10-K 1 gbx-20220831.htm 10-K 10-K
http://fasb.org/us-gaap/2022#AccountsPayableAndAccruedLiabilitiesCurrentAndNoncurrenthttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2022#AccountsPayableAndAccruedLiabilitiesCurrentAndNoncurrenthttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2022#AccountingStandardsUpdate202006Memberhttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2022#CostOfRevenuehttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2022#AccountingStandardsUpdate201613Memberhttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2022#AccountsPayableAndAccruedLiabilitiesCurrentAndNoncurrenthttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2022#AccountingStandardsUpdate201613Memberhttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2022#AccountingStandardsUpdate201602Memberhttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2022#RevenueFromContractWithCustomerExcludingAssessedTaxhttp://www.gbrx.com/20220831#InterestAndForeignExchangeNethttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2022#RevenueFromContractWithCustomerExcludingAssessedTax0000923120http://fasb.org/us-gaap/2022#AccountsReceivableNetP1Yhttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2022#AccountingStandardsUpdate202006Memberhttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2022#AccountsPayableAndAccruedLiabilitiesCurrentAndNoncurrenthttp://www.gbrx.com/20220831#InterestAndForeignExchangeNethttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2022#AccountingStandardsUpdate202006Memberhttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2022#RevenueFromContractWithCustomerExcludingAssessedTaxhttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2022#AccountsPayableAndAccruedLiabilitiesCurrentAndNoncurrent2022-08-31http://fasb.org/us-gaap/2022#AccountingStandardsUpdate201602Memberhttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2022#AccountsPayableAndAccruedLiabilitiesCurrentAndNoncurrentFYhttp://www.gbrx.com/20220831#IntangibleAssetsNetAndOtherAssetsExcludingGoodwillhttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2022#AccountsReceivableNethttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2022#AccountsReceivableNethttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2022#AccountingStandardsUpdate201613Memberhttp://www.gbrx.com/20220831#IntangibleAssetsNetAndOtherAssetsExcludingGoodwillhttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2022#CostOfRevenuehttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2022#RevenueFromContractWithCustomerExcludingAssessedTaxhttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2022#RevenueFromContractWithCustomerExcludingAssessedTaxfalsehttp://www.gbrx.com/20220831#InterestAndForeignExchangeNethttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2022#AccountsPayableAndAccruedLiabilitiesCurrentAndNoncurrentone yearhttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2022#AccountsPayableAndAccruedLiabilitiesCurrentAndNoncurrenthttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2022#AccountsReceivableNethttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2022#AccountsPayableAndAccruedLiabilitiesCurrentAndNoncurrenthttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2022#AccountingStandardsUpdate202006Memberhttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2022#AccountsReceivableNethttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2022#AccountsPayableAndAccruedLiabilitiesCurrentAndNoncurrenthttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2022#AccountingStandardsUpdate201602Memberhttp://www.gbrx.com/20220831#InterestAndForeignExchangeNet0000923120gbx:RailcarComponentsMembergbx:AxisLlcMember2020-09-012021-08-310000923120us-gaap:LandAndLandImprovementsMember2021-08-310000923120us-gaap:NondesignatedMemberus-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMember2021-08-310000923120gbx:CarHireUtilizationArrangementsMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120us-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossCashFlowHedgeIncludingNoncontrollingInterestMember2022-08-310000923120us-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMemberus-gaap:ForeignExchangeForwardMembergbx:CostOfRevenueMember2020-09-012021-08-310000923120us-gaap:SecuredOvernightFinancingRateSofrOvernightIndexSwapRateMembergbx:TwoThousandTwentySixTermLoanMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120gbx:TwoThousandTwentySevenTermLoanMember2022-07-292022-07-290000923120us-gaap:LineOfCreditMembersrt:EuropeMember2021-08-310000923120gbx:EquipmentOnOperatingLeasesToOtherPartyMember2020-08-310000923120srt:MinimumMembergbx:LocationOneMember2017-01-062017-01-060000923120gbx:TwoPointTwoFiveConvertibleSeniorNotesDue2024Member2020-08-310000923120gbx:SofrAdjustmentRateMembergbx:GBXLeasingWarehouseFacilityMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120gbx:EquityExcludingContingentlyRedeemableNoncontrollingInterestMember2020-08-310000923120gbx:ManufacturingMemberus-gaap:IntersegmentEliminationMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120gbx:EquipmentOnOperatingLeasesToOtherPartyMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120us-gaap:EstimateOfFairValueFairValueDisclosureMember2021-08-310000923120gbx:ShareRepurchaseProgramTwoThousandAndFourteenMember2019-09-012020-08-310000923120gbx:SeniorSecuredCreditFacilityRevolvingLineOfCreditComponentTwoMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120us-gaap:ParentMember2021-08-310000923120us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMembersrt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMember2021-08-310000923120us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2020-08-3100009231202017-09-012018-08-310000923120us-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossCashFlowHedgeIncludingNoncontrollingInterestMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120gbx:TwoPointEightSevenFiveConvertibleSeniorNotesDue2028Member2021-08-310000923120gbx:GBXLeasingWarehouseFacilityMember2022-02-092022-02-090000923120us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMembergbx:UnallocatedIncludingCashMember2020-08-310000923120gbx:RailCarsMember2022-08-310000923120us-gaap:SalesMember2019-09-012020-08-310000923120gbx:LeasingAndManagementServicesMemberus-gaap:MaterialReconcilingItemsMember2019-09-012020-08-310000923120us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMembergbx:TwoPointTwoFiveConvertibleSeniorNotesDue2024Member2020-09-012021-08-310000923120srt:MinimumMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120us-gaap:ParentMember2019-08-310000923120us-gaap:LandAndLandImprovementsMember2022-08-310000923120gbx:ForeignMember2020-09-012021-08-3100009231202016-09-012017-08-310000923120us-gaap:InventoriesMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2022-08-310000923120gbx:GreenbrierMaxionMember2020-08-310000923120gbx:ShareRepurchaseProgramTwoThousandAndFourteenMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMembergbx:UnallocatedIncludingCashMember2022-08-310000923120us-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMemberus-gaap:InterestRateSwapMember2020-09-012021-08-310000923120us-gaap:MaterialReconcilingItemsMembergbx:MaintenanceServicesMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120gbx:RevenueOtherMember2022-08-310000923120gbx:EquityExcludingContingentlyRedeemableNoncontrollingInterestMember2019-08-310000923120gbx:TwoThousandTwentySixTermLoanMember2022-08-310000923120us-gaap:DesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentMemberus-gaap:InterestRateSwapMember2021-08-310000923120gbx:TwoPointTwoFiveConvertibleSeniorNotesDue2024Member2021-08-310000923120gbx:GreenbrierAstraRailMember2017-06-010000923120gbx:TwoPointEightSevenFiveConvertibleSeniorNotesDue2024Member2022-08-310000923120gbx:AccountsReceivableNetMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120us-gaap:AccumulatedForeignCurrencyAdjustmentIncludingPortionAttributableToNoncontrollingInterestMember2021-08-310000923120srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:InterestRateSwapMembergbx:DerivativesMaturingFromSeptemberTwoThousandTwentyThreeThroughJanuaryTwoThousandThirtyTwoMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120srt:MaximumMembergbx:LocationOneMember2017-01-062017-01-060000923120us-gaap:MachineryAndEquipmentMember2022-08-310000923120us-gaap:IntersegmentEliminationMembergbx:MaintenanceServicesMember2019-09-012020-08-310000923120us-gaap:InventoryValuationReserveMember2021-08-310000923120gbx:LeasingAndManagementServicesMemberus-gaap:MaterialReconcilingItemsMember2020-09-012021-08-310000923120us-gaap:RestrictedStockMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120gbx:UnvestedRestrictedStockGrantsMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2019-08-310000923120us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate202004Member2022-08-310000923120us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate202006Member2022-08-310000923120us-gaap:DebtInstrumentRedemptionPeriodThreeMembergbx:TwoPointEightSevenFiveConvertibleSeniorNotesDue2028Member2021-09-012022-08-310000923120us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2021-08-3100009231202020-09-012021-08-310000923120us-gaap:ParentMember2020-08-310000923120us-gaap:NoncontrollingInterestMember2020-08-310000923120gbx:ManufacturingMember2022-08-310000923120us-gaap:InventoriesMember2022-08-310000923120us-gaap:LineOfCreditMembercountry:MX2022-08-310000923120us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2019-08-310000923120us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMembergbx:MaintenanceServicesMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120gbx:ManufacturingMembersrt:EuropeMember2022-08-310000923120gbx:WiborMemberus-gaap:ForeignLineOfCreditMembersrt:MaximumMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120us-gaap:AccumulatedForeignCurrencyAdjustmentIncludingPortionAttributableToNoncontrollingInterestMember2022-08-310000923120gbx:LeasingAndManagementServicesMemberus-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMember2020-08-310000923120us-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossCashFlowHedgeIncludingNoncontrollingInterestMemberus-gaap:ReclassificationOutOfAccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMemberus-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMember2020-09-012021-08-310000923120us-gaap:ParentMembersrt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMember2019-08-310000923120us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2020-09-012021-08-310000923120us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120country:US2021-09-012022-08-310000923120gbx:GBXLeasingWarehouseFacilityMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120us-gaap:InventoriesMember2021-08-310000923120us-gaap:ForeignLineOfCreditMembersrt:MinimumMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMembergbx:MaintenanceServicesMember2020-09-012021-08-310000923120gbx:EquityExcludingContingentlyRedeemableNoncontrollingInterestMembergbx:TwoPointEightSevenFiveConvertibleSeniorNotesDue2028Member2020-09-012021-08-310000923120us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMember2022-08-310000923120gbx:InterestAndForeignExchangeMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120us-gaap:CorporateNonSegmentMember2019-09-012020-08-310000923120us-gaap:MachineryAndEquipmentMember2021-08-310000923120us-gaap:BuildingAndBuildingImprovementsMember2021-08-310000923120gbx:SeniorSecuredCreditFacilityRevolvingLineOfCreditComponentTwoMember2022-08-310000923120us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2020-09-012021-08-310000923120srt:MinimumMemberus-gaap:BuildingAndBuildingImprovementsMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120us-gaap:OtherCapitalizedPropertyPlantAndEquipmentMember2021-08-310000923120us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate201712Member2022-08-310000923120gbx:EuroInterbankOfferedRateMemberus-gaap:ForeignLineOfCreditMember2021-09-012022-08-3100009231202022-10-240000923120gbx:RedeemableNoncontrollingInterestMember2020-09-012021-08-310000923120us-gaap:ParentMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120gbx:LeasingAndManagementServicesMemberus-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMember2019-09-012020-08-310000923120us-gaap:DesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentMember2022-08-310000923120srt:EuropeMember2020-08-310000923120gbx:EquityExcludingContingentlyRedeemableNoncontrollingInterestMembersrt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMember2021-08-310000923120us-gaap:ParentMembergbx:TwoPointEightSevenFiveConvertibleSeniorNotesDue2028Member2020-09-012021-08-310000923120gbx:ConvertibleSeniorNotesFebruary2024Member2022-08-310000923120gbx:ManufacturingMemberus-gaap:IntersegmentEliminationMember2020-09-012021-08-310000923120us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMembersrt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMember2020-08-310000923120gbx:UnvestedRestrictedStockGrantsMember2020-09-012021-08-310000923120country:MX2022-08-310000923120us-gaap:ParentMembergbx:TwoPointTwoFiveConvertibleSeniorNotesDue2024Member2020-09-012021-08-310000923120us-gaap:LineOfCreditMembersrt:EuropeMember2022-08-310000923120us-gaap:PrimeRateMemberus-gaap:RevolvingCreditFacilityMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120gbx:TwoThousandTwentyOneStockIncentivePlanAndTwoThousandSeventeenAmendedAndRestatedStockIncentivePlanMembersrt:MaximumMember2021-01-060000923120gbx:EquipmentOnOperatingLeasesToOtherPartyMember2020-09-012021-08-310000923120gbx:LeasingAndManagementServicesMemberus-gaap:IntersegmentEliminationMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120srt:EuropeMember2022-08-310000923120gbx:CustomerAndSupplierRelationshipsMember2022-08-310000923120us-gaap:ForeignLineOfCreditMembergbx:WiborMembersrt:MinimumMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120us-gaap:MaterialReconcilingItemsMembergbx:MaintenanceServicesMember2020-09-012021-08-310000923120us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMembergbx:TwoPointEightSevenFiveConvertibleSeniorNotesDue2024Member2020-09-012021-08-310000923120gbx:ForeignMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120gbx:SofrAdjustmentRateMembergbx:TwoThousandTwentySixTermLoanMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMembergbx:ManufacturingMember2021-08-310000923120us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMembergbx:MaintenanceServicesMember2019-09-012020-08-310000923120gbx:ForeignMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120us-gaap:MaterialReconcilingItemsMembergbx:ManufacturingMember2020-09-012021-08-310000923120gbx:GrupoIndustrialMonclovaSAMember2022-08-310000923120gbx:RedeemableNoncontrollingInterestMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120us-gaap:CostOfSalesMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120gbx:GreenbrierMember2022-08-310000923120gbx:CustomerOneConcentrationRiskMemberus-gaap:SalesRevenueNetMemberus-gaap:CustomerConcentrationRiskMember2019-09-012020-08-310000923120us-gaap:InterestRateSwapMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120us-gaap:InventoryValuationReserveMember2020-09-012021-08-310000923120gbx:InterestAndForeignExchangeMember2020-09-012021-08-310000923120us-gaap:DesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentMemberus-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMember2022-08-310000923120gbx:ConversionsMembergbx:ManufacturingMember2022-08-310000923120us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2019-09-012020-08-310000923120gbx:AmstedmaxionCruzeiroMember2022-08-310000923120us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2021-08-310000923120gbx:EquityExcludingContingentlyRedeemableNoncontrollingInterestMembergbx:TwoPointTwoFiveConvertibleSeniorNotesDue2024Member2020-09-012021-08-310000923120gbx:ShareRepurchaseProgramTwoThousandAndFourteenMember2022-08-310000923120gbx:UnvestedRestrictedStockGrantsMember2021-08-310000923120us-gaap:NoncontrollingInterestMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120gbx:EquityExcludingContingentlyRedeemableNoncontrollingInterestMember2020-09-012021-08-310000923120us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate201912Member2022-08-310000923120us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMembersrt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMember2021-08-310000923120us-gaap:InventoryValuationReserveMember2022-08-310000923120us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMembergbx:MaintenanceServicesMember2021-08-310000923120us-gaap:CommonStockMember2019-09-012020-08-310000923120us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2022-08-310000923120us-gaap:CommonStockMember2019-08-310000923120us-gaap:CostOfSalesMember2020-09-012021-08-310000923120gbx:UnvestedRestrictedStockGrantsMember2019-09-012020-08-310000923120us-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossCashFlowHedgeIncludingNoncontrollingInterestMemberus-gaap:ReclassificationOutOfAccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2020-09-012021-08-310000923120gbx:LeasingAndManagementServicesMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120gbx:MaintenanceServicesMember2019-09-012020-08-310000923120us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMembergbx:UnallocatedIncludingCashMember2021-08-310000923120srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:MachineryAndEquipmentMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120gbx:LeasingAndManagementServicesMemberus-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMember2022-08-310000923120gbx:TwoThousandTwentySevenTermLoanMember2022-08-310000923120us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2021-08-310000923120us-gaap:MaterialReconcilingItemsMembergbx:MaintenanceServicesMember2019-09-012020-08-310000923120us-gaap:SalesMember2020-09-012021-08-310000923120us-gaap:IntersegmentEliminationMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120gbx:GBXLeasingWarehouseFacilityMembergbx:GbxlISeries20221ClassASecuredRailcarEquipmentNotesMember2022-02-0900009231202000-01-012016-12-310000923120us-gaap:ParentMembersrt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMember2020-08-310000923120us-gaap:CostOfSalesMember2019-09-012020-08-3100009231202019-09-012020-08-310000923120us-gaap:CommonStockMember2021-08-310000923120gbx:SofrAdjustmentRateMemberus-gaap:RevolvingCreditFacilityMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120us-gaap:ParentMembersrt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMember2021-08-310000923120us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120us-gaap:ForeignLineOfCreditMember2022-08-310000923120us-gaap:LineOfCreditMember2021-08-310000923120us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMembergbx:MaintenanceServicesMember2020-08-310000923120us-gaap:ConstructionInProgressMember2022-08-310000923120us-gaap:ConstructionInProgressMember2021-08-310000923120us-gaap:LondonInterbankOfferedRateLIBORMembersrt:MaximumMembergbx:SeniorSecuredCreditFacilityRevolvingLineOfCreditComponentOneMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120gbx:CarHireUtilizationArrangementsMember2019-09-012020-08-310000923120gbx:LeasingAndManagementServicesMemberus-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMember2021-08-310000923120gbx:ManufacturingMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2022-08-310000923120gbx:LeasingAndManagementServicesMemberus-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120us-gaap:CommonStockMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120us-gaap:ServiceMember2022-08-310000923120us-gaap:SalesRevenueNetMemberus-gaap:CustomerConcentrationRiskMembergbx:CustomerTwoConcentrationRiskMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate201602Member2022-08-310000923120gbx:LeasingAndManagementServicesMember2019-09-012020-08-310000923120gbx:TwoPointEightSevenFiveConvertibleSeniorNotesDue2024Member2021-08-310000923120us-gaap:BuildingAndBuildingImprovementsMember2022-08-310000923120gbx:CostOfSalesAndSellingGeneralAndAdministrativeExpensesMember2020-09-012021-08-310000923120us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2020-08-310000923120gbx:TwoPointEightSevenFiveConvertibleSeniorNotesDue2024Member2020-08-310000923120us-gaap:RevolvingCreditFacilityMembergbx:SecuredOvernightFinancingRateMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120us-gaap:InterestRateSwapMembergbx:DerivativesMaturingFromSeptemberTwoThousandTwentyThreeThroughJanuaryTwoThousandThirtyTwoMember2022-08-310000923120us-gaap:OtherCapitalizedPropertyPlantAndEquipmentMember2022-08-310000923120gbx:GBXLeasingWarehouseFacilityMembergbx:SecuredOvernightFinancingRateMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120us-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMemberus-gaap:ForeignExchangeForwardMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120gbx:EquityExcludingContingentlyRedeemableNoncontrollingInterestMember2022-08-310000923120gbx:LeasingAndManagementServicesMemberus-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMember2020-09-012021-08-310000923120us-gaap:DesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentMember2021-08-310000923120gbx:TwoPointTwoFiveConvertibleSeniorNotesDue2024Member2022-08-310000923120us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2022-08-310000923120us-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossCashFlowHedgeIncludingNoncontrollingInterestMember2021-08-310000923120gbx:AccountsReceivableNetMember2021-08-310000923120us-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate201613Membersrt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMember2020-09-010000923120us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2020-08-310000923120us-gaap:CorporateNonSegmentMember2020-09-012021-08-310000923120us-gaap:AccumulatedForeignCurrencyAdjustmentIncludingPortionAttributableToNoncontrollingInterestMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120us-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossCashFlowHedgeIncludingNoncontrollingInterestMemberus-gaap:ReclassificationOutOfAccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120gbx:SeniorSecuredCreditFacilityRevolvingLineOfCreditComponentFourMember2022-08-310000923120gbx:CustomerAndSupplierRelationshipsMember2021-08-310000923120us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2022-08-310000923120gbx:TwoPointEightSevenFiveConvertibleSeniorNotesDue2028Member2022-08-310000923120us-gaap:InventoryValuationReserveMember2019-09-012020-08-310000923120gbx:SeniorSecuredCreditFacilityRevolvingLineOfCreditComponentOneMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120gbx:EquipmentOnOperatingLeasesToOtherPartyMember2021-08-310000923120us-gaap:CustomerRelationshipsMembersrt:MaximumMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120gbx:CarHireUtilizationArrangementsMember2020-09-012021-08-310000923120gbx:JointVentureAgreementMember2019-09-012020-08-310000923120gbx:TwoThousandTwentyOneStockIncentivePlanAndTwoThousandSeventeenAmendedAndRestatedStockIncentivePlanMember2021-01-060000923120gbx:ManufacturingMember2021-08-310000923120us-gaap:RevolvingCreditFacilityMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120gbx:MaintenanceServicesMember2022-08-310000923120gbx:UnvestedRestrictedStockGrantsMember2022-08-310000923120country:US2022-08-310000923120gbx:EquipmentOnOperatingLeasesToOtherPartyMember2019-09-012020-08-310000923120us-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMemberus-gaap:ForeignExchangeForwardMemberus-gaap:SalesMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120us-gaap:MaterialReconcilingItemsMembergbx:ManufacturingMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120srt:EuropeMember2021-08-310000923120gbx:SofrAdjustmentRateMembergbx:TwoThousandTwentySevenTermLoanMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120gbx:TwoPointTwoFiveConvertibleSeniorNotesDue2024Member2021-08-310000923120gbx:GreenbrierRailcarFundingILLCMember2022-08-310000923120gbx:LeasingAndManagementServicesMember2022-08-310000923120gbx:TwoThousandTwentySevenTermLoanMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120us-gaap:ParentMember2019-09-012020-08-310000923120gbx:OtherAccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2022-08-310000923120us-gaap:LineOfCreditMembercountry:MX2021-08-310000923120us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMembersrt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMember2019-08-310000923120gbx:TwoPointEightSevenFiveConvertibleSeniorNotesDue2024Member2021-09-012022-08-310000923120srt:MinimumMemberus-gaap:MachineryAndEquipmentMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMembergbx:ManufacturingMember2020-09-012021-08-310000923120gbx:GreenbrierMaxionMembergbx:AmstedmaxionCruzeiroMember2022-08-310000923120us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2022-08-310000923120gbx:StateMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120us-gaap:IntersegmentEliminationMembergbx:MaintenanceServicesMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120us-gaap:ParentMembergbx:TwoPointEightSevenFiveConvertibleSeniorNotesDue2024Member2020-09-012021-08-310000923120srt:MaximumMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120us-gaap:MaterialReconcilingItemsMembergbx:ManufacturingMember2019-09-012020-08-310000923120gbx:ShareRepurchaseProgramTwoThousandAndFourteenMember2020-09-012021-08-310000923120us-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMemberus-gaap:ForeignExchangeForwardMembergbx:CostOfRevenueMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120gbx:TwoThousandTwentyFourConvertibleSeniorNotesMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120us-gaap:OtherCapitalizedPropertyPlantAndEquipmentMembersrt:MinimumMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120us-gaap:OtherCapitalizedPropertyPlantAndEquipmentMembersrt:MaximumMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2019-09-012020-08-310000923120gbx:SeniorSecuredCreditFacilityRevolvingLineOfCreditComponentFourMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120gbx:GreenbrierMaxionMember2022-08-310000923120us-gaap:InventoryValuationReserveMember2019-08-310000923120us-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMemberus-gaap:InterestRateSwapMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120us-gaap:CommonStockMember2020-08-310000923120us-gaap:NoncontrollingInterestMember2020-09-012021-08-310000923120us-gaap:InventoryValuationReserveMember2020-08-310000923120us-gaap:DesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentMemberus-gaap:InterestRateSwapMember2022-08-310000923120gbx:ForeignLineOfCreditTwoMember2022-08-310000923120us-gaap:SalesRevenueNetMemberus-gaap:CustomerConcentrationRiskMembergbx:CustomerTwoConcentrationRiskMember2019-09-012020-08-310000923120gbx:TwoPointEightSevenFiveConvertibleSeniorNotesDue2028Member2021-08-310000923120us-gaap:RestrictedStockMembersrt:MaximumMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120us-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossCashFlowHedgeIncludingNoncontrollingInterestMemberus-gaap:ReclassificationOutOfAccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMemberus-gaap:InterestRateSwapMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMembergbx:TwoPointEightSevenFiveConvertibleSeniorNotesDue2028Member2020-09-012021-08-310000923120gbx:TwoPointEightSevenFiveConvertibleSeniorNotesDue2024Member2021-08-310000923120country:US2019-09-012020-08-310000923120us-gaap:LineOfCreditMember2022-08-310000923120us-gaap:SalesRevenueNetMemberus-gaap:CustomerConcentrationRiskMembergbx:CustomerTwoConcentrationRiskMember2020-09-012021-08-310000923120gbx:GbxlISeries20221ClassBSecuredRailcarEquipmentNotesMembergbx:GBXLeasingWarehouseFacilityMember2022-02-092022-02-090000923120us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMembergbx:ManufacturingMember2020-08-310000923120srt:MinimumMemberus-gaap:InterestRateSwapMembergbx:DerivativesMaturingFromSeptemberTwoThousandTwentyThreeThroughJanuaryTwoThousandThirtyTwoMember2021-09-012022-08-3100009231202018-09-012019-08-310000923120us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2019-09-012020-08-310000923120gbx:RedeemableNoncontrollingInterestMember2020-08-310000923120gbx:GBXLeasingWarehouseFacilityMember2022-02-090000923120us-gaap:OtherIntangibleAssetsMember2022-08-310000923120us-gaap:CommonStockMember2022-08-310000923120gbx:OtherAccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2021-08-310000923120us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMembergbx:ManufacturingMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120gbx:AxisLlcMember2022-08-310000923120gbx:TwoThousandTwentySevenTermLoanMember2022-07-290000923120us-gaap:LondonInterbankOfferedRateLIBORMembergbx:SeniorSecuredCreditFacilityRevolvingLineOfCreditComponentTwoMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120us-gaap:CorporateNonSegmentMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120us-gaap:CarryingReportedAmountFairValueDisclosureMember2021-08-3100009231202019-08-310000923120country:US2021-08-310000923120gbx:RedeemableNoncontrollingInterestMember2019-08-310000923120country:MX2021-08-310000923120us-gaap:ParentMember2020-09-012021-08-310000923120gbx:GBXLeasingWarehouseFacilityMember2021-08-310000923120gbx:CustomerOneConcentrationRiskMemberus-gaap:SalesRevenueNetMemberus-gaap:CustomerConcentrationRiskMember2020-09-012021-08-310000923120gbx:RailcarComponentsMembergbx:AxisLlcMember2019-09-012020-08-310000923120us-gaap:DesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentMemberus-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMember2021-08-310000923120us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2019-08-310000923120us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2021-08-310000923120gbx:RedeemableNoncontrollingInterestMember2019-09-012020-08-310000923120us-gaap:InventoryValuationReserveMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120us-gaap:IntersegmentEliminationMember2019-09-012020-08-310000923120us-gaap:NoncontrollingInterestMember2022-08-310000923120gbx:RedeemableNoncontrollingInterestMember2022-08-310000923120gbx:EquityExcludingContingentlyRedeemableNoncontrollingInterestMembersrt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMember2019-08-310000923120gbx:SeniorSecuredCreditFacilityRevolvingLineOfCreditComponentThreeMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120gbx:MaintenanceServicesMember2020-09-012021-08-310000923120us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120gbx:GBXLeasingWarehouseFacilityMembergbx:GbxlISeries20221ClassASecuredRailcarEquipmentNotesMember2022-02-092022-02-090000923120us-gaap:RestrictedStockMembersrt:MinimumMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120gbx:CustomerOneConcentrationRiskMemberus-gaap:CustomerConcentrationRiskMemberus-gaap:AccountsReceivableMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120gbx:EquityExcludingContingentlyRedeemableNoncontrollingInterestMembergbx:TwoPointEightSevenFiveConvertibleSeniorNotesDue2024Member2020-09-012021-08-310000923120gbx:TwoPointEightSevenFiveConvertibleSeniorNotesDue2028Member2021-09-012022-08-310000923120us-gaap:SalesRevenueNetMembergbx:CustomerThreeConcentrationRiskMemberus-gaap:CustomerConcentrationRiskMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120gbx:ManufacturingMembergbx:RailcarsForSyndicationMember2022-08-310000923120gbx:AmstedmaxionCruzeiroMember2020-08-310000923120us-gaap:CarryingReportedAmountFairValueDisclosureMember2022-08-310000923120us-gaap:LondonInterbankOfferedRateLIBORMembergbx:SeniorSecuredCreditFacilityRevolvingLineOfCreditComponentFourMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120gbx:GBXLeasingWarehouseFacilityMember2022-08-310000923120gbx:TwoThousandTwentySixTermLoanMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120us-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMemberus-gaap:ForeignExchangeForwardMember2020-09-012021-08-310000923120us-gaap:SalesMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120gbx:ManufacturingMemberus-gaap:IntersegmentEliminationMember2019-09-012020-08-310000923120gbx:ManufacturingMembergbx:RailCarsMember2022-08-310000923120gbx:MaintenanceServicesMember2021-08-310000923120us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMembergbx:ManufacturingMember2022-08-310000923120us-gaap:PerformanceGuaranteeMember2022-08-310000923120us-gaap:RevolvingCreditFacilityMember2022-08-310000923120srt:NorthAmericaMemberus-gaap:LineOfCreditMember2021-08-310000923120gbx:ConvertibleSeniorNotesApril2028Member2022-08-310000923120gbx:CostOfSalesAndSellingGeneralAndAdministrativeExpensesMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120us-gaap:NoncontrollingInterestMember2021-08-310000923120srt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMemberus-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate202006Member2021-09-010000923120us-gaap:NoncontrollingInterestMember2019-09-012020-08-310000923120gbx:StateMember2022-08-310000923120srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:BuildingAndBuildingImprovementsMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120gbx:SeniorSecuredCreditFacilityRevolvingLineOfCreditComponentThreeMember2022-08-310000923120gbx:LocationOneMember2017-01-062017-01-060000923120gbx:AccountsReceivableNetMember2022-08-310000923120country:US2020-09-012021-08-310000923120gbx:EquityExcludingContingentlyRedeemableNoncontrollingInterestMembersrt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMember2020-08-310000923120country:US2020-08-310000923120gbx:CostOfSalesAndSellingGeneralAndAdministrativeExpensesMember2019-09-012020-08-310000923120country:MX2020-08-310000923120gbx:EquityExcludingContingentlyRedeemableNoncontrollingInterestMember2019-09-012020-08-3100009231202021-09-012022-08-3100009231202021-08-310000923120srt:NorthAmericaMembergbx:ManufacturingMember2022-08-310000923120gbx:LeasingWarehouseMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120us-gaap:NondesignatedMemberus-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMember2022-08-310000923120us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMembergbx:ManufacturingMember2019-09-012020-08-310000923120us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMembergbx:MaintenanceServicesMember2022-08-3100009231202022-02-280000923120srt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMemberus-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate201602Member2019-09-010000923120us-gaap:ParentMember2022-08-310000923120us-gaap:OtherIntangibleAssetsMember2021-08-310000923120us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2021-08-310000923120gbx:OtherTermLoanDueFebruaryTwoThousandTwentyThreeToFebruaryTwoThousandTwentySevenMember2022-08-310000923120gbx:ManufacturingMember2020-09-012021-08-310000923120gbx:EquipmentOnOperatingLeasesToOtherPartyMember2022-08-310000923120gbx:SeniorSecuredCreditFacilityRevolvingLineOfCreditComponentOneMember2022-08-310000923120us-gaap:EstimateOfFairValueFairValueDisclosureMember2022-08-310000923120us-gaap:NoncontrollingInterestMember2019-08-310000923120us-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossCashFlowHedgeIncludingNoncontrollingInterestMemberus-gaap:ReclassificationOutOfAccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMemberus-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120gbx:ManufacturingMembergbx:MarineMember2022-08-310000923120gbx:LeasingAndManagementServicesMemberus-gaap:IntersegmentEliminationMember2019-09-012020-08-310000923120us-gaap:CommonStockMember2020-09-012021-08-310000923120us-gaap:IntersegmentEliminationMembergbx:MaintenanceServicesMember2020-09-012021-08-310000923120us-gaap:LondonInterbankOfferedRateLIBORMembersrt:MinimumMembergbx:SeniorSecuredCreditFacilityRevolvingLineOfCreditComponentOneMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120gbx:MaintenanceServicesMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120gbx:RayvagMember2018-08-0200009231202020-08-310000923120us-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMember2020-09-012021-08-310000923120gbx:CustomerOneConcentrationRiskMemberus-gaap:SalesRevenueNetMemberus-gaap:CustomerConcentrationRiskMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120gbx:ManufacturingMember2019-09-012020-08-310000923120gbx:TwoThousandTwentySevenTermLoanMemberus-gaap:SecuredOvernightFinancingRateSofrOvernightIndexSwapRateMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120gbx:RedeemableNoncontrollingInterestMember2021-08-310000923120us-gaap:IntersegmentEliminationMember2020-09-012021-08-310000923120gbx:ForeignMember2019-09-012020-08-310000923120us-gaap:LineOfCreditMembersrt:NorthAmericaMember2022-08-3100009231202022-08-310000923120gbx:LeasingAndManagementServicesMember2020-09-012021-08-310000923120gbx:EquityExcludingContingentlyRedeemableNoncontrollingInterestMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120us-gaap:LondonInterbankOfferedRateLIBORMembergbx:SeniorSecuredCreditFacilityRevolvingLineOfCreditComponentThreeMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120gbx:GbxlISeries20221ClassBSecuredRailcarEquipmentNotesMembergbx:GBXLeasingWarehouseFacilityMember2022-02-090000923120us-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossCashFlowHedgeIncludingNoncontrollingInterestMemberus-gaap:ReclassificationOutOfAccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMemberus-gaap:InterestRateSwapMember2020-09-012021-08-310000923120gbx:LeasingAndManagementServicesMemberus-gaap:MaterialReconcilingItemsMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120gbx:EquityExcludingContingentlyRedeemableNoncontrollingInterestMember2021-08-310000923120gbx:RailcarComponentsMembergbx:AxisLlcMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120gbx:InterestAndForeignExchangeMember2019-09-012020-08-310000923120us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2021-08-310000923120gbx:LeasingAndManagementServicesMemberus-gaap:IntersegmentEliminationMember2020-09-012021-08-310000923120us-gaap:ForeignLineOfCreditMembersrt:MaximumMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120gbx:OtherAccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2021-09-012022-08-310000923120us-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMemberus-gaap:ForeignExchangeForwardMemberus-gaap:SalesMember2020-09-012021-08-310000923120gbx:ForeignMember2022-08-310000923120us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2020-09-012021-08-31xbrli:puregbx:Facilityxbrli:sharesgbx:Segmentiso4217:USDxbrli:sharesgbx:Customeriso4217:USDgbx:Vehicle

