Company Quick10K Filing
Price1.00 EPS-194,200,000
Shares-0 P/E-0
MCap-0 P/FCF-0
Net Debt2,679 EBIT265
TTM 2019-10-31, in MM, except price, ratios
10-K 2020-10-31 Filed 2020-12-17
10-Q 2020-07-31 Filed 2020-08-28
10-Q 2020-04-30 Filed 2020-06-04
10-Q 2020-01-31 Filed 2020-02-28
10-K 2019-10-31 Filed 2019-12-18
10-Q 2019-07-31 Filed 2019-08-29
10-Q 2019-04-30 Filed 2019-06-07
10-Q 2019-01-31 Filed 2019-03-01
10-K 2018-10-31 Filed 2018-12-20
10-Q 2018-07-31 Filed 2018-08-30
10-Q 2018-04-30 Filed 2018-06-08
10-Q 2018-01-31 Filed 2018-03-02
10-K 2017-10-31 Filed 2017-12-20
10-Q 2017-07-31 Filed 2017-09-01
10-Q 2017-04-30 Filed 2017-06-08
10-Q 2017-01-31 Filed 2017-03-03
10-K 2016-10-31 Filed 2016-12-21
10-Q 2016-07-31 Filed 2016-09-02
10-Q 2016-04-30 Filed 2016-06-09
10-Q 2016-01-31 Filed 2016-03-09
10-K 2015-10-31 Filed 2015-12-21
10-Q 2015-07-31 Filed 2015-09-04
10-Q 2015-04-30 Filed 2015-06-08
10-Q 2015-01-31 Filed 2015-03-06
10-K 2014-10-31 Filed 2015-01-21
10-Q 2014-07-31 Filed 2014-08-29
10-Q 2014-04-30 Filed 2014-06-06
10-Q 2014-01-31 Filed 2014-03-03
10-K 2013-10-31 Filed 2013-12-23
10-Q 2013-07-31 Filed 2013-09-06
10-Q 2013-04-30 Filed 2013-06-07
10-Q 2013-01-31 Filed 2013-03-01
10-K 2012-10-31 Filed 2012-12-26
10-Q 2012-07-31 Filed 2012-09-07
10-Q 2012-04-30 Filed 2012-06-08
10-Q 2012-01-31 Filed 2012-03-02
10-K 2011-10-31 Filed 2011-12-16
10-Q 2011-07-31 Filed 2011-09-02
10-Q 2011-04-30 Filed 2011-06-09
10-Q 2011-01-31 Filed 2011-03-07
10-K 2010-10-31 Filed 2010-12-22
10-Q 2010-07-31 Filed 2010-09-09
10-Q 2010-04-30 Filed 2010-06-09
10-Q 2010-01-31 Filed 2010-03-04
8-K 2020-12-14 Earnings, Amend Bylaw, Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2020-11-19
8-K 2020-09-01
8-K 2020-06-08
8-K 2020-04-20
8-K 2020-04-02
8-K 2020-03-31
8-K 2020-03-23
8-K 2020-03-02
8-K 2019-12-10
8-K 2019-09-26
8-K 2019-09-03
8-K 2019-07-02
8-K 2019-06-10
8-K 2019-04-05
8-K 2019-03-01
8-K 2019-02-11
8-K 2019-01-30
8-K 2019-01-24
8-K 2019-01-10
8-K 2018-12-20
8-K 2018-12-11
8-K 2018-09-04
8-K 2018-06-11
8-K 2018-03-05

GEF 10K Annual Report

Part I
Item 1. Business
Item 1A. Risk Factors
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 2. Properties
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Part II
Item 5. Market for The Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Item 6. Selected Financial Data
Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Note 1 - Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Note 2 - Acquisitions and Divestitures
Note 3 - Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets
Note 4 - Restructuring Charges
Note 5 - Consolidation of Variable Interest Entities
Note 6 - Long - Term Debt
Note 7 - Financial Instruments and Fair Value Measurements
Note 8 - Stock - Based Compensation
Note 9 - Income Taxes
Note 10 - Post - Retirement Benefit Plans
Note 11 - Contingent Liabilities and Environmental Reserves
Note 12 - Earnings per Share
Note 13 - Equity Earnings of Unconsolidated Affiliates, Net of Tax
Note 14 - Leases
Note 15 - Business Segment Information
Note 16 - Comprehensive Income (Loss)
Note 17 - Quarterly Financial Data (Unaudited)
Note 18 - Redeemable Noncontrolling Interests
Note 19 - Subsequent Events
Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosures
Item 9A. Controls and Procedures
Item 9B. Other Information
Part III
Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
Item 11. Executive Compensation
Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
Item 14. Principal Accountant Fees and Services
Part IV
Item 15. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules
Item 16. Form 10 - K Summary
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Greif Earnings 2020-10-31

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow
Assets, Equity
Rev, G Profit, Net Income
Ops, Inv, Fin

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For the fiscal year ended October 31, 2020
Commission file number: 001-00566


 (Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
425 Winter Road
Delaware Ohio
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
(740) 549-6000
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act: 
Title of Each ClassTrading Symbol(s)Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered
Class A Common StockGEFNew York Stock Exchange
Class B Common StockGEF-BNew York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.   Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act.    Yes  No  
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports) and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. 
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.     
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.  
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No  
The aggregate market value of voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates computed by reference to the price at which the common equity was last sold as of the last business day of the Registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter was as follows:
Non-voting common equity (Class A Common Stock)      $860,619,382
Voting common equity (Class B Common Stock)          $234,235,302
The number of shares outstanding of each of the Registrant’s classes of common stock, as of December 14, 2020, was as follows:
Class A Common Stock                     26,444,986 shares
Class B Common Stock                    22,007,725 shares
Listed hereunder are the documents, portions of which are incorporated by reference, and the parts of this Form 10-K into which such portions are incorporated:
    1. The Registrant’s Definitive Proxy Statement for use in connection with the Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be held on February 23, 2021 (the “2021 Proxy Statement”), portions of which are incorporated by reference into Parts II and III of this Form 10-K. The 2021 Proxy Statement will be filed within 120 days of October 31, 2020.

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All statements, other than statements of historical facts, included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K of Greif, Inc. and its subsidiaries for the fiscal year ended October 31, 2020 (this “Form 10-K”) or incorporated herein, including, without limitation, statements regarding our future financial position, business strategy, budgets, projected costs, goals and plans and objectives of management for future operations and initiatives, are forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). Forward-looking statements generally can be identified by the use of forward-looking terminology such as “may,” “will,” “expect,” “intend,” “estimate,” “anticipate,” "aspiration," "objective," “project,” “believe,” “continue,” “on track” or “target” or the negative thereof or variations thereon or similar terminology. All forward-looking statements made in this Form 10-K are based on information currently available to our management. Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date the statements were made. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in forward-looking statements have a reasonable basis, we can give no assurance that these expectations will prove to be correct. Forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties that could cause actual events or results to differ materially from those expressed in or implied by the statements. For a discussion of the most significant risks and uncertainties that could cause our actual results to differ materially from those projected, see “Risk Factors” in Item 1A of this Form 10-K. The risks described in this Form 10-K are not all inclusive, and given these and other possible risks and uncertainties, investors should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements as a prediction of actual results. All forward-looking statements made in this Form 10-K are expressly qualified in their entirety by reference to such risk factors. Except to the limited extent required by applicable law, we undertake no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.

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Index to Form 10-K Annual Report for the Fiscal Year ended October 31, 2020 
10-K Item

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(a) General Development of Business
We are a leading global producer of industrial packaging products and services with operations in over 40 countries. We offer a comprehensive line of rigid industrial packaging products, such as steel, fibre and plastic drums, rigid intermediate bulk containers, closure systems for industrial packaging products, transit protection products, water bottles and remanufactured and reconditioned industrial containers, and services, such as container life cycle management, filling, logistics, warehousing and other packaging services. We produce and sell containerboard, corrugated sheets, corrugated containers, and other corrugated products to customers in North America in industries such as packaging, automotive, food and building products. We also produce and sell coated recycled paperboard and uncoated recycled paperboard, some of which we use to produce and sell industrial products (tubes and cores, construction products, protective packaging, and adhesives). In addition, we also purchase and sell recycled fiber. We are a leading global producer of flexible intermediate bulk containers and related services. We sell timber to third parties from our timberland in the southeastern United States that we manage to maximize long-term value. In addition, we sell, from time to time, timberland and special use land, which consists of surplus land, higher and better use (“HBU”) land, and development land. Our customers range from Fortune 500 companies to medium and small-sized companies in a cross section of industries.
Our fiscal year begins on November 1 and ends on October 31 of the following year. Any references in this Form 10-K to the years, or to any quarter of those years, relates to the fiscal year or quarter, as the case may be, ended in that year, unless otherwise stated.
As used in this Form 10-K, the terms “Greif,” the “Company,” “we,” “us,” and “our” refer to Greif, Inc. and its subsidiaries.
(b) Financial Information about Segments
We operate in eight business segments, which are aggregated into four reportable business segments: Rigid Industrial Packaging & Services; Paper Packaging & Services; Flexible Products & Services; and Land Management. Information related to each of these segments is included in Note 15 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 of this Form 10-K.
(c) Narrative Description of Business
In the Rigid Industrial Packaging & Services segment, we are a leading global producer of rigid industrial packaging products, such as steel, fibre and plastic drums, rigid intermediate bulk containers, closure systems for industrial packaging products, transit protection products, water bottles and remanufactured and reconditioned industrial containers, and services, such as container life cycle management, filling, logistics, warehousing and other packaging services. We sell our industrial packaging products to customers in industries such as chemicals, paints and pigments, food and beverage, petroleum, industrial coatings, agricultural, pharmaceutical and minerals, among others.
In the Paper Packaging & Services segment, we produce and sell containerboard, corrugated sheets, corrugated containers, and other corrugated products to customers in North America in industries such as packaging, automotive, food and building products. Our corrugated container products are used to ship such diverse products as home appliances, small machinery, grocery products, automotive components, books and furniture, as well as numerous other applications. We also produce and sell coated recycled paperboard and uncoated recycled paperboard, some of which we use to produce and sell industrial products (tubes and cores, construction products, protective packaging, and adhesives). In addition, we also purchase and sell recycled fiber.
In the Flexible Products & Services segment, we are a leading global producer of flexible intermediate bulk containers and related services. Our flexible intermediate bulk containers consist of a polypropylene-based woven fabric that is produced at our production sites, as well as sourced from strategic regional suppliers. Our flexible products are sold globally and service customers and market segments similar to those of our Rigid Industrial Packaging & Services segment. Additionally, our flexible products significantly expand our presence in the agricultural and food industries, among others.
In the Land Management segment, we are focused on the active harvesting and regeneration of our United States timber properties to achieve sustainable long-term yields. While timber sales are subject to fluctuations, we seek to maintain a consistent cutting schedule, within the limits of market and weather conditions. We also sell, from time to time, timberland and

