

 

(4,531)

 

 

(375,081)

Net income

 

165,664

 

192,322

 

8,806

 

8,807

 

(209,935)

 

165,664

 

1,325,523

 

1,347,486

 

21,087

 

20,727

 

(1,389,300)

 

1,325,523

 

2,810,210

 

2,816,673

 

52,695

 

52,741

 

(2,922,109)

 

2,810,210

8

    For the year ended December 31, 2019

    For the year ended December 31, 2020

For the year ended December 31, 2021

  

Parent

  

Other
Subsidiaries

  

WFOE

  

VIE and
VIE’s
subsidiaries

  

Eliminating
Adjustments

  

Consolidated
Totals

  

Parent

  

Other
Subsidiaries

  

WFOE

  

VIE and
VIE’s
subsidiaries

  

Eliminating
Adjustments

  

Consolidated
Totals

  

Parent

  

Other
Subsidiaries

  

WFOE

  

VIE and
VIE’s
subsidiaries

  

Eliminating
Adjustments

  

Consolidated
Totals

HK$ (in thousands)

HK$ (in thousands)

HK$ (in thousands)

Condensed Consolidating Schedules of Cash Flows

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Net cash (used in) /generated from operating activities(4)

 

(10,336)

 

1,982,273

 

(1)

 

(2,502)

 

 

1,969,434

 

(30,551)

 

20,502,112

 

3

 

(14,847)

 

 

20,456,717

 

(16,465)

 

6,026,081

 

15

 

2,340

 

 

6,011,971

Advances to Group companies

 

(939,807)

 

(32,740)

 

 

 

972,547

 

 

(3,049,229)

 

 

 

 

3,049,229

 

 

(4,814,377)

 

 

 

 

4,814,377

 

Receival of advances repayment from Group companies

313,091

32,740

(345,831)

779,604

(779,604)

2,039,648

(2,039,648)

Investments in subsidiaries, VIE and VIE’s subsidiary

 

(223,982)

 

 

 

 

223,982

 

 

(1,869,682)

 

 

 

 

1,869,682

 

 

(5,480,918)

 

 

 

 

5,480,918

 

Other investing activities

 

 

(162,290)

 

 

2,233

 

 

(160,057)

 

 

(261,279)

 

 

17,104

 

 

(244,175)

 

(1,169,715)

 

209,477

 

 

(3,327)

 

 

(963,565)

Net cash (used in)/generated from investing activities

 

(850,698)

 

(162,290)

 

 

2,233

 

850,698

 

(160,057)

 

(4,139,307)

 

(261,279)

 

 

17,104

 

4,139,307

 

(244,175)

 

(9,425,362)

 

209,477

 

 

(3,327)

 

8,255,647

 

(963,565)

Proceeds from advances from Group companies(5)

 

 

939,807

 

 

32,740

 

(972,547)

 

 

 

3,049,229

 

 

 

(3,049,229)

 

 

 

4,814,377

 

 

 

(4,814,377)

 

Repayment of advances from Group companies(5)

(313,091)

(32,740)

345,831

(779,604)

779,604

(2,039,648)

2,039,648

Proceeds from issuance of ordinary shares

 

1,259,317

 

 

 

 

 

1,259,317

 

2,339,718

 

 

 

 

 

2,339,718

 

10,856,524

 

 

 

 

 

10,856,524

Capital contribution from Group companies

223,982

(223,982)

1,869,682

(1,869,682)

5,480,918

(5,480,918)

Other financing activities

 

(399,031)

 

291,336

 

 

 

 

(107,695)

 

1,859,532

 

4,207,646

 

 

 

 

6,067,178

 

(1,414,672)

 

1,112,366

 

 

 

 

(302,306)

Net cash generated from/(used in) financing activities

 

860,286

 

1,142,034

 

 

 

(850,698)

 

1,151,622

 

4,199,250

 

8,346,953

 

 

 

(4,139,307)

 

8,406,896

 

9,441,852

 

9,368,013

 

 

 

(8,255,647)

 

10,554,218

Effect of exchange rate changes on cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash

 

(41)

 

(44,625)

 

 

 

 

(44,666)

 

(33)

 

(1,084)

 

 

 

 

(1,117)

 

200

 

166,930

 

 

 

 

167,130

Net (decrease)/ increase in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash

 

(789)

 

2,917,392

 

(1)

 

(269)

 

 

2,916,333

 

29,359

 

28,586,702

 

3

 

2,257

 

 

28,618,321

 

225

 

15,770,501

 

15

 

(987)

 

 

15,769,754

Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at beginning of the year

 

8,779

 

11,976,557

 

18

 

1,750

 

 

11,987,104

 

7,990

 

14,893,949

 

17

 

1,481

 

 

14,903,437

 

37,349

 

43,480,651

 

20

 

3,738

 

 

43,521,758

Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at end of the year

 

7,990

 

14,893,949

 

17

 

1,481

 

 

14,903,437

 

37,349

 

43,480,651

 

20

 

3,738

 

 

43,521,758

 

37,574

 

59,251,152

 

35

 

2,751

 

 

59,291,512

Notes:

(1)It represents the elimination of intercompany balances among parent, the VIE and our subsidiaries.
(2)It represents the elimination of the investment in the VIE and our subsidiaries by the Parent.
(3)Intercompany Revenues between VIE and Other Subsidiaries

The VIE provides software development services and technical consulting services to the subsidiaries of the Group. For the years ended December 31, 2019, 2020 and 2021, technical service fees of the VIE were HK$63,742 thousand, HK$94,500 thousand and HK$187,774 thousand, respectively. The intercompany service charge is eliminated at the consolidation level.

Intercompany Revenues between VIE and WFOE

Pursuant to the exclusive technology consulting and services agreement entered into in October 2014, between the WFOE and the VIE, which was subsequently amended and restated in May 2015 and further in September 2018, the WFOE had the exclusive right to provide the VIE with consulting and services related to, among other things, technology research and development, as well as maintenance of software and hardware. The VIE agreed to pay WFOE a service fee in an amount equal to its annual net income. The WFOE may adjust the amount of service fee based on factors such as the complexity, time spent and the commercial value of the services.

On September 30, 2021, a termination agreement was entered into among the WFOE, the VIE and its shareholders, pursuant to which the parties agreed to terminate the prior contractual arrangements and replaced them with a new set of agreements. Pursuant to the exclusive business cooperation agreement entered into on September 30, 2021 by and among the WFOE, the VIE and its shareholders, the VIE engages the WFOE as the exclusive service provider of technical support, consulting services and other services to the VIE. The VIE agrees to pay a service fee at an amount equivalent to 100% of the consolidated gross profits of the VIE for any fiscal year after offsetting the accumulated losses of the VIE and its subsidiaries in the previous fiscal years (if any) and after deducting working capital, expenditure, taxes and other statutory contributions required in any fiscal year.

For the years ended December 31, 2019, 2020 and 2021, the WFOE did not charge any service fee from the VIE.

(4)For the years ended December 31, 2019, 2020 and 2021, cash paid by subsidiaries to the VIE for technical service fees were HK$37,631 thousand, HK$33,669 thousand and HK$189,827 thousand, respectively.
(5)For the year ended December 31, 2019, a subsidiary paid operating expense of HK$32,740 thousand on behalf of the VIE, and the VIE repaid the advance from the subsidiary subsequently.

9

We expect that the financial position, results of operations and cash flows generated by the VIE and its subsidiaries will constitute an immaterial portion of our consolidated financial information for the foreseeable future. However, there can be no assurance that the risks associated with the contractual arrangement with the VIE and its shareholders, if materialized, would not materially and adversely impact our financial position, results of operations, prospects or the value of the ADSs.

Transfer of Cash Through Our Organization

Although we consolidate the results of the VIE and its subsidiaries under U.S. GAAP, we only have access to the assets or earnings of the VIE and its subsidiaries through our contractual arrangements with the VIE and its shareholders. The cash flows that have occurred between the VIE and Futu Holdings and its subsidiaries are summarized as follows:

For the year ended December 31,

2019

2020

2021 

    

HK$

    

HK$

    

HK$

    

US$

 

(in thousands)

Cash paid by subsidiaries to the VIE for technical service fee

 

37,631

 

33,669

 

189,827

 

24,423

Advances from subsidiaries to the VIE

 

32,740

 

 

 

Repayment of advances to Group companies by the VIE

 

(32,740)

 

 

 

Restrictions and Limitations on Transfer of Cash

Futu Holdings is incorporated in the Cayman Islands and its businesses in China are conducted mainly through its PRC subsidiaries and partly through the VIE and its subsidiaries. We face various restrictions and limitations on foreign exchange, our ability to transfer cash between entities, across borders and to U.S. investors, and our ability to distribute earnings from our subsidiaries and/or the VIE and its subsidiaries, to Futu Holdings and holders of the ADSs as well as the ability to settle amounts owed under the contractual arrangements with the VIE.