 

UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549-1004

FORM 10-K

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE

SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended August 31, 2022

or

Transition Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934

for the transition period from ___________ to ___________

Commission File No. 1-13146

THE GREENBRIER COMPANIES, INC.

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Oregon

(State of Incorporation)

 

93-0816972

(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

 

One Centerpointe Drive, Suite 200, Lake Oswego, OR 97035

(Address of principal executive offices)

(503) 684-7000

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of Each Class

Common Stock without par value

Trading Symbol(s)

GBX

Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered

New York Stock Exchange

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

 

None

 

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes No

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15 (d) of the Act. Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

Smaller reporting company

Emerging growth company

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes No

Aggregate market value of the registrant’s Common Stock held by non-affiliates as of February 28, 2022 (based on the closing price of such shares on such date) was $1,398,339,491.

The number of shares outstanding of the registrant’s Common Stock on October 24, 2022 was 32,782,692 without par value.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Certain portions of the registrant’s definitive Proxy Statement prepared in connection with the Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held on January 6, 2023 are incorporated by reference into Parts II and III of this Report.

 

Auditor Firm Id:

185

Auditor Name:

KPMG LLP

Auditor Location:

Portland, Oregon

 


 

THE GREENBRIER COMPANIES, INC.

FORM 10-K

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

 

 

 

PAGE

 

 

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

3

 

 

 

 

 

PART I

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 1.

 

BUSINESS

 

4

Item 1A.

 

RISK FACTORS

 

13

Item 1B.

 

UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

 

28

Item 2.

 

PROPERTIES

 

28

Item 3.

 

LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

 

28

Item 4.

 

MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

 

28

 

 

INFORMATION ABOUT OUR EXECUTIVE OFFICERS

 

29

 

 

 

 

 

PART II

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 5.

 

MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

 

30

Item 6.

 

RESERVED

 

31

Item 7.

 

MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

32

Item 7A.

 

QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

 

47

Item 8.

 

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA

 

50

Item 9.

 

CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE

 

85

Item 9A.

 

CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

 

85

Item 9B.

 

OTHER INFORMATION

 

89

 

 

 

 

 

PART III

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 10.

 

DIRECTORS AND EXECUTIVE OFFICERS AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

 

89

Item 11.

 

EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION

 

89

Item 12.

 

SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT AND RELATED STOCKHOLDERS MATTERS

 

89

Item 13.

 

CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED TRANSACTIONS AND DIRECTOR INDEPENDENCE

 

89

Item 14.

 

PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTING FEES AND SERVICES

 

89

 

 

 

 

 

PART IV

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 15.

 

EXHIBITS AND FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES

 

90

Item 16.

 

FORM 10-K SUMMARY

 

95

 

 

SIGNATURES

 

96

 

2


 

Forward-Looking Statements

This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other important factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements.
 

Many of these risks and other factors are beyond our ability to control or predict. Words such as “allows,” “anticipates,” “believes,” “committed,” “can,” “continue,” “could,” “designed,” “ensure,” “estimates,” “expects,” “foreseeable”, “future,” “goal,” “intends,” “likely,” “may,” “periodically,” “plans,” “potential,” “provides,” “results,” “seeks,” “should,” “strategy,” “will,” “would,” and similar expressions identify forward-looking statements. In addition, statements regarding expectations of cost savings or our ability to navigate current challenges, or any other statements that explicitly or implicitly draw trends in our performance or the markets in which we operate, or characterize future events or circumstances, are forward-looking statements.

These risks and uncertainties, as well as other risks and uncertainties that could cause our actual results to differ significantly from management’s expectations, are described in greater detail in Item 1A, “Risk Factors,” Item 1, “Business – Backlog,” Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” and Item 9A. “Controls and Procedures – Inherent Limitations on Effectiveness of Controls.” Forward-looking statements are based on currently available operating, financial and market information and are inherently uncertain. Investors should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date they are made and are not guarantees of future performance. Actual future results and trends may differ materially from such forward-looking statements. Except as otherwise required by law, we do not assume any obligation to update any forward-looking statements.

All references to years refer to the fiscal years ended August 31st unless otherwise noted.
 

The Greenbrier Companies is a registered trademark of The Greenbrier Companies, Inc. Gunderson, Auto-Max II, and Multi-Max are trademarks of Gunderson LLC.
 

3


 

PART I

Item 1. BUSINESS

Introduction

We are one of the leading designers, manufacturers and marketers of railroad freight car equipment in North America, Europe, South America and other geographies as opportunities arise. We also are a manufacturer and marketer of marine barges in North America. We also offer railcar management, regulatory compliance services and leasing services to railcar owners or other users of railcars in North America. We are a leading provider of freight railcar wheel services, parts and maintenance in North America. Through unconsolidated affiliates we produce rail and industrial components and have an ownership stake in a railcar manufacturer in Brazil.

We operate an integrated business model in North America that combines freight car manufacturing, wheel services, railcar maintenance, component parts, leasing and fleet management services. Our model is designed to provide customers with a comprehensive set of freight car solutions by utilizing our substantial engineering, mechanical and technical capabilities as well as our experienced commercial personnel. Our integrated model allows us to develop cross-selling opportunities and synergies among our various business segments thereby enhancing our margins. We believe our integrated model is difficult to duplicate and provides greater value for our customers and investors.

We operate in three reportable segments: Manufacturing; Maintenance Services; and Leasing & Management Services. Financial information about our business segments as well as geographic information is located in Note 18 - Segment Information to our Consolidated Financial Statements.

The Greenbrier Companies, Inc., is incorporated in Oregon. Our principal executive offices are located at One Centerpointe Drive, Suite 200, Lake Oswego, Oregon 97035. Our telephone number is (503) 684-7000 and our Internet website is located at http://www.gbrx.com.

Products and Services

Manufacturing Segment

North American Railcar Manufacturing - We manufacture most freight railcar types currently in use in the North American market (other than coal cars) and we continue to expand our product features and functionality. We have demonstrated an ability to capture high market shares in many of the car types we produce. The primary products we produce for the North American market are:

Conventional Railcars - We produce a variety of covered hopper cars for cement, fertilizer, grain, plastic pellets and grain mill products as well as gondolas and open top hoppers for steel, scrap and aggregates. We also produce a wide range of boxcars, which are used in the transport of paper products, perishables and general merchandise. Our flat car products include center partition cars for the forest products industry and heavy-duty flat cars.

Tank Cars - We produce a variety of tank cars, including general purpose, pressurized, and stainless steel. These are designed for the transportation of hazardous and non-hazardous commodities such as petroleum products, ethanol, liquefied petroleum gas, petrochemicals, caustic soda, chlorine, fertilizers, vegetable oils, bio-diesel and various other products.

Intermodal Railcars - We manufacture a comprehensive portfolio of intermodal railcars. Our Maxi-Stack I and Maxi-Stack III are the most popular double-stack railcar well cars. The double-stack railcar is designed to transport containers stacked two-high on a single platform and provides significant operating and capital savings over other types of intermodal railcars.

Automotive - We manufacture a full line of railcar equipment specifically designed for the transportation of light vehicles. Our automotive offerings include the Auto-Max II, Multi-Max and Multi-Max Plus products, which are designed to carry automobiles, CUVs, SUVs, trucks and high sided vans efficiently.

4


 

Sustainable Conversions - We are a leading designer and manufacturer of Sustainable Conversions, which repurposes existing railcars into new equipment service. Our sustainable conversions are an efficient, environmentally sustainable and cost-savings option for railcar owners looking to diversify and optimize their fleets. We rebody or stretch covered hoppers into larger cubic service, re-rack or perform deck conversion on auto racks, and perform tank car retrofits to help customers manage pending regulations.

European Railcar Manufacturing - Our European manufacturing operations produce a variety of tank, automotive and conventional freight railcar types, including a comprehensive line of pressurized tank cars for liquid petroleum, LPG gas, chlorine and ammonia and non-pressurized tank cars for light oil, chemicals and other products. In addition, our European manufacturing operations produce flat cars, cars for coil steel and metals, gondolas, intermodal cars, sliding wall cars, hoppers and automobile transport cars.

Marine Vessel Fabrication - We manufacture a broad range of Jones Act ocean-going and river barges for transporting merchandise between ports within the United States. Our primary focus is on the larger ocean-going vessels although we have the capability to compete in other marine-related products. Our Portland, Oregon manufacturing facility, located on a deep-water port on the Willamette River, includes marine vessel fabrication capabilities.

Maintenance Services Segment

Wheel Services - We operate a wheel services network in North America. Our wheel shops provide complete wheel services including reconditioning of wheels and axles in addition to new axle machining, finishing and downsizing.

Railcar Maintenance - We operate a railcar maintenance network in North America including shops certified by the Association of American Railroads (AAR). Our shops perform routine railcar maintenance for third parties and for our leased and managed railcar fleets.

Component Parts Manufacturing - Our component parts facilities recondition and manufacture railcar cushioning units, couplers, yokes, side frames, bolsters and various other parts. We also produce roofs, doors and associated parts for boxcars.

Leasing & Management Services Segment

Leasing - We operate a railcar leasing business in North America through a number of subsidiaries. Our relationships with financial institutions and operating lessors combined with our ownership of a lease fleet of approximately 12,200 railcars enables us to offer flexible financing programs to our customers including operating leases of varied intervals and “per diem” leases. The percentage of owned units on lease was 98.4% at August 31, 2022 with an average remaining lease term of 3.7 years and an average age of 9 years. We also originate leases of railcars, which are either newly built or refurbished by our operations, or bought in the secondary market. These may be held in the fleet or sold with attached leases to financial institutions or other investors, typically with multi-year management services agreements. As an equipment owner and an originator of leases, we participate principally in the operating lease segment of the market. Assets from our owned lease fleet are periodically sold to accommodate customer demand, manage risk and maintain liquidity.

In February 2022, GBX Leasing, one of our subsidiaries, completed its inaugural offering of railcar asset-backed securities (“ABS”).

Management Services - Our North American management services business offers a broad array of software and services that include railcar maintenance management, railcar accounting services (such as billing and revenue collection, car hire receivable and payable administration), total fleet management (including railcar tracking using proprietary software), fleet logistics, administration and railcar re-marketing. We currently provide management services for a fleet of approximately 408,000 railcars for railroads, shippers, carriers, institutional investors and other leasing and transportation companies in North America. In addition, our Regulatory Services Group offers regulatory, engineering, process consulting and advocacy support to the tank car and petrochemical rail shipper community, among other services. Our management services business is responsible for a majority of the maintenance and administration of our fleet of railcars.

5


 

Unconsolidated Affiliates

U.S. Axle Manufacturing - We have a 41.9% interest in Axis, LLC (Axis), a joint venture that manufactures and sells axles to its joint venture partners for use and distribution both domestically and internationally.

 

Brazilian Railcar Manufacturing - We have a 60% ownership interest in Greenbrier Maxion-Equipamentos e Serviços Ferroviários S.A. (Greenbrier-Maxion), the leading railcar manufacturer in South America, located near São Paulo, Brazil. Greenbrier-Maxion also assembles bogies and offers a range of aftermarket services including railcar overhaul and refurbishment.

Brazilian Castings and Component Parts Manufacturing - We have a 29.5% ownership interest in Amsted-Maxion Fundição e Equipamentos Ferroviários S.A. (Amsted-Maxion) based in Cruzeiro, Brazil. Amsted-Maxion is a manufacturer of various castings and components for railcars and other heavy industrial equipment. Amsted-Maxion has a 40% ownership position in Greenbrier-Maxion and is integrated with the operations of our Brazilian railcar manufacturer.

Other Unconsolidated Affiliates - We have other unconsolidated affiliates which primarily include joint ventures that produce rail and industrial components.

Backlog

The following table depicts our reported railcar backlog subject to third party sale or lease in number of railcars and estimated future revenue value attributable to such backlog, at the dates shown:

 

 

 

August 31,

 

 

 

2022

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

New railcar backlog units (1)

 

 

29,500

 

 

 

26,600

 

 

 

24,600

 

Estimated future revenue value (in millions) (2)

 

$

3,480

 

 

$

2,810

 

 

$

2,420

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(1)
Each platform of a railcar is treated as a separate unit.
(2)
Subject to change based on finalization of product mix.

Approximately 6% of backlog units and estimated value as of August 31, 2022 was associated with our Brazilian manufacturing operation which are accounted for under the equity method.

Based on current production schedules, approximately 22,100 units in the August 31, 2022 backlog are scheduled for delivery in 2023. The balance of the production is scheduled for delivery in 2024.

Backlog units for lease may be syndicated to third parties or held in our own fleet depending on a variety of factors. Multi-year supply agreements are a part of rail industry practice. A portion of the orders included in backlog reflects an assumed product mix. Under terms of the orders, the exact mix and pricing will be determined in the future, which may impact backlog. Marine backlog was $31 million and $70 million as of August 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively.

