Company Quick10K Filing
20-F 2019-12-31 Filed 2020-03-31
20-F 2018-12-31 Filed 2019-03-29
20-F 2017-12-31 Filed 2018-04-03
20-F 2016-12-31 Filed 2017-03-15
20-F 2015-12-31 Filed 2016-03-31
20-F 2014-12-31 Filed 2015-03-31
20-F 2013-12-31 Filed 2014-03-24
20-F 2012-12-31 Filed 2013-03-28
20-F 2011-12-31 Filed 2012-04-23
20-F 2010-12-31 Filed 2011-06-02
20-F 2009-12-31 Filed 2010-06-07

GGB 20F Annual Report

Part I
Item 1. Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers
Item 2. Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable
Item 3. Key Information
Item 4. Company Information
Item 4A. Unresolved Sec Staff Comments
Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects
Item 6. Directors, Senior Management and Employees
Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related-Party Transactions
Item 8. Financial Information
Item 9. The Offer and Listing
Item 10. Additional Information
Item 11. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures Regarding Market Risk
Item 12. Description of Securities Other Than Equity Securities
Part II
Item 13. Defaults, Dividend Arrearages and Delinquencies
Item 14. Material Modifications To The Rights of Security Holders and Use of Proceeds
Item 15. Controls and Procedures
Item 16. [Reserved]
Item 16A. Audit Committee Financial Expert
Item 16B. Code of Ethics
Item 16C. Principal Accountant Fees and Services
Item 16D. Exemptions From The Listing Standards for Audit Committees
Item 16E. Purchases of Equity Securities By The Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers
Item 16F. Change in Registrant's Certifying Accountant.
Item 16G. Corporate Governance
Item 16H. Mine Safety Disclosure
Part III
Item 17. Financial Statements
Item 18. Financial Statements
Item 19. Financial Statements and Exhibits
Note 1 - General Information
Note 2 - Summary of Significant Accounting Practices
Note 3 - Consolidated Financial Statements
Note 4 - Cash and Cash Equivalents, and Short and Long-Term Investments
Note 5 - Trade Accounts Receivable
Note 6 - Inventories
Note 7 - Tax Credits
Note 8 - Income and Social Contribution Taxes
Note 9 - Investments
Note 10 - Property, Plant and Equipment
Note 11 - Goodwill
Note 12 - Intangible Assets
Note 13 - Loans and Financing
Note 14 - Debentures
Note 15 - Financial Instruments
Note 16 - Taxes Payable
Note 17 - Provisions for Tax, Civil and Labor Claims
Note 18 - Related-Party Transactions
Note 19 - Employee Benefits
Note 20 - Environmental Liabilities
Note 21 - Equity
Note 22 - Earnings per Share (Eps)
Note 23 - Profit Sharing
Note 24 - Net Sales Revenue
Note 25 - Long-Term Incentive Plans
Note 26 - Segment Reporting
Note 27 - Insurance
Note 28 - Impairment of Assets
Note 29 - Expenses By Nature
Note 30 - Financial Income
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Gerdau Earnings 2013-12-31

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow

20-F 1 a14-8431_120f.htm 20-F

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For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2013
















Commission file number 1-14878



(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)



(Translation of Registrant’s name into English)


Federative Republic of Brazil

(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)


Av. Farrapos 1811

Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul - Brazil CEP 90220-005

(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip code)


Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:


Title of each class


Name of each exchange in which registered

Preferred Shares, no par value per share, each represented by American Depositary Shares


New York Stock Exchange


Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None


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Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act: None


The total number of issued shares of each class of stock of GERDAU S.A. as of December 31, 2013 was:


573,627,483 Common Shares, no par value per share


1,146,031,245 Preferred Shares, no par value per share


Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.

x Yes   o No


If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

o Yes   x No


Note — Checking the box above will not relieve any registrant required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 from their obligations under those Sections.


Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.

x Yes   o No


Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).

o Yes   x No


Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, or a non-accelerated filer. See definition of “accelerated filer and large accelerated filer” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):


Large accelerated filer x


Accelerated filer o


Non-accelerated filer o


Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:




International Financial Reporting Standards as issued
by the International Accounting Standards Board


Other o


If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow.

o Item 17   o Item 18


If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).

o Yes   x No


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ITEM 10.



ITEM 11.



ITEM 12.












ITEM 13.



ITEM 14.



ITEM 15.



ITEM 16.




































ITEM 17.



ITEM 18.



ITEM 19.




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Unless otherwise indicated, all references herein to:


(i)                                     the “Company”, “Gerdau”, “we” or “us” are references to Gerdau S.A., a corporation organized under the laws of the Federative Republic of Brazil (“Brazil”) and its consolidated subsidiaries;


(ii)                                  “Açominas” is a reference to Aço Minas Gerais S.A. — Açominas prior to November 2003 whose business was to operate the Ouro Branco steel mill. In November 2003 the company underwent a corporate reorganization, receiving all of Gerdau’s Brazilian operating assets and liabilities and being renamed Gerdau Açominas S.A.;


(iii)                               “Gerdau Açominas” is a reference to Gerdau Açominas S.A. after November 2003 and to Açominas before such date. In July 2005, certain assets and liabilities of Gerdau Açominas were spun-off to four other newly created entities: Gerdau Aços Longos, Gerdau Aços Especiais and Gerdau América do Sul Participações. As a result of such spin-off, as from July 2005, the activities of Gerdau Açominas only comprise the operation of the Açominas steel mill;


(iv)                              “Chaparral Steel” or to “Chaparral” are references to Chaparral Steel Company, a corporation organized under the laws of the State of Delaware, and its consolidated subsidiaries;


(v)                             “Preferred Shares” and “Common Shares” refer to the Company’s authorized and outstanding preferred stock and common stock, designated as ações preferenciais and ações ordinárias, respectively, all without par value. All references herein to the “real”, “reais” or “R$” are to the Brazilian real, the official currency of Brazil. All references to (i) “U.S. dollars”, “dollars”, “U.S.$” or “$” are to the official currency of the United States, (ii) “Canadian dollars” or “Cdn$” are to the official currency of Canada, (iii) “Euro” or “€” are to the official currency of members of the European Union, (iv) “billions” are to thousands of millions, (v) “km” are to kilometers, and (vi) “tonnes” are to metric tonnes;


(vi)                              “Installed capacity” means the annual projected capacity for a particular facility (excluding the portion that is not attributable to our participation in a facility owned by a joint venture), calculated based upon operations for 24 hours each day of a year and deducting scheduled downtime for regular maintenance;


(vii)                           “Tonne” means a metric tonne, which is equal to 1,000 kilograms or 2,204.62 pounds;


(viii)                        “Consolidated shipments” means the combined volumes shipped from all our operations in Brazil, Latin America, North America and Europe, excluding our joint venture and associate companies;


(ix)                              “worldsteel” means World Steel Association, “IABr” means Brazilian Steel Institute (Instituto Aço Brasil) and “AISI” means American Iron and Steel Institute;


(x)                                 “CPI” means consumer price index, “CDI” means Interbanking Deposit Rates (Certificados de Depósito Interfinanceiro), “IGP-M” means Consumer Prices Index (Índice Geral de Preços do Mercado), measured by FGV (Fundação Getulio Vargas), “LIBOR” means London Interbank Offered Rate, “GDP” means Gross Domestic Product;


(xi)                              “Brazil BO” means Brazil Business Operation, “North America BO” means North America Business Operation, “Latin America BO” means Latin America Business Operation, “Specialty Steel BO” means Specialty Steel Business Operation.


(xii)                           “proven or probable mineral reserves” has the meaning defined by SEC in Industry Guide 7.


The Company has prepared the consolidated financial statements included herein in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB). The following investments are accounted for following the equity method: in Gallatin Steel Co. (“Gallatin”), Bradley Steel Processor and MRM Guide Rail, all in North America, of which Gerdau Ameristeel holds 50% of the total capital, the investment in Armacero Industrial y Comercial Limitada, in Chile, in which the Company holds a 50% stake, the investment in the holding company Multisteel Business Holdings Corp., in which the Company holds a 79.97% stake, which in turn holds 99.13% of the capital stock of Industrias Nacionales, C. por A. (INCA), in the Dominican Republic, the investment in the holding company Corsa Controladora, S.A. de C.V., in which the Company holds a 49% stake, which in turn holds the capital stock of Aceros Corsa S.A. de C.V., in Mexico, the investment in the holding company Corporacion Centroamericana del Acero S.A., in which the Company holds a 30% stake, which in turn holds the capital stock of Aceros de Guatemala S.A., in Guatemala, the investment in Gerdau Corsa S.A.P.I. de C.V., in Mexico, in which the Company holds a 50% stake and the investment in Dona Francisca Energética S.A, in Brazil, in which the Company holds a 51.82% stake.


Unless otherwise indicated, all information in this Annual Report is stated as of December 31, 2013.  Subsequent developments are discussed in Item 8.B - Financial Information - Significant Changes.



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This Annual Report contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Act of 1995.  These statements relate to our future prospects, developments and business strategies.


Statements that are predictive in nature, that depend upon or refer to future events or conditions or that include words such as “expects,” “anticipates,” “intends,” “plans,” “believes,” “estimates” and similar expressions are forward-looking statements.  Although we believe that these forward-looking statements are based upon reasonable assumptions, these statements are subject to several risks and uncertainties and are made in light of information currently available to us.


It is possible that our future performance may differ materially from our current assessments due to a number of factors, including the following:


·                  general economic, political and business conditions in our markets, both in Brazil and abroad, including demand and prices for steel products;


·                  interest rate fluctuations, inflation and exchange rate movements of the real in relation to the U.S. dollar and other currencies in which we sell a significant portion of our products or in which our assets and liabilities are denominated;


·                  our ability to obtain financing on satisfactory terms;


·                  prices and availability of raw materials;


·                  changes in international trade;


·                  changes in laws and regulations;


·                  electric energy shortages and government responses to them;


·                  the performance of the Brazilian and the global steel industries and markets;


·                  global, national and regional competition in the steel market;


·                  protectionist measures imposed by steel-importing countries; and


·                  other factors identified or discussed under “Risk Factors.”


Our forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance, and actual results or developments may differ materially from the expectations expressed in the forward-looking statements.  As for the forward-looking statements that relate to future financial results and other projections, actual results will be different due to the inherent uncertainty of estimates, forecasts and projections.  Because of these uncertainties, potential investors should not rely on these forward-looking statements.


We undertake no obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.




ITEM 1.                                                IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS


Not applicable, as the Company is filing this Form 20-F as an annual report.


ITEM 2.                                                OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE


Not applicable, as the Company is filing this Form 20-F as an annual report.



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ITEM 3.                                                KEY INFORMATION


A.                                                                             SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA


The selected financial information for the Company included in the following tables should be read in conjunction with, and is qualified in its entirety by, the IFRS financial statements of the Company and “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” appearing elsewhere in this Annual Report. The consolidated financial data of the Company as of and for each of the years ended on December 31, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010 and 2009 are derived from the financial statements prepared in accordance with IFRS and presented in Brazilian Reais.


IFRS Summary Financial and Operating Data




(Expressed in thousands of Brazilian Reais - R$ except quantity of shares and amounts per share)


























Cost of sales




































Selling expenses












General and administrative expenses












Reversal of impairment (impairment) of assets









Restructuring costs








Other operating income












Other operating expenses












Equity in earnings (losses) of unconsolidated companies




































Financial income












Financial expenses












Exchange variations, net












Gains and losses on financial instruments, net








































































Income and social contribution taxes




























































Owners of the parent












Non-controlling interests




































Basic earnings per share — in R$




































Diluted earnings per share — in R$




































Cash dividends declared per share — in R$
















































Weighted average Common Shares outstanding during the year (1) 












Weighted average Preferred Shares outstanding during the year (1) 












Number of Common Shares outstanding at year end (2) 












Number of Preferred Shares outstanding at year end (2) 













(1) The information on the numbers of shares presented above corresponds to the weighted average quantity during each year.


(2) The information on the numbers of shares presented above corresponds to the shares at the end of the year



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On December 31,
















(Expressed in thousands of Brazilian Reais - R$)


Balance sheet selected information












Cash and cash equivalents












Short-term investments (1) 












Current assets












Current liabilities












Net working capital (2) 












Property, plant and equipment, net












Net assets (3) 












Total assets












Short-term debt (including “Current Portion of Long-Term Debt”)












Long-term debt, less current portion












Debentures - short term











Debentures - long term





































(1)  Includes held for trading and available for sale.

(2)  Total current assets less total current liabilities.

(3)  Total assets less total current liabilities and less total non-current liabilities.


Exchange rates between the United States Dollar and Brazilian Reais


The following table presents the exchange rates, according to the Brazilian Central Bank, for the periods indicated between the United States dollar and the Brazilian real which is the currency in which we prepare our financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 20-F.


Exchange rates from U.S. dollars to Brazilian reais






















March-2014 (through March 14)


















































October - 2013










September - 2013































































The Company’s total authorized capital stock is composed of common and preferred shares. As of December 31, 2013, the Company had 571,929,945 common shares and 1,132,285,402 non-voting preferred shares outstanding (excluding treasury stock).


The following table details dividends and interest on equity paid to holders of common and preferred stock since 2009. The figures are expressed in Brazilian reais and U.S. dollars.  The exchange rate used for conversion to U.S. dollars was based on the date of theresolution approving the dividend.



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Dividends per share information has been computed by dividing dividends and interest on equity by the number of shares outstanding, which excludes treasury stock. The table below presents the quarterly dividends paid per share, except where stated otherwise:




Date of


R$ per Share
Common or
Preferred Stock


$ per Share
Common or


3rd Quarter 2009 (1) 








4th Quarter 2009 (1) 








1st Quarter 2010 (1) 








2st Quarter 2010








3st Quarter 2010 (1) 








4st Quarter 2010








1st Quarter 2011








2nd Quarter 2011 (1) 








3rd Quarter 2011








4th Quarter 2011








1st Quarter 2012








2nd Quarter 2012








3rd Quarter 2012








4th Quarter 2012








1st Quarter 2013








2nd Quarter 2013 (1)








3rd Quarter 2013 (1)








4th Quarter 2013









(1) Payment of interest on equity.


Note: the Company did not make interim dividend payments in the 1st and 2nd quarter of 2009.


Brazilian Law 9,249 of December 1995 provides that a company may, at its sole discretion, pay interest on equity in addition to or instead of dividends (See Item 8 — “Financial Information - Interest on Equity”). A Brazilian corporation is entitled to pay its shareholders interest on equity up to the limit based on the application of the TJLP rate (Long-Term Interest Rate) to its shareholders’ equity or 50% of the net income in the fiscal year, whichever is higher. This payment is considered part of the mandatory dividend required by Brazilian Corporation Law for each fiscal year. The payment of interest on equity described herein is subject to a 15% withholding tax. See Item 10. “Additional Information — Taxation”.


Gerdau has a Dividend Reinvestment Plan (DRIP), a program that allows the holders of Gerdau ADRs to reinvest dividends to purchase additional ADRs in the Company, with no issuance of new shares. Gerdau also provides its shareholders with a similar program in Brazil that allows the reinvestment of dividends in additional shares, with no issuance of new shares.




Not required, as the Company is filing this Form 20-F as an annual report.




Not required, as the Company is filing this Form 20-F as an annual report.





The Company may not successfully integrate its businesses, management, operations or products, or achieve any of the benefits anticipated from future acquisitions.


Over the years, the Company has expanded its presence mainly through acquisitions in the North American and Latin American markets. The integration of the business and opportunities stemming from entities recently acquired and those that may be acquired by the Company in the future may involve risks. The Company may not successfully integrate acquired businesses, managements, operations, products and services with its current operations. The diversion of management’s attention from its existing businesses, as well as problems that can arise in connection with the integration of the new operations may have an impact on revenue and operating results. The integration of acquisitions may result in additional expenses that could reduce profitability. The Company may not succeed in addressing these risks or any other problems encountered in connection with past and future acquisitions.


