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As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on March 20, 2023

 


UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 20-F

 

 

  REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR (g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

OR

 

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 

 

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022

 

OR

 

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

OR

 

SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

 

Date of event requiring this shell company report ________________

 

For the transition period from ___________ to ___________

 

Commission file number 001-34985

 

 

 

 

Globus Maritime Limited

(Exact name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)

 

 

 

 

 

Not Applicable

(Translation of Registrant’s name into English)

 

Republic of the Marshall Islands

(Jurisdiction of Incorporation or Organization)

 

128 Vouliagmenis Ave., 3rd Floor, 166 74 Glyfada, Attica, Greece

(Address of Principal Executive Offices)

 

Athanasios Feidakis

128 Vouliagmenis Avenue, 3rd Floor

166 74 Glyfada, Attica, Greece

Tel: +30 210 960 8300

Facsimile: +30 210 960 8359

(Name, Telephone, E-mail and/or Facsimile Number and Address of Company Contact Person)

 

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act.

 

Title of each class Trading Symbol Name of each exchange on which registered
     
Common Shares, par value $0.004 per share GLBS Nasdaq Capital Market

 

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act.

 

None

(Title of Class)

 

Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act.

 

None

(Title of Class)

 

Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report.

 

As of December 31, 2022, there were 20,582,301 of the registrant’s common shares outstanding and 10,300 Series B preferred shares outstanding.

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.

 

¨ Yes x No

 

If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

 

¨ Yes x No

 

Note – Checking the box above will not relieve any registrant required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 from their obligations under those Sections.

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.

 

x Yes ¨ No

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). 

x Yes ¨ No

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, or a non-accelerated filer. See definition of “accelerated filer and large accelerated filer” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

 

Large accelerated filer ¨ Accelerated filer ¨ Non-accelerated filer x
      Emerging Growth Company ¨

 

If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨

 

† The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. x

 

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements. ¨

 

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ¨

   

Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filling:

 

U.S. GAAP ¨ International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board x Other ¨

 

  

 

If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow. N/A  

 

¨ Item 17     ¨ Item 18

 

If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  ¨ Yes No

 

(APPLICABLE ONLY TO ISSUERS INVOLVED IN BANKRUPTCY PROCEEDINGS DURING THE PAST FIVE YEARS)

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed all documents and reports required to be filed by Sections 12, 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 subsequent to the distribution of securities under a plan confirmed by a court. N/A

 

¨ Yes ¨ No

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS 3
PART I 4
Item 1.  Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers 4
Item 2.  Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable 4
Item 3.  Key Information 4
Item 4.  Information on the Company 41
Item 4A.  Unresolved Staff Comments 65
Item 5.  Operating and Financial Review and Prospects 65
Item 6.  Directors, Senior Management and Employees 87
Item 7.  Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions 90
Item 8.  Financial Information 94
Item 9.  The Offer and Listing 95
Item 10.  Additional Information 95
Item 11.  Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk 116
Item 12.  Description of Securities Other than Equity Securities 117
PART II 117
Item 13.  Defaults, Dividend Arrearages and Delinquencies 117
Item 14.  Material Modifications to the Rights of Security Holders and Use of Proceeds 117
Item 15.  Controls and Procedures 118
Item 16A.  Audit Committee Financial Expert 120
Item 16B.  Code of Ethics 120
Item 16C.  Principal Accountant Fees and Services 120
Item 16D.  Exemptions from the Listing Standards for Audit Committees 121
Item 16E.  Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers 121
Item 16F.  Change in Registrant’s Certifying Accountant 121
Item 16G.  Corporate Governance 121
Item 16H.  Mining Safety Disclosure 122
Item 16I.  Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections 122
PART III 122
Item 17.  Financial Statements 122
Item 18.  Financial Statements 122
Item 19.  Exhibits 122

 

 2 
   

 

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This annual report on Form 20-F contains forward-looking statements and information within the meaning of U.S. securities laws and Globus Maritime Limited desires to take advantage of, among other things, the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 and is including this cautionary statement in connection with this safe harbor legislation.

 

Forward-looking statements provide our current expectations or forecasts of future events. Forward-looking statements include statements about our expectations, beliefs, plans, objectives, intentions, assumptions and other statements that are not historical facts or that are not present facts or conditions. Forward-looking statements and information can generally be identified by the use of forward-looking terminology or words, such as “anticipate,” “approximately,” “believe,” “continue,” “estimate,” “expect,” “forecast,” “intend,” “may,” “ongoing,” “pending,” “perceive,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “seeks,” “should,” “views” or similar words or phrases or variations thereon, or the negatives of those words or phrases, or statements that events, conditions or results “can,” “will,” “may,” “must,” “would,” “could” or “should” occur or be achieved and similar expressions in connection with any discussion, expectation or projection of future operating or financial performance, costs, regulations, events or trends. The absence of these words does not necessarily mean that a statement is not forward-looking. Forward-looking statements and information are based on management’s current expectations and assumptions, which are inherently subject to uncertainties, risks and changes in circumstances that are difficult to predict.