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special use land, which consists of surplus land, HBU land and development land. As of October 31, 2020, we owned approximately 244,000 acres of timber properties in the southeastern United States.
Due to the variety of our products, we have many customers buying different types of our products and due to the scope of our sales, no one customer is considered principal in our total operations.
The preparation of financial statements requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses reported in such financial statements. Our actual results and outcomes during the year ended October 31, 2020 have been impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, which has caused an economic downturn on a global scale, as well as significant market disruption and volatility. Because the scope, duration and magnitude of the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic continue to evolve, we cannot, at this time, predict the impact the pandemic will have on our future consolidated financial position, cash flows or results of operations; however, the impact could be material. Our future financial results and operations depend in part on the duration and severity of the pandemic and what actions are taken to mitigate the outbreak.
The markets in which we sell our products are highly competitive with many participants. Although no single company dominates, we face significant competitors in each of our businesses. Our competitors include large vertically integrated companies as well as numerous smaller companies. The industries in which we compete are particularly sensitive to price fluctuations caused by shifts in industry capacity and other cyclical industry conditions. Other competitive factors include design, quality and service, with varying emphasis depending on product line.
In both the rigid industrial packaging industry and the flexible products industry, we compete by offering a comprehensive line of products on a global basis. In the containerboard industry, we compete by concentrating on providing value-added, higher-margin corrugated products to niche markets. In our other paper packaging businesses, we compete by offering a comprehensive range of uncoated and coated paperboard products and diverse tube, core and other specialty products. In addition, over the past several years we have closed higher cost facilities and otherwise restructured our operations, which we believe has significantly improved our cost competitiveness.
Steel, resin and containerboard, as well as used industrial packaging for reconditioning, are the principal raw materials for the Rigid Industrial Packaging & Services segment, resin is the primary raw material for the Flexible Products & Services segment, and pulpwood, old corrugated containers, and recycled coated and uncoated paperboard are the principal raw materials for the Paper Packaging & Services segment. We satisfy most of our needs for these raw materials through purchases on the open market or under short-term and long-term supply agreements. All of these raw materials are purchased in highly competitive, price-sensitive markets, which have historically exhibited price, demand and supply cyclicality. From time to time, some of these raw materials have been in short supply at certain of our manufacturing facilities. In those situations, we ship the raw materials in short supply from one or more of our other facilities with sufficient supply to the facility or facilities experiencing the shortage. To date, raw material shortages have not had a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations.
Government Laws and Regulations
We must comply with extensive laws, rules, and regulations in the United States and in each of the countries where we conduct business with respect to a variety of matters, including the compliance with government laws and regulations concerning the environment and health and safety matters. We do not believe that future compliance with government laws and regulations will have a material adverse effect on our capital expenditures, competitive position, results of operations or financial condition.
As to environmental matters, our operations are subject to extensive federal, state, local and international laws, regulations, rules and ordinances relating to pollution, the protection of the environment, the generation, storage, handling, transportation, treatment, disposal and remediation of hazardous substances and waste materials and numerous other environmental laws and regulations. In the ordinary course of business, we are subject to periodic environmental inspections and monitoring by various governmental agencies. In addition, certain of our production facilities require environmental permits that are subject to revocation, modification and renewal. As of the date of filing this Form 10-K, and based on current information, we believe that the probable costs of the remediation of company-owned property will not have a material adverse effect on our financial

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condition or results of operations. We believe that we have adequately reserved for our liability for these matters as of October 31, 2020.
As to the health and safety matters, our manufacturing operations involve the use of heavy equipment, machinery and chemicals and require the performance of activities that create safety exposures. The health and safety of our employees is our first and foremost priority, and we have established safety policies, programs, procedures, and training for our manufacturing operations. We are subject to extensive federal, state, local, and international laws, regulations, rules and ordinances relating to occupational health and safety, and our safety programs include measures required for compliance with these government laws and regulations. In addition, our safety programs include the ongoing identification and elimination of workplace exposures that can lead to injuries and sharing of health and safety best practices. We do not believe that future compliance with health and safety laws and regulations will have a material adverse effect on our capital expenditures, results of operations or financial condition.
We do not believe that compliance with federal, state, local and international laws and regulations that have been enacted or adopted regulating the discharge of materials into the environment, or otherwise relating to the protection of the environment, has had or will have a material adverse effect upon our capital expenditures, competitive position, results of operations or financial condition. We do not anticipate any material capital expenditures related to environmental control in 2021. However, since 2017, three reconditioning facilities in the Milwaukee, Wisconsin area that are or were owned by Container Life Cycle Management LLC (“CLCM”), our U.S. reconditioning joint venture company, have been subject to investigations and proceedings conducted by federal, state and local governmental agencies concerning, among other matters, potential violations of environmental laws and regulations. One of these facilities was closed and its associated assets were sold during 2020. As a result of these investigations and proceedings, we have made, and in the future may need to make, capital expenditures at the two remaining facilities. But the costs associated with these capital expenditures have not been, and we do not expect the costs associated with any future capital expenditures will be, material. See Item 3 of this Form 10-K for additional information with respect to the proceedings involving these reconditioning facilities.
See also to Note 11 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 of this Form 10-K for additional information concerning environmental expenses and cash expenditures for the periods ended October 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, and our reserves for environmental liabilities as of October 31, 2020 and 2019.
Human Capital
Our Company’s values and culture are critical to our ability to attract, hire and retain talented employees for our global businesses. We seek to engage, develop and incentivize our approximately 16,000 full-time employees, as of October 31, 2020, to pursue our vision: “In industrial packaging, be the best performing customer service company in the world.” We depend on our employees to provide differentiated customer service and create value for our customers through a solutions-based approach with the goal of earning our customers’ trust and loyalty. We work to accomplish this goal by looking to our values set forth in “The Greif Way” to establish a foundation for actions that support health and safety, diversity and inclusion, and talent development.
Health and Safety
Safeguarding the health and safety of our employees is our first and foremost priority. We are committed to providing a safe working environment for all our employees. In 2017, we implemented an incident tracking system that we call the LIFE program. We use data provided by the LIFE program to assist with identifying global and regional leading indicators and creating programs and safety action plans to reduce conditions and behaviors that lead to at-risk situations. To promote a continuous focus on safety, we have safety committees comprised of employees and management at all our facilities, and we conduct a safety meeting before every shift to help ensure our safety culture is understood and practiced every day. We are steadfast in our commitment to employee safety. For example, in 2019, we introduced a Global Safety Scorecard with standardized safety metrics within each business unit to help ensure that we are evaluating safety similarly across all or our operations.
In response to the COVID-19 global pandemic, we have remained focused on safeguarding the health of our employees by implementing new safety protocols and procedures across all our facilities. We have used a global task force and multiple regional task forces, all of which meet at least weekly and more often as needed, in addition to management at all levels to continuously monitor the impact of COVID-19 on our employees and proactively modify and adopt new measures and practices for the health and safety of our employees and in response to applicable local laws or ordinances.
Diversity and Inclusion