All these acquisitions generated goodwill, which is stated in the Company’s balance sheet. The Company evaluates the recoverability of this goodwill on investments annually and uses accepted market practices, including discounted cash flow for business segments which have goodwill. A downturn in the steel market could negatively impact expectations for futures earnings, leading to the need to recognize an expense in its statement of income regarding the impairment in goodwill.


The Company may be unable to reduce its financial leverage, which could increase its cost of capital, in turn adversely affecting its financial condition or operating results.


In 2007, the international rating agencies, Fitch Ratings and Standard & Poor’s, classified the Company’s credit risk as “investment grade”, which gave the Company access to financing at lower borrowing rates. In the beginning of December 2011, Moody’s assigned the Investment Grade rating “Baa3” for all of Gerdau’s ratings, with a stable perspective. With this upgrade from Moody’s, Gerdau currently has the Investment Grade of the three principal rating agencies: Fitch Ratings, Moody’s and Standard & Poor’s.


The efforts to maintain operating cash generation and to reduce the indebtedness level helped the Company to maintain its credit risk, so that in 2013 the three agencies have issued reports reiterating the investment grade rating, with a stable outlook.


If the Company is unable to maintain its operating and financial results, it may lose its “investment grade” rating, which could increase its cost of capital and consequently adversely affect its financial condition and operating results.


The Company’s level of indebtedness could adversely affect its ability to raise additional capital to fund operations, limit the ability to react to changes in the economy or the industry and prevent it from meeting its obligations under its debt agreements.


The Company’s degree of leverage could have important consequences, including the following:


·                  it may limit the ability to obtain additional financing for working capital, additions to fixed assets, product development, debt service requirements, acquisitions and general corporate or other purposes;


·                  it may limit the ability to declare dividends on its shares and ADSs;


·                  a portion of the cash flows from operations must be dedicated to the payment of interest on existing indebtedness and is not available for other purposes, including operations, additions to fixed assets and future business opportunities;


·                  it may limit the ability to adjust to changing market conditions and place the Company at a competitive disadvantage compared to its competitors that have less debt;


·                  the Company may be vulnerable in a downturn in general economic conditions;


·                  the Company may be required to adjust the level of funds available for additions to fixed assets; and


·                  Pursuant to the Company’s financial agreements, the penalty for non-compliance with prescribed financial covenants can lead to a declaration of default by the creditors of the relevant loans. Furthermore, R$13.0 billion of the Company’s total indebtedness as of December 31, 2013 was subject to cross-default provisions, with threshold amounts varying from US$10.0 million to US$100.0 million, depending on the agreement. Thus, there is a risk that an event of default in one single debt agreement can potentially trigger events of default in other debt agreements.


Under the terms of its existing indebtedness, the Company is permitted to incur additional debt in certain circumstances but doing so could increase the risks described above.



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Unexpected equipment failures may lead to production curtailments or shutdowns.


The Company operates several steel plants in different sites. Nevertheless, interruptions in the production capabilities at the Company’s principal sites would increase production costs and reduce shipments and earnings for the affected period. In addition to periodic equipment failures, the Company’s facilities are also subject to the risk of catastrophic loss due to unanticipated events such as fires, explosions or violent weather conditions. The Company’s manufacturing processes are dependent upon critical pieces of steelmaking equipment, such as its electric arc furnaces, continuous casters, gas-fired reheat furnaces, rolling mills and electrical equipment, including high-output transformers, and this equipment may, on occasion, incur downtime as a result of unanticipated failures. The Company has experienced and may in the future experience material plant shutdowns or periods of reduced production as a result of such equipment failures. Unexpected interruptions in production capabilities would adversely affect the Company’s productivity and results of operations. Moreover, any interruption in production capability may require the Company to make additions to fixed assets to remedy the problem, which would reduce the amount of cash available for operations. The Company’s insurance may not cover the losses. In addition, long-term business disruption could harm the Company’s reputation and result in a loss of customers, which could materially adversely affect the business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.


The interests of the controlling shareholder may conflict with the interests of the non-controlling shareholders.


Subject to the provisions of the Company´s By-Laws, the controlling shareholder has powers to:


·                  elect a majority of the directors and nominate executive officers, establish the administrative policy and exercise full control of the Company´s management;


·                  sell or otherwise transfer the Company´s shares; and


·                  approve any action requiring the approval of shareholders representing a majority of the outstanding capital stock, including corporate reorganization, acquisition and sale of assets, and payment of any future dividends.


By having such power, the controlling shareholder can make decisions that may conflict with the interest of the Company and other shareholders.


Non-controlling shareholders may have their stake diluted in an eventual capital increase.


If the Company decides to make a capital increase through issuance of securities, there may be a dilution of the interest of the non-controlling shareholders in the current composition of the Company’s capital.


Participation in other activities related to the steel industry may conflict with the interest of subsidiaries and affiliates.


Through its subsidiaries and affiliates, the Company also engages in other activities related to production and sale of steel products, including reforestation projects; power generation; production of coking coal, iron ore and pig iron; and fab shops and downstream operations. For having the management control in these companies, the Company’s interests may conflict with the interest of these subsidiaries and affiliates, which can even lead to new strategic direction for these businesses.


Higher steel scrap prices or a reduction in supply could adversely affect production costs and operating margins.


The main metal input for the Company’s mini-mills, which mills accounted for 79.0% of total crude steel output in 2013 (in volume), is steel scrap. Although international steel scrap prices are determined essentially by scrap prices in the U.S. local market, because the United States is the main scrap exporter, scrap prices in the Brazilian market are set by domestic supply and demand. The price of steel scrap in Brazil varies from region to region and reflects demand and transportation costs. Should scrap prices increase significantly without a corresponding increase in finished steel selling prices, the Company’s profits and margins could be adversely affected. An increase in steel scrap prices or a shortage in the supply of scrap to its units would affect production costs and potentially reduce operating margins and revenues.


Increases in iron ore and coal prices, or reductions in market supply, could adversely affect the Company’s operations.


When the prices of raw materials, particularly iron ore and coking coal, increase, and the Company needs to produce steel in its integrated facilities, the production costs in its integrated facilities also increase. The Company uses iron ore to produce liquid pig iron at its mills Ouro Branco, Barão de Cocais, Sete Lagoas and Divinópolis in the state of Minas Gerais, as well as Siderperu mill, in Peru. Iron ore is also used to produce sponge iron at the Usiba mill in the state of Bahia.



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The Ouro Branco mill is the Company’s largest mill in Brazil, and its main metal input for the production of steel is iron ore. This unit represented 49.5% of the total crude steel output (in volume) of the Brazil Business Operation. A shortage of iron ore in the domestic market may adversely affect the steel producing capacity of the Brazilian units, and an increase in iron ore prices could reduce profit margins.


The Company has iron ore mines in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. To reduce the exposure to iron ore price volatility, the Company invested in the expansion of the production capacity of these mines, and at the end of 2012, reached 100% of the iron ore requirements of the Ouro Branco mill.


All of the Company’s coking coal requirements for its Brazilian units are imported due to the low quality of Brazilian coal. Coking coal is the main energy input at the Ouro Branco mill and is used at the coking facility. Although this mill is not dependent on coke supplies, a contraction in the supply of coking coal could adversely affect the integrated operations at this site. The coking coal used in this mill is imported from Canada, the United States, Australia and Colombia. A shortage of coking coal in the international market would adversely affect the steel producing capacity of the Ouro Branco mill, and an increase in prices could reduce profit margins. The Company does not have relevant long-term supply contracts for the raw materials it uses.


The Company’s operations are energy-intensive, and energy shortages or higher energy prices could have an adverse affect.


Steel production is an energy-intensive process, especially in melt shops with electric arc furnaces. Electricity represents an important cost component at these units, as also does natural gas, although to a lesser extent. Electricity cannot be replaced at the Company’s mills and power rationing or shortages, could adversely affect production at those units.


Natural gas is used in the reheating furnaces of the Company’s rolling mills. In the case of shortages in the supply of natural gas, the Company could in some instances use fuel oil, diesel or LPG.


Client delinquency or the failure by the Company to receive credits held at financial institutions and generated by financial investment transactions could adversely affect the Company’s revenues.


This risk arises from the possibility of the Company not receiving the amounts arising from sales transactions or credits held at financial institutions generated by financial investment transactions. To mitigate this risk, the Company has adopted as practice the conduct of detailed analyses of the asset and financial situation of its clients, the establishment of credit limits and the continuous monitoring of debtor balances.


Global crises and subsequent economic slowdowns like those that occurred during 2008 and 2009 may adversely affect global steel demand. As a result, the Company’s financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.


Historically, the steel industry has been highly cyclical and deeply impacted by economic conditions in general, such as world production capacity and fluctuations in steel imports/exports and the respective import duties. After a steady period of growth between 2004 and 2008, the marked drop in demand resulting from the global economic crisis of 2008-2009 once again demonstrated the vulnerability of the steel market to volatility of international steel prices and raw materials. That crisis was caused by the dramatic increase of high risk real estate financing defaults and foreclosures in the United States, with serious consequences for bank and financial markets throughout the world. Developed markets, such as North America and Europe, experienced a strong recession due to the collapse of real estate financings and the shortage of global credit. As a result, the demand for steel products suffered a decline in 2009, but since 2010 has been experiencing a gradual recovery, principally in the developing economies.


The economic downturn and unprecedented turbulence in the global economy can negatively impact the consuming markets, affecting the business environment with respect to the following:


·                  Decrease in international steel prices;


·                  Slump in international steel trading volumes;


·                  Crisis in automotive industry and infrastructure sectors; and


·                  Lack of liquidity, mainly in the U.S. economy.


If the Company is not able to remain competitive in these shifting markets, our profitability, margins and income may be negatively affected. Although the demand for steel products has experienced a gradual improvement in recent years, no assurance can be given that these improvements will continue. A decline in this trend could result in a decrease in Gerdau shipments and revenues.



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Brazil’s political and economic conditions and the Brazilian government’s economic and other policies may negatively affect demand for the Company’s products as well as its net sales and overall financial performance.


The Brazilian economy has been characterized by frequent and occasionally extensive intervention by the Brazilian government. The Brazilian government has often changed monetary, taxation, credit, tariff and other policies to influence the course of the country’s economy. The Brazilian government’s actions to control inflation and implement other policies have involved hikes in interest rates, wage and price controls, devaluation of the currency, freezing of bank accounts, capital controls and restrictions on imports.


The Company’s operating results and financial condition may be adversely affected by the following factors and the government responses to them:


·                  exchange rate controls and fluctuations;


·                  interest rates;


·                  inflation;


·                  tax policies;


·                  energy shortages;


·                  liquidity of domestic and foreign capital and lending markets; and


·                  other political, diplomatic, social and economic developments in or affecting Brazil.


Uncertainty over whether the Brazilian government will change policies or regulations affecting these or other factors may contribute to economic uncertainty in Brazil and to heightened volatility in Brazilian securities markets and securities issued abroad by Brazilian issuers. These and other developments in Brazil’s economy and government policies may adversely affect the Company and its business.


Inflation and government actions to combat inflation may contribute significantly to economic uncertainty in Brazil and could adversely affect the Company’s business.


Brazil has experienced high inflation in the past. Since the implementation of the Real Plan in 1994, the annual rate of inflation has decreased significantly, as measured by the National Broad Consumer Price Index (Índice Nacional de Preços ao Consumidor Amplo, or IPCA). Inflation measured by the IPCA index was 6.5% in 2011, 5.8% in 2012 and 5.9% in 2013. If Brazil were to experience high levels of inflation once again, the country’s rate of economic growth could slow, which would lead to lower demand for the Company’s products in Brazil. Inflation is also likely to increase some costs and expenses which the Company may not be able to pass on to its customers and, as a result, may reduce its profit margins and net income. In addition, high inflation generally leads to higher domestic interest rates, which could lead the cost of servicing the Company’s debt denominated in Brazilian reais to increase. Inflation may also hinder its access to capital markets, which could adversely affect its ability to refinance debt. Inflationary pressures may also lead to the imposition of additional government policies to combat inflation that could adversely affect its business.


Variations in the foreign exchange rates between the U.S. dollar and the currencies of countries in which the Company operates may increase the cost of servicing its debt denominated in foreign currency and adversely affect its overall financial performance.


The Company’s operating results are affected by fluctuations in the foreign exchange rates between the Brazilian real, the currency in which the Company prepares its financial statements, and the currencies of the countries in which it operates.


Significant depreciation in the Brazilian real in relation to the U.S. dollar or other currencies could reduce the Company’s ability to service its obligations denominated in foreign currencies, particularly since a significant part of its net sales revenue is denominated in Brazilian reais.


For example, the North America Business Operation reports its results in U.S. dollars. Therefore, fluctuations in the exchange rate between the U.S. dollar and the Brazilian real could affect its operating results. The same occurs with all other businesses located outside Brazil with respect to the exchange rate between the local currency of the respective subsidiary and the Brazilian real.


Export revenue and margins are also affected by fluctuations in the exchange rate of the U.S. dollar and other local currencies of the countries where the Company produces in relation to the Brazilian real. The Company’s production costs are denominated in local currency but its export sales are generally denominated in U.S. dollars. Revenues generated by exports denominated in U.S. dollars are reduced when they are translated into Brazilian real in periods during which the Brazilian currency appreciates in relation to the U.S. dollar.



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The Brazilian real depreciated against the U.S. dollar by 12,6% in 2011. By the end of 2012 the Brazilian real had depreciated 8.9% against the U.S. dollar and in December of 2013 it recorded depreciation of 14.6%.


Depreciation in the Brazilian real in relation to the U.S. dollar could also result in additional inflationary pressures in Brazil, by generally increasing the price of imported products and services and requiring recessionary government policies to curb demand. In addition, depreciation in the Brazilian real could weaken investor confidence in Brazil.


The Company held debt denominated in foreign currency, mainly U.S. dollars, in an aggregate amount of R$ 13.3 billion at December 31, 2013, representing 79.5% of its gross indebtedness on a consolidated basis. On December 31, 2013, the Company held R$ 2.1 billion in cash equivalents and short-term investments denominated in currencies different from the Brazilian real, intended to be invested in maintenance capital expenditure, new production capacity or working capital, in the same countries in which such amount is available, considering the Company´s significant foreign operations. Due to its tax planning policy, the Company does not intend to transfer material amounts between countries, using different currencies. Additionally, the Company does not have any material restriction on the transfer of cash and short-term investments held by foreign subsidiaries and the funds are readily convertible into other foreign currencies, including the Brazilian real.


Demand for steel is cyclical and a reduction in prevailing world prices for steel could adversely affect the Company’s operating results.


The steel industry is highly cyclical. Consequently, the Company is exposed to substantial swings in the demand for steel products, which in turn causes volatility in the prices of most of its products and eventually could cause write-downs of its inventories. In addition, the demand for steel products, and hence the financial condition and operating results of companies in the steel industry, including the Company itself, are generally affected by macroeconomic changes in the world economy and in the domestic economies of steel-producing countries, including general trends in the steel, construction and automotive industries. Since 2003, demand for steel products from developing countries (particularly China), the strong euro compared to U.S. dollar and world economic growth have contributed to a historically high level of prices for the Company’s steel products. However, these relatively high prices may not last, especially due to expansion in world installed capacity or a new level of demand. In the second half of 2008, and especially in the beginning of 2009, the U.S. and European economies experienced a significant slow down, in turn affecting many other countries. Since 2010, world steel demand and prices have been improving and the Company believes that this trend should continue throughout 2014. A material decrease in demand for steel or exports by countries not able to consume their production, could have a significant adverse effect on the Company’s operations and prospects.