 

Without limiting the generality of the foregoing, all statements in this annual report on Form 20-F concerning or relating to estimated and projected earnings, margins, costs, expenses, expenditures, cash flows, growth rates, future financial results and liquidity are forward-looking statements. In addition, we, through our senior management, from time to time may make forward-looking public statements concerning our expected future operations and performance and other developments. Such forward-looking statements are necessarily estimates reflecting our best judgment based upon current information and involve a number of risks and uncertainties. Other factors may affect the accuracy of these forward-looking statements and our actual results may differ materially from the results anticipated in these forward-looking statements. While it is impossible to identify all such factors, factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those estimated by us may include, but are not limited to, those factors and conditions described under “Item 3.D. Risk Factors” as well as general conditions in the economy, dry bulk industry and capital markets and effects of COVID-19 and world conflicts. We undertake no obligation to revise any forward-looking statement to reflect circumstances or events after the date of this annual report on Form 20-F or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events or new information, other than any obligation to disclose material information under applicable securities laws. Forward-looking statements appear in a number of places in this annual report on Form 20-F including, without limitation, in the sections entitled “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects,” “Item 4.A. History and Development of the Company” and “Item 8.A. Consolidated Statements and Other Financial Information—Our Dividend Policy and Restrictions on Dividends.”

 

Terms Used in this Annual Report on Form 20-F

 

The “Company,” “Globus,” “Globus Maritime,” “we,” “our” and “us” refer to Globus Maritime Limited and its subsidiaries, unless the context otherwise requires.

 

References to our common shares are references to Globus Maritime Limited’s registered common shares, par value $0.004 per share, or, as applicable, the ordinary shares of Globus Maritime Limited prior to our redomiciliation into the Marshall Islands on November 24, 2010.

 

References to our Class B shares are references to Globus Maritime Limited’s registered Class B shares, par value $0.001 per share, none of which are currently outstanding. We refer to both our common shares and Class B shares as our shares. References to our shareholders are references to the holders of our common shares and Class B shares. References to our Series A Preferred Shares are references to our shares of Series A preferred stock, par value $0.001 per share, none of which were outstanding on December 31, 2021 and 2022 as well as on the date of this annual report on Form 20-F. References to our Series B Preferred Shares are references to our shares of Series B preferred stock, par value $0.001 per share.

 

On July 29, 2010, we effected a 1-4 reverse split of our common shares. On October 20, 2016, we effected a 1-4 reverse stock split which reduced the number of outstanding common shares from 10,510,741 to 2,627,674 shares (adjustments were made based on fractional shares). On October 15, 2018, the Company effected a 1-10 reverse stock split which reduced the number of outstanding common shares from 32,065,077 to 3,206,495 shares (adjustments were made based on fractional shares). On October 21, 2020, the Company effected a 1-100 reverse stock split which reduced number of outstanding common shares from 175,675,651 to 1,756,720 shares (adjustments were made based on fractional shares). Unless otherwise noted, all historical share numbers and per share amounts in this annual report on Form 20-F have been adjusted to give effect to these reverse splits.

Unless otherwise indicated, all references to “dollars” and “$” in this annual report on Form 20-F are to, and amounts are presented in, U.S. dollars. References to our ships, our vessels or out fleet relates to the ships that we own, unless context otherwise requires.

Rounding

 

Certain financial information has been rounded, and, as a result, certain totals shown in this annual report on Form 20-F may not equal the arithmetic sum of the figures that should otherwise aggregate to those totals.

 

 3 
   

 

PART I

 

Item 1.  Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers

 

Not Applicable.

 

Item 2.  Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable

 

Not Applicable.

 

Item 3.  Key Information

 

A. [Reserved]

 

B. Capitalization and Indebtedness

 

Not Applicable.

 

C.  Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds

 

Not Applicable.

 

D.  Risk Factors

 

This annual report on Form 20-F contains forward-looking statements and information within the meaning of U.S. securities laws that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results may differ materially from the results discussed in the forward-looking statements and information. Factors that may cause such a difference include those discussed below and elsewhere in this annual report on Form 20-F.

 

Some of the following risks relate principally to the industry in which we operate and our business in general. Other risks relate principally to the securities market and ownership of our common shares. The occurrence of any of the events described in this section could significantly and negatively affect our business, financial condition, operating results, and ability to pay dividends or the trading price of our common shares, and you may lose all or part of your investment. 

 

Summary of Risk Factors

 

Below is a summary of the principal factors that make an investment in our common stock speculative or risky. This summary does not address all of the risks that we face. Additional discussion of the risks summarized in this risk factor summary, and other risks that we face, can be found below under the headings “Risks relating to Our Industry,” “Company Specific Risk Factors” and “Risks Relating to our Common Shares” and should be carefully considered, together with other information in this Annual Report on Form 20-F and our other filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”), before making an investment decision regarding our common shares.

 

 4 
   

 

Risks relating to Our Industry

 

·The international dry bulk shipping industry is cyclical and volatile.

 

·The dry bulk vessel charter market remains significantly below its high in 2008.

 

·The international shipping industry and dry bulk market are highly competitive.

 

·Disruptions in global financial markets from terrorist attacks, regional armed conflicts, general political unrest, the emergence of a pandemic or epidemic crisis and the resulting governmental action could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.

 

·The current state of the global financial markets and current economic conditions may adversely impact the dry bulk shipping industry.

 

·An over-supply of dry bulk carrier capacity may depress charter rates.

 

·Our industry is subject to complex laws and regulations.

 

·Climate change and greenhouse gas restrictions may be imposed.

 

·Pending and future tax law changes may result in significant additional taxes to us.

 

·We are dependent on our charterers and other counterparties fulfilling their obligations under agreements with us, and their inability or unwillingness to honor these obligations could significantly reduce our revenues and cash flow.