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In accordance with our values, we encourage our employees to embrace diversity of culture, language, location and thought. Our success depends on maintaining a culture where every employee communicates with respect, candor and trust. We rely on the unique qualities and talents of our employees to help us meet our strategic priorities. As of October 31, 2020, our employees were located in the following geographic regions: 44% in North America; 40% in Europe, Middle East and Africa; 10% in Asia Pacific; and 6% in Latin America. Our global workforce is 23% female and 77% male, with approximately 43% represented by labor unions. Our efforts to continue to grow our global diversity and inclusion programs and to increase diversity within our Company is an organizational priority.
Talent Development
Attracting, developing, and retaining talented employees is an integral aspect of our human capital strategy and critical to our success. We have created a Global Talent Center, which is a centralized talent management platform focused on growing and developing our employees around the world. Our development and training programs are designed to enhance leadership, develop a customer service mindset and improve engagement. We have a performance development review and talent development process in which managers provide regular feedback and coaching to assist with the development of our employees, including the use of individual development plans to assist with individual career development. In 2019, 92% of eligible employees completed their annual performance development review. In 2021, we will continue to focus on improving our learning and development efforts, which includes the launch of “Greif University,” a centralized training hub across our organization.
(d) Financial Information about Geographic Areas
Our operations are located in North and South America, Europe, the Middle East, Africa and the Asia Pacific regions. Information related to our geographic areas of operation is included in Note 15 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 of this Form 10-K. See also to Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk included in Item 7A of this Form 10-K.
(e) Available Information
We maintain a website at We file reports with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) and make available, free of charge, on or through our website, our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, proxy and information statements and amendments to these reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act as soon as reasonably practicable after we have electronically filed such material with, or furnished it to, the SEC.
Any of the materials we file with the SEC may also be read and/or copied at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, NE, Washington, DC 20549. Information on the operation of the SEC’s Public Reference Room may be obtained by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. The SEC maintains a website that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC at
(f) Other Matters
Our Class A Common Stock and Class B Common Stock are listed on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) under the symbols GEF and GEF.B, respectively. Our Chief Executive Officer has timely certified to the NYSE that, at the date of the certification, he was unaware of any violation by our Company of the NYSE’s corporate governance listing standards. In addition, our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer have provided certain certifications in this Form 10-K regarding the quality of our public disclosures. See Exhibits 31.1 and 31.2 to this Form 10-K.
Statements contained in this Form 10-K may be “forward-looking” within the meaning of Section 21E of the Exchange Act. Such forward-looking statements are subject to certain risks and uncertainties that could cause our operating results to differ materially from those projected. The following factors, among others, in some cases have affected, and in the future could affect, our actual financial or operational performance, or both.
Risks Related to Market and Economic Factors
Historically, our Business has been Sensitive to Changes in General Economic or Business Conditions.
Our customers generally consist of other manufacturers and suppliers who purchase industrial packaging products and containerboard and related corrugated products for their own containment and shipping purposes. Because we supply a cross

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section of industries, such as chemicals, films, paints and pigments, food and beverage, petroleum, industrial coatings, carpeting, agricultural, pharmaceutical, mineral products, packaging, automotive, construction and building products industries and have operations in many countries, demand for our products and services has historically corresponded to changes in general economic and business conditions of the industries and countries in which we operate. The overall demand and prices for our products and services could decline as a result of a large number of factors outside our control, including economic recessions, the COVID-19 global pandemic and any future pandemics, changes in industrial production processes or consumer preference, changes in laws and regulations, inflation, tariffs, changes in published pricing indices, fluctuations in interest and currency exchange rates and changes in the fiscal or monetary policies of governments in the regions in which we operate. Accordingly, our financial performance is substantially dependent upon the general economic and business conditions existing in these industries and countries where we do business, and any prolonged or substantial economic downturn in the markets in which we operate could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Our Global Operations Subject us to Currency Exchange and Political Risks that Could Adversely Affect our Results of Operations.
We have operations in over 40 countries with approximately 40.6% of our 2020 sales derived from non-U.S. operations. Management of global operations is extremely complex, and operations outside the United States are subject to additional risks that may not exist, or be as significant, in the United States. As a result of our global operations, we are subject to certain risks that could disrupt our operations or force us to incur unanticipated costs. These risks include the following:
political, social, economic and labor instability
war, invasion, civil disturbance or acts of terrorism;
taking of property by nationalization or expropriation without fair compensation;
changes in government policies and regulations and enforcement thereof, including selectivity or discrimination in the enforcement thereof;
loss or non-renewal of treaties or similar agreements with foreign tax authorities and
difficulties in enforcement of contractual obligations;
imposition of limitations on conversions of currencies into United States dollars or remittance of dividends and other payments by international subsidiaries;
imposition or increase of withholding and other taxes on income remittances and other payments by international subsidiaries;
hyperinflation, currency devaluation or defaults in certain countries;
impositions or increase of investment and other restrictions or requirements by non-U.S. governments;
national and regional labor strikes, whether legal or illegal and other labor or social actions;
restrictive governmental trade policies, customs, tariffs, trade-wars, international boycotts, sanctions, import/export and other trade compliance regulations; and
financial uncertainties in our major international markets, including uncertainties surrounding the United Kingdom’s withdrawal from the European Union.
We also have indebtedness, agreements to purchase raw materials and agreements to sell finished products that are denominated in Euros, Turkish Lira, Russian Rubles and other currencies. Our operating performance is affected by fluctuations in currency exchange rates by:
translations into United States dollars for financial reporting purposes of the assets and liabilities of our Non-U.S. operations conducted in local currencies; and
gains or losses from transactions conducted in currencies other than the operation’s functional currency.
The COVID-19 Pandemic Could Continue to Impact Any Combination of our Business, Financial Condition, Results of Operations and Cash Flows.
The global impact of COVID-19 continues to rapidly evolve and is creating significant economic uncertainty and volatility in the world economy due to the severity of the virus, the duration of the pandemic, and what future actions may be taken by

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governmental authorities to attempt to mitigate the spread and contain potential new outbreaks. As a result, at this time, we cannot reasonably estimate the full impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.
The persistence of the virus and further deterioration of economic conditions, and continued disruption to our customers and their end markets or to the global supply chain due to the COVID-19 pandemic could have a significant negative impact on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. The products we manufacture and the services we provide have been deemed “essential” and, as a result, government authorities in every country in which we do business have allowed our operations to continue without significant disruption. In recent months, government restrictions have been relaxed on many businesses, but with recent resurgence of the virus in the Americas and EMEA, governments may seek to re-impose business shut downs and operational restrictions, which could further impact our customers, their end markets, and our suppliers, especially those that are deemed “nonessential” businesses. A lack of demand by our customers or a lack of demand for our customers' products may translate into a lack of demand for our products and in turn could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
To attempt to mitigate the financial risks directly related to the COVID-19 pandemic, we have developed and implemented operational plans that we believe will help us be prepared to continue supplying our products and services to our customers. Our primary concern is the health and safety of our workforce. In that regard, we have implemented precautionary measures that are designed to help minimize the risk of our employees being exposed to the virus. Some additional factors we believe could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows include: extended facility closures or operations at reduced capacities if employees are unable to work due to sickness or the need to quarantine; temporary downtime if demand for our products are dramatically reduced; costs of keeping our employees safe at work; loss of key customers; competitive pressures; supplier relationships; delay in cost savings and operating efficiency projects; cyber security threats; potential impact on our internal controls; reactions by federal and state governmental agencies; inflation; and access to capital markets.
The Current and Future Challenging Global Economy and Disruption and Volatility of the Financial and Credit Markets may Adversely Affect our Business.
Current global economic conditions are challenging to our global business operations. Such conditions have had, and may continue to have, a negative impact on our financial results. Future economic downturns, either in the United States, Europe or in other regions in which we do business could negatively affect our business and results of operations. The volatility of the current economic climate, especially in relation to ongoing uncertainties related to the COVID-19 pandemic and geopolitical events around the world, including the imposition of trade tariffs, makes it difficult for us to predict the complete impact of the forgoing matters on our business and results of operations. Due to these current and future economic conditions, our customers may face financial difficulties, disruption in their supply chains, and the unavailability of or reduction in commercial credit that may result in decreased sales by and revenues to our company. Certain of our customers may cease operations or seek bankruptcy protection, which would reduce our cash flows and adversely impact our results of operations. Our customers that are financially viable and not experiencing economic distress may nevertheless elect to reduce the volume of orders for our products or close facilities in an effort to remain financially stable or as a result of the unavailability of commercial credit which would negatively affect our results of operations. We may experience difficulties in servicing, renewing or repaying our outstanding debt due to continued volatility in the global economy. We may also have difficulty accessing the global credit markets if there is a tightening of commercial credit availability, which would result in decreased ability to fund capital-intensive strategic projects.
Further, we may experience challenges in forecasting revenues and operating results due to these global economic conditions. The difficulty in forecasting revenues and operating results may result in volatility in the market price of our common stock.
In addition, the lenders under our senior secured credit agreement and other borrowing facilities described in Item 7 of this Form 10-K under Liquidity and Capital Resources - Borrowing Arrangements and the counterparties with whom we maintain interest rate swap agreements, currency forward contracts and derivatives and other hedge agreements may be unable to perform their lending or payment obligations in whole or in part, or may cease operations or seek bankruptcy protection, which would negatively affect our cash flows and our results of operations.
A downgrade in our credit rating could also impact our ability to effectively finance our operations and could lead to increased borrowing costs and limits on our access to capital.
The equipment that we use in our manufacturing operations is expensive and requires continued maintenance. We require significant capital investment to maintain our equipment. If our existing sources of capital prove insufficient, there can be no assurance that we will be able to obtain capital to finance these expenditures on favorable terms, or at all. Any inability by us to