Uncertainties regarding the interpretation and implementation of the contractual arrangements with the VIE could limit our ability to enforce such agreements. If the PRC authorities determine that the contractual arrangements constituting part of the VIE structure do not comply with PRC regulations, or if current regulations change or are interpreted differently in the future, our ability to settle amount owed by the VIE under the VIE agreements may be seriously hindered.

Current PRC regulations permit our PRC subsidiaries, including the WFOE, to pay dividends to us only out of their accumulated profits, if any, determined in accordance with PRC accounting standards and regulations. In addition, each of our PRC subsidiaries, the VIE and its PRC subsidiaries are required to set aside at least 10% of their respective accumulated profits each year, if any, to fund certain reserve funds until the total amount set aside reaches 50% of their respective registered capital. Our PRC subsidiaries and the VIE and its subsidiaries may also allocate a portion of their after-tax profits based on PRC accounting standards to employee welfare and bonus funds at their discretion. These reserves are not distributable as cash dividends. Furthermore, if the WFOE incurs debt on its own behalf in the future, the instruments governing the debt may restrict its ability to pay dividends or make other payments to us. In addition, the PRC tax authorities may require us to adjust our taxable income under the contractual arrangements we currently have in place in a manner that would materially and adversely affect the WFOE’s ability to pay dividends and other distributions to us. Any limitation on the ability of our PRC subsidiaries, including the WFOE, to distribute dividends to us or on the ability of the VIE to make payments to the WFOE may restrict our ability to satisfy our liquidity requirements. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulation—Overview of the Laws and Regulations Relating to Our Business and Operations in China—Regulations on Dividend Distribution.”

10

Futu Hong Kong may be considered a non-resident enterprise for tax purposes, so that any dividends paid by our PRC subsidiaries pays to Futu Hong Kong may be regarded as China-sourced income and, as a result, may be subject to PRC withholding tax at a rate of up to 10%. If we are required under the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law to pay income tax for any dividends we receive from PRC subsidiaries, or if Futu Hong Kong is determined by the PRC government authority as receiving benefits from reduced income tax rate due to a structure or arrangement that is primarily tax-driven, it would materially and adversely affect the amount of dividends, if any, we may pay to our shareholders and ADS holders. If the PRC tax authorities determine that Futu Holdings is a PRC resident enterprise for enterprise income tax purposes, we may be required to withhold a 10% tax from dividends we pay to our shareholders and ADS holders, in each case that are non-resident enterprises. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Operations in China—Dividends payable to our foreign investors and gains on the sale of the ADSs or Class A ordinary shares by our foreign investors may become subject to PRC tax.”

In addition, non-resident enterprise shareholders, including our ADS holders, may be subject to PRC tax at a rate of 10% on gains realized on the sale or other disposition of ADSs or ordinary shares if such income is treated as sourced from within the PRC. Furthermore, if Futu Holdings were deemed to be a PRC resident enterprise, dividends paid to our non-PRC individual shareholders, including our ADS holders, and any gain realized on the transfer of ADSs or ordinary shares by such holders may be subject to PRC tax at a rate of 20% which in the case of dividends may be withheld at source. Any such tax may reduce the returns on your investment in the ADSs or ordinary shares. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Operations in China— We may be treated as a resident enterprise for PRC tax purposes under the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law, and we may therefore be subject to PRC income tax on our global income.”

Our offshore entities are permitted under PRC laws and regulations to provide funding to our PRC subsidiaries only through loans or capital contributions, subject to the approval of government authorities and limits on the amount of capital contributions and loans. This may delay or prevent us from using the proceeds from our offshore capital raising activities to make loans or capital contribution to our PRC subsidiaries. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Operations in China—PRC regulation of loans to and direct investment in PRC entities by offshore holding companies and governmental control of currency conversion may delay or prevent us from using the proceeds of our securities offerings to make loans or additional capital contributions to our PRC subsidiaries and the VIE and its subsidiaries.”

Additionally, PRC government imposes controls on the convertibility of the RMB into foreign currencies and, in certain cases, the remittance of currency out of China. Under existing PRC foreign exchange regulations, payments of current account items, such as profit distributions and trade and service-related foreign exchange transactions, can be made in foreign currencies without prior approval from the State Administration of Foreign Exchange of the PRC, or the SAFE by complying with certain procedural requirements. Dividends payments to us by Futu Hong Kong in foreign currencies are subject to the condition that the remittance of such dividends outside of the PRC complies with certain procedures under PRC foreign exchange regulations, such as the overseas investment registrations by our shareholders or the ultimate shareholders of our corporate shareholders who are PRC residents. Approvals by or registration with appropriate government authorities is required where RMB is to be converted into foreign currency and remitted out of China to pay capital expenses such as the repayment of loans denominated in foreign currencies. The PRC government may also at its discretion restrict access in the future to foreign currencies for current account transactions. If the foreign exchange control system prevents us from obtaining sufficient foreign currencies to satisfy our foreign currency demands, our PRC subsidiaries, including the WFOE, may not be able to pay dividends in foreign currencies to us and our access to cash generated from its operations will be restricted. See “Item 3.D. Key Information—Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business and Industry—We are subject to PRC restrictions on currency exchange.”

Taxation on Dividends or Distributions

Futu Holdings’ source of dividend partly comes from dividends paid by its PRC subsidiaries, including the WFOE, which in part depends on payments received from the VIE under the contractual arrangements with the VIE. None of our subsidiaries has declared or paid any dividend or distribution to us. We have never declared or paid any dividend on our ordinary shares and we have no current intention to pay dividends to shareholders or holders of ADSs. We currently intend to retain most, if not all, of our available funds and any future earnings to fund the development and growth of our business. The undistributed earnings that are subject to dividend tax are expected to be indefinitely reinvested for the foreseeable future.

11

Under the current laws of the Cayman Islands, Futu Holdings is not subject to tax on income or capital gains. Upon payments of dividends to our shareholders, no Cayman Islands withholding tax will be imposed. For purposes of illustration, the following discussion reflects the hypothetical taxes that might be required to be paid in Mainland China and Hong Kong, assuming that: (i) we have taxable earnings in the VIE, and (ii) we determine to pay a dividend in the future:

Hypothetical pre-tax earnings in the VIE(1)

    

100.00

Tax on earnings at statutory rate of 25% at WFOE level(2)

 

(25.00)

Amount to be distributed as dividend from WFOE to Futu Hong Kong(3)

 

75.00

Withholding tax at tax treaty rate of 5 %

(3.75)

Amount to be distributed as dividend at Futu Hong Kong level and net distribution to Futu Holdings Limited(4)

 

71.25

Notes:

(1)For purposes of this example, the tax calculation has been simplified. The hypothetical book pre-tax earnings amount is assumed to equal Chinese taxable income.
(2)Certain of our subsidiaries and the VIE qualifies for a 15% preferential income tax rate in China. However, such rate is subject to qualification, is temporary in nature, and may not be available in a future period when distributions are paid. For purposes of this hypothetical example, the table above reflects a maximum tax scenario under which the full statutory rate would be effective.
(3)China’s Enterprise Income Tax Law imposes a withholding income tax of 10% on dividends distributed by a Foreign Invested Enterprise to its immediate holding company outside of Mainland China. A lower withholding income tax rate of 5% is applied if the Foreign Invested Enterprise’s immediate holding company is registered in Hong Kong or other jurisdictions that have a tax treaty arrangement with Mainland China, subject to a qualification review at the time of the distribution. There is no incremental tax at Futu Hong Kong level for any dividend distribution to Futu Holdings.
(4)If a 10% withholding income tax rate is imposed, the withholding tax will be 7.5 and the amount to be distributed as dividend at Futu Hong Kong level and net distribution to Futu Holdings will be 67.5.

The table above has been prepared under the assumption that all profits of the VIE will be distributed as fees to our PRC subsidiaries under tax neutral contractual arrangements. If, in the future, the accumulated earnings of the VIE exceed the service fees paid to our PRC subsidiaries (or if the current and contemplated fee structure between the intercompany entities is determined to be non-substantive and disallowed by Chinese tax authorities), the VIE could make a non-deductible transfer to our PRC subsidiaries for the amounts of the stranded cash in the VIE. This would result in such transfer being non-deductible expenses for the VIE but still taxable income for the PRC subsidiaries. Our management believes that there is only a remote possibility that this scenario would happen.

Should all tax planning strategies fail the VIE could, as a matter of last resort, make a non-deductible transfer to the WFOE for amounts of stranded cash in the VIE.  This would result in the double taxation of earnings: once at the VIE level (non-deductible expense) and again at the WFOE level (for presumptive earnings on the transfer). This has the impact of reducing the amount available above from 71.25% to approximately 53% of pre-tax income, respectively. Management believes this scenario to be remote.

