20-F 1 d238687d20f.htm FORM 20-F Form 20-F
falseFY0001834489Y7UnlimitedU.S. GAAPP5YDEGBIncludes 79,587,346 Genius ordinary shares converted from existing classes of shares of Maven Topco and 20,550,431 Genius ordinary shares related to vested rollover Incentive Securities. See Note 15 – Stock-based Compensation for further details.Includes cash consideration paid to former Second Spectrum shareholders totaling $111.5 million.Represents the issuance of 4.7 million shares of the Company’s common stock at June 15, 2021 closing price of $17.74 per share to the former Second Spectrum shareholders. See Note 16 – Fair Value Measurements for details of additional shares issued in early 2022.Includes $3.5 million cash settlement of Second Spectrum’s vested outstanding stock options as of June 15, 2021 associated with the pre-acquisition services provided by former Second Spectrum shareholders.Represents the publicly traded common stock price of dMY as of the modification date on October 27, 2020Represents the discount for lack of marketability of the historical Incentive Securities as of the modification date on October 27, 2020 (subsequently converted to restricted shares upon Closing), calculated using the Finnerty MethodRepresents the sum of the expected term from the modification date to Closing (6 months) and the vesting period of 4 years for Performance-Vesting Restricted SharesOnly used to estimate the modification date fair value of historical Class D Incentive Securities (subsequently converted to Performance-Vesting Restricted Shares) under Monte Carlo simulationsCalculated based on comparable companies’ historical volatilities over a matching term of 4.5 yearsBased on the U.S. Constant Maturity Treasury yield curve as of the modification date over a matching term of 4.5 yearsBased on contractual termsRepresents the publicly traded common stock price as of the Grant DateCalculated based on comparable companies’ historical volatilities over a matching term of 5 yearsBased on the U.S. Constant Maturity Treasury yield curve as of the valuation date over a matching term over 5 yearsAssumes a dividend yield of zero as the Company has no plans to declare dividends in the foreseeable futureAdditions during the year ended December 31, 2021 represent contingent consideration liabilities arising from the Spirable acquisition (refer to Note 3 – Business Combinations) in the third quarter of 2021.(Gain) loss on fair value remeasurement of contingent consideration mainly consist of an increase in the obligation to the former management shareholders of Second Spectrum as the lock-up period expired on December 31, 2021. 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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
 
 
FORM 20-F
 
 
(Mark One)
REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(B) OR 12(G) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
OR
 
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(D) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021
OR
 
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(D) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
OR
 
SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(D) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Date of event requiring this shell company report:
Commission File Number: 001-40352
 
 
Genius Sports Limited
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
 
 
 
Not applicable
 
Island of Guernsey 
(Translation of Registrant’s name into English)
 
(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
Genius Sports Group
9th Floor, 10 Bloomsbury Way
London, WC1A 2SL Telephone:
+44 (0) 20 7851 4060
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)
Donald J. Puglisi
Puglisi & Associates
850 Library Avenue #204
Newark, Delaware 19711
Telephone: (302738-6680
(Name, Telephone, Email and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)
 
 
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 
Title of each class
 
Trading
Symbol(s)
 
Name of each exchange
on which registered
Ordinary shares
 
GENI
 
New York Stock Exchange
Warrants
 
GENI WS
 
New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act: None
 
 
Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report: As of December 31, 2021, the issuer had 202,926,490 outstanding ordinary shares, 18,500,000 outstanding B shares stapled to the NFL warrants, 11,250,000 outstanding NFL warrants exercisable within 60 days, and 7,668,381 public warrants exercisable within 60 days.
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  ☐  No  ☒
If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.    Yes  ☐    No  ☒
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  ☒    No  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes  ☒    No  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company. See definition of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
 
Large accelerated filer              Accelerated filer  
           
Non-accelerated filer              Emerging growth company  
If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  
 
The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting
Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting over Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.  
Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:
 
US GAAP  ☒           International Financial Reporting Standards as issued             Other  ☐
            by the International Accounting Standards Board            
If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow.    Item 17    ☐  Item 18  ☐
If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes  ☐    No  
 
 
 

GENIUS SPORTS LIMITED
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
  
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102
 
 
i

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Annual Report on Form 20-F (including information incorporated by reference herein, the “Report”) contains or may contain forward-looking statements as defined in Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), that involve significant risks and uncertainties. All statements other than statements of historical facts are forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements include information about our possible or assumed future results of operations or our performance. Words such as “expects,” “intends,” “plans,” “believes,” “anticipates,” “estimates,” and variations of such words and similar expressions are intended to identify the forward-looking statements. The risk factors and cautionary language referred to or incorporated by reference in this Report provide examples of risks, uncertainties and events that may cause actual results to differ materially from the expectations described in our forward- looking statements, including among other things, the items identified in the section entitled “
Risk Factors
” of this Report.
Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date of this Report. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in such forward-looking statements are reasonable, there can be no assurance that such expectations will prove to be correct. These statements involve known and unknown risks and are based upon a number of assumptions and estimates which are inherently subject to significant uncertainties and contingencies, many of which are beyond our control. Actual results may differ materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. We undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements contained in this Report, or the documents to which we refer readers in this Report, to reflect any change in our expectations with respect to such statements or any change in events, conditions or circumstances upon which any statement is based.
 
ii

FREQUENTLY USED TERMS
Unless otherwise stated in this Report on Form 20-F or the context otherwise requires, references to:
Apax Funds
” means certain funds the ultimate general partners of which are advised by Apax Partners LLP.
Business Combination
” means the transactions contemplated by the Business Combination Agreement.
Business Combination Agreement”
means the Business Combination Agreement, dated as of October 27, 2020, by and among dMY, TopCo, MidCo, Genius, Merger Sub and Sponsor, a copy of which is filed as Exhibit 4.1 to this Report, and as may be amended from time to time.
Class A Shares
” means dMY’s Class A common stock, par value $0.0001.
Closing
” means the closing of the Business Combination.
Company
” means Genius.
Continental
” means Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company.
dMY IPO
” means dMY’s August 18, 2020 initial public offering of units, with each unit consisting of one Class A Share and one-third of one warrant, raising total gross proceeds of approximately $276,000,000.
Exchange Act
” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.
Genius
” means Genius Sports Limited.
Genius Board
” means the board of directors of Genius.
Genius Governing Documents
” means the Amended and Restated Memorandum of Incorporation and the Amended and Restated Articles of Incorporation of Genius.
Genius ordinary shares
” means the ordinary shares of Genius, par value $0.01.
Guernsey Companies Law
” means the Companies (Guernsey) Law, 2008 (as amended).
Merger Sub
” means Genius Merger Sub, Inc., a Delaware corporation and a wholly-owned subsidiary of Genius.
MidCo”
means Maven Midco Limited, a private limited company incorporated under the laws of England and Wales.
NewCo
” means Galileo NewCo Limited, a company incorporated under the laws of Guernsey, and its subsidiaries when the context requires, that changed its name to Genius Sports Limited in connection with the Business Combination.
NYSE
” means the New York Stock Exchange.
private placement warrants
” means the warrants issued to the Sponsor in a private placement simultaneously with the closing of the dMY IPO, with each such warrant entitling the holder thereof to purchase one Class A Share at a price of $11.50 per share.
public warrants
” means the 9,200,000 redeemable warrants sold as part of the units in the dMY IPO.
 
iii

SEC
” means the United States Securities and Exchange Commission.
Securities Act
” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.
Sponsor
” means dMY Sponsor II, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company.
Target Companies
” means, collectively, TopCo, MidCo, Genius, Merger Sub and all direct and indirect subsidiaries of TopCo.
TopCo
” means Maven Topco Limited, a company incorporated under the laws of Guernsey.
Transfer Agent
” means Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company.
warrants
” means the private placement warrants and public warrants.
 
iv

EXPLANATORY NOTE
Certain amounts that appear in this Report may not sum due to rounding.
 
v

PART I
ITEM 1. IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS
Not required.
ITEM 2. OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE
Not applicable.
ITEM 3. KEY INFORMATION
A. [Reserved]
 
1

B. Capitalization and Indebtedness
Not required.
C. Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds
Not applicable.
 
2

D. Risk Factors
Summary of Risk Factors
Our business faces significant risks and uncertainties. These risks and uncertainties could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations. You should carefully consider all of the information set forth in this Report and in other documents we file with or furnish to the SEC, including the following risk factors, before deciding to invest in or to maintain an investment in our securities. Additional risks not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial, may also impair our business operations, share price, financial condition or reputation. These risks include, among others, the following:
 
   
Health epidemics or pandemics, such as COVID-19, can and have adversely affected consumer spending, consumer engagement in sports and entertainment, and reduced the number of sporting live sporting events, all of which can affect our financial results, our business operations, and prospects.
 
   
Our business and operating results and the business and operating results of our customers, suppliers and vendors may be significantly impacted by general economic, political and social conditions, pandemics, wars or terrorist activity, severe weather events and other natural disasters, geopolitical circumstances and events, such as the Russia and Ukraine conflict, and the health of the sports, entertainment and sports betting industries.
 
   
We may not be able to offset higher costs associated with inflation and other general cost increases.
 
   
The international scope of our operations may expose us to increased risk, and our international operations and corporate and financing structure may expose us to potentially adverse tax consequences.
 
   
Fluctuating foreign currency and exchange rates may negatively impact our business, results of operations and financial position.
 
   
We rely on relationships with sports organizations from which we acquire sports data, including, among other things, via arrangements for exclusive rights for such data. Loss of existing relationships, overreliance on certain relationships, or failure to renew or expand existing relationships may cause unanticipated costs or loss of competitive advantage, or require us to modify, limit or discontinue certain offerings, which could materially affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
   
Risks related to the U.K.’s exit from the European Union (“Brexit”) may have a negative effect on global economic conditions, financial markets and our business in years to come.
 
   
We operate in a competitive market and we may lose customers and relationships to both existing and future competitors.
 
   
Fraud, corruption or negligence related to sports events, or by our employees or contracted statisticians collecting data on behalf of the Company, may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations and negatively impact our reputation.
 
   
Our collection, storage and processing of personal data is subject to applicable data protection and privacy laws in various jurisdictions, and any failure to comply with such laws may harm our reputation and business or expose us to fines and other enforcement action.
 
   
We are party to pending litigation and investigations in various jurisdictions and with various plaintiffs and we may be subject to future litigation or investigations in the operation of our business. Protracted litigation costs could negatively affect our operational costs, and an adverse outcome in one or more proceedings could adversely affect our business.
 
   
Failure to protect or enforce our proprietary and intellectual property rights, including our unregistered intellectual property, and the costs involved in such protection and enforcement could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
 
   
We may face claims for intellectual property infringement, which could subject us to monetary damages or limit us in using some of our technologies or providing certain solutions.
 
   
We rely on information technology and other systems and platforms, including our data center and Amazon Web Services and certain other third-party platforms, and failures, errors, defects or disruptions therein could diminish our brand and reputation, subject us to liability, disrupt our business, affect our ability to scale our technical infrastructure and adversely affect our operating results and growth prospects. Our product offerings and other software applications and systems, and certain third-party platforms that we use could contain undetected errors or errors that we fail to identify as material.
 
3

   
We have a history of losses and may not be able to achieve or sustain profitability in the future.
 
   
Genius may issue additional Genius ordinary shares or other equity securities without your approval, which would dilute your ownership interests and may depress the market price of Genius ordinary shares.
 
   
Because Genius is incorporated under the laws of the States of Guernsey, you may face difficulties in protecting your interests, and your ability to protect your rights through the U.S. Federal courts may be limited.
 
   
It may be difficult to enforce a U.S. judgment against Genius or its directors and officers outside the United States, or to assert U.S. securities law claims outside of the United States.
 
   
As a company incorporated in the States of Guernsey, we are permitted to adopt certain home country practices in relation to corporate governance matters that differ, and in some cases significantly differ, from NYSE corporate governance listing standards; these practices may, and in some cases does afford less protection to shareholders than they would enjoy if we complied fully with NYSE corporate governance listing standards.
Risks Related to Genius Sports Group’s Business
Macroeconomic and Geopolitical Risks
Health epidemics or pandemics, such as COVID-19, can and has adversely affected consumer spending, consumer engagement in sports and entertainment, and reduced the number of sporting live sporting events, all of which can affect our financial results, our business operations and prospects.
The outbreak of COVID-19 has negatively affected economic conditions regionally as well as globally, and has caused a reduction in consumer spending and continues to have an unpredictable impact on consumer spending and the operation of leisure and sporting events. Efforts to contain the effect of the virus have included business closures, travel restrictions and restrictions on public gatherings and events. Governments around the world, including governments in Europe and state and local governments in the U.S., have restricted business activities and strongly encouraged, instituted orders or otherwise restricted individuals from leaving their home. To date, governmental authorities have imposed or have recommended various measures, including social distancing, quarantine and stay-at-home or “shelter-in-place” directives, limitations on the size of gatherings, closures of work facilities, schools, public buildings and businesses, and cancellation of events, including sporting events, concerts, conferences and meetings.
The direct impact on our business and the business of our customers, including sports organizations and bookmakers, beyond disruptions in normal business operations in several of our and their offices and business establishments, has been primarily through the suspension, postponement and cancellation of sports and sporting events. The suspension, postponement and cancellation of sporting events affected by COVID-19 has reduced the volume of sporting events on which we can collect data and has had an adverse impact on our revenue and the revenue of our customers and sports organizations.
 
4

Additionally, as a result of the cancellation of major and professional sporting events, bookmakers have increased demand for lower-tier events. Providing data for such lower-tier and amateur events to meet this demand exposes our business to additional risk, including risks related to fraud, corruption or negligence, reputational harm, regulatory risk, privacy risk and certain other risks related to our international operations. Although many sports seasons and sporting events have recommenced in recent months, the rapid development and fluidity of this situation precludes any prediction as to the ultimate impact of COVID-19, which remains a material uncertainty and risk with respect to us, our performance, and our financial results. The revenue of our customers and sports organizations and our revenue continues to depend on sports events taking place, and we may not generate as much revenue as we would have without the cancellation or postponements in the wake of COVID-19. The continued impact of COVID-19 remains uncertain at this time and therefore we cannot predict the full impact it may have on our end markets and our operations; however, the effect on our results has been material and adverse, and it may continue to be material and adverse in the future. Any significant or prolonged decrease in sporting events and in consumer spending on entertainment or leisure activities could adversely affect the demand for offerings of our customers and sports organizations and, in turn, our offerings, reducing our cash flows and revenues, and thereby materially harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Moreover, as a result of orders issued by governmental authorities around the world, a number of our customers’ operations have been restricted and certain of their properties continue to see intermittent periods of forced closure. While many of these operations have resumed and properties have reopened, demand for our products and services may continue to be adversely impacted by such closures and restrictions in the future.
If a large number of our employees and/or a subset of our key employees and executives are impacted by COVID-19, our ability to continue to operate effectively may be negatively impacted. We have taken precautionary measures intended to help minimize the risk of the virus to our staff which may disrupt our operations, however it may impair our ability to effectively manage our business, which may negatively impact our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
COVID-19 could continue to have a material adverse impact on economic and market conditions and trigger a period of continued global or regional economic slowdown. Our business and the businesses of our customers and sports organizations are particularly sensitive to reductions in discretionary consumer spending. Demand for entertainment and leisure activities, including sporting events, sports betting and online gaming, can be affected by changes in the economy and consumer tastes, both of which are difficult to predict and beyond our control. Unfavorable changes in general economic conditions, including recessions, economic slowdowns, sustained high levels of unemployment, high inflation, and rising prices or the perception by consumers of weak or weakening economic conditions, may reduce consumers’ disposable income or result in fewer individuals engaging in entertainment and leisure activities, such as sporting events, sports betting and online gaming. In particular, the effects of COVID-19 have reduced the coverage we are able to offer to our customers and required us to amend payment terms to reflect this.
We rely on relationships with sports organizations from which we acquire sports data, including, among other things, via arrangements for exclusive rights for such data. Loss of existing relationships, overreliance on existing relationships or failure to renew or expand existing relationships may cause unanticipated costs or loss of competitive advantage or require us to modify, limit or discontinue certain offerings, which could materially affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We rely on relationships with sports organizations from which we acquire rights to collect and supply sports data that we provide to our customers. Substantially all of our offerings and services use sports data acquired from sports organizations. The future success of our business may depend, in part, on our ability to obtain, retain and expand relationships with sports organizations. We have arrangements with sports organizations for rights to their sports data, including, in certain cases, exclusive rights for such data. Our arrangements with sports organizations,
 
5

including exclusive arrangements, may not continue to be available to us on commercially reasonable terms or at all. In the event that we lose exclusive existing arrangements or cannot renew and expand existing arrangements, we may lose our competitive advantage or be required to discontinue or limit our offerings or services. Additionally, our competitors may choose to infringe on our exclusive stadium rights by collecting data on events on which we have exclusive rights. In these instances, our rights may be devalued and litigation to enforce our rights or recover damages incurred by such infringement may be costly, ineffective and time consuming.
Our exclusivity arrangements with certain sports organizations are subject to short and medium term contracts, which may not be renewed on favorable terms or at all. Additionally, we are party to litigation regarding whether entering into arrangements with sports organizations to be the exclusive acquirer and provider of sports data for such sports organizations violates competition laws. The loss of such exclusive arrangements with one or more sports organizations, whether due to a judicial judgment, order or settlement, or otherwise, including as a result of the expiration or termination of our exclusivity arrangements, may cause loss of competitive advantage and could materially adversely affect our financial condition and business operation.
Fraud, corruption or negligence related to sports events, or by our employees or contracted statisticians collecting data on behalf of the Company, may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations and negatively impact our reputation.
Our reputation and the strength of our brand are key competitive strengths. To the extent that the sports and sports betting industry as a whole or the Company, relative to its competitors, suffers a loss in credibility, our business will be significantly impacted. Factors that could potentially have an impact in this regard include fraud, corruption or negligence related to sports events, including as a result of match fixing, or by our employees or contracted statisticians collecting data on behalf of the Company or third parties. Operational errors, whether by us or our competitors, could also harm the reputation of the Company or the sports data, sports betting, online gaming and sports marketing industries. Damage to reputation and credibility could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our business depends on a strong brand, and if we are not able to develop, maintain and enhance our brand and reputation, including as a result of negative publicity, our business and operating results may be harmed.
We believe that developing, maintaining and enhancing our brand is critical to achieving widespread acceptance of our products and services, attracting new customers, retaining existing customers, persuading existing customers to adopt additional products and services and hiring and retaining our employees. We believe that the importance of our brand will increase as competition in our markets further intensifies. Successful promotion of our brand will depend on a number of factors, including the effectiveness of our marketing efforts, including thought leadership, our ability to provide high- quality, reliable and cost-effective products and services, the perceived value of our products and services and our ability to provide quality customer success and support experience. Brand promotion activities require us to make substantial expenditures. To date, we have made significant investments in the promotion of our brand. The promotion of our brand, however, may not generate customer awareness or increase revenue, and any increase in revenue may not offset the expenses we incur in building and maintaining our brand.
We operate in a public-facing industry where negative publicity, whether or not justified, can spread rapidly through, among other things, social media. Negative publicity, including related to the use of fixed-odds betting terminals, sports betting by vulnerable parties, whether or not it is connected with our services or brand and lack of diversity within the industry may adversely impact our reputation and the willingness of the public to participate in sports betting, negatively impact the promotion of our brand or cause jurisdictions to place restrictions on, or ban, sports betting. To the extent that we are unable to respond timely and appropriately to negative publicity, our reputation and brand could be harmed. Moreover, even if we are able to respond in a timely and appropriate manner, we cannot predict how negative publicity may affect our reputation and business.
We and our employees also use social media to communicate externally. There is risk that the use of social media by us or our employees to communicate about our business may give rise to liability or result in public exposure of personal information of our employees or customers, each of which could affect our revenue, business, results of operations and financial condition.
 
6

We may not be able to offset higher costs associated with inflation and other general cost increases.
We are subject to inflationary and other general cost increases, including with regard to our labor costs, selling and marketing costs, communications costs, travel costs, software development costs, professional fees and other costs. General economic conditions may result in higher inflation, which may increase our exposure to higher costs. If we are unable to offset these cost increases by price increases, growth, and/or cost reductions in our operations, these inflationary and other general cost increases could have a material adverse effect on our operating cash flows, profitability, and liquidity.
We operate in a competitive market and we may lose customers and relationships to both existing and future competitors.
The markets for sports data and sports data technology services and solutions and marketing services are competitive and rapidly changing. The sports media industry is particularly competitive and fast growing. Competition in these markets may increase further if economic conditions or other circumstances, including as a result of COVID-19, cause customer bases and customer spending to decrease and service providers to compete for fewer customer resources. Our existing competitors, or future competitors, may have or obtain greater name recognition, larger customer bases, better technology or data, lower prices, exclusive or better access to data, greater user traffic or greater financial, technical or marketing resources than we have. Our competitors may be able to undertake more effective marketing campaigns, obtain more data, adopt more aggressive pricing policies, make more attractive offers to potential employees, subscribers, sports betting operators, sports organizations, distribution partners and content providers or may be able to respond more quickly to new or emerging technologies or changes in user requirements. We currently rely on data journalists to attend events to collect data. If our competitors develop technology before we do, whether through artificial intelligence or otherwise, that makes scouts obsolete, our business could be materially harmed, and our profitability would be reduced. Further, if competitors gain access to faster visual feeds from stadiums, our exclusive in-stadium rights would have reduced value and our revenues could decline. If we are unable to retain customers or obtain new customers or maintain or develop relationships with sports organizations, our revenues could decline. Increased competition for exclusive league partnerships could result in lower revenues and higher expenses, which would reduce our profitability.
Our business may be materially adversely affected if our existing and future products, technology, services and solutions do not achieve and maintain broad market acceptance, if we are unable to keep pace with or adapt to rapidly changing technology, evolving industry standards and changing regulatory requirements, or if we do not invest in product development and provide services that are attractive to our customers.
Our future business and financial success will depend on our ability to continue to anticipate the needs of customers and potential customers, to achieve and maintain broad market acceptance for our existing and future products and services, to successfully introduce new and upgraded products and services and to successfully implement our current and future geographic expansion plans. To be successful, we must be able to quickly adapt to changes in technology, industry standards and regulatory requirements by continually enhancing our technology, services and solutions. Developing new services and upgrades to services, as well as integrating and coordinating current services, imposes burdens on our product development team, management and researchers. These processes are costly, and our efforts to develop, integrate and enhance our services may not be successful. In addition, successfully launching and selling a new or upgraded service puts additional strain on our sales and marketing resources. Expanding into new markets and investing resources towards increasing the depth of our coverage within existing markets impose additional burdens on our research, systems development, sales, marketing and general managerial resources. If we are unable to manage our expansion efforts effectively, in obtaining greater market share or in obtaining widespread adoption of new or upgraded products and services, we may not be able to offset the expenses associated with the launch and marketing of the new or upgraded service, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial results. If we introduce new or expand existing offerings for our business, we may incur losses or otherwise fail to enter these markets successfully. Our expansion into these markets will place us in competitive and regulatory environments with which we are unfamiliar and involve various risks, including the need to invest significant resources and the possibility that returns on such investments will not be achieved for several years, if at all.
If we are unable to develop new or upgraded services or decide to combine, shift focus from, or phase out a service, then our customers may choose a competitive service over ours and our revenues may decline and our profitability may be reduced. If we incur significant costs in developing new or upgraded services or combining and coordinating existing services, if we are not successful in marketing and selling these new services or upgrades, or if our customers fail to accept these new or combined and coordinating services, then there could be a material adverse effect on our results of operations due to a decrease of our revenues and a reduction of our profitability. If we eliminate or phase out a service and are not able to offer and successfully market and sell an alternative service, our revenue may decrease, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
If we lose any official accreditation from one of our league or federation partners, we could lose our exclusive rights to collect certain data and our services would be less attractive to customers. Our revenue may decrease as a result, which could have a material adverse effect on the results of our operations.
 