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maintain our equipment as needed or any inability to obtain capital for expenditures on equipment maintenance on favorable terms could have an adverse effect on our business, financial position and results of operations.
Risks Related to Industry Conditions
The Continuing Consolidation of our Customer Base and Suppliers may Intensify Pricing Pressure.
Over the last few years, many of our large industrial packaging, containerboard and corrugated products customers have acquired, or been acquired by, companies with similar or complementary product lines. In addition, many of our suppliers of raw materials such as steel, resin and paper, have undergone a similar process of consolidation. This consolidation has increased the concentration of our largest customers, resulting in increased pricing pressures from our customers. The consolidation of our largest suppliers has resulted in limited sources of supply and increased cost pressures from our suppliers. Any future consolidation of our customer base or our suppliers could negatively impact our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. This consolidation could be accelerated by the impact of COVID-19 on our customers and suppliers. Furthermore, if one or more of our major customers reduces, delays or cancels substantial orders, if one or more of our major suppliers is unable to timely produce and deliver our orders our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows may be materially and adversely affected, particularly for the period in which the reduction, delay or cancellation occurs and also possibly for subsequent periods.
We Operate in Highly Competitive Industries.
Each of our business segments operates in highly competitive industries. The most important competitive factors we face are price, quality and service. To the extent any of our competitors become more successful with respect to any of these key competitive factors, we could lose customers and our sales could decline. In addition, due to the tendency of certain customers to diversify their suppliers, we could be unable to increase or maintain sales volumes with particular customers. Certain of our competitors are substantially larger and have significantly greater financial resources.
In addition, some of our products are made from raw materials that are subject to pronounced price fluctuations, such as steel, which is used in the manufacture of steel drums and containers, old corrugated containers, and oil, which in turn affects the price of resin for plastic drums and containers. Particularly in well-developed markets in Europe and in the United States, any substantial increases in the supply of industrial packaging resulting from capacity increases, the stockpiling of raw materials or other types of opportunistic behavior by our competitors in a period of high raw materials prices, or price wars, could adversely affect our margins and the profitability of our business. Although price is a significant basis of competition in our industry, we also compete on the basis of product reliability, the ability to deliver products on a global scale and our reputation for quality and customer service. If we fail to maintain our current standards for product quality, the scope of our distribution capabilities or our customer relationships, business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could be adversely affected.
Negative media reports about us or our businesses, whether accurate or inaccurate, could damage our reputation and relationships with our customers and suppliers, cause customers and suppliers to terminate their relationship with us, or impair our ability to effectively compete, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Our Business is Sensitive to Changes in Industry Demands and Customer Preferences.
Industry demand for certain of our industrial packaging products in our United States, European and other international markets has varied in recent years causing competitive pricing pressures for those products. We compete in industries that are capital intensive, which generally leads to continued production as long as prices are sufficient to cover marginal costs. As a result, changes in industry demands (including any resulting industry over-capacity) and increased new capacity for production of industrial packaging products by competitors, may cause substantial price competition and, in turn, negatively impact our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Additionally, customer preferences are constantly changing based on, among other factors, cost, convenience, health, environmental and social concerns, and customers may choose to use different packaging products other than the products we manufacture as their business models change, or may choose to use alternative materials for their packaging products or simply forego the packaging of certain products entirely. For example, in the United States, sales of fibre drums continue to decline on a year over year basis as some customers select other packaging solutions for their products. Any shift away from packaging products we manufacture or changes in customer preferences may adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Raw Material, Energy and Transportation Price Fluctuations and Shortages may Adversely Impact our Manufacturing Operations and Costs.

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The principal raw materials used in the manufacture of our products are steel, resin, pulpwood, and recycled pulp from old corrugated containers and recycled coated and uncoated paperboard, used industrial packaging for reconditioning, and containerboard, which we purchase or otherwise acquire in highly competitive, price sensitive markets. These raw materials have historically exhibited price and demand cyclicality. In addition, we manufacture certain component parts for our rigid industrial packaging products and those of some of our competitors. Some of these materials and component parts have been, and in the future may be, in short supply. For example, the availability of these raw materials and component parts and/or our ability to purchase and transport these raw materials and produce and transport these component parts may be unexpectedly disrupted by adverse weather conditions, natural disasters, man-made disasters, a substantial economic downturn in the industries that provide any of those raw materials, or competition for use of raw materials and component parts in other regions or countries. However, we have not recently experienced any significant difficulty in obtaining our principal raw materials or component parts, despite the COVID-19 pandemic. With the economic uncertainty surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic and its severity and duration, we could incur significant raw material prices increases in the future which would likely have an adverse effect on our operating margins. We have long-term supply contracts in place for obtaining a portion of our principal raw materials. The cost of producing our products is also sensitive to the price of energy (including its impact on transport costs). Energy prices, in particular oil and natural gas, have fluctuated in recent years, with a corresponding effect on our production costs. Potential legislation, regulatory action and international treaties related to climate change, especially those related to the regulation of greenhouse gases, may result in significant increases in raw material and energy costs. We are highly reliant on the trucking industry for the transportation of our products. The overall profitability of our operations may be negatively impacted by higher transportation costs as freight carriers raise prices to address the continued shortage of drivers and market tightness. There can be no assurance that we will be able to recoup any past or future increases in the cost of energy, transportation and raw materials.
The Frequency and Volume of our Timber and Timberland Sales Will Impact our Financial Performance.
We have a significant inventory of standing timber and timberland and approximately 18,800 acres of special use properties in the United States as of October 31, 2020. The frequency, demand for and volume of sales of timber, timberland and special use properties will have an effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. In addition, volatility in the real estate market for special use properties could negatively affect our results of operations.
Risks Related to our Operations
We may not Successfully Implement our Business Strategies, Including Achieving our Growth Objectives.
We may not be able to fully implement our business strategies or realize, in whole or in part within the expected time frames, the anticipated benefits of our growth and other initiatives. Our various business strategies and initiatives are subject to significant business, economic and competitive uncertainties and contingencies, many of which are beyond our control.
In addition, we may incur certain costs to achieve efficiency improvements and growth in our business and we may not meet anticipated implementation timetables or stay within budgeted costs. As these growth initiatives are undertaken, we may not fully achieve our expected cost savings and efficiency improvements or growth rates, or these initiatives could adversely impact our customer retention or our operations. Also, our business strategies may change from time to time in light of our ability to implement our new business initiatives, competitive pressures, economic uncertainties or developments, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, or other factors. A variety of risks could cause us not to realize some or all of the expected benefits of these initiatives. These risks include, among others, delays in the anticipated timing of activities related to such initiatives, strategies and operating plans; increased difficulty and costs in implementing these efforts; and the incurrence of other unexpected costs associated with operating the business. As a result, there can be no assurance that we will realize these benefits. If, for any reason, the benefits we realize are less than our estimates or the implementation of these growth initiatives and business strategies adversely affect our operations or cost more or take longer to effectuate than we expect, or if our assumptions prove inaccurate, our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows may be adversely affected.
We may Encounter Difficulties or Liabilities Arising from Acquisitions or Divestitures.
We have invested a substantial amount of capital in acquisitions, joint ventures and strategic investments and we expect that we will continue to do so in the foreseeable future. We are continually evaluating acquisitions and strategic investments that are significant to our business both in the United States and internationally. Acquisitions, joint ventures and strategic investments involve numerous risks, including the failure to identify suitable acquisition candidates, complete acquisitions on acceptable terms and conditions, retain key customers, employees and contracts, the inability to integrate businesses without material disruption, unanticipated costs incurred in connection with integrating businesses, the incurrence of liabilities greater than anticipated or operating results that are less than anticipated, the inability to realize the projected value, and the inability to realize projected synergies. In addition, acquisitions, joint ventures and strategic investments and associated integration

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activities require time and attention of management and other key personnel. There can be no assurance that any acquisitions, joint ventures and strategic investments will be successfully integrated into our operations, that competition for acquisitions will not intensify or that we will be able to complete such acquisitions, joint ventures and strategic investments on acceptable terms and conditions. The costs of unsuccessful acquisition, joint venture and strategic investment efforts may adversely affect our business, financial condition results of operations and cash flows.
Additionally, in connection with any acquisitions or divestitures, we may become subject to contingent liabilities or legal claims, including but not limited to third party liability and other tort claims; claims for breach of contract; employment-related claims; environmental, health and safety liabilities, conditions or damage; permitting, regulatory or other compliance with law issues; or tax liabilities. If we become subject to any of these liabilities or claims, and they are not adequately covered by insurance or an enforceable indemnity or similar agreement from a creditworthy counterparty, we may be responsible for significant out-of-pocket expenditures. These liabilities, if they materialize, could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
The Acquisition of Caraustar Subjects us to Various Risks and Uncertainties.
The acquisition of Caraustar Industries, Inc. and its subsidiaries ("Caraustar") on February 11, 2019 (the "Caraustar Acquisition") was the largest acquisition in our history. As a result of this acquisition, we are subject to various risks and uncertainties, including the failure to retain key customers, employees and contracts, the inability to integrate businesses without material disruption, unanticipated costs incurred in connection with integrating businesses, the incurrence of liabilities greater than anticipated or operating results that are less than anticipated, the inability to realize the projected value, and the inability to realize projected synergies, cost savings, operating efficiencies and other benefits, especially as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, we may experience a delay in the anticipated timing and increased difficulty and costs in implementing these efforts. We may encounter difficulties with integrating Caraustar’s operations into our operations, including inconsistencies in standards, systems and controls, which may divert management’s focus and resources from ordinary business activities and opportunities. We may encounter unforeseen internal control, regulatory or compliance issues. Any of the foregoing could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
We may Incur Additional Restructuring Costs and there is no Guarantee that our Efforts to Reduce Costs will be Successful.
We have restructured portions of our operations from time to time in recent years, particularly following acquisitions of businesses, and periods of economic downturn due to local, regional or global economic conditions. We will continue to implement continuous improvement initiatives necessary or desirable to improve our business portfolio, address underperforming assets and generate additional cash. These initiatives may include selling, general and administrative reductions throughout our Company and have and will likely continue to result in the rationalization of manufacturing facilities.
The rationalization of our manufacturing facilities may result in temporary constraints upon our ability to manufacture the quantity of products necessary to fill orders and thereby complete sales in a timely manner. In addition, system upgrades at our manufacturing facilities that impact ordering, production scheduling and other related manufacturing processes are complex, and could impact or delay production targets. A prolonged delay in our ability to fill orders on a timely basis could affect customer demand for our products and increase the size of our product inventories, causing future reductions in our manufacturing schedules and adversely affecting our results of operations. Moreover, our continuous development and production of new products will often involve the retooling of existing manufacturing facilities. This retooling may limit our production capacity at certain times in the future, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flow. In addition, the expansion and reconfiguration of existing manufacturing facilities could increase the risk of production delays, as well as require significant investments of capital.
While we expect these initiatives to result in significant profit opportunities and savings throughout our organization, our estimated profits and savings are based on several assumptions that may prove to be inaccurate, and as a result, there can be no assurance that we will realize these profits and cost savings or that, if realized, these profits and cost savings will be sustained. Failure to achieve or delays in achieving projected levels of efficiencies and cost savings from such measures, or unanticipated inefficiencies resulting from manufacturing and administrative reorganization actions in progress or contemplated, could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows and harm our reputation.
Several Operations are Conducted by Joint Ventures that we Cannot Operate Solely for our Benefit.
Several operations, particularly in developing countries, are conducted through joint ventures, such as a significant joint venture in our Flexible Products & Services segment. In countries that require us to conduct business through a joint venture with a local joint venture partner, the loss of a joint venture partner or a joint venture partner’s loss of its ability to conduct business in