Less expensive imports from other countries into Brazil may adversely affect the Company’s operating results.


Steel imports in Brazil caused downward pressure on steel prices in 2010, adversely affecting shipments and profit margins, especially in the fourth quarter. Competition from foreign steel producers is a threat and may grow due to an increase in foreign installed steel capacity, depreciation of the U.S. dollar and a reduction of domestic steel demand in other markets, with these factors leading to higher levels of steel imports into Brazil at lower prices. Any change in the factors mentioned above, as well as in duties or protectionist measures could result in a higher level of imports into Brazil, resulting in pressures on the domestic prices that could adversely impact our business. In the last three years, as a result of higher international prices and the depreciation of the Brazilian real against the US dollar, the domestic price premium compared to the international price was reduced, minimizing thereby the importation of long steel products and permitting a recovery in the domestic market prices which had been pressured by increased raw material costs.  The Company believes that this trend should continue throughout 2014.


New Entrants into the Brazilian market can affect the Company’s competitiveness.


Since 2009, the intention of installing new steel production capacity in Brazil has been announced by a number of players in the industry. If effected, these installations could result in a possible loss of market share, reduction of prices and shortage of raw materials with the resulting increase in their prices. The Company believes that this trend should continue throughout 2014.



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Our mineral resource estimates may materially differ from mineral quantities that we may be able to actually extract.


Our mining resources are estimated quantities of ore and minerals. There are numerous uncertainties inherent in estimating quantities of resources, including many factors beyond our control. Reserve engineering involves estimating deposits of minerals that cannot be measured in an exact manner, and the accuracy of any reserve estimate is a function of the quality of available data, engineering and geological interpretation and judgment. In addition, estimates of different engineers may vary. As a result, no assurance can be given that the amount of mining resources will be extracted or that they can be extracted at commercially viable rates.


The Company has no proven or probable reserves, and the Company’s decision to commence industrial production, in order to supply its steelmaking works as well as sell any surplus volume, is not based on a study demonstrating economical recovery of any mineral reserves and is therefore inherently risky. Any funds spent by the Company on exploration or development could be lost.


The Company has not established any proven or probable mineral reserves at any of our properties. All exploration activities are supported based on mineral resources classified as mineralized materials, as they are not compliant with the definitions established by the SEC of proven or probable reserves. The Company is conducting a comprehensive exploration study to establish, in accordance with SEC definitions, the amount of mineralized material  that could be transformed to proven or probable reserves. Thus, part of the volume of  mineralized materials informed  discussed herein may never reach the development or production stage.


In order to demonstrate the existence of proven or probable reserves, it would be necessary for the Company to perform additional exploration to demonstrate the existence of sufficient mineralized material with satisfactory continuity and obtain a positive feasibility study which demonstrates with reasonable certainty that the deposit can be economically and legally extracted and produced. The absence of proven or probable reserves makes it more likely that the Company’s properties may cease to be profitable and that the money spent on exploration and development may never be recovered.


Estimates of mineralized material are based on interpretation and assumptions and may yield less mineral production under actual conditions than is currently estimated.


When making determinations about whether to advance any projects to development, the Company rely upon estimated calculations as to the mineralized material on its properties. Since the Company has not conducted a feasibility study demonstrating proven or probable reserves, estimates of mineralized material presented  are less certain than would be the case if the estimates were made in accordance with the SEC-recognized definition of proven and probable reserves. Furthermore, until ore is actually mined and processed, any mineral reserves and grades of mineralization must be considered as estimates only. These estimates are imprecise and depend on geological interpretation and statistical inferences drawn from drilling and sampling analysis, which may prove to be unreliable. We cannot assure that these mineralized material estimates will be accurate or that this mineralized material can be mined or processed profitably and any decision to move forward with development is inherently risky. Further, there can be no assurance that any minerals recovered in small scale tests will be duplicated in large scale tests under on-site conditions or production scale. Any material changes in estimates of mineralized material will affect the economic viability of placing a property into production and such property’s return on capital.


An increase in China’s steelmaking capacity or a slowdown in China’s steel consumption could have a material adverse effect on domestic and global steel pricing and could result in increased steel imports into the markets in which the Company operates.


A significant factor in the worldwide strengthening of steel pricing over the past several years has been the significant growth in steel consumption in China, which at times has outpaced that country’s manufacturing capacity to produce enough steel to satisfy its own needs. At times this has resulted in China being a net importer of steel products, as well as a net importer of raw materials and supplies required in the steel manufacturing process. A reduction in China’s economic growth rate with a resulting reduction of steel consumption, coupled with China’s expansion of steel-making capacity, could have the effect of a substantial weakening of both domestic and global steel demand and steel pricing. Moreover, many Asian and European steel producers that had previously shipped their output to China may ship their steel products to other markets in the world, which could cause a material erosion of margins through a reduction in pricing.


Restrictive measures on trade in steel products may affect the Company’s business by increasing the price of its products or reducing its ability to export.


The Company is a steel producer that supplies both the domestic market in Brazil and a number of international markets. The Company’s exports face competition from other steel producers, as well as restrictions imposed by importing countries in the form of quotas, ad valorem taxes, tariffs or increases in import duties, any of which could increase the costs of products and make them less competitive or prevent the Company from selling in these markets. There are no assurances that importing countries will not impose quotas, ad valorem taxes, tariffs or increase import duties.



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The Company’s projects are subject to risks that may result in increased costs or delay or prevent their successful implementation.


The Company is investing to further increase mining production capacity. See “Item 4D. Property, Plant and Equipment”. These projects are subject to a number of risks that may adversely affect the Company’s growth prospects and profitability, including the following:


·                  the Company may encounter delays, availability problems or higher than expected costs in obtaining the necessary equipment, services and materials to build and operate a project;


·                  the Company’s efforts to develop projects according to schedule may be hampered by a lack of infrastructure, including availability of overburden and waste disposal areas as well as reliable power and water supplies;


·                  the Company may fail to obtain, lose, or experience delays or higher than expected costs in obtaining or renewing the required permits, authorizations, licenses, concessions and/or regulatory approvals to build or continue a project; and


·                  changes in market conditions, laws or regulations may make a project less profitable than expected or economically or otherwise unfeasible.


Any one or a combination of the factors described above may materially and adversely affect the Company.


Drilling and production risks could adversely affect the mining process.


Once mineral deposits are discovered, it can take a number of years from the initial phases of drilling until production is possible, during which time the economic feasibility of production may change. Substantial time and expenditures are required to:


·                  establish mineral reserves through drilling;


·             determine appropriate mining and metallurgical processes for optimizing the recovery of metal contained in ore;


·             obtain environmental and other licenses;


·             construct mining, processing facilities and infrastructure required for greenfield properties; and


·             obtain the ore or extract the minerals from the ore.


If a mining project proves not to be economically feasible by the time we are able to profit from it, the Company may incur substantial losses and be obliged to take write-offs. In addition, potential changes or complications involving metallurgical and other technological processes arising during the life of a project may result in delays and cost overruns that may render the project not economically feasible.


Costs related to compliance with environmental regulations could increase if requirements become stricter, which could have a negative effect on the Company’s operating results.


The Company’s industrial units and other activities must comply with a series of federal, state and municipal laws and regulations regarding the environment and the operation of plants in the countries in which they operate.  These regulations include procedures relating to control of air emissions, disposal of liquid effluents and the handling, processing, storage, disposal and reuse of solid waste, hazardous or not, as well as other controls necessary for a steel company.


Moreover, environmental legislation establishes that the regular functioning of operations that pollute, have the potential to pollute or that cause any form of environmental degradation, is subject to environmental licensing. This licensing is required for initial installation and operation of the project, as well as any expansions performed, and the licenses must be renewed periodically.  Each of the licenses is issued according to the phase of the project’s implementation. In order for the license to remain valid, the project must comply with conditions established by the environmental licensing body.


Non-compliance with environmental laws and regulations could result in administrative or criminal sanctions and closure orders, in addition to the obligation of repairing damage caused to third parties and the environment, such as clean-up of contamination.  If current and future laws become stricter, spending on fixed assets and costs to comply with legislation could increase and negatively affect the Company’s financial situation.  Moreover, future acquisitions could subject the Company to additional spending and costs in order to comply with environmental legislation.


Laws and regulations to reduce greenhouse gases and other atmospheric emissions could be enacted in the near future, with significant, adverse effects on the results of the Company’s operations, cash flows and financial situation.


One of the possible effects of the expansion of greenhouse gas reduction requirements is an increase in costs, mainly resulting from the demand for renewable energy and the implementation of new technologies in the productive chain.  On the other hand, demand is expected to grow constantly for recyclable materials such as steel, which, being a product that could be recycled numerous times without losing its properties, results in lower emissions during the lifecycle of the product.



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The Company expects operations overseas to be affected by future federal, state and municipal laws related to climate change, seeking to deal with the question of greenhouse gas (GHG) and other atmospheric emissions.  Thus, one of the possible effects of this increase in legal requirements could be an increase in energy costs.


Layoffs in the Company’s labor force could generate costs or negatively affect the Company’s operations.


A substantial number of our employees are represented by labor unions and are covered by collective bargaining or other labor agreements, which are subject to periodic negotiation. Strikes or work stoppages have occurred in the past and could reoccur in connection with negotiations of new labor agreements or during other periods for other reasons, including the risk of layoffs during a down cycle that could generate severance costs. Moreover, the Company could be adversely affected by labor disruptions involving unrelated parties that may provide goods or services. Strikes and other labor disruptions at any of the Company’s operations could adversely affect the operation of facilities and the timing of completion and the cost of capital of our projects.


Developments and the perception of risks in other countries, especially in the United States and emerging market countries, may adversely affect the market prices of our preferred shares and ADSs.


The market for securities issued by Brazilian companies is influenced, to varying degrees, by economic and market conditions in the United States and emerging market countries, especially other Latin American countries. Although economic conditions are different in each country, the reaction of investors to economic developments in one country may cause the capital markets in other countries to fluctuate. Developments or adverse economic conditions in other emerging market countries have at times resulted in significant outflows of funds from, and declines in the amount of foreign currency invested in Brazil.


The Brazilian economy is also affected by international economic and market conditions, especially economic and market conditions in the United States. Share prices on the BM&FBOVESPA, for example, have historically been sensitive to fluctuations in United States interest rates as well as movements of the major United States stocks indexes.


Economic developments in other countries and securities markets could adversely affect the market prices of our preferred shares or the ADSs, could make it more difficult for us to access the capital markets and finance our operations in the future on acceptable terms or at all, and could also have a material adverse effect on our operations and prospects.


Less expensive imports from other countries into North America and Latin America may adversely affect the Company’s operating results.


Steel imports in North America and Latin America have forced a reduction in steel prices in the last several years, adversely affecting shipments and profit margins. The competition of foreign steel producers is strong and may increase due to the increase in their installed capacity, the depreciation of the U.S. dollar and the reduced domestic demand for steel in other markets, with those factors leading to higher levels of steel imports into North and Latin America at lower prices. In the past, the United States government adopted temporary protectionist measures to control the import of steel by means of quotas and tariffs. Some Latin American countries have adopted similar measures. These protectionist measures may not be adopted and, despite efforts to regulate trade, imports at unfair prices may be able to enter into the North American and Latin American markets, resulting in pricing pressures that may adversely affect the Company’s results.


Over the course of 2013, steel imports into North America grew significantly, led by Turkey and Mexico, which resulted in a more competitive environment, which subsequently pressured operating margins. Gerdau and other steel manufacturers in North America filed, at the U.S. Department of Commerce and the U.S. International Trade Commission, a request for an investigation into dumping practices involving rebar imports from these countries. In February 18th, 2014, the US Commerce Department’s International Trade Administration (ITA) has assessed countervailing margins of zero against imports of concrete Rebar from Turkey. The agency’s preliminary ruling on the dumping allegation against Turkey and Mexico had been scheduled for April 18th, 2014, at the request of the Rebar Trade Action Coalition.


ITEM 4.                                                COMPANY INFORMATION


A.                                    HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE COMPANY


Gerdau S.A. is a Brazilian corporation (Sociedade Anônima) that was incorporated on November 20, 1961 under the laws of Brazil. Its main registered office is located at Av. Farrapos, 1811, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and the telephone number is +55 (51) 3323 2000.




The current Company is the product of a number of corporate acquisitions, mergers and other transactions dating back to 1901. The Company began operating in 1901 as the Pontas de Paris nail factory controlled by the Gerdau family based in Porto Alegre, who is still the Company’s indirect controlling shareholder. In 1969, Pontas de Paris was renamed Metalúrgica Gerdau S.A., which today is the holding company controlled by the Gerdau family and the parent company of Gerdau S.A.


From 1901 to 1969, the Pontas de Paris nail factory grew and expanded its business into a variety of steel-related products and services. At the end of World War II, the Company acquired Siderúrgica Riograndense S.A., a steel producer also located in Porto Alegre, in an effort to broaden its activities and provide it with greater access to raw materials. In February 1948, the Company initiated its steel operations, which foreshadowed the successful mini-mill model of producing steel in electric arc furnaces using steel scrap as the main raw material. At that time the Company adopted a regional sales strategy to ensure more competitive operating costs. In 1957, the Company installed a second unit in the state of Rio Grande do Sul in the city of Sapucaia do Sul, and in 1962, steady growth in the production of nails led to the construction of a larger and more advanced factory in Passo Fundo, also in Rio Grande do Sul.



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In 1967, the Company expanded into the Brazilian state of São Paulo, purchasing Fábrica de Arames São Judas Tadeu, a producer of nails and wires, which was later renamed Comercial Gerdau and ultimately became the Company’s Brazilian distribution channel for steel products. In June 1969, the Company expanded into the Northeast of Brazil, producing long steel at Siderúrgica Açonorte in the state of Pernambuco. In December 1971, the Company acquired control of Siderúrgica Guaíra, a long steel producer in the state of Paraná in Brazil’s South Region. The Company also established a new company, Seiva S.A. Florestas e Indústrias, to produce lumber on a sustainable basis for the furniture, pulp and steel industries. In 1979, the Company acquired control of the Cosigua mill in Rio de Janeiro, which currently operates the largest mini-mill in Latin America. Since then, the Company has expanded throughout Brazil with a series of acquisitions and new operations, and today owns 15 steel units in Brazil.


In 1980, the Company began to expand internationally with the acquisition of Gerdau Laisa S.A., the only long steel producer in Uruguay, followed in 1989 by the purchase of the Canadian company Gerdau Ameristeel Cambridge, a producer of common long rolled steel products located in Cambridge, Ontario. In 1992, the Company acquired control of Gerdau AZA S.A., a producer of crude steel and long rolled products in Chile. Over time, the Company increased its international presence by acquiring a non-controlling interest in a rolling mill in Argentina, a controlling interest in Diaco S.A. in Colombia, and, most notably, additional interests in North America through the acquisition of Gerdau Ameristeel MRM Special Sections, a producer of special sections such as elevator guide rails and super light beams, and the former Ameristeel Corp., a producer of common long rolled products. In October 2002, through a series of transactions, the Company merged its North American steel production assets with those of the Canadian company Co-Steel, a producer of long steel, to create Gerdau Ameristeel, which is currently the second largest long steel producer in North America based on steel production volume. Gerdau Ameristeel itself has a number of operations throughout Canada and the United States, including its 50% joint venture in Gallatin Steel, a manufacturer of flat steel, and also operates 20 steel units and 62 fabrication shops and downstream operations.