12

PART I

Item 1.          Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers

Not applicable.

Item 2.          Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable

Not applicable.

Item 3.          Key Information

A.    [Reserved]

B.    Capitalization and Indebtedness

Not applicable.

C.    Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds

Not applicable.

D.    Risk Factors

Below please find a summary of the principal risks we face, organized under relevant headings.

Risks Related to Our Business and Industry

Our historical growth rates may not be indicative of our future growth, which makes it difficult to evaluate our future prospects.
We are subject to extensive and evolving regulatory requirements in the markets we operate in, non-compliance with which may result in penalties, limitations and prohibitions on our future business activities or suspension or revocation of our licenses and trading rights, and consequently may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, operations and prospects. In addition, we are involved in ongoing inquiries by relevant regulators.
Our online client onboarding procedures historically did not strictly follow the specified steps set out by the relevant authorities in Hong Kong, which may subject us to regulatory actions in addition to remediation, which may include reprimands, fines, limitations or prohibitions on our future business activities and/or suspension or revocation of Futu International Hong Kong’s licenses and trading rights.
We do not hold any license or permit for providing securities brokerage business in Mainland China. Although we do not believe we engage in securities brokerage business in Mainland China, there remain uncertainties to the interpretation and implementation of relevant PRC laws and regulations. If some of our activities in Mainland China were deemed by relevant regulators as provision of securities business such as securities brokerage services, investment consulting services, and/or futures business in Mainland China, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may be materially and adversely affected.
We face significant competition in the online brokerage and wealth management industries, and if we are unable to compete effectively, we may lose our market share and our results of operations and financial condition may be materially and adversely affected.

13

If we are unable to retain existing clients or attract new clients to increase their trading volume, or if we fail to offer services to address the needs of our clients as they evolve, our business and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.
Because our revenues and profitability depend largely on clients’ trading volume, they are prone to significant fluctuations and are difficult to predict. Declines in trading volumes generally result in lower revenues from transaction execution activities, which may affect our financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
We are subject to PRC restrictions on currency exchange.

Risks Related to Our Operations in China

The PCAOB is currently unable to inspect our auditor in relation to their audit work performed for our financial statements and the inability of the PCAOB to conduct inspections over our auditor deprives our investors with the benefits of such inspections.
Our ADSs will be delisted and our ADSs and shares may be prohibited from trading in the over-the-counter market under the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, or the HFCAA, if the PCAOB is unable to inspect or fully investigate auditors located in China. On December 16, 2021, PCAOB issued the HFCAA Determination Report, according to which our auditor is subject to the determinations that the PCAOB is unable to inspect or investigate completely. In March 2022, the SEC issued its first “Conclusive list of issuers identified under the HFCAA” indicating that those companies are now formally subject to the delisting provisions if they remain on the list for three consecutive years. We anticipate being added to the list shortly after the filing of this annual report on Form 20-F. Under the current law, delisting and prohibition from over-the-counter trading in the U.S. will start taking place in 2024. If this happens there is no certainty that we will be able to list our ADS or shares on a non-U.S. exchange or that a market for our shares will develop outside of the U.S. In addition, legislations are currently being considered in the United States to shorten the number of non-inspection years from three years to two, which, if adopted, could cause our ADSs to be delisted from the exchange and prohibited from over-the-counter trading in the U.S. as early as 2023. The delisting of our ADSs and inability to trade, or the threat thereof, may materially and adversely affect the value of your investment.
The PRC government has significant authority to regulate or intervene in a company’s operations in China at any time, such as ours, whether such operations are conducted through a subsidiary or a consolidated variable interest entity. Therefore, investors in the ADSs and our business face potential uncertainty from the PRC government’s policy.
If the PRC government deems that the contractual arrangements in relation to the VIE do not comply with PRC regulatory restrictions on foreign investment in the relevant industries, or if these regulations or the interpretation of existing regulations change in the future, we could be subject to severe penalties or be forced to relinquish our interests in those operations.
There are uncertainties regarding the interpretation and enforcement of PRC laws, rules and regulations.

Risks Related to the ADSs

The trading price of the ADSs may be volatile, which could result in substantial losses to you.
Our dual-class voting structure will limit your ability to influence corporate matters and could discourage others from pursuing any change of control transactions that holders of our Class A ordinary shares and the ADSs may view as beneficial, and may adversely affect the trading market for the ADSs.
If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, the market price for the ADSs and trading volume could decline.
The depositary for the ADSs will give us a discretionary proxy to vote our Class A ordinary shares underlying your ADSs if you do not vote at shareholders’ meetings, except under limited circumstances, which could adversely affect your interests.

14

Because we do not expect to pay dividends in the foreseeable future, you must rely on price appreciation of the ADSs for return on your investment.

Risks Related to Our Business and Industry

Our historical growth rates may not be indicative of our future growth, which makes it difficult to evaluate our future prospects.

We launched our online brokerage business in 2012 and experienced rapid growth since our inception. Our total revenues increased by 211.9% from HK$1,061.6 million in 2019 to HK$3,310.8 million in 2020, and further by 114.9% from HK$3,310.8 million in 2020 to HK$7,115.3 million (US$912.3 million) in 2021. However, our historical growth rates may not be indicative of our future growth, and we cannot assure you that we will be able to maintain similar growth rates in the future or our efforts may prove more costly than we currently anticipate such that we may not succeed in increasing our revenues sufficiently to offset higher expenses. If our growth rate declines, investors’ perceptions of our business and business prospects may be adversely affected and the market price of our ADSs could decline. In addition, we have limited experience in new services and products launched in the past few years. As our business develops and as we respond to competition, we may continue to introduce new service offerings, make adjustments to our existing services, or make adjustments to our business operation in general. Any significant change to our business model that does not achieve expected results may have a material and adverse impact on our financial condition and results of operations. It is therefore difficult to effectively assess our future prospects.

We may not be able to manage our expansion effectively. Continuous expansion may increase the complexity of our business and place a strain on our management, operations, technical systems, financial resources and internal control functions. Our current and planned personnel, systems, resources and controls may not be adequate to support and effectively manage our future operations.

You should consider our business and prospects in light of the risks and uncertainties that fast-growing companies in a quick-evolving and extensively regulated industry may encounter. These risks and challenges include our ability to, among other things:

sustain high growth in the future;
navigate a complex and evolving regulatory environment as well as economic condition and fluctuation;
offer personalized and competitive online brokerage, wealth management and other financial services;
increase the utilization of our services by existing and new users and clients;
offer attractive commission rates while driving the growth and profitability of our business;
maintain and enhance our relationships with our business partners, including funding partners for our margin financing business and fund companies for our wealth management business;
enhance our technology infrastructure to support the growth of our business and maintain the security of our system and the confidentiality of the information provided and utilized across our system;
improve our operational efficiency;
attract, retain and motivate talented employees to support our business growth;and
defend ourselves against legal and regulatory actions.

Our entrepreneurial and collaborative culture is important to us, and we believe it has been a major contributor to our success. We may have difficulties maintaining such culture to meet the needs of our future and evolving operations as we continue to grow, in particular as we expand internationally. In addition, our ability to maintain our culture as a public company, with changes in policies, practices, corporate governance and management requirements, may be challenging. Failure to maintain our culture could have a material adverse effect on our business.

15

We are subject to extensive and evolving regulatory requirements in the markets we operate in, non-compliance with which may result in penalties, limitations and prohibitions on our future business activities or suspension or revocation of our licenses and trading rights, and consequently may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, operations and prospects. In addition, we are involved in ongoing inquiries by relevant regulators.