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such country may impact our ability to conduct business in that country. Sanctions that apply to a partner of a joint venture or to a joint venture’s directors or officers could also impact our ability to conduct business through that joint venture.
In joint ventures, we share ownership and, in some instances, management of a company with one or more parties who may or may not have the same goals, strategies, priorities or resources as we do. In general, joint ventures are intended to be operated for the benefit of all co-owners, rather than for our exclusive benefit. Operating a business as a joint venture often requires additional organizational formalities as well as time-consuming procedures for sharing information, accounting and making decisions. In certain cases, our joint venture partners must agree in order for the applicable joint venture to take certain actions, including acquisitions, the sale of assets, budget approvals, borrowing money and granting liens on joint venture property. Our inability to take unilateral action that we believe is in our best interests may have an adverse effect on the financial performance of the joint venture and the return on our investment. In joint ventures, we believe our relationship with our co-owners is an important factor to the success of the joint venture, and if a co-owner changes, our relationship may be adversely affected. In addition, the benefits from a successful joint venture are shared among the co-owners, so that we do not receive all the benefits from our successful joint ventures. Finally, we may be required on a legal or practical basis or both, to accept liability for obligations of a joint venture beyond our economic interest, including in cases where our co-owner becomes bankrupt or is otherwise unable to meet its commitments. For additional information with respect to the joint venture relating to our Flexible Products & Services segment, see Item 7, Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Variable Interest Entities.
Certain of the Agreements that Govern our Joint Ventures Provide our Partners With Put or Call Options.
The agreements that govern certain of our current joint ventures under certain circumstances provide the joint venture partner with the right to sell their participation in the joint venture to us or the right to acquire our participation in the joint venture. Some of the joint venture agreements provide that the joint venture partner can sell its participation for a certain purchase price calculated on the basis of a fixed multiple. Such put and call rights may result in financial risks for us. In addition, such rights could negatively impact our operations if as a result of their exercise we lose access to members of our management teams that are familiar with local markets or distribution and manufacturing channels.
Our Ability to Attract, Develop and Retain Talented and Qualified Employees, Managers and Executives is Critical to our Success.
Our ability to attract, develop and retain talented and qualified employees, including executives and other key managers, is critical to pursuing our vision of: "In industrial packaging, be the best performing customer service company in the world." We need an engaged workforce to serve our customers, and this becomes more challenging with more office employees working remotely and with production employees working with enhanced health and safety protocols. Hiring and effectively onboarding qualified employees is becoming more challenging due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The retirement of or unforeseen loss of key officers and employees without appropriate succession planning or the ability to develop or hire replacements could hinder our strategic planning and make it difficult to manage our business and meet our objectives, resulting in a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Our Business may be Adversely Impacted by Work Stoppages and Other Labor Relations Matters.
We are subject to risk of work stoppages and other labor relations matters, with approximately 43% of our employees around the world represented by unions. We have experienced work stoppages and strikes in the past, and there may be work stoppages and strikes in the future. Any prolonged work stoppage or strike at any one of our principal manufacturing facilities could have a negative impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. In addition, upon the expiration of existing collective bargaining agreements, we may not reach new agreements without union action and any such new agreements may not be on terms satisfactory to us.
We may be Subject to Losses that Might not be Covered in Whole or in Part by Existing Insurance Reserves or Insurance Coverage and General Insurance Premium and Deductible Increases.
We are self-insured or carry large deductibles for certain of the claims made under our employee medical and dental insurance programs and for certain of our workers’ compensation claims. We utilize outside actuarial services to establish reserves for estimated costs related to pending claims, administrative fees and claims incurred but not reported. Because establishing reserves is an inherently uncertain process involving estimates, currently established reserves may not be adequate to cover the actual liability for claims made under our employee medical and dental insurance programs and for certain of our workers’ compensation and liability claims. If it is concluded that our estimates are incorrect and our reserves are inadequate for these claims, we will need to increase our reserves, which could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

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We have comprehensive liability, fire and extended coverage insurance on our facilities and operations, with policy specifications and insured limits customarily carried for similar properties. However, there are certain types of losses, such as losses resulting from wars, acts of terrorism, windstorm, flood, earthquake or other natural disasters, or pollution, that may be uninsurable or subject to restrictive policy conditions or subject to very large deductibles. In these instances, should a loss occur in excess of insured limits, we could lose capital invested in that property, as well as the anticipated future revenues derived from the manufacturing activities conducted at that property, while remaining obligated for any financial obligations related to the property. Any such loss would adversely impact our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. We purchase insurance policies covering general liability and product liability with substantial policy limits. However, there can be no assurance that any liability claim would be adequately covered by our applicable insurance policies or it would not be excluded from coverage based on the terms and conditions of the policy. This could also apply to any applicable contractual indemnity. We also purchase environmental liability policies where legally required and may elect to purchase coverage in other circumstances in order to transfer all or a portion of environmental liability risk through insurance. However, there can be no assurance that any environmental liability claim would be adequately covered by our applicable insurance policies or that it would not be excluded from coverage based on the terms and conditions of the policy. We do not purchase crop insurance for our timberland holdings, and a forest fire or other event could damage a material amount of timber.
The costs of insurance coverage continue to increase, along with increases in the level of deductibles, and the availability of some insurance coverages is decreasing due to extensive property damage caused by natural disasters, increased cyber security breaches, runaway jury verdicts and other business and employment litigation and losses. Any substantial increases in our insurance premiums or the availability of insurance policies could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Our Business Depends on the Uninterrupted Operations of our Facilities, Systems and Business Functions, Including our Information Technology ("IT") and Other Business Systems.
Our business is dependent upon our ability to execute, in an efficient and uninterrupted fashion, necessary business functions, such as accessing key business data, financial information, order processing, invoicing and the operation of IT dependent manufacturing equipment. In addition, a significant portion of the communication between our employees, customers and suppliers around the world depends on our IT systems. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, our reliance on our IT systems and Internet usage has increased significantly as substantially more employees are working remotely. A significant interruption or major failure of the Internet, a shut-down of or inability to access one or more of our facilities, a power outage, or a failure of one or more of our IT, telecommunications or other systems would substantially impair our ability to perform daily functions on a timely basis and could result in a material adverse impact on our operations.
We are in the process of implementing a standard IT platform across our business and have successfully completed implementation in over half of our locations. Though there are other locations globally, the locations acquired as part of the Caraustar Acquisition represent the majority of locations in which implementation is still in progress. The transition from many former systems, many of which were acquired in connection with business acquisitions, to a single system will reduce complexity and inefficiencies in monitoring business results and consolidating financial data. The transition could result in adverse business effects. This project has been ongoing for several years requiring significant human and financial resources and is expected to extend into 2022, with work at our Flexible Products & Services operations and former Caraustar operations being completed later in 2021. These projects may be further delayed as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. There can be no assurance that this project will be successful, and even if successful, there can be no assurance that other difficulties and inefficiencies will not still exist in our systems.
We have established a business continuity plan in an effort to ensure the continuation of core business operations in the event that normal operations could not be performed due to a catastrophic event. While we continue to test and assess our business continuity plan to ensure it meets the needs of our core business operations and addresses multiple business interruption events, there is no assurance that core business operations could be performed upon the occurrence of such an event which may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
A Security Breach of Customer, Employee, Supplier or Company Information may have a Material Adverse Effect on our Business, Financial Condition, Results of Operations and Cash Flows.
In the conduct of our business, we collect, use, transmit, store and report data on information systems and interact with customers, vendors and employees. Increased global IT security threats and more sophisticated and targeted computer crime pose a risk to the security of our systems and networks and the confidentiality, availability and integrity of our data. Despite our security measures, our IT systems and infrastructure may be vulnerable to computer viruses, cyber-attacks, security breaches caused by employee error or malfeasance or other disruptions, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic as significantly more office employees continue to work remotely. Any such threat could compromise our networks and the information stored there