In December 2003, Gerdau Açominas S.A., signed a purchase agreement with the Votorantim Group.  Under this contract, Gerdau Açominas S.A. has agreed to purchase the real estate and mining rights of Companhia Paraibuna de Metais, a company controlled by Votorantim Group, whose mines were located at Miguel Burnier, Várzea do Lopes and Gongo Soco in the state of Minas Gerais. The assets involved in this transaction include 15 extraction concessions, located in a total area of 7,000 hectares. The original mining and steelworks facilities included in the aforementioned acquisition were decommissioned at that time.The price agreed upon for the purchase of the real estate and mineral rights described above was US$ 30 million (R$ 88.1 million on the date of the acquisition), with US$ 7.5 million paid at the signing of the agreement, 25% upon completion of the due diligence process and the remaining 50% in June of 2004. Gerdau’s initial focus was to ensure its iron ore self-sufficiency within the state of Minas Gerais. Since the iron ore self-sufficiency on our integrated mill (Ouro Branco) was achieved in 2012, currently, the Company is conducting exploration and development studies on its mining operations in order to establish itself as a player in the global iron ore market.


In September 2005, Gerdau acquired 36% of the stock issued by Sipar Aceros S.A., a long steel rolling mill, located in the Province of Santa Fé, Argentina. This interest, added to the 38% already owned by Gerdau represents 74% of the capital stock of Sipar Aceros S.A. At the end of the third quarter of 2005, Gerdau concluded the acquisition of a 57% interest in Diaco S.A., the largest rebar manufacturer in Colombia. In January 2008, the Company purchased an additional interest of 40%, for $107.2 million (R$ 188.7 million on the acquisition date).


In January 2006, through its subsidiary Gerdau Hungria Holdings Limited Liability Company, Gerdau acquired 40% of the capital stock of Corporación Sidenor S.A. for $219.2 million  (R$ 493.2 million), the largest long special steel producer, forged parts manufacturer and foundry in Spain, and one of the major producers of forged parts using the stamping process in that country. In December 2008, Gerdau Hungria Holding Limited Liability Company acquired for $288.0 million (R$ 674.0 million) from LuxFin Participation S.L., its 20% interest in Corporación Sidenor. With this acquisition, Gerdau became the majority shareholder (60%) in Corporación Sidenor. In December 2006, Gerdau announced that its Spanish subsidiary Corporación Sidenor, S.A., had completed the acquisition of all outstanding shares issued by GSB Acero, S.A., a subsidiary of CIE Automotive for $143.0 million (R$ 313.8 million).


In March 2006, the assets of two industrial units were acquired in the United States. The first was Callaway Building Products in Knoxville, Tennessee, a supplier of fabricated rebar to the construction industry. The second was Fargo Iron and Metal Company located in Fargo, North Dakota, a storage and scrap processing facility and service provider to manufacturers and construction companies.


In June 2006, Gerdau acquired for $103.0 million (R$ 224.5 million) Sheffield Steel Corporation in Sand Springs, Oklahoma in the USA. Sheffield is a mini-mill producer of common long steel, namely concrete reinforcement bars and merchant bars. It has one melt shop and one rolling mill in Sand Springs, Oklahoma, one rolling mill in Joliet, Illinois and three downstream units in Kansas City and Sand Springs.


In the same month, Gerdau S.A. won the bid for 50% plus one share of the capital stock of Empresa Siderúrgica Del Perú S.A.A. (Siderperú) located in the city of Chimbote in Peru for $60.6 million (R$ 134.9 million). In November 2006, Gerdau also won the bid for 324,327,847 shares issued by Siderperú, which represented 33% of the total capital stock, for $40.5 million, totaling $101.1 million (R$ 219.8 million). This acquisition added to the interest already acquired earlier in the year, for an interest of 83% of the capital stock of Siderperú. Siderperú operates a blast furnace, a direct reduction unit, a melt shop with one electric arc furnaces and two LD converters and three rolling mills.



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In November 2006, the Company completed the acquisition of a 55% controlling interest in Pacific Coast Steel (“PCS”), for $104.0 million (R$ 227.4 million). The company operates rebar fabrication plants in San Diego, San Bernardino, Fairfield, and Napa, California. Additionally, in April, 2008 Gerdau increased its stake in PCS to 84% paying $82.0 million (R$ 138.4 million). The acquisition of PCS expanded the Company’s operations to the West Coast of the United States and also added rebar placing capability.


In March 2007, Gerdau acquired Siderúrgica Tultitlán, a mini mill located in the Mexico City metropolitan area that produces rebar and profiles. The price paid for the acquisition was $259.0 million (R$ 536.0 million).


In May 2007, Gerdau acquired an interest of 30% in Multisteel Business Holdings Corp., a holding of Indústrias Nacionales, C. por A. (“INCA”), a company located in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, that produces rolled products. This partnership allowed the Company to access the Caribbean market. The total cost of the acquisition was $42.9 million (R$ 82.0 million). In July 2007, the Company acquired an additional interest of 19% in Multisteel Business Holdings Corp., bringing its total interest in the Company to 49%. The total cost of this second acquisition was $72.0 million (R$ 135.2 million).


In June 2007, Gerdau acquired 100% of the capital stock of Siderúrgica Zuliana C.A., a Venezuelan company operating a steel mill in the city of Ojeda, Venezuela. The total cost of the acquisition was $92.5 million (R$ 176.2 million).


In the same month, Gerdau and the Kalyani Group from India initiated an agreement to establish a joint venture for an investment in Tadipatri, India. The joint venture included an interest of 45% in Kalyani Gerdau Steel Ltd., a producer of steel with two LD converters, one continuous casting unit and facilities for the production of pig iron. The agreement provides for shared control of the joint venture, and the purchase price was $73.0 million (R$ 127.3 million). In May 2008, Gerdau announced the conclusion of this acquisition. On July 7, 2012, the Company obtained control of Kalyani Gerdau Steel Ltds (KGS), which the Company had an interest of 91.28% as of the control acquisition date. In 2012, until the date the Company acquired control over KGS, the Company made capital increases in KGS, which resulted in an increase of shareholding interest held on December 31, 2011 from 80.57% to 91.28%.


In September 2007, Gerdau Ameristeel concluded the acquisition of Chaparral Steel Company, increasing the Company’s portfolio of products and including a comprehensive line of structural steel products. Chaparral operates two mills, one located in Midlothian, Texas, and the other located in Petersburg, Virginia. The total cost of the acquisition was $4.2 billion (R$ 7.8 billion), plus the assumption of certain liabilities.


In October 2007, Gerdau Ameristeel acquired 100% of Enco Materials Inc., a leading company in the market of commercial materials headquartered in Nashville, Tennessee. Enco Materials Inc. has eight units located in Arkansas, Tennessee and Georgia. The purchase price for this acquisition was $46 million (R$ 84.9 million) in cash, plus the assumption of certain liabilities of the acquired company.


In the same month, Gerdau executed a letter of intent for the acquisition of an interest of 49% in the capital stock of the holding company Corsa Controladora, S.A. de C.V., headquartered in Mexico City, Mexico. The holding company owns 100% of the capital stock of Aceros Corsa, S.A. de C.V. and its distributors. Aceros Corsa, located in the city of Tlalnepantla in the Mexico City metropolitan area, is a mini-mill responsible for the production of long steel (light commercial profiles). The acquisition price was $110.7 million (R$ 186.3 million). In February 2008, the Company announced the conclusion of this acquisition.


In November 2007, Gerdau entered into a binding agreement for the acquisition of the steel company MacSteel from Quanex Corporation. MacSteel is the second largest producer of Special Bar Quality (SBQ) in the United States and operates three mini-mills located in Jackson, Michigan; Monroe, Michigan; and Fort Smith, Arkansas. The Company also operates six downstream operations in the states of Michigan, Ohio, Indiana and Wisconsin. The agreement did not include the Building Products business of Quanex, which is an operation not related to the steel market. The purchase price for this acquisition was $1.5 billion (R$ 2.4 billion) in addition to the assumption of their debts and some liabilities. Gerdau concluded the acquisition in April 2008.


In February 2008, Gerdau invested in the verticalization of its businesses and acquired an interest of 51% in Cleary Holdings Corp. for $ 73.0 million (R $ 119.3 million). The Company controls a metallurgical coke producer and coking coal reserves in Colombia. In August 2010, Gerdau S.A. concluded the acquisition of an additional 49% of the total capital of Cleary Holdings Corp. for $ 57 million.



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In April 2008, Gerdau entered into a strategic partnership with Corporación Centroamericana del Acero S.A., assuming a 30.0% interest in the capital of this company. The Company owns assets in Guatemala and Honduras as well as distribution centers in El Salvador, Nicaragua and Belize. The price of the acquisition was $180 million (R$ 303.7 million).


In June, 2008, the parent company Metalúrgica Gerdau S.A. acquired a 29% stake of voting and total capital in Aços Villares S.A. from BNDESPAR for R$ 1.3 billion. As a payment, Metalúrgica Gerdau S.A. issued debentures to be exchanged for Gerdau S.A.’s common shares. In December, 2009 the Company’s stake in Aços Villares S.A. owned through its subsidiary Corporación Sidenor S.A. was transferred to direct control of Gerdau S.A., for US$ 218 million (R$ 384 million), which then owned a total 59% stake in Aços Villares S.A. In December 30, 2010, Gerdau S.A. and Aços Villares S.A. shareholders approved the merger into Gerdau S.A. of Aços Villares S.A. The transaction was carried out through a share exchange, whereby the shareholders of Aços Villares S.A. received one share in Gerdau S.A. for each lot of twenty-four shares held. The new shares were credited on February 10, 2011. As a result of the transaction, Aços Villares S.A. was delisted from the Brazilian stock exchange. Following the issuance of new shares under the merger, on February 28, 2011, the capital stock of Gerdau S.A. was represented by 505,600,573 common shares and 1,011,201,145 preferred shares.


On August 30, 2010, Gerdau S.A. concluded the acquisition of all outstanding common shares issued by Gerdau Ameristeel that it did not yet hold either directly or indirectly, for $11.00 per share in cash, corresponding to a total of $1.6 billion (R$ 2.8 billion). With the acquisition, Gerdau Ameristeel was delisted from the New York and Toronto stock exchanges.


On October 21, 2010, Gerdau S.A. concluded, through its wholly-owned subsidiary Gerdau Ameristeel, the acquisition of Tamco, a company based in the state of California. TAMCO is a mini-mill that produces rebar and is one of the largest producers on the West Coast of the United States, with annual capacity of approximately 500,000 tonnes. The acquisition price was approximately US$ 166.4 million (R$ 283.1 million).


In January 2013, the Company acquired certain assets and liabilities from Cycle Systems Inc. for US$13.6 million (R$27.1 million on the acquisition date). The company is located in the city of Roanoke, Virginia in the United States and operates nine scrap processing centers in the state, including a scrap shredder machine and various scrap yards.


B.                                    BUSINESS OVERVIEW


Steel Industry


The world steel industry is composed of hundreds of steel producing facilities and is divided into two major categories based on the production method utilized: integrated steel mills and non-integrated steel mills, sometimes referred to as “mini-mills”. Integrated steel mills normally produce steel from iron oxide, which is extracted from iron ore melted in blast furnaces, and refine the iron into steel, mainly through the use of basic oxygen furnaces or, more rarely, electric arc furnaces. Non-integrated steel mills produce steel by melting in electric arc furnaces scrap steel, which occasionally is complemented by other metals such as direct-reduced iron or hot-compressed iron. According to the World Steel Association, in 2012 (last information available), 29.3% of the total crude steel production in the world was through mini-mill process and the remaining 70.7% was through the integrated process.


Crude Steel Production by Process in 2012*




Crude Steel
(in million


Production by Process (%)


























































S. Korea

































Source: worldsteel/monthly statistics

*Last information available




Over the past 15 years, according to worldsteel, total annual crude steel production has grown from 788 million tonnes in 1999 to 1,582 million tonnes in 2013, for an average annual increase of 5.0%.


The main factor responsible for the increase in the demand for steel products has been China. Since 1993, China has become the world’s largest steel market and currently consumes as much as the United States and Europe combined.


Over the past year, total annual crude steel production increased by 2.6% from 1,542.0 million tonnes in 2012 to 1,548.5 million tonnes in 2013, with a 4.7% growth in Asia, 17.1% growth in the Middle East and 1.2% growth in Africa.


Crude Steel Production (in million tonnes)



Source: worldsteel/monthly statistics


China is still undergoing a period of strong industrialization, launching numerous infrastructure projects and developing an important manufacturing base, which has contributed to increased Chinese output. China’s crude steel production in 2013 reached 779.0 million tonnes, an increase of 8.7% over 2012. This was a record annual crude steel production figure for a single country. In 2013, China’s share of world steel production was 49.2% of world total crude steel.


Crude Steel Production by Country in 2013 (million tonnes)



Source: worldsteel/monthly statistics



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Asia produced 1,059.2 million tonnes of crude steel in 2013, an increase of 4.7% compared to 2012, its share of world steel production amounted to 66.9% in 2013. Japan produced 110.6 million tonnes in 2013, an increase of 3.1% from 2012. India’s crude steel production was 81.2 million tonnes in 2013, a 4.7% increase compared with 2012. South Korea showed a decrease of 4.5%, producing 66.0 million tonnes in 2013.


The EU-27 registered a reduction of 1.7% compared to 2012, with a production of 165.6 million tonnes of crude steel in 2013. The United Kingdom had a significant increase of 23.5% compared to 2012, producing 11.9 million tonnes in 2013, while Germany remained stable when compared to 2012, producing 42.6 million tonnes in 2013.


In 2013, crude steel production in North America was 119.3 million tonnes, a slight decrease of 0.9% compared with 2012. The United States produced 87.0 million tonnes of crude steel, 2.0% lower than 2012.


The CIS showed a crude steel production decrease of 2.7% in 2013. Russia produced 69.4 million tonnes of crude steel, a decrease of 1.4%, while Ukraine recorded an stability with year-end figures of 32.8 million tonnes.


The Brazilian Steel Industry


In 2013, Brazil maintained its position as the world’s 9th largest producer of crude steel, with a production of 34.2 million tonnes, a 2.2% share of the world market and 74.3% of the total steel production in Latin America during that year.


Total sales of Brazilian steel products were 30.1 million tonnes in 2013, 30.9 million tonnes in 2012 and 31.7 million tonnes in 2011, exceeding domestic demand of 26.5 million tonnes in 2013, 25.4 million in 2012 and 25.2 million in 2011. In 2013, total steel sales in the domestic market increased 5.4% from 2012, going from 21.6 million tonnes to 22.8 million tonnes.


The breakdown of total sales of Brazilian steel products in 2013 was 60.5% or 18.2 million tonnes of flat steel products, formed by domestic sales of 12.4 million tonnes and exports of 5.8 million tonnes. The other 39.5% or 11.9 million tonnes represented sales of long steel products, which consisted of domestic sales of 10.4 million tonnes and exports of 1.5 million tonnes.


Breakdown of Total Sales of Brazilian Steel Products (million tonnes)



(*) Preliminary figures

Source: Instituto Aço Brasil


Domestic demand - Historically, the Brazilian steel industry has been affected by significant variations in domestic steel demand. Although per capita domestic consumption varies in accordance with Gross Domestic Product (GDP), variations in steel consumption tend to be more accentuated than changes in the level of economic growth. In 2013, Brazilian GDP increased by 2.3%, increased by 1.0% in 2012 and grew by 2.7% in 2011.



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Exports and imports — Over the past 20 years, the Brazilian steel industry has been characterized by a structural need for exports. The Brazilian steel market has undergone periods of excess capacity, cyclical demand and intense competition in recent years. Demand for finished steel products, based on apparent domestic consumption, has lagged total supply (total production plus imports).