We are subject to extensive regulations and the markets in which we operate, including Hong Kong, Singapore and the United States, are highly regulated. However, the online brokerage service industry (including, for example, the use of cloud-based operating, computing and record keeping technology as well as biometric identification technology) is at a relatively early stage of development, and applicable laws, regulations and other requirements may be changed and adopted from time to time. We may be subject to examinations and inquiries by the relevant regulators on a regular or ad-hoc basis. Our business operations in Hong Kong are subject to applicable Hong Kong laws, regulations, guidelines, circulars, and other regulatory guidance, or collectively the HK Brokerage Regulations, including, for example, the SFO and its subsidiary legislation. These HK Brokerage Regulations set out the licensing requirements, regulate our operational activities and standards, and impose requirements such as maintaining minimum liquidity or capital along with other filing, record keeping and reporting obligations relevant to our business operations. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulation—Overview of the Laws and Regulations Relating to Our Business and Operations in Hong Kong.” In addition, our operations in the United States are subject to applicable United States laws, rules and regulatory guidance, or collectively the US Brokerage Regulations, including, for example, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Act of 1934, or the Exchange Act, rules and guidance adopted under the Exchange Act by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, and rules and guidance adopted by the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, or FINRA. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulation—Overview of the Laws and Regulations Relating to Our Business and Operations in the United States.” Also, our operations in Singapore are subject to applicable Singapore laws and regulatory requirements, including under the Securities and Futures Act (Chapter 289 of Singapore), or the SFA, and its subsidiary legislation such as the Securities and Futures (Licensing and Conduct of Business) Regulations, or the SF(LCB)R. In Singapore, we hold a Capital Markets Services License, or CMSL, issued by the Singapore regulator, the Monetary Authority of Singapore, or the MAS, and we are required to abide by relevant regulatory notices and guidelines issued by the MAS. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulation—Overview of the Laws and Regulations Relating to Our Business and Operations in Singapore.” Failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations in markets we operate can result in investigations and regulatory actions, which may lead to penalties, including reprimands, fines, limitations or prohibitions on our future business activities or suspension or revocation of our licenses or trading rights. Any outcome of such nature may affect our ability to conduct business, harm our reputation and, consequently, materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

From time to time, Futu Securities International (Hong Kong) Limited, or Futu International Hong Kong, as a HK SFC-licensed corporation may be subject to or required to assist in inquiries or investigations by relevant regulatory authorities in Hong Kong, principally the HK SFC. The HK SFC conducts on-site reviews and off-site monitoring to ascertain and supervise our business conduct and compliance with relevant regulatory requirements and to assess and monitor, among other things, our financial soundness. We are subject to such regulatory examination, reviews and inquiries from time to time. If any misconduct is identified as a result of inquiries, reviews or investigations, the HK SFC may take disciplinary actions which could lead to revocation or suspension of licenses, public or private reprimand or imposition of pecuniary penalties against us, our responsible officers, licensed representatives, directors or other officers. Any such disciplinary actions taken against us, our responsible officers, licensed representatives, directors or other officers may have a material and adverse impact on our business operations and financial results. In addition, we are subject to statutory secrecy obligations under the SFO whereby we may not be permitted to disclose details on any HK SFC inquiries, reviews or investigations without the consent of the HK SFC. Futu Inc. and Futu Clearing Inc., as SEC-registered broker-dealers, have been subject to examinations and enquiries initiated by the SEC and FINRA in the past. They may also be subject to similar examinations, enquiries or other regulatory actions by such and other regulatory authorities in the future. Futu Singapore Pte. Ltd., as a Capital Markets Services Licensee in Singapore, may be subject to similar examinations and regulatory actions initiated by the MAS or other relevant regulatory authorities in Singapore. While we do not believe we are conducting securities business in China, we cannot rule out the possibility that we will be subject to the supervision of the CSRC or other PRC government authorities in the future. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulation—Overview of the Laws and Regulations Relating to Our Business and Operations in China.”

16

As of the date of this annual report, Futu International Hong Kong was involved in certain ongoing inquiries initiated by the HK SFC concerning matters including, among others, client onboarding processes, risk management, client assets, cybersecurity, anti-money laundering, counter-financing terrorism and operation of mobile application. We are unable to accurately predict the outcome of such inquiries given their ongoing nature. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Ongoing Regulatory Actions.” We have been and may continue to be subject to inquiries or investigations by the HK SFC. The HK SFC may identify misconduct or material non-compliance, undertake investigation and take regulatory actions, which may include, among other things, reprimands, fines, limitations or prohibitions on our future business activities or suspension or revocation of Futu International Hong Kong’s licenses and trading rights. There also remains a risk that we may not be able to rectify our practices to be in compliance with relevant HK Brokerage Regulations following the identification of any such misconduct or material non-compliance, which may result in the HK SFC taking additional regulatory actions against us in the forms described above. If any such outcome were to arise, there may be a material and adverse effect on our reputation, business, results of operations, financial conditions and prospects.

Our online client onboarding procedures historically did not strictly follow the specified steps set out by the relevant authorities in Hong Kong, which may subject us to regulatory actions in addition to remediation, which may include reprimands, fines, limitations or prohibitions on our future business activities and/or suspension or revocation of Futu International Hong Kong’s licenses and trading rights.

As online brokerage services in Hong Kong and, in particular, the technologies and practices involved in online account opening services are at relatively early stages of development, applicable laws, regulations, guidelines, circulars and other regulatory guidance with regard to online client onboarding procedures remain evolving and are subject to further changes. For the online application procedures followed by certain clients outside Hong Kong to open Hong Kong or U.S. trading accounts with us, see “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Our Services—Trading, Clearing and Settlement—Account Opening.” The HK SFC’s current position on the expressly specified non-face-to-face approaches for account opening, including online account opening, in light of the HK SFC regulatory requirements is summarized in paragraph 5.1 of the SFC Code of Conduct and SFC circulars dated May 12, 2015, October 24, 2016, July 12, 2018 and June 28, 2019, as updated by the HK SFC from time to time (together, the “SFC Circulars”). There are various methods set out under the SFC Circulars for online account opening, one of which is to use e-certification services provided by certification authorities outside Hong Kong whose electronic signature certificates have obtained mutual recognition status accepted by the Hong Kong government and the relevant local government when onboarding clients. Until recently, our online client onboarding procedures for certain clients outside Hong Kong did not strictly follow the specified methods set out in the SFC Circulars, and we have been testing new e-certification procedures through mutually recognized certification authorities as part of our online onboarding process since 2019. As of the date of this annual report, we implemented such new procedure as one of the online client onboarding procedures for our new clients. To the extent applicable, new clients are required to complete such new procedures. We have not been subject to any enforcement disciplinary action in relation to our online client onboarding procedures. However, we have been and may continue to be subject to inquiries or investigations by the HK SFC regarding our current and historical client onboarding procedures. There is no assurance that we will be able to achieve full implementation in a timely manner, or at all, with respect to the adoption of e-certification procedures or remediate our account opening or other procedures for all relevant existing clients retroactively or to make further adjustments to our online client onboarding processes as may be required by the HK SFC. We may need to take extensive time and incur additional costs and our customer experience may be adversely impacted. As a result, such remediation or adjustments may have a material adverse impact on our operations, business prospects, user experience and client acquisition and retention. If our online client onboarding procedures are determined by the HK SFC to be, or have been, not in compliance with the applicable laws, regulations, guidelines, circulars and other regulatory guidance, we may be subject to regulatory actions, which may include, in addition to remediation, reprimands, fines, limitations or prohibitions on our future business activities and/or suspension or revocation of Futu International Hong Kong’s licenses and trading rights.

17

We do not hold any license or permit for providing securities brokerage business in Mainland China. Although we do not believe we engage in securities brokerage business in Mainland China, there remain uncertainties to the interpretation and implementation of relevant PRC laws and regulations. If some of our activities in Mainland China were deemed by relevant regulators as provision of securities business such as securities brokerage services, investment consulting services, and/or futures business in Mainland China, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may be materially and adversely affected.

Pursuant to the relevant PRC laws and regulations, no entity or individual shall engage in securities business without the approval of the securities regulatory authority of the State Council. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulation—Overview of the Laws and Regulations Relating to Our Business and Operations in China—Regulations on Securities Business.” We do not hold any license or permit in relation to providing securities brokerage business in Mainland China. A significant portion of our technology, research and development, management, supporting and other teams are based in Mainland China and a large number of our users are PRC residents. While we do not believe the business we are conducting now through our subsidiaries or consolidated affiliated entities in China is securities brokerage business in China, we cannot assure you that certain of our activities such as redirecting users in China to brokers or other licensed entities outside of China will not be deemed as operating securities brokerage business in China. In the past, we received inquiries relating to certain aspects of our activities from certain regulatory authorities in China. We have taken measures in a timely manner to modify and enhance our business and platforms to be in compliance with the current applicable PRC laws and regulations related to securities brokerage business in China. However, we cannot assure you that the measures we have taken or will take in the future will be effective or fully satisfy the relevant regulatory authorities’ requirements. Based on the opinion of our PRC legal counsel, Han Kun Law Offices, we are not in violation of the current applicable PRC laws and regulations related to securities brokerage business in China in any material aspects. However, there remain some uncertainties as to how the current and any future PRC laws and regulations will be interpreted or enforced in the context of operating securities related business in Mainland China. If some of our activities in Mainland China were deemed by relevant regulators as provision of securities business such as securities brokerage services, investment consulting services and/or futures business in China, we will be required to obtain relevant licenses or permits from relevant regulatory bodies, including the CSRC, and failure of obtaining such licenses or permits may subject us to regulatory actions and penalties, including fines, suspension of parts or all of our operations in the PRC, and temporary suspension or removal of our websites, desktop devices and mobile application in China. In such cases, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may be materially and adversely affected. In addition, while we have internal policies in place regulating relevant activities of our employees and their dealings with our business partners, if our employees or business partners engage in certain activities that relevant authorities would require permits or licenses for, we may be subject to regulatory enquiries or penalties and negative publicity.