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could be accessed, publicly disclosed, lost or stolen. A security breach of our computer systems could interrupt or damage our operations or harm our reputation, or both. In addition, we could be subject to legal claims or proceedings, liability under laws that protect the privacy of personal information and regulatory penalties if confidential information relating to customers, suppliers, employees or other parties is misappropriated from our computer system. To date, we have seen no material impact on our business or operations from these threats. However, we cannot ensure that our security efforts will prevent unauthorized access or loss of functionality to our or our third-party providers' systems.
The regulatory framework for privacy issues is evolving worldwide, and various government and consumer agencies and public advocacy groups have called for new regulation and changes in industry practices. In May 2018, the EU enacted the General Data Protection Regulation, which provides for significantly increased responsibilities for companies that process EU personal data as well as significant penalties for noncompliance. In July 2020, the EU Courts invalidated the EU-US Privacy Shield as an appropriate transfer mechanism of personal data into the US. As a result, we may be unsuccessful in maintaining legitimate means of transferring and receiving personal data and face a risk of enforcement actions by data protection authorities. Any such enforcement actions could result in substantial costs and a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Furthermore, outside of the EU, we continue to see increased regulation of data privacy and security, creating a patchwork of U.S. state privacy laws, such as the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018, and national laws regulating the collection and use of data, as well as security and data breach obligations.
Risks Related to Financial Reporting
Changes in U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles ("GAAP") and SEC Rules and Regulations Concerning the Maintenance of Effective Internal Controls Could Materially Impact our Reported Financial Results.
GAAP and SEC accounting and reporting changes have become more frequent and significant in the past several years. Due to the complexity and scope of our business segments, our joint ventures relationships, conducting business in over 40 countries and operating over 200 production facilities, these changes could have significant effects on our reported results when compared to prior periods and other companies and may even require us to retrospectively adjust prior periods from time to time. Additionally, material changes to the presentation of transactions in the consolidated financial statements could impact key ratios that analysts and credit rating agencies use to rate our company, increase our cost of borrowing and ultimately our ability to access the credit markets in an efficient manner.
The maintenance of effective internal controls is necessary to provide reliable financial reports and to assist in the prevention of fraud. We are required by the SEC rules and regulations to annually evaluate our internal control procedures and to assess the effectiveness of our internal controls. The number of facilities and our global footprint, as well as the acquisition from time to time of privately-held businesses, creates unique challenges for our maintenance of effective internal controls. As described in Item 9A of this Form 10-K, management has concluded that our internal controls over financial reporting were effective as of October 31, 2020. In the past, we have reported material weaknesses in the adequacy of our internal controls, and there is no assurance that, in the future, material weaknesses will not be identified that would cause management to change its current conclusion as to the effectiveness of our internal controls. If we fail to maintain effective internal controls, including as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, we could report material weaknesses in the future, indicating that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement may not be prevented or detected on a timely basis.
We Could be Subject to Changes in our Tax Rates, the Adoption of New U.S. or Foreign Tax Legislation or Exposure to Additional Tax Liabilities.
The multinational nature of our business subjects us to taxation in the United States and numerous foreign jurisdictions. Due to economic and political conditions, tax rates in various jurisdictions may be subject to significant change. Our future effective tax rates could be affected by changes in the mix of earnings in countries with differing statutory tax rates, changes in the valuation of deferred tax assets and liabilities, or changes in tax laws or their interpretation.
Tax laws are complex and subject to varying interpretations. At this time, we believe we are properly reflecting the provision for taxes on income using all current enacted global tax laws in every jurisdiction in which we operate. However, there can be no assurance that our tax positions will not be challenged by relevant tax authorities or that we would be successful in any such challenge.
Full Realization of our Deferred Tax Assets may be Affected by a Number of Factors.
We have deferred tax assets, including foreign net operating loss carryforwards and foreign capital loss carryforwards, employee and retiree benefit items, and other accruals not yet deductible for tax purposes. In certain cases, we have established valuation allowances to reduce those deferred tax assets to an amount that is more likely than not to be realized. Our ability to

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use these deferred tax assets depends in part upon our having future taxable income during the periods in which these temporary differences reverse or our ability to carry back any losses created by the deduction of these temporary differences. We expect to realize these assets over an extended period. However, if we were unable to generate sufficient future taxable income in the U.S. and certain foreign jurisdictions, or if there were a significant change in the time period within which the underlying temporary differences became taxable or deductible, we could be required to increase our valuation allowances against our deferred tax assets, which could have an adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Our Level of Indebtedness Could Adversely Affect our Liquidity, Limit our Flexibility in Responding to Business Opportunities, and Increase our Vulnerability to Adverse Changes in Economic and Industry Conditions.
We incurred substantial indebtedness to finance the Caraustar Acquisition. As a result of our level of indebtedness, a substantial portion of our cash flows are dedicated to the payment of principal and interest on our indebtedness. This level of indebtedness also reduces our liquidity; limits our flexibility in responding to new business opportunities; reduces funds available for working capital, capital expenditures and other general corporate purposes; increases our vulnerability to adverse economic and industry conditions; exposes us to the risk of increased interest rates and corresponding increased interest expense, which may be exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic; limits our ability to obtain additional financing for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions and general corporate or other purposes; and could place us at a competitive disadvantage compared to our competitors who have less debt. In addition, the failure to comply with the financial and other restrictive covenants in our debt instruments could, if not cured or waived, have a material adverse effect on our ability to fulfill our debt obligations and on our business and prospects generally. Further, our debt instruments impose operating and financial restrictions on us, which may limit how we conduct our business and impact our ability to raise additional debt or equity financing to capitalize on available business opportunities.
We have a Significant Amount of Goodwill and Long-lived Assets Which, if Impaired in the Future, Would Adversely Impact our Results of Operations.
Our goodwill would be impaired if the fair value of any particular reporting unit is less than the carrying value of that reporting unit. Impairment of our goodwill would reduce our net income in the period of any such write down. We are required to evaluate goodwill reflected on our balance sheet at least annually, or when circumstances indicate a potential impairment. If we determine that the goodwill is impaired, we would be required to write off a portion or all of the goodwill. The adverse economic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and reduced demand for our products may increase the potential of a goodwill impairment. At October 31, 2020, the carrying value of our goodwill was $1,518.4 million.
We may be required to record future impairments of our long-lived assets as we continue to restructure our business. Decisions to sell or close plants could reduce the estimated useful life of an asset group or indicate that the fair value of the asset group is less than the carrying value. We may also experience declines in particular businesses due to competition or other outside forces indicating our long-lived assets are not recoverable. Any resulting impairments will impact net income in the period in which the triggering event, such as permanent or sustaining reduction in cash flows, occurs and could be significant, which could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Our Pension and Post-retirement Plans are Underfunded and will Require Future Cash Contributions, and our Required Future Cash Contributions Could be Higher than we Expect, Each of Which Could Have a Material Adverse Effect on our Financial Condition and Liquidity.
We sponsor various pension and similar benefit plans worldwide. Our U.S. and non-U.S. pension and post-retirement plans were underfunded by an aggregate of $108.2 million and $11.6 million, respectively, as of October 31, 2020. We are legally required to make cash contributions to our pension plans in the future, and those cash contributions could be material.
In 2021, we expect, but are not obligated, to make cash contributions and direct benefit payments of approximately $28.7 million and $1.3 million to our U.S. and non-U.S. pension and post-retirement plans, respectively, which we believe will be sufficient to meet the minimum funding requirements under applicable laws. Our future funding obligations for our pension and post-retirement plans depend upon the levels of benefits provided for by these plans, the future performance of assets set aside for these plans, the rates of interest used to determine funding levels, the impact of potential business dispositions, actuarial data and experience, and any changes in government laws and regulations. Accordingly, our future funding requirements for our pension and post-retirement plans could be higher than expected, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and liquidity.
In addition, our pension plans hold a significant amount of equity securities. If the market values of these securities decline, our pension expense and funding requirements will increase, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and liquidity.

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Any decrease in interest rates and asset returns, if and to the extent not offset by contributions, could increase our obligations under our pension plans. If the performance of assets held in these pension plans does not meet our expectations, our cash contributions for these plans could be higher than we expect, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and liquidity.
Risks Related to Regulatory and Legal Costs
Legislation/Regulation Related to Environmental and Health and Safety Matters and Corporate Social Responsibility Could Negatively Impact our Operations and Financial Performance.
We must comply with extensive laws, rules and regulations in the United States and in each of the countries where we conduct business regarding environmental matters, such as air, soil and water quality and waste disposal. We must also comply with extensive laws, rules and regulations regarding safety, health and corporate responsibility matters. There can be no assurance that compliance with existing and new laws, rules and regulations will not require significant expenditures.
In addition, laws, rules and regulations, as well as the interpretation and administration of such laws and regulations by governmental agencies, can change and restrict or prohibit the manner in which we conduct our current operations, require additional permits to engage in some or all of our current operations, or increase the cost of some or all our operations. For example, certain of the remedies being sought by the U.S. EPA and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources in the proceedings relating to the CLCM facilities in the Milwaukee, Wisconsin area seek to implement changes in the way certain laws and regulations are interpreted and administered with respect to our reconditioning business. Such changes could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
We are also subject to transportation safety regulations promulgated by the U.S. Department of Transportation ("DOT") and agencies in other jurisdictions. Both the DOT regulations and standards issued by the United Nations and adopted by various jurisdictions outside the United States set forth requirements related to the transportation of both hazardous and nonhazardous materials in some of our packaging products and subject our company to random inspections and testing to ensure compliance. Failure to comply could result in fines to us and could affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
We are subject to laws, rules and regulations relating to certain raw materials used in our business. For example, certain resins and epoxy-based coatings used in our rigid container business may contain Bisphenol-A ("BPA"), a chemical monomer that can be toxic in sufficient quantities, and is used in several food contact applications. Regulatory agencies in several jurisdictions worldwide have found these materials to be safe for food contact at current levels, but a significant change in regulatory rulings concerning BPA could have an adverse effect on our business. These laws, rules and regulations, as well as resulting claims by individuals and other businesses, could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
At the EU-level, many laws and regulations are designed to protect human health and the environment. For example, Directive 2004/35/EC concerns obligations to remedy damages to the environment, which could require us to remediate contamination identified at sites we own or use. Other EU directives limit pollution from industrial activities, reduce emissions to air, water and soil, protect water resources, reduce waste, protect employee health and safety and regulate the registration, evaluation, authorization and restriction of chemicals. Failure to comply with these laws, or a change in the applicable legal framework, for example the increased enforcement of environmental regulations in the U.S., China or other countries, could affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows, in addition to those of our customers.
Our customers in the food industry are subject to increasing laws, rules and regulations relating to food safety. As a result, customers may demand that changes be made to our products or facilities, as well as other aspects of our production processes, that may require the investment of capital. The failure to comply with these requests could adversely affect our relationships with some customers and result in negative effects on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Product Liability Claims and Other Legal Proceedings Could Adversely Affect our Operations and Financial Performance.
We produce products and provide services related to other parties’ products, including sensitive products such as food ingredients, pharmaceutical ingredients and hazardous substances. Incidents involving these product types can involve risk of recall, contamination, spillage, leakage, fires, and explosions, which can threaten individual health, impact the environment and cause the breakdown or failure of equipment or processes and the performance of facilities below expected levels of capacity. If any of our customers have such accidents involving our products, they may bring product liability claims against us. While we have built extensive operational processes to ensure that the design and manufacture of our products meet rigorous quality standards, there can be no assurance that we or our customers will not experience operational process failures that could result in potential product, safety, regulatory or environmental claims and associated litigation. We are also subject to a variety of