 

·Capital expenditures and other costs necessary to operate and maintain our vessels may increase.

 

·Seasonal fluctuations in industry demand could affect us.

 

·Our insurance may not be adequate to cover our losses that may result from our operations.

 

·Our vessels are exposed to operational risks.

 

·We may be subject to funding calls by our protection and indemnity clubs, and our clubs may not have enough resources to cover claims made against them.

 

·We may be subject to increased inspection procedures, tighter import and export controls and new security regulations.

 

·Rising fuel prices may adversely affect our profits.

 

·Increases in crew costs may adversely affect our profits.

 

·Maritime claimants could arrest our vessels.

 

·Governments could requisition our vessels during a period of war or emergency.

 

·Compliance with safety and other vessel requirements imposed by classification societies may be costly.

 

·A further economic slowdown or changes in the economic, regulatory and political environment in the Asia Pacific region could reduce dry bulk trade demand.

 

 5 
   

·Pandemics such as the coronavirus (COVID-19) make it very difficult for us to operate in the short-term and have unpredictable long-term consequences, all of which could decrease the supply of and demand for the raw materials we transport, the rates that we are paid to carry our cargo, and our financial outlook.

 

·Sulphur regulations to reduce air pollution from ships may require retrofitting of vessels and may cause us to incur significant costs.

 

·A downturn in the worldwide economy may harm our business.

 

·Worldwide inflationary pressures could negatively impact our results of operations and cash flows.

 

·Environmental, social and governance matters may impact our business and reputation.

 

·The smuggling of drugs or other contraband onto our vessels may lead to governmental claims against us.

 

·Labor interruptions could disrupt our business.

 

Company Specific Risk Factors

·The market values of our vessels have fluctuated and have from time to time triggered certain financial covenants under our existing and potentially future loan and credit facilities.

 

·We may not be able to attract and retain key management personnel and other employees in the shipping industry.

 

·Our loan agreement contains, and we expect that future loan agreements and financing arrangements will contain, restrictive covenants that may limit our liquidity and corporate activities, which could limit our operational flexibility and have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. In addition, because of the presence of cross-default provisions in our loan agreement and the expectation that such will exist in any future loan agreements and financing arrangements, a default by us under one loan could lead to defaults under multiple loans.

 

·We cannot assure you that we will be able to refinance our existing indebtedness or obtain additional financing.

 

·We depend on short-term or spot charters in volatile shipping markets.

 

·We may be unable to successfully employ our vessels on long-term time charters or take advantage of favorable opportunities involving short-term or spot market charter rates.

 

·We conduct a substantial amount of business in China.

 

·As we expand our business, we may have difficulty improving our operating and financial systems and recruiting suitable employees and crew for our vessels.

 

·Our charterers may renegotiate or default on their charters.

 

· Contracts for newbuilding vessels present certain economic and other risks.

 

·The aging of our fleet may result in increased operating costs in the future.

 

·We may have difficulty managing our planned growth properly.

 

·Legislative or regulatory changes in Greece may adversely affect our results from operations.

 

·We rely on our information systems to conduct our business.

 

·A cyber-attack could materially disrupt our business.

 

·We expect that a limited number of financial institutions will hold our cash including financial institutions that may be located in Greece or the United States.

 

 6 
   

·Purchasing and operating secondhand vessels may result in increased operating costs and reduced fleet utilization.

 

·Management may be unable to provide reports as to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting or when applicable, our independent registered public accounting firm may be unable to provide us with unqualified attestation reports as to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting when required.

 

·Unless we set aside reserves or are able to raise or borrow funds for vessel replacement, at the end of a vessel’s useful life our revenues will decline.

 

·We depend upon a few significant customers for a large part of our revenues.

 

·We generate revenues from the trading of our vessels in U.S. dollars but incur a portion of our expenses in other currencies.

 

·If volatility in the Secured Overnight Financing Rate, or SOFR, occurs, it could affect our profitability, earnings and cash flow.

 

·We may have to pay tax on U.S. source shipping income.

 

·U.S. tax authorities could treat us as a “passive foreign investment company,” which could result in adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences to U.S. shareholders.

 

·We could face penalties under European Union, United States or other economic sanctions.

 

·Our vessels may call on ports subject to economic sanctions or embargoes.

 

·As a Marshall Islands corporation with principal executive offices in Greece, and also having subsidiaries in the Marshall Islands and other offshore jurisdictions such as Malta, our operations may be subject to economic substance requirements.

 

·It may be difficult to serve us with legal process or enforce judgments against us, our directors or our management.

 

·The international nature of our operations may make the outcome of any bankruptcy proceedings difficult to predict.

 

Risks Relating to our Common Shares

 

·Our stock price has been volatile and no assurance can be made that it will not substantially depreciate.

 

·We may issue additional common shares or other equity securities without shareholder approval, which would dilute our existing shareholders’ ownership interests and may depress the market price of our common shares.

 

·Future issuances or sales, or the potential for future issuances or sales, of our common shares may cause the trading price of our securities to decline and could impair our ability to raise capital through subsequent equity offerings.

 

·The market price of our common shares may be volatile, which could result in substantial losses for investors who purchase our shares; and the volatility in the stock prices of other companies may contribute to volatility in our stock price. 

 

·A possible “short squeeze” due to a sudden increase in demand of our common shares that largely exceeds supply may lead to further price volatility in our common shares.