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Further, increased competition for skilled staff in locations where we are based could have a material adverse effect on our business operations. Our service provisions and operations requires that we recruit, retain and develop personnel from diverse backgrounds across a wide range of expertise areas and geographies. In order to maintain and grow in a competitive market, we require significant intellectual capital in the fields of technology, gaming, customer service and key management functions across various jurisdictions. Failure to retain key positions could result in increased recruitment costs for senior management positions and across competitive markets. If we cannot retain, attract and develop our intellectual capital we may see a decrease in our service provision, data collection, technological development, corporate functionality and operations which could cause slower growth or a loss in interest to competitors which could result in lost revenues and long-term prospects.
Our success depends on our continued improvements to provide products and services that are attractive to our customers. As a result, we must continually invest resources in product development, retention of human capital and successfully incorporate and develop new technology.
We must use all efforts to retain and acquire sports data rights and to protect and enforce our data rights. If we are unable to do so or otherwise provide products and services that customers want, then customers may become dissatisfied and use competitors’ services. If we are unable to continue offering innovative services, we may be unable to attract additional customers or retain our customers, which could harm our business, results of operations and financial condition.
The loss or significant reduction in business from one or more of our large customers could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
A material portion of our revenues is concentrated in some of our largest customers. Our revenue growth depends on our ability to obtain new clients and achieve and sustain a high level of renewal rates with respect to our existing customers. Failure to achieve one or more of these objectives could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results. If we lose one or more of our large customers or have significant reduction in business from such customers, our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially adversely affected. In addition, our customers’ losses in the betting market may adversely affect our financial condition if we are participating in a profit sharing arrangement with that customer.
We have historically achieved growth organically, but have supplemented such growth via strategic acquisitions of key targets. We may undertake acquisitions or divestitures in the future, which may not be successful, and which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Our business may suffer if we are unable to successfully integrate acquired businesses into the Company or otherwise manage the growth associated with such acquisitions.
As part of our business strategy, we have made, and we intend to continue to make, acquisitions as opportunities arise to add new or complementary businesses, products, brands or technologies. From time to time, we may enter into letters of intent, agreements, agreements in principle or memoranda of understanding or similar documents or commitments related to acquisitions of a new or complementary business. In some cases, the costs of such acquisitions may be substantial, including as a result of professional fees and due diligence efforts. There is no assurance that the time and resources expended on pursuing a particular acquisition will result in a completed transaction, or that any completed transaction will ultimately be successful.
In addition, we may be unable to identify suitable acquisition or strategic investment opportunities, or may be unable to obtain any required financing or regulatory approvals, and therefore may be unable to complete such acquisitions or strategic investments on favorable terms, if at all. We may decide to pursue acquisitions with which our investors may not agree and we cannot assure investors that any acquisition or investment will be successful or otherwise provide a favorable return on investment. In addition, acquisitions and the integration thereof require significant time and resources and place significant demands on our management, as well as on our operational and financial infrastructure. In addition, if we fail to successfully close transactions or integrate new teams, or integrate the products and technologies associated with these acquisitions into our company, our business could be seriously harmed. Acquisitions may expose us to operational challenges and risks, including:
 
   
the ability to profitably manage acquired businesses or successfully integrate the acquired businesses’ operations, culture, personnel, financial reporting, accounting and internal controls, technologies and products into our business;
 
   
increased indebtedness and the expense of integrating acquired businesses, including significant administrative, operational, economic, geographic or cultural challenges in managing and integrating the expanded or combined operations;
 
   
entry into jurisdictions or acquisition of products or technologies with which we have limited or no prior experience, and the potential of increased competition with new or existing competitors as a result of such acquisitions;
 
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exposure to compliance, intellectual property or other issues, not uncovered by a limited due diligence review of the target or otherwise;
 
   
diversion of management’s attention and the over-extension of our operating infrastructure and our management systems, information technology systems, and internal controls and procedures, which may be inadequate to support growth;
 
   
bringing new businesses into compliance with various laws and regulations, including but not limited to Sarbanes Oxley Section 404, and implementing adequate financial, risk and compliance controls to ensure appropriate financial reporting.
 
   
failure to fully integrate new business into our operations and difficulty in utilizing personnel and technology effectively.
 
   
the ability to fund our capital needs and any cash flow shortages that may occur if anticipated revenue is not realized or is delayed, whether by general economic or market conditions, or unforeseen internal difficulties; and
 
   
the ability to retain or hire qualified personnel required for expanded operations.
Our acquisition strategy may not succeed if we are unable to remain attractive to target companies or expeditiously close transactions. Issuing additional equity to fund an acquisition has and would cause economic dilution to existing stockholders. If we develop a reputation for being a difficult acquirer or having an unfavorable work environment, or target companies view our equity unfavorably, we may be unable to consummate key acquisition transactions essential to our corporate strategy and our business may be seriously harmed.
Our operations are subject to seasonal fluctuations that may impact our cash flows.
Although the sporting calendar is year round, there is seasonality in sporting events that may impact our operations and operations of our customers and sports organizations. The broad geographical mix of our customer base also impacts the effect of seasonality as customers in different territories will place differing importance on different sporting competitions and those competitions will often have different sporting calendars. Sports organizations have their own significant sporting events such as the playoffs and championship games, which may cause peaks in our revenues and revenues of our customers and such sports organizations. On the other hand, their respective off-seasons may cause troughs in our revenues and revenues of our customers and such sports organizations. Certain sports only hold events during portions of the calendar year. For example, our revenues are significantly impacted by the NFL and European football season calendars. Our revenues and revenues of our customers and sports organizations may also be affected by the scheduling of major sporting events that do not occur annually, such as the World Cup, or the cancellation or postponement of sporting events and races. Such fluctuations and uncertainties may negatively impact our cash flows.
Indemnity provisions in customer and other third-party agreements potentially expose us to substantial liability for intellectual property infringement and other losses.
Our agreements with customers and other third parties may include indemnification or other provisions under which we agree to indemnify or otherwise be liable to them for losses suffered or incurred as a result of claims of intellectual property infringement, damages caused by us to property or persons, or other liabilities relating to or arising from our products or other acts or omissions. The term of these contractual provisions often survives termination or expiration of the applicable agreement. Large indemnity payments of damage claims from contractual breach could harm our business, results of operations and financial condition. Although we generally contractually limit our liability with respect to such obligations, we may still incur substantial liability related to them. Any dispute with a customer with respect to such obligations could have adverse effects on our relationship with that customer and other current and prospective customers, reduce demand for our products and services, damage our reputation and harm our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Our business and operating results and the business and operating results of our customers, suppliers and vendors may be significantly impacted by general economic, political and social conditions, pandemics, wars or terrorist activity, severe weather events and other natural disasters, geopolitical circumstances and events, such as the Russia and Ukraine conflict, and the health of the sports, entertainment and sports betting industries.
Our business and operating results and the business and operating results of our customers, suppliers and vendors are subject to global economic conditions and their impact on levels of consumer spending. Economic recessions have had, and may continue to have, far reaching adverse consequences across many industries, including
 
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the global sports, entertainment and sports betting industries, which may adversely affect our business and financial condition and the business and financial condition of our customers, suppliers and vendors. In the past decade, global, U.S. and U.K. economies have experienced tepid growth following the financial crisis in 2008 – 2009 and there appears to be an increasing risk of a recession due to international trade and monetary policy, COVID-19 and other changes. If the national and international economic recovery slows or stalls, these economies experience another recession or any of the relevant regional or local economies suffers a downturn, we and our customers, suppliers and vendors may experience a material adverse effect on our and their business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Further, our business and operating results and the business and operating results of our customers, suppliers and vendors are subject to geopolitical conditions, including trade disputes and direct or indirect acts of war or terrorism. For example, we operate an office in Zaporizhzhia, Ukraine and have operations and revenue generating business within Ukraine and Russia. Geopolitical tensions with the ongoing conflict between Russia and Ukraine may adversely affect our operations involving Ukraine, Russia and other countries involved in the conflict and present safety risks to our office and staff in Zaporizhzhia. Due to the conflict, we have ceased all commercial operations in Russia and Belarus until further notice. Further, certain countries or organizations have implemented actions and may implement further actions in relation to the conflict, including trade actions, tariffs, export controls, cyber-attacks and sanctions, against other countries or localities, including potentially against certain government, government-related, or other entities or individuals, which along with any retaliatory measures, could increase costs, adversely affect our operations, or adversely affect our ability to meet contractual and financial obligations. Although we generated only approximately 1% of our revenues in Russia, Belarus and Ukraine for the year ended December 31, 2021, the ongoing conflict between Russian and Ukraine, uncertainty and disruption in the global economy and financial markets due to such conflict, and further escalation of geopolitical tensions could have a broader impact that expands into other markets where we do business, which could adversely affect our business and/or our customers, suppliers and vendors in the broader region.
Additionally, we, and our customers, partners and suppliers, are subject to a variety of domestic and foreign laws and regulations, which are subject to change and interpretation and which could subject us to claims or otherwise harm our and our customers’ and suppliers’ respective businesses. Any change in existing regulations or their interpretation, or the regulatory climate and requirements applicable to our or our customers’ and suppliers’ products and services, or changes in tax rules and regulations or interpretation thereof related to our or our customers’ and suppliers’ products and services, could adversely impact our or our customers’ and suppliers’ ability to operate our or their respective businesses as currently conducted or as we seek to operate in the future, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Adverse developments affecting financial markets and economies throughout the world, including fluctuation in stock markets resulting from, among other things, trends in the economy as a whole, a general tightening of availability of credit, decreased liquidity in certain financial markets, increased interest rates, foreign exchange fluctuations, increased energy costs, acts of war or terrorism, transportation disruptions, severe weather events and other natural disasters, declining consumer confidence, sustained high levels of unemployment or significant declines or volatility in stock markets, as well as concerns regarding pandemics, epidemics and the spread of contagious diseases, may further reduce spending on sporting events, sports betting and marketing services and may negatively affect the sports, entertainment and sports betting industries. Any one of these developments could have a material adverse effect on our and our customers’, suppliers and vendors’ business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Risks Related to Legal Matters and Regulations
We and our customers, partners and suppliers are subject to a variety of domestic and foreign laws and regulations, which are subject to change and interpretation and which could subject us to claims or otherwise harm our and our customers’ and suppliers’ respective businesses. Any change in existing regulations or their interpretation, or the regulatory climate and requirements applicable to our or our customers’ and suppliers’ products and services, or changes in tax rules and regulations or interpretation thereof related to our or our customers’ and suppliers’ products and services, could adversely impact our or our customers’ and suppliers’ ability to operate our or their respective businesses as currently conducted or as we seek to operate in the future, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
We and our customers, partners and suppliers are generally subject to laws and regulations relating to sports, sports betting, online gaming, marketing and advertising in the jurisdictions in which we and they conduct our and their businesses or in some circumstances, of those jurisdictions in which we and they offer services or those are available, as well as the general laws and regulations that apply to all e-commerce and online businesses as well as all publicly listed businesses, such as those related to privacy and personal information, tax, anti-money laundering, anti-bribery, advertising, competition, inside information and disclosures, and consumer protection. These laws and regulations vary from one jurisdiction to another and future legislative and regulatory action, court decisions or other governmental action, which may be affected by, among other things, political pressures, and changes in legislative or governmental priorities, may have a material impact on our operations and financial results. In particular, some jurisdictions have introduced regulations attempting to restrict or prohibit sports betting, online gaming and advertising, while others have taken the position that sports betting or online gaming should be licensed and regulated and have adopted or are in the process of considering legislation and regulations to enable sports betting or online gaming in their jurisdictions. In some jurisdictions, additional requirements and restrictions may continue to develop. For example, recently, the Committees of Advertising Practice in the U.K. recommended new rules which ban sports betting advertisements if they are likely to appeal to minors, which evidences a trend in Europe for an increasingly restrictive approach to gambling advertising more generally. Additionally, some jurisdictions in which we may operate could presently be unregulated or partially regulated and therefore more susceptible to the enactment or change of laws and regulations. Some jurisdictions do not have laws that grant us rights in the data we collect. Any enactment of laws in these jurisdictions would require a change in how we conduct business in such jurisdictions.
As of 31 December 2021, we have licenses in 17 states and are permitted to provide services in a total of 21 states in the U.S. that have adopted legislation permitting online sports betting. We also have a further 3 tribal licenses in the U.S., 2 licenses in Romania, and 2 licenses in UK. However, we offer our services to customers in many more countries, but do not always have visibility of where our customers use our products and services to offer their services to their customers. Any of our licenses could be revoked, suspended or conditioned at any time. Our license applications may also be denied or conditioned. The loss of a license in one jurisdiction could trigger the loss of a license or affect our eligibility for such a license in another jurisdiction, and any of such losses, or potential for such loss, could cause us to cease offering some or all of our offerings in the impacted jurisdictions. As laws and regulations change, we may need to obtain and maintain licenses or registrations in additional jurisdictions. In addition, once licensed, we may be subject to various ongoing requirements, including supervision by the respective governmental agency of certain transfers of ownership and acquisitions.
 
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In May 2018, the U.S. Supreme Court struck down the Professional and Amateur Sports Protection Act of 1992 (“PASPA”) as unconstitutional. This decision has the effect of lifting federal restrictions on sports betting and thus allows states to determine by themselves the legality of sports betting. Since the repeal of PASPA, several states have legalized online sports betting. To the extent new real money gaming or sports betting jurisdictions are established or expanded, we cannot guarantee that we will be successful in penetrating such new jurisdictions or expanding our business or customer base in line with the growth of existing jurisdictions. If we are unable to effectively develop and operate directly or indirectly within these new jurisdictions or if our competitors are able to successfully penetrate geographic jurisdictions that we cannot access or where we face other restrictions, there could be a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition. Our failure to obtain or maintain the necessary regulatory approvals and licenses in jurisdictions, whether individually or collectively, could have a material adverse effect on our business. See Item 4.B. To expand into new jurisdictions, we may need to be licensed and obtain approvals of our product offerings. This is a time-consuming process that can be extremely costly. Any delays in obtaining or difficulty in maintaining regulatory approvals or licenses needed for expansion within existing jurisdictions or into new jurisdictions can negatively affect our opportunities for growth, including the growth of our customer base, or delay our ability to recognize revenue from our offerings in any such jurisdictions.
Future legislative and regulatory action, and court decisions or other governmental action, may have a material impact on our and our customers’ operations and financial results. Governmental authorities could view us or our customers as having violated applicable laws or regulations, despite our or their efforts to obtain and maintain all applicable licenses or approvals. There is also a risk that civil and criminal proceedings, including class actions brought by or on behalf of prosecutors or public entities or incumbent providers, or private individuals, could be initiated against us, Internet service providers, credit card and other payment processors, advertisers and others involved in sports betting and online gaming industries. Such potential proceedings could involve substantial litigation expense, penalties, fines, seizure of assets, injunctions or other restrictions being imposed upon us or our customers or other business partners, while diverting the attention of key executives. Such proceedings could have a material adverse effect on our and our customers’ businesses, financial condition, results of operations and prospects, as well as impact our and our customers’ reputation.
There can be no assurance that legally enforceable legislation will not be proposed and passed in jurisdictions relevant or potentially relevant to our business to prohibit, legislate or regulate various aspects of sports betting and online gaming industries (or that existing laws in those jurisdictions will not be interpreted negatively). Compliance with any such legislation may have a material adverse effect on our and our customers’ businesses, financial condition and results of operations, either as a result of our determination that a jurisdiction should be blocked, or because a local license or approval may be costly for us or our customers to obtain and/or such licenses or approvals may contain other commercially undesirable conditions.
Our collection, storage and processing of personal data is subject to applicable data protection and privacy laws in various jurisdictions, and any failure to comply with such laws may harm our reputation and business or expose us to fines and other enforcement action.
In the ordinary course of business, we collect, store, use and transmit certain types of information that are subject to different laws and regulations. In particular, data security and data protection laws and regulations relating to personal and consumer information that we are subject to often vary significantly by jurisdiction. Our media business is particularly impacted by such data security and data protection laws and regulations as the business targets end consumers of gambling services.
 
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For example, the EU-wide General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”) became applicable on May 25, 2018, replacing the data protection laws of each EU member state. The GDPR implemented more stringent operational requirements for processors and controllers of personal data, including, for example, expanded disclosures about what and how personal information is to be used, limitations on retention of information, increased requirements to erase an individual’s information upon request, mandatory data breach notification requirements and higher standards for data controllers to demonstrate that they have obtained valid consent from individuals to process their personal data (or reliance on another appropriate legal basis) for certain data processing activities. It also significantly increased penalties for noncompliance, including where we act as a data processor. Notwithstanding Brexit, largely identical requirements apply under the equivalent legislation in the U.K. (the “U.K. GDPR”). We have executed (other than for transfer to the U.S.) intracompany Standard Contractual Clauses (“SCCs”) which are currently in compliance with the GDPR to allow for the transfer of personal data from the EU to other jurisdictions and continue to execute SCCs with respect to newly acquired contracts. With regard to U.S. transfers, we previously relied on the EU-U.S. Privacy Shield in the U.S. while valid to do so. However, given that SCCs still remain a valid mechanism for personal data transfers to the U.S., the Company is in the process of implementing SCCs for such U.S. transfers (while following guidance and directions from the U.K.’s Information Commissioner (the “ICO”) and equivalent EU regulators to assess the adequacy of such transfers, including ensuring that the guarantees provided in the SCCs can be complied with in practice).
Data security and data protection laws and regulations are continuously evolving. There are currently a number of legal challenges to the validity of EU, U.K. and Swiss mechanisms for adequate data transfers such as the SCCs, and our work could be impacted by changes in law as a result of a future review of these transfer mechanisms by European regulators under the GDPR, as well as current challenges to these mechanisms in the European courts. Brexit also requires the Company to take additional steps to ensure that data flows from EU members states to the U.K and with respect to the selection of a supervisory authority in an EU member state despite our operational head office location in the UK. Additionally, we are also subject to the Data Protection (Bailiwick of Guernsey) Law, 2017 (as amended) (the “Guernsey DP Law”), which largely follows GDPR and requires us to control and process personal data only for proper purposes and in accordance with statutory data protection principals, and the Data Protection Law of Colombia, which requires the consent of the user to their data being transmitted outside of Colombia.
In recent years, U.S. and European lawmakers and regulators have expressed concern over electronic marketing and the use of third-party cookies, web beacons and similar technology for online behavioral advertising. In the EU/U.K., marketing is defined broadly to include any promotional material and the rules specifically on e-marketing are currently set out in the ePrivacy Directive which will be replaced by a new ePrivacy Regulation. While no official time frame has been given for the ePrivacy Regulation, there will be a transition period after the ePrivacy Regulation is agreed for compliance, and commentators consider it unlikely to come into force before 2021. On June 20, 2020, the ICO published a report setting out its views on advertising technology, specifically the use of personal data in “real time bidding” (i.e. in-play betting), and the key privacy compliance challenges arising from it. In its report, which is a status update rather than formal guidance, several key deficiencies are noted and marked for formal regulatory action in December 2020.
In January 2021, the ICO confirmed the resumption of its paused investigation into the Advertising Technology industry, and such an investigation may involve the Company. Additionally, other EU regulators are reviewing digital advertising and in some cases, such as with Belgium, the regulator has ruled that measures such as the Transparency & Consent Framework is insufficient to protect the privacy of end users. Should regulators take a stricter view on the impact of advertising technology on privacy rights, or if we are involved in an investigation, we are likely to be required to expend further capital and other resources to ensure compliance with these changing laws and regulations or to represent our interests in regulatory discussions. While we have numerous mitigation controls in place, advertisements produced by us may be erroneously served on websites that are not suitable for the advertising content of gambling (e.g. websites predominantly aimed at children). There is also a risk that gambling advertisements are viewed by people who do not want to view them, or who have taken measures not to receive them (for example, individuals on “self-exclusion” lists). In each case this may have adverse legal and reputational effects on our business. Our media customers may also use our services to target jurisdictions where they are not permitted to advertise, that our risk mitigation controls fail to identify and/or prevent this and our business suffers adverse legal and reputational effects as a result.
Because our products and services rely on the movement of data across national boundaries, global privacy and data security concerns could result in additional costs and liabilities to us or inhibit sales of our products globally. European data protection laws, including the GDPR, the U.K. GDPR and the Guernsey DP Law, generally restrict the transfer of personal information from Europe, including the European Economic Area, U.K. and Switzerland, to the U.S. and most other countries unless the parties to the transfer have implemented specific safeguards to protect the transferred personal information. As noted above, one of the primary safeguards allowing importation of personal information from Europe to the U.S. had historically been certification to the EU-U.S. Privacy Shield and Swiss-U.S. Privacy Shield frameworks administered by the U.S. Department of Commerce. However, the Court of Justice of the EU effectively invalidated the EU-U.S. Privacy Shield in July 2020. The same decision also raised questions about whether one of the primary alternatives to the EU-U.S. Privacy Shield, namely, the SCCs, can lawfully be used for personal information transfers from Europe to the U.S. or most other countries. At present, there are few, if any, viable alternatives to
 
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the EU-U.S. Privacy Shield and the SCCs. Although we rarely rely on individuals’ explicit consent to transfer their personal information from Europe to the U.S. and other countries, in most cases we have relied or may rely on the SCCs (although, as noted above, we are following ICO and EU guidance and directions to assess the adequacy of such transfers, including ensuring that the guarantees provided in the SCCs can be complied with in practice). Inability to import personal information from the European Economic Area, U.K. or Switzerland may also restrict our operations in Europe, limit our ability to collaborate with our customers, sports organizations, service providers, contractors and other companies subject to European data protection laws and require us to increase our data processing capabilities in Europe at significant expense. Additionally, other countries outside of Europe have enacted or are considering enacting similar cross-border data transfer restrictions and laws requiring local data residency, which could increase the cost and complexity of delivering our services and operating our business.
In order to diversify our data transfer strategy, we will continue to explore other options managing data from Europe, including without limitation, amending SCCs where required and considering suppliers that limit their data processing activities to ensure processing occurs in Europe at all times, which may involve substantial expense and distraction from other aspects of our business. We may, however, be unsuccessful in establishing an adequate mechanism for data transfer, and will be at risk of enforcement actions taken by an EU/U.K./Swiss data protection authority until such point in time that we ensure an adequate mechanism for European data transfers, which could damage our reputation, inhibit sales and harm our business. Despite actions we have taken or will be taking to diversify our data transfer strategies, we may be unsuccessful in establishing a conforming means of transferring data due to ongoing legislative activity that could vary the current data transfer landscape. As we expand into new markets and grow our customer base, we will need to comply with any new requirements and continue to progress our compliance to align with changing regulations in our existing operational regions. If we cannot comply with, or if we incur a violation of one or more of these requirements, some customers may be limited in their ability to purchase our products, particularly our cloud products. Growth could be harmed, and we could incur significant liabilities.
The ePrivacy Regulation will be directly implemented into the laws of each of the EU Member States, without the need for further enactment. When implemented, the ePrivacy Regulation is expected to alter rules on third-party cookies, web beacons and similar technology for online behavioral advertising and to impose stricter requirements on companies using these tools. Regulation of cookies and web beacons may lead to broader restrictions on our online activities, including efforts to understand followers’ Internet usage and promote ourselves, or provide advertising services on behalf of customers, to them. The current draft of the ePrivacy Regulation significantly increases fining powers to the same levels as the GDPR. Given the delay in finalizing the ePrivacy Regulation, certain EU regulators have issued guidance (including U.K. and French data protection regulators) on the requirement to seek strict opt-in, unbundled consent to use all nonessential cookies. We may need to make changes to our cookies notice or require additional resources to to meet these compliance requirements.
In addition, California has enacted the California Consumer Privacy Act, or CCPA and the California Privacy Rights Act, or CPRA, which became effective on January 1, 2020. The CCPA and CPRA requires new disclosures to California consumers, imposes new rules for collecting or using information, requires companies to comply with data subject access and deletion requests, and affords California consumers new abilities to opt out of certain disclosures of personal information. Further, although the California Attorney General has issued implementing regulations in connection with the CCPA, it remains unclear how it will be interpreted and enforced. The Stop Hacks and Improve Electronic Data Security Act, otherwise known as the SHIELD Act, is a New York State bill, the data protection portions of which became effective on March 23, 2020. The SHIELD Act requires companies to adopt reasonable safeguards to protect the security, confidentiality, and integrity of private information. A company should implement a data security program containing specific measures, including risk assessments, employee training, vendor contracts, and timely data disposal. The effects of the CCPA, the SHIELD Act, and data privacy regulations in other US jurisdictions, are potentially are significant and may require us to modify our data collection or processing practices and policies and to incur substantial costs and expenses in an effort to comply.
Although we have appointed a Data Protection Officer and a full time Data Privacy Manager, analyzed certain risks associated with our data processing activities, provided employee training, implemented certain policies and procedures, and continue to review and improve such policies and procedures, that are designed to ensure compliance with applicable laws, rules and regulations, if our privacy or data security measures fail to comply with applicable current or future laws and regulations, we may be
 