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legal proceedings and legal compliance risks in our areas of operation around the globe. Any such claims, whether with or without merit, could be time consuming and expensive to defend and could divert management’s attention and resources. In accordance with customary practice, we maintain insurance against some, but not all, of these potential claims. In the future, we may not be able to maintain insurance at commercially acceptable premium and deductible levels at all. In addition, the levels of insurance we maintain may not be adequate to fully cover any and all losses or liabilities. If any significant judgment or claim is not fully insured or indemnified against, it could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
We may Incur Fines or Penalties, Damage to our Reputation or other Adverse Consequences if our Employees, Agents or Business Partners Violate, or are Alleged to have Violated, Anti-bribery, Competition or Other Laws.
We cannot provide assurance that our internal controls will always protect us from reckless or criminal acts committed by our employees, agents or business partners that would violate U.S. and non-U.S. laws, including anti-bribery, competition, trade sanctions and regulation, and other laws. Any such improper actions could subject us to civil or criminal investigations in the U.S. and in other jurisdictions, could lead to substantial civil or criminal monetary and non-monetary penalties against us or our subsidiaries, and could damage our reputation. Even the allegation or appearance of our employees, agents or business partners acting improperly or illegally could damage our reputation and result in significant expenditures in investigating and responding to such actions.
Changing Climate, Climate Change Regulations and Greenhouse Gas Effects may Adversely Affect our Operations and Financial Performance.
There is continuing concern from members of the scientific community and the general public that emissions of greenhouse gases ("GHG") and other human activities have or will cause significant changes in weather patterns and increase the frequency or severity of weather events, wildfires and flooding. Climate change creates physical and financial risk. Physical risks from climate change include an increase in sea level and changes in weather conditions, such as an increase in precipitation, droughts and extreme weather events. These types of events may adversely impact us, our suppliers, our customers and their ability to purchase our products and our ability to manufacture and transport our products on a timely basis and could result in a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
We believe it is likely that the scientific and political attention to issues concerning the extent and causes of climate change will continue, with the potential for further legislation and regulations that could affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Foreign, federal, state and local regulatory and legislative bodies have proposed various legislative and regulatory measures relating to climate change, regulating GHG emissions and energy policies. If such legislation or regulations are enacted, we could incur increased energy, environmental and other costs and capital expenditures to comply with the limitations. Failure to comply with these regulations could result in fines to our company and could affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
We, along with other companies in many business sectors, including our customers, are considering and implementing ways to reduce GHG emissions. As a result, our customers may request that changes be made to our products or facilities, as well as other aspects of our production processes, that increase costs and may require the investment of capital. The failure to comply with these requests could adversely affect our relationships with some customers, which in turn could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
We could face increased costs related to defending and resolving legal claims and other litigation related to climate change and the alleged impact of our operations on climate change.

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The following are our principal operating locations and the products manufactured at such facilities or the use of such facilities. We consider our operating properties to be in satisfactory condition and adequate to meet our present needs. However, we expect to make further additions, improvements and consolidations of our properties to support our business.
LocationProducts or UseOwnedLeased
AlgeriaSteel drums1
ArgentinaSteel and plastic drums, pails and water bottles21
AustriaSteel drums, intermediate bulk containers and reconditioned containers and services1
BelgiumSteel and plastic drums2
BrazilSteel and plastic drums, steel lids and closures52
CanadaPlastic drums and warehouse11
ChileSteel drums, water bottles and warehouse11
ChinaSteel and plastic drums, closures and intermediate bulk containers and packaging services7
ColombiaSteel and plastic drums and water bottles1
Costa RicaSteel drums1
Czech RepublicSteel drums1
DenmarkFibre drums1
EgyptSteel drums1
FranceSteel and plastic drums, intermediate bulk containers, reconditioned containers and closures3
GermanySteel drums, water bottles, intermediate bulk containers and closures4
GreeceSteel drums1
GuatemalaSteel drums1
HungarySteel drums1
IsraelSteel, plastic and fibre drums and intermediate bulk containers 1
ItalySteel and plastic drums, jerry cans, intermediate bulk containers and accessories and rebottling and post-consumer recycling12
KenyaSteel drums1
MalaysiaSteel drums11
MexicoSteel, plastic and fibre drums and warehouse12
MoroccoSteel and plastic drums1
NetherlandsSteel drums and disks, paints and linings, intermediate bulk containers, reconditioned containers and closures43
NigeriaCorporate housing1
PolandSteel drums and water bottles1
PortugalSteel drums1
RussiaSteel drums, clovertainers, intermediate bulk containers and general office64
Saudi ArabiaSteel drums2
SingaporeSteel and plastic drums1
South AfricaSteel and plastic drums21
SpainSteel drums and intermediate bulk containers21
SwedenSteel and plastic drums and intermediate bulk containers11
TurkeySteel drums1
UkraineWater bottles and distribution center1

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United KingdomSteel drums and intermediate bulk containers2
United StatesFibre, steel and plastic drums, intermediate bulk containers, reconditioned containers, closures, warehouse and packaging services1522
VietnamSteel drums1

LocationProducts or UseOwnedLeased
BelgiumManufacturing plant1
BrazilGeneral office1
ChileGeneral office1
ChinaManufacturing plant1
FranceManufacturing plant1
GermanyGeneral offices and warehouse2
IndiaGeneral office1
IrelandDistribution center1
MexicoManufacturing plant1
NetherlandsGeneral offices and warehouse1
RomaniaManufacturing plants2
TurkeyManufacturing plants3
UkraineManufacturing plant1
United KingdomManufacturing plant1
United StatesGeneral offices and warehouse2
VietnamManufacturing plant1

LocationProducts or UseOwnedLeased
CanadaSpiral-wound paper tubes and cores and warehouse23
United StatesCorrugated sheets and containers, spiral-wound paper tubes and cores, headers, adhesives, protect-a-board, containerboard, coated and uncoated recycled paperboard, recycled fibre plants, general offices and warehouses5946

LocationProducts or UseOwnedLeased
United StatesGeneral offices22

LocationProducts or UseOwnedLeased
BelgiumGeneral office1
HungaryShared service center1
NetherlandsGeneral office1
United StatesPrincipal and general offices3

We also own a substantial amount of timber properties. Our timber properties consisted of approximately 244,000 acres in the southeastern United States as of October 31, 2020.
We are not a party to any pending legal proceedings that are material to our business or financial condition.