 

·Our common shares could be delisted from Nasdaq, which could affect their market price and liquidity.

 

·Our ability to declare and pay dividends to holders of our common shares will depend on a number of factors and will always be subject to the discretion of our board of directors.

 

 7 
   

 

·We are a holding company, and we will depend on the ability of our subsidiaries to distribute funds to us in order to satisfy our financial obligations or to make dividend payments.

 

·Provisions of our articles of incorporation and bylaws may have anti-takeover effects, which could depress the trading price of our common shares.

 

·We are subject to Marshall Islands corporate law, which is not well-developed.

 

·Increases in interest rates may cause the market price of our shares to decline.

 

·The public market may not continue to be active and liquid enough for our shareholders to resell our common shares in the future.

 

Risks relating to Our Industry

 

The international dry bulk shipping industry is cyclical and volatile.

 

The international seaborne transportation industry is cyclical and has high volatility in charter rates, vessel values and profitability. Fluctuations in charter rates result from changes in the supply and demand for vessel capacity and changes in the supply and demand for energy resources, commodities, semi-finished and finished consumer and industrial products internationally carried at sea. Since the early part of 2009, rates have been volatile and low, relative to previous years. In the beginning of 2020, the rates continued to drop and came close to the all-time low, but substantially rebounded in 2020 and continued to increase in 2021, reaching in October 2021 the highest point since 2008. In 2022 the rates remained volatile reaching a peak during the second quarter, followed by a decreasing trend the next two quarters and remain at fairly depressed levels in the beginning of 2023. Currently eight of our vessels are chartered on short-term time charters or on the spot market, and we are exposed, therefore, to changes in spot market and short-term charter rates for dry bulk vessels and such changes affect our earnings and the value of our dry bulk vessels at any given time. The supply of and demand for shipping capacity strongly influences freight rates. The factors affecting the supply and demand for vessels are outside of our control, and the nature, timing and degree of changes in industry conditions are unpredictable.

 

Factors that influence demand for vessel capacity include:

 

port and canal congestion charges;

 

general dry bulk shipping market conditions, including fluctuations in charter hire rates and vessel values and demand for and production of dry bulk products;

 

global and regional economic and political conditions, including exchange rates, trade deals, conflicts and wars (including the Ukraine conflict), and the rate and geographic distributions of economic growth;

 

environmental and other regulatory developments;

 

the distance dry bulk cargoes are to be moved by sea;

 

changes in seaborne and other transportation patterns; and

 

natural disasters and/or world pandemics such as COVID-19.

 

Factors that influence the supply of vessel capacity include:

 

the size of the newbuilding orderbook;

 

the price of steel and vessel equipment;

 

technological advances in vessel design and capacity;

 

 8 
   

 

the number of newbuild deliveries, which among other factors relates to the ability of shipyards to deliver newbuilds by contracted delivery dates and the ability of purchasers to finance such newbuilds;

 

the scrapping rate of older vessels;

 

port and canal congestion;

 

the number of vessels that are in or out of service, including due to vessel casualties; and

 

changes in environmental and other regulations that may limit the useful lives of vessels.

 

In addition to the prevailing and anticipated freight rates, factors that affect the rate of newbuilding, scrapping and laying-up include newbuilding prices, secondhand vessel values in relation to scrap prices, costs of bunkers and other operating costs, costs associated with classification society surveys, normal maintenance costs, insurance coverage costs, the efficiency and age profile of the existing dry bulk fleet in the market, and government and industry regulation of maritime transportation practices, particularly environmental protection laws and regulations. These factors influencing the supply of and demand for shipping capacity are outside of our control, and we may not be able to correctly assess the nature, timing and degree of changes in industry conditions.

 

We anticipate that the future demand for our dry bulk vessels and charter rates will be dependent upon continued economic growth in the world’s economies, seasonal and regional changes in demand and changes to the capacity of the global dry bulk vessel fleet and the sources and supply of dry bulk cargo to be transported by sea. Adverse economic, political, social or other developments could negatively impact charter rates and therefore have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and ability to pay dividends. We may also decide that it makes economic sense to lay up one or more vessels. While our vessels are laid up, we will pay lay-up costs, but those vessels will not be able to earn any hire.

 

The dry bulk vessel charter market remains significantly below its high in 2008.

 

The revenues, earnings and profitability of companies in our industry are affected by the charter rates that can be obtained in the market, which is volatile and has experienced significant declines since its highs in 2008. The Baltic Dry Index, or the BDI, which is published daily by the Baltic Exchange Limited, or the Baltic Exchange, a London-based membership organization that provides daily shipping market information to the global investing community, is an average of selected ship brokers’ assessments of time charter rates paid by a customer to hire a dry bulk vessel to transport dry bulk cargoes by sea. The BDI has long been viewed as the main benchmark to monitor the movements of the dry bulk vessel charter market and the performance of the entire dry bulk shipping market. The BDI declined from an all-time high of 11,793 in May 2008 to a low of 663 in December 2008, which represents a decline of 94% within a single calendar year. Since 2009, the BDI has remained fairly depressed compared to historical numbers. The BDI reached a new all-time low of 290 on February 10, 2016. The BDI remained significantly depressed from 2008-2019. In 2021, the BDI rose to a high of 5,650 on October 7, 2021 and had a low of 1,303 on February 10, 2021. In 2022, the BDI ranged from a low of 965 on August 31, 2022 to a high of 3,369 on May 23, 2022. During calendar year 2023 to March 14, 2023, the BDI has ranged from a high of 1,587 (on March 14, 2023) to a low of 601 (on February 7, 2023).  