Our backlog of railcar units and marine vessels is not necessarily indicative of future results of operations. Certain orders in backlog are subject to customary documentation and completion of terms. Customers may attempt to cancel or modify orders in backlog. Historically, little variation has been experienced between the quantity ordered and the quantity actually delivered, though the timing of deliveries may be modified from time to time.

Customers

Customers across our segments include railroads, leasing companies, financial institutions, shippers, carriers and transportation companies. We have strong, long-term relationships with many of our customers. We believe that our customers’ preference for high quality products, our technological leadership in developing innovative products, our focus on being highly responsive to our customer’s needs and competitive pricing of our railcars have helped us maintain our long-standing relationships with our customers.

 

6


 

In 2022, revenue from three customers accounted for approximately 39% of total revenue which represented 44% of Manufacturing revenue, 17% of Maintenance Services revenue, and 2% of Leasing & Management Services revenue. No other customers accounted for greater than 10% of total revenue.

 

Raw Materials and Components

Our products require a supply of materials including steel and specialty components such as brakes, wheels and axles. Specialty components purchased from third parties represent a significant amount of the cost of most freight cars. Our customers often specify particular components and suppliers of such components. Although the number of alternative suppliers of certain specialty components has declined in recent years, there are at least two available suppliers for substantially all of our components.

Certain materials and components are periodically in short supply which could potentially impact production at our facilities. We experienced an increase in the price and shortages of certain materials and components during 2022. In an effort to mitigate shortages and reduce supply chain costs, we have entered into strategic alliances and multi-year arrangements for the global sourcing of certain materials and components, we operate a replacement parts business which aids in our vertical integration and we continue to pursue strategic opportunities to protect and enhance our supply chain. We periodically make advance purchases to avoid possible shortages of material due to capacity limitations of component suppliers, shipping and transportation delays and possible price increases.

In 2022, the top ten suppliers for all inventory purchases accounted for approximately 49% of total purchases. The top two suppliers accounted for 16% and 10% of total inventory purchases in 2022. No other suppliers accounted for more than 10% of total inventory purchases. We believe we maintain good relationships with our suppliers.

Competition

We are currently one of the two largest railcar manufacturers competing in North America. There are also a handful of specialty builders who focus on niche markets. We believe that in Europe we are in the top tier of railcar manufacturers. Through our 60% ownership interest in Greenbrier-Maxion, we are the leading railcar manufacturer in South America. The railcar manufacturing industry is becoming more global as customers are purchasing railcars from manufacturers outside of their geographic region. In all railcar markets that we serve, we compete on the basis of quality, price, reliability of delivery, innovative product design, reputation and customer service.

Competition in the marine industry is dependent on the type of product produced, customer type, including governmental or commercial, proximity to delivery point, and manufacturing capacity. There are few competitors that focus on the commercial large barge market. We compete on the basis of price, quality, reliability of delivery, launching capacity and experience with certain product types.

Competition in the Maintenance Services businesses is dependent on the type of product or service provided. There are many competitors in these businesses. We compete primarily on the basis of quality, timeliness of delivery, customer service, location of shops, price and engineering expertise.

There are at least twenty institutions in North America that provide railcar leasing and/or services similar to ours. Many of them are also customers that buy new railcars from our manufacturing facilities and used railcars from our lease fleet, as well as utilize our management and maintenance services. We compete primarily on the basis of quality, price, reliability of delivery, reputation, service offerings and deal structuring and syndication ability. We believe our strong servicing capability and our ability to sell railcars with a lease attached (syndicate railcars), integrated with our manufacturing, maintenance shops, railcar specialization and expertise in particular lease structures provide a strong competitive advantage.

 

7


 

Marketing and Product Development

In North America, we leverage an integrated marketing and sales effort to coordinate relationships in our various segments. We provide our customers with a diverse range of equipment and financing alternatives designed to satisfy each customer’s unique needs, whether the customer is buying new equipment, sustainable conversion of existing equipment or seeking to outsource the maintenance or management of equipment. These custom programs may involve a combination of railcar products, leasing, sustainable conversions and remarketing services. In addition, we provide customized maintenance management, equipment management, accounting and compliance services and proprietary software solutions.

 

In Europe and South America, we maintain relationships with customers through market-specific sales personnel. Our engineering and technical staff works closely with their customer counterparts on the design and certification of railcars. Many European railroads are state-owned and are subject to European Union (EU) regulations covering the tender of government contracts.

Through our research and customer relationships, insights are derived into the potential need for new products and services. Marketing and engineering personnel collaborate to evaluate opportunities and develop new products and services that exceed customers’ expectations. Research and development costs incurred during the years ended August 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020 were $5.4 million, $6.3 million and $5.8 million, respectively.

Human Capital

With the oversight of the Board, our CEO and senior leadership are thoughtfully invested in our global workforce. We regularly review our priorities and progress in each of the areas highlighted below.

Safety – Employee safety is a top priority and we remain dedicated to continuously improving our safety performance over time. Our safety performance is monitored regularly by our CEO, senior leadership and our Board. We are proud of the sustained improvement in our safety statistics even while we have experienced significant increases in headcount. In 2022, our Total Injury Rate improved more than 10% from the end of 2021.

Talent and Diversity - We recognize that a talented and diverse workforce is critical to our success. This year we continued our focus on attracting talent, while simultaneously retaining and developing our people. During the year, we developed an onboarding framework that is focused on welcoming a diverse workforce by establishing a consistent and inclusive process.

To ensure we remain engaged and understand our employees’ priorities, during 2022 we launched an employee engagement survey. We gained important insights to help our company improve and have developed goals to continue building on our core value of Respect for People.

During 2022, we continued to develop upon our IDEAL (Inclusion, Diversity, Equity, Access and Leadership) commitment by creating six Employee Resource Groups (ERGs). The ERGs are created by employees and offer a space for employees to facilitate development, cultural connection, diversity and understanding within the Greenbrier workforce.

Our commitment to investing in our people includes enhanced training and development pathways. We continue to offer learning and growth opportunities at all levels, including on-the-job learning, competency-based training, education assistance, tuition reimbursement and leadership development which promote workplace engagement and pathways to grow meaningful, long-term careers.

Compensation and Benefits - We are facing an unusually competitive compensation environment which could impact our ability to attract and retain talent. To remain competitive globally, we regularly evaluate our compensation programs. This includes reviewing base pay levels for equity both internally and externally and assessing the effectiveness of our short and long-term incentive programs. In addition, we strive to provide competitive health and wellness programs to our employees.

8


 

Community Involvement - We believe the best way to build strong communities is by thoughtfully selecting programs that are consistent with our core values and that bring prosperity and well-being to the areas we operate. In 2022 we committed more than $1.5 million in support to the communities where we operate. This included a special contribution to the Grupo Industrial Monclova Pape Foundation to commemorate our 16 years of partnership in the community. The foundation serves the community in Monclova, Coahuila, Mexico through construction of schools, funding a children’s hospital, providing scholarships to students and sponsoring a local engineering school.

The items above support our overall emphasis on attracting a diverse talent base and fostering an inclusive culture for our global workforce.

Our Environmental, Social & Governance Report (ESG) provides additional information regarding our ESG goals and initiatives. It can be found on our website. Information contained on or accessible through our website is not incorporated into, and does not constitute a part of, this filing.

The following table summarizes the approximate number of employees by segment as of August 31, 2022 at our consolidated entities:

 

 

 

Number of Employees

 

Manufacturing

 

 

13,500

 

Maintenance Services

 

 

600

 

Leasing & Management Services (Includes Corporate)

 

 

300

 

Total Employees

 

 

14,400

 

 

 

 

 

 

In Manufacturing, approximately 4,000 employees are represented by unions, primarily in Mexico and Europe. We believe we have good union relations. At our Maintenance Services locations, approximately 40 employees are represented by a union.

Patents and Trademarks

We have a proactive program aimed at protecting our intellectual property and the results from our research and development. We have obtained a number of U.S. and non-U.S. patents of varying duration, and pending patent applications, registered trademarks, copyrights and trade names. We believe that manufacturing expertise, the improvement of existing technology and the development of new products are at least as important as patent protection in establishing and maintaining a competitive advantage in our market.

Environmental Matters

We are subject to national, state and local environmental laws and regulations concerning, among other matters, air emissions, wastewater discharge, solid and hazardous waste disposal and employee health and safety. Prior to acquiring facilities, we conduct investigations to evaluate the environmental condition of subject properties and may negotiate contractual terms for allocation of environmental exposure arising from prior uses. We operate our facilities in a manner designed to maintain compliance with applicable environmental laws and regulations. Environmental studies have been conducted on certain of our owned and leased properties that indicate additional investigation and some remediation on certain properties may be necessary.

9


 

Portland Harbor Superfund Site

Our Portland, Oregon manufacturing facility (the Portland Property) is located adjacent to the Willamette River. In December 2000, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) classified portions of the Willamette River bed known as the Portland Harbor, including the portion fronting our manufacturing facility, as a federal "National Priority List" or "Superfund" site due to sediment contamination (the Portland Harbor Site). Our company and more than 140 other parties have received a "General Notice" of potential liability from the EPA relating to the Portland Harbor Site. The letter advised us that we may be liable for the costs of investigation and remediation (which liability may be joint and several with other potentially responsible parties) as well as for natural resource damages resulting from releases of hazardous substances to the site. Ten private and public entities, including our company (the Lower Willamette Group or LWG), signed an Administrative Order on Consent (AOC) to perform a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) of the Portland Harbor Site under EPA oversight, and several additional entities did not sign such consent, but nevertheless contributed financially to the effort. The EPA-mandated RI/FS was produced by the LWG and cost over $110 million during a 17-year period. We bore a percentage of the total costs incurred by the LWG in connection with the investigation. Our aggregate expenditure during the 17-year period was not material. Some or all of any such outlay may be recoverable from other responsible parties. The EPA issued its Record of Decision (ROD) for the Portland Harbor Site on January 6, 2017 and accordingly on October 26, 2017, the AOC was terminated.

Separate from the process described above, which focused on the type of remediation to be performed at the Portland Harbor Site and the schedule for such remediation, 83 parties, including the State of Oregon and the federal government, entered into a non-judicial mediation process to try to allocate costs associated with remediation of the Portland Harbor Site. Approximately 110 additional parties signed tolling agreements related to such allocations. On April 23, 2009, our company and the other AOC signatories filed suit against 69 other parties due to a possible limitations period for some such claims; Arkema Inc. et al v. A & C Foundry Products, Inc. et al, U.S. District Court, District of Oregon, Case #3:09-cv-453-PK. All but 12 of these parties elected to sign tolling agreements and be dismissed without prejudice, and the case has been stayed by the court until January 14, 2025.

The EPA's January 6, 2017 ROD identifies a clean-up remedy that the EPA estimates will take 13 years of active remediation, followed by 30 years of monitoring with an estimated undiscounted cost of $1.7 billion. The EPA typically expects its cost estimates to be accurate within a range of -30% to +50%, but this ROD states that changes in costs are likely to occur. The EPA has identified 15 Sediment Decision Units within the ROD cleanup area. One of the units, RM9W, includes the nearshore area of the river sediments offshore of the Portland Property as well as downstream of the facility. It also includes a portion of our company’s riverbank. The ROD does not break down total remediation costs by Sediment Decision Unit. The EPA requested that potentially responsible parties enter AOCs during 2019 agreeing to conduct remedial design studies. Some parties have signed AOCs, including one party with respect to RM9W which includes the area offshore of our Portland Property. We have not signed an AOC in connection with remedial design, but will assist in conducting or funding a portion of the RM9W remedial design.

The ROD does not address responsibility for the costs of clean-up, nor does it allocate such costs among the potentially responsible parties. Responsibility for funding and implementing the EPA's selected cleanup remedy will be determined at an unspecified later date. Based on the investigation to date, we believe that we did not contribute in any material way to contaminants of concern in the river sediments or the damage of natural resources in the Portland Harbor Site and that the damage in the area of the Portland Harbor Site adjacent to its property precedes our ownership of the Portland Property. Because these environmental investigations are still underway, sufficient information is currently not available to determine our liability, if any, for the cost of any required remediation or restoration of the Portland Harbor Site or to estimate a range of potential loss. Based on the results of the pending investigations and future assessments of natural resource damages, we may be required to incur costs associated with additional phases of investigation or remedial action, and may be liable for damages to natural resources. In addition, we may be required to perform periodic maintenance dredging in order to continue to launch vessels from our launch ways in Portland, Oregon, on the Willamette River, and the river's classification as a Superfund site could result in some limitations on future dredging and launch activities. Any of these matters could adversely affect our business and Consolidated Financial Statements, or the value of the Portland Property.

10


 

On January 30, 2017 the Confederated Tribes and Bands of Yakama Nation sued 33 parties including our company as well as the U.S. and the State of Oregon for costs it incurred in assessing alleged natural resource damages to the Columbia River from contaminants deposited in Portland Harbor. Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation v. Air Liquide America Corp., et al., U.S. Court for the District of Oregon Case No. 3i17-CV-00164-SB. The complaint does not specify the amount of damages the plaintiff will seek. The case has been stayed until January 14, 2025.

Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) Regulation of Portland Manufacturing Operations

We entered into a Voluntary Cleanup Agreement with the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) in which we agreed to conduct an investigation of whether, and to what extent, past or present operations at the Portland Property may have released hazardous substances into the environment. We have also signed an Order on Consent with the DEQ to finalize the investigation of potential onsite sources of contamination that may have a release pathway to the Willamette River. Interim precautionary measures are also required in the order and we are discussing with the DEQ potential remedial actions which may be required. Our aggregate expenditure has not been material, however we could incur significant expenses for remediation. Some or all of any such outlay may be recoverable from other responsible parties.

Regulation

We must comply with the rules of the U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) and the administrative agencies it oversees including the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) in the U.S. and Transport Canada (TC) in Canada, each of which administer and enforce laws and regulations relating to railroad safety. More specifically, the transportation of hazardous materials by rail is subject to rigorous oversight by FRA, PHMSA, and DHS. Railroads, acting through the Association of American Railroads (AAR), work in partnership with these and other local, state, and federal entities on hazardous materials-related issues, including train routing, security, tank car design and emergency response. Railroads also require compliance with certain industry best practices which at times exceed federal requirements for trains carrying hazardous materials. These regulations govern equipment and safety appliance standards for freight cars and other rail equipment used in interstate and international commerce throughout North America. The AAR promulgates rules and regulations governing the safety and design of equipment, relationships among railroads and other railcar owners with respect to railcars in interchange, and other matters. The AAR also certifies railcar builders and component manufacturers that provide equipment for use on North American railroads. These regulations require maintaining certifications with the AAR as a railcar builder and maintenance provider and component manufacturer, and products sold and leased by us in North America must meet AAR, TC, PHMSA and FRA standards.

The primary regulatory and industry authorities involved in the regulation of the ocean-going barge industry are the U.S. Coast Guard, the Maritime Administration of the USDOT, and private industry classing organizations such as the American Bureau of Shipping.

Our operations are subject to regulation of health and safety matters by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration ("OSHA") and the Secretaria del Trabajo y Prevision Social ("STPS") in Mexico. We believe that we employ appropriate precautions to protect our employees and others from workplace injuries and harmful exposure to materials handled and managed at our facilities. However, claims asserted against us for work-related illnesses or injury and the further adoption of occupational safety and health regulations in the U.S. or in foreign jurisdictions in which we operate could increase our operating costs. While we do not anticipate having to make material expenditures in order to remain in substantial compliance with health and safety laws and regulations, we are unable to predict the ultimate cost of compliance.

The regulatory environment in Europe consists of a combination of EU regulations and country specific regulations, including a harmonized set of Technical Standards for Interoperability of freight wagons throughout the EU. The regulatory environment in Brazil consists of oversight from the Ministry of Infrastructure, the National Agency of Ground Transportation and the National Association of Railroad Transporters. In all other countries, we conform to country specific regulations where applicable.