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subject to fines, litigation, regulatory investigations, enforcement notices requiring us to change the way we use personal data or our marketing practices or other liabilities such as compensation claims by individuals affected by a personal data breach, as well as negative publicity and a potential loss of business. Fines are significant in some countries (e.g., the GDPR introduced fines of up to €20,000,000 or up to 4% of the total worldwide annual turnover of the preceding financial year (whichever is higher)) as well as litigation, compensation claims by affected individuals (including class action type litigation where individuals suffer harm), regulatory investigations and enforcement notices requiring us to change the way we use personal data. Recently, a group of U.K. football players issued a data subject access request under the GDPR to various participants in the sports data and sports betting industries. If the request (named “Project Red Card”) develops into legal action, it could significantly alter the way we collect and use sports data relating to players, sports staff and referees and could materially affect the sports data industry as whole.
We may face claims for data rights infringement, which could subject us to monetary damages.
Although we have generally adopted measures to avoid potential infringement of third-party data rights in the course of our operations, ownership of certain data rights is not always clear in certain jurisdictions we may operate in, particularly in “gray” jurisdictions which are presently unregulated or partially regulated. Should we face claims for illegal data rights sources or should we inadvertently infringe on another company’s data rights in any jurisdiction, we could be subject to claims of infringement, which could be time consuming and expensive to litigate or settle, divert the attention of management and materially disrupt the conduct of our business, and we may not prevail. Any such clams, which could include a claim for injunctive relief and damages, if successful, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial position.
We are party to pending litigation and investigations in various jurisdictions and with various plaintiffs and we may be subject to future litigation or investigations in the operation of our business. Protracted litigation costs could negatively affect our operational costs, and an adverse outcome in one or more proceedings could adversely affect our business.
We are and have been party to, and we may in the future increasingly face the risk of, claims, lawsuits, investigations, and other proceedings, including those which may involve competition and anti-trust, anti-money laundering, OFAC, gaming, intellectual property, privacy, consumer protection, accessibility claims, securities, tax, labor and employment, commercial disputes, services and other matters. We have in the past employed third party contractors that may operate in countries under U.S. sanctions and, as a result, have been and may continue to be subject to legal proceedings regarding compliance with U.S. sanctions laws. Litigation to defend us against claims by third parties, or to enforce any rights that we may have against third parties, may be necessary, which could result in substantial costs, fines or penalties and diversion of our resources, causing a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. For additional information regarding legal proceedings to which we are subject see Item 4.B.
Any litigation to which we are a party may result in an onerous or unfavorable judgment that may not be reversed upon appeal, or in payments of substantial monetary damages or fines, the posting of bonds requiring significant collateral, letters of credit or similar instruments, or we may decide to settle lawsuits on similarly unfavorable terms. These proceedings could also result in reputational harm, criminal sanctions, consent decrees or orders preventing us from offering certain products or requiring a change in our business practices in costly ways or requiring development of non-infringing or otherwise altered products or technologies. Litigation and other claims and regulatory proceedings against us could result in unexpected disciplinary actions, expenses and liabilities, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. For example, Project Red Card, if it develops into a legal claim, could significantly alter the way we collect and use personal data, and could materially affect the sports data industry as whole. Under the terms of our existing contractual arrangements, any adverse judgements could impact the validity of such contractual arrangements and/or our ability to rely on intellectual property rights to prevent third party infringement, which may force us to alter our business strategy and have an adverse effect on our business.
Litigation between third parties may also result in changes in (or interpretation of) law that materially adversely impact our existing business and strategy.
Our failure to comply with the anti-corruption, anti-bribery, anti-money laundering and similar laws of the U.S. and various international jurisdictions could negatively impact our reputation and results of operations.
Doing business on a worldwide basis requires us to comply with anti-corruption laws and regulations imposed by governments around the world with jurisdiction over our operations, which may include the U.K. Bribery Act 2010 (“U.K. Bribery Act”), the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA”), the Prevention of Corruption (Bailiwick of Guernsey) Law, 2003 (as amended) (the “Guernsey Bribery Law”), as well as the laws of the other countries where we do business. These laws and regulations may restrict our operations, trade practices, investment decisions and partnering activities. The FCPA, the Guernsey Bribery Law, the U.K. Bribery Act and other applicable laws prohibit us and our officers, directors, employees and business partners acting on our behalf, including agents, from corruptly offering, promising, authorizing or providing anything of value to “foreign officials” for the purposes of influencing official decisions or obtaining or retaining business or otherwise obtaining favorable treatment. The U.K. Bribery Act also prohibits “commercial” bribery or the appearance of such bribery. We are subject to the jurisdiction of various governments and regulatory agencies around the world, which may bring our personnel and representatives into contact with “foreign officials” responsible for issuing or renewing permits, licenses or approvals or for enforcing other governmental regulations. We are further required to implement various processes around conflicts of interest and related party transactions in order to comply with our obligations under the UK Bribery Act and regulations relating to our listing as a public company. These procedures and processes must be maintained and overseen in various jurisdictions, and even still may not be sufficient to prevent a violation. A violation in our procedures and policies could result in regulatory fines, litigation, risks to the rights of shareholders with respect to a violation of listing rules and disclosures, and public relations risks; all of which could affect our reputation and results of operations. Additionally, the costs, resourcing and impact of compliance may continue as additional requirements are imposed by various regulators. These additional measures may affect our operating costs or financial results.
 
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In addition, some of the international locations in which we operate lack a developed legal system and have elevated levels of corruption. Our international operations expose us to the risk of violating, or being accused of violating, anti-corruption laws and regulations. Our failure to successfully comply with these laws and regulations may expose us to reputational harm, as well as significant sanctions, including criminal fines, imprisonment, civil penalties, disgorgement of profits, injunctions and debarment from government contracts, as well as other remedial measures. Investigations of alleged violations can be expensive and disruptive. We are continuously developing and maintaining policies and procedures designed to comply with applicable anti-corruption laws and regulations. However, there can be no guarantee that our policies and procedures will effectively prevent violations by our employees or business partners acting on our behalf, including statisticians who attend events on our behalf, for which we may be held responsible, and any such violation could adversely affect our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations.
Risks Related to Genius Sports Group’s Technology, Intellectual Property and Infrastructure
Failure to protect or enforce our proprietary and intellectual property rights, including our unregistered intellectual property, and the costs involved in such protection and enforcement could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
We rely on database, trademark, trade secret, confidentiality and other intellectual property protection laws to protect our rights. In certain foreign jurisdictions and in the U.S., we have filed applications to protect aspects of our intellectual property, currently hold several trademarks and domain names in multiple jurisdictions and in the future we may acquire patents, additional trademarks and domain names, which could require significant cash expenditures.
However, circumstances outside our control could pose a threat to our intellectual property rights. For example, effective intellectual property protection may not be available in the U.S. or other countries in which we operate or intend to operate our business. Also, the efforts we have taken to protect our intellectual property rights may not be sufficient or effective, and any significant impairment of our intellectual property rights could harm our business or our ability to compete. For example, it may not always have been possible or commercially desirable to obtain registered protection for our products, software, databases or other technology and, in such situations, we rely on laws governing protection of unregistered intellectual property rights, confidentiality and/or contractual exclusivity of and to underlying data and technology to prevent unauthorized use by third parties. As such, if we are unable to protect our proprietary offerings via relevant laws or contractual exclusivity, technology and features, competitors may copy them. In particular, the EU database right protection we enjoy in the EU does not apply outside the EU and, as such, there are now separate UK and EU database rights protection in the UK and the EU. Certain aspects of the new Brexit legislation relating to database rights have not been tested in the courts. Additionally, protecting our intellectual property rights is costly and time-consuming. Any unauthorized use of our intellectual property or disclosure of our confidential information or trade secrets could make it more expensive to do business, thereby harming our operating results. Furthermore, if we are unable to protect our intellectual property rights or prevent unauthorized use or appropriation by third parties, the value of our brand and other intangible assets may be diminished, and competitors may be able to more effectively mimic our product offerings and services. Any of these events could seriously harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Further, third parties may knowingly or unknowingly infringe our proprietary and intellectual property rights (including by purposefully breaching our exclusive contractual arrangements with third parties, for example, by entering stadiums without the owner’s consent to collect data at events where we hold exclusive data collection rights) or challenge proprietary and intellectual property rights held by us. We currently do not hold any patents, which means our technology, products and services are susceptible to copying. The fact that we currently do not hold any patents also means third parties may claim patent rights over our technology, products and services and may bring infringement proceedings in respect of the same. Any pending and future trademark or patent applications may not be approved. In any of these cases, we may be required to expend significant time and expense to prevent infringement of or to enforce our rights, and we may fail to enforce our rights which may have a material adverse effect on our business. Notwithstanding our intellectual property rights, there can be no assurance that others will not offer products or services that are substantially similar to ours and compete with our business.
We may face claims for intellectual property infringement, which could subject us to monetary damages or limit us in using some of our technologies or providing certain solutions.
Although we have generally adopted measures to avoid potential infringement of third-party intellectual property rights in the course of our operations, we may not be successful in ensuring all components of our platform have proper authorization. Additionally, the legal position in all jurisdictions in relation to the ownership and permitted use of sports data and databases is subject to change. We cannot be certain that our current uses of data from publicly available sources (including third party websites) or otherwise, which are not known to infringe or misappropriate third party intellectual property today, will not result in claims for infringement or misappropriation of third party intellectual property in the future. Intellectual property infringement claims or claims of misappropriation against us could subject us to liability for damages and restrict us from providing solutions or require changes to certain solutions and technologies. Claims of infringement or misappropriation of a competitor’s or other third party’s intellectual property rights, regardless of merit, could be time consuming and expensive to litigate or settle, divert the attention of management and materially disrupt the conduct of our business, and we may not prevail. Any such clams, which could include a claim for injunctive relief and damages, if successful, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial position.
 
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We rely on information technology and other systems and platforms, including our data center and Amazon Web Services and certain other third-party platforms, and failures, errors, defects or disruptions therein could diminish our brand and reputation, subject us to liability, disrupt our business, affect our ability to scale our technical infrastructure and adversely affect our operating results and growth prospects. Our product offerings and other software applications and systems, and certain third-party platforms that we use could contain undetected errors or errors that we fail to identify as material.
Our technology infrastructure, including Amazon Web Services and certain other third party platforms, is critical to the performance of our services and product offerings and to user satisfaction. Consequently, we may be subject to service disruptions as well as failures to provide adequate support for reasons that are outside of our direct control. The performance and availability of Amazon Web Services with the necessary speed, data capacity and security for providing reliable access and services can affect the delivery, availability and performance of our services. Decisions by the owners and operators of the data centers where our cloud infrastructure, Amazon Web Services, is deployed to terminate our contracts, discontinue services to us, shut down operations or facilities, increase prices, change service levels, limit bandwidth or prioritize the traffic of other parties could also affect the delivery, availability and performance of our services. Third parties may also conduct attacks designed to temporarily deny customers access to our cloud services.
We devote significant resources to network and data security to protect our systems and data. However, our systems may not be adequately designed with the necessary reliability and redundancy to avoid performance delays or outages that could be harmful to our business. We cannot assure you that absolute security will be provided by the measures we take to: prevent or hinder cyber-attacks and protect our systems, data and user information; to prevent outages, data or information loss and fraud; and to prevent or detect security breaches. Such measures include a disaster recovery strategy for server and equipment failure, back-office systems and the use of third parties for certain cybersecurity services. We have experienced, and we may in the future experience, website disruptions, outages and other performance problems due to a variety of factors, including infrastructure changes, human or software errors and capacity constraints. To date, such disruptions have not had a material impact on us, individually or in the aggregate; however, future disruptions from unauthorized access to, fraudulent manipulation of, or tampering with our computer systems and technological infrastructure, or those of third parties, could result in a wide range of negative outcomes, each of which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
We are reliant on our data centers in London and Dublin, which could also be a target of cyber-attacks, experience outages or data or information loss and security breaches. We have in the past experienced minor outage-related incidents in the London data center and any future disruptions could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Additionally, our services and product offerings, including our user interface, may contain errors, bugs, flaws or corrupted data that we have not detected, and these defects may become apparent only after their launch and could result in a vulnerability that could compromise the security of our systems. Additionally, we have detected certain errors, bugs and flaws in our service and product offerings, and have judged them to be immaterial. If we have misjudged the materiality of such errors, bugs and flaws, our business could be harmed. If a particular product offering is slower than they expect, customers may be unable to use our services and product offerings as desired and may be less likely to continue to use our services and product offerings, if at all. Furthermore, programming errors, defects and data corruption could disrupt our operations, adversely affect the experience of our customers, harm our reputation, cause our customers to stop utilizing our services and product offerings, divert our resources or delay market acceptance of our services and product offerings, any of which could result in legal liability to us or harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. Insufficient business continuity management could diminish our brand and reputation, subject us to liability, disrupt our business and adversely affect our operating results and growth prospects, and failure of planned availability and continuity solutions and disaster recovery when activated in response to an incident could result in system interruptions and degradation of service.
If our customer base and engagement continue to grow, and the amount and types of services and product offerings continue to grow and evolve, we will need an increasing amount of technical infrastructure, including network capacity and computing power, to continue to satisfy our users’ needs. Such infrastructure expansion may be complex, and unanticipated delays in completing these projects or availability of components may lead to increased project costs, operational inefficiencies, or interruptions in the delivery or degradation of the quality of our services or product offerings. In addition, there may be issues related to this infrastructure that are not identified during the testing phases of design and implementation, which may become evident only after we have started to fully use the underlying equipment or software, that could further degrade the user experience or increase our costs. As such, we could fail to continue to effectively scale and grow our technical infrastructure to accommodate increased demands. In addition, a lack of resources (e.g., hardware, software, personnel, and service providers) could result in an inability to scale our services to meet business needs, system interruptions, degradation of service, or operational mistakes. Our business also may be subject to interruptions, delays or failures resulting from adverse weather conditions, other natural disasters, power loss, terrorism, cyber-attacks, public health emergencies (such as COVID-19) or other catastrophic events.
We believe that if our customers have a negative experience with our services and product offerings, or if our brand or reputation is negatively affected, customers may be less inclined to continue or resume utilizing our services and product offerings or to recommend our services and product offerings to other potential customers. As such, a failure or significant interruption in our service could harm our reputation, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
 
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Despite our security measures, our information technology and infrastructure may be vulnerable to attacks by hackers or breached due to employee error, malfeasance or other disruptions. Any such breach could compromise our networks and the information stored there could be accessed, publicly disclosed, lost or stolen. Any such access, disclosure, other loss or theft of information could result in legal claims or proceedings, liability under laws that protect the privacy of personal information, and regulatory penalties, disruption of our operations and the services we provide to users, damage to our reputation, and a loss of confidence in our products and services, each of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
The secure maintenance and transmission of information is a critical element of our operations. Our information technology and other systems that maintain and transmit information, or the systems of third-party service providers and business partners, may be compromised by a malicious third-party penetration of our network security, or the network security of a third-party service provider or business partner, or impacted by intentional or unintentional actions or inactions by our employees, or the actions or inactions of a third-party service provider or business partner. As a result, our information may be lost, disclosed, accessed or taken without consent. We have experienced attempts to breach our systems and other similar incidents in the past. The data industry is a particularly popular target for malware attacks, and a company in the sports data industry was recently targeted by a ransomware attack. We have also been and expect that we will continue to be subject to attempts to gain unauthorized access to or through our information systems or those we develop for our customers, whether by our employees or third parties, including phishing attacks by computer programmers and hackers who may develop and deploy viruses, worms or other malicious software programs. To date these attacks have not had a material impact on our operations or financial results, but we cannot provide assurance that they will not have a material impact in the future, including by overloading our systems and network and preventing our product offering from being accessed by legitimate users through the use of ransomware or other malware.
We rely on encryption and authentication technology licensed from third parties in an effort to securely transmit confidential and sensitive information. Advances in computer capabilities, new technological discoveries or other developments may result in the whole or partial failure of this technology to protect transaction data or other confidential and sensitive information from being breached or compromised. In addition, websites are often attacked through compromised credentials, including those obtained through phishing and credential stuffing. Our security measures, and those of our third-party service providers, may not detect or prevent all attempts to breach our systems, denial-of-service attacks, viruses, malicious software, break-ins, phishing attacks, social engineering, security breaches or other attacks and similar disruptions that may jeopardize the security of information stored in or transmitted by our websites, networks and systems or that we or such third parties otherwise maintain, including certain confidential information, which may subject us to fines or higher transaction fees or limit or terminate our access to such confidential information. We and such third parties may not anticipate or prevent all types of attacks until after they have already been launched. Further, techniques used to obtain unauthorized access to or sabotage systems change frequently and may not be known until launched against us or our third-party service providers.
Furthermore, security breaches can also occur as a result of non-technical issues, including intentional or inadvertent breaches by our employees or by third parties. In addition, any party who is able to illicitly obtain a user’s password could access the user’s transaction data or personal information, resulting in the perception that our systems are insecure. These risks may increase over time as our user number increases and the complexity and number of technical systems and applications we use and employees we have also increases. Breaches of our security measures or those of our third-party service providers or cybersecurity incidents have resulted in and may in the future result in: unauthorized access to our sites, networks and systems; unauthorized access to and misappropriation of information, including personally identifiable information, or other confidential or proprietary information of ourselves or third parties; viruses, worms, spyware, ransomware or other malware being served from our sites, networks or systems; deletion or modification of content or the display of unauthorized content on our sites; interruption, disruption or malfunction of operations; costs relating to breach remediation, deployment of additional personnel and protection technologies, response to governmental investigations and media inquiries and coverage; engagement of third-party experts and consultants; or litigation, regulatory action and other potential liabilities. In addition, the sports betting and online gaming industries have experienced and may continue to experience social engineering, phishing, malware and similar attacks and threats of denial-of-service attacks. To date, we are not aware of any material breach to our business; however, such breaches could in the future have a material adverse effect on our operations. If any of these breaches of security should occur and be material, our reputation and brand could be damaged, our business may suffer, we could be required to expend significant capital and other resources to alleviate problems caused by such breaches, and we could be exposed to a risk of loss, litigation or regulatory action and possible liability. We cannot guarantee that recovery protocols and backup systems will be sufficient to prevent data loss. In addition, while we maintain cybersecurity insurance coverage that we believe is adequate for our business, such coverage may not cover all potential costs and expenses associated with cybersecurity incidents that may occur in the future. Actual or anticipated attacks may cause us to incur increasing costs, including costs to deploy additional personnel and protection technologies, train employees and engage third-party experts and consultants.
Any compromise or breach of our security measures, or those of our third-party service providers, could violate applicable privacy, data protection, data security, network and information systems security and other laws and cause significant legal and financial exposure, adverse publicity and a loss of confidence in our security measures, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. We continue to devote significant resources to protect against security breaches or we may need to in the future to address problems caused by breaches, including notifying affected users and responding to any resulting litigation, which in turn, diverts resources from the growth and expansion of our business.
 
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We use third-party open source software components, and failure to comply with the terms of the underlying open source software licenses could restrict our ability to provide our product offerings.
We use software components licensed to us by third-party authors under “open source” licenses (“Open Source Software”). Use and distribution of Open Source Software may entail greater risks than use of third-party commercial software, as licensors of Open Source Software generally do not provide support, warranties, indemnification or other contractual protections regarding infringement claims or the quality of the licensed code. In addition, the public availability of Open Source Software may make it easier for others to compromise our services or product offerings.
Some licenses for Open Source Software contain requirements that we make available source code for modifications or derivative works we create, or grant other licenses to our intellectual property, if we use such Open Source Software in certain ways. If we combine our proprietary software with Open Source Software in a certain manner, we could, under certain licenses for Open Source Software, be required to release the source code of our proprietary software to the public. This would allow our competitors to create similar offerings with lower development effort and time and ultimately could result in a loss of our competitive advantages. Alternatively, to avoid the public release of the affected portions of our source code, we could be required to expend substantial time and resources to re-engineer some or all of our proprietary software.
Although we periodically review our use of Open Source Software to avoid subjecting our services and product offerings to conditions we do not intend, the terms of many licenses for Open Source Software have not been interpreted by U.S., U.K. or foreign courts, and there is a risk that these licenses could be construed in a way that could impose unanticipated conditions or restrictions on our ability to provide or distribute our services or product offerings. From time to time, there have been claims challenging the ownership of Open Source Software against companies that incorporate Open Source Software into their solutions. As a result, we could be subject to lawsuits by parties claiming ownership of what we believe to be Open Source Software. Moreover, we cannot assure you that our processes for controlling our use of Open Source Software in our services and product offerings will be effective. If we are held to have breached or failed to fully comply with all the terms and conditions of an Open Source Software license, we could face infringement or other liability, or be required to seek costly licenses from third parties to continue providing our services and product offerings on terms that are not economically feasible, to find replacement software, to discontinue or delay the provision of our services or product offerings if replacement cannot be accomplished on a timely basis or to make generally available, in source code form, our proprietary software, any of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Risks Related to Genius Sports Group’s Financial Conditions
We have a history of losses and may not be able to achieve or sustain profitability in the future.
We have a history of incurring net losses, and we may not achieve or maintain profitability in the future. We experienced net losses of $592.8 million, $30.3 million, and $40.2 million for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively. As of December 31, 2021, we had an accumulated deficit of $757.3 million. While we have experienced significant growth in revenue in recent periods, we cannot predict when or whether we will reach or maintain profitability. We also expect our operating expenses to increase in the future as we continue to invest for our future growth, which will negatively affect our results of operations if our total revenue does not increase.
 
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We cannot assure you that these investments will result in substantial increases in our total revenue or improvements in our results of operations. In addition to the anticipated costs to grow our business, we also expect to incur significant additional legal, accounting, and other expenses as a newly public company. Any failure to increase our revenue as we invest in our business or to manage our costs could prevent us from achieving or maintaining profitability or positive cash flow.
If we are unable to increase our revenues or our costs are higher than expected, our profitability may decline and our operating results may fluctuate significantly.
We may not be able to accurately forecast our revenues or future revenue growth rate. Many of our expenses, particularly personnel costs, occupancy costs and sports rights costs, are relatively fixed, but we may experience higher than expected operating costs, including increased selling and marketing costs, investments in geographic expansion, acquisition costs, communications costs, travel costs, software development costs, professional fees and other costs. Further, we expect our fixed costs to increase in future periods, due to recent acquisitions and inflation in the cost of data rights, which could negatively affect our future operating results and ability to achieve and sustain profitability. We expect to continue to expend substantial financial and other resources on acquiring other resources or on acquiring and retaining customers, our technology infrastructure, research and development, including investments in our research and development team and the development of new features, services and products. Also, we may not generate sufficient revenue to offset our costs, including the cost of maintaining and growing our business and the fixed costs associated with our data licenses and rights. As a result, we may not be able to adjust spending quickly enough to offset any unexpected increase in expenses or revenue shortfall. Increased competition amongst sports data providers for data collection rights granted by sports organizations could lead to an increase in the cost of those rights, which we may be unable to pass on to our customers. Such competition may also mean we lose access to data on certain events if a third party data provider is granted exclusivity over data on that event. If costs exceed our expectations and cannot be adjusted accordingly, our profitability may be reduced, and our results of operations and financial position will be adversely affected. Additionally, historic growth rates may not be reflective of future growth, we may not be able to sustain our revenue growth rates, and our percentage revenue growth rates may decline. Reduced demand, whether due to a weakening of the global economy, reduction in consumer spending, competition or other reasons, may result in decreased revenues and growth, adversely affecting our operating results. Our projections are subject to significant risks, assumptions, estimates and uncertainties, including assumptions regarding future legislation and changes in regulations, both inside and outside of the U.K. and the U.S. As a result, our projected revenues, market share, expenses and profitability may differ materially from our expectations.
If we fail to implement and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting, our ability to accurately and timely report our financial results could be adversely affected.
Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with GAAP. Our management is likewise required, on a quarterly basis, to evaluate the effectiveness of our internal controls and to disclose any changes and material weaknesses identified through such evaluation in those internal controls. A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of our annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis.
We intended to and have increased the depth and experience within our accounting and finance organization, as well as designing and implementing improved processes and internal controls. However, our efforts may not be effective or prevent any future material weakness or significant deficiency in our internal control over financial reporting. If our efforts are not successful or material weaknesses or control deficiencies occur in the future, we may be unable to report its financial results accurately on a timely basis, which could cause our reported financial results to be materially misstated and result in the loss of investor confidence and cause the market price of our common stock to decline.
If certain material weaknesses or control deficiencies occur in the future, we may be unable to report our financial results accurately on a timely basis, which could cause our reported financial results to be materially misstated and result in the loss of investor confidence and cause the market price of our common stock to decline. Ineffective internal controls could also cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information, which could have a negative effect on the trading price of our stock.
We can give no assurance that the measures taken and/or that we plan to take in the future will remediate the material weakness identified or that any additional material weaknesses or restatements of financial results will not arise in the future due to a failure to implement and maintain adequate internal control over financial reporting or circumvention of these controls. We will be required, pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, to
 
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annually furnish a report by management on, among other things, the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. This assessment will need to include disclosure of any material weaknesses identified by our management in our internal control over financial reporting. Our independent registered public accounting firm may be required to attest to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting depending on our reporting status. We will be required to disclose changes made in our internal control and procedures on a quarterly basis. To comply with the requirements of being a public company, we may need to undertake various actions, such as implementing new internal controls and procedures and hiring accounting or internal audit staff.
We may require additional capital to support our growth plans, including in connection with the acquisition of additional data rights, and such capital may not be available on reasonable terms or at all. This could hamper our growth and adversely affect our business.
We intend to make significant investments to support our business growth and may require additional funds to respond to business challenges, including the need to develop new technology and services or enhance our existing offering, improve our operating infrastructure, enhance our information security systems to combat changing cyber threats or implement more mature corporate processes to support growth, and acquire complementary businesses, personnel and technologies. Our success depends on our ability to retain and acquire sports data rights, which may require significant investments and additional capital. Accordingly, we may need to engage in equity or debt financings to secure additional funds. Our ability to obtain additional capital, if and when required, will depend on our business plans, investor demand, our operating performance, markets conditions, our credit rating and other factors. If we raise additional funds by issuing equity, equity-linked or debt securities, those securities may have rights, preferences or privileges senior to the rights of our currently issued and outstanding equity or debt, and our existing shareholders may experience dilution. If we are unable to obtain additional capital when required, or on reasonable terms, our ability to continue to support our business growth or to respond to business opportunities, challenges or unforeseen circumstances could be adversely affected, and our business may be harmed.
Risks Related to Genius Sports Group’s International Operations
The international scope of our operations may expose us to increased risk, and our international operations and corporate and financing structure may expose us to potentially adverse tax consequences.
We have international operations and, accordingly, our business is subject to risks resulting from differing legal and regulatory requirements, political, social and economic conditions and unforeseeable developments in a variety of jurisdictions. Our international operations are subject to the following risks, among others:
 
   
political instability;
 