 

The decline and volatility in charter rates in the dry bulk market also affects the value of our dry bulk vessels, which generally follows the trends of dry bulk charter rates, and earnings on our charters, and similarly affects our cash flows, liquidity and compliance with the covenants contained in our loan arrangements. 

 

The international shipping industry and dry bulk market are highly competitive.

 

The shipping industry and dry bulk market are capital intensive and highly fragmented with many charterers, owners and operators of vessels and are characterized by intense competition. Competition arises primarily from other vessel owners, some of whom have substantially greater resources than we do. The trend towards consolidation in the industry is creating an increasing number of global enterprises capable of competing in multiple markets, which may result in a greater competitive threat to us. Our competitors may be better positioned to devote greater resources to the development, promotion and employment of their businesses than we are. Competition for the transportation of cargo by sea is intense and depends on customer relationships, operating expertise, professional reputation, price, location, size, age, environmental, social, and governance criteria, condition and the acceptability of the vessel and its operators to the charterers. Competition may increase in some or all of our principal markets, including with the entry of new competitors, who may operate larger fleets through consolidations or acquisitions and may be able to sustain lower charter rates and offer higher quality vessels than we are able to offer. We may not be able to continue to compete successfully or effectively with our competitors and our competitive position may be eroded in the future, which could have an adverse effect on our fleet utilization and, accordingly, business, financial condition, results of operations and ability to pay dividends.

 

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Disruptions in global financial markets from terrorist attacks, regional armed conflicts, general political unrest, the emergence of a pandemic or epidemic crisis and the resulting governmental action could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.

 

Continuing war and recent developments in Ukraine, the Middle East, including tensions between the U.S. and Iran, as well as other geographic countries and areas, terrorist or other attacks, and war (or threatened war) or international hostilities, such as the ones currently in progress between Russia and Ukraine, China and Taiwan, or the U.S. and North Korea, have recently and may in the future lead to armed conflict or acts of terrorism around the world continue to cause uncertainty and volatility in the world financial markets and may affect our business, results of operations and financial condition. Additionally, continuing concerns relating geopolitical events such as the previous withdrawal of the U.K. from the European Union, or Brexit and concerns regarding any lingering effects of the COVID-19 pandemic or the emergence of other viral outbreaks have led to increased volatility in global credit and equity markets. These uncertainties could also adversely affect our ability to obtain additional financing on terms acceptable to us or at all. In the past, political conflicts have also resulted in attacks on vessels, mining of waterways and other efforts to disrupt international shipping, particularly in the Arabian Gulf region. These types of attacks have also affected vessels trading in regions such as the Black Sea, South China Sea and the Gulf of Aden off the coast of Somalia. The IMO’s extraordinary council session held on March 10-11, 2022 addressed the impacts on shipping and seafarers, as a result of the war in Ukraine. The IMO called for the need to preserve the integrity of maritime supply chains and the safety and welfare of seafarers and any spillover effects of the military action on global shipping, logistics and supply chains, in particular the impacts on the delivery of commodities and food to developing nations and the impacts on energy supplies. Any of these occurrences could have a material adverse impact on our operating results, revenues and costs.

 

The conflict between Russia and Ukraine, which commenced in February 2022, has disrupted supply chains and caused instability and significant volatility in the global economy. Much uncertainty remains regarding the global impact of the conflict in Ukraine, and it is possible that such instability, uncertainty and resulting volatility could significantly increase our costs and adversely affect our business, including our ability to secure charters and financing on attractive terms, and as a result, adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operation and cash flows.

 

As a result of the conflict between Russia and Ukraine, Switzerland, the United States, the European Union, the United Kingdom and others have announced unprecedented levels of sanctions and other measures against Russia and certain Russian entities and nationals. Such sanctions against Russia may adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operation and cash flows. For example, apart from the immediate commercial disruptions caused in the conflict zone, escalating tensions and fears of potential shortages in the supply of Russian crude have caused the price of oil to trade above historical pricing. The ongoing conflict could result in the imposition of further economic sanctions against Russia, with uncertain impacts on the dry bulk market and the world economy. While we do not have any Ukrainian or Russian crew and our vessels currently do not sail in the Black Sea, it is possible that the conflict in Ukraine, including any increased shipping costs, disruptions of global shipping routes, any impact on the global supply chain and any impact on current or potential customers caused by the events in Russia and Ukraine, could adversely affect our operations or financial performance. Due to the recent nature of these activities, the full impact on our business is not yet known.

 

Brexit further increases the risk of additional trade protectionism. Brexit, or similar events in other jurisdictions, could continue to impact global markets, including foreign exchange and securities markets; any resulting changes in currency exchange rates, tariffs, treaties and other regulatory matters could in turn adversely impact our business, cash flows and operations.

 

Further, as a result of the economic situation in Greece, which has been slowly recovering from the sovereign crisis and the related austerity measures implemented by the Greek government and the influx of refugees from Syria and other areas, the operations of our Manager located in Greece may be subjected to new regulations and potential shift in government policies that may require us to incur new or additional compliance or other administrative costs and may require the payment of new taxes or other fees. We also face the risk that strikes, work stoppages, civil unrest and violence within Greece could disrupt the shoreside operations of our Manager located in Greece.