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From time to time, we have been a party to legal proceedings arising at the country, state or local level involving environmental sites to which we have shipped, directly or indirectly, small amounts of toxic waste, such as paint solvents. As of the filing date of this Form 10-K, we have been classified only as a “de minimis” participant in such proceedings. We are not a party to any legal proceedings involving a governmental authority and arising under any federal, state or local provisions that have been enacted or adopted regulating the discharge of materials into the environment or primarily for the purpose of protecting the environment and involving potential monetary sanctions in excess of $300,000, other than as described below.
In July 2017, the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (“WDNR”) issued Notices of Violation to us and CLCM with respect to three reconditioning facilities in the Milwaukee, Wisconsin area that are or were owned by CLCM regarding violations of Wisconsin laws related to hazardous waste, air management and industrial storm water. In November 2017, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (“U.S. EPA”) issued a Notice of Violation to us and CLCM with respect to these same reconditioning facilities regarding violations of the federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (“RCRA”), primarily related to the unlawful storage and treatment of hazardous wastes without RCRA licenses and violations of RCRA’s requirements related to hazardous waste determinations and hazardous waste activity notifications, and Wisconsin laws related to hazardous waste. In November 2017, the U.S. EPA issued Notices and Findings of Violations to CLCM with respect to two of these reconditioning facilities regarding violations of the federal Clean Air Act, primarily related to air management, and Wisconsin laws related to air management. The remedies being sought in these proceedings include compliance with the applicable environmental laws and regulations as being interpreted by the U.S. EPA and WDNR and monetary sanctions. We have cooperated with the governmental agencies in these investigations and proceedings. As of the filing date of this Form 10-K, no citations have been issued or fines assessed with respect to any of these proceedings. With respect to one or more of these proceedings, monetary sanctions may be imposed by the U.S. EPA or the WNDR and those monetary sanctions may exceed $300,000 individually or in the aggregate.
Shares of our Class A and Class B Common Stock are listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbols GEF and GEF.B, respectively.
Financial information regarding our two classes of common stock, as well as the number of holders of each class and the high, low and closing sales prices for each class for each quarterly period for the two most recent years, is included in Note 17 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of this Form 10-K.
We pay quarterly dividends of varying amounts computed on the basis described in Note 12 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 of this Form 10-K. The annual dividends paid for the last two years are as follows:
2020 Dividends per Share – Class A $1.76; Class B $2.63
2019 Dividends per Share – Class A $1.76; Class B $2.63
The terms of our current secured credit facilities, United States accounts receivable credit facility and the indenture governing our Senior Notes due 2027 limit our ability to make restricted payments, which include dividends and purchases, redemptions and acquisitions of our equity interests. The payment of dividends and other restricted payments are subject to the condition that certain defaults not exist under the terms of our current secured credit facilities, United States accounts receivable credit facility and the indenture governing our Senior Notes due 2027 and, in the event that certain defaults exist, are limited in amount by a formula based, in part, on our consolidated net income. See “Liquidity and Capital Resources – Borrowing Arrangements” in Item 7 of this Form 10-K.
We did not repurchase any shares of our Class A or Class B Common Stock during 2020 or 2019.

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Performance Graph
The following graph compares the performance of shares of our Class A and B Common Stock to that of the Standard and Poor’s 500 Index and our industry group (Peer Index) assuming $100 invested on October 31, 2015 and reinvestment of dividends for each subsequent year. The graph does not purport to represent our value.
The Peer Index comprises the containers and packaging index as shown by Dow Jones.

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The five-year selected financial data is as follows:
Year Ended October 31,
(in millions, except per share amounts)2020
Net sales$4,515.0 $4,595.0 $3,873.8 $3,638.2 $3,323.6 
Net income attributable to Greif, Inc.$108.8 $171.0 $209.4 $118.6 $74.9 
Total assets$5,510.9 $5,426.7 $3,194.8 $3,232.3 $3,153.0 
Long-term debt, including current portion of long-term debt$2,469.7 $2,756.3 $907.6 $952.8 $974.6 
Basic earnings per share:
Class A common stock$1.83 $2.89 $3.56 $2.02 $1.28 
Class B common stock$2.74 $4.33 $5.33 $3.02 $1.90 
Diluted earnings per share:
Class A common stock$1.83 $2.89 $3.55 $2.02 $1.28 
Class B common stock$2.74 $4.33 $5.33 $3.02 $1.90 
Dividends per share:
Class A common stock$1.76 $1.76 $1.70 $1.68 $1.68 
Class B common stock$2.63 $2.63 $2.54 $2.51 $2.51 
(1) Includes the results and components of the Caraustar Acquisition from February 11, 2019 through October 31, 2019.

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The terms “Greif,” the “Company,” “we,” “us” and “our” as used in this discussion refer to Greif, Inc. and its subsidiaries.
The impact of COVID-19 on our future results of operations and financial condition is highly uncertain at this time and outside of our control. The scope, duration and magnitude of the effects of COVID-19 are evolving rapidly and in ways that are difficult or impossible to anticipate.
The discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations are based upon our consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with GAAP. The preparation of these consolidated financial statements, in accordance with these principles, require us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amount of assets and liabilities, revenues and expenses, and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of our consolidated financial statements.
Historical revenues and earnings may or may not be representative of future operating results due to various economic and other factors.
The non-GAAP financial measures of EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA are used throughout the following discussion of our results of operations, both for our consolidated and segment results. For our consolidated results, EBITDA is defined as net income, plus interest expense, net, plus debt extinguishment charges, plus income tax expense, plus depreciation, depletion and amortization, and Adjusted EBITDA is defined as EBITDA plus restructuring charges, plus acquisition and integration related costs, plus non-cash asset impairment charges, plus non-cash pension settlement (income) charges, plus incremental COVID-19 costs, net, less (gain) loss on disposal of properties, plants, equipment and businesses, net. Since we do not calculate net income by business segment, EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA by business segment are reconciled to operating profit by business segment. In that case, EBITDA is defined as operating profit by business segment less other (income) expense, net, less non-cash pension settlement (income) charges, less equity earnings of unconsolidated affiliates, net of tax, plus depreciation, depletion and amortization expense for that business segment, and Adjusted EBITDA is defined as EBITDA plus restructuring charges, plus acquisition and integration related costs, plus non-cash asset impairment charges, plus non-cash pension settlement (income) charges, plus incremental COVID-19 costs, net, less (gain) loss on disposal of properties, plants, equipment and businesses, net, for that business segment. We use EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA as financial measures to evaluate our historical and ongoing operations and believe that these non-GAAP financial measures are useful to enable investors to perform meaningful comparisons of our historical and current performance. In addition, we present our U.S. and non-U.S. income before income taxes after eliminating the impact of non-cash asset impairment charges, non-cash pension settlement (income) charges, restructuring charges, acquisition and integration related costs, plus incremental COVID-19 costs, net, and (gains) losses on sales of businesses, net, which are non-GAAP financial measures. We believe that excluding the impact of these adjustments enable investors to perform a meaningful comparison of our current and historical performance that investors find valuable. The foregoing non-GAAP financial measures are intended to supplement and should be read together with our financial results. These non-GAAP financial measures should not be considered an alternative or substitute for, and should not be considered superior to, our reported financial results. Accordingly, users of this financial information should not place undue reliance on the non-GAAP financial measures.
The following table sets forth the net sales, operating profit (loss), EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA for each of our business segments for 2020, 2019 and 2018:

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Year Ended October 31, (in millions)
Net sales:
Rigid Industrial Packaging & Services$2,298.9 $2,490.6 $2,623.6 
Paper Packaging & Services1,916.9 1,780.0 898.5 
Flexible Products & Services272.9 297.5 324.2 
Land Management26.3 26.9 27.5 
Total net sales$4,515.0 $4,595.0 $3,873.8 
Operating profit:
Rigid Industrial Packaging & Services$209.9 $179.6 $183.2 
Paper Packaging & Services71.0 184.3 158.3 
Flexible Products & Services15.5 25.3 19.4 
Land Management8.5 9.9 9.6 
Total operating profit$304.9 $399.1 $370.5 
Rigid Industrial Packaging & Services$284.6 $251.6 $249.0 
Paper Packaging & Services225.9 307.0 191.8 
Flexible Products & Services22.4 32.7 25.7 
Land Management13.0 14.2 14.2 
Total EBITDA$545.9 $605.5 $480.7 
Adjusted EBITDA:
Rigid Industrial Packaging & Services$297.5 $269.9 $273.4 
Paper Packaging & Services306.4 348.3 192.3 
Flexible Products & Services26.8 28.6 25.6 
Land Management11.9 12.1 11.9 
Total Adjusted EBITDA$642.6 $658.9 $503.2 

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The following table sets forth EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA, reconciled to net income and operating profit, for our consolidated results for 2020, 2019 and 2018:
Year Ended October 31, (in millions)
Net income$124.3 $194.2 $229.5 
Plus: interest expense, net115.8 112.5 51.0 
Plus: debt extinguishment charges— 22.0 — 
Plus: income tax expense63.3 70.7 73.3 
Plus: depreciation, depletion and amortization expense242.5 206.1 126.9 
EBITDA$545.9 $605.5 $480.7 
Net income$124.3 $194.2 $229.5 
Plus: interest expense, net115.8 112.5 51.0 
Plus: debt extinguishment charges— 22.0 — 
Plus: income tax expense63.3 70.7 73.3 
Plus: non-cash pension settlement charges0.3 — 1.3 
Plus: other expense, net2.7 2.6 18.4 
Plus: equity earnings of unconsolidated affiliates, net of tax(1.5)(2.9)(3.0)
Operating profit304.9 399.1 370.5 
Less: other expense, net2.7 2.6 18.4 
Less: non-cash pension settlement charges0.3 — 1.3 
Less: equity earnings of unconsolidated affiliates, net of tax(1.5)(2.9)(3.0)
Plus: depreciation, depletion and amortization expense242.5 206.1 126.9 
EBITDA545.9 605.5 480.7 
Plus: restructuring charges38.7 26.1 18.6 
Plus: acquisition and integration related costs17.0 29.7 0.7 
Plus: non-cash asset impairment charges18.5 7.8 8.3 
Plus: non-cash pension settlement charges0.3 — 1.3 
Plus: incremental COVID-19 costs, net2.6 — — 
Less: (gain) loss on disposal of properties, plants, equipment, and businesses, net19.6 (10.2)(6.4)
Adjusted EBITDA$642.6 $658.9 $503.2 

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The following table sets forth EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA for each of our business segments, reconciled to the operating profit for each segment, for 2020, 2019 and 2018:
Year Ended October 31, (in millions)
Rigid Industrial Packaging & Services
Operating profit$209.9 $179.6 $183.2 
Less: other expense, net5.3 7.2 17.1 
Less: non-cash pension settlement charges0.4 — 1.3 
Less: equity earnings of unconsolidated affiliates, net of tax(1.5)(2.9)(3.0)
Plus: depreciation and amortization expense78.9 76.3 81.2