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international hostilities, military actions, terrorist or cyber-terrorist activities, natural disasters, pandemics, and infrastructure disruptions;
 
   
differing economic cycles and adverse economic conditions;
 
   
unexpected changes in regulatory environments and government interference in the economy, including gambling, data privacy and advertising laws and regulations;
 
   
changes to economic and anti-money laundering sanctions, laws and regulations;
 
   
varying tax regimes, including with respect to the imposition of withholding taxes on remittances and other payments by our partnerships or subsidiaries;
 
   
inflation fluctuations in various regions where our revenues are contingent upon consumer spending.
 
   
differing labor regulations;
 
   
foreign exchange controls and restrictions on repatriation of funds;
 
   
fluctuations in currency exchange rates;
 
   
increased costs for corporate, administrative and personnel costs to support operations in various jurisdictions;
 
   
inability to collect payments or seek recourse under or comply with ambiguous or vague commercial or other laws;
 
   
insufficient protection against product piracy and rights infringement and differing protections for intellectual property rights;
 
   
varying attitudes towards sports data providers and betting by foreign governments;
 
   
difficulties in attracting and retaining qualified management and employees, or rationalizing our workforce;
 
   
differing business practices, which may require us to enter into agreements that include non-standard terms; and
 
   
difficulties in penetrating new markets due to entrenched competitors, lack of recognition of our brands or lack of local acceptance of our products, lack of local expertise and services.
Our overall success as a global business depends, in part, on our ability to anticipate and effectively manage these risks, and there can be no assurance that we will be able to do so without incurring unexpected costs. If we are not able to manage the risks related to our international operations, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially affected.
We have expanded our presence in a number of major regions and any future actions or escalations that affect trade relations may cause global economic turmoil and potentially have a negative impact on our business. In particular, we may have access to fewer business opportunities and our operations in that region may be negatively impacted.
As a result of the international scope of our operations and our corporate and financing structure, we are subject to taxation in, and to the tax laws and regulations of, multiple jurisdictions. We are also subject to intercompany pricing laws, including those relating to the flow of funds between our companies pursuant to, for example, purchase agreements, licensing agreements or other arrangements. Adverse developments in these laws or regulations, or any change in position regarding the application, administration or interpretation of these laws or regulations in any applicable jurisdiction, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Furthermore, changes in or to the interpretation of the tax laws or tax treaties of the countries in which we operate may adversely affect the manner in which we have structured our business operations and legal entity structure to efficiently realize income or capital gains and mitigate withholding taxes, and may also subject us to tax and return filing obligations in such countries that do not currently apply to us. Such changes may increase our tax burden and/or may cause us to incur additional costs and expenses in compliance with such changes. In addition, the tax authorities in any applicable jurisdiction may disagree with the positions we have taken or intend to take regarding the tax treatment or characterization of any of our transactions, including the tax treatment or characterization of our indebtedness. If any applicable tax authorities were to successfully challenge the tax treatment or characterization of any of our transactions, it could result in the disallowance of deductions, the imposition of withholding taxes, the reallocation of income or other consequences that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
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In addition, the U.S. Congress, the U.K. Government, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (the “OECD”), and other government agencies in jurisdictions where we and our affiliates do business have had an extended focus on issues related to the taxation of multinational corporations. Also, within the EU, the European Council Directive 2016/1164 (Anti-Tax Avoidance Directive (“ATAD”)) and Directive 2017/952 (“ATAD II”) required EU member states to transpose certain measures affecting multinational corporations into national legislation by December 31, 2019. Further, the introduction of a digital services tax, such as the U.K. digital services tax introduced with effect from April 1, 2020, may increase our tax burden which and could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Finally, the international scope of our business operations subjects us to multiple overlapping tax regimes that can make it difficult to determine what our obligations are in particular situations.
Risks related to the U.K.’s exit from the European Union (“Brexit”) may have a negative effect on global economic conditions, financial markets and our business.
We have significant business operations in Europe, and our headquarters is in the U.K. where “Brexit” has occurred in 2021, Although we generated only approximately 13% of our revenues in the U.K. for the year ended December 31, 2021, Brexit-related developments and the potential consequences of them have had and may continue to have a material adverse effect upon global economic conditions and the stability of global financial markets, and could significantly reduce global market liquidity and restrict the ability of key market participants to operate in certain financial markets. Asset valuations, currency exchange rates and credit ratings have been and may continue to be subject to increased market volatility. The position regarding UK and EU database rights has now been clarified following Brexit and there will be separate UK and EU database rights protection in the UK and the EU. Certain aspects of the new Brexit legislation relating to database rights have not been tested in the courts. Adapting to a new set of data protection laws could increase costs, risk of litigation and other adverse consequences. Lack of clarity about other future U.K. laws and regulations as the U.K. determines which European Union laws to replace or replicate, including financial laws and regulations, tax and free trade agreements, tax and customs laws, intellectual property rights, environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, immigration laws, employment laws and transport laws could increase costs, depress economic activity, restrict our access to capital, impair our ability to attract and retain qualified personnel and have other adverse consequences. If the U.K. and the European Union are unable to negotiate acceptable withdrawal terms, barrier-free access between the U.K. and other European Union member states or among the European economic area overall could be diminished or eliminated. Any of these factors could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Fluctuating foreign currency and exchange rates may negatively impact our business, results of operations and financial position.
Due to our international operations, a portion of our business is denominated in foreign currencies. As a result, fluctuations in foreign currency and exchange rates may have an impact on our business, results of operations and financial position. Foreign currency exchange rates have fluctuated and may continue to fluctuate. Significant foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations may negatively impact our international revenue, which in turn affects our consolidated revenue. Currencies may be affected by internal factors, general economic conditions and external developments in other countries, all of which can have an adverse impact on a country’s currency. Currently, we are not party to any hedging transactions intended to reduce our exposure to exchange rate fluctuations. We may seek to enter into hedging transactions in the future, but we may be unable to enter into these transactions successfully, on acceptable terms or at all. We cannot predict whether we will incur foreign exchange losses in the future. Further, significant foreign exchange fluctuations resulting in a decline in the respective local currency may decrease the value of our foreign assets, as well as decrease our revenues and earnings from our foreign subsidiaries, which would reduce our profitability and adversely affect our financial position.
 
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Risks Related to Genius Ordinary Shares
The market price of Genius’s securities may decline, and you may not be able to resell Genius’s securities at or above the price at which you purchased them.
The market price of Genius ordinary shares have declined from their listing date. The market values of Genius ordinary shares in the future may vary significantly from the date of this Report or the time you purchased them.
In addition, fluctuations in the price of Genius ordinary shares could contribute to the loss of all or part of your investment. Prior to 20 April 2021, there had not been a public market for Genius ordinary shares. Accordingly, the valuation ascribed to Genius may not be indicative of the price that will prevail in the trading at any given time. If an active market for Genius’s securities continues, the trading price of Genius ordinary shares could be volatile and subject to wide fluctuations in response to various factors, some of which are beyond Genius’s control. Any of the factors listed below could have a material adverse effect on your investment in Genius ordinary shares, and Genius ordinary shares may trade at prices significantly below the price you paid for them. In such circumstances, the trading price of Genius ordinary shares may not recover and may experience a further decline.
Factors affecting the trading price of Genius ordinary shares may include:
 
   
actual or anticipated fluctuations in Genius’s quarterly financial results or the quarterly financial results of companies perceived to be similar to Genius;
 
   
changes in the market’s expectations about Genius’s operating results;
 
   
success of competitors;
 
   
Genius’s operating results failing to meet the expectation of securities analysts or investors in a particular period;
 
   
changes in financial estimates and recommendations by securities analysts concerning Genius or the industries in which Genius operates in general;
 
   
operating and share price performance of other companies that investors deem comparable to Genius;
 
   
Genius’s ability to market new and enhanced products on a timely basis;
 
   
changes in laws and regulations affecting Genius’s business;
 
   
concerns over customers business or the wider consumer market for sportsbooks;
 
   
commencement of, or involvement in, litigation involving Genius;
 
   
changes in Genius’s capital structure, such as future issuances of securities (including, but not limited to, pursuant to stock option plans and other equity compensation arrangements available to officers, directors or employees, or other equity issuance transactions for which Genius, as a foreign private issuer, is not required by NYSE corporate governance listing standards to seek shareholder approval) or the incurrence of additional debt;
 
   
changes in significant shareholding
 
   
the volume of Genius ordinary shares available for public sale;
 
   
any major change in Genius’s management or Board of Directors;
 
   
social, environmental or governance factors relating to our relationship to sportsbooks or otherwise;
 
   
sales of substantial amounts of Genius ordinary shares by Genius’s directors, executive officers or significant shareholders or the perception that such sales could occur; and
 
   
general economic and political conditions such as recessions, interest rates, fuel prices, inflation, international currency fluctuations and acts of war or terrorism.
Broad market and industry factors may materially harm the market price of Genius ordinary shares irrespective of Genius’s operating performance. The stock market in general, and NYSE, have experienced price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of the particular companies affected. The trading prices and valuations of these stocks, and of Genius ordinary shares, may not be predictable. A loss of investor confidence in the market for the stocks of other companies that investors perceive to be similar to Genius could depress its share price, regardless of its business, prospects, financial conditions or results of operations. A decline in the market price of Genius ordinary shares also could adversely affect Genius’s ability to issue additional securities and its ability to obtain additional financing in the future.
 
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Because Genius is incorporated under the laws of the States of Guernsey, you may face difficulties in protecting your interests, and your ability to protect your rights through the U.S. Federal courts is limited.
Genius is a limited company incorporated under the laws of the States of Guernsey. As a result, it may be difficult for investors to effect service of process within the United States upon Genius’s directors or officers, or enforce judgments obtained in the United States courts against Genius’s directors or officers.
We have been advised that there is doubt as to the enforceability in Guernsey of judgments of the United States courts of civil liabilities predicated solely upon the laws of the United States, including the federal securities laws.
As a result of all of the above, public shareholders may have more difficulty in protecting their interests in the face of actions taken by management, members of the board of directors or controlling shareholders than they would as public shareholders of a corporation incorporated in the United States.
It may be difficult to enforce a U.S. judgment against Genius or its directors and officers outside the United States, or to assert U.S. securities law claims outside of the United States.
The majority of Genius directors and executive officers are not residents of the United States, and the majority of Genius’s assets and the assets of these persons are located outside the United States. As a result, it is difficult or may be impossible for investors to effect service of process upon Genius within the United States or other jurisdictions, including judgments predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the federal securities laws of the United States. Additionally, it is difficult to assert U.S. securities law claims in actions originally instituted outside of the United States. Foreign courts may refuse to hear a U.S. securities law claim, because foreign courts may not be the most appropriate forum in which to bring such a claim. Even if a foreign court agrees to hear a claim, it may determine that the law of the jurisdiction in which the foreign court resides, and not U.S. law, is applicable to the claim. Further, if U.S. law is found to be applicable, the content of applicable U.S. law must be proved as a fact, which can be a time- consuming and costly process, and certain matters of procedure would still be governed by the law of the jurisdiction in which the foreign court resides.
As a company incorporated in the States of Guernsey, we are permitted to adopt certain home country practices in relation to corporate governance matters that differ, and in some cases significantly differ, from NYSE corporate governance listing standards; these practices may afford less protection to shareholders than they would enjoy if we complied fully with NYSE corporate governance listing standards.
We are a company incorporated in the States of Guernsey, and our ordinary shares and public warrants are listed on the NYSE. NYSE market rules permit a foreign private issuer like us to follow the corporate governance practices of its home country. Certain corporate governance practices in the Island of Guernsey, which is our home country, differ, and in some cases significantly differ, from NYSE corporate governance listing standards.
Among others, we are not required to:
(a) have a majority of the members of our board of directors who are independent;
(b) hold regular meetings of our non-executive directors without the executive directors;
(c) have a nominating and/or corporate governance committee composed of entirely independent directors;
(d) have a remuneration/compensation committee composed of entirely independent directors;
(e) adopt a code of business conduct and ethics;
(f) seek shareholder approval of stock option plans and other equity compensation arrangements available to officers, directors or employees and any material amendments thereto;
(g) seek shareholder approval of certain equity issuances, including, but not limited to, the issuance of more than 1% of our outstanding ordinary shares or 1% of the voting power outstanding to a related party;
(h) comply with certain rules and regulations under the Exchange Act and the NYSE related to the content of proxy statements that apply to domestic issuers;
(i) have an audit committee or another independent body of the board of directors conduct a reasonable prior review and oversight of certain related party transactions that foreign private issuers are not required to disclose.
We currently follow and intend to continue to follow some of NYSE corporate governance requirements from which foreign private issuers are exempt. For example, we have adopted a code of conduct, and our board and board committees regularly meet without the executive directors. We may in the future, however, decide to use foreign private issuer exemptions with respect to some or all of such NYSE corporate governance requirements. Also, we currently utilize and intend to continue to utilize exemptions from many of NYSE corporate governance requirements. Following our home country governance practices may provide less protection than is accorded to investors under the NYSE corporate governance requirements applicable to domestic issuers.
 
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Provisions in our governing documents may inhibit a takeover of Genius, which could limit the price investors might be willing to pay in the future for Genius ordinary shares and could entrench management.
Our governing documents will contain provisions that may discourage unsolicited takeover proposals that shareholders may consider to be in their best interests. These provisions include that the Genius Board will be classified into three classes of directors. As a result, in most circumstances, a person can gain control of the board only by successfully engaging in a proxy contest at two or more annual general meetings. Genius may issue additional shares without shareholder approval and such additional shares could be utilized for a variety of corporate purposes, including future offerings to raise additional capital, acquisitions and employee benefit plans. Genius has in the 2021 year utilized this right to issue additional shares for acquisitions and to raise capital without requiring a shareholder vote. The ability for Genius to issue additional shares could render more difficult or discourage an attempt to obtain control of us by means of a proxy contest, tender offer, merger or otherwise that could involve the payment of a premium over prevailing market prices for Genius ordinary shares.
If a U.S. Holder is treated as owning at least 10% of Genius ordinary shares, such U.S. Holder may be subject to adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences.
If a U.S. Holder is treated as owning (directly, indirectly or constructively) at least 10% of the value or voting power of Genius ordinary shares, such U.S. Holder may be treated as a “United States shareholder” with respect to Genius, or to any of our subsidiaries, if Genius or such subsidiary constitutes a “controlled foreign corporation” (in each case, as such terms are defined under the U.S. Tax Code). Certain United States shareholders of a controlled foreign corporation may be required to annually report and include in their U.S. taxable income, as ordinary income, their pro rata share of “Subpart F income,” “global intangible low-taxed income” and certain investments in U.S. property by controlled foreign corporations, whether or not such controlled foreign corporation make any distributions to such United States shareholder. A failure by a United States shareholder to comply with its reporting obligations may subject the United States shareholder to significant monetary penalties and other adverse tax consequences, and may extend the statute of limitations with respect to the United States shareholder’s U.S. federal income tax return for the year for which such reporting was due. Genius cannot provide any assurances that it will assist investors in determining whether Genius or any of its non-U.S. subsidiaries are treated as controlled foreign corporations or whether any investor is a United States shareholder with respect to any such controlled foreign corporations. Genius also cannot guarantee that it will furnish to any United States shareholders information that may be necessary for them to comply with the aforementioned obligations. United States investors should consult their own advisors regarding the potential application of these rules to their investments in Genius. The risk of being subject to increased taxation may deter our current shareholders from increasing their investment in us and others from investing in us, which could impact the demand for, and value of, Genius ordinary shares.
If Genius or any of its subsidiaries is characterized as a passive foreign investment company for U.S. federal income tax purposes, U.S. Holders may suffer adverse tax consequences.
If Genius or any of its subsidiaries is or becomes a “passive foreign investment company,” or a PFIC, within the meaning of Section 1297 of the U.S. Tax Code for any taxable year (or portion thereof) during which a U.S. Holder (as defined in “
Material Tax Considerations — Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations
”) holds Genius ordinary shares or public warrants, certain adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences may apply to such U.S. Holder and such U.S. Holder might be subject to additional reporting requirements.
We do not believe Genius will be treated as a PFIC for its current taxable year and do not expect Genius to become one in the near future. Nevertheless, whether Genius is treated as a PFIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes is a factual determination that must be made annually at the close of each taxable year and, thus, is subject to significant uncertainty. Accordingly, we are unable to determine whether Genius will be treated as a PFIC for the taxable year of the Business Combination or for future taxable years, and there can be no assurance that Genius will not be treated as a PFIC for any taxable year. If Genius determines that it is a PFIC for any taxable year, Genius intends to, upon written request from a U.S. Holder of Genius ordinary shares, provide a PFIC Annual Information Statement for 2021 or going forward, as applicable. Please see Item 10.E “
Material Tax Considerations — Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations — U.S. Federal Income Taxation of U.S. Holders
Tax Consequences to U.S. Holders of Ownership and Disposition of Genius Ordinary Shares and Public Warrants — Passive Foreign Investment Company Rules
” for a more detailed discussion with respect to Genius’s potential PFIC status. U.S. Holders (as defined in Item 10.E “
Material Tax Considerations — Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations
”) are urged to consult their tax advisors regarding the possible application of the PFIC rules to U.S. Holders of the Genius ordinary shares or public warrants.
 
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Future resales of Genius ordinary shares and/or warrants may cause the market price of such securities to drop significantly, even if its business is doing well.
Certain of our pre-Closing holders, NFL Enterprises and PIPE Investors have been granted certain rights, pursuant to the Amended and Restated Investor Rights Agreement and Subscription Agreements, respectively, to require Genius to register, in certain circumstances, the resale under the Securities Act of their Genius ordinary shares or warrants held by them, subject to certain conditions, and to certain demand, piggy-back and shelf registration rights. We have filed a registration statement on Form F-1 (the “Resale F-1”) to register such ordinary shares for resale, which was declared effective on June 1, 2021. Further, certain holders who have been issued Genius ordinary shares in connection with the FanHub Acquisition and the Second Spectrum Acquisition have certain registration rights under the respective agreements to such transactions. We have filed a registration statement on Form F-1 to register such ordinary shares for resale, which was declared effective on September 30, 2021. The sale or possibility of sale of these Genius ordinary shares and/or warrants could have the effect of increasing the volatility in Genius ordinary share price or putting significant downward pressure on the price of Genius ordinary shares and/or warrants.
Additionally, a significant portion of Genius’s ordinary shares will be subject to a lock-up and restricted from immediate resale, however, upon expiration of their respective lock-up periods, the sale of shares of Genius’s ordinary shares or the perception that such sales may occur, could cause the market price of Genius’s ordinary shares to drop significantly.
The appointment of directorships are, in some cases, subject to our Amended and Restated Investor Rights Agreement.
As a result of the Business Combination, certain shareholders have been granted the right to appoint directors to our Board, pursuant to the Amended and Restated Investor Rights Agreement. This may make it difficult for our shareholders to propose changes to our Board composition while the Amended and Restated Investor Rights Agreement remains applicable.
Genius may issue additional Genius ordinary shares or other equity securities without your approval, which would dilute your ownership interests and may depress the market price of Genius ordinary shares.
Genius has, within the past year issued additional ordinary shares and other equity securities, including warrants, in connection with mergers, acquisitions and employee and director equity plans. Genius may do so again in the future, and intends to consider the issuance of shares for an employee and director equity plan on an annual basis. Genius may also issue additional ordinary shares in connection with, among other things, future capital raising and transactions and future acquisitions, or pursuant to agreements in connection with past acquisitions, without your approval in many circumstances.
Genius’s issuance of additional Genius ordinary shares or other equity securities would have the following effects:
 
   
Genius’s existing shareholders’ proportionate ownership interest in Genius may decrease;
 
   
the amount of cash available per share, including for payment of dividends in the future, may decrease;
 
   
the relative voting strength of each previously outstanding Genius ordinary share may be diminished; and
 
   
the market price of Genius ordinary shares may decline.
We are a foreign private issuer within the meaning of the rules under the Exchange Act, and as such, we are exempt from certain provisions of the securities rules and regulations in the U.S. applicable to U.S. domestic public companies.
Because we qualify as a foreign private issuer under the Exchange Act, we are exempt from certain provisions of the securities rules and regulations in the U.S. that are applicable to U.S. domestic issuers, including: (i) the rules under the Exchange Act requiring the filing with the SEC of quarterly reports on Form 10-Q or current reports on Form 8-K; (ii) the sections of the Exchange Act regulating the solicitation of proxies, consents, or authorizations in respect of a security registered under the Exchange Act; (iii) the sections of the Exchange Act requiring insiders to file public reports of their stock ownership and trading activities and liability for insiders who profit from trades made in a short period of time; and (iv) the selective disclosure rules by issuers of material nonpublic information under Regulation FD.
We are required to file an annual report on Form 20-F within four months of the end of each fiscal year. Press releases relating to financial results and material events will also be furnished to the SEC on Form 6-K. We are, by our Articles required to hold an Annual General Meeting, within eighteen months of the Business Combination and intend to voluntarily furnish certain governance information when doing so. However, the information we are required to file with or furnish to the SEC will be less extensive and less timely compared to that required to be filed with the SEC by U.S. domestic issuers. As a result, you will not be afforded the same protections or information that would be made available to you were you investing in a U.S. domestic issuer.
 