 

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In addition, global financial markets and economic conditions have been severely disrupted and volatile in recent years and remain subject to significant vulnerabilities, such as the deterioration of fiscal balances and the rapid accumulation of public debt, continued deleveraging in the banking sector and a limited supply of credit. Credit markets as well as the debt and equity capital markets were exceedingly distressed during 2008 and 2009 and have been volatile since that time. The resulting uncertainty and volatility in the global financial markets may accordingly affect our business, results of operations and financial condition. These uncertainties, as well as future hostilities or other political instability in regions where our vessels trade, could also affect trade volumes and patterns and adversely affect our operations, and otherwise have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition, as well as our cash flows and cash available for distributions to our shareholders.

 

Specifically, these issues, along with the re-pricing of credit risk and the difficulties currently experienced by financial institutions, have made, and will likely continue to make it difficult to obtain financing. As a result of the disruptions in the credit markets and higher capital requirements, many lenders have increased margins on lending rates, enacted tighter lending standards, required more restrictive terms (including higher collateral ratios for advances, shorter maturities and smaller loan amounts), or have refused to refinance existing debt at all. Furthermore, certain banks that have historically been significant lenders to the shipping industry have reduced or ceased lending activities in the shipping industry. Additional tightening of capital requirements and the resulting policies adopted by lenders could further reduce lending activities. We may experience difficulties obtaining financing commitments or be unable to fully draw on the capacity under our committed term loans in the future if our lenders are unwilling to extend financing to us or unable to meet their funding obligations due to their own liquidity, capital or solvency issues. We cannot be certain that financing will be available on acceptable terms or at all. If financing is not available when needed, or is available only on unfavorable terms, we may be unable to meet our future obligations as they come due. Our failure to obtain such funds could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition, as well as our cash flows, including cash available for distributions to our shareholders. In the absence of available financing, we also may be unable to take advantage of business opportunities or respond to competitive pressures.

 

An over-supply of dry bulk carrier capacity may depress charter rates.

 

An oversupply of dry bulk vessel capacity, particularly during a period of economic recession, may result in a reduction of charter hire rates. If we cannot enter into charters on acceptable terms, we may have to secure charters on the short-term or spot market, where charter rates are more volatile and revenues are, therefore, less predictable, or we may not be able to charter our vessels at all. In addition, a material increase in the net supply of dry bulk vessel capacity without corresponding growth in dry bulk vessel demand could have a material adverse effect on our fleet utilization (including ballast days) and our charter rates generally, and could, accordingly, materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and ability to pay dividends. An uptick in charter rates generally discourages scrapping older vessels, but recent regulatory actions have increased the economic incentive to scrap certain older vessels. Accordingly, it remains to be seen in 2023 whether the number of worldwide dry bulk carrying capacity, net of scrapped vessels, will increase.

 

We may also decide that it makes economic sense to lay up one or more vessels. While our vessels are laid up, we will pay lay-up costs, but those vessels will not be able to earn any hire. 

 

Our industry is subject to complex laws and regulations.

 

Our operations are subject to numerous laws and regulations in the form of international conventions and treaties, national, state and local laws and national and international regulations in force in the jurisdictions in which our vessels operate or are registered, which can significantly affect the ownership and operation of our vessels. These requirements include but are not limited to: U.S. Oil Pollution Act 1990, as amended, which we refer to as OPA; International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974, as amended, which we refer to as SOLAS; International Convention on Load Lines, 1966; International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as amended by the 1978 Protocol, which we refer to as MARPOL; International Convention on Civil Liability for Bunker Oil Pollution Damage, 2001, which we refer to as the Bunker Convention; International Convention on Liability and Compensation for Damage in Connection with the Carriage of Hazardous and Noxious Substances by Sea, 1996, as superseded by the 2010 Protocol, which we refer to as the HNS Convention; International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage of 1969, as amended by the 1992 Protocol and further amended in 2000, which we refer to as the CLC; International Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund for Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage, 1971, as amended, which we refer to as the Fund Convention; and Marine Transportation Security Act of 2002, which we refer to as the MTSA.

 

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Government regulation of vessels, particularly in the area of environmental requirements, can be expected to become more stringent in the future and could require us to incur significant capital expenditures on our vessels to keep them in compliance, or even to scrap or sell certain vessels altogether. Compliance with such laws, regulations and standards, where applicable, may require installation of costly equipment or operational changes and increased management costs and may affect the resale value or useful lives of our vessels. We may also incur additional costs in order to comply with other existing and future regulatory obligations, including, but not limited to, costs relating to air emissions, the management of ballast water, recycling of vessels, maintenance and inspection, elimination of tin-based paint, development and implementation of safety and emergency procedures and insurance coverage or other financial assurance of our ability to address pollution incidents. For instance, the International Maritime Organization (“IMO”) global 0.5% sulphur cap on marine fuels came into force on January 1, 2020, as stipulated in 2008 amendments to Annex VI to the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from ships (“MARPOL”). Our vessels require pricier low-sulphur fuel, which may reduce the amount charterers are willing to pay to charter our vessels. In addition, on January 1, 2023, regulations came into force that aim to reduce carbon emissions from both new and existing ships as measured by two main energy efficiency indicators. Ships that fail to comply with the these 2023 regulations may be subject to penalties and require modifications to the ship to ensure compliance. It is difficult to determine the cost, if any, until our ships’ performance is measured in accordance with these new regulations. If our ships fail to comply with the IMO 2023 regulations or otherwise do not have good performance, this can result in penalties and require modifications to the ship to ensure compliance. Any such modifications may be costly and those ships will be offhire during any period of modification. These and other costs could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition and our ability to pay dividends.