We face significant competition in the online brokerage and wealth management industries, and if we are unable to compete effectively, we may lose our market share and our results of operations and financial condition may be materially and adversely affected.

The market for online brokerage and wealth management services is relatively new, rapidly evolving and intensely competitive. We expect competition to continue and intensify in the future. We face competition from traditional retail brokerage firms and financial service providers in Hong Kong and worldwide, as we currently have operations in Singapore, the United States and Australia and may expand into other markets. In order to satisfy the demands of clients for hands-on electronic trading facilities, universal access to markets, smart routing, better trading tools, lower commissions and financing rates, we have embarked on building such facilities and service enhancements.

In addition, the online brokerage and wealth management industries exhibit massive opportunities which may attract major internet companies to enter the market by adopting a similar business model, which may significantly affect our market share and sales volume. Further, major international brokerage companies that have large retail online brokerage businesses as well as online brokerage units of commercial banks may also take advantage of their established resources and satisfy applicable regulatory requirements through acquisitions and organic development.

18

We expect competition to increase in the future as current competitors diversify and improve their offerings and as new participants enter the market. We cannot assure you that we will be able to compete effectively or efficiently with current or future competitors. They may be acquired by, receive investment from or enter into strategic relationships with, established and well-financed companies or investors, which would help enhance their competitiveness. Furthermore, the current competitors and new entrants in the online brokerage and wealth management industries may also seek to develop new service offerings, technologies or capabilities that could render some of the services that we offer obsolete or less competitive, and some of them may adopt more aggressive pricing policies or devote greater resources to marketing and promotional campaigns than we do. The occurrence of any of these circumstances may hinder our growth and reduce our market share, and thus our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects would be materially and adversely affected.

If we are unable to retain existing clients or attract new clients to increase their trading volume, or if we fail to offer services to address the needs of our clients as they evolve, our business and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

We derive a significant portion of our revenues from our online brokerage services provided to our clients. To maintain the high growth momentum of our platforms, we depend on retaining current clients and attracting more new clients. If there is insufficient demand for our online brokerage and margin financing services, we might not be able to maintain and increase our trading volume and revenues as we expect, and our business and results of operations may be adversely affected.

Our success depends largely on our ability to retain existing clients. Our clients may not continue to place trading orders or increase the level of their trading activities through our platforms if we cannot match the prices offered by other market players or if we fail to deliver satisfactory services. Failure to deliver services in a timely manner at competitive prices with satisfactory experience will cause our clients to lose confidence in us and use our platforms less frequently or even stop using our platforms altogether, which in turn will materially and adversely affect our business. Even if we are able to provide high-quality and satisfactory services through our platforms in a timely manner and at favorable price terms, we cannot assure you that we will be able to retain existing clients due to reasons out of our control, such as our clients’ personal financial reasons or the deterioration of the capital markets condition.

If we are unable to maintain or increase our client retention rates or generate new clients in a cost-effective manner, our business, financial condition and results of operations would likely be adversely affected. Historically, we incurred HK$164.7 million, HK$385.3 million and HK$1,392.1 million (US$178.5 million) in selling and marketing expenses, representing 15.5%, 11.6% and 19.6% of our total revenues in 2019, 2020 and 2021, respectively. Although we have spent significant financial resources on marketing expenses and plan to continue to do so, these efforts may not be cost-effective to attract new clients. We cannot assure you that we will be able to maintain or grow our client base in a cost-effective way.

We must stay abreast of the needs and preferences of our clients to serve their evolving trading needs as their investment demands change. If we fail to retain our existing clients by offering services that cater to their evolving investment and trading needs, we may not be able to maintain and continue to grow the trading volume facilitated by our platforms, and our business and results of operations may be adversely affected. In addition, if we are unable to maintain, enhance or develop the methods we use to retain clients, the costs of client retention will significantly increase, and our ability to retain clients may be harmed.

Similar to other brokerage and financial services providers, we cannot guarantee the profitability of the investment made by clients through our platforms. The profitability of our clients’ investment is directly affected by elements beyond our control, such as economic and political conditions, broad trends in business and finance, changes in volume of securities transactions, changes in the markets in which such transactions occur and changes in how such transactions are processed. While we do not provide securities investment consulting services to our users and clients, we provide a social community and information services to facilitate the provision of financial and market information. Although these materials and commentaries contain prominent disclaimers, our clients may seek to hold us responsible when they use such information to make trading decisions and suffer financial loss on their trades, or if their trades are not as profitable as they have expected. Furthermore, it is possible that some clients could solely rely on certain predictive statements made by other users on our platforms, ignoring our alert warnings that clients should make their own investment judgment and should not predict future performance based on historical records. As a result, the financial loss of our clients may affect our performance in terms of transaction volumes and revenues as clients decide to abort trading. In addition, some clients who have suffered substantial losses through our platforms may blame our platforms, seek to recover their damages from us or bring lawsuits against us.

19

Because our revenues and profitability depend largely on clients’ trading volume, they are prone to significant fluctuations and are difficult to predict. Declines in trading volumes generally result in lower revenues from transaction execution activities, which may affect our financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Our revenues and profitability depend in part on the level of trading activity of the securities of our clients, which are often affected by factors beyond our control, including economic and political conditions, broad trends in business and finance and changes in the markets in which such transactions occur. Weaknesses in the markets in which we operate, including economic slowdowns, have historically resulted in reduced trading volumes for us. Declines in trading volumes generally result in lower revenues from transaction execution activities. Lower levels of volatility generally have the same directional impact. Declines in market values of securities or other financial instruments can also result in illiquid markets, which can also result in lower revenues and profitability from transaction execution activities. Lower price levels of securities and other financial instruments, as well as compressed bid/ask spreads, which often follow lower pricing, can further result in reduced revenues and profitability. These factors can also increase the potential risk for losses on securities or other financial instruments held in inventory and failures of buyers and sellers to fulfill their obligations and settle their trades, as well as claims and litigation. Any of the foregoing factors could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Our business is also subject to general economic and political conditions, in particular the economic and political conditions in Hong Kong, the PRC, Singapore and the United States, such as macroeconomic and monetary policies, legislation and regulations affecting the financial and securities industries, upward and downward trends in the business and financial sectors, inflation, currency fluctuations, availability of short-term and long-term funding sources, cost of funding and the level and volatility of interest rates. For example, volatility and drops in stock market performance and uncertainties in macroeconomic conditions caused by global calamities such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic could negatively impact our revenues and profitability. See “—A sustained outbreak of the COVID-19 virus could have a material adverse impact on our business, operating results and financial condition.” As a result of these risks, our income and operating results may be subject to significant fluctuations.

Tensions in international economic relations, in particular those between the U.S. and China, may have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operation.

There have been rising tensions in international economic relations in recent periods, including those between the United States and China. For example, in 2018 and 2019, the United States imposed import tariffs on specified products imported from China, and China has responded by imposing retaliatory tariffs on goods exported from the United States. In August 2020, political tensions between the United States and China have escalated due to, among other things, trade disputes, the COVID-19 outbreak, sanctions imposed by the U.S. Department of Treasury on certain officials of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and the PRC central government and the executive orders issued by former U.S. President Donald J. Trump prohibiting certain transactions with ByteDance Ltd. and WeChat-related transactions with Tencent Holdings Ltd. and the respective subsidiaries of such companies. Although the above-mentioned executive orders had been subsequently withdrawn by the Biden Administration, rising trade, political and regulatory tension between the United States and China could reduce levels of trades, investments, technological exchanges and other economic activities between the two major economies, which would have a material adverse effect on global economic conditions and the stability of global financial markets. Any of these factors could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

20

On August 6, 2020, the former President of the United States issued an executive order prohibiting “any transactions that is related to WeChat by any person or with respect to any property, subject to the jurisdiction of the United States with Tencent Holdings Ltd., Shenzhen, China, or any subsidiary of that entity, as identified by the Secretary of Commerce under section 1(c) of this order.” The executive order had been subsequently withdrawn by the Biden Administration. As of February 28, 2022, entities directly or beneficially owned by Tencent Holdings Limited owned 21.0% of our outstanding shares and 27.6% of the total voting power of our outstanding shares, and we have certain business collaborations with Tencent. We also have business operations and hold relevant licenses in the United States. Given that our operations in the United States have limited revenue contribution, we are of the view that there has been no material impact of the tensions between the U.S. and China on our business operations and financial performance as of the date of this annual report. While we do not expect that our U.S. operations will be subject to the restrictions imposed by the executive order, we cannot assure you that there will not be rules or further executive orders prohibiting our business collaborations with Tencent. Upon the occurrence of such events, our business will be adversely impacted. In addition, any current and future actions or escalations by either the United States or China may cause global economic turmoil and potentially have a negative impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations, and we cannot provide any assurance as to whether such actions will occur or the form that they may take.