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We may lose our foreign private issuer status in the future, which could result in significant additional cost and expense.
We are a “foreign private issuer,” as such term is defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act; however, under Rule 405, the determination of foreign private issuer status is made annually on the last business day of an issuer’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, and, accordingly, the next determination will be made with respect to us on June 30, 2022.
In the future, we would lose our foreign private issuer status if a majority of our shareholders are U.S. residents and if a any of the following occurs: a majority of our directors or management are U.S. citizens or residents, or we fail to meet additional requirements necessary to avoid loss of foreign private issuer status. Although we have elected to comply with certain U.S. regulatory provisions, our loss of foreign private issuer status would make such provisions mandatory. The regulatory and compliance costs to us under U.S. securities laws as a U.S. domestic issuer may be significantly higher. If we are not a foreign private issuer, we will be required to file periodic reports and registration statements on U.S. domestic issuer forms with the SEC, which are more detailed and extensive than the forms available to a foreign private issuer. For example, the annual report on Form 10-K requires domestic issuers to disclose executive compensation information on an individual basis with specific disclosure regarding the domestic compensation philosophy, objectives, annual total compensation (base salary, bonus and equity compensation) and potential payments in connection with change in control, retirement, death or disability, while the annual report on Form 20-F permits foreign private issuers to disclose compensation information on an aggregate basis. We will also have to mandatorily comply with U.S. federal proxy requirements, and our officers, directors and principal shareholders will become subject to the short-swing profit disclosure and recovery provisions of Section 16 of the Exchange Act. We may also be required to modify certain of our policies to comply with good governance practices associated with U.S. domestic issuers. Such conversion and modifications will involve additional costs. In addition, we may lose our ability to rely upon exemptions from certain corporate governance requirements on NYSE that are available to foreign private issuers and may still be responsible for maintaining home country governance requirements in addition to domestic governance requirements.
Genius is subject to the costs and responsibilities for mandatory corporate governance, stakeholder engagement, UK Section 172 CA 2006 and climate-related reporting on in accordance with their UK operations. Compliance with these obligations creates the need for additional public disclosures and governance compliance. These additional compliance requirements are unlikely to be released should we lose our foreign private issuer status as they are triggered by our operational footprint in the UK. Therefore, there is a risk that compliance requirements and costs in the UK and Guernsey will remain in place even if the Genius was to lose its foreign private issuer status and this could negatively affect our operations or financial results. Additionally, the added disclosures may cause our business to face increased scrutiny related to these activities which would not otherwise be disclosed by a domestic issuer, including from the investment community, could adversely affect our brand or reputation.
Genius operations and its corporate structure currently subject many of its subsidiaries to comply with certain UK corporate governance, corporate compliance and corporate reporting requirements. Individual UK compliance and reporting obligations are frequently reviewed and amended by the UK government, and may result in Genius being subject to varying or additional compliance and reporting obligations or require additional disclosures in relations to entities operating both in the UK and those operating or incorporated elsewhere. Should any corporate compliance, disclosure or reporting obligations be expanded, Genius may incur costs to comply with these obligations for many of their entities within their group companies, including those outside of the United Kingdom.
Genius may not be subject to the UK Takeover Code.
Based upon Genius’ current and intended plans for its directors and management, for the purposes of UK Takeover Code, Genius anticipates that it will be considered by the UK Takeover Panel not to have its place of central management and control in the UK, the Channel Islands or the Isle of Man. Therefore, the UK Takeover Code should not apply to us. It is possible that in the future circumstances could change that may cause the UK Takeover Code to apply to us.
The UK Takeover Code provides a framework within which takeovers of companies subject to it are conducted. If, at the time of a takeover offer, the UK Takeover Code applied to Genius, then this would result in certain restrictions and obligations applying, including but not limited to the following: (i) Genius’ ability to enter into deal protection arrangements in favor of a bidder would be extremely limited; (ii) Genius might not be able to perform certain actions that could have the effect of frustrating an offer, such as issuing shares or carrying out acquisitions or disposals; and (iii) all due diligence information given to one bidder or potential bidders would be required to be provided to all other bidders or bona fide potential bidders (even if less welcome). In addition, the UK Takeover Code contains certain rules in respect of mandatory offers. Under Rule 9 of the Takeover Code, if a person:
 
   
acquires an interest in Genius shares that, when taken together with shares in which persons acting in concert with such person are interested, carry 30% or more of the voting rights of Genius; or
 
   
together with persons acting in concert with such person, is interested in shares that in the aggregate carry not less than 30% of Genius’ voting rights but does not hold shares carrying more than 50% of such voting rights, and such person (or any person acting in concert with such person) acquires additional interests in Genius shares that increase the percentage of shares carrying voting rights in which that person is interested,
then the acquirer, and, depending on the circumstances, its concert parties would be required (except with the consent of the UK Takeover Panel) to make a cash offer for Genius’ outstanding shares at a price not less than the highest price paid for any interests in the shares by the acquirer or its concert parties during the previous 12 months.
If Genius is not subject to the UK Takeover Code, shareholders would not be afforded the protections provided by the UK Takeover Code.
If, however, Genius is later deemed to be subject to the UK Takeover Code, the Company may incur significant costs in relation to complying with the UK Takeover Code should a shareholder, or group of shareholders acting in concert, seek to acquire significant portion of the Company’s shares.
Genius is an “emerging growth company,” and it cannot be certain if the reduced SEC reporting requirements applicable to emerging growth companies will make Genius’s ordinary shares less attractive to investors, which could have a material and adverse effect on Genius, including its growth prospects.
Genius is an “emerging growth company” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 (“JOBS Act”). Genius will remain an “emerging growth company” until the earliest to occur of (i) the last day of the fiscal year (a) following August 18, 2025, the fifth anniversary of dMY’s initial public offering, (b) in which Genius has total annual gross revenue of at least $1.0 billion or (c) in which Genius is deemed to be a large accelerated filer, which means the market value of our Genius ordinary shares that is held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of the last business day of our prior second fiscal quarter, and (ii) the date on which Genius has issued more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt during the prior three- year period. Genius intends to take advantage of exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to most other public companies,
 
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whether or not they are classified as “emerging growth companies,” including, but not limited to, an exemption from the provisions of Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”) requiring that Genius’s independent registered public accounting firm provide an attestation report on the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting and reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in its periodic reports and proxy statements and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and shareholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. The JOBS Act also provides that an “emerging growth company” can take advantage of the extended transition period provided in the Securities Act for complying with new or revised accounting standards. Genius has not chosen to “opt out” of this extended transition period, which means that when a standard is issued or revised and it has different application dates for public or private companies, Genius, as an emerging growth company, can adopt the new or revised standard at the time private companies adopt the new or revised standard. This may make comparison of Genius’s financial statements with another public company which is neither an emerging growth company nor an emerging growth company which has opted out of using the extended transition period difficult or impossible because of the potential differences in accountant standards used. Genius cannot predict if investors will find Genius ordinary shares less attractive because Genius intends to rely on certain of these exemptions and benefits under the JOBS Act. If some investors find Genius ordinary shares less attractive as a result, there may be a less active, liquid and/or orderly trading market for Genius ordinary shares and the market price and trading volume of Genius ordinary shares may be more volatile and decline significantly.
 
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General Risk Factors
Recruitment and retention of qualified personnel and key employees, including members of our senior management team, are vital to growing our business and meeting our business plans. The loss of any of our key executives or other key employees could harm our business.
We depend on a limited number of key employees to manage and operate our business. We believe a significant portion of our success is owed to our CEO and founder, Mark Locke. The leadership of Mr. Locke and our current executive officers has been critical and the departure, death or disability of Mr. Locke, or any one of our executive officers, or other extended or permanent loss of any of their services, or any negative market or industry perception with respect to any of them or their loss, could have a material adverse effect on our business. We may not be able to attract or retain such highly qualified personnel in the future. In addition, the loss of employees or the inability to hire qualified personnel that are knowledgeable regarding the sports data industry could result in significant disruptions to our business, and the integration of replacement personnel could be time- consuming and expensive and cause additional disruptions to our business. The sports data industry requires specific knowledge that is not easily transferable from other industries, and finding suitable replacements for specialized roles can be challenging in a limited talent pool. If we do not succeed in attracting, hiring, and integrating qualified personnel, or retaining and motivating existing personnel, we may be unable to grow effectively and our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be adversely affected.
We may not be able to achieve any specific target or make progress in other environmental, social, and governance initiatives.
Genius engages in environmental, social and governance initiatives, some of which have been disclosed in the past. Genius intends to formalise its environmental, social and governance initiatives and may set defined targets and objectives. Any estimates concerning the timing and cost of implementing our goals and targets are subject to risks and uncertainties, and there can be no assurances that our commitments will be achieved.
We are also required, by local law in various operational jurisdictions, to report publicly on compliance with certain environmental, social and governance regulations. For example we may be required to publicly disclose our compliance or publicly report in relation to various local regulations such as the Equality Act 2010 (UK), the Workplace Relations Act 1996 (Aus), Section 172 of the Companies Act 2006 (UK) (as stated above), the Modern Slavery Act 2015 (UK), the Task Force on Climate-Related Financial Disclosures, and other similar environmental, social and governance disclosures as required currently or may be required in the future, by local law in the jurisdictions in which we operate. Furthermore, we may also elect, or have elected, to share publicly our corporate environmental, social and governance (“ESG”) initiatives, policies, targets, activities, programs and other related information voluntarily by posting on our website, social media or other communications channels.
This reporting, whether voluntary or involuntary, may cause our business to face increased scrutiny related to these activities, or receive scrutiny for a lack of activities on ESG initiatives, including from the investment community, and our failure to make progress in these areas on a timely basis, or at all, could adversely affect our brand and reputation. Although we expect that our commitment to ESG-based values will improve our financial performance over the long term, these decisions may not be consistent with the expectations of investors and any longer-term benefits may not materialize within the time frame we expect or at all, which could harm our business, revenue and financial results.
The requirements of being a public company, including compliance with the reporting requirements of the SEC and the requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and any applicable stock exchange, may strain our resources, increase our costs and divert management’s attention, and we may be unable to comply with these requirements in a timely or cost-effective manner.
As a public company, we will incur significant legal, accounting, insurance and other expenses that we have not incurred as a private company, including costs associated with public company reporting requirements. We have incurred and will incur costs associated with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and related rules implemented by the SEC. The expenses incurred by public companies for reporting and corporate governance purposes generally have been increasing. Our management team has limited experience related to managing a public company and SEC and NYSE compliance and will not be immediately familiar with the increased regulations and controls to which public companies are subject. We expect these rules and regulations to increase our legal and financial compliance costs and to make some activities more time-consuming and costly. In estimating these costs, we took into account expenses related to investor relations, insurance, legal, accounting and compliance activities, as well as other expenses not currently incurred. These laws and regulations could also make it more difficult or costly for us to obtain certain types of insurance, including director and officer liability insurance, and we may be forced to accept reduced policy limits and coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain the same or similar coverage. These laws and regulations could also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified persons to serve on our board of directors, on our board committees or as our executive officers. Furthermore, if we are unable to satisfy our obligations as a public company, we could be subject to the delisting of our common stock and warrants, fines, penalties sanctions and other regulatory action, public relations risks and potentially civil litigation.
Genius may not hold its first Annual General Meeting within 18 months of incorporation, as required under Guernsey Law.
Genius is incorporated in Guernsey. Guernsey incorporated companies are required by the Companies (Guernsey) Law, 2008 (as amended) (the “Companies Law”) to hold an annual general meeting within 18 calendar months of incorporation. However, this requirement can be waived by waiver resolution. Accordingly, on 22 December 2020, the sole shareholder of the Company passed a resolution waiving the requirement for the Company to hold an annual general meeting in accordance with the Companies Law for an indefinite period (the “Waiver Resolution”). As a result of the passing of the Waiver Resolution the Company may, but is not required to, hold an annual general meeting within the period set forth by the Companies Law. If exercised, this waiver would allow Genius to instead opt to comply with NYSE rules applicable to such meetings (along with certain requirements of the Companies Law.
The waiver has not yet been utilized as Genius continues to be within 18 months of its incorporation. However, Genius intends to utilise this waiver in 2022, and does not plan to hold its Annual General Meeting before 15 April 2022. Instead, Genius will opt to comply with the specified time periods for hosting an annual general meeting as permitted by the applicable NYSE rules. This may pose a risk to shareholders interests by delaying the first annual general meeting.
 
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Genius may exercise its rights under Guernsey law with respect to the format, notice and process for its shareholder meetings even where common practice for a domestic issuer would dictate alternative format, notice and process requirements.
Guernsey laws may not offer as stringent of shareholder protections with respect to annual and extraordinary shareholder meetings, as would be required for a domestic issuer. Genius has outlined these exceptions in the Company’s Articles of Incorporation (as amended and approved on 20 April 2021. Genius may exercise its rights under Guernsey law with respect to the format, notice and process for its shareholder meetings even where common practice for a domestic issuer would dictate alternative format, notice and process requirements.
 
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The terms of future indebtedness may contain restrictions on our business and operations. Our inability to comply with the terms of any of our existing or future indebtedness may adversely affect our business.
The terms of our future indebtedness may contain covenants that could, among other things, restrict our business and operations, our ability to incur additional indebtedness, pay dividends or make other distributions or repurchase stock, make certain investments, create liens on certain of our corporate assets, enter into affiliate transactions, merge, consolidate or sell all or substantially all of our assets. If we breach any of these covenants, our lenders and holders of other indebtedness may be entitled to accelerate our debt obligations. Any default could require that we repay outstanding indebtedness prior to maturity or that a lender could enforce a lien on our assets, as well as limit our ability to obtain additional financing, which in turn may have a material adverse effect on our cash flow and liquidity.
ITEM 4. INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY
A. History and Development of the Company
The legal name of the Company is Genius Sports Limited. The Company was incorporated under the laws of Guernsey as a non-cellular company limited by shares on October 21, 2020. The Company’s registered office in Guernsey is PO Box 656, East Wing, Trafalgar Court, Les Banques, St Peter Port, Guernsey GY1 3PP. The address of the principal executive office of the Company is Genius Sports Group, 9
th
Floor, 10 Bloomsbury Way, London, WC1A 2SL, and the telephone number of the Company is +44 (0) 20 7851 4060.
See “
Explanatory Note
” in this Report for additional information regarding the Company and the Business Combination. Certain additional information about the Company is included in Item 4.B “
Business Overview
” and is incorporated herein by reference. The material terms of the Business Combination are described in Item 10 of this Report.
The Company is subject to certain of the informational filing requirements of the Exchange Act. Since the Company is a “foreign private issuer”, it is exempt from the rules and regulations under the Exchange Act prescribing the furnishing and content of proxy statements, and the officers, directors and principal shareholders of the Company are exempt from the reporting and “short-swing” profit recovery provisions contained in Section 16 of the Exchange Act with respect to their purchase and sale of Ordinary Shares. In addition, the Company is not required to file reports and financial statements with the SEC as frequently or as promptly as U.S. public companies whose securities are registered under the Exchange Act. However, the Company is required to file with the SEC an Annual Report on Form 20-F containing financial statements audited by an independent registered public accounting firm. The SEC also maintains a website at http://www.sec.gov that contains reports and other information that the Company files with or furnishes electronically to the SEC.
The website address of the Company is http://www.geniussports.com. The information contained on the website does not form a part of, and is not incorporated by reference into, this Report.
In 2021, following the Closing of the Business Combination, Genius made acquisitions totaling over $250 million on proprietary technology such as Second Spectrum, FanHub, and Spirable to complement its existing core business. Second Spectrum is an optical tracking solution that uses computer vision and machine learning to generate performance data, analytics, insights, and visualization solutions for major sports leagues such as the NBA, EPL, and NCAA that drove a significant portion of Sports Technology revenue in 2021. FanHub and Spirable provide Genius with additional capabilities that complement Genius’s Media and Fan Engagement Platform. FanHub is a market leader in free to play games such as fantasy, trivia, and contests, which allow sports leagues, media companies, and sportsbooks to engage casual sports fans. Spirable is an automated content creation platform that uses live sports data and audience data to create, distribute, and optimize personalized video at scale.
 
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B. Business Overview
The following discussion reflects the business of Genius. The “Company,” the “Business,” “we,” “us” or “our” generally refers to Genius Sports Group.
Overview
Genius is a B2B provider of scalable, technology-led products and services to the sports, sports betting and sports media industries. Genius is a fast-growing business with significant scale, distribution and an expanding addressable market and opportunity.
Genius’ mission is to be the official data, technology and commercial partner that powers the global ecosystem connecting sports, betting and media. In doing so, the Company creates engaging and immersive fan experiences while simultaneously providing sports leagues with reliable and sustainable revenue streams.
Genius sits at the heart of the global sports betting ecosystem where the Company has deep, critical relationships with over 400 sports leagues and federations, over 500 sportsbook brands and over 150 marketing customers (which includes some of the aforementioned sportsbook brands). The following are examples of services Genius provides its partners globally:
 
   
Sports Leagues:
Genius provides the technology infrastructure for the collection, integration and distribution of live data that is essential both to running a league’s operations and to growing their profile and revenue streams. Genius also works alongside leagues to protect the integrity of their competitions from the threat of match-fixing through global bet monitoring technology, online and offline education services, and consultancy services including integrity audits and investigations.
 
   
Sportsbooks:
Genius’ technology, content and services allow sportsbook operators to outsource selected core, but resource-heavy, functions necessary to run their business. This includes the collection of live sports data, oddsmaking, risk management and player marketing.
 
   
Sports Media (brands and digital publishers):
Genius engages with sports media customers both from the gaming and non-gaming sectors to provide a range of online marketing and fan engagement tools that drive customer acquisition and retention.
What Genius Does
Genius is a data and technology company that enables consumer-facing businesses such as sports leagues, sportsbook operators and media companies to engage with their customers. The scope of Genius’ software bridges the entire sports data journey, from intuitive applications that enable accurate real-time data capture, to the creation and provision of in-game betting odds and digital content that help Genius’ customers create engaging experiences for the ultimate end-user, who are primarily sports fans.
The collection of high quality, live sports data has become indispensable for sportsbooks as in-game betting has continued to grow rapidly across the world. In mature markets such as the United Kingdom, major sportsbooks report that in-game betting currently represents the majority of Gross Gaming Revenue (“GGR”), which represents the difference between the amount of money players wager and the amount that they win, making it a critical offering for all major sportsbooks. In-game betting typically increases in popularity as markets mature, and it is expected that the United States will follow suit.
Genius’s live data services, alongside other value-add solutions, are deeply integrated into nearly all regulated sportsbook operators, comprising over 500 sportsbook brands worldwide. None of these sportsbooks currently take Genius’s entire product offering and so these integrations provide a clear runway for future growth. Genius provides customized solutions depending on its customers’ requirements, ranging from supplying live data feeds, in-game oddsmaking and risk management, to managing a sportsbook’s entire back-end operation. Genius customers include global sportsbook brands such as bet365, DraftKings, FanDuel, and Entain (formerly GVC), as well as leading B2B gaming technology platform providers such as Scientific Games, IGT, Kambi and DraftKings B2B (formerly SBTech).
 
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In order to supply sportsbooks with a sufficient volume of sports data, Genius has built a broad portfolio that covers over 285,000 events, and over 190,000 events under official data and/or streaming rights agreements (of which approximately 120,000 are exclusive). This includes official data and trading for leagues such as the English Premier League (“EPL”), National Football Association (“NFL”), and National Basketball Association (“NBA”), as well as several events that are popular with bettors. Due to the need for sportsbooks to provide their customers with deep betting markets and content at all times of the day, Genius believes that its critical mass of events is vital to the operation of these companies.
Genius has established long-term, mutually beneficial relationships with sports leagues and federations and has acquired the rights to collect and monetize their data. Genius utilizes a network of more than 7,000 highly trained statisticians across over 150 countries who work on the ground, pitch-side and court-side, to capture data in real-time using Genius software.
In exchange for these sports data rights, for the majority of Genius’s league partners, the Company provides vital technology infrastructure solutions, including competition management software, scoreboard technology, athlete registration, data collection and distribution, fan-facing websites, officiating, fan engagement tools, performance data tracking solutions, and coaching analysis tools. The integration of sports leagues and robust human infrastructure gives Genius a highly diversified rights portfolio and deep competitive position.
Genius’s technology and services extend beyond the symbiotic sports data—sports betting relationship. The Company provides data-driven performance marketing technology and services to a range of advertisers, primarily sportsbooks and iGaming brands, which effectively optimize player acquisition, retention and engagement costs. Genius’s multiple data sets, including real-time statistics, betting odds, behavioral data and engagement data, enhance its digital marketing solutions and further deepen its relationships with its customer base.
Company Background
The Company was co-founded by the current Chief Executive Officer, Mark Locke, as a software company which specialized in aggregating sports betting data. It then evolved into providing outsourced oddsmaking solutions to sportsbooks. The Company then expanded into a software provider to sports and media technology companies and, in 2015, Genius Sports Group was formed.
With a growing portfolio of betting customers that were driving increasingly large volumes of in-game bets, the Company and its leadership team realized the importance of live sports data and began to develop the technology that would enable Genius to own and control the entire value chain, from live data collection to pre-game and in-game oddsmaking. As of the date of this Report, Genius has invested more than $130 million in building out its full suite of proprietary technology and software solutions.
A portion of this amount was provided by private equity firm Three Hills Capital Partners (“THCP”), who have been an investment partner of Genius since 2015. THCP’s investment also bolstered Genius’ growth strategy into new territories and financed strategic acquisitions.
In September 2018, Apax Funds acquired a majority interest in Genius. Approximately $35 million of additional capital was invested into the Business, which enabled Genius to invest in people and key sports relationships which has accelerated the Company’s growth. As a key partner, Apax Funds helped realign the Company’s global operations, strengthen the management team, support the Company to execute its acquisition strategy, and grow the organization that is now scaled and poised for growth.
In 2021, following the Closing of the Business Combination, Genius has made acquisitions totaling over $250 million on proprietary technology such as Second Spectrum, FanHub, and Spirable to complement its existing core business. Second Spectrum is an optical tracking solution that uses computer vision and machine learning to generate performance data, analytics, insights, and visualization solutions for major sports leagues such as the NBA, EPL, and NCAA that drove a significant portion of Sports Technology revenue in 2021. FanHub and Spirable provide Genius with additional capabilities that complement Genius’s Media and Fan Engagement Platform. FanHub is a market leader in free to play games such as fantasy, trivia, and contests, which allow sports leagues, media companies, and sportsbooks to engage casual sports fans. Spirable is an automated content creation platform that uses live sports data and audience data to create, distribute, and optimize personalized video at scale.
 
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Genius is the Global Leader in Official Data Rights
Official data as it pertains to sports betting is the feed of live statistics that is sanctioned by sports rights holders, typically sports leagues and federations, and used to create betting markets, update odds in real-time, and settle bets accurately and timely. The Company believes that as the global sports betting industry, especially in-game betting, is expected to grow, the reliance on high quality data is similarly expected to increase over time. Further, the Company believes that the adoption of official data is inevitable as the sports betting market matures, and Genius’ technology and relationships are critical to capturing this trend.
The Company believes that:
 
   
official data is critical to sports, as it serves as a means for rights holders to monetize their data;
 
   
official data is critical to sportsbooks, as only official data provides guaranteed access to the fast and reliable data necessary for in-game betting; and
 
   
official data is critical to regulators, as it is legally compliant and an independent source of truth that protects consumers.
Genius’ existing portfolio of official data includes some of the most valuable sports rights, including the NFL, EPL, NBA, NCAA, and the International Basketball Federation (“FIBA”). Genius continues to identify and strategically acquire additional sports rights that are expected to generate a positive return and create value for Genius’ shareholders.
Genius classifies sports and the associated rights as Tiers 1 through 4. Sports rights classified as Tier 1 are those from leagues with global name recognition, which are typically acquired by rights fees alone. Sports rights that are not classified as Tier 1 are typically from regional leagues. These non-Tier1 rights are typically acquired by Genius through a contra model in which Genius secures long-term agreements with the respective leagues in exchange for Genius’ technology and software solutions (and occasionally de minimis cash fees). This allows the Company to develop mutually beneficial partnerships with leagues globally and integrate Genius’ technology and services deeply within each league’s operations. It is notable that while non-Tier 1 sports are typically smaller leagues that are less popular at a global level, they are very popular in their local countries or regions and often have large, dedicated fan bases.
 
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Taking this dual approach to Tier 1 and non-Tier 1 rights respectively is unique and beneficial for several reasons. The low cost “contra” strategy in the non-Tier 1 sports helps mitigate the risk of rights inflation for this content while also helping to lock in sports with strong future potential value into long-term deals. The Company believes that these tiers facilitate the vital content a sportsbook needs to be competitive at all times. Furthermore, this approach gives Genius the fiscal flexibility to be competitive for Tier 1 rights when it believes they will be strategically accretive to its portfolio.
The Company started its expansion into the provision of audio visual (“A/V”) services in the second half of 2019. This includes providing sports leagues with proprietary AI-powered A/V production services to capture live game streams with minimal human intervention. These streams are a valuable addition to Genius’ portfolio of sports betting services as a complimentary offering to in-game data and oddsmaking. The Company has over 39,000 streaming rights under official rights.
The Sports Betting Industry and Genius’ Opportunity
The Growing Global Sports Betting Market
Genius operates in the global sports betting industry. H2 Gambling Capital projects the Global Sports Betting industry GGR to grow from $50 billion in 2021 to $86 billion by 2026. The Company believes it is well positioned to grow alongside this rapidly expanding industry. Most of the GGR currently generated by the entire industry is estimated to come from Asia and the Middle East, with Europe being the second largest region.
H2 Gambling Capital expects the sports betting industry to grow across all regions globally, led by rapid expansion in newly regulating markets such as the United States. In May 2018, the US Supreme Court repealed the Professional and Amateur Sports Protection Act of 1992 (“PASPA”), which lifted federal restrictions on sports betting and gave individual states the power to legalize sports betting. As of year-end 2021, 32 states, including Washington, DC for these purposes, have passed measures to legalize sports betting, of which 30 states have already launched active sports betting industries with 19 states, including New York following their early January 2022 launch, allowing mobile sports betting. The Company expects additional states to legalize sports betting in the coming years, which will further grow the U.S. sports betting market. Per H2 Gambling Capital, the US sports betting market is projected to generate an estimated $12 billion in GGR in 2026, increased from just an estimated $4 billion in 2021.
Regions such as Europe also have several countries, such as Germany, that remain in the early stages of liberalization and proliferation of sports betting. H2 Gambling Capital expects Europe to generate an estimated $30 billion in GGR in 2026, increased from an estimated $20 billion in 2021. Europe remains a key market for Genius due to its large scale and relevance within the global sports betting industry.
Genius’s wide-ranging, well-embedded role across the sports betting industry means that the Company generates revenue regardless of which operators take market share within any given jurisdiction. Genius’s revenue share model also gives it upside exposure as its customers grow and expand.
Sports betting helps leagues create exciting and memorable moments for their fans. Naturally, in-game sports betting is an engaging type of sports betting experience and adds another layer of connection for fans as they watch the action unfold in real time. As sports betting markets mature, in-game betting typically increases in popularity and eventually represents both the majority of both bets placed and GGR. For example, Bet365 reported that in-game accounted for 75% of its total sports betting revenue in the twelve months ending March 31, 2020.
Given the nature of the sports betting data market, where sportsbook operator expenditure on data is mainly driven by in-game data consumption, this is a tailwind that Genius is well-positioned to capitalize on given its strong focus on expanding its portfolio of rights and the focus on official live data.
Furthermore, Genius believes its position in the sports data value chain and ability to continually and effectively upsell on betting content, services and product innovations will allow the Company to increase its share of customers over time. This includes several end-user engagement solutions, including live streaming and ad-tech products, which Genius expects to become a larger part of its business in the future.
 