 

These requirements can also affect the resale prices or useful lives of our vessels or require reductions in capacity, vessel modifications or operational changes or restrictions. Failure to comply with these requirements could lead to decreased availability of or more costly insurance coverage for environmental matters or result in the denial of access to certain jurisdictional waters or ports, or detention in certain ports. Under local, national and foreign laws, as well as international treaties and conventions, we could incur material liabilities, including cleanup obligations and claims for impairment of the environment, personal injury and property damages in the event that there is a release of petroleum or other hazardous materials from our vessels or otherwise in connection with our operations. Violations of, or liabilities under, environmental regulations can result in substantial penalties, fines and other sanctions, including, in certain instances, seizure or detention of our vessels. Events of this nature would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

The operation of our vessels is affected by the requirements set forth in the International Management Code for the Safe Operation of Ships and for Pollution Prevention, or ISM Code. The ISM Code requires the party with operational control of the vessel to develop, implement and maintain an extensive “Safety Management System” that includes, among other things, the adoption of a safety and environmental protection policy setting forth instructions and procedures for safe vessel operation and protection of the environment and describing procedures for dealing with emergencies. Further details in relation to the ISM Code are set out below in the section headed “Environmental and Other Regulations.” The failure of a shipowner or bareboat charterer to comply with the ISM Code may subject it to increased liability, and, if the implementing legislation so provides, to criminal sanctions, may invalidate or result in the loss of existing insurance or decrease available insurance coverage for the affected vessels and may result in a denial of access to, or detention in, certain ports. In addition, if we fail to maintain ISM Code certification for our vessels, we may also breach covenants in our CIT Loan Facility that require that our vessels be ISM-Code certified. If we breach such covenants due to failure to maintain ISM Code certification and are unable to remedy the relevant breach, our lender could accelerate our indebtedness and foreclose on the vessels in our fleet securing the CIT Loan Facility. As of the date of this annual report on Form 20-F, each of our vessels is ISM Code-certified.

 

Climate change and greenhouse gas restrictions.

Due to concern over the risk of climate change, a number of countries and the IMO have adopted, or are considering the adoption of, regulatory frameworks to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. These regulatory measures may include, among others, adoption of cap and trade regimes, carbon taxes, increased efficiency standards and incentives or mandates for renewable energy. For instance, the IMO imposed a global 0.5% sulphur cap on marine fuels which came into force on January 1, 2020. Our vessels do not have scrubbers and use low-sulphur fuel instead, and now may require pricier low-sulphur fuel, which may reduce the amount charterers are willing to pay to charter our vessels. In addition, charterers may focus on how environmentally friendly our vessels are, generally, and our rates may be adjusted downwards accordingly.

 

We discuss this further in this annual report on Form 20-F. See “Item 4.B. Business Overview—Environmental and Other Regulations—Regulations to Prevent Pollution from Ships” and “Item 3.D. Risk Factors—Risks Relating to our Industry—Our industry is subject to complex laws and regulations.”

 

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In addition, although the emissions of greenhouse gases from international shipping currently are not subject to the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (this task was delegated under the Kyoto Protocol to the IMO for action), which required adopting countries to implement national programs to reduce emissions of certain gases, a new treaty may be adopted in the future that includes restrictions on shipping emissions. Compliance with changes in laws, regulations and obligations relating to climate change could increase our costs related to operating and maintaining our vessels and require us to install new emission controls, acquire allowances or pay taxes related to our greenhouse gas emissions, or administer and manage a greenhouse gas emissions program. Revenue generation and strategic growth opportunities may also be adversely affected, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition and our ability to pay dividends. 

 

Pending and future tax law changes may result in significant additional taxes to us.

 

Pending and future tax law changes may result in significant additional taxes to us. For example, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development published a “Programme of Work,” which was divided into two pillars. Pillar One focused on the allocation of group profits among taxing jurisdictions based on a market-based concept rather than the historical “permanent establishment” concept. Pillar Two, among other things, introduced a global minimum tax. The foregoing proposals (in the event international consensus is achieved and implementing laws are adopted) and other possible future tax changes may have an adverse impact on us. Any requirement or legislation that requires us to pay more tax could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition and our ability to pay dividends.

 

We are dependent on our charterers and other counterparties fulfilling their obligations under agreements with us, and their inability or unwillingness to honor these obligations could significantly reduce our revenues and cash flow.

 

Payments to us by our charterers under time charters are and will be our sole source of operating cash flow. Weaknesses in demand for shipping services, increased operating costs due to changes in environmental or other regulations and the oversupply of large vessels as well as the oversupply of smaller size vessels due to a cascading effect would place certain of our customers under financial pressure. Any declines in demand could result in worsening financial challenges to our customers and may increase the likelihood of one or more of our customers being unable or unwilling to pay us contracted charter rates or going bankrupt.