In 2013, Brazilian steel exports totaled 7.3 million tonnes, representing 24.3% of total sales (domestic sales plus exports). Brazil has performed an important role in the world export market, principally as an exporter of semi-finished products (slabs, blooms and billets) for industrial use or for re-rolling into finished products. Brazilian exports of semi-finished products totaled 4.8 million tonnes in 2013, 6.3 million tonnes in 2012 and 6.8 million tonnes in 2011, representing 65.8%, 67.4% and 67.3% of Brazil’s total exports of steel products, respectively.


Brazilian Production and Apparent Demand for Steel Products (million tonnes)



(*) Preliminary figures

Source: Instituto Aço Brasil


Brazil used to be a small importer of steel products. Considering the reduction in the international steel prices during 2010, the appreciation of the Brazilian real against the U.S. dollar and the decrease in demand for steel products in developed countries, the Brazilian levels of imports increased from 2.3 million tonnes in 2009 to 5.9 million tonnes in 2010 (excluding the imports made by the steel mills to avoid double counting), representing 22.0% of apparent domestic consumption. In 2011, imports fell to 3.8 million tonnes, maintained the same level in 2012 and dropped to 3.7 million tonnes in 2013. In 2013, imports represented 14.0% of apparent domestic consumption.


Raw materials - One of Brazil’s major competitive advantages is the low cost of its raw materials. Brazil has an abundance of high quality iron ore. Various integrated producers are located in the state of Minas Gerais, where some of the world’s biggest iron ore mines are located. The cost of iron ore from small miners in Brazil is very competitive if compared to the cost of iron ore in China and in the United States.


In Brazil, most of the scrap metal consumed by steel mills comes from Brazil’s Southeast and South regions. Mill suppliers deliver scrap metal obtained from obsolete products and industrial scrap directly to the steel mills.


Brazil is a major producer of pig iron. Most of the pig iron used in the steel industry comes from the state of Minas Gerais and the Carajás region, where it is produced by various small and midsized producers. The price of pig iron follows domestic and international markets, with charcoal and iron ore the main components of its cost formation.


North American Steel Industry


The global steel industry is highly cyclical and competitive due to the large number of steel producers, the dependence upon cyclical end markets and the high volatility of raw material and energy prices. The North American steel industry is currently facing a variety of challenges, including volatile pricing, high fixed costs and low priced imports. The future success of North American steel producers is dependent upon numerous factors, including general economic conditions, levels and prices of steel imports and the strength of the U.S. dollar.



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Crude Steel Production by North American Countries (million tonnes)



Source: worldsteel/monthly statistics


Beginning in mid-2000 and continuing through 2002, the North American steel industry experienced a severe downward cycle due to excess global production capacity, high import levels at low prices, including prices that were below the combined costs of production and shipping, and weak general economic conditions. These forces resulted in lower domestic steel prices and significant domestic capacity closures. Prices for many steel products reached 10-year lows in late 2001. As a result of these conditions, over 20 U.S. steel companies sought protection under Chapter 11 of the United States Bankruptcy Code since the beginning of 2000.


In response to these conditions, in March 2002, Former President Bush imposed a series of tariffs and quotas on certain imported steel products under Section 201 of the Trade Act of 1974. These measures were intended to give the domestic steel industry an opportunity to strengthen its competitive position through restructuring and consolidation. On November 10, 2003, the World Trade Organization (“WTO”) Appellate Body issued a ruling that upheld an initial WTO panel ruling that declared the Section 201 tariffs on steel imports to be in violation of WTO rules concerning safeguard measures. On December 4, 2003, Former President Bush signed a proclamation terminating the steel safeguard tariffs, and announced that the tariffs had achieved their purpose and changed economic circumstances indicated it was time to terminate them. International trade negotiations, such as the ongoing Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development steel subsidy agreement negotiations and the WTO Doha Round negotiations, may affect future international trade rules with respect to trade in steel products.


The North American steel industry has experienced a significant amount of consolidation in the last decade. Bankrupt steel companies, once overburdened with underfunded pension, healthcare and other legacy costs, are being relieved of obligations and purchased by other steel producers. This consolidation, including the purchases of the assets of LTV Corporation, Bethlehem Steel Corporation, Trico Steel Co. LLC and National Steel Corporation, has created a lower operating cost structure for the resulting entities and a less fragmented industry. In the bar sector in 2002, the combination of Gerdau North America and Co-Steel in October 2002 and Nucor Corporation’s acquisition of Birmingham Steel Corporation in February 2002 significantly consolidated the market. The Company’s acquisition of the North Star Steel assets from Cargill in November 2004, Sheffield Steel Corporation in 2006 and Chaparral Steel Company in September 2007, have further contributed to this consolidation trend. Since the beginning of 2007, Tata Iron and Steel Co. Ltd. acquired Corus Group PLC, SSAB Svenskt Staal AB acquired Ipsco Inc., Essar Global Ltd. acquired Algoma Steel Inc., United States Steel Corporation acquired Stelco Inc., and Arcelormittal Inc. acquired Bayou Steel Corporation..


The steel industry demonstrated strong performance through the middle of 2008, resulting from the increased global demand for steel related products and a continuing consolidation trend among steel producers. Beginning in the fall of 2008, the steel industry began feeling the negative effects of the severe economic downturn brought on by the credit crisis. The economic downturn continued through 2009 and has resulted in a significant reduction in the production and shipment of steel products in North America, as well as reduced exports of steel products from the United States to other parts of the world. Since the beginning of 2010, the economy in North America has been showing signs of upturn, contributing to a gradual recovery in the steel industry, with an important improvement in the automotive sector. The Company believes that this trend should continue throughout 2014.



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Company Profile


Gerdau S.A. is mainly dedicated to the production and commercialization of steel products in general, through its mills located in Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Spain, the United States, Guatemala, India, Mexico, Peru, the Dominican Republic, Uruguay and Venezuela.


Gerdau is the leading producer of long steel in the Americas and one of the largest suppliers of special long steel in the world. With over 45,000 workers, industrial operations in 14 countries in the Americas, Europe, and Asia, and combined annual steel production capacity of over 25 million tonnes. Gerdau is the largest recycler in Latin America and, in the world, transforms millions of tonnes of scrap into steel every year, working to strengthen its commitment to sustainable development in the various regions where it has operations. With more than 140,000 shareholders, Gerdau is listed on the São Paulo, New York and Madrid stock exchanges.


According to the Brazilian Steel Institute (Instituto Aço Brasil), Gerdau is Brazil’s largest producer of long rolled steel. Gerdau holds significant market share in the steel industries of almost all countries where it operates and has been classified by worldsteel as the world’s 14th largest steel producer based on its consolidated crude steel production in 2011 (last information available).


Gerdau operates steel mills that produce steel by direct iron-ore reduction (DRI) in blast furnaces and in electric arc furnaces (EAF). In Brazil it operates four integrated steel mills, including its largest mill, Ouro Branco, an integrated steel mill located in the state of Minas Gerais. The Company currently has a total of 61 steel producing facilities globally, including joint venture and associate companies. The joint venture Gallatin Steel Company, is located in the United States and produces flat rolled steel. The associate companies are Corsa Controladora in Mexico, Corporación Centroamericana del Acero in Guatemala and Multisteel BusinessHolding in the Dominican Republic.


As of December 31, 2013, total consolidated installed capacity, excluding the Company’s investments in joint venture and associate companies, was 25.7 million tonnes of crude steel and 23.4 million tonnes of rolled steel products. In the same period, the Company had total consolidated assets of R$ 58.2 billion, consolidated net sales of R$ 39.9 billion, total consolidated net income (including non-controlling interests) of R$ 1.7 billion and shareholders’ equity (including non-controlling interests) of R$ 32.0 billion.


Gerdau offers a wide array of steel products, which can be manufactured according to the customer’s specifications. The product mix includes crude steel (slabs, blooms and billets) sold to rolling mills, finished products for the construction industry such as rods, structural bars and hot rolled coils, finished products for consumer goods industry such as commercial rolled steel bars and machine wire and products for farming and agriculture such as poles, smooth wire and barbed wire. Gerdau also produces special steel products, , normally with a certain degree of customization, utilizing advanced technology, for the manufacture of tools and machinery, chains, locks and springs, mainly for the automotive and mechanical industries.


A significant and increasing portion of Gerdau’s steel production assets are located outside Brazil, particularly in the United States and Canada, as well as in Latin America, Europe and Asia. The Company began its expansion into North America in 1989, when consolidation in the global steel market effectively began. The Company currently operates 18 steel production units in the United States and Canada, and believes that it is one of the market leaders in North America in terms of production of certain long steel products, such as rods, commercial rolled steel bars, extruded products and beams.


The Company’s operating strategy is based on the acquisition or construction of steel mills located close to its customers and sources of the raw materials required for steel production, such as scrap metal, pig iron and iron ore. For this reason, most of its production has historically been geared toward supplying the local markets in which it has production operations. However, the Company also exports an important portion of its production to other countries.


Through its subsidiaries and affiliates, the Company also engages in other activities related to the production and sale of steel products, including: reforestation; electric power generation projects; coking coal, iron ore and pig iron production; as well as fab shops and downstream operations.



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The Company sells its products to a diversified list of customers for use in the construction, manufacturing and agricultural industries. Shipments by the Company’s Brazilian operations include both domestic and export sales. Most of the shipments by the Company’s business operations in North and Latin America (except Brazil) are aimed at their respective local markets.


The Company’s corporate governance establishes a business segmentation, as follows:


·                  Brazil (Brazil Business Operation) — includes the steel operations in Brazil (except special steel), the iron ore operation in Brazil and the metallurgical and coking coal operation in Colombia;


·                  North America (North America Business Operation) — includes all North American operations, except Mexico and special steel;


·                  Latin America (Latin America Business Operation) — includes all Latin American operations, except the operations in Brazil and the metallurgical and coking coal operations in Colombia;


·                  Special Steel (Special Steel Business Operation) — includes the special steel operations in Brazil, Spain, United States and India.


The following tables present the Company’s consolidated shipments in tonnage and net sales by Business Operation for the periods indicated:




Gerdau S.A. Consolidated
Shipments by Business
Operations (1)


Year ended December 31,


(1,000 tonnes)
























North America








Latin America








Special Steel








Eliminations and Adjustments









(1) The information does not include data from joint ventures and associate companies.

(2) Does not consider coking coal, coke and iron ore shipments shipments.


Net Sales


Gerdau S.A. Consolidated Net
Sales by Business Operations (1)


Year ended December 31,


(R$ million)
























North America








Latin America








Special Steel








Eliminations and Adjustments









(1) The information does not include data from joint ventures and associate companies.

(2) Includes coking coal, coke and iron ore net sales.



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Brazil Business Operation


Steel information


The Brazil Business Operation minimizes delays by delivering its products directly to customers through outsourced companies under Gerdau’s supervision. Sales trends in both the domestic and export markets are forecast monthly based on historical data for the three preceding months. Brazil Business Operation uses a proprietary information system to stay up-to-date on market developments so that it can respond swiftly to fluctuations in demand. Gerdau considers its flexibility in shifting between markets (Brazilian and export markets) and its ability to monitor and optimize inventory levels for most of its products in accordance with changing demand as key factors to its success.


In the Brazil Business Operation, sales volume in 2013 remained at the same level when compared to 2012. Domestic sales volume grew by 10.6%, in the same period, influenced by the improvement in the industry sectors served by Gerdau, after a long period of low demand, and by the maintenance of good demand in the commercial construction segment and infrastructure. In the Brazil Business Operation, the civil construction industry has played an important role in maintaining demand. Brazilian GDP is expected to grow by 2.4% in 2014, which indicates good demand in the construction industry in the Brazilian market.


In 2013, more than 20% of the production sold in Brazil was distributed through the Company’s distribution channel, with 88 stores throughout Brazil, 43 downstream facilities and five flat steel service centers, serving an significant number of customers. Another important distribution channel is the independent’s network, formed by more than 14,000 points of sales to which Gerdau sells its products, giving it comprehensive national coverage. Sales through its distribution network and to final industrial and construction consumers are made by Company employees and authorized sales representatives working on commission. This Business Operation has annual crude steel installed capacity of 9.1 million tonnes and 6.3 million tonnes of finished steel products.


Iron ore information


Gerdau’s mineral assets were incorporated to its business through the acquisition of lands and mining rights of Grupo Votorantim, in 2004, encompassing the Miguel Burnier, Várzea do Lopes, and Gongo Soco compounds, located in the iron producing region in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. From 2004 to 2010, several geological surveys (drilling and superficial geological mapping) were conducted in order to obtain further information on the acquired resources.


Gerdau is considered to be in the exploration stage. The Company is devoting substantially all of its present efforts to exploring and indentifying iron mineralized material suitable for development. The properties have no reserves. Based on prior exploration, the Company believes there to be significant mineralization and intends to undertake an exploration program to prove the reserves.


The drilling campaign that the Company has already executed and intends to execute as follows:


·                  2004 to 2011: 46.8 thousand meters of drill holes


·                  2012 to 2013: 22.1 thousand meters of drill holes


·                  2014 to 2016: 79.1 thousand meters of drill holes are planned in order to add information for geological modeling


Current exploration activities as well as the future mining operations planned are conducted and expect to continue to be conducted under the open pit mining modality. The purpose of the planned drilling and mineral survey program, which is now in progress, is to transform mineral resources into reserves, based on global standards and definitions, to an appropriate extent in order to support the business plan established for the future. Additionally, due to current information on the mentioned areas, and their locations within the iron producing region in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, whose specific geology and similar examples of large-scale operations are extremely well-known and correlatable, this particular goal is estimated to be feasible.


Metallurgical and coking coal information


The coal mines are located in Tausa, Cucunubá, Samacá, Ráquira and Cúcuta, Colombia. The use of these mineral resources as an input for our integrated mill (Ouro Branco) should contribute to the long term competitiveness of this unit. The Company does not currently consider any of these properties to be a “material” property for purposes of Industry Guide 7 and none of these properties have any known reserves.



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North America Business Operation


The North America Business Operation has annual production capacity of 9.9 million tonnes of crude steel and 9.4 million tonnes of finished steel products. It has a vertically integrated network of 18 steel units and one joint venture for the operation of a mini-mill, 23 scrap recycling facilities, 62 downstream operations (including three joint ventures) and fabshops. North America Business Operation’s products are generally sold to steel service centers and steel fabricators or directly to original equipment manufacturers for use in a variety of industries, including construction, automotive, mining, cellular and electrical transmission, metal construction fabrication and equipment fabrication. Most of the raw material feed stock for the mini-mill operations is recycled steel scrap.


The mills of this business operation manufacture and commercialize a wide range of steel products, including steel reinforcement bars (rebar), merchant bars, structural shapes, beams, special sections and coiled wire rod. Some of these products are used by the downstream units to make products with a higher value-add, which consists of the fabrication of rebar, railroad spikes, cold drawn products, super light beam processing, elevator guide rails, grinding balls, wire mesh and wire drawing.


The downstream strategy is to have production facilities located in close proximity to customers’ job sites so that quick delivery is provided to meet their reinforcing steel needs and construction schedules.


In general, sales of finished products to U.S. customers are centrally managed by the Tampa sales office while sales to Canadian customers are managed by the Whitby sales office. There is also a sales office in Selkirk, Manitoba for managing sales of special sections and one in Texas for managing sales of structural products. Metallurgical service representatives at the mills provide technical support to the sales group. Sales of the cold drawn and super light beam products are managed by sales representatives located at their respective facilities. Fabricated rebar and elevator guide rails are generally sold through a bidding process in which employees at the Company’s facilities work closely with customers to tailor product requirements, shipping schedules and prices.