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Advantages of Scale
Genius believes that its scale creates meaningful competitive advantages. The human infrastructure the Company has built, with more than 2,300 staff and access to a network of more than 7,000 trained statisticians and agents worldwide, provides scale enabling Genius to better serve its customers.
The broad portfolio of events Genius offers is enabled by its technological expertise and deep relationships and integrations with sports leagues. Building this portfolio has taken many years and requires a deep understanding of each sport league’s technical and strategic requirements, along with developing bespoke technology to meet those requirements. For example, Genius developed technology for basketball leagues that is used by more than 180 leagues in 120 countries around the world, equating to more than 80% of all organized basketball competitions.
To gain access to Genius’s sports betting services, such as live sports data feeds or outsourced oddsmaking, sportsbooks must integrate their back office systems with Genius’s proprietary technology. This technology and the managed services provided by Genius drives the sportsbook’s consumer facing offering – from the events they offer on their site to the odds on those events. This makes Genius’s technology a core and critical part of every customers’ operations on a day-to-day basis.
Core Strengths
 
   
The largest portfolio of official betting data:
The combination of greater numbers of sports leagues taking control over their data assets and rapid growth of in-game betting makes official data both increasingly valuable and harder to acquire. The scale of Genius’ portfolio, built up over more than a decade, puts it at the very forefront of this trend and is a key differentiator from its main competitor.
 
   
Market-leading data and technology:
Genius’ currency is real-time data. Its value is derived from the Company’s ability to capture, process and distribute vast volumes of data points in milliseconds, which requires highly robust technology alongside machine learning and complex analytics capabilities. Genius’ core systems are highly scalable to support ongoing growth in customers, sports event coverage, and volume of bet types. The Company’s technology framework is standardized, allowing it to support multiple sports leagues at a low incremental cost to the business.
 
   
Good earnings visibility due to long-term contracts with a large share of recurring revenues and low customer churn:
Genius holds long-term contracts with sportsbooks and sports rights holders, and has historically experienced low churn. Sportsbook contracts are structured with guaranteed minimum payments throughout the life of the term (typically 3-5 years), which allow for good earnings visibility. Approximately 60% of Genius’ revenue is from recurring revenue related to contractual minimum guarantees. Genius’ contracts are also structured with upside levers that allow the Company to benefit as its partners grow through increased GGR, expansion into new markets, and utilization of more events.
 
   
Improved operating margins from scaled cost structure with high operating leverage:
Genius benefits from significant economies of scale driven by its highly scalable technology and software architecture. Approximately 70% of the Company’s operating expenses, such as data production, trading and hosting costs, are expected to grow slower than revenues.
 
   
World-class management team with depth of experience and track record of success:
Genius is led by a highly experienced management team with a strong track record of success. The executive team has extensive experience in the global sports, betting and iGaming sectors. Management has successfully led the business to capture meaningful growth as the regulatory landscape matured in Europe over the past decade, and is well positioned to capitalize on developing markets around the globe including the United States and Latin America. Genius co-Founder and CEO Mark Locke is recognized as a global expert on sports technology, integrity and sports betting.
 
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The Genius Company Culture
Genius’ purpose is to champion a more sustainable sports data ecosystem with the highest-quality data and products that optimize, and enrich experiences for sports, betting and media organizations. Our Company purpose and values are set by our Board and are periodically reviewed by our Nominating and Governance Committee. In accordance with the principals of home country governance, we take the view that our purpose, values and strategy should be aligned and form the basis of our company culture. Accordingly, Genius’ culture is fair, ethical and performance-oriented. The Company operates a clear ‘Game Plan’ and Code of Conduct setting out the company vision and values that all staff are expected to uphold. It also sets out the Company’s ‘team goals,’ in the form of a simple set of targets for which staff can aim. These encapsulate Genius’ values as an organization, encouraging staff to
think big, get stuck in, do the right thing, go fast/aim high, express themselves – and win as a team
.
The Company believes this is key to fostering a culture that values performance with integrity, with everyone having the chance to make their mark, and where every contribution counts.
The Company’s success is highly dependent on human capital and a strong leadership team. Genius aims to attract, retain and develop a diverse staff with the skills, experience and potential necessary to implement its growth strategy. As part of this, emphasis is placed on the development of a ready pipeline of ‘home-grown’ management talent, supplemented as necessary by external hires with appropriate experience and expertise.
Genius regularly engages with staff on issues relating to its values and/or affecting the business generally, through a combination of group-wide and location-specific ‘town hall’ sessions, engagement with corporate responsibility initiatives, and through other engagement platforms. Regular surveys indicate healthy staff engagement and identification with the business, and highlight opportunities for further growth and development. The results of these surveys are shared with our Audit Committee of the Board from time-to-time. The Company refreshed its various ethical dealings policies in 2021 and continues to rollout new policies, procedures and training to underpin a culture of integrity and ethical behaviour.
The Genius Growth Strategy
Genius has multiple levers for growth with existing customers, as well as ongoing customer and partner acquisition strategies.
Capitalizing on the growth of global sports betting
 
   
Share in existing customer growth.
Typically betting customer contracts include some form of minimum commitment to Genius, whether that be revenue and/or number or quality of events utilized. However, none of these contracts provide customers with Genius’ entire product offering. As a result, Genius’ betting customer contracts may be further expanded as its customers expand and grow. This is especially true as customers move into newly regulated markets, such as the United States, which is expected to continue approving legislation to legalize sports betting across multiple states.
 
   
Expand Genius’ presence and acquire new customers in growth markets such as the US and Canada.
Genius’ strong partnerships with sports leagues, data-driven marketing products and existing relationships with B2B sports betting platform providers give the Company a major competitive advantage in high growth jurisdictions. Genius is a preferred data supplier to a majority of significant sportsbooks in the U.K. and anticipates this will translate well in new markets.
Additionally, the Company has a forward-looking licensing strategy. Genius is already permitted to supply in 21 U.S. states and plans to be licensed in all states that legalize sports betting. Genius expects to employ a similar licensing strategy in countries, such as Canada and Greece, that can potentially liberalize sports betting in the near future. Genius also has permission to supply in 3 tribal jurisdictions in the United States.
As new states open up in the US and other growth markets such as Canada begin to liberalize, we expect to benefit from GGR growth across these regions without much incremental cost. Each new market brings new potential customers for sports and events that we are already cover and we expect to see further growth from these regions in the future.
Increase in sports rights and event utilization
 
   
Continue to develop strong partnerships with sports leagues worldwide.
Genius strategically acquires rights in both high profile and non-Tier 1 sports worldwide in a way that enhances the Company’s rights portfolio and offering to sportsbooks. In non-Tier 1 sports, Genius will continue to aggressively deploy its “contra” model and acquire long-term agreements in exchange for technology and software solutions.
 
   
Ability to capitalize on the expansion of adjacent total addressable market opportunities.
As other nascent industries such as iGaming grow, Genius will have the opportunity to leverage its technology and existing distribution to expand its offerings into new verticals.
 
   
Continue to grow event utilization
. Genius has historically seen strong growth in its sport events utilization as the demand for its services and its number of customers has grown. The Company expects this growth to continue, which should create stronger operating leverage.
 
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Price escalators and wallet share
 
   
Price escalators.
Many of Genius’ customer contracts for Betting Technology, Content and Services have already built in price escalators whereby customer revenue and product commitments grow through the term of the contract.
 
   
Expand value-add services and increase share of wallet.
Genius is constantly expanding its services to sportsbooks. For example, the Company developed and has started to commercialize streaming and risk services capabilities. As these and other verticals grow and develop, the Company believes this will allow it to increase its share of the customer’s wallet.
Media and Advertising
 
   
Expand its dynamic and tailored digital marketing capabilities beyond sports betting and iGaming.
Genius’ ad-tech solutions are deployed by dozens of sportsbooks to reach sports fans with relevant marketing messages that include game statistics and real-time betting odds. The Company expects that non-betting brands may recognize the value in the Company’s ability to align online advertising campaigns to live sporting action, enabling Genius to diversify its client base for digital marketing services.
 
   
The acquisitions of FanHub and Spirable in 2021 provide Genius with new capabilities across Media and Advertising to engage casual audiences and leverage data to target a wider array of sports fans around the world. FanHub is a market leader in free to play games such as fantasy, trivia, and contests, which allow sports leagues, media companies, and sportsbooks to collect more data and better target their customers with relevant ads or offers. Spirable is an automated content creation platform that uses live sports data and audience data to create, distribute, and optimize personalized video at scale providing the ability for Genius to offer the right ad, to the right fan, at the right time.
Sports Technology
 
   
Additional Development of Sports Facing Technology and Services.
Continued development in the breadth of Genius’ sports facing technology and services means that the Company expects to expand the number of sports leagues it works with, as well as the number of products it offers to existing and new customers. This is an enabler to further build long-term, sticky relationships with sports leagues. The acquisition of Second Spectrum is expected to drive future growth of the Sports Technology segment moving forward as we expand our optical tracking capabilities into new sports and new leagues around the world.
Strategic acquisitions and investments
 
   
Selectively pursue strategic acquisitions and investments.
Genius seeks acquisition and investment opportunities that it believes will provide long-term value to its shareholders. While a primary area of focus is expected to be on smaller, complimentary technology companies that improve its product and technology offerings, the Company also maintains an active pipeline of larger, more transformational opportunities.
In December 2020, Genius acquired Sportzcast, a U.S. based company, which builds and supplies proprietary devices that automate collection of low latency, official data feeds direct from in-venue scoreboards.
In 2021, Genius acquired Second Spectrum, FanHub, and Spirable to complement its existing core business. Second Spectrum is an optical tracking solution that uses computer vision and machine learning to generate performance data, analytics, insights, and visualization solutions for major sports leagues such as the NBA, EPL, MLS, and NCAA. FanHub and Spirable provide Genius with additional capabilities that complement Genius’s Media and Fan Engagement Platform. FanHub is a market leader in free to play games such as fantasy, trivia, and contests, which allow sports leagues, media companies, and sportsbooks to engage casual sports fans. Spirable is an automated content creation platform that uses live sports data and audience data to create, distribute, and optimize personalized video at scale.
Additionally, Genius may opportunistically seek to make minority investments in sports leagues that benefit from Genius’s full suite of services and broad distribution network. The Canadian Football League (“CFL”) was an early example of this in January 2022.
Products and Business Model
Genius provides critical technology and services required to power the global ecosystem connecting sports, betting and media. Genius’ services are organized into three key products areas:
 
   
Sports Technology and Services;
   
Betting Technology, Content and Services; and
   
Media Technology, Content and Services.
All of Genius’ products are powered by proprietary technology and robust data infrastructure.
 
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Sports Technology and Services
Genius builds and supplies technology and services that allow sports leagues to collect, analyze and monetize their data. Genius has trained statisticians globally that are highly skilled in collecting accurate, real-time data during events and matches. The data can then be repackaged and analyzed almost instantaneously, where it can then be used to help leagues and teams analyze real time statistics, develop coaching tools, and support broadcast partners. It is this same data that Genius also uses to power its Betting Content and Services.
 

The recent acquisition of Second Spectrum also allows Genius to capture performance data through an optical tracking system using computer vision and machine learning. These data points are used to generate analytics, insights, and visualization solutions for sports leagues, teams, and media companies.
Using the data collected, Genius can also develop additional tools that help sports leagues deepen fan engagement. These include automated creation of fan-facing websites, social media content, and statistical content such as team and player standings that are updated in real time.
Genius’ streaming solution provides the technology, automatic production and distribution needed by sports to commercialize video footage of their games. This is particularly useful for non-Tier 1 sports leagues that lack the capabilities or resources to develop their own live streaming solutions.
 
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Genius also provides end-to-end integrity services to sports leagues, and is the trusted integrity partner for over 150 sports leagues worldwide. Integrity services range from full-time active monitoring technology, which uses mathematical algorithms to identify and flag suspicious betting activity in global betting markets, to a full suite of online and offline educational and consultancy services. The technology and services provided to sports leagues are typically provided on a contra basis in return for access to live sports data for commercialization in betting and media. In some cases, sports leagues also pay fees for licensing the technology.
Betting Technology, Content and Services
Genius supplies the technology, content and services that powers global sportsbooks. Sportsbooks can outsource as much or as little of these capabilities as necessary depending on their requirements. Genius’ offering includes:
 
   
Live sports data:
Fast and reliable feeds of live match data, the majority of which are delivered direct from stadiums around the world in under a second using Genius technology. These real-time data points allow sportsbooks to create odds for in-game betting markets on over 240,000 events a year.
 
   
Pre-game and in-game odds feeds:
A combination of automated oddsmaking powered unique mathematic algorithms, a specialist trading team of over 400 people and robust technology, enables Genius to manage the full sports betting lifecycle on behalf of its sportsbook customers. This includes creating the events, setting the odds and managing them in real-time as the game unfolds, and settling betting markets so that sportsbooks can update their users’ accounts. Configuration by the customer within Genius’ backend system enables sportsbooks to create a bespoke experience for their userbase.
 
   
Risk management services:
Genius offers real-time management of all sportsbook liabilities, including customer profiling, monitoring of incoming bets, automated acceptance and rejection of bets, and limit setting. Risk management is a vital part of a sportsbook’s operation because it protects its profitability.
 
   
Live streaming
: Thousands of official live streams, most of which are derived from Genius’ official partnerships with Tier 2 through 4 sports leagues, captured at courtside and pitchside around the world using Genius technology. This service is designed to boost betting appeal and drive sportsbook handle at off-peak times, in a cost-efficient manner when compared to Tier 1 streaming content.
 
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These services are provided to sportsbooks under long term contracts. In each of these contracts the sportsbook makes a commitment to Genius regarding what services and/or what sports events they will use Genius’ products and services for. The business model is either revenue share, where Genius receives a share of customer NGR or GGR,or a usage-based license fee model.
Media Technology, Content and Services
Genius builds and supplies technology, services and data to enable its partners to efficiently acquire, retain and engage with their customers in a highly cost-effective manner. These partners include sportsbooks, online and brick and mortar gaming operators, sports leagues and other non-gaming brands that target sports fans. Genius provides services such as the creation, delivery and measurement of personalized online marketing campaigns, all run through Genius’ proprietary technology. These campaigns have been proven to help brands significantly reduce acquisition costs.
 
 
 
41

Genius also develops fan engagement widgets for digital publishers, featuring live game statistics and betting-related content that drive traffic to sportsbooks. This helps unlock alternative revenue streams for digital content developers and sports betting affiliate programs.
 

The acquisitions of FanHub and Spirable provide Genius with additional capabilities that complement Genius’s Media business. FanHub is a market leader in free to play games such as fantasy, trivia, and contests, which allow sports leagues, media companies, and sportsbooks to collect more data and better target their customers with relevant ads or offers. Spirable is an automated content creation platform that uses live sports data and audience data to create, distribute, and optimize personalized video at scale providing the ability for Genius to offer the right ad, to the right fan, at the right time.
In most cases, Genius is compensated through a performance-based model which fully aligns the Company’s interests with its partners, ultimately resulting in increased partner retention and satisfaction.
 
Awards
Over the past decade, Genius has consistently been recognized as a leader in its field with a host of industry awards. In 2020, Genius’s in-game betting services were awarded In-play Betting Software of the Year and Sports Data Supplier of the Year at the 2020 EGR B2B Awards, and the Sports Data Product of the Year and Live Betting Product of the Year at the 2020 SBC Gaming Awards. Additionally, the Genius Live streaming product was given the Innovation of the Year prize at the 2020 Sports Technology Awards, ahead of other entries from BT Sport, Nielsen Sports, Intel and Manchester City.
In 2021, Genius was named Acquisition and Retention Partner at the EGR North America Awards, Sports Betting Supplier of the Year at the Gaming Intelligence Awards, Best Live Betting Product at the SBC Awards, Best Sports Betting Supplier at the EGR Italy Awards, and Best Sports Data and Live Betting Product at the SBC LatAm Awards.
 
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Representative Customers and Partnerships
Whether they are sports organizations or sportsbooks, Genius enjoys deep and long-term relationships with its customers rooted in the provision of mission critical technology, live data, or services that are fundamental to its partners’ success. The nature of these partnerships creates a deep technological connection and dependence, leading to very low customer churn rates.
Genius has relationships with over 500 sportsbook brand customers, including:
 
   
Global sportsbooks such as Fanduel, Betfair, PaddyPower and Sky Bet (all Flutter), BetMGM, Ladbrokes and Coral (all GVC/Entain), DraftKings, bet365, William Hill and 888; and
 
   
Leading B2B platform providers such as Scientific Games, IGT, Kambi, and SBTech (now DraftKings B2B);
Genius has over 400 sports league partners, including:
 
   
Globally recognized leagues such as the NFL, EPL, NBA, NCAA, PGA, FIBA, FIFA, MLS, CFL, AFA and Dimayor; and
 
   
Numerous other regional and lower tier league divisions across various sports such as basketball, soccer, ice hockey and volleyball.
Genius has over 150 media and advertising customers, including:
 
   
Recognized U.S. gaming brands such as BetMGM, Caesars, TwinSpires, Golden Nugget, DraftKings, FanDuel, William Hill, Delaware North and Unibet;
 
 
43

   
A wide range of sports betting and iGaming brands in Europe and Africa, including bet365, PlayOjo, and Unibet;
 
   
A wide range of brands globally including Diageo, Sony, British Airways, Heineken, Nissan, Domino’s Pizza, Volvo, Buffalo Wild Wings that Genius helps engage and monetize sports fans through its dynamic creative, media buying or free-to-play game solutions.
 
   
Major global media publishers, such as CBS, MSN, FoxSports, BT Sports and Univision, to which Genius helps drive valuable new audiences with data-driven sports and betting content; and
 
   
Sports properties including the National Football League (“NFL”) and more than 20 teams from Major League Baseball (“MLB”), including the LA Dodgers, the Houston Astros and the San Diego Padres, that Genius helps target fans with contextual marketing campaigns that drives ticket and merchandise sales.
Genius Technology
Innovation is fundamental to the culture at Genius. The Company’s technical teams have a deep understanding of sports, how they interact with fans online, and the data that is critical to driving value through the ecosystem. Sports are fast-paced, and dynamic; the action does not stop to wait for technology – teams develop products with the speed, accuracy, scalability, reliability, and flexibility to meet the expectations of passionate and demanding fans.
Teams are allocated responsibility for specific systems and use Agile development methodologies to deliver through an iterative, continuous software delivery life cycle. Teams are also responsible for technically operating the systems that they develop, which involves monitoring and supporting production systems, on boarding new customers, and scaling systems to meet commercial demand.
Fail-safe data and video capture
Genius’ in-venue data collection systems are designed to continue to function when disconnected from supporting systems, ensuring statisticians can continue to collect rich sports data unimpeded. When disconnected from the internet, these systems will continue to support officials, teams, scoreboards, and broadcasters in the venue. While connected, data is synchronized with Genius’ data distribution network, ensuring low latency, accurate, reliable delivery of play-by-play data. The unique sport-specific user interface workflows ensure the most time critical data is delivered at the earliest opportunity while still allowing the collection of a rich dataset.
Supplementing the data solutions, automated cameras allow sports leagues to produce live streaming content for delivery through the distribution network.
Automated monitoring, remote management, and AI-driven production mean minimal interaction is required from sports leagues once the solution has been installed which, alongside Genius’ innovative hardware solution, reduces production costs.
Highly scalable real-time sportsbook content
To support the vast volume of sports events and live data provided to sportsbooks, Genius hosts in-memory controllers that allow independent management of every in-game fixture for each customer. This architecture provides a very low latency service, is horizontally scalable, and implements a failover software design over redundant hardware to ensure uninterrupted service.
Proprietary high-speed algorithmic models driven by live sports data calculates the probability of key actions (i.e., a turnover, foul, or player substitution) within each event. These probabilities are used to generate and continuously update betting markets, lines, margins, and odds that are specific to each event and customer. Sportsbook customers can take control of their own event at any time and adjust their margins, offering, or position within the market through the online portal; however, Genius’ proprietary back-office trading systems ensure that skilled operators can cost-effectively manage all fixtures for Genius’ customers with significant economies of scale.
 
 
44

Robust and Reliable distribution
Genius’ data distribution platforms are integrated directly into B2B customers’ servers through both standard application programming interfaces and services that can be easily customized to integrate with the back office systems commonly used by sportsbooks. These integration pathways ensure reliable, low latency delivery of data that customers are licensed to access with additional features including heart-beats, receipt confirmation, and conflation, ensuring customers are protected from any network disruption or slow consumption under load. The design of the data integrations ensures seamless delivery of additional fixtures to the network with minimal customization required by customers as they on-board new sports.
The streaming network supports B2B and B2C delivery of both in-play and on-demand streams at scale. The Genius Drop and Play media player enables rapid B2C integration allowing customers to deliver Genius Live content alongside other content for a fixture by simply inserting an HTML tag in their websites. Streaming integrations are not sport specific, meaning that all new streaming content can be immediately delivered to all integrated partners in the network.
Targeted fan engagement
With visual components that are embedded directly in league, sportsbook, and media websites and mobile applications, Genius is able to uniquely understand the interests of sports fans and deliver relevant, engaging content. This content is served from the Company’s B2C data and visualization systems achieving high availability and low latency at significant scale.
The components offer fans visualizations of real-time sports and betting data, analysis, and streaming, which offer significant value in their own right and are critical to driving engagement in complementary products. Components are modular and can be styled and composed to support the branding and requirements of each partner allowing investment in new functionality to be leveraged across the ecosystem.
Through big data analytics of data generated from this unique understanding of fans, live sports events, and the sportsbook market Genius is able to offer large scale targeted advertising campaigns which are delivered through cost effective, data driven, real-time bidding for publishing space. The advertising content selected for each fan by the Genius proprietary advertising technology further leverages the Company’s data and visualization capabilities.
Research and Development
Genius invests substantial resources in research and development to enhance its technology, content and services. The Company believes that timely development of new, and enhancement of existing, technology, content and services is essential to maintaining its competitive position. Genius’ research and development expenses were $26.5 million, $11.2 million and $13.3 million for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively. The research and development organization consists of teams specializing in specific domains and technologies to provide a capability that aligns with commercial opportunities, as well as the need to support existing customers. Employees in Genius’ research and development organization are located primarily in London, Medellin, Vilnius, Tallinn, Sofia and California. As of December 31, 2021, there were 400 plus employees in Genius’ research and development organization. Genius intends to continue to invest resources in its research and development capabilities to effectively incorporate new technology and expand its offering.
Sales and Marketing
The Genius marketing approach is driven by the strength and innovation of its product offerings. The Company employs a land-and-expand strategy that is centered around the superior and highly reliable quality of its products as well as an intense focus on delivering and addressing customers’ existing needs, as well as anticipating potential future opportunities for additional services. Once Genius’ technology is integrated into the customers’ information technology infrastructure it becomes a critical part of their operations and is difficult to replace without risk of disruption. Genius also has exclusive agreements with several of its league partners, which means sportsbooks that want to offer these events will need to source the data from Genius.
 
 
45

The majority of new business in the sports and betting industries is acquired through direct sales efforts and referrals.
Genius has robust global sales and account management team of more than 120 commercial professionals, who are organized by region and industry. This team is responsible for new business development and promoting value-add services to grow existing partnership value.
In addition, Genius also has a eight-person marketing team that promotes its services and drives inbound leads through a combination of attending, exhibiting and sponsoring conferences and trade shows (which has historically been the main focus of marketing resources), editorial content, direct email marketing, social media and paid media partnerships.
Competition
A number of businesses exist in the markets that Genius operates in – namely the B2B provision of sports data-driven technology and related services to sports and betting companies. These businesses sit within three categories: small companies with some similar products but with minimal distribution, companies that acknowledge official rights but lack meaningful scale, and genuine competitors that offer similar products and services to the same target customers.
The Company considers its most direct and relevant competitors to be Sportradar, IMGArena and Stats Perform.
In most instances, Genius serves its customers alongside at least one of its competitors. Its competitors have their own portfolio of exclusive and non-exclusive data rights, and sportsbooks rarely agree to have exclusive agreements with just one provider as this prevents them from offering a broad range of betting markets, placing them at a competitive disadvantage.
The principal differentiating factors in the sports data industry include the breadth and depth of sports data rights, reliability of key services, relationships with sportsbooks and leagues, ease of integration and scalability. Genius’ products, services, experience and corporate culture allow it to compete effectively across all these factors.
Seasonality
The global sporting calendar is year round and our products cover the entire sporting calendar. In addition, the relative importance of different sporting events is different in the broad range of different territories where our customers operate (e.g., European sportsbooks will place more importance on European sports events and the U.S. sportsbooks will place more importance on the U.S. sports events). Given these factors, we are not reliant on specific sporting competitions.
Notwithstanding, our operations are subject to seasonal fluctuations that may impact our revenues and cash flows. Seasonality in sporting events may impact our operations and the operations of our customers and sports organizations. Sports organizations have their own significant sporting events such as the playoffs and championship games, which may cause peaks in our revenues and revenues of our customers and such sports organizations. On the other hand, sports off-season may cause troughs in our revenues and revenues of our customers and such sports organizations. Certain sports hold events only during certain times in a calendar year. For example, our revenues are typically impacted by the NFL and European football season calendars. Our revenues and revenues of our customers and sports organizations may also be affected by the scheduling of major sporting events that do not occur annually, such as the World Cup, or the cancellation or postponement of sporting events and races. All of these factors may impact our cash flows.
 