11


 

Additional Information

We are a public reporting company and file annual, quarterly, current and special reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains an internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC at http://www.sec.gov. Through a link on the Investor Relations section of our website, http://www.gbrx.com, we make available the following filings as soon as reasonably practicable after they are electronically filed with or furnished to the SEC: our Annual Report on Form 10-K; Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q; Current Reports on Form 8-K; and any amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. All such filings are available free of charge. Copies of our Audit Committee Charter, Compensation Committee Charter, Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee Charter, Corporate Governance Guidelines and Code of Business Conduct and Ethics are also available on our web site at http://www.gbrx.com. In addition, each of the reports and documents listed above are available free of charge by contacting our Investor Relations Department at The Greenbrier Companies, Inc., One Centerpointe Drive, Suite 200, Lake Oswego, Oregon 97035.

 

12


 

Item 1A. RISK FACTORS

The following risks could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results, liquidity and cash flows, prospects, and stock price. These risks do not identify all risks that we face; other factors, events, or uncertainties currently unknown to us or that we currently do not consider to present significant risks to our business or that emerge in the future could affect us adversely.

Risks Related to Our Business

An economic downturn and economic uncertainty may adversely affect demand for our products and services.

Our customers are often able to delay replacing rail equipment during economic downturns. Factors affecting the level of customer spending for our products and services include general economic conditions, such as inflation, and other factors such as business confidence in future economic conditions, fears of recession, and the availability and cost of efficient capital, among other factors. Worldwide economic conditions remain uncertain. As global economic conditions continue to be volatile or economic uncertainty increases, trends in business spending may become increasingly unpredictable and subject to reductions and fluctuations. Unfavorable economic conditions may lead our customers to delay or reduce purchases of our products and services, result in lower sales volumes, lower prices, lower lease utilization rates, and decreased revenues and profits.

Increases in the price of materials and components used in the production of our products could negatively impact our profit margin on the sale of our products.

 

A significant portion of our business depends on the adequate supply of steel, other raw materials, and energy, as well as numerous specialty parts and components, such as brakes, wheels, side frames, bolsters, and bearings for the railcar business, at cost-effective prices. During 2022, we experienced significantly elevated commodity and supply chain costs including the costs of labor, raw materials, energy, fuel, materials and other inputs necessary for the production and distribution of our products, and we expect elevated levels of inflation to continue in 2023. The cost of steel and all other materials used in the production of our railcars represents more than half of our direct manufacturing costs per railcar and in the production of our marine barges represents more than 30% of our direct manufacturing costs per marine barge. If we are not able to purchase materials and energy at competitive prices, our ability to produce and sell our products on a cost-effective basis could be adversely impacted which, in turn, could adversely affect our revenue and profitability. Our fixed-price contracts generally anticipate material price increases and surcharges. If we are unable to adjust our selling prices or have adequate protection in our contracts against changes in material prices, our margins could be adversely affected. Further, although a portion of the costs we must incur to meet our contractual obligations are subject to escalation clauses which allow us to pass through costs to our customers, we will absorb some cost increases thereby decreasing margin on some of our customer contracts.

 

Disruptions in the supply of materials and components used in the production of our products could negatively impact our business and results of operations.

Supply chains were severely disrupted by the COVID-19 global pandemic. Armed conflict in Ukraine has also severely disrupted supply chains for the materials and components that we use in manufacturing our products. Certain materials for our products are currently available from a limited number of suppliers and, as a result, we may have limited control over pricing, availability, and delivery schedules. Additionally, factors beyond our control, including adverse political conditions, trade embargoes, increased tariffs or import duties, inclement weather, natural disasters, terrorism and labor disputes may adversely impact our supply chain, particularly if these conditions or disputes result in work slowdowns, lockouts, strikes, facility closures, or related disruptions. The inability to purchase a sufficient quantity of materials on a timely basis could create disruptions in our production and result in delays while we attempt to engage alternative suppliers. Any such disruption or conditions could harm our business and adversely impact our results of operations. The loss of suppliers or their inability to meet our price, quality, quantity and delivery requirements could have an adverse effect on our ability to manufacture and sell our products on a cost-effective basis.

 

13


 

Shortages of skilled labor, increased labor costs, or failure to maintain good relations with our workforce could adversely affect our operations.

We depend on skilled labor in all areas of our business. Some of our facilities are located in areas where demand for skilled labor often exceeds supply. Shortages of some types of skilled labor such as welders and machine operators could restrict our ability to maintain or increase production rates, lead to production inefficiencies and increase our labor costs. Due to the competitive nature of the labor markets in which we operate and the cyclical nature of the railcar industry, the resulting employment cycle increases our risk of not being able to recruit, train and retain the employees we require at efficient costs and on reasonable terms, particularly when the economy expands, production rates are high or competition for such skilled labor increases. We are a party to collective bargaining agreements with various labor unions at some of our operations. Disputes with regard to the terms and conditions of these agreements or our potential inability to negotiate acceptable contracts with these unions in the future could result in, among other things, strikes, work stoppages or other slowdowns by the affected workers. We cannot be assured that our relations with our workforce will remain positive. If our workers were to engage in a strike, work stoppage or other slowdown, or other employees were to become unionized or the terms and conditions in future labor agreements were renegotiated, or if union representation is implemented at such sites and we are unable to agree with the union on reasonable employment terms, including wages, benefits, and work rules, we could experience a significant disruption of our operations and incur higher ongoing labor costs. If we are unable to recruit, train and retain adequate numbers of qualified employees and third party labor providers on a timely basis or at a reasonable cost or on reasonable terms, our business and results of operations could be adversely affected.

Our business may be negatively impacted as a result of armed conflict in Ukraine.

In February 2022, the Russian Federation commenced a military invasion of Ukraine. We cannot predict the full impact of the war in Ukraine, the economic sanctions imposed on Russia, and the related economic and geopolitical instability, including instability in the manufacturing and freight rail markets. Some of our operations, particularly in Europe, have experienced higher energy costs, an increase in the price and decrease in the availability of steel and certain other materials and components, disruptions in transportation and supply chains, and higher manufacturing and borrowing costs. Not all of these costs are subject to escalation and related clauses which allow us to pass through costs to our customers, and there is a risk we will not be successful in renegotiating or managing the implementation of existing agreements to allow us to pass through these increased prices of manufacturing. As a result of these impacts and due to the lack of new railcar orders in Europe during the third quarter of 2022, we have slowed down production at our European manufacturing facilities. These negative factors may continue to occur along with other risks to our business that may emerge which include, among others, prolonged heightened inflation, macroeconomic interventions in response to inflation, cyber disruptions or attacks, and disruptions in credit markets. All of these factors and others could disrupt our business directly and could disrupt the business of our customers thereby reducing or delaying orders of our goods and services. Prolonged civil unrest, political instability or uncertainty, military activities, or broad-based sanctions could have an adverse effect on our operations and business outlook.

The COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic, and potential future related decline in global economic activity, as well as governmental reaction to the pandemic could continue to negatively impact our business, liquidity and financial position, results of operations, stock price, and ability to convert backlog to revenue.

We currently identify the following factors as the most significant risks to our business due to COVID-19, governmental actions, and economic conditions.

We may be prevented from operating our manufacturing facilities, maintenance shops, wheel shops or other worksites due to the illness of our employees, “stay-at-home” regulations, and employee reluctance to appear for work for many different reasons including the implementation of any government-imposed vaccination or testing mandates. Extended closure of one or more of our large facilities or a material decrease in our available workforce could have a material negative impact on our financial position and results of operations. Labor shortages in the geographies where we operate could prevent us from converting backlog to revenue.
Risks associated with inflation, currency volatility, increases in interest rates, and a mismatch of supply and demand, each as discussed further in this section.

14


 

Risks associated with the disruptions of the operations of one or more of our customers or suppliers, as discussed further in this section.
Our indebtedness may increase due to our need to increase borrowing to fund operations during a period of reduced revenue.
The market price of our common stock may drop or remain volatile.
We may incur significant employee health care costs under our self-insurance programs.

The longer the pandemic continues, the more likely that more of the foregoing risks will be realized and that other negative impacts on our business will occur, some of which we cannot now foresee.

A material disruption in the movement of rail traffic could impair our ability to deliver railcars and other products to our customers in a timely manner which could prevent us from meeting customer demand, reduce our sales, and negatively impact our results of operations.

Once a railcar or other product is manufactured in one of our plants, it must be moved by rail to a customer delivery point. In many cases, the manufacturing plant and the delivery point are in different countries. Many different and unrelated factors could cause a delay in our ability to move our goods in a timely manner from the manufacturing plant to the delivery point including physical disruptions such as armed conflict, natural disasters and power outages, strikes, labor stoppages or shortages hindering the operation of railroads and related transportation infrastructure, regulatory and bureaucratic inefficiency and unresponsiveness, and other causes. A material disruption in the movement of rail traffic could negatively impact our business and results of operations.

Equipment failures, technological failures, costs and inefficiencies associated with changing of production lines, or transfer of production between facilities, could lead to production, delivery, or service curtailments or shutdowns, loss of revenue or higher expenses.

We operate a substantial amount of equipment at our production facilities. An interruption in production capabilities or maintenance and repair capabilities at our facilities, as a result of equipment or technology failure, acts of nature, terrorism, costs and inefficiencies associated with changing of production lines or transfer of production between facilities, could reduce or prevent our production, delivery, service, or repair of our products and increase our costs and expenses. A halt of production at any of our manufacturing facilities could severely affect delivery times to our customers. Any significant delay in deliveries not otherwise contractually mitigated could result in cancellation of all or a portion of our orders, cause us to lose future sales, and negatively affect our reputation and our results of operations.

We depend on our senior management team and other key employees, and significant attrition within our management team or unsuccessful succession planning for members of our senior management team and other key employees who are at or nearing retirement age, could adversely affect our business.

Our success depends in part on our ability to attract, retain and motivate senior management and other key employees. Achieving this objective may be difficult due to many factors, including fluctuations in global economic and industry conditions, competitors’ hiring practices, cost reduction activities, and the effectiveness of our compensation programs. Competition for qualified personnel can be very intense. We must continue to recruit, retain and motivate senior management and other key employees sufficient to maintain our current business and support our future projects and growth objectives. We are vulnerable to attrition among our current senior management team and other key employees. Some members of our senior management team and other key employees are at or nearing retirement age. If we are unsuccessful in our succession planning efforts, the continuity of our business and results of operations could be adversely affected. A loss of any such personnel, or the inability to recruit and retain qualified personnel in the future, could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

15


 

Our backlog is not necessarily indicative of the level of our future revenues.

Our manufacturing backlog represents future production for our customers in various periods, and estimated potential revenue attributable to such production. Our backlog of railcar units and marine vessels is not necessarily indicative of future results of operations. Certain orders in backlog are subject to customary documentation and completion of terms which may not occur. Some backlog is subject to certain conditions, including potential adjustment to prices due to changes in prevailing market prices, or due to lower prices for new orders accepted by us from other customers for similar cars on similar terms and conditions during relevant time periods. Our reported backlog may not be converted to revenue in any particular period and some of our contracts permit cancellations with limited compensation that would not replace lost revenue or margins. In addition, some customers may attempt to delay orders, cancel or modify a contract even if the contract does not allow for such cancellation or modification, and we may not be able to recover all revenue or earnings lost due to a breach of contract or a contract may be found to be unenforceable. The likelihood of cancellations, modifications, rejection and non-payment for our products generally increases during periods of market weakness. The timing of converting backlog to revenue is also materially impacted by our decision whether to lease railcars, sell railcars, or syndicate railcars with a lease attached to an investor. Actual revenue may not equal our anticipated revenues based on our backlog.

We derive a significant amount of our revenue from a limited number of customers, the loss of or reduction of business from one or more of which could have an adverse effect on our business.

A significant portion of our revenue is generated from a few major customers. Although we have some long-term contractual relationships with our major customers, we cannot be assured that we will continue to have good relations with our customers, or that our customers will continue to purchase or lease our products or services, or will continue to do so at historical levels, or will renew their existing contracts with us. A reduction in the purchasing or leasing of our products, a termination of our services by one or more of our major customers, a decline in the financial condition of a major customer, or our failure to replace expiring customer contracts with new customer contracts on satisfactory terms could result in a loss of business and have an adverse effect on our business and operating results.

We rely on limited suppliers for certain components and services needed in our production. If we are not able to procure specialty components or services on commercially reasonable terms or on a timely basis, our business, financial condition and results of operations would be adversely affected.

Our manufacturing operations depend in part on our ability to obtain timely deliveries of materials, components and services in acceptable quantities and quality from our suppliers. In 2022, the top ten suppliers for all inventory purchases accounted for approximately 49% of total purchases. The top two suppliers accounted for 16% and 10% of total inventory purchases in 2022. No other suppliers accounted for more than 10% of total inventory purchases. Certain components of our products, particularly specialized components like castings, bolsters, trucks, wheels and axels, and certain services, such as lining capabilities, are currently only available from a limited number of suppliers. If any one or more of our suppliers cease to provide us with sufficient quantities of our components or services in a timely manner or on terms acceptable to us, or cease to provide services or manufacture components of acceptable quality, or go out of business, we could incur disruptions or be limited in our production of our products and may not be able to promptly identify alternative sources for these components or services.

In addition, we are increasing the number of components and services we manufacture or provide ourselves, directly or through joint ventures. If we are not successful at manufacturing such components or providing such services or have production problems after transitioning to self-produced supplies, we may not be able to replace such components or services from third party suppliers in a timely manner. Any such disruption in our supply of specialized components and services or increased costs of those components or services could harm our business and adversely affect our results of operations.

16


 

The timing of our asset sales and related revenue recognition could cause significant differences in our quarterly results and liquidity.

We may build products in anticipation of a customer order, or lease railcars to a customer with the aim of selling such railcars on lease to a third party. In such cases, the lag between production and sale results in uneven recognition of revenue and earnings over time. Our production during any given period may be concentrated in relatively few contracts, intensifying the amplitude and irregularity of our revenue streams. The timing of recognizing revenue on a railcar is also materially impacted by our decision whether to lease the railcar to a lessee, sell the railcar, or syndicate the railcar with a lease attached to an investor. In addition, we periodically sell railcars from our own lease fleet and the timing and volume of such sales are difficult to predict. As a result, comparisons of our manufacturing revenue, deliveries, quarterly net gain on disposition of equipment, income and liquidity between quarterly periods within one year and between comparable periods in different years may not be meaningful and should not be relied upon as indicators of our future performance.

We face risks related to cybersecurity threats and incidents that increase our costs and could disrupt our business and operations.

We regularly face attempts by others to gain unauthorized access through the Internet, or to introduce malicious software, to our information technology systems. Additionally, malicious hackers, state-sponsored organizations, terrorists, employees and third-party service providers, or intruders into our physical facilities may attempt to gain unauthorized access and corrupt the processes used to operate our businesses and to design and manufacture our products. We are also a target of malicious attackers who attempt to gain access to our network or those of our customers; steal proprietary information related to our business, products, employees, and customers; interrupt our systems and services or those of our customers; or demand ransom to return control of such systems and services. Such attempts are increasing in number and in technical sophistication, and if successful, would expose us and the affected parties to risk of loss or misuse of proprietary or confidential information or disruptions of our business operations. Our information technology infrastructure also includes products and services provided by third parties, and these providers can experience breaches of their systems and products that affect the security of our systems and our proprietary or confidential information. Our reliance on information technology increases as working remotely increases among our employees.

Addressing cybersecurity threats and incidents, whether or not successful, could result in our incurring significant costs related to, for example, disruptions in our operations, rebuilding internal systems, implementing additional threat protection measures, defending against litigation, responding to regulatory inquiries or actions, paying damages, or taking other remedial steps with respect to third parties, as well as reputational harm. In addition, these threats are constantly evolving, thereby increasing the difficulty of successfully defending against them or implementing adequate preventative measures. While we seek to detect and investigate unauthorized attempts and attacks against our network, products, and services, and to prevent their recurrence where practicable through changes to our internal processes and tools, we remain potentially vulnerable to additional known or unknown threats. In some instances, we, our customers, and the users of our products and services can be unaware of an incident or its magnitude and effects.