At the North America Business Operation, shipments decreased  5.1%, going from 6.5 million tonnes in 2012 to 6.1 million tonnes in 2013. This decreas was related to the low market growth in 2013 and also to the increasing share of imported products, due to the appreciation of the U.S. dollar. According to worldsteel, the NAFTA region is expected to register growth of 3.2% in apparent steel consumption in 2014, which indicates good demand in this market.


The North America Business Operation accounted for 33.2% of overall Gerdau sales volumes. The Company’s Canadian operations sell a significant portion of their production in the United States.


Latin America Business Operation


The Latin America Business Operation comprises 16 steel facilities (including joint ventures and associate companies), 47 retail facilities, 29 fab shops (including joint ventures and associate companies) and 13 scrap processing facilities (including associate companies) located in 9 countries. The entire operation is focused on the respective domestic markets of each country, operating mini-mills facilities with annual manufacturing capacity of 3.2 million tonnes of finished steel products. The Latin American operation accounted for 15.2% of overall Gerdau sales volumes, representing 2.8 million tonnes of finished products in 2013, a 3.7% increase compared with 2012. The main representative countries in the Latin America Business Operation are Chile, Mexico, Colombia and Peru. Gerdau also operates in the markets of Uruguay, Argentina, Dominican Republic, Venezuela and Guatemala.


Chile - AZA was acquired in 1992, and has installed capacity of 520,000 tonnes of crude steel and 530,000 tonnes of rolled steel. This unit produces rebars, merchant bars, wire rods and nails,  which are commercialized, primarily, in the domestic market. Gerdau in Chile sells its products to more than 150 clients, including distributors and end-users.


Colombia - Diaco was acquired in September 2005, and the Company believes to have a market share of 33% of the Colombian common long steel market. The Company believes it to be the largest producer of steel and rebar in Colombia, selling its products through distributors and clients (end-users) in civil construction, industry and others. Colombian units have annual installed capacity of 720,000 tonnes of crude steel and 707,000 tonnes of rolled products.


Peru - Siderperú was acquired in June of 2006 and is one of the main steel companies in Peru, with more than 50 years of experience in this business. The company sells its products to approximately 500 clients in the construction, manufacturing and mining sectors and has more than 140 distributors. Siderperú has annual installed capacity of 650,000 tonnes of crude steel and 1,020 tonnes of rolled products.


Mexico - Gerdau Corsa has been present in Mexico since 2007. It currently operates two mills producing crude and rolled steel located in the state of Mexico with aggregate annual installed production capacity of 500,000 tonnes of crude steel and 400,000 tonnes of rolled steel products, with another unit to produce structural profiles being built in the state of Hidalgo. It also has three scrap processing and collection units and seven distribution centers. Gerdau Corsa produces rebars and structural profiles, which are mainly sold in the domestic market.



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Special Steel Business Operation


The Special Steel Business Operation is composed of the operations in Brazil (Charqueadas, Pindamonhangaba, Mogi das Cruzes and Sorocaba), in the United States (Fort Smith, Jackson and Monroe), in Spain (Basauri, Reinosa, Azkoitia and Vitoria) and India. This operation produces engineering steel (SBQ), tool steel, stainless steel, rolling mill rolls, large forged and casted engineering pieces. In order to meet the continuous need for innovation, this operation is constantly developing new products, such as micro-alloyed steel for high-power and low-emissions diesel engines, clean steel for application in bearings, and steel with improved machining characteristics that allows higher machining speeds and lower tooling replacement, among others.


The Special Steel Business Operation recorded growth of 7.5% in shipments in 2013 compared to the prior year, due to the recovery in Brazil’s heavy vehicle industry, after the implementation of the new “Euro 5” regulation, and the sales in the first year of operation of the plant in India.


In Brazil, Gerdau special steel operations are located in Rio Grande do Sul (Charqueadas) and in São Paulo (Pindamonhangaba, Mogi das Cruzes and Sorocaba). The special steel units in Brazil have a combined annual capacity of 1.4 million tonnes of crude steel and 1.4 million tonnes of rolled products, which is sold in the domestic and export markets. The operation in Brazil has more than 400 customers located mainly in Brazil.


In Europe, Gerdau special operations are located in Spain (Basauri, Reinosa, Azkoitia and Vitoria), which sells special steel to the entire continent. This operation has more than 450 clients located mainly in Spain, France, Germany and Italy, and has an annual installed capacity of 1.0 million tonnes of crude steel and 1.1 million tonnes of rolled products.  The operation also has five downstream operations located in Spain.


In North America, Gerdau maintains a presence in United States (Fort Smith, Jackson and Monroe), being the largest supplier of special steel bars in the country. The operation has three mini-mills and six downstream operations. The operation has an annual installed capacity of 1.6 million tonnes of crude steel and 1.3 million tonnes of rolled products and has more than 240 customers located mainly in the United States, Canada and Mexico.


In India, the Company initiated the operation of a plant for the production of special steel with capacity of 250 thousand tonnes of crude steel and 300 thousand tonnes of rolled products. Important projects remain to be executed, such as installing a second automatic inspection line (2014), a new coke oven (2015) and a power generation plant (2015).


There are commercial and operational synergies among the units in this business operation through centralized marketing and production strategies.




In 2013, the world steel industry continued to suffer impacts from the economic crisis in the euro zone and from market uncertainty regarding a slowdown in the Chinese economy. The expectation of a slowdown in China, combined with oversupply in international markets, contributed to instability and caution among steel and raw material importers around the world, which made it impossible to sustain prices throughout 2013.


International prices fluctuated over the course of 2013, with prices for key steel products, both long and flat, ending the year below their levels at year-end 2012. Prices for the main long steel products (Rebar, Wire Rods, Profiles and Structural Profiles) declined by 2% to 5% in international markets, considering exports from traditionally exporting countries (Turkey, Russia, Ukraine and China) in December 2013 in relation to December 2012. Prices for key flat steel products exported by China (Hot-Rolled Coils and Heavy Plates) fell 8% to 12% in international markets in December 2013 compared to December 2012.


Other highlights in 2013 include the international political conflicts in traditional import markets. In Egypt, for example, conflicts led to a reduction in Rebar imports from Turkey. Meanwhile, Turkey has been suffering from the depreciation in its currency in relation to the U.S. dollar and a loss in the country’s competitiveness, given its dependence on scrap imports. The threat of redirecting exports in light of the aforementioned factors led to protectionist measures in various markets, such as compensatory and antidumping measures.


In 2013, Brazil remained Gerdau’s main exporting country, accounting for 80% of its total export volume. Meanwhile, the United States accounted for 16% of total export volume, despite the decline in the country’s export volume compared to 2012.


The main export destination in 2013 was South America, accounting for 42%, which was leveraged substantially by intercompany exports. North America led in slab exports, accounting for 23% of total slab export volume in 2013.  Meanwhile, Asia, Central America, Europe and Africa accounted for 13%, 12%, 6% and 4%, respectively.Table of Contents



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The following table presents the Company’s consolidated exports by destination for the periods indicated:


Gerdau S.A. Consolidated


Year ended December 31,


Exports by Destination








Total including shipments to subsidiaries (1,000 tonnes)
















Central America








North America








South America
























Middle East








In 2013, Gerdau continued to register its highest export volumes in Billets and Slabs, despite exporting almost its entire product line.


The Company has been striving to build a diversified client base around the world, which will be fundamental for meeting the challenges ahead in 2014.




The Company supplies its customers with a wide range of products from five major product lines:


Crude Steel (Billets, Blooms and Slabs)


Crude steel products (billets, blooms and slabs) have relatively low added value compared to other steel products. Billets are bars from square sections of long steel that serve as inputs for the production of wire rod, rebars and merchant bars. They are the main product of the Ouro Branco mill. Blooms are used to manufacture products such as springs, forged parts, heavy structural shapes and seamless tubes. Slabs are used in the steel industry for the rolling of a broad range of flat rolled products, and mainly used to produce hot and cold rolled coils, heavy slabs and profiles.


Crude steel products may be produced using either the continuous casting or conventional process. In the conventional process, liquid steel is poured into ingot moulds for rolling. The hot ingots are sent to the primary rolling mill to be heated in soaking pits and then are rolled to produce crude steel products (billets, blooms and slabs). Although this conventional process is not widely used in Brazil, it is still employed at the Company’s Ouro Branco mill. The use of a conventional casting system may represent a competitive advantage since the Company believes it is one of the only companies manufacturing billets and blooms in Brazil, leading the Company to have captive customers for these products in Brazil and also outside the country.


Common Long Rolled Products


Common long rolled products represent a major portion of the Company’s production. The Company’s main long rolled products include rebars, merchant bars and profiles, which are used mainly by the construction and manufacturing industries.



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Drawn Products


Drawn products include barbed and barbless fence wire, galvanized wire, fences, concrete reinforcing wire mesh, nails and clamps. These products are not exported and are usually sold to the manufacturing, construction and agricultural industries.


Special Steel Products


Special or high-alloy steel requires advanced manufacturing processes and normally includes some degree of customization. The Company produces special and stainless steel used in tools and machinery, chains, fasteners, railroad spikes and special coil steel at its Pindamonhangaba, Mogi das Cruzes, Sorocaba and Charqueadas units in Brazil, at Basauri, Azkoitia and Vitória units in Spain, at the Fort Smith, Jakson  and Monroe units in the United States and in India.


In the United States, Gerdau produces special sections such as grader blades, smelter bars, light rails, super light I-beams, elevator guide rails and other products that are made on demand for the Company’s clients, which are mainly manufacturers.


Flat Products


The Company’s Ouro Branco mill produces slabs, which are rolled into flat products such as hot- and cold-rolled steel coils, heavy plates and profiles.  Gerdau also produces hot-rolled coils, which are sold in the domestic and export markets. The Company distributes through its distribution channel these hot-rolled coils and also resells flat steel products manufactured by other Brazilian steel producers to which it adds further value through additional processing at its five flat steel service centers.


Through its joint venture Gallatin located in Kentucky, Gerdau also supplies flat steel to its clients in the United States. Gallatin is a joint venture with ArcelorMittal and has annual nominal installed production capacity of 1.4 million tonnes of flat steel.  Both partners in the joint venture have a 50.0% interest.


The following table presents the main products and the contributions to net revenue and net income by Business Operation for the periods shown:






North America


Latin America


Special Steel


Eliminations and




Rebars, merchant bars, beams,
drawn products, billets, blooms,
slabs, wire rod, structural shapes,
hot rolled coil and iron ore.


Rebars, merchant bars, wire rod,
light and heavy structural shapes.


Rebar, merchant bars and
drawn products.


Stainless steel, special
profiles and wire rod.








































Net Sales (R$ million)
































% of Consolidated Net Sales





























Net Income (R$ million)
































% of Consolidated Net Income






























Production Process


In Brazil, the Company has a decentralized production process, using both mini-mills and integrated facilities. In general, the Company has used the mini-mill model to produce steel products outside of Brazil.


Non-Integrated Process (Mini-Mills)


The Company operates 50 mini-mills worldwide (excluding joint ventures and associate companies). Mini-mills are equipped primarily with electric arc furnaces that can melt steel scrap and produce the steel product at the required specifications. After loading the furnace with a preset mixture of raw material (i.e., steel scrap, pig iron and sponge iron), electric power is applied in accordance with a computer controlled melting profile. The Company’s mini-mill production process generally consists of the following steps: obtaining raw material, melting, casting, rolling and drawing. The basic difference between this process and the integrated mill production process described below is in the first processing phase, i.e., the steelmaking process. Mini-mills are smaller plants than integrated facilities and the Company believes they provide certain advantages over integrated mills, including:


·      lower capital costs,


·      lower operational risks due to the low concentration of capital and installed capacity in a single production plant,


·      proximity of production facilities to raw-material sources,


·      proximity to local markets and easier adjustment of production levels, and


·      more effective managerial structure due to the relative simplicity of the production process.


Integrated Process


The Company operates four integrated mills, of which three are located in Brazil and one in Peru. The Ouro Branco mill is the largest integrated facility the Company operates. Although it produces steel using a blast furnace, this mill has some of the advantages of a mini-mill since it is located very close to its main suppliers and the ports from which the Company exports most of its production.


The Company’s steelmaking process in integrated facilities consists of four basic processes: raw material preparation, pig-iron production, steel production and production of semi-finished products (billets, blooms and slabs). In the primary stage of iron making, sinter (a mixture of iron ore and limestone), coke and other raw materials are consumed in the blast furnace to produce pig iron. Coke acts as both a fuel and a reducing agent in this process. The Company’s blast furnaces have installed capacity of 6.2 million tonnes of liquid pig iron per year.



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The pig iron produced by the blast furnace is transported by rail to the desulphurization unit to reduce the sulfur content in the steel. After the desulphurization process, the low-sulfur pig-iron is transformed into steel through LD-type oxygen converters. The LD steelmaking process utilizes molten pig iron to produce steel by blowing oxygen over the metallic charge inside the converters. The process does not require any external source of energy, which is fully supplied by the chemical reactions that occur between the oxygen and the molten pig iron impurities. The LD steelmaking process is presently the most widely used in the world.


Some mills further refine the LD converters’ output with ladle furnaces. Liquid steel is then poured into ingot molds and allowed to solidify into ingots. The molds are stripped away and the ingots are transported by rail to the soaking pits, where they are heated to a uniform rolling temperature. The heated ingots are rolled in the primary rolling mill to produce slabs and blooms, some of which are rolled in the secondary rolling mills to produce blooms and billets. At this point in the process, the Company either sells a portion of the product to other manufacturers where the rolling process must take place in order to produce steel ready for final use, or the Company performs the rolling process itself, transforming blooms and slabs into heavy structural shapes or wire rods.




The Company sells its products through independent distributors, direct sales from the mills and its retail network (formerly Comercial Gerdau, which was merged into Gerdau Aços Longos S.A. in March, 2013).


Transportation costs are an important component of most steel mill businesses and represent a significant factor in maintaining competitive prices in the export market. The Company’s mills are strategically located in various different geographic regions. The Company believes that the proximity of its mills to raw material sources and important consumer markets gives it a competitive advantage in serving customers and obtaining raw materials at competitive costs. This represents an important competitive advantage in inbound and outbound logistics.


To reduce logistic costs, Gerdau also uses different types of transportation modes (road, rail, sea and cabotage) to receive raw materials, and to deliver products to its customers or ports of destination. Accordingly, Gerdau has developed long-term relationships with logistic companies specialized in delivering raw materials and steel products.


In 1996 Gerdau acquired an interest in MRS Logística, one of the most important rail companies in Brazil, which operates connecting the states of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais, which are Brazil’s main economic centers, and also reaches the main ports of the country in this region. These shares provide the guarantee of using this mode to transport raw materials (scrap and pig iron) as well as final products. In North America, the Company owns a large number of rail cars for the same purpose.


Gerdau uses around 15 ports to deliver products from the entire Brazilian coastline. The majority of exports are shipped from Praia Mole Private Steel Terminal in Vitoria, Espírito Santo. Furthermore, this is Brazil’s most efficient and productive seaport for handling steel products, with more than 20 years of expertise in this business.


Overseas, the Company is currently in progress with a project and construction of a new export terminal for coal in Colombia.




The steel market is divided into manufacturers of long steel products, flat steel products and special steel.


The Company operates in the long steel market, which is the most important market for Gerdau, by supplying to the following customer segments: (i) construction, to which it supplies rebars, merchant bars, nails and meshes; (ii) manufacturing, to which it supplies products for machinery, agricultural equipment, tools and other industrial products; and (iii) other markets, to which it supplies wires and posts for agricultural installations and reforestation projects. In North America, the Company also supplies customers with special sections, including elevator guide rails and super light beams. The Company also provides its customers with higher value-added products at rebar fabrication facilities.