If we fail to protect our platforms or the information of our users and clients, whether due to cyber-attacks, computer viruses, physical or electronic break-in, breaches by third parties or other reasons, we may be subject to liabilities imposed by relevant laws and regulations, and our reputation and business may be materially and adversely affected.

Our computer system, the networks we use, the networks and online trading platforms of the exchanges and other third parties with whom we interact, are potentially vulnerable to physical or electronic computer break-ins, viruses and similar disruptive problems or security breaches. A party that is able to circumvent our security measures could misappropriate proprietary information or customer information, jeopardize the confidential nature of the information we transmit over the Internet and mobile network or cause interruptions in our operations. We or our service providers may be required to invest significant resources to protect against the threat of security breaches or to alleviate problems caused by any breaches.

In addition, we collect, store and process certain personal and other sensitive data from our users and clients, which makes us a potentially vulnerable target to cyber-attacks, computer viruses, physical or electronic break-ins or similar disruptions. While we have taken steps to protect the confidential information that we have access to, our security measures could be breached. Because the techniques used to sabotage or obtain unauthorized access to systems change frequently and generally are not recognized until they are launched against a target, we may not be able to anticipate these techniques or implement adequate preventative measures. Any accidental or intentional security breaches or other unauthorized access to our system could cause confidential user information to be stolen and used for criminal purposes. Security breaches or unauthorized access to confidential information could also expose us to liability related to the loss of the information, time-consuming and expensive litigation and negative publicity. We have not experienced any material cyber-security breaches or been subject to any material breaches of any of our cyber-security measures in the past.

In addition, leakages of confidential information may be caused by third-party service providers or business partners. If security measures are breached because of third-party action, employee error, malfeasance or otherwise, or if design flaws in our technology infrastructure are exposed and exploited, our relationships with users and clients could be severely damaged, we may become susceptible to future claims if our users and clients suffer damages, and could incur significant liability and our business and operations could be adversely affected. Furthermore, our corporate clients may utilize our technology to serve their own employees and customers. Any failure or perceived failure by us to prevent information security breaches or to comply with privacy policies or privacy-related legal obligations, or any compromise of security that results in the unauthorized release or transfer of personally identifiable information or other customer data, could cause our clients to lose trust in us and could expose us to legal claims and regulatory actions.

21

Our operations and services involve collection, processing, and storage of significant amounts of data concerning our users, clients, business partners and employees and may be subject to complex and evolving laws and regulations regarding privacy and data protection and cybersecurity. If we fail to comply with the relevant laws and regulations, our business, results of operations and financial condition may be adversely affected.

We are subject to a variety of laws, regulations and other legal and regulatory obligations related to the protection of personal data, privacy and information security in the regions where we do business, and there has been and may continue to be a significant increase in such laws and regulations that restrict or control the use of personal data. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulation—Overview of the Laws and Regulations Relating to Our Business and Operations in China—Regulations on Cybersecurity and Privacy.” In China, the Cybersecurity Law became effective in June 2017 and requires network operators to follow the principles of legitimacy in collecting and using personal information.

In addition, the Information Security Technology—Personal Information Security Specification, or the China Specification, came into force on October 1, 2020. Under the China Specification, after collecting the personal information, the controller of the personal information must immediately conduct the data de-sensitization, implement the technical and administrative measures to store separately the de-sensitized data and the data which may be used to recover the identity of the persons and make sure not to identify the persons in the subsequent process of processing the personal information data. In addition, the data controller must provide the purpose of collecting and using subject personal information, as well as the business functions of such purpose, and the China Specification requires the data controller to distinguish its core function from additional functions to ensure the data controller will only collect personal information as needed.

Similarly, Hong Kong, Singapore and the United States also have their respective data privacy legislation that regulates the collection, use, protection and handling of personal data. Under the relevant legislation, while the precise requirements may differ from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, in general, data users are required to comply with various data protection principles in relation to the requirement of lawful and fair collection of personal data, consent of data subjects, retention of personal data, use and disclosure of personal data, security of personal data, personal data policies and practices, and rights to access and correction of personal data.

On August 20, 2021, the SCNPC promulgated the Personal Information Protection Law of the PRC, or the Personal Information Protection Law, which integrates the scattered rules with respect to personal information rights and privacy protection. The Personal Information Protection Law, which came into effect on November 1, 2021, aims at protecting the personal information rights and interests, regulating the processing of personal information, ensuring the orderly and free flow of personal information in accordance with the law and promoting the reasonable use of personal information. The Personal Information Protection Law applies to the processing of personal information within China, as well as certain personal information processing activities conducted by entities outside China for natural persons within China, including those for the provision of products and services to natural persons within China or for the analysis and assessment of acts of natural persons within China. As a result, our overseas subsidiaries including Hong Kong subsidiary, Futu International Hong Kong, may become subject to relevant personal information protection laws of the PRC.

Personal information, as defined in the Personal Information Protection Law, refers to information related to identified or identifiable natural persons and is recorded by electronic or other means but excluding the anonymized information. The Personal Information Protection Law provides the obligations of a personal information processor and the circumstances under which a personal information processor could process personal information, which include but not limited to, where the consent of the individual concerned is obtained and where it is necessary for the conclusion or performance of a contract to which the individual is a contractual party. The Personal Information Protection Law specifically provides rules for processing sensitive personal information. Sensitive personal information refers to personal information that, once leaked or illegally used, could easily lead to the infringement of human dignity or harm to the personal or property safety of an individual, including biometric recognition, religious belief, specific identity, medical and health, financial account, personal whereabouts and other information of an individual, as well as any personal information of a minor under the age of 14. Only where there is a specific purpose and sufficient necessity, and under circumstances where strict protection measures are taken, may personal information processors process sensitive personal information. A personal information processor should inform the individual of the necessity of processing such sensitive personal information and the impact thereof on the individual’s rights and interests.

22

In addition, the Personal Information Protection Law imposes pre-approval and other requirements for any cross-border data transfer by PRC entities. Since the Personal Information Protection Law is new, there are uncertainties as to the interpretation and application of it, especially in relation to its applicability and requirements for our offshore subsidiaries when they engage in personal information processing activities for natural persons within China. While we do not believe the pre-approval requirements for any cross-border data transfer will apply to the way we currently collect information from persons within China, in the event we need to transfer certain data from our PRC entities to our offshore subsidiaries or if regulatory bodies deem our current data collection model as a cross-border data transfer, we will be subject to the relevant requirements. Furthermore, we may need to take certain additional measures in the future to be in compliance with the Personal Information Protection Law.

Regulatory requirements on cybersecurity and data privacy are constantly evolving and can be subject to varying interpretations or significant changes, resulting in uncertainties about the scope of our responsibilities in that regard. For example, the SCNPC promulgated the PRC Data Security Law, which took effect on September 1, 2021. The Data Security Law provides for a security review procedure for the data activities that may affect national security. In addition, the Personal Information Protection Law provides that critical information infrastructure operators or personal information processors whose processing of personal information reaches the threshold amount prescribed by the CAC, must store within the territory of the PRC the personal information collected or generated by them within the territory of the PRC. Unless otherwise a security assessment is not required as provided by law, administrative regulations or the national cyberspace authority, where it is necessary to provide such information to an overseas recipient, a security assessment organized by the CAC must have been passed.

On December 28, 2021, the CAC, the NDRC, the MIIT, and several other PRC governmental authorities jointly issued the Cybersecurity Review Measures, which became effective on February 15, 2022 and replaced the Measures for Cybersecurity Review published on April 13, 2020. Pursuant to Cybersecurity Review Measures, critical information infrastructure operators that purchase network products and services and network platform operators engaging in data processing activities that affect or may affect national security are subject to cybersecurity review under the Cybersecurity Review Measures. According to the Cybersecurity Review Measures, before purchasing any network products or services, a critical information infrastructure operator shall assess potential national security risks that may arise from the launch or use of such products or services and apply for a cybersecurity review with the cybersecurity review office of the CAC if national security will or may be affected. In addition, network platform operators who possess personal information of more than one million users and intend to be listed at a foreign stock exchange must be subject to the cybersecurity review.