The theft, loss, or misuse of third party data collected, used, stored, or transferred by us to run our business could result in significantly increased business and security costs or costs related to defending legal claims. Global privacy legislation, enforcement, and policy activity in this area are rapidly expanding and creating a complex regulatory compliance environment. Costs to comply with and implement these privacy-related and data protection measures could be significant, and noncompliance could expose us to significant monetary penalties, damage to our reputation, and even criminal sanctions. Even our inadvertent failure to comply with federal, state, or international privacy-related or data-protection laws and regulations could result in audits, regulatory inquiries, or proceedings against us by governmental entities or other third parties.

17


 

Updates or changes to our information technology systems may result in problems that could negatively impact our business.

We have information technology systems, comprising hardware, network, software, people, processes and other infrastructure that are important to the operation of our businesses. We continue to evaluate and implement upgrades and changes to information technology systems that support substantially all of our operating and financial functions. We could experience problems in connection with such implementations, including compatibility issues, training requirements, higher than expected implementation costs and other integration challenges and delays. A significant problem with an implementation, integration with other systems or ongoing management and operation of our systems could negatively impact our business by disrupting operations. Such a problem could also have an adverse effect on our ability to generate and interpret accurate management and financial reports and other information on a timely basis, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial reporting system and internal controls and adversely affect our ability to manage our business.

A failure to design or manufacture products or technologies or to achieve timely certification or market acceptance of new products or technologies could have an adverse effect on our profitability.

We continue to introduce new railcar product innovations and technologies. We occasionally accept orders prior to receiving railcar certification or proving our ability to manufacture a quality product that meets customer standards. We could be unable to successfully design or manufacture new railcar product innovations or technologies. Our inability to develop and manufacture new product innovations or technologies in a timely and profitable manner, or to obtain timely certification, or to achieve market acceptance, or to avoid quality problems in our new products, could have a material adverse effect on our revenue and results of operations and subject us to losses including penalties, cancellation of orders, rejection of railcars by a customer and/or other losses.

Our debt could have negative consequences to our business or results of operations.

We face several risks due to our debt and debt service obligations including our potential inability to satisfy our financial obligations related to our consolidated indebtedness; potential breach of the covenants in our credit agreements; our ability to borrow additional amounts or refinance existing indebtedness in the future to fund operating needs may be limited or costly; our availability of cash flow may be inadequate because a portion of our cash flow is needed to pay principal and interest on our debt; we may be at a disadvantage relative to our competitors that have greater financial resources than us or more flexible capital structures than us; we face additional exposure to the risk of increased interest rates as certain of our borrowings are at variable rates of interest, which could result in higher interest expense in the event of an increase in interest rates; restrictions under debt agreements may adversely interfere with our financial and operating flexibility; and exposure to the possibility that we may suffer a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition if we are unable to service our debt or obtain additional financing, as needed.

We, our subsidiaries, and our joint ventures may incur additional indebtedness, including secured indebtedness, and other obligations and liabilities that do not constitute indebtedness. This could increase the risks associated with our debt. Some of our credit facilities and existing indebtedness use variable rates including the London Interbank Offered Rates (LIBOR), the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (SOFR), and other prime rates of reference banks. Replacement reference rates, which includes SOFR, are relatively new with a limited history, and changes in SOFR have, on occasion, been more volatile than changes in other benchmark or market rates. As a result, the amount of interest we may pay on our variable rate indebtedness is difficult to predict.

18


 

Our product and service warranties could expose us to significant claims.

We offer our customers limited warranties for many of our products and services. Accordingly, we may be subject to significant warranty claims in the future, such as multiple claims based on one defect repeated throughout our production or servicing processes, claims for which the cost of repairing the defective part is highly disproportionate to the original cost of the part or defects in railcars or services which we discover in the future resulting in increased warranty costs or litigation. Warranty and product support terms may expand beyond those which have traditionally prevailed in the rail supply industry. These types of warranty claims could result in costly product recalls, customers seeking monetary damages, significant repair costs and damage to our reputation. If warranty claims attributable to actions of third party component manufacturers are not recoverable from such parties due to their poor financial condition or other reasons, we could be liable for warranty claims and other risks for using these materials in our products.

Our financial performance and market value could cause future write-downs of goodwill or intangibles or other long-lived assets in future periods.

We are required to perform an annual impairment test of goodwill and other indefinite lived assets which could result in an impairment charge if it is determined that the carrying value of the asset exceeds its fair value. We perform a goodwill impairment test annually at the reporting unit level during the third quarter of each year, or whenever events or circumstances indicate that the carrying value of these assets may exceed their fair value.

If indicators suggest it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying value, it may result in an impairment of goodwill. As of August 31, 2022, we had $84.3 million of goodwill in our Manufacturing segment and $43.0 million in our Maintenance Services segment. Impairment charges to our goodwill or other indefinite lived intangible assets would impact our results of operations. Future write-downs of goodwill and other assets could affect certain of the financial covenants under debt instruments and could restrict our financial flexibility.

Our business will suffer if we are unsuccessful in making, integrating, and maintaining acquisitions, joint ventures and other strategic investments.

We have acquired businesses and invested in or entered into joint ventures in past periods. We may in the future acquire other businesses or invest in or enter into joint ventures with other companies. Our failure to identify future acquisition or joint venture opportunities, or to complete potential acquisitions or joint ventures on favorable terms, could hinder our ability to grow our business. Additionally, these transactions create risks such as:

 

disruption of our ongoing business, including loss of management focus on existing operations;
the difficulty of incorporating acquired operations, technology, and rights into our existing business and product and service offerings, unanticipated expenses related to such integration and the lack of control if such integration is delayed or not successfully implemented;
the challenges of coordinating geographically dispersed organizations, integrating personnel with disparate business backgrounds, and combining different corporate cultures;
the challenges of retaining key personnel of the acquired business or joint venture;
the risk of incurring unanticipated operating losses and expenses of the acquired business or joint venture;
the potential impairment of customer and other relationships of the acquired company or of the joint venture partner or our own customers as a result of any integration of operations;
losses we may incur as a result of declines in the value of a joint venture investment or as a result of incorporating an investee’s financial performance into our financial results;
the difficulty of implementing at companies we acquire the controls, procedures, and policies appropriate for a public company;

19


 

potential unknown liabilities associated with a company we acquire or in which we invest;
the risks associated with businesses we acquire or invest in, which may differ from or be more significant than the risks our other businesses face;
our inability to complete capital expenditure projects on time and within budget or the failure of capital expenditure projects once completed to operate as planned or to return expected benefits as planned; and
the difficulty of completing such transactions and achieving anticipated cost efficiencies, synergies and other benefits within expected timeframes, or at all.

In addition, we might need to issue additional equity securities, spend our cash, or incur debt, contingent liabilities, or amortization expenses related to intangible assets in connection with effecting an acquisition or joint venture, any of which could reduce our profitability and harm our business or only be available on unfavorable terms, if at all. In addition, valuations supporting our acquisitions and investments could change rapidly. We could determine that such valuations have experienced impairments or other-than-temporary declines in fair value, which could adversely impact our financial results.

If we are unable to protect our intellectual property or if third parties assert that our products or services infringe their intellectual property rights, our ability to compete in the market may be harmed, and our business and financial condition may be adversely affected.

If our intellectual property rights are not adequately protected, we may not be able to commercialize our technologies, products or services and our competitors could commercialize our technologies, which could result in a decrease in our sales and market share and could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Conversely, third parties might assert that our products, services, or other business activities infringe their patents or other intellectual property rights. Infringement and other intellectual property claims and proceedings brought against us, whether successful or not, could result in substantial litigation and judgment costs and harm our reputation.

Insurance coverage could be costly, unavailable or inadequate.

The ability to insure our businesses, facilities and rail assets is an important aspect of our ability to manage risk. As there are only limited providers of this insurance to the railcar industry, there is no guarantee that such insurance will be available on a cost-effective basis in the future. In addition, we cannot assure that our insurance carriers will be able to pay current or future claims. Additionally, the nature of our business subjects us to physical damage, business interruption and product liability claims, especially in connection with the repair and manufacture of products that carry hazardous or volatile materials. Although we maintain liability insurance coverage at commercially reasonable levels compared to similarly sized heavy equipment manufacturers, an unusually large physical damage, business interruption or product liability claim or a series of claims based on a failure repeated throughout our production process could exceed our insurance coverage or result in damage to our reputation, which could materially adversely impact our financial condition and results of operations.

 

Risks Related to Market and Economic Factors

Weak economic conditions and inflation in the global economy could negatively impact our business and results of operations.

Customer demand for our products and services may be impacted by weak economic conditions, recession, equity market volatility or other negative economic factors in the U.S. or other nations. General inflation in the United States, Europe and other geographies has risen to levels not experienced in recent decades. General inflation, including rising prices for energy, metals, components, and other inputs as well as rising wages negatively impact our business by increasing our operating costs. General inflation also negatively impacts our business by decreasing the capital for our customers to deploy to purchase our goods and services. Inflation may cause our customers to reduce or delay orders for our goods and services thereby causing a decrease in sales of our goods and services. In addition, if the U.S. economy enters a recession, we may experience sales declines and may have to decrease prices, either of which could have a material adverse impact on our financial results.

20


 

Monetary and other policy interventions by governments and central banks, including the increase of interest rates, as well as uncertainly about governmental macroeconomic policies, could negatively impact our business and results of operations.

The United States Federal Reserve, the European Central Bank, and several other central banks, have undertaken or signaled increases in benchmark interest rates. Rising interest rates increases our borrowing costs potentially decreasing our profitability. Additionally, increased borrowing costs faced by our customers could result in decreased demand for our products. Monetary interventions also risk a sustained decline in aggregate demand, either globally or within one more geographic market. A decline in demand for our products would most likely have a negative impact on our business and results of operations.

The types of rail equipment we sell and the services we provide significantly impact our revenue and our margin and are dependent on broad economic trends over which we have little or no control.

We manufacture, lease, maintain and refurbish a broad range of railcars and related rail equipment. The demand for specific types of railcars and the mix of repair and refurbishment work varies over time. Changes in the global economy and the industries and geographies that we serve cause shifts in demand for specific products and services. These shifts in demand could affect our results of operations and could have an adverse effect on our revenue and our profitability. Demand for specific types of railcars increases and decreases with the demand for goods such as grains, metals, construction aggregates, fertilizer, perishables and general merchandise, plastic pellets, oil and gas, bio-fuels, chemicals, and automobiles, among others, which is beyond our control.

Cyclical economic downturns in our industry usually result in decreased demand for our products and services and reduced revenue.

The industry in which we operate is subject to periodic economic cycles, and the purchasing trends of customers in our industry have a significant impact on demand for our products and services. As a result, during downturns, the rate at which we convert backlog to revenue usually decreases and we may slow down or halt production at some of our facilities. The current economic downturn in our industry has impacted the demand for our products and services, and will continue to result in one or more of the following: lower sales volumes, lower prices, lower lease utilization rates and decreased revenues and profits.

Demand for our railcar equipment and services is dependent on the future of rail transportation and the manner in which railroads operate.

Demand for our rail equipment and services may decrease if freight rail decreases as a mode of freight transportation used by customers to ship their products, or if governmental policies favor modes of freight transportation other than rail. If rail freight transportation becomes more efficient or dwell times decrease, demand for our rail equipment and services may decrease. If the rail freight industry becomes oversupplied, prices for our railcars, lease rates, and demand for our products and services may decrease. The industries in which our customers operate are driven by dynamic market forces and trends, which are in turn influenced by economic, regulatory, and political factors. Features and functionality specific to certain railcar types could result in those railcars becoming obsolete as customer requirements for freight delivery change.

Risks related to our operations outside of the U.S. could adversely affect our operating results.

We own, lease, operate or have invested in businesses that have manufacturing facilities in Mexico, Brazil and Europe, and have customers and suppliers located outside the United States. Instability in the macroeconomic, political, military, legal, trade, financial, labor or market conditions in or relating to the countries where we, or our customers or suppliers, operate could negatively impact our business activities and operations. Some foreign countries in which we operate or may operate have authorities that regulate railroad safety and rail equipment design and manufacturing. If we do not have appropriate certifications, we could be unable to market and sell our rail equipment in those markets. Adverse changes in foreign regulations applicable to us or our customers, such as labor, environment, trade, tax, currency and price regulations, could limit our operations, make the manufacture and distribution of our products difficult, and delay or limit our ability to repatriate income derived from foreign markets.

21


 

Our business benefits from free trade agreements between the United States and foreign governments, and from various U.S. corporate tax provisions related to international commerce. Any changes in trade or tax policies by the U.S. or foreign governments in jurisdictions in which we do business, as well as any embargoes, quotas or tariffs imposed on our products and services, could adversely and significantly affect our financial condition and results of operations.

Among the political risks we face outside the U.S. are governments nationalizing our business or assets, or repudiating or renegotiating contracts with us, our customers or our suppliers. In our cross-border business activities, we could experience longer customer payment cycles, difficulty in collecting accounts receivable or an inability to protect our intellectual property. We could be adversely affected by violations of the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and similar worldwide anti-corruption laws, which may conflict with local business customs in certain jurisdictions. The failure to comply with laws governing international business may result in substantial penalties and fines and reputational harm. Transactions with non-U.S. entities expose us to business practices, local customs, and legal processes with which we may not be familiar, as well as difficulty enforcing contracts and international political and trade tensions. If we are unable to successfully manage the risks associated with our foreign and cross-border business activities, our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows could be negatively impacted.

Fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates could lead to increased costs and lower profitability.

Outside of the U.S., we primarily conduct business in Mexico, Europe and Brazil and our non-U.S. businesses conduct their operations in local currencies. We also source materials worldwide. Fluctuations in exchange rates may affect demand for our products in foreign markets or our cost competitiveness and may adversely affect our profitability. Although we attempt to mitigate a portion of our exposure to changes in currency rates through currency rate hedge contracts and other activities, these efforts cannot fully eliminate the risks associated with the foreign currencies. In addition, some of our borrowings are in foreign currency, giving rise to risk from fluctuations in exchange rates. A material or adverse change in exchange rates could result in significant deterioration of profits or in losses for us.

We could be unable to lease railcars at satisfactory rates, remarket leased railcars on favorable terms upon lease termination, or realize the expected residual values for end of life railcars due to changes in scrap prices, each of which could reduce our revenue and decrease our overall return or affect our ability to sell leased assets in the future.

The profitability of our railcar leasing business depends on our ability to lease railcars at satisfactory rates, sell railcars with sufficiently profitable leases to investors, and to remarket, sell or scrap railcars we own or manage upon the expiration of leases. The rent we receive during the initial railcar lease term typically covers only a small portion of the railcar acquisition or production costs. Thus, we are exposed to a remarketing risk throughout the life of the railcar because we must obtain lease rates or a sale price sufficient to cover our acquisition or production costs related to the railcar. Our ability to lease or remarket leased railcars profitably is dependent on several factors, including, but not limited to, market and industry conditions, cost of, and demand for, competing used or newer models, availability of credit and the credit-worthiness of potential customers, costs associated with the refurbishment of the railcars, the market demand or governmental mandates for refurbishment, customers not defaulting on their leases, as well as market perceptions of residual values and interest rates. A downturn in the industries in which our lessees operate and decreased demand for railcars could also increase our exposure to remarketing risks because lessees may demand shorter lease terms, requiring us to remarket leased railcars more frequently. Furthermore, the resale market for previously leased railcars has a limited number of potential buyers. Our inability to lease, remarket or sell leased railcars on favorable terms could result in an adverse impact to our consolidated financial statements or affect our ability to sell leased railcars to investors in the future. Additionally, when the price of scrap steel declines, our revenues and margins in such businesses decrease.

A limited availability of financing or higher interest rates could increase the cost of, or potentially deter, new leasing arrangements with our customers, reduce our ability to syndicate railcars under lease to financial institutions, or impact the sales price we may receive on such syndications, any of which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

22


 

Some of our competitors are owned or financially supported by foreign governments and may sell products below cost or otherwise compete unfairly.