The Company operates in the flat steel market through its Ouro Branco mill that produces slabs, which are used to roll flat products such as hot and cold rolled steel coils and heavy plates. Gerdau also produces hot-rolled coils, which are sold in the domestic and export markets. The Company distributes these hot-rolled coils and also resells flat steel products manufactured by other Brazilian steel producers to which it adds further value through additional processing at its five flat steel service centers. Through its joint venture Gallatin located in Kentucky, Gerdau also supplies flat steel to its clients in the United States. Gallatin is a joint venture with ArcelorMittal and has annual nominal installed production capacity of 1.4 million tonnes of flat steel.  Both partners in the joint venture have a 50.0% interest.


The Company produces special and stainless steel used in tools and machinery, chains, fasteners, railroad spikes, special coil steel, grader blades, smelter bars, light rails, super light I-beams, elevator guide rails and other products that are made on demand for the Company’s customers at its special steel units in Brazil, United States, Spain and India.



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Competitive Position — Brazil


The Brazilian steel market is very competitive. In the year ended December 31, 2013, the Company was the largest Brazilian crude steel producer, according to the Brazilian Steel Institute (IABr - Instituto Aço Brasil). Meanwhile, ArcelorMittal Brasil was the second largest crude steel producer in Brazil during 2013.


The table below presents the Company’s main competitors and market share in Brazil’s crude steel market:




Fiscal year ending December 31,


Brazilian crude steel producers (%)
















ArcelorMittal Brasil

















































Source: IABr - Instituto Aço Brasil

(*) Preliminary figures


World common long rolled steel demand is met principally by steel mini-mills and, to a much lesser extent, by integrated steel producers. In the Brazilian market, no single company competes against the Company across its entire product range. The Company has been facing some competition from long steel products imports, mainly coming from Turkey, with more extension from 2010. The Company believes that the diversification of its products, the solution developed by its fab shops units and the decentralization of its business provide a competitive edge over its major competitors.


In the domestic market, Gerdau is almost an exclusive supplier of blooms and billets to well-defined and loyal customers that have been purchasing from it regularly for over 15 years. Intense competition exists between the Company and ArcelorMittal in the slab and wire rod markets.


Competitive Position — Outside Brazil


In the international market, the Company, in its export markets, faces strong competition in the commercial quality products line from Eastern Europe (CIS). The main competitors in the high quality products segment are Europeans and, to a lesser extent, the Japanese. The Company is a strong player due to its vast experience and the high quality of its services and products. Gerdau has a highly diversified list of traditional customers located all over the world.


Outside Brazil, notably in North America, the Company has increased its market share through acquisitions, and believes to be the second largest mini-mill steel producer in North America, with annual nominal capacity of 9.9 million tonnes of crude steel and 9.4 million tonnes of rolled products.


Gerdau’s geographic market in North America encompasses primarily the United States and Canada. The Company faces substantial competition in the sale of each of its products from numerous competitors in its markets. Rebar, merchant bars and structural shapes are commodity steel products for which pricing is the primary competitive factor. Due to the high cost of freight relative to the value of steel products, competition from non-regional producers is somewhat limited. Proximity of product inventories to customers, combined with competitive freight costs and low-cost manufacturing processes, are key to maintaining margins on rebar and merchant bar products. Rebar deliveries are generally concentrated within a 350-mile radius of the mini-mills and merchant bar deliveries are generally concentrated within a 500-mile radius. Some products produced by the Selkirk, Midlothian, Jacksonville, Jackson, Cartersville and Petersburg mini-mills are shipped greater distances, including overseas.


The Company’s principal competitors include Commercial Metals Company, Nucor Corporation, Steel Dynamics Inc., and ArcelorMittal Inc. Gallatin Steel competes with numerous other integrated and mini-mill flat steel producers.



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Despite the commodity characteristics of the rebar, merchant bar and structural markets, Gerdau believes it distinguishes itself from many of its competitors due to the Company’s large product range, product quality, consistent delivery performance, capacity to service large orders and ability to fill most orders quickly from inventory. The Company believes it produces one of the largest ranges of bar products and shapes. The Company’s product diversity is an important competitive advantage in a market where many customers are looking to fulfill their requirements from a few key suppliers.


In Latin America, each country has a specific competitive position that depends on conditions in their respective markets. Most compete domestically and face significant competition from imports. Around 80% of shipments from Gerdau’s Latin American Operation originate from Chile, Peru, Colombia and Mexico. In this market, the main barriers faced by Gerdau sales are freight and transportation costs and the availability of imports. The main products sold in the Latin American market are the constructions, mechanic, agriculture and mining markets. The products sold  in the Latin American market are for the construction, machinery, agricultural and mining  industries.


The Special steel operations in Spain  has approximately 8% stake of the special steel market in Europe; in United States, the Company believes to have more than 20% of the special steel market; in Brazil, Gerdau’s special steel units are combined the biggest player in that market, with a stake of approximately 75%; and, in India the production and commercialization of rolled products began in 2013, and continue to ramp up, providing gradual access in the Indian market.


Business Cyclicality and Seasonality


The steel industry is highly cyclical worldwide. Consequently, the Company is exposed to substantial swings in the demand for steel products which in turn causes volatility in the prices of most of its products. In addition, since the Brazilian steel industry produces substantially more steel than the domestic economy is able to consume, the sector is dependent on export markets. The demand for steel products and hence the financial condition and operating results of companies in the steel industry, including the Company itself, are generally affected by macroeconomic fluctuations in the world economy and the domestic economies of steel-producing countries, including general trends in the manufacturing, construction and automotive sectors. Since 2003, demand for steel products from developing countries (particularly China) and overall world economic growth have contributed to historically high levels in the prices of the Company’s steel products. However, these relatively high prices may not last, especially due to expansion in world installed capacity or a new level of demand. In the second half of 2008, and especially in the beginning of 2009, the U.S. and European economies showed strong signs of slow down, in turn affecting many other countries. Over the last few years, developing economies showed signs of gradual recovery while developed economies are still a challenging demand environment. The Company believes that in  2014 the world steel market should show a slight demand increase. A material decrease in demand for steel or exports by countries who are not able to consume their production, as happened in 2008, could have a significant adverse effect on the Company’s operations and prospects.


In the Company’s Brazilian and Latin American operations, shipments in the second and third quarters of the year tend to be stronger than in the first and fourth quarters, given the reduction in construction activity. In the Company’s North American operations, demand is influenced by winter conditions, when consumption of electricity and other energy sources (i.e., natural gas) for heating increases and may be exacerbated by adverse weather conditions, contributing to increased costs and decreased construction activity, and in turn leading to lower shipments. In the Company’s Special Steel Operations, particularly in Spain, the third quarter is traditionally marked by collective vacations that reduce operations in the quarter to only two months.


Information on the Extent of the Company’s Dependence


The Company is not dependent on industrial, commercial or financial agreements (including agreements with clients and suppliers) or on new production processes that are material to its business or profitability. The Company also has a policy of diversifying its suppliers, which enables it to replace suppliers without affecting its operations in the event of failure to comply with the agreements, except in the case of its energy and natural gas supply.


In addition to the government regulations that apply to its industry in general, the Company is not subject to any specific regulation that materially or adversely affect its business.


In the case of a power outage, there are no alternative supply options available at most Gerdau mills due to the high volume and tension required for the operation of these plants. Some Gerdau small plants may choose, as an alternative, to use generators to compensate for the energy shortage. Moreover, the Ouro Branco mill generates 70% of its power needs internally using gases generated in the steel-making process.



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In case of a lack of natural gas, the equipment could be adjusted to use diesel and LPG.


Gerdau’s operations are spread across various geographic regions, which mitigates the risk of any electricity or natural gas supply problems in Brazil.


The distribution of electric power and natural gas is a regulated monopoly in most countries, which leads the distributor to be the only supplier in each geographic region. In some countries, regulations allow for a choice of electrical power or natural gas commodity supplier, allowing Gerdau to diversify its supply agreement portfolio.


Furthermore, Gerdau expects to achieve by 2014 a reduction of 2.5% in the total electricity consumption of its steel production operations in Brazil. To achieve this result, since 2012, the Company has been developing an energy efficiency pilot project at all of its industrial units in the country in order to increase its energy savings on auxiliary equipment in the steel production process, which accounts for approximately 40% of the energy consumed by operations.


Although it reflects the stronger economy, the Brazil’s growing energy consumption signals the importance of initiatives that help conserve resources and reduce environmental impacts. The project developed by Gerdau helps improve this scenario and the sustainability of the country’s energy sector, since it seeks to increase the Company’s energy efficiency by optimizing its industrial processes.


In addition to Brazil, the pilot project is already being applied at Gerdau units in the United States. In 2014, the program will be expanded to other countries, starting with Mexico.


Production Inputs


Prices volatility


Gerdau’s production processes are based mainly on the mini-mill concept, with mills equipped with electric arc furnaces that can melt ferrous scrap and produce steel products at the required specifications. The main raw material used at these mills is ferrous scrap, which at some plants is blended with pig iron. The component proportions of this mixture may change in accordance with prices and availability in order to optimize raw material costs. Iron, iron ore (used in blast furnaces and in one Direct Reduction Iron - DRI plant) and ferroalloys are also important.


Although international ferrous scrap prices are determined by the U.S. domestic market (since the United States is the largest scrap exporter), the price of ferrous scrap in Brazil varies from region to region and is influenced by demand and transportation costs. Gerdau believes to be the largest consumer of ferrous scrap in Brazil.


Brazil and Special Steel Business Operations - The Company’s Brazilian mills use scrap and pig iron purchased from local suppliers. Due to the nature of the raw materials used in its processes, Gerdau has contracts with scrap generators for its mini-mills in Brazil, acquiring scrap as necessary for the mills’ needs. Scrap for the Brazilian Operation is priced in Brazilian reais, thus input prices are not directly affected by currency fluctuations.


Due to its size, the Ouro Branco mill has developed over the last few years a strategy to diversify its raw materials, which are supplied through various types of contracts and from multiple sources, which include: (i) coking coals developed by Gerdau’s unit in Colombia and other materials imported from the United States, Canada, Russia and Ukraine, as well as petroleum coke purchased from Petrobrás; (ii) ferroalloys, of which 90.0% are purchased in the domestic market; and (iii) iron ore, which is mainly produced from its own mines and partially supplied by medium and small sized mining companies, most of them strategically located close to the plant.


North America Business Operation - The main input used by the Company’s mills in North America is ferrous scrap, and  has consistently obtained adequate supplies of raw materials, not depending on a smaller number of suppliers. Due to the fact that the United States are one of the largest scrap exporters in the world, the prices of this raw-material, in this country,  may fluctuate according to supply and demand in the world’s scrap market.


Latin America Business Operation - The main input used by the Company’s mills in Latin America is ferrous scrap. This operation is exposed to market fluctuations, varying its prices according to each local market.



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Ferrous Scrap


There are two broad categories of ferrous scrap: (i) obsolete scrap, which is steel from various sources, ranging from cans to car bodies and white goods; and (ii) industrial scrap, which is composed of scrap from manufacturing processes, essentially steel bushings and flashings, steel turnings and even scrap generated by production processes at steel producers, such as Gerdau. The consumption of scrap in electric arc furnaces uses a combination of obsolete scrap and industrial scrap, the proportions of which varies in accordance with the availability of each one and the type of steel to the produced.


In 2013, Gerdau consumed more than 15 million tonnes of scrap, which accounted for significant gains from increasingly competitive operating costs.


Because ferrous scrap is one of its main raw materials in steel production, Gerdau is dedicated to improving its supply chain in various countries, aiming to develop and integrate micro and small suppliers into the Company’s business. In Brazil, about 80% of the scrap consumed by the Company comes from its own collection process and from small and midsized scrap collectors who sell all their material to Gerdau, which provides a direct supply at more competitive costs for the Company. In North America, although smaller, the percentage is still significant, ensuring the competitiveness of the business in the region.


Brazil and Special Steel Business Operations - The price of steel scrap in Brazil varies by region and reflects local supply, demand and transportation costs. The Southeast is the country’s most industrialized region and generates the highest volume of scrap. Due to the high concentration of players in this region, competition is more intense.


In Brazil, to ensure proper processing of the scrap purchased directly and from small and midsized collectors, Gerdau has, among other equipment, six scrap shredders, including a mega-shredder at the Cosigua mill in Rio de Janeiro that is capable of processing shredded scrap in volumes that exceed 200 car bodies per hour.


North America Business Operation - Ferrous scrap is the primary raw material. Although U.S. scrap production exceeds domestic consumption, with the country leading world exports of the product, availability varies in accordance with the level of economic activity, the season of the year and export levels, leading to price fluctuations. Twelve mills in the North America Business Operation have on-site dedicated scrap processing facilities, including shredder operations that supply a significant portion of their scrap requirements. Given that not all of the scrap it consumes is sourced from its own scrap yards, it purchases residual requirements in the market either directly or through dealers that source and prepare scrap.


Latin America Business Unit - The price of scrap in Latin America varies widely from country to country in accordance with supply, demand and transportation cost.



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Pig Iron and Sponge Iron


Brazil Business Operation - Brazil is an exporter of pig iron. Most of Brazil’s pig iron is produced in the state of Minas Gerais by a number of small producers. Pig iron is a drop-in substitute for scrap and in Brazil it is an important component of the metal mix used to make steel in the mills. The price of pig iron follows domestic and international demand and the cost of charcoal, the most volatile cost item in pig iron production.


In Brazil, Gerdau does not have pig iron supply contracts, negotiating volumes and delivery conditions directly with suppliers. The price of pig iron may fluctuate in line with the variation in international prices, given that a large portion of production in Brazil is exported.


North America Business Operation - Scrap availability imprints a unique characteristic on the use of pig iron and sponge iron, which are used in limited amounts only to produce steels with particular characteristics. Gerdau does not utilize significant volumes of scrap substitutes in mini-mills, except for pig iron, which, due to its chemical properties, is used to produce steels with particular characteristics.


Iron Ore


Iron ore is the main input used to produce pig iron at Gerdau’s blast furnace mills located in the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. The pig iron is used in the melt shops together with scrap, to produce steel.


Iron ore is purchased in its natural form as lump ore, pellet feed or sinter feed, or agglomerated as pellets. The lump ore and pellets are loaded directly into the blast furnace, while the sinter feed and pellet feed need to be agglomerated in the sinter plant and then loaded into the blast furnace, to produce pig iron. The production of 1.0 tonne of pig iron requires about 1.7 tonnes of iron ore.


Iron ore consumption in Gerdau mills in Brazil amounted to 7.5 million tonnes in 2013, partially supplied by mining companies adjacent to the steel plants and partially supplied by Gerdau’s mines.


Other Inputs


In addition to scrap, pig iron, sponge iron and iron ore, Gerdau’s operations use other inputs to produce steel such as ferroalloys, electrodes, furnace refracting materials, oxygen, nitrogen and other industrial gases and limestone, albeit in smaller amounts. Additional inputs associated with the production of pig iron are thermal-reducer, which is used in blast furnace mills, and natural gas, which is used at the DRI unit.


Ouro Branco mill’s important raw materials and inputs also include solid fuels, comprising the metallurgical coal, used in the production of coke and also for the blast furnace pulverized injecting, this last one providing increase in productivity and consequently reduction in the final cost of pig iron. Besides the metallurgical coal, the Company also uses the anthracite, solid fuel used in the production of sinter. The gas resulting from the production of coke and pig iron are reused for generation of thermal energy that can be converted in electric energy for the mill.