 
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Intellectual Property
Intellectual property rights are important to the success of our business. We rely on a combination of database, trademark, trade secret, confidentiality and other intellectual property protection laws in the United Kingdom, the European Union, the United States and other jurisdictions, as well as license agreements, confidentiality procedures, non-disclosure agreements with third parties and other contractual protections, to protect our intellectual property rights, including our database, proprietary technology, software, know-how and brand. In certain foreign jurisdictions and in the United States, we have filed trademark applications, currently hold several trademarks and domain names and in the future, we may acquire patents, additional trademarks and domain names. We have also entered into license agreements, data rights agreements and other arrangements with sports organizations for rights to collect and supply their sports data, including, in certain cases, exclusive rights for such data, of which durations are typically several years and are subject to renewal or extension.
As of December 31, 2021, we owned ten registered trademarks in the United States and twenty-five registered trademarks in various non-U.S. jurisdictions, along with a further five unregistered trademarks. As of December 31, 2021, we owned 183 domain-names.
It has not always been possible, and may not be, or commercially desirable to obtain registered protection for our products, software, databases or other technology. In such situations, we rely on laws governing protection of unregistered intellectual property rights, confidentiality and/or contractual exclusivity of and to underlying data and technology to prevent unauthorized use by third parties. We use Open Source Software in our services and periodically review our use of Open Source Software to attempt to avoid subjecting our services and product offerings to conditions we do not intend.
We control access to and use of our data, database, proprietary technology and other confidential information through the use of internal and external controls, including contractual protections with employees, contractors, customers and partners. We require our employees, consultants and other third parties to enter into confidentiality and proprietary rights agreements and we control and monitor access to our data, database, software, documentation, proprietary technology and other confidential information. Our policy is to require all employees and independent contractors to sign agreements assigning to us any inventions, trade secrets, works of authorship, developments, processes and other intellectual property generated by them on our behalf and under which they agree to protect our confidential information. In addition, we generally enter into confidentiality agreements with our customers and partners. See Item 3.D “
Risk Factors—Risks Related to Genius Sports Group’s Technology, Intellectual Property and Infrastructure—Failure to protect or enforce our proprietary and intellectual property rights, including our unregistered intellectual property, and the costs involved in such protection and enforcement could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects,
” “
Risk Factors—Risks Related to Genius Sports Group’s Technology, Intellectual Property and Infrastructure—We may face claims for intellectual property infringement, which could subject us to monetary damages or limit us in using some of our technologies or providing certain solutions
” and other risk factors related to our intellectual property included in Item 3.D”
Risk Factors—Risks Related to Genius Sports Group’s Business
” for a more comprehensive description of risks related to our intellectual property.
Government Regulations
Our operations and the operations of our customers and suppliers are subject to various U.S. and foreign laws and regulations that affect our and their ability to operate in the sports, technology, sports betting and gaming, and marketing and advertising industries. These industries and our business are generally subject to extensive and evolving laws and regulations that could change, including from political and societal pressures and that could be interpreted in ways that could negatively impact our business.
We operate in various jurisdictions and our business is subject to extensive regulation under the laws, rules and regulations of the jurisdictions in which we operate. Violations of laws or regulations in one jurisdiction could result in disciplinary action in that and other jurisdictions.
Among others, applicable laws include those regulating privacy, data/cyber security, data collection and use, crossborder data transfers, advertising regulations and/or sportsbetting and online gaming laws and regulations. These laws impact, among other things, data collection, usage, storage, security and breach, dissemination (including transfer to third parties and cross-border), retention and destruction. Certain of these laws provide for civil and criminal penalties for violations.
 
 
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The data privacy and collection laws and regulations that affect our business include, but are not limited to:
 
   
the General Data Protection Regulation, the ePrivacy Directive and implementing national legislation and any data laws and regulations enacted in the United Kingdom, including the U.K. GDPR;
 
   
U.S. federal, state and local data protections laws such as the Federal Trade Commission Act and similar state laws, state data breach laws and state privacy laws, such as the California Consumer Privacy Act, the California Consumer Privacy Rights Act, and the Stop Hacks and Improve Electronic Data Security Act of New York;
 
   
the Data Protection Law of Colombia and the directives of the Superintendence of Industry and Commerce of Colombia; and
 
   
other international data protection, data localization, and state laws impacting data privacy and collection.
Other regulations that affect our business include:
 
   
U.S. state laws regulating sportsbetting and online gaming and related licensing requirements;
 
   
laws regulating the advertising and marketing of sportsbetting, including but not limited to the U.K. Code of Non-Broadcast Advertising, Direct Marketing, and Sales Promotion administered by the Committee of Advertising Practice and the U.S. Federal Trade Commission Act;
 
   
anti-bribery and anti-corruption regulations, and corporate regulations including the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and the U.K. Bribery Act;
 
   
laws and regulations relating to antitrust, competition, anti-money laundering, OFAC, intellectual property, consumer protection, accessibility claims, securities, tax, labor and employment, commercial disputes, services and other matters; and
 
   
other international, domestic federal and state laws impacting marketing and advertising, including but not limited to laws such as the Americans with Disabilities Act, the Telephone Consumer Protection Act of 1991, state telemarketing laws and regulations, and state unfair or deceptive practices acts.
These laws and regulations are complex, change frequently and have tended to become more stringent over time. The laws and regulations applicable to some parts of our business are still developing in certain jurisdictions, and we cannot assure that our activities will not become the subject of any regulatory or law enforcement, investigation, proceeding or other governmental action or that any such proceeding or action, as the case may be, would not have a material adverse impact on us or our business, financial condition or results of operations. We incur significant expenses in our attempt to ensure compliance with these laws. Currently, public concern is high with regard to the operation of companies in the data collection industry, as well as the collection, use, accuracy, correction and sharing of personal information. In particular, some consumer advocates, privacy advocates, legislatures and government regulators believe that existing laws and regulations do not adequately protect privacy and have become increasingly concerned with the use of these types of personal information. In the United States, Congress and state legislatures may propose and enact additional data privacy requirements. Additional laws could result in significant limitations on or changes to the ways in which we can collect, use, host, store or transmit the personal information and data of our customers or employees, and deliver products and services, or may significantly increase our compliance costs. As our business expands to include new uses or collection of data that is subject to privacy or security regulations, our compliance requirements and costs will increase and we may be subject to increased regulatory scrutiny. Currently, there is also trend towards more stringent gambling advertising regulations across Europe. Additional legislative or regulatory efforts in the United States and internationally could further regulate our businesses.
 
 
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C. Organizational Structure
The following diagram depicts the organizational structure of the Company as of 31 December 2021.
 
The significant subsidiaries of the Company are listed below.
 
Name
   Country of Incorporation
and Place of Business
   Nature of Business    Proportion of Ordinary
Shares Held by Genius
Maven Topco Limited
   Guernsey    Holding company    100%
Genius Sports SS Holdings, Inc
   United States    Holding company    100%
Genius Sports Group Limited
   United Kingdom    Holding company    100%
Betgenius Limited
   United Kingdom    Data services and technology    100%
Genius Sports Media, Inc.
   United States    Data services and technology    100%
D. Property, Plants and Equipment
Our corporate headquarters are located in London, U.K., where we occupy two leased floors totalling approximately 17,118 square feet. We use these headquarter facilities primarily for our management, technology, commercial/sales and marketing, finance, legal, and human resources, and other corporate teams. We also have data centers in London, U.K. and Dublin, Ireland.
We also lease office space in 17 other cities throughout the world, the largest of which includes a 19,751 square foot space in Medellín, Colombia, a 35,585 square foot space in Sofia, Bulgaria, a 19,256 square foot space in Tallinn, Estonia and a 21,301 square foot space in Vilnius, Lithuania, a 8,750 space in New York, USA and a 26,121 square foot space in LA, USA. Our major sites in Medellin, Sofia and Tallinn are primarily occupied by operational teams (trading, data services and customer support). All of the above leases expire or are up for renewal in 2023-2029.
We also have a 3,229 square foot freehold, mixed-use warehouse and office space in Bologna, Italy.
We believe that our facilities are adequate to meet our needs for the immediate future and that suitable additional space will be procured to accommodate any expansion of our operations as needed.
 
 
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ITEM 4A. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
Not applicable.
ITEM 5. OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS
OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS
For purposes of this section, “we,” “our,” “us”, “Genius” and the “company” refer to Genius Sports Limited and all of its subsidiaries.
The following discussion includes information that Genius’ management believes is relevant to an assessment and understanding of Genius’ consolidated results of operations and financial condition.
The discussion should be read together with the historical audited annual consolidated financial statements of Genius Sports Limited and its subsidiaries, which comprise the consolidated balance sheets as of December 31, 2021 and 2020 and the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive loss, changes in temporary equity and shareholders’ equity (deficit) and cash flows for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, and the related notes thereto, included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 20-F.
Genius’ actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including those discussed in the sections titled “Risk Factors” and “Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” included elsewhere in this prospectus. Certain amounts may not foot due to rounding.
Overview
Genius is a B2B provider of scalable,
technology-led
products and services to the sports, sports wagering and sports media industries. Genius is a fast-growing business with significant scale, distribution and an expanding addressable market and opportunity ahead.
Genius’ mission is to be the official data, technology and commercial partner that powers the global ecosystem connecting sports, betting and media. In doing so, Genius creates engaging and immersive fan experiences while simultaneously providing sports leagues with essential technology and vital, sustainable revenue streams.
Genius uniquely sits at the heart of the global sports betting ecosystem where Genius has deep, critical relationships with over 400 sports leagues and federations, over 500 sportsbook brands and over 150 marketing customers (which includes some of the aforementioned sportsbook brands).
Business Model
Genius provides critical technology and services required to power the global ecosystem connecting sports, betting and media. Genius has three principal products lines — Sports Technology and Services, Betting Technology, Content and Services, and Media Technology, Content and Services. All of Genius’ products are powered by proprietary technology and robust data infrastructure. See Item 4.B “Business Overview—Products and Business Model.”
Genius’ Offerings
Sports Technology and Services
. Genius builds and supplies technology and services that allow sports leagues to collect, analyze and monetize their data with added tools to deepen fan engagement. These tools include creation of
fan-facing
websites, rich statistical content such as team and player standings, immersive social media content, and, Genius’ latest creation, its streaming product, a tool that allows sports leagues to automatically produce, distribute and commercialize live, audio-visual game content. Genius also provides sports leagues with bespoke monitoring technology and education services to help protect their competitions and athletes from the threats of match fixing and betting-related corruption. Following the acquisition of Second Spectrum, Inc (“Second Spectrum”), Genius is now a leading provider of cutting-edge data tracking and visualization solutions that partners with elite football and basketball clubs, leagues, federations, and media organizations around the world.
Genius’ technology has become essential to their partners’ operations and it would be inefficient or unaffordable for most sports leagues to build similar technology themselves. In return for the provision of their essential technology, the sports leagues typically grant to Genius the official sports data and streaming rights to collect, distribute and monetize the official data or streaming content.
Betting Technology, Content and Services
. Genius builds and supplies data-driven technology that powers sportsbooks globally. Genius’ offerings include official data, outsourced bookmaking, trading/risk management services and live audio-visual game content that is derived from its streaming partnerships with sports leagues.
Media Technology, Content and Services
. Genius builds and supplies technology, services and data that enables sportsbooks, sports organizations, and other brands to target, acquire and retain sports fans as their customers in a highly effective and cost-efficient manner. Key services include the creation, delivery and measurement of personalized online marketing campaigns, all delivered using Genius’ proprietary technology and proven to help advertisers reduce spend and wastage. Genius’ sports media solutions provide incremental revenue opportunities for stakeholders across the entire sports ecosystem.
 
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Innovative, Proprietary Technology Tailored for Sports
Genius has an organizational culture that values and encourages continual innovation. Genius’ technical teams have a deep understanding of sports, their interaction with fans, and the key data that drives value through the ecosystem. See Item 4.B “Business Overview—Genius Technology.” This deep understanding and Genius’ position at the core of the Sports, Betting, and Media ecosystem allows Genius to realize technical synergy between different sectors, as well-planned investment in one area can realize value across the ecosystem. Over the past decade, Genius has consistently been recognized as a leader in its field with a host of industry awards. See Item 4.B “Business Overview—Products and Business Model—Awards.” Genius’ research and development team is comprised of over 400 employees that specialize in specific domains and technologies to meet customers’ existing needs and drive future innovation.
For example, Genius Live (Genius’ proprietary streaming solution) provides the technology, automatic production and distribution needed by sports to commercialize live video footage of their games. Genius believes this is particularly useful for
non-Tier
1 sports organizations that lack the capabilities or resources to develop their own live streaming solutions. Genius expects its streaming solution to become an important driver of both rights acquisition and revenue growth. Genius also intends to continue to invest resources in its research and development capabilities to effectively incorporate new technologies and expand its offerings.
Events under Official Sports Data and Streaming Rights
Genius establishes long-term, mutually beneficial relationships with sports leagues, federations and teams that enable its partners to collect, organize and communicate data internally (e.g., for coaching analysis) or externally (e.g., for posting on
fan-facing
websites) and grant to Genius the rights to collect, distribute and monetize official sport data. Genius seeks to maintain an optimal portfolio of data rights, from high profile, widely followed sports events, such as the English Premier League (“EPL”), National Football League (“NFL”), National Basketball Association (“NBA”) and other Tier 1 sports, to more specialized and less widely followed events, such as
non-European
soccer,
non-US
basketball, professional volleyball and other Tier 2 to 4 sports. This provides Genius with global breadth and depth of coverage across all tiers of sport, all time zones, and all geographical locations.
Data rights for Tier 1 sports, which include the most popular sports leagues, are typically acquired via formal tender processes and competitive bidding often resulting in high acquisition costs. For example, Genius’ U.K. soccer data rights contract, which runs through the end of the 2023-2024 season and NFL data rights contract, which runs through the end of the 2026-2027 season, accounts for a significant majority of Genius’ third-party data rights fees. Genius believes that its inventory of selectively acquired Tier 1 data rights is important to establishing relationships with sportsbooks on beneficial terms.
Data rights for lower tier sports are typically acquired through long-term agreements with the respective leagues in exchange for Genius’ technology and software solutions (and, occasionally, cash fees). These
non-Tier
1 sports are typically smaller leagues that are less prominent at a global level, although often are highly popular in their local countries or regions and often have large localized fan bases. Genius estimates that these sports comprise approximately 95% of the total volume of sporting events offered to sportsbooks.
Genius’ events under official sports data and streaming rights form the backbone of its business model, and are a principal driver of revenue, particularly for the Betting Technology, Content and Services product line. Genius defines an “event” as a single sports match or competitive event. Genius’ rights to collect, distribute and monetize the data related to such events may be exclusive (meaning that Genius has the exclusive right to collect, distribute, and monetize such data),
co-exclusive
(meaning that Genius shares collection, distribution, and monetization rights with one other company) or
non-exclusive.
The following table presents Genius’ number of events under official sports data and streaming rights, and the portion thereof under exclusive rights, as of the dates indicated:
 
    
December 31,
 
    
2021
    
2020
 
Events under official rights
     201,216        162,078  
Of which, exclusive
  
 
128,232
 
  
 
101,906
 
Genius believes that data under official sports data and streaming rights is critical to sportsbooks, as only official data provides guaranteed access to the fast and reliable data necessary for
in-game
betting. To remain competitive, sportsbooks must be able to operate and provide customers with betting content around the clock, every single day of the year. This requires an extensive and broad portfolio of data and other content from Tier 1 and Tier
2-4
sports events. Events under exclusive rights give Genius an added commercial advantage over competitors and serve as a barrier of entry, making Genius an essential provider to its customers.
Additionally, Genius collects, distributes, and monetizes data from additional sporting events where no official sports data and streaming rights have been granted or it is legally permissible to do so. Accordingly, the total number of events to which Genius delivers data to its customers in a given period may exceed its total inventory of events under official sports data and streaming rights.
 
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Long-Term Partnerships and Revenue Visibility
Genius does more than serve its customers; it partners with them. Genius’ Sports Technology and Services offerings form the foundation of the sports leagues’ data ecosystem and fan engagement operations – meaning that they are deeply embedded and hard to displace. For example, Genius’ long-term NCAA LiveStats project enables schools and conferences across all three divisions to better capture and distribute richer, faster live game statistics, to power their websites, apps, coaching applications and enhance their media partners’ offering.
Similarly, Genius’ Betting Technology, Content and Services offerings are now essential to the operations of most sportsbooks and many B2B platform providers to sportsbooks. For example, Genius provides all the official data for the NFL and U.K. soccer competitions, including the EPL (along with a host of other soccer, basketball and volleyball competitions) to leading sportsbooks worldwide. By integrating its services into the customer’s environment, Genius’ technology is an essential, business critical component of its customers’ businesses. Genius has long- term contracts with over 500 sportsbook brands and B2B platform providers and has historically experienced very low customer churn.
Genius’ sportsbook contracts are typically structured with guaranteed minimum payments throughout the life of the term (typically
3-5
years), providing for clear earnings visibility. Substantially all sportsbook contracts include a minimum fee mechanism, with upside based either on a percentage share of the customer’s gross gaming revenue (“GGR”) or incremental
per-event
fees that apply once the contracted minimum number of events has been utilized. Approximately 60% of Genius’ fiscal 2021 and 2020 revenue was related to contractual minimum revenue guarantees. The variable revenue components and other material terms in Genius’ sportsbook contracts (for example, geographic use limitations) provide a significant opportunity for growth.
Factors Affecting Comparability of Financial Information
The Business Combination
Pursuant to the Business Combination Agreement, Genius Sports Limited legally acquired all the outstanding equity interests in Genius and dMY, in
equity-for-equity
exchange transactions (“the Merger”). The Merger was accounted for as a reverse recapitalization, with no goodwill or other intangible assets recorded. Genius was the accounting acquirer in the Merger and dMY was treated as the acquired company for financial statement reporting purposes. Genius Sports Limited became a new public,
SEC-reporting
company and Genius was deemed its predecessor, meaning that Genius Sports Limited’s periodic reports after the consummation of the Merger would reflect Genius’ historical financial results. See Consolidated Financial Statements on Form
20-F
for the period ending December 31, 2021.
As a result of the Merger, Genius Sports Limited is now a publicly traded company with its ordinary shares trading on New York Stock Exchange, requiring it to hire additional personnel and implement procedures and processes to address public company regulatory requirements and customary practices. Genius Sports Limited expects to incur material additional annual expenses as a public company for, among other things, directors’ and officers’ liability insurance, director fees, and additional internal and external accounting, legal, and administrative resources, including increased personnel costs, audit and other professional service fees.
Impact of
COVID-19
The novel coronavirus
(“COVID-19”)
had a significant impact on Genius’ business and that of its customers. The direct impact on Genius’ business, beyond disruptions in normal business operations, was driven by the suspension, postponement and cancellation of major sports seasons and events. For example, in 2020, the EPL season was postponed from early March to
mid-June.
While many sports have since restarted, some have been played on a reduced or uncertain schedule, and the ultimate impact of
COVID-19
on Genius’ financial performance will depend on the length of time that these disruptions exist.
While to date the impact of
COVID-19
on Genius’ revenues has been mitigated by minimum revenue guarantees in majority of its customer contracts, Genius provided certain customers discounts in 2020 due to disruptions in scheduled sports seasons and events. Genius also sought to align its costs with revenue, reducing
non-essential
costs during periods of disruption, namely, by reducing staff costs through shortened working weeks, reducing travel, data collection and other costs, and commencing a hiring freeze.
Towards the end of 2020, the Company saw a recovery as major sports leagues started back up and more sporting events resumed. However, there can be no assurance that more postponements or cancellations of major sporting events will not occur in response to a resurgence in
COVID-19
outbreaks. Genius has taken appropriate business continuity measures to ensure that employees are safe and can work remotely to support all aspects of the business. See Item 3.D
“Risk Factors — Risk Factors Relating to the Genius Sports Group’s Business — Health epidemics or pandemics, such as
COVID-19,
can and has adversely affected consumer spending, consumer engagement in sports and entertainment, and reduced the number of sporting live sporting events, all of which can affect our financial results, our business operations and prospects.”
 
52

Acquisition of Second Spectrum Inc.
On June 15, 2021, the Company acquired all outstanding equity interests in Second Spectrum, Inc (“Second Spectrum”) for a total consideration of $198.3 million including $115.0 million in cash and $83.3 million in equity, reflecting a working capital adjustment of $1.1 million in the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2021. Second Spectrum is a leading provider of cutting-edge data tracking and visualization solutions that partners with elite football and basketball clubs, leagues, federations, and media organizations around the world.
Second Spectrum was founded in 2013 and has become a world-leading and fully integrated sports AI provider, offering tracking, analytics and data visualization services. Second Spectrum’s innovative technology allows clients to automatically index action on the court, pitch or field within seconds. With the world’s most advanced player tracking technology, teams, leagues, media and data partners are able to gain real-time insights; driving decision making and greater levels of engagement. Second Spectrum is the official tracking provider of the EPL, NBA, and MLS, using advanced AI capabilities and computer vision technology to capture precise ball and player location-based data. In addition to these relationships, Second Spectrum has partnerships with ESPN, BT Sport, and Bally Sports to offer augmented reality features for select soccer and basketball games. The business has also formed partnerships with leading sports franchises, including The Los Angeles Clippers, to provide new content and revolutionize the fan viewing experience. The combined offering of the Company’s existing products, extensive network, and operational scale with Second Spectrum’s highly innovative tracking and video augmentation products will create richer, more valuable official sports data and drive fan engagement with a compelling experience that combines real-time data, and analytics with innovative augmented video streaming and personalized content.
As part of the Company’s initial assessment, intangible assets acquired relate to existing technology, customer relationships and trademarks.
The Company’s consolidated statements of operations for the year ended December 31, 2021 included revenue of $13.8 million and net loss of $12.0 million attributable to Second Spectrum since the acquisition date of June 15, 2021.
NFL License Agreement
On April 1, 2021, the Company entered into a new multi-year strategic partnership with the NFL (the “License Agreement”). Under the terms of the License Agreement, the Company obtains the right to serve as the worldwide exclusive distributor of NFL official data to the global regulated sports betting market, the worldwide exclusive distributor of NFL official data to the global media market, the NFL’s exclusive international distributor of live digital video to the regulated sports betting market (outside of the United States where permitted), and the NFL’s exclusive sports betting and i-gaming advertising partner. The License Agreement contemplates a
six-year
period (the “Term”), with an initial four-year period commencing April 1, 2021 and years five and six renewable by NFL in one year increments. Pursuant to the License Agreement, the Company, agreed to issue the NFL an aggregate of up to 18,500,000 warrants and 2,000,000 additional warrants for each annual extension, with each warrant entitling NFL to purchase one ordinary share of the Company for an exercise price of $0.01 per warrant share. The warrants will be subject to vesting over the
six-year
term.
Foreign Exchange Exposure
Genius’ results of operations between periods are affected by changes in foreign currency exchange rates. Genius’ assets and liabilities and results of operations are translated from its functional currency, the British Pound Sterling (“GBP”) into its reporting currency, the United States Dollar (“USD”), which is Genius’ reporting currency, using the average exchange rate during the relevant period for income and expense items and the
period-end
exchange rate for assets and liabilities.
The effect of translating Genius’ functional currency amounts into USD is reported in accumulated other comprehensive income within shareholders’ equity but is not reported in Genius’ income statement. However, changes in
GBP-USD
exchange rate between periods directly impact the amount of revenue and expense reported by Genius, and therefore its results of operations between periods may not be comparable. Genius estimates that a hypothetical 10% appreciation of the USD against the GBP would have resulted in $26.3 million, $15.0 million, and $11.5 million decreases in reported revenue for years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively. Throughout this report on Form
20-F,
Genius reports certain items on a constant currency basis to facilitate comparability between periods. See
“—Non-GAAP
Measures—Constant Currency,” below.
In addition, Genius is a global business that transacts with customers and vendors worldwide and makes and receives payments in several different currencies, and from time to time may also engage in intercompany transfers to and from its subsidiaries. Genius
re-measures
amounts payable on transactions denominated in currencies other than GBP into GBP and records the relevant gain or loss, which occurs due to timing differences between recognition of a transaction on the income statement and the related payment, under the income statement caption “gain (loss) on foreign currency.” Genius does not hedge its foreign currency translation or transaction exposure, though it may do so in the future.
 