The markets in which we participate are intensely competitive and we expect them to remain intensely competitive into the foreseeable future. Some of our competitors are owned or financially supported by foreign governments or sovereign wealth funds, and may potentially sell products and services below cost, or otherwise compete unfairly, in order to gain market share. The relative competitiveness of our manufacturing facilities and products affects our performance. A number of competitive factors challenge or affect our ability to compete successfully including the introduction of competitive products and new entrants into our markets, a limited customer base and price pressures from unfair competition and increases in raw materials and labor costs. If we do not compete successfully, our market share, margin and results of operations may be adversely affected.

Fires, natural disasters, pandemics, terrorism, or severe or unusual weather conditions could disrupt our business and result in loss of revenue or higher expenses or decreased demand.

Any serious disruption at any of our facilities due to pandemic, terrorism, fire, hurricane, earthquake, flood, other severe weather events or any other natural disaster could impair our ability to use our facilities and have a material adverse impact on our revenues and increase our costs and expenses. If there is a natural disaster or other serious disruption at any of our facilities, particularly at any of our Mexican or Arkansas facilities, it could impair our ability to adequately supply our customers, cause a significant disruption to our operations, cause us to incur significant costs to relocate or reestablish these functions and negatively impact our operating results. While we insure against certain business interruption risks, such insurance may not adequately compensate us for any losses incurred as a result of natural or other disasters.

Additionally, seasonal fluctuations in weather conditions may lead to greater variation in our quarterly operating results as unusually mild weather conditions will generally lead to lower demand for our wheel-related products and services. Unusually mild weather conditions throughout the year may reduce overall demand for our wheel-related products and maintenance services. If occurring for prolonged periods, such weather could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

The deterioration of conditions in the global capital markets, weakening of macroeconomic conditions and changes in the credit markets and the financial services industry could negatively impact our business, results of operations, financial condition or liquidity.

Our leasing subsidiaries' operations relies in large part upon banks and capital markets to fund its operations and contractual commitments and refinance existing debt. These markets can experience high levels of volatility and access to capital can be constrained for extended periods of time. In addition to conditions in the capital markets, a number of other factors could cause us to incur increased borrowing costs and have greater difficulty accessing public and private markets for both secured and unsecured debt. The credit markets and the financial services industry may experience volatility which can result in tighter availability of credit on more restrictive terms and limit our ability to sell railcar assets or to syndicate railcars to investors with leases attached. Our liquidity, financial condition and results of operations could be negatively impacted if our ability to borrow money to finance operations, obtain credit from trade creditors, obtain credit to maintain our hedging programs, offer leasing products to our customers or sell railcar assets were to be impaired. In addition, scarcity of capital could also adversely affect our customers’ ability to purchase, lease, or pay for products from us or adversely affect our suppliers’ ability to provide us with product. Any of these conditions or events could result in reductions in our revenues, increased price competition, or increased operating costs, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

23


 

Risks Related to Legal, Compliance and Regulatory Matters

Risks related to potential misconduct by employees may adversely impact us.

Our employees may engage in misconduct, fraud or other improper activities, including noncompliance with our policies or regulatory standards and requirements, which could subject us to regulatory sanctions and reputational damage and materially harm our business. It is not always possible to deter employee misconduct, and the precautions we take to prevent and detect this activity may not be effective in controlling unknown or unmanaged risks or losses, including risks associated with harassment, as well as whistleblower complaints and litigation. There can be no assurance that we will succeed in preventing misconduct by employees in the future. In addition, the investigation of alleged misconduct disrupts our operations and may harm the public’s perception of our company, which may be costly. Any such events in the future may have a material adverse impact on our financial condition or results of operations.

Changes in, or failure to comply with, applicable regulations may adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our company and the other participants in our industry are subject to regulation by governmental agencies. These authorities establish, interpret, and enforce rules and regulations for the railcar industry. New rules and regulations and shifting enforcement priorities of regulators could increase our operating costs and the operating costs of our customers. Changes to the process for obtaining regulatory approval in Europe for the operation of new or modified railcars may make it more difficult for us to deliver products timely and to comply with our sales contracts.

We cannot guarantee that we or our suppliers will be in compliance at all times and compliance may prove to be more costly and limiting than we currently anticipate and compliance requirements could increase in future years. If we or our suppliers fail to comply with applicable requirements and regulations, we could face sanctions and penalties that could negatively affect our financial results.

We have potential exposure to environmental liabilities, which could increase our operating costs or have an adverse effect on our results of operations.

We are subject to extensive national, state, foreign, provincial and local environmental laws and regulations concerning, among other things, air emissions, water discharge, solid waste and hazardous substances handling and disposal and employee health and safety. These laws and regulations are complex and frequently change. We could incur unexpected costs, penalties and other civil and criminal liabilities if we, or in certain circumstances others, fail to comply with environmental laws or permits issued pursuant to those laws. We also could incur costs or liabilities related to off-site waste disposal or remediating soil or groundwater contamination at our properties, including as set forth in Item 3, “Legal Proceedings.” In addition, future environmental laws and regulations may require significant capital expenditures or changes to our operations, or may impose liability on us in the future for actions that complied with then applicable laws and regulations when the action was taken.

Business, regulatory, and legal developments regarding climate change may affect the demand for our products or the ability of our critical suppliers to meet our needs.

Scientific studies have suggested that emissions of certain gases, commonly referred to as greenhouse gases (GHGs) including carbon dioxide and methane, may be contributing to warming of the Earth’s atmosphere and other climate changes. Legislation and new rules to regulate emission of GHGs have been introduced in numerous state legislatures, the U.S. Congress, and by the EPA. Some of these proposals would require industries to meet stringent new standards that may require substantial reporting of GHGs and other carbon intensive activities in addition to potentially mandating reductions in our carbon emissions. While we cannot assess the direct impact of these or other potential regulations, we recognize that new climate change reporting or compliance protocols could affect our operating costs, the demand for our products and/or affect the price of materials, input factors and manufactured components which could impact our margins. Other adverse consequences of climate change could include an increased frequency of severe weather events and rising sea levels that could affect operations at our manufacturing facilities, the price of insuring company assets, or other unforeseen disruptions of our operations, systems, property or equipment.

24


 

Train derailments or other accidents or claims could subject us to legal claims that adversely impact our business, financial condition and our results of operations.

We provide a number of services which include the manufacture and supply of new railcars, wheels, components and parts and the lease and maintenance of railcars for our customers that transport a variety of commodities, including tank railcars that transport hazardous materials such as crude oil, ethanol and other products. In addition, we have a Regulatory Services Group which offers regulatory, engineering, process consulting and advocacy support to the tank car and petrochemical rail shipper community, among other services. We could be subject to various legal claims, including claims of negligence, personal injury, physical damage and product or service liability, or in some cases strict liability, as well as potential penalties and liability under environmental laws and regulations, in the event of a derailment or other accident involving railcars, including tank railcars whether resulting from natural disasters, human error, terrorism, or other causes. If we become subject to any such claims and are unable successfully to resolve them or maintain inadequate insurance for such claims, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.

The products we manufacture are designed to work optimally when properly operated, installed, repaired, maintained and used to transport the intended cargo. Our products may be sold to third parties who may misuse, improperly install or improperly or inadequately maintain or repair such products, which may result in us being subjected to claims or litigation associated with product damage, injuries or property damage that could increase our costs and weaken our financial condition.

We have identified a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting. If we fail to properly remediate the material weakness or to maintain an effective system of internal controls, we may not be able to accurately report our financial results or prevent fraud.

During its evaluation of the effectiveness of disclosure controls and procedures as of August 31, 2022, management determined that our internal control over financial reporting was not effective, because we did not have effective controls over change management of system configurations in one IT environment to ensure all changes were logged and approved. Management has determined that this deficiency constitutes a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting. We have identified and are implementing remedial measures to address the control deficiency that led to the material weakness. However, there can be no assurance that our remedial measures will correct the deficiency. If we are unable to remediate the material weakness, or are otherwise unable to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting or disclosure controls and procedures, it may result in material misstatements, as well as adversely affect the reliability of our financial statements, our reputation, our business, and the trading price of our common stock. More information regarding the material weakness and our remediation efforts is provided in “Item 9A. Controls and Procedures.”

Changes in or the implementation of accounting standards or inaccurate estimates or assumptions in the application of accounting policies could adversely affect our financial results.

Our accounting policies and methods are fundamental to how we record and report our financial condition and results of operations. Some of these policies require use of estimates and assumptions that may affect the reported value of our assets or liabilities and financial results and are critical because they require management to make difficult, subjective, and complex judgments about matters that are inherently uncertain. Estimates, judgments and assumptions underlying the accompanying consolidated financial statements include, income taxes, warranty accruals, environmental costs, and goodwill, among others. If our accounting policies, methods, judgments, assumptions, estimates and allocations prove to be incorrect, or if circumstances change, our business, financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, ability to pay dividends or stock price may be materially adversely affected.

Accounting standard setters and those who interpret the accounting standards (such as the Financial Accounting Standards Board, the SEC, and independent registered public accounting firms) may amend or even reverse their previous interpretations or positions on how these standards should be applied. In some cases, we could be required to apply a new or revised standard retrospectively, resulting in the revision of prior period financial statements. Changes in accounting standards can be hard to predict and can materially impact how we record and report our financial condition and results of operations.

25


 

Some of our customers place orders for our products in reliance on their ability to utilize tax benefits or tax credits any of which benefits or credits could be discontinued thereby reducing incentives for our customers to purchase our rail products.

There is no assurance that tax authorities will reauthorize, modify, or prevent the expiration of tax benefits, tax credits, or other policies aimed to incentivize the purchase of our products. If such incentives are discontinued or diminished, the demand for our products could decrease, thereby creating the potential for a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations.

Risks Related to our Common Stock

Our stock price has been volatile and may continue to experience large fluctuations.

The price of our common stock has experienced rapid and significant price fluctuations. The price for our common stock is likely to continue to be volatile and subject to price and volume fluctuations in response to market and other factors, including the factors discussed elsewhere in these risk factors. A material decline in the price of our common stock may result in the assertion of certain claims against us, and/or the commencement of inquiries and/or investigations against us. A prolonged decline in the price of our common stock could result in a reduction in the liquidity of our common stock, a reduction in our ability to raise capital, and the inability of investors to obtain a favorable selling price for their shares. Following periods of volatility in the market price of their stock, historically many companies have been the subject of securities class action litigation. If we became involved in securities class action litigation in the future, it could result in substantial costs and diversion of our management’s attention and our resources and could harm our stock price, business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

Our current shareholders could experience dilution.

We require substantial working capital to fund our business. If additional funds are raised through the issuance of equity securities or convertible securities, the percentage ownership held by our shareholders would be reduced and the equity securities we issue may have rights, preferences or privileges senior to those of our common stock. Additionally, we have the option to settle outstanding convertible notes in cash, although if we opt not to or do not have the ability to settle outstanding convertible notes in cash, the conversion of some or all of our convertible notes may dilute the ownership interests of existing shareholders. Any sales in the public market of the common stock issuable upon the conversion of the notes could adversely affect prevailing market prices of our common stock. In addition, the existence of the notes may encourage short selling by market participants, because the conversion of the notes could depress the price of our common stock.

Certain provisions in our charter documents, Oregon law, and our debt instruments could make an acquisition of our company more difficult, limit attempts by our shareholders to replace or remove members of our Board of directors and may adversely affect the market price of our common stock.

Our Articles of Incorporation and Bylaws, Oregon law, and contracts and debt instruments to which we are a party, contain certain provisions that could delay, defer or prevent an acquisition proposal that some, or a majority, of our shareholders might believe to be in their best interests or in which shareholders might receive a premium for their common stock over the then-prevailing market price. These provisions could also dissuade shareholders or third parties from contesting director elections and could cause investors to view our securities as less attractive investments and reduce the market price of our common stock. Certain relevant provisions of our Articles of Incorporation and Bylaws, as well as Oregon law, are described in further detail in “Description of the Registrant’s Securities Under Section 12 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934” annexed as Exhibit 4.3 to this Annual Report.

 

26


 

Payments of cash dividends on our common stock may be made only at the discretion of our Board of Directors and may be restricted by Oregon law.

Any decision to pay dividends will be at the discretion of our Board of Directors and will depend upon our operating results, strategic plans, capital requirements, financial condition, provisions of our borrowing arrangements and other factors our Board of Directors considers relevant. Furthermore, Oregon law imposes restrictions on our ability to pay dividends. Accordingly, we may not be able to continue to pay dividends in any given amount in the future, or at all.

Our business and operations could be negatively affected if we become subject to shareholder activism, which could cause us to incur significant expense, hinder execution of our business strategy and impact our stock price.

Shareholder activism which could take many forms, including potential proxy contests and public information campaigns continues to increase. Shareholder activism could result in substantial costs to the Company, give rise to perceived uncertainties as to our future, adversely affect our relationships with suppliers, customers, and regulators, make it more difficult to attract and retain qualified personnel, and adversely impact our stock price.

Our share repurchase program is intended to enhance long-term shareholder value although we cannot guarantee this will occur and this program may be suspended or terminated at any time.

The Board of Directors has authorized our company to repurchase our common stock through a share repurchase program. Our share repurchase program may be modified, suspended or discontinued at any time without prior notice. Although the share repurchase program is intended to enhance long-term shareholder value, we cannot provide assurance that this will occur.

General Risk Factors

Unanticipated changes in our tax provisions or exposure to additional income tax liabilities could affect our financial condition and profitability and we may take tax positions that the Internal Revenue Service or other tax authorities may contest.

We are subject to income taxes in both the United States and foreign jurisdictions. Significant judgments and estimates are required to be made in determining our worldwide provision for income taxes. Changes in estimates of projected future operating results, loss of deductibility of items, recapture of prior deductions (including related to interest on convertible notes), limitations on our ability to utilize tax net operating losses in the future or changes in assumptions regarding our ability to generate future taxable income could result in significant increases to our tax expense and liabilities that could adversely affect our financial condition and profitability.

We have in the past and may in the future take tax positions that the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) or other tax authorities may contest. We are required by an IRS regulation to disclose particular tax positions to the IRS as part of our tax returns for that year and future years. If the IRS or other tax authorities successfully contests a tax position that we take, we may be required to pay additional taxes, interest or fines that may adversely affect our results of operations and financial position.

The use of social and other digital media to disseminate false, misleading and/or unreliable or inaccurate data and information could create unwarranted volatility in our stock price and losses to our shareholders and could adversely affect our reputation, products, business, and operating results.

A substantial number of people are relying on social and other digital media to receive news, data, and information. Social and other digital media can be used by anyone to publish data and information without regard for factual accuracy. The use of social and other digital media to publish inaccurate, offensive, and disparaging data and information coupled with the frequent use of strong language and hostile expression, may influence the public’s inability to distinguish between what is true and what is false and could obstruct an effective and timely response to correct inaccuracies or falsifications. Such use of social and other digital media could result in unexpected and unsubstantiated claims concerning our business in general or our products, our leadership or our reputation among customers and the public at large, thereby making it more difficult for us to compete effectively, and potentially having a material adverse effect on our business, operations, or financial condition.

27


 

Item 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.

Item 2. PROPERTIES

We operate at the following primary facilities as of August 31, 2022:

 

Description

Location

Status

 

 

 

Manufacturing Segment

 

 

 

 

 

Operating facilities:

6 locations in the United States

Owned

 

3 locations in Mexico

Owned – 2 locations

Leased – 1 location

 

3 locations in Poland

Owned

 

3 locations in Romania

Owned

 

1 location in Turkey

Owned

 

 

 

Administrative offices:

2 locations in the United States

Leased

 

 

 

Maintenance Services Segment

 

 

 

 

Operating facilities:

17 locations in the United States

 

Leased – 9 locations

Owned – 8 locations

 

 

 

Leasing & Management Services Segment

 

 

 

 

 

Corporate offices, railcar marketing and leasing activities:

Lake Oswego, Oregon

Leased

 

We believe that our facilities are in good condition and that the facilities, together with anticipated capital improvements and additions, are adequate to meet our operating needs for the foreseeable future. We continually evaluate our facilities in order to remain competitive and to take advantage of market opportunities.