Furthermore, the exact scope of “critical information infrastructure operators” (the “CIIO”) under the Cybersecurity Review Measures and the current regulatory regime also remains unclear. Pursuant to the Regulations on Protection of Security of Critical Information Infrastructure, or the CIIO Security Protection Regulations, which became effective on September 1, 2021, the competent governmental departments and the supervision and management departments of some key industries, or the Security Protection Departments, governing such key industries and areas serve as the departments in charge of the security protection of critical information infrastructure and the Security Protection Departments are responsible for identifying critical information infrastructure in their respective industries and areas, timely notify the identification results to the operators. In the event of the occurrence of any major cybersecurity incident or discovery of any major cybersecurity threat for the critical information infrastructure, the operator shall report to the protection authorities and the public security authorities as required. As the rules for identification of CIIO with respect to our presence in the PRC have not been formulated nor promulgated yet, and we have not received any notice from any relevant governmental authority that we are identified as CIIO, we do not believe we are classified as a CIIO as of the date of this annual report. However, the PRC government authorities may have wide discretion in the interpretation and enforcement of these laws; therefore, it is uncertain whether we would be deemed as a CIIO under PRC law in the future. In the event we are classified as a CIIO or otherwise become under investigation or review by the CAC, we may have to substantially change certain of our current practice and our operations may be materially and adversely affected.

23

In addition, the MIIT further issued the Administrative Measures on the Administration of Data Security in the Industry and Information Technology Areas (for Trial Implementation) (Draft for Comment), or the Draft Data Security Measures in the IIT Field, on February 10, 2022. The Draft Data Security Measures in the IIT Field stipulates that all businesses which handle industrial and telecoms data in China are required to categorize such information into “ordinary,” “important” and “core” and businesses processing “important” and “core” data shall comply with certain filing and reporting obligations. The Draft Data Security Measures in the IIT Field also notes that sharing “important” and “core” data to a foreign party requires a special review and approval process. We cannot predict the impact of the above draft measures, if any, at this stage, and we will closely monitor and assess any development in the rule-making process. If the Draft Data Security Measures in the IIT Field mandates the review process for data shared to a foreign party, we face uncertainties as to whether our data are classified as “important” or “core” data and to whether the data may be shared to Futu International Hong Kong. Since many of the PRC laws and regulations on cybersecurity and data privacy are constantly evolving, there are uncertainties as to the interpretation and application of these regulations and how these will be enforced by relevant regulatory authorities.

We cannot assure you that the measures we have taken or will take in the future will be effective or fully satisfy the relevant regulatory authorities’ requirements, and any failure or perceived failure by us to comply with such laws and regulations may result in governmental investigations, fines, removal of our app from the relevant application stores and/or other sanctions on us. As of the date of this annual report, we had not been involved in any investigations on cybersecurity review made by the CAC on such basis, and we had not received any inquiry, notice, warning, or sanctions in such respect.

The relevant regulatory authorities in China continue to monitor the websites and apps in relation to the protection of personal data, privacy and information security, and may impose additional requirements from time to time. The relevant regulatory authorities also release, from time to time, their monitoring results and require relevant enterprises listed in such notices to rectify their non-compliance. We have been and may also in the future be subject to the modification and rectification imposed by the relevant regulatory authorities, including those issued publicly. For example, in the past few years, we had received a few such rectification notices and completed the rectification work in satisfaction of the relevant notices and regulatory requirements. We have not received further comments from the regulatory authorities on our rectification measures, nor have we received any final clearance on these measures. There is no assurance that the regulatory authorities will deem our rectification measures to be sufficient, or that they will issue any final clearance to us.

There are uncertainties as to the interpretation and application of laws in the jurisdictions where we operate, which laws may be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent with our current policies and practices or require changes to the features of our system. If we are unable to address any data security and information protection concerns, any compromise of security that results unauthorized disclosure or transfer of personal data, or to comply with the then applicable laws and regulations, we may incur additional costs and liability and result in governmental enforcement actions, litigation, fines and penalties or adverse publicity and could cause our users and clients to lose trust in us, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects. We may also be subject to new laws, regulations or standards or new interpretations of existing laws, regulations or standards, including those in the areas of data security and data privacy, which could require us to incur additional costs and restrict our business operations.

Our business growth and results of operations may be affected by changes in global and regional macroeconomic conditions.

The strong growth of China’s offshore investment and wealth management markets in recent years has been mainly driven by the rapid expansion in personal investable assets attributable to the increased number of high net-worth individuals and affluent groups and their increasing demands for geographically diverse investment portfolios. However, slowdowns in the Chinese economy will affect the income growth of such individuals, who are the main investors in the investment and wealth management markets outside China, and add uncertainties to these markets.

24

In addition, uncertainties about China, Singapore, U.S. and global economic conditions and regulatory changes pose a risk as retail investors and businesses may postpone spending in response to credit constraint, rising unemployment rates, financial market volatility, government austerity programs, negative financial news, declines in income or asset values and/or other factors. These worldwide and regional economic conditions could affect and reduce investment behavior and appetites of retail investors and have a material adverse effect on the demand for our products and services. Demand also could differ materially from our expectations as a result of currency fluctuations. Other factors that could influence worldwide or regional demand include changes in fuel and other energy costs, conditions in the real estate and mortgage markets, unemployment, labor and healthcare costs, access to credit, consumer confidence and other macroeconomic factors. Furthermore, eruptions of regional tensions, such as the ongoing military conflict involving Ukraine and Russia, and the related sanctions against Russia have resulted in major economic shocks worldwide and substantial volatility across global financial markets. These and other economic factors could materially and adversely affect demand for our products and services. Additionally, continued turbulence in the international markets may adversely affect our ability to access the capital markets to meet liquidity needs.

A sustained outbreak of the COVID-19 virus could have a material adverse impact on our business, operating results and financial condition.

There has been a sustained outbreak of the COVID-19 virus globally. COVID-19 had a severe and negative impact on the global economy in 2020 and 2021. Since 2020, governments around the globe have taken measures to contain the spread of the COVID-19 virus, including quarantining individuals infected with or suspected of having COVID-19, prohibiting residents from free travel, encouraging employees of enterprises to work remotely from home and cancelling public activities, among others. The COVID-19 has also resulted in temporary closure of many corporate offices around the world.

In addition, as the outbreak continues to threaten global economies, it may continue to cause significant market volatility and declines in general economic activities. Even before the outbreak of COVID-19, the global macroeconomic environment was facing numerous challenges. There is considerable uncertainty over the long-term effects of the expansionary monetary and fiscal policies which had been adopted by the central banks and financial authorities of some of the world’s leading economies even before 2020. Unrest, terrorist threats and the potential for war in the Middle East and elsewhere may increase market volatility across the globe.

We have taken a series of measures in response to the outbreak to protect our employees, including, among others, temporary closure of some offices, remote working arrangements for our employees and travel restrictions or suspension. In general, while these measures reduced the efficiency of our operations, we were not significantly impacted in 2021 and have benefitted from an increase in funds flow and trading volume due to clients’ switching to online trading when physical, offline facilities were closed. We cannot predict whether this increase in business activity will continue after clients are once again able to visit physical facilities. The extent to which COVID-19 impacts our results of operations in 2022 will depend on the future developments of the pandemic, including new information concerning the availability of vaccines and the global severity of and actions taken to contain the pandemic, which are highly uncertain and unpredictable. In addition, our results of operations could be adversely affected to the extent that the pandemic harms the global economies in general.

Any potential impact on our results will depend on, to a large extent, future developments and new information that may emerge regarding the duration and severity of the COVID-19 and the actions taken by government authorities and other entities to contain the COVID-19 or treat its impact, almost all of which are beyond our control. While many of the restrictions on movement have been relaxed, there is great uncertainty as to the future progress of the disease globally. Before vaccines are made available to the general public, any relaxation of restrictions on economic and social life may lead to new cases which may lead to the re-imposition of restrictions. Given the general slowdown in global economic conditions, volatility in the capital markets as well as the general negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the brokerage and wealth management industry, we cannot assure that we can launch new products and services in time or that we can maintain the growth rate we have experienced. Because of the uncertainty surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic, the financial impact related to the pandemic of and response to the coronavirus cannot be accurately estimated at this time, and we cannot assure you that our financial condition and operating results for 2022 will not be adversely affected. For a more detailed description on the expected impact of COVID-19 on our business, see “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Impact of COVID-19 and Our Responses and Opportunities.”

25

We face risks related to natural disasters, health epidemics and other outbreaks, which could significantly disrupt our operations and adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operation.

In addition to the impact of COVID-19, our business could be adversely affected by the effects of Ebola virus disease, H1N1 flu, H7N9 flu, avian flu, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, or SARS, or other epidemics. Our business operations could be disrupted if any of our employees is suspected of having Ebola virus disease, H1N1 flu, H7N9 flu, avian flu, SARS, or other epidemics, since it could require our employees to be quarantined and/or our offices to be disinfected. In addition, our results of operations could be adversely affected to the extent that any of these epidemics harms the Chinese and global economy in general.

We are also vulnerable to natural disasters and other calamities. Fire, floods, typhoons, earthquakes, power loss, telecommunications failures, break-ins, war, riots, terrorist attacks or similar events may give rise to server interruptions, breakdowns, system failures, technology platform failures or internet failures, which could cause the loss or corruption of data or malfunctions of software or hardware as well as adversely affect our ability to provide products and services through our platforms.