Gerdau has a coke production unit in Colombia with annual production capacity of 550,000 tonnes and coking coal resources estimated at 20 million tonnes. In 2013, it consolidated the supply of Colombian coking coal and began to develop coal for injection processes, both of which are used at the Ouro Branco mill. Also in 2013, it started to develop new solid fuels customized at this unit, specific cokes for testing at plants equipped with smaller blast furnaces that traditionally use charcoal as fuel, and coals and cokes for other applications in the market.


The North American operations also use additional inputs. Various domestic and foreign companies supply other important raw materials or operating supplies required for the business, including refractory materials, ferroalloys and carbon electrodes that are readily available in the open market. Gerdau North America Business Operation has obtained adequate quantities of these raw materials and supplies at competitive market prices. The Company is not dependent on any one supplier as a source for any particular material and believes there are adequate alternative suppliers available in the marketplace if the need to replace an existing one arises.


Energy Requirements


Steel production is a process that consumes large amounts of electricity, especially in electric arc mills. Electricity represents an important role in the production process, along with natural gas, which is used mainly in furnaces to re-heat billets in rolled steel production.



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In Brazil, electricity is currently supplied to the Company’s industrial units under two types of contracts:


·                  Contracts in the Regulated Contractual Environment in which the Company is a “Captive Consumer” are used at the following units: Charqueadas, Vila Guaíra, Água Funda, Usiba, Açonorte and Sorocaba. These involve state-owned companies or holders of government concessions. In these contracts, prices are defined by the National Electric Power Agency (ANEEL).


·                  Contracts executed in the Free Market Environment, in which Gerdau is a “Free Consumer,” are used by the following units: Araçariguama, Cosigua, Cearense, Ouro Branco, Divinópolis, Barão de Cocais, Riograndense, Araucária, São José dos Campos, Pindamonhangaba and Mogi das Cruzes. The load of these units is served by a portfolio of contracts and by self-generation. The power supply contracts are entered into directly with generation and/or distributing companies at prices that are pre-defined and adjusted in accordance with conditions pre-established by the parties.


In 2012, the Brazilian government defined a new energy policy to regulate the renewal of expiring concession contracts for power transmission and generation, along with a reduction in electricity tariffs in the industry. Only tariffs in the captive market benefited from the renewed generation quotas, while all consumers benefited from reductions in industry charges and transmission tariffs.


The Company currently holds the following power generation concessions in Brazil:


·                  Dona Francisca Energética S.A. (DFESA) operates a hydroelectric power plant with nominal capacity of 125 MW located between Nova Palma and Agudo, Rio Grande do Sul State (Brazil). Its corporate purpose is to operate, maintain and maximize use of the energy potential of the Dona Francisca Hydroelectric Plant. DFESA participates in a consortium (Consórcio Dona Francisca) with the state power utility Companhia Estadual de Energia Elétrica (CEEE). The shareholders of DFESA are Gerdau S.A. (51.8%), COPEL Participações S.A (23.0%), Celesc (23.0%), and Desenvix (2.2%).


·                  Caçu and Barra dos Coqueiros hydroelectric power plants, located in the state of Goiás (Brazil), with total installed capacity of 155MW and started its operations in 2010, with all power made available to the units located in Brazil’s Southeast.


·                  Gerdau also holds the concession to implement São João — Cachoeirinha Hydroelectric Plant Complex located in Paraná state. The complex will have total installed capacity of 105 MW. It is currently waiting the granting of the environmental licenses.


The terms of the aforementioned generation concession agreements are for 35 years as of the signature of the agreement. As such: UHE Dona Francisca expires in 2033 and UHEs Caçu and Barra dos Coqueiros and UHEs São João - Cachoeirinha expire in 2037.


The supply of natural gas to all Brazilian units is regulated and performed under long-term contracts. Barão de Cocais and Divinópolis units do not have access to natural gas supplies. In 2013, the Ouro Branco unit began to consume natural gas, to partly substitute PCI vaporized coal injection in its blast furnaces.


In Spain, the new energy contract comes into force in January 2014. The price paid for electric power is based on the spot market, with Gerdau having the option to lock in prices. Spain is currently discussing its regulatory framework, given the financial deficits generated by its power industry. The natural gas contract also comes into force in January 2014.


In the United States, there are essentially two types of electricity markets: regulated and deregulated. In the regulated market, contracts are approved by Public Utility commissions and are subject to an approved rate of return.  These regulated tariffs are specific to local distributors and generally reflect the average fuel costs of the distributor. In deregulated markets, the price of electricity is set by the marginal resource and fluctuates with demand. Natural Gas in the United States is completely deregulated. The U.S. energy market is benefiting from the increased exploration of shale gas, which is driving down prices of both electricity and natural gas.



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In Colombia, the power purchase agreement was renewed in July 2013 at predetermined prices valid for 3 years and 6 months. The natural gas agreements were renewed in late 2013 and are valid for 2 years.


In Chile, the current agreement was signed in 2009 and is close to expiring. Gerdau AZA is already negotiating a new contract. The economic conditions are yet to be defined.


In Uruguay, electricity is purchased under agreements renewed automatically on an annual basis from the state-owned utility UTE.  Natural gas is purchased from Montevideo Gas with prices set by the Argentinean export tariff agreement (fuel oil as substitute). During 2013, the plant operated mostly on fuel oil, due to competitive reasons.


In Peru electricity is purchased under a long-term agreement. The plant receives CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) for major part of their needs and the supply is done through trucks.


Argentina uses natural gas (liquefied petroleum gas) as substitute. The natural gas purchase agreement was renewed for another year. In 2008, Gerdau Sipar entered into a long-term agreement to supply the new mill’s power requirements.


In the Dominican Republic, a new power purchase agreement was secured in 2009, which is currently being negotiated, since it expires in July 2014.Since 2011, the unit receives liquefied natural gas (LNG) delivered by truck.


In Mexico, electricity is purchased under agreements regulated by the state-owned utility Companía Federal de Electricidad (CFE). The natural gas agreements are valid for 1 year and are renewed automatically, with prices indexed by the Nymex. Mexico is currently facing a temporary shortage of natural gas and has been importing LNG to help balance the market.


In India, electricity is supplied by the distribution company and by self-generation. In the event of rationing, the power deficit may be acquired through power swap agreements (short-term contracts) or bilateral agreements.


Production Output


Gerdau S.A. Consolidated


Year ended December 31,


annual production (million tonnes)








Crude steel production








Rolled steel production








Iron Ore production









Technology and Quality Management


All Gerdau mills have a Quality Management  System supported by a wide array of quality control tools. Product development projects are headed by specialists who use quality tools such as “Six Sigma”, a set of statistical methods for improving the assessment of process variables, and the concept of “Quality Function Deployment”, a methodology through which technicians can identify and implement the customer requirements.


Given this level of quality management, 45 mills are ISO 9001 or ISO TS 16949 certified as well as a sort of products and laboratories certification according demands. In general, production , technical services and quality teams are responsible for developing new products to meet customer and market needs.


Gerdau uses a Quality Management System developed in house that applies tests for product design, manufacturing processes and final-product specifications. A specially trained team and modern technologies also exist to assure the manufactured product high standards of quality. Gerdau’s technical specialists do planned visits, some are randomly selected and some are scheduled visits, to its customers to check on the quality of the delivered products in order to guarantee the final user satisfaction for products purchased indirectly.


Knowledge Management Portal is used to share information among all steel mills seeking performance improvements and leverage of process knowledge supported by Communities of Practice and technical specialists.



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Due to the specialized nature of its business, the Gerdau special steel mills are constantly investing in technological upgrading and in research and development. These mills are active in the automotive segment and maintain a technology department (Research and Development) responsible for new products and the optimization of existing processes.


International machinery manufacturers and steel technology companies supply most of the sophisticated production equipment that Gerdau uses. These suppliers generally sign technology transfer agreements with the purchaser and provide extensive technical support and staff training for the installation and commissioning of the equipment. Gerdau has technology transfer  and benchmarking agreements with recognized performance companies like Nippon Steel, Kyoei Steel, Daido Steel, Sumitomo and Badische Stahl Werke.


As is common with mini-mill steelmakers, Gerdau usually acquires technology in the market rather than develops new technology through intensive process research and development, since steelmaking technology is readily available for purchase.


The Company is not dependent on patents or licenses or new manufacturing processes that are material to its business. See item “Information on the Extent of the Company’s Dependence” for further details.


Sales Terms and Credit Policy


The Company’s Brazilian sales are usually made on a 21/28-day settlement CIF (Cost, Insurance and Freight) basis. Comercial Gerdau, the retail arm of Gerdau in Brazil, sells on a 29-day settlement basis, mainly CIF. Brazilian customers are subject to a credit approval process. The concession of credit limits is controlled by a corporate-level system (SAP R/3) that can be accessed by all sales channels. The credit and collection department is responsible for evaluating, determining and monitoring credit in accordance with the credit limit policy. This policy includes the active participation of staff from the various sales channels. At Comercial Gerdau, in particular, the criteria for retail sales also include practices such as the use of credit card services. Gerdau exports are guaranteed via letters of credit and/or pre-payment before the product is shipped. Exports to Gerdau’s subsidiaries may be sold on credit at market interest rates.


Gerdau North American credit terms to customers are generally based on customary market conditions and practices. The Company´s North American business is seasonal, with orders in the second and third quarters tending to be stronger than those in the first and fourth quarters, primarily due to weather-related slowdowns in the construction industry.


The Company´s Special Steel Operation in Spain has a Risk Committee that is responsible for analyzing customer credit. The United States and Brazil Special Steel Operations have their own credit departments for costumer’s credit analyses.


As a result of these policies, the Company’s provision for doubtful accounts has been at low levels. On December 31, 2013, provision for doubtful accounts was 2.4% based on gross account receivables as per Note 5 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, on December 31, 2012 was 2.3% and on December 31, 2011 this provision was 1.7% of gross account receivables. Gerdau has improved its credit approval controls and enhanced the reliability of its sales process through the use of risk indicators and internal controls.




The Company maintains insurance coverage in amounts that it believes suitable to cover the main risks of its operating activities. The Company has purchased insurance for its Ouro Branco mill to insure against operating losses, which covers amounts up to approximately US$ 5.0 billion (R$ 11.0 billion as of April 30, 2013), including material damage to installations (US$ 4.0 billion) and losses of gross revenues (US$ 1.0 billion), such as halts in production due to business interruptions caused by accidents for a period up to twelve months. The Company’s current insurance policy relating to the Ouro Branco mill remains effective until April 30, 2014. The Company’s mini-mills are also covered under insurance policies which insure against certain operational losses resulting from business interruptions.


Trade Investigations and Government Protectionism


Over the past several years, exports of steel products from various companies and countries, including Brazil, have been subject to antidumping, countervailing duties and other trade-related investigations in importing countries. Most of these investigations resulted in duties limiting the investigated companies’ ability to access such import markets. Until now, however, these investigations have not had a significant impact on the Company’s export volumes.



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Material effects of government regulation on the Company’s activities


The Company’s steel production activities are not subject to special authorizations other than the licenses and permits typical to the industry. The Company maintains a good relationship with the government agencies responsible for issuing common authorizations and does not have any history of problems in obtaining them.


Gerdau Aços Longos S.A. holds the concession for the Caçú and Barra dos Coqueiros hydroelectric plants, which have aggregate installed capacity of 155MW and are located in the southeastern region of the State of Goias between the cities of Caçi and Cachoeira Alta, as per concession contract number 089/2002.


Chopim Energia S.A. (50% direct and 50% through Itaguaí Comércio, Importação e Exportação Ltda.) holds the concession for the São João and Cachoeirinha Energy Complex, which corresponds to the São João and Cachoeirinha hydroelectric plants, which have aggregate installed capacity of 105 MW and are located in the southeastern region of the State of Paraná between the cities of Honório Serpa and Clevelândia, as per concession contract number 016/2002.


Gerdau S.A. holds an interest of 51.82% in the company Dona Francisca Energética S.A. - DFESA, which, in consortium with Companhia Estadual de Energia Elétrica — CEEE, holds the concession for the Dona Francisca Hydroelectric Plant located between the cities of Agudo and Nova Palma in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, which has installed capacity of 125 MW, as per concession contract 188/1998.


Gerdau Açominas S.A. is authorized to operate the Açominas Thermo Electric Power Plant (103 MW) located in its industrial complex in the city of Ouro Branco, as authorized by Administrative Rule (Portaria) 275/MME of February 23, 1984 and subsequent resolutions.


Activities involving the generation of electric power are subject to the rules and regulations of the National Electric Power Agency (ANEEL) and to oversight by the agency.  Operating Licenses, which are issued by the respective state environmental departments or agencies, are required to operate the hydroelectric plants, which must also comply with the obligations of the respective concession contracts. All projects in which the Company participates are functioning perfectly, with valid licenses and no objections to their operations.  The exception is Chopim, whose construction has yet to begin.


The commercial operation of ports is subject to authorization by the federal government, as regulated by Federal Law 12,815 of June 5, 2013. Gerdau has two Private Port Terminals Outside of Organized Port Areas located in Vitória, ES and Salvador, BA, which are known, respectively, as the Praia Mole Private Port and Mixed Use Terminal and the Gerdau Maritime Terminal.  The former, with Adhesion Contract 034/95, was signed on February 18, 1995, with duration of 25 years, which may be extended successively for equal periods, as provided for by law.  There is no specific description of cargoes, with authorization for the handling and/or storage in the TERMINAL of own and third-party cargo destined or originating from water transportation. The latter, with Adhesion Contract 064/98, was signed on November 17, 1995, with duration of 25 years, which may be extended successively for equal periods, as provided for by law, with the following cargo authorized: pelletized iron ore, natural iron ore, pig iron, scrap metal, manganese ore, coke, copper-alumina concentrate, blast furnace slag, clinker, iron ore, green petroleum coke, fertilizers and anthracite.


This authorization is subject to oversight by the National Water Transportation Agency (ANTAQ) and, alternatively, by the Special Department of Ports (SEP).


Gerdau’s mining explorations in Brazil are subject to the prevailing rules of the Brazilian Mining Code and un-codified mining legislation, with mining exploration substantiated by mining property rights and titles. Gerdau acquired the surface of the areas corresponding to the respective mining rights, as well as all other mining property rights and titles, through an Asset Sale and Rights Assignment Agreement entered into between Gerdau Açominas S.A. and Companhia Paraibunas de Metais, Siderúrgica Barra Mansa S.A., Votorantim Metais Ltda. and Votorantim International Holding N.V. on May 19, 2004. The Company’s mining explorations are subject to the limitations imposed by Brazil’s Federal Constitution and Mining Code and by the laws and regulations pertaining to exploration activities. The National Department of Mineral Production — DNPM - is responsible for concessions, regulations and oversight. Gerdau holds the ownership of all land and all mining property rights and titles for the mines it currently explores, as well as the respective environmental licenses to commercially operate the mines located in the cities of Miguel Burnier, Várzea do Lopes and Gongo Soco in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais. Brazil’s Mining Code and Federal Constitution impose on companies that conduct exploration activities, such as us, requirements concerning, among other things, the manner in which mineral deposits are used, worker health and safety, environmental protection and restoration, pollution prevention and the health and safety of the local communities where the mines are located. The Mining Code also imposes certain notification and reporting requirements.



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All mineral rights owned by Gerdau are duly registered in the DNPM, a federal Brazilian agency whose purpose is to promote planning and incentive activities for mineral exploitation and use of mineral resources, as well as overseeing geological, mineral, and mineral technology surveys, in addition to ensuring, controlling, and monitoring mining activities within the mining polygons. The mineral rights owned by Gerdau cover a total of 8,837.19 ha and the period of concessions is until the exhaustion of the deposits, on the condition that we perform legal requirements annually. The table below shows the DNPM processes owned by Gerdau:






















Barão de Cocais






Ouro Preto