53

Seasonality
Genius’ products and services cover the entire sporting calendar, which from a global perspective is year-round. On the other hand, the relative importance of different sporting events varies based on the geographic locations in which Genius’ customers operate. Accordingly, Genius’ operations are subject to seasonal fluctuations that may result in revenue and cash flow volatility between fiscal quarters. For example, Genius’ revenue is typically impacted by the European soccer season calendars and the NFL season. Genius’ revenue trends may also be affected by the scheduling of major sporting events such as the FIFA World Cup or the cancellation/postponement of sporting events and races.
Key Factors Affecting Genius’ Performance
Genius’ financial position and results of operations depend to a significant extent on the following factors:
Ability to Acquire and Profitably Monetize Data Rights
Genius grows its business by acquiring new data rights and, in turn, selling the data and its other value-added services to sportsbooks. Genius’ data rights, and its ability to collect, distribute and monetize official sports data, are typically limited to the duration of the contract with the relevant sports organization. Accordingly, Genius’ growth prospects are impacted by its ability to obtain, retain and expand relationships with sports organizations on commercially viable terms.
To date, Genius has been able to secure data rights to
non-Tier
1 sports at a relatively low cost. If data rights to more sports become subject to competitive bidding (as Tier 1 sports are today), then the cost of acquiring data rights may increase and, conversely, Genius’ ability to successfully acquire such rights on commercially reasonable terms (or at all) may be diminished. Genius is also able to monetize a significant number of events to which it has no official sports data and streaming rights because the collection of such data for such events is not subject to legal or contractual restrictions. If such events were to become subject to data use limitations, Genius may be required to incur higher data rights costs and/or secure data rights to fewer events, either of which could adversely impact its financial performance. Genius seeks to mitigate these risks through long-term mutually beneficial partnership agreements that embed indispensable technology within a sports league’s infrastructure in exchange for the grant of exclusive rights to collect, distribute and monetize official data and/or streaming content.
Industry Trends and Competitive Landscape
Genius operates within the global sports betting industry. H2 Gambling Capital projects that the industry’s GGR will grow from $50 billion in 2021 to $86 billion by 2026. See Item 4.B “Business Overview—The Sports Betting Industry and Genius’ Opportunity.” Genius believes its industry-leading product offerings, strong technology platform, data integrity and established brand make it a partner of choice for many professional sports organizations and sportsbooks. Despite uncertainties related to future costs of acquiring official or exclusive rights to sports data, Genius believes that substantial barriers to entry are likely to favor its business model. Genius’ bespoke technology, developed over time specifically for (and embedded within the operating environment of) its sports league partners, would be difficult for most competitors to replicate.
Genius’ growth prospects also depend in part on continuing legalization of sports betting across the globe, for example in the United States. As of
year-end
2021, 32 U.S. states, including Washington, DC for these purposes, have passed measures to legalize sports betting, of which 30 states have launched active sports betting industries with 19 states, including New York following their early January 2022 launch, allowing mobile sports betting. This trend is expected to continue. H2 Gambling Capital projects that the U.S. sports betting market will generate an estimated $12 billion in GGR in 2026, up from an estimated $4 billion in 2021. Genius is already permitted to supply in 21 U.S. states and intends to obtain licenses in other states as the legalization trend continues. Genius’ core European market is also expected to grow, as certain countries such as Germany remain in the early stages of liberalization and proliferation of sports betting. H2 Gambling Capital projects that the European sports betting market will generate an estimated $30 billion in GGR in 2026, up from an estimated $20 billion in 2021.
The process of securing the necessary licenses or partnerships to operate in any given jurisdiction may cost more and/or take longer than Genius anticipates. Further, legislative or regulatory restrictions, the cost of data rights to sports that are popular in a certain region, and betting and other taxes may make it less attractive or more difficult for Genius to successfully do business in a particular jurisdiction.
 
54

Key Components of Revenue and Expenses
Revenue
Genius generates revenue primarily through delivery of products and services to customers in connection with the following major product groups: Betting Technology, Content and Services, Media Technology, Content and Services, and Sports Technology and Services. The following table shows Genius’ revenue split by product group, for the periods indicated:
 
    
Year Ended
    
Year Ended
    
Year Ended
 
    
December 31,
2021
    
December 31,
2020
    
December 31,
2019
 
    
(dollars, in thousands)
 
Revenue by Product Group
        
Betting Technology, Content and Services
   $ 177,201      $ 110,618      $ 88,370  
Media Technology, Content and Services
     48,312        23,055        11,883  
Sports Technology and Services
     37,222        16,066        14,367  
  
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Total Revenue
  
$
262,735
 
  
$
149,739
 
  
$
114,620
 
  
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Betting Technology, Content and Services
— revenue is primarily generated through the delivery of official sports data for
in-game
and
pre-match
betting and outsourced bookmaking services through the Genius’ proprietary sportsbook platform. Customers access Genius’ sportsbook platform and associated services through the cloud over the contract term. Customer contracts are typically either on (i) a “fixed” basis, requiring customers to pay a guaranteed minimum recurring fee for a specified number of events, with incremental
per-event
fees thereafter, or (ii) a “variable” basis, based on a percentage share of the customer’s Gross Gaming Revenue (“GGR”), typically with minimum payment guarantees. Minimum guarantee amounts are generally recognized over the life of the contract on a straight-line basis, while generally variable fees based on profit sharing and per event overage fees are recognized as earned. Genius believes that its minimum payment guarantees provide for enhanced revenue visibility while the variable component of its contracts benefits Genius as its partners grow.
Media Technology, Content and Services
– revenue is primarily generated from providing data-driven performance marketing technology and services, including personalized online marketing campaigns, to sportsbooks, sports leagues and federations, along with other global brands in the sports ecosystem. Genius typically offers its solutions on a fixed fee basis, which is generally prepaid by customers. Revenue is generally recognized over time as the services are performed using an input method based on costs to secure advertising space. Genius also provides customers with data driven video marketing capabilities through the acquisition of Photospire Limited (“Spirable”) and their creative performance platform, and a suite of technology solutions for digital fan engagement products and free to play (“F2P”) games through the acquisition of Fan Hub Media Holdings Pty Limited (“FanHub”). Customers subscribe or access these products through hosted service over the contractual term in exchange for a fixed annual fee, subject to certain variable components.
Sports Technology and Services
– revenue is primarily generated through the delivery of technology that enables sports leagues and federations to capture, manage and distribute their official sports data, along with other tools and services, including software updates and technical support. These software solutions are tailored for specific sports. Also included within Sports Technology, Content and Services are revenues derived from Sportzcast, a company acquired in December 2020, and Second Spectrum, acquired in June 2021. In some instances, Genius receives noncash consideration in the form of official sports data and streaming rights, along with other rights, in exchange for these services, particularly to
non-Tier
1 sports organizations. Because there is not a readily determinable fair value for these unique data rights, Genius estimates the fair value of noncash consideration based on the standalone selling price of the services promised to customers. Revenue is recognized either ratably over the contract term or as the services are provided, by event or season, depending on the nature of the underlying promised product or service. Genius also provides sports teams and leagues with player tracking systems that capture and produce fast and accurate location data used to power new ways to understand, evaluate, improve and create content their game, enhanced data analytics programs and real-time video augmentation services through the acquisition of Second Spectrum. Depending on the nature of the underlying product or service, revenue is recognized ratably over the contract term or recognized over time using an output method based on deliverables to the customer.
Costs and Expenses
Cost of revenue.
Genius’ cost of revenue includes costs related to (i) amortization of intangible assets, mainly related to Genius’ capitalized internally developed software, along with Genius’ proprietary sports management technology platform, data rights recognized in connection with the investment by Apax Funds (in which on September 7, 2018, Maven Topco Limited, a company incorporated under the laws of Guernsey (“Topco”) acquired all of the issued and outstanding equity interests of Genius Sports Group Limited) under the acquisition method of accounting (ii) fees for third-party data and streaming rights under executory contracts, including stock-based compensation for
non-employees,
(iii) data collection and production, third-party server and bandwidth and outsourced bookmaking, and (iv) advertising costs directly associated with Genius’ Media Technology, Content and Services offerings.
Genius believes that its cost of revenue is highly scalable over the longer term. While key components of cost of revenue, such as server and bandwidth costs and personnel costs related to revenue-generating activities, are variable, Genius expects them to grow at a slower pace than revenue. Other key costs, such as third-party data including those related to Genius’ EPL and NFL contract, are typically fixed. Genius also expects its gross margin to increase in the medium term, once the intangible assets
stepped-up
in connection with the Apax Funds Investment are fully amortized.
 
55

Sales and marketing.
Sales and marketing expenses consist primarily of sales personnel costs, including compensation, stock-based compensation, commissions and benefits, amortization of costs to obtain a contract associated with capitalized commissions costs, event attendance, event sponsorships, association memberships, marketing subscriptions, and third-party consulting fees.
Research and development
. Research and development (“R&D”) expenses consist primarily of costs incurred for the development of new products related to Genius’ platform and services, as well as improving existing products and services. The costs incurred included related personnel salaries and benefits, stock-based compensation, facility costs, server and bandwidth costs, consulting costs, and amortization of production software costs.
R&D expenses can be volatile between periods, as Genius capitalizes a significant portion of its internally developed software costs, in periods where a product completes the preliminary project stage and it is probable the project will be completed and performed as intended. Capitalized internally developed software costs are typically amortized in cost of revenue.
General and administrative.
General and administrative expenses (“G&A”) consist primarily of administrative personnel costs, including executive salaries, bonuses and benefits, stock-based compensation, professional services (including legal, regulatory, audit and licensing-related), legal settlements and contingencies, rent expense and depreciation of property and equipment.
Transaction expenses.
Transaction expenses consists primarily of advisory, legal, accounting, valuation, other professional or consulting fees, and bonuses in connection with Genius’ corporate development activities. Direct and indirect transaction expenses in a business combination are expensed as incurred when the service is received.
Gain (loss) on fair value remeasurement of contingent consideration.
Gain (loss) on fair value remeasurement of contingent consideration represents the change in fair value of contingent consideration liabilities related to historical acquisitions. Contingent consideration liabilities are revalued at each reporting period.
Change in fair value of derivative warrant liabilities.
Change in fair value of derivative warrant liabilities represents the change in fair value of public and private warrant liabilities assumed as part of the Merger. Warrant liabilities are revalued at each reporting period.
Income tax expense.
Genius accounts for income taxes using the asset and liability method whereby deferred income taxes are recognized for the tax consequences of temporary differences between the financial statement carrying amounts and the tax basis of the assets and liabilities. The provision for income taxes reflects income earned and taxed, mainly in the United Kingdom. See Note 17 –
Income Taxes
, to Genius’ audited consolidated financial statements appearing elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 20-F.
Non-GAAP
Financial Measures
This report on Form
20-F
includes certain
non-GAAP
financial measures.
Adjusted EBITDA
Genius presents Adjusted EBITDA, a
non-GAAP
performance measure, to supplement its results presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Adjusted EBITDA is defined as earnings before interest, income tax, depreciation and amortization and other items that are unusual or not related to Genius’ revenue-generating operations, including stock-based compensation expense, change in fair value of derivative warrant liabilities and remeasurement of contingent consideration.
 
56

Adjusted EBITDA is used by management to evaluate Genius’ core operating performance on a comparable basis and to make strategic decisions. Genius believes Adjusted EBITDA is useful to investors for the same reasons as well as in evaluating Genius’ operating performance against competitors, which commonly disclose similar performance measures. However, Genius’ calculation of Adjusted EBITDA may not be comparable to other similarly titled performance measures of other companies. Adjusted EBITDA is not intended to be a substitute for any U.S. GAAP financial measure.
The following table presents a reconciliation of Genius’ Adjusted EBITDA to its net loss for the periods indicated:
 
    
Year Ended
    
Year Ended
    
Year Ended
 
    
December 31,
2021
    
December 31,
2020
    
December 31,
2019
 
    
(dollars, in thousands)
 
Consolidated net loss
   $ (592,753    $ (30,348    $ (40,207
Adjusted for:
        
Net, interest expense
     3,331        7,874        6,840  
Income tax expense (benefit)
     (11,701      1,813        (5,366
Amortization of acquired intangibles
(1)
     37,617        21,571        21,412  
Other depreciation and amortization
(2)
     22,542        14,010        6,793  
Stock-based compensation
(3)
     489,474        —          —    
Transaction expenses
     12,886        672        1,005  
Litigation and related costs
(4)
     4,395        2,295        516  
Change in fair value of derivative warrant liabilities
     11,412        —          —    
(Gain) loss on fair value remeasurement of contingent consideration
     19,405        (271      —    
Other
(5)
     4,942        (106      2,799  
  
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Adjusted EBITDA
  
$
1,550
 
  
$
17,510
 
  
$
(6,208
  
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
 
(1)
Includes amortization of intangible assets generated through business acquisitions, inclusive of amortization for data rights, marketing products, and acquired technology.
(2)
Includes depreciation of Genius’ property and equipment, amortization of contract cost, and amortization of internally developed software and other intangible assets. Excludes amortization of intangible assets generated through business acquisitions.
(3)
Includes restricted shares and stock options granted to employees and directors and equity-classified
non-employee
awards issued to suppliers.
(4)
Includes mainly legal and related costs in connection with
non-routine
litigation matters including Sportradar litigation and BetConstruct litigation.
(5)
Includes gain/losses on disposal of assets, gain/losses on foreign currency and expenses incurred related to
earn-out
payments on historical acquisitions. For the year ended December 31, 2021 an allowance for doubtful accounts of $0.7 million is included for Russian sportsbook customers as a result of events in Ukraine.
On a constant currency basis, Adjusted EBITDA would have been $18.7 million and ($6.7) million for the year ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.
Constant Currency
Certain income statement items in this Report on Form
20-F
are discussed on a constant currency basis. As discussed under “Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk - Foreign Exchange Exposure,” Genius’ results between periods may not be comparable due to foreign currency translation effects. Genius presents certain income statement items on a constant currency basis, as if GBP:USD exchange rate had remained constant period-over-period, to enhance the comparability of its results. Genius calculates income statement constant currency amounts by taking the relevant average GBP:USD exchange rate used in the preparation of its income statement for the more recent comparative period and applies it to the actual GBP amount used in the preparation of its income statement for the prior comparative period.
Constant currency amounts only adjust for the impact related to the translation of Genius’ consolidated financial statements from GBP to USD. Constant currency amounts do not adjust for any other translation effects, such as the translation of results of subsidiaries whose functional currency is other than GBP or USD, as such effects have not been material to date.
 
57

A. Operating Results
Year Ended December 31, 2021 Compared to the Year Ended December 31, 2020
The following table summarizes Genius’ consolidated results of operations for the periods indicated.
 
                                                                           
    
Year Ended
    
Variance
 
    
December 31,
2021
    
December 31,
2020
    
In dollars
    
In %
 
    
(dollars, in thousands)
        
Revenue
  
$
262,735
 
  
$
149,739
 
  
$
112,996
 
  
 
75
Cost of revenue
(1)
  
 
476,168
 
  
 
114,066
 
  
 
362,102
 
  
 
317
  
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Gross (loss) profit
  
 
(213,433
  
 
35,673
 
  
 
(249,106
  
 
(698
%) 
  
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Operating expenses:
           
Sales and marketing
(1)
  
 
27,292
 
  
 
13,176
 
  
 
14,116
 
  
 
107
Research and development
(1)
  
 
26,513
 
  
 
11,240
 
  
 
15,273
 
  
 
136
General and administrative
(1)
  
 
293,168
 
  
 
31,623
 
  
 
261,545
 
  
 
827
Transaction expenses
  
 
12,886
 
  
 
672
 
  
 
12,214
 
  
 
1,818
  
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Total operating expense
  
 
359,859
 
  
 
56,711
 
  
 
303,148
 
  
 
535
  
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Loss from operations
  
 
(573,292
  
 
(21,038
  
 
(552,254
  
 
2,625
  
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Interest expense, net
  
 
(3,331
  
 
(7,874
  
 
4,543
 
  
 
(58
%) 
Loss on disposal of assets
  
 
(46
  
 
(8
  
 
(38
  
 
475
Gain (loss) on fair value remeasurement of contingent consideration
  
 
(19,405
  
 
271
 
  
 
(19,676
  
 
(7,261
%) 
Change in fair value of derivative warrant liabilities
  
 
(11,412
  
 
—  
 
  
 
(11,412
  
 
—  
 
Gain (loss) on foreign currency
  
 
3,032
 
  
 
114
 
  
 
2,918
 
  
 
2,560
  
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Total other income (expenses)
  
 
(31,162
  
 
(7,497
  
 
(23,665
  
 
316
  
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Loss before income taxes
  
 
(604,454
  
 
(28,535
  
 
(575,919
  
 
2,018
  
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Income tax benefit (expense)
  
 
11,701
 
  
 
(1,813
  
 
13,514
 
  
 
(745
%) 
  
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Net loss
  
$
(592,753
  
$
(30,348
  
$
(562,405
  
 
1,853
  
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
 
(1)
Includes stock-based compensation as follows:
 
                                                                           
    
Year Ended
    
Variance
 
    
December 31,
2021
    
December 31,
2020
    
In dollars
    
In %
 
    
(dollars, in thousands)
        
Cost of revenue
  
$
243,512
 
  
$
—  
 
  
$
243,512
 
  
 
—  
 
Sales and marketing
  
 
3,546
 
  
 
—  
 
  
 
3,546
 
  
 
—  
 
Research and development
  
 
4,670
 
  
 
—  
 
  
 
4,670
 
  
 
—  
 
General and administrative
  
 
237,746
 
  
 
—  
 
  
 
237,746
 
  
 
—  
 
  
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Total stock-based compensation
  
$
489,474
 
  
$
—  
 
  
$
489,474
 
  
 
—  
 
  
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Revenue
Revenue was $262.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 compared to $149.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. Revenue increased $113.0 million, or 75%. On a constant currency basis, revenue would have increased $102.5 million, or 64% in the year ended December 31, 2021.
Betting Technology, Content and Services revenue increased $66.6 million, or 60%, to $177.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 from $110.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. Growth in business with existing customers as a result of price increases on contract renewals and renegotiations powered by Genius’ official data rights strategy, expansion of
value-add
services, and new service offerings contributed $23.3 million to the increase, while another $25.8 million was attributable to new customer acquisitions, while a further $17.4 million was driven by increased customer utilization of Genius’ available event content. Events under official sports data and streaming rights increased to 201,216 as of December 31, 2021 from 162,078 as of December 31, 2020. In the second and third quarter of 2020 we provided approximately $5.9 million in one-time customer discounts due to the impact of COVID-19.
Media Technology, Content and Services revenue increased $25.3 million, or 110%, to $48.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 from $23.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, primarily driven by the acquisition of new customers in the Americas and Europe primarily for programmatic advertising services, and the inclusion of revenues from recent acquisitions.
Sports Technology and Services revenue increased $21.2 million, or 132%, to $37.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 from $16.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. This was driven by the inclusion of revenues derived from acquisitions, being Sportzcast (acquired in December 2020), and Second Spectrum (acquired in June 2021). In addition, there was also growth driven by expanded services provided to existing sports league and federation customers across all tiers of sport. Revenue for contracts where Genius receives
non-cash
consideration in the form of official sports data and streaming rights was $14.0 million in the year ended December 31, 2021 compared to $10.4 million in the year ended December 31, 2020.
Cost of revenue
Cost of revenue was $476.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, compared to $114.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. The $362.1 million increase in cost of revenue includes $243.2 million
non-employee
stock-based compensation and $0.3 million stock-based compensation in relation to equity awards issued to management. Excluding the impact of the
non-employee
stock-based compensation and the stock-based compensation in relation to equity awards issued to management, the increase would have been $118.6 million, which is primarily driven by increased data rights and media direct costs and increased amortization of capitalized software development costs.
Data and streaming rights costs were $97.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, compared to $41.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. The $55.9 million increase is driven primarily by Genius’s official data rights strategy.
Media direct costs were $24.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, compared to $12.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. The $11.5 million increase is driven primarily by programmatic advertising revenues in the Americas and Europe.
 
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Amortization of capitalized software development costs was $17.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, compared to $11.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. This increase is driven primarily by Genius’ continued investment in new product offerings which has resulted in increased capitalization of internally developed software costs. Other amortization and depreciation was $38.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, compared to $20.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. This increase is driven primarily by amortization of acquired intangibles, arising from acquisitions completed in 2021.
Sales and marketing
Sales and marketing expenses were $27.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, compared to $13.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. The $14.1 million increase includes $3.5 million stock-based compensation in relation to equity awards issued to management. Excluding the impact of the stock-based compensation in relation to equity awards issued to management, the increase would have been $10.6 million, which is primarily driven by higher staff costs due to recent acquisitions completed in 2021, investment in Genius teams in the United States of America to drive growth in that country. Staff costs were lower in the prior year in the wake of the
COVID-19
pandemic, where Genius shortened staff working weeks, and implemented a hiring freeze.
Research and development
Research and development expenses were $26.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, compared to $11.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. The $15.3 million increase includes $4.7 million stock-based compensation in relation to equity awards issued to management. Excluding the impact of the stock-based compensation in relation to equity awards issued to management, the increase would have been $10.6 million, which was primarily due to higher staff costs due to recent acquisitions completed in 2021 and investment in the underlying Genius platform and teams to drive future growth. Staff costs were lower in the prior year in the wake of the
COVID-19
pandemic, where Genius shortened staff working weeks, and implemented hiring freeze.
General and administrative
General and administrative expenses were $293.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, compared to $31.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. The $261.5 million increase includes $237.7 million stock-based compensation in relation to equity awards issued to management. Excluding the impact of the stock-based compensation in relation to equity awards issued to management, the increase would have been $23.8 million, which was driven by increased costs associated with ongoing business activities and efforts involved to operate as a public company, and higher staff costs associated with acquisitions completed in 2021. Staff costs were lower in the prior year in the wake of the
COVID-19
pandemic, where Genius shortened staff working weeks, and implemented a hiring freeze.
Transaction expenses
Transaction expenses were $12.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, primarily due to costs related to acquisitions in the year.
Interest expense, net
Interest expense, net was $3.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, compared to $7.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. The $4.5 million decrease is primarily due to the settlement in full of the Investor Loan Notes and the Related Party Loan upon consummation of the Merger in April 2021.
Gain (loss) on fair value remeasurement of contingent consideration
Genius recorded a loss on fair value remeasurement of contingent consideration of $19.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, compared to a gain of $0.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. The loss in the year ended December 31, 2021 was predominately due to an increase in consideration to the former shareholders of Second Spectrum at the end of December 31, 2021.
Change in fair value of derivative warrant liabilities
Change in fair value of derivative warrant liabilities was $11.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, due to revaluation of the public and private place warrants assumed as part of the Merger.
Foreign currency gain (loss)
Genius recorded a foreign currency gain of $3.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 and a gain of $0.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. The gain in the year ended December 31, 2021 was mainly due to the depreciation of the GBP against local currencies during that period, in particular the USD.
 
59

Income tax benefit (expense)
Income tax benefit was $11.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 and income tax expense was $1.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. The change in income tax expense to income tax benefit from the year ended December 31, 2020 to the year ended December 31, 2021 was primarily driven by the changes in recorded valuation allowance against U.K. deferred tax assets that cannot be realized, driven by the increase in taxable temporary differences that would support the realization of additional operating losses.
Net loss
Net loss was $592.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 and $30.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2020.
Year Ended December 31, 2020 Compared to the Year Ended December 31, 2019
The following table summarizes Genius’ consolidated results of operations for the periods indicated.
 
    
Year Ended
   
Variance
 
    
December 31,
2020
   
December 31,
2019
   
In dollars
   
In %
 
    
(dollars, in thousands)
       
Revenue
   $ 149,739     $ 114,620     $ 35,119       31
Cost of revenue
     114,066       89,311       24,755       28
  
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
Gross profit
     35,673       25,309       10,364       41
  
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
Operating expenses:
        
Sales and marketing
     13,176       17,711       (4,535     (26 %) 
Research and development
     11,240       13,290       (2,050     (15 %) 
General and administrative
     31,623       29,492       2,131       7
Transaction expenses
     672       1,005       (333     (33 %) 
  
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
Total operating expense
     56,711       61,498       (4,787     (8 %) 
  
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
Loss from operations
     (21,038     (36,189     15,151       (42 %) 
  
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
Interest income (expense), net
     (7,874     (6,840     (1,034     15
Gain (loss) on disposal of assets
     (8     (7     (1     14
Gain on fair value remeasurement of contingent consideration
     271       —         271       nm  
Gain (loss) on foreign currency
     114       (2,537     2,651       (104 %) 
  
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
Total other income (expenses)
     (7,497     (9,384     1,887       (20 %) 
  
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
Loss before income taxes
     (28,535     (45,573     17,038       (37 %) 
  
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
Income tax benefit (expense)
     (1,813     5,366       (7,179     (134 %) 
  
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
Net loss
  
$
(30,348
 
$
(40,207
 
$
9,859
 
 
 
(25
%) 
  
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
 
nm = not meaningful
Revenue
Revenue was $149.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to $114.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. Revenue increased $35.1 million, or 31%. On a constant currency basis, revenue would have increased $34.5 million, or 30%, in the year ended December 31, 2020.
Betting Technology, Content and Services revenue increased $22.2 million, or 25%, to $110.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 from $88.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. Growth in business with existing customers as a result of price increases on contract renewals and renegotiations powered by Genius’ official data rights strategy, expansion of
value-add
services, and new service offerings contributed $16.9 million to the increase, while another $6.1 million was attributable to new customer acquisitions, while a further $5.3 million was driven by increased customer utilization of Genius’ availabl