There is hereby incorporated by reference the information disclosed in Note 21 - Commitments and Contingencies to Consolidated Financial Statements, Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K.

Item 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.

28


 

Information about our Executive Officers

Current information regarding our executive officers is presented below.

Lorie L. Tekorius, 55, is President and Chief Executive Officer and serves on the Board of Directors. Ms. Tekorius has served as President since August 2019 and was promoted to Chief Executive Officer on March 1, 2022. Ms. Tekorius was elected to the Board of Directors on March 28, 2022. Ms. Tekorius has served in various management positions for the Company since 1995, most recently as Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer and prior to that, as Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer.

Martin R. Baker, 66, is Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Chief Compliance Officer, a position he has held since joining the Company in May 2008. Prior to joining the Company, Mr. Baker was Corporate Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary of Lattice Semiconductor Corporation.

Alejandro Centurion, 66, served as Executive Vice President of the Company and President of Greenbrier Manufacturing Operations until August 31, 2022, a position he has held since January 2015. Mr. Centurion has served in various management positions for the Company since 2005, most recently as President of North American Manufacturing Operations.

Brian J. Comstock, 60, is Executive Vice President, Chief Commercial and Leasing Officer, a position he has held since January 2021. Mr. Comstock has served in various management positions for the Company since 1998, most recently as Executive Vice President, Sales and Marketing.

Adrian J. Downes, 59, is Senior Vice President, Chief Financial Officer and Chief Accounting Officer. Mr. Downes has served as Senior Vice President and Chief Accounting Officer since joining the Company in March 2013. Mr. Downes was promoted to Acting Chief Financial Officer in August 2018 and was promoted to Chief Financial Officer in May 2019.

William A. Furman, 78, served as the Executive Chairman until August 31, 2022 and continues to serve as a Director. Mr. Furman previously served as Chief Executive Officer from 1994 until March 1, 2022, and as Chairman of the Board of Directors from January 2014 until his appointment to Executive Chairman on March 28, 2022. Mr. Furman was Vice President of the Company, or its predecessor company, from 1974 to 1994 and President of the Company from 1994 to 2019.

Executive officers are designated by the Board of Directors. No director or executive officer has a family relationship with any other director or executive officer of the Company.

 

29


 

PART II

Item 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Our common stock has been traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol GBX since July 14, 1994. There were approximately 550 holders of record of common stock as of October 24, 2022.

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

The Board of Directors has authorized the Company to repurchase shares of the Company’s common stock. The share repurchase program has an expiration date of January 31, 2023. There were no share repurchases during the year ended August 31, 2022 under this program. The amount remaining for repurchase was $100.0 million as of August 31, 2022.

 

Performance Graph

The following graph demonstrates a comparison of cumulative total returns for the Company's Common Stock, the Dow Jones U.S. Industrial Transportation Index and the Standard & Poor’s (S&P) 500 Index. The graph assumes an investment of $100 on August 31, 2017 in each of the Company's Common Stock and the stocks comprising the indices. Each of the indices assumes that all dividends were reinvested and that the investment was maintained to and including August 31, 2022, the end of the Company’s 2022 fiscal year.

30


 

The comparisons in this table are required by the SEC, and therefore, are not intended to forecast or be indicative of possible future performance of our Common Stock.

img130674996_0.jpg 

 

Item 6. RESERVED

Not Applicable

 

 

31


 

 

Item 7. MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

img130674996_1.jpg 

 

Executive Summary

 

The financial results for 2022 reflect a year of transition and agility. We delivered strong results despite a volatile macroeconomic environment. We identify a few general trends impacting our business at present, all of which we believe are reflected in our results for the year ended August 31, 2022. First, we believe the North American freight rail equipment market continues to emerge from the cyclical decrease in economic activity which began prior to the emergence of COVID-19. Second, we believe global economic activity continues to recover from the historic decrease resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. We were able to leverage these trends to accomplish the following:

Significant increases in production throughout 2022;
Growth in new order activity year over year; and
Strong ending backlog value and units.

 

Despite these accomplishments, inflation, rising interest rates, price volatility, supply chain disruptions and geopolitical disquiet, demand concerted management focus for successful execution across the business. We believe we have the necessary management expertise and are well-positioned to navigate the immediate challenges. While we believe the current market and broader economic environment most likely will present many positive opportunities for our business, as we navigate the recovery, we face a number of challenges which include:

Inflation and policy reactions thereto, currency volatility and rising interest rates;
An increase in the price and the shortage of certain materials and components;
Shipping and transportation delays;
Shortages of skilled labor; and
Adverse effects on the European market and the global economic markets, generally from the war in Ukraine.

 

 

 

32


 

 

Business Highlights

Despite the challenging operating environment, we achieved the following accomplishments in 2022:

We progressively increased our revenue during the year. The sequential growth in revenue was primarily driven by higher deliveries throughout the year.
Our revenue increased by $1.2 billion and 70.4% compared to the prior year driven by a 65.5% increase in railcar deliveries.
In February 2022, we completed our first offering of railcar asset-backed securities.
In September 2021, we acquired more than 3,600 railcars in a successful portfolio acquisition. The railcar acquisition advanced our strategy to increase the scale of our lease fleet assets.
We increased our global headcount by nearly 40% during a challenging labor market to support higher levels of business activity.

 

img130674996_2.jpg 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

33


 

img130674996_3.jpg 

 

Manufacturing Backlog

 

Our backlog remains strong at August 31, 2022 with an increase in backlog units and value highlighted by the following:

Our railcar backlog was 29,500 units with an estimated value of $3.5 billion as of August 31, 2022 with deliveries that extend into 2024.
We generated new railcar orders of 24,600 units valued at approximately $2.9 billion.
We increased our backlog compared to the prior year by approximately 2,900 units and $670 million.
In addition to our new railcar backlog, we had sustainable conversion orders at August 31, 2022 of approximately $180 million.

 

Backlog units for lease may be syndicated to third parties or held in our lease fleet depending on a variety of factors. Multi-year supply agreements are a part of rail industry practice. A portion of the orders included in backlog reflects an assumed product mix. Under terms of the orders, the exact mix and pricing will be determined in the future, which may impact backlog. Approximately 6% of backlog units and estimated backlog value as of August 31, 2022 was associated with our Brazilian manufacturing operations which is accounted for under the equity method. Marine backlog as of August 31, 2022 was $31 million with deliveries that extend into 2023.

Our backlog of railcar units and marine vessels is not necessarily indicative of future results of operations. Certain orders in backlog are subject to customary documentation and completion of terms. Customers may attempt to cancel or modify orders in backlog. Historically, little variation has been experienced between the quantity ordered and the quantity actually delivered, though the timing of deliveries may be modified from time to time.

 

 

 

34


 

Financial Overview

 

Revenue, Cost of revenue, Margin and Earnings from operations (operating profit) presented below, include amounts from external parties and exclude intersegment activity that is eliminated in consolidation.

 

 

 

Year Ended August 31,

 

(In millions, except per share amounts)

 

2022

 

 

2021

 

Revenue:

 

 

 

 

 

 

Manufacturing

 

$

2,476.6

 

 

$

1,311.1

 

Maintenance Services

 

 

347.7

 

 

 

298.3

 

Leasing & Management Services

 

 

153.4

 

 

 

138.5

 

 

 

 

2,977.7

 

 

 

1,747.9

 

Cost of revenue:

 

 

 

 

 

 

Manufacturing

 

 

2,300.9

 

 

 

1,189.2

 

Maintenance Services

 

 

322.0

 

 

 

280.4

 

Leasing & Management Services

 

 

48.8

 

 

 

46.7

 

 

 

 

2,671.7

 

 

 

1,516.3

 

Margin:

 

 

 

 

 

 

Manufacturing

 

 

175.7

 

 

 

121.9

 

Maintenance Services

 

 

25.7

 

 

 

17.9

 

Leasing & Management Services

 

 

104.6

 

 

 

91.8

 

 

 

 

306.0

 

 

 

231.6

 

Selling and administrative

 

 

225.2

 

 

 

191.8

 

Net gain on disposition of equipment

 

 

(37.2

)

 

 

(1.2

)

Earnings from operations

 

 

118.0

 

 

 

41.0

 

Interest and foreign exchange

 

 

57.4

 

 

 

43.3

 

Net loss on extinguishment of debt

 

 

 

 

 

6.3

 

Earnings (loss) before income tax and earnings from
   unconsolidated affiliates

 

 

60.6

 

 

 

(8.6

)

Income tax (expense) benefit

 

 

(18.1

)

 

 

40.2

 

Earnings before earnings from unconsolidated affiliates

 

 

42.5

 

 

 

31.6

 

Earnings from unconsolidated affiliates

 

 

11.3

 

 

 

3.5

 

Net earnings

 

 

53.8

 

 

 

35.1

 

Net earnings attributable to noncontrolling interest

 

 

(6.9

)

 

 

(2.7

)

Net earnings attributable to Greenbrier

 

$

46.9

 

 

$

32.4

 

Diluted earnings per common share

 

$

1.40

 

 

$

0.96

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Performance for our segments is evaluated based on operating profit. Corporate includes selling and administrative costs not directly related to goods and services and certain costs that are intertwined among segments due to our integrated business model. Management does not allocate Interest and foreign exchange or Income tax (expense) benefit for either external or internal reporting purposes.

 

 

 

Year Ended August 31,

 

(In millions)

 

2022

 

 

2021

 

Operating profit (loss):

 

 

 

 

 

 

Manufacturing

 

$

97.2

 

 

$

48.3

 

Maintenance Services

 

 

21.7

 

 

 

6.5

 

Leasing & Management Services

 

 

108.3

 

 

 

68.9

 

Corporate

 

 

(109.2

)

 

 

(82.7

)

 

 

$

118.0

 

 

$

41.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

35


 

Consolidated Results

 

 

 

Year Ended August 31,

 

 

2022 vs 2021

 

(In millions)

 

2022

 

 

2021

 

 

Increase
(Decrease)

 

 

%
Change

 

Revenue

 

$

2,977.7

 

 

$

1,747.9

 

 

$

1,229.8

 

 

 

70.4

%

Cost of revenue

 

$

2,671.7

 

 

$

1,516.3

 

 

$

1,155.4

 

 

 

76.2

%

Margin (%)

 

 

10.3

%

 

 

13.3

%

 

 

(3.0

)%

 

*

 

Net earnings attributable to Greenbrier

 

$

46.9

 

 

$

32.4

 

 

$

14.5

 

 

 

44.8

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

* Not meaningful

 

Through our integrated business model, we provide a broad range of custom products and services in each of our segments, which have various average selling prices and margins. The demand for, and mix of, products and services delivered changes from period to period, which causes fluctuations in our results of operations.

The 70.4% increase in revenue for the year ended August 31, 2022 as compared to the prior year was primarily due to an 88.9% increase in Manufacturing revenue. The increase in Manufacturing revenue was primarily attributed to a 65.5% increase in railcar deliveries.

The 76.2% increase in cost of revenue for the year ended August 31, 2022 as compared to the prior year was primarily due to a 93.5% increase in Manufacturing cost of revenue. The increase in Manufacturing cost of revenue was primarily attributed to a 65.5% increase in railcar deliveries and higher steel and other input costs in the current year.

Margin as a percentage of revenue was 10.3% and 13.3% for the years ended August 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. The overall margin as a percentage of revenue was negatively impacted by a decrease in Manufacturing margin from 9.3% to 7.1% was primarily attributed to higher costs and inefficiencies in our Manufacturing operations in part due to ramping up production. Many of our customer contracts include price escalation provisions. When certain of our manufacturing costs increase, we are able to increase the sales price to our customers. While this has no impact to our margin dollars, the increase in revenue and cost of sales has a negative impact to our margin as a percentage of revenue.

 

The $14.5 million increase in net earnings attributable to Greenbrier for the year ended August 31, 2022 as compared to the prior year was primarily due to the following:

An increase in margin dollars primarily due to higher railcar deliveries and syndication revenue for the year ended August 31, 2022.
An increase in Net gain on disposition of equipment for the year ended August 31, 2022.

These were partially offset by:

The income tax benefit for the year ended August 31, 2021, which primarily related to accelerated depreciation and the impact of the CARES Act which allowed us to carry back tax losses to years when tax rates were higher, resulting in a tax benefit.
An increase in Selling and administrative expense for the year ended August 31, 2022 primarily attributed to higher employee related costs as well as higher costs for legal, consulting and travel associated with increased business activity.

 

36


 

Manufacturing Segment

 

 

 

Year Ended August 31,

2022 vs 2021

 

(In millions, except railcar deliveries)

 

2022

 

 

2021

 

 

Increase
(Decrease)

 

 

%
Change

 

Revenue

 

$

2,476.6

 

 

$

1,311.1

 

 

$

1,165.5

 

 

 

88.9

%

Cost of revenue

 

$

2,300.9

 

 

$

1,189.2

 

 

$

1,111.7

 

 

 

93.5

%

Margin (%)

 

 

7.1

%

 

 

9.3

%

 

 

(2.2

)%

 

*

 

Operating profit ($)

 

$

97.2

 

 

$

48.3

 

 

$

48.9

 

 

 

101.2

%

Operating profit (%)

 

 

3.9

%

 

 

3.7

%

 

 

0.2

%

 

*

 

Deliveries

 

 

18,700

 

 

 

11,300

 

 

 

7,400

 

 

 

65.5

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

* Not meaningful

Our Manufacturing segment primarily generates revenue from manufacturing a wide range of freight railcars and from the conversion of existing or in-service railcars through our facilities in North America and Europe. We also manufacture a broad range of ocean-going and river barges for transporting merchandise between ports within the United States.

Manufacturing revenue increased $1.2 billion or 88.9% for the year ended August 31, 2022 compared to the prior year. The increase in revenue was primarily attributed to a 65.5% increase in railcar deliveries. The increase was also due to the additional revenue associated with an increase in steel and other input costs during the year ended August 31, 2022, as many of our customer contracts include price escalation provisions when certain of our manufacturing costs increase.

Manufacturing cost of revenue increased $1.1 billion or 93.5% for the year ended August 31, 2022 compared to the prior year. The increase in cost of revenue was primarily attributed to a 65.5% increase in the volume of railcar deliveries and higher steel and other input costs as well as inefficiencies in our Manufacturing operations in part due to ramping up production and supply chain issues during the year ended August 31, 2022.

Manufacturing margin as a percentage of revenue decreased 2.2% for the year ended August 31, 2022 compared to the prior year. The decrease in margin percentage for the year ended August 31, 2022 was primarily attributed to higher costs and inefficiencies in our Manufacturing operations in part due to ramping up production. Many of our customer contracts include price escalation provisions. When certain of our manufacturing costs increase, we are able to increase the sales price to our customers. While this has no impact to our margin dollars, the increase in revenue and cost of sales has a negative impact to our margin as a percentage of revenue. In addition, the margin percentage for year ended August 31, 2021 benefited from a $15.8 million favorable resolution of warranty and other loss contingencies associated with our international operations.

Manufacturing operating profit increased $48.9 million for the year ended August 31, 2022 compared to the prior year. The increase in operating profit was primarily attributed to an increase in railcar deliveries.

 

37


 

Maintenance Services Segment

 

 

 

Year Ended August 31,

 

 

2022 vs 2021

 

(In millions)

 

2022

 

 

2021

 

 

Increase
(Decrease)

 

 

%
Change

 

Revenue

 

$

347.7

 

 

$

298.3

 

 

$

49.4

 

 

 

16.6

%

Cost of revenue

 

$

322.0

 

 

$

280.4

 

 

$

41.6