In addition, our results of operations could be adversely affected to the extent that any health epidemic, natural disaster or other calamities harms the Chinese and global economies in general. We have operations in Shenzhen, Hong Kong, Singapore, the United States, and Australia and the storage location of our user data is dependent on the platform where users are based and the jurisdiction in which users are registered. Consequently, if any natural disasters, health epidemics or other public safety concerns were to affect Shenzhen, Hong Kong, Singapore or the United States, our operation may experience material disruptions, which may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our current level of commission and fee rates may decline in the future. Any material reduction in our commission or fee rates could reduce our profitability.

We derive a significant portion of our revenues from commissions and fees paid by our clients for trading securities through our platforms. In 2019, 2020 and 2021, our brokerage commission income and handling charge income amounted to HK$511.4 million, HK$1,990.1 million and HK$3,913.0 million (US$501.7 million), representing 48.2%, 60.1% and 55.0% of our total revenues during the same years, respectively. We may experience pressure on our commission or fee rates as a result of competition we face in the online brokerage service industry. Some of our competitors offer a broader range of services to a larger client base and enjoy higher trading volumes than we do. Consequently, our competitors may be able and willing to offer trading services at lower commission or fee rates than we currently offer or may be able to offer. For example, some brokers in Hong Kong and the United States offer zero commission fees or similar policies to attract retail securities investors. As a result of this pricing competition, we could lose both market share and revenues. We believe that any downward pressure on commission or fee rates would likely continue and intensify as we continue to develop our business and gain recognition in our markets. A decline in our commission or fee rates could lower our revenues, which would adversely affect our profitability. In addition, our competitors may offer other financial incentives such as rebates or discounts in order to induce trading in their systems rather than in ours. If our commission or fee rate decreases significantly, our operating and financial results may be materially and adversely affected.

Fluctuations in market interest rates may negatively affect our financial condition and results of operations.

We derive a part of our revenues from charging interests on margin balances in connection with our margin financing and securities lending businesses. In 2019, 2020 and 2021, our revenues from interest income derived from our margin financing and securities lending businesses amounted to HK$258.9 million, HK$571.8 million and HK$2,118.0 million (US$271.6 million), representing 24.4%, 17.3% and 29.8% of our total revenues during the same years, respectively. For the same years, our interest income derived from bank deposits were HK$187.2 million, HK$208.6 million and HK$197.4 million (US$25.3 million), representing 17.6%, 6.3% and 2.8% of our total revenues during the same years, respectively. The trend of the level of interest rates is an important factor affecting our earnings. A decline in interest rates may have a negative impact on our interest income and thus ultimately adversely impact our total revenues. While we generally derive higher interest income when there is an increase in market interest rates, a rise in interest rates may also cause our interest expenses to increase. If we are unable to effectively manage our interest rate risk, changes in interest rates could have a material adverse effect on our profitability.

26

Although our management believes that it has implemented effective management strategies to reduce the potential effects of changes in interest rates on our results of operations, any substantial, unexpected or prolonged change in market interest rates could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. Also, our interest rate risk modeling techniques and assumptions likely may not fully predict or capture the impact of actual interest rate changes on our balance sheet. For further discussion of how changes in interest rates could impact us, see “Item 11. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk—Interest Rate Risk” of this annual report.

We may not be able to develop our margin financing and securities lending business as expected and may be exposed to credit risks related to these businesses, primarily arising from loans and advances, and receivables. In addition, we need adequate funding at reasonable costs to successfully operate our margin financing business, and access to adequate funding at reasonable costs cannot be assured.

Our margin financing and securities lending businesses may not develop as expected if clients fail to perform contractual obligations or the value of collateral held to secure the obligations is inadequate. As of December 31, 2019, 2020 and 2021, our loans and advances were HK$4.2 billion, HK$18.8 billion and HK$29.6 billion (US$3.8 billion), respectively. As our margin financing business expands, we may be subject to greater credit risks.

We have adopted comprehensive internal policies and procedures designed to manage such risks. For example, once the margin value falls below the outstanding amount of the relevant loan extended as a result of a market downturn or adverse movement in the prices of the pledged securities, we will make a margin call requesting the client to deposit additional funds, sell securities or pledge additional securities to top up their margin value. If the client’s margin value still falls below the required standard, we will initiate our liquidation protection mechanism on a real-time basis to bring the client’s account into margin compliance. As we incurred losses from and experienced disputes arising out of margin financing historically, we cannot assure you that we will not be exposed to any credit risks associated with our margin financing and securities lending businesses, and we may continue to experience disputes with our clients after we make the margin calls. In particular, we may not always be able to fully recover the margin value through margin calls and our exposure to credit loss may be exacerbated during periods of high market volatility. In certain periods, the securities pledged by our clients may be concentrated on a limited number of securities which may result in a concentration of our credit exposures to such securities. In the event we need to liquidate a large amount of certain pledged securities, it may put a further downward pressure on the price of such securities and we may not be able to fully recover the margin value.

In addition, with regard to receivables there can be no assurance that all our counterparties will meet their payment obligations on time, in full or at all. As of December 31, 2019, 2020 and 2021, the balance of our receivables amounted to HK$1,794.3 million, HK$8.077.0 million and HK$10,447.8 million (US$1,339.5 million), respectively. If we fail to adequately manage our credit risks, they could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition. See “—Our risk management policies and procedures may not be fully effective in identifying or mitigating risk exposure in all market environments or against all types of risks.”

Moreover, the growth and success of our margin financing business depend on the availability of adequate funding to meet our client demand for loans through our platforms. We provided margin financing service and securities lending services for securities listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange and the major stock exchanges in the U.S. As of December 31, 2021, outstanding margin financing and securities lending balance was HK$30.3 billion (US$3.9 billion). We derive the funding for our margin financing business from a variety of sources, including funding secured from commercial banks, other licensed financial institutions and other parties as well as financing generated from our business operations. To the extent there is insufficient funding from institutional funding partners who are willing to accept the credit risk related to the collateral from our clients, the funds available for our margin financing business might be limited and our ability to provide margin financing services to our clients to address their demand for loans would be adversely impacted. In addition, as we strive to offer our clients competitively priced services and the online brokerage market is intensely competitive, we may attempt to further reduce our interest expenses from our funding partners. If we cannot continue to maintain our relationship with these funding partners and obtain adequate funding at reasonable costs, we may not be able to continue to offer or grow our margin financing business. To the extent that our funding partners find the risk-adjusted returns with us less attractive, we may not be able to obtain the requisite level of funding at reasonable costs, or at all. If we are unable to provide our clients with margin loans or fund the loans on a timely basis due to insufficient funding or less favorable pricing compared to those of our competitors, it would harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

27

The wealth management products that we offer involve various risks and failure to identify or fully appreciate such risks may negatively affect our reputation, client relationships, results of operations and financial conditions.

We offer our clients access to money market, fixed income, equity, balanced, private funds as well as bonds, catering to different investment targets and risk preferences of our clients. These products often have complex structures and involve various risks, including default risks, interest risks, liquidity risks, market risks, counterparty risks, fraud risks and other risks. In addition, we are subject to regulations in relation to wealth management products offered in different jurisdictions, and there is no assurance that our operation will be deemed as in full compliance with such regulations at all times.

Our success in offering our wealth management products and services depends, in part, on our ability to successfully identify the risks associated with such products and services, and failure to identify or fully appreciate such risks may negatively affect our reputation, client relationships, results of operations and financial conditions. Although we do not guarantee the principal or the return of the wealth management products available through our platforms and do not bear any liabilities for any loss to capital invested in the products, we must be cautious of the selection of the financial products we offer and must accurately describe the risks associated with those products for our clients. Although we enforce and implement strict risk management policies and procedures, such risk management policies and procedures may not be fully effective in mitigating the risk exposure for all of our clients in all market environments or covering all types of risks. If we fail to identify and fully appreciate the risks associated with the financial products we offer, or fail to disclose such risks to our clients, or if our clients suffer financial losses or other damages resulting from the financial products we offer, our reputation, client relationships, results of operations and financial conditions will be materially and adversely affected.

If we fail to respond in a timely and cost-effective manner to the needs of our users and clients or if our new service offerings do not achieve sufficient market acceptance, our business and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

Our future success will depend partially on our ability to develop and introduce new service offerings to respond to the evolving needs of our users and clients in a timely and cost-effective manner. We provide services in markets that are characterized by rapid technological change, evolving industry standards, frequent new service introductions, and increasing demand for higher levels of client experience. In recent years, we have expanded our service offerings for our users and clients from online brokerage services to margin financing services and further to other tools and functions, including the wealth management service we launched in August 2019, and we may continue to expand our new service offerings in the future. In addition, we also provide certain services to corporate clients. However, we have limited experience in new service