 

If we lose a time charter because the charterer is unable to pay us or for any other reason, we may be unable to re-deploy the related vessel on similarly favorable terms or at all. Also, we will not receive any revenues from such a vessel while it is un-chartered, but we will be required to pay expenses necessary to maintain and insure the vessel and service any indebtedness on it. The combination of any surplus of dry bulk vessel capacity, the expected entry into service of new technologically advanced ships, and the expected increase in the size of the world dry bulk fleet over the next few years may make it difficult to secure substitute employment for any of our vessels if our counterparties fail to perform their obligations under the currently arranged time charters, and any new charter arrangements we are able to secure may be at lower rates. Furthermore, the surplus of dry bulk vessels available at lower charter rates could negatively affect our charterers’ willingness to perform their obligations under our time charters, particularly if the charter rates in such time charters are significantly above the prevailing market rates. Accordingly, we may have to grant concessions to our charterers in the form of lower charter rates for the remaining duration of the relevant charter or part thereof, or to agree to re-charter vessels coming off charter at reduced rates compared to the charter then ended. Because we enter into short-term and medium-term time charters from time-to-time, we may need to re-charter vessels coming off charter more frequently than some of our competitors, which may have a material adverse effect on business, results of operations and financial condition, as well as our cash flows, including cash available for distributions to our shareholders.

 

The loss of any of our charterers, time charters or vessels, or a decline in payments under our time charters, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition, as well as our cash flows, including cash available for distributions to our shareholders.

 

In addition to charter parties, we may, among other things, enter into contracts for the sale or purchase of secondhand dry bulk vessels or shipbuilding contracts for newbuildings, provide performance guarantees relating to shipbuilding contracts to sale and purchase contracts or to charters, enter into credit facilities or other financing arrangements, accept commitment letters from banks, or enter into insurance contracts and interest or exchange rate swaps or enter into joint ventures. Such agreements expose us to counterparty credit risk. The ability and willingness of each of our counterparties to perform its obligations under a contract with us will depend upon a number of factors that are beyond our control and may include, among other things, general economic conditions, the state of the capital markets, the condition of the ocean-going dry bulk shipping industry and charter hire rates. Should a counterparty fail to honor its obligations under agreements with us, we could sustain significant losses, which in turn could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition, as well as our cash flows, including cash available for distributions to our shareholders.

 

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Capital expenditures and other costs necessary to operate and maintain our vessels may increase.

 

Changes in safety or other equipment standards, as well as compliance with standards imposed by maritime self-regulatory organizations and customer requirements or competition, may require us to make additional expenditures. In order to satisfy these requirements, we may, from time to time, be required to take our vessels out of service for extended periods of time, with corresponding losses of revenues. In the future, market conditions may not justify these expenditures or enable us to operate some or all of our vessels profitably during the remainder of their economic lives.

 

Seasonal fluctuations in industry demand could affect us.

 

We operate our vessels in markets that have historically exhibited seasonal variations in demand and, as a result, in charter rates. This seasonality may result in quarter-to-quarter volatility in our results of operations, which could affect the amount of dividends, if any, that we pay to our shareholders. The market for marine dry bulk transportation services is typically stronger in the fall and winter months in anticipation of increased consumption of coal and other raw materials in the northern hemisphere during the winter months. In addition, unpredictable weather patterns in these months tend to disrupt vessel scheduling and supplies of certain commodities. This seasonality could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

We may also decide that it makes economic sense to lay up one or more vessels. While our vessels are laid up, we will pay lay-up costs, but those vessels will not be able to earn any hire. 

 

Our insurance may not be adequate to cover our losses that may result from our operations.

 

We carry insurance to protect us against most of the accident-related risks involved in the conduct of our business, including marine hull and machinery insurance, war risk insurance, protection and indemnity insurance, which includes pollution risks, crew insurance and war risk insurance. However, we may not be adequately insured to cover losses from our operational risks, which could have a material adverse effect on us. Additionally, our insurers may refuse to pay particular claims and our insurance may be voidable by the insurers if we take, or fail to take, certain action, such as failing to maintain certification of our vessels with applicable maritime regulatory organizations. Any significant uninsured or underinsured loss or liability could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition and our ability to pay dividends. It may also result in protracted legal litigation. In addition, we may not be able to obtain adequate insurance coverage at reasonable rates in the future during adverse insurance market conditions. We maintain, for each of our vessels, pollution liability coverage insurance for $1.0 billion per event. If damages from a catastrophic spill exceed our insurance coverage, it would have a materially adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition and our ability to pay dividends to our shareholders.

 

Moreover, insurers have over the last few years increased premiums and reduced or restricted coverage for losses caused by terrorist acts generally.

 

In addition, we do not currently carry and may not carry loss-of-hire insurance, which covers the loss of revenue during extended vessel off-hire periods, such as those that occur during an unscheduled drydocking due to damage to the vessel from accidents. Accordingly, any loss of a vessel or extended vessel off-hire, due to an accident or otherwise, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and our ability to pay dividends.

 

Our vessels are exposed to operational risks.

 

The operation of any vessel includes risks such as weather conditions, mechanical failure, collision, fire, contact with floating objects, cargo or property loss or damage and business interruption due to political circumstances in countries, piracy, terrorist attacks, armed hostilities and labor strikes. Such occurrences could result in death or injury to persons, loss, damage or destruction of property or environmental damage, delays in the delivery of cargo, loss of revenues from or termination of charter contracts, governmental fines, penalties or restrictions on conducting business, higher insurance rates and damage to our reputation and customer relationships generally.

 

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In the past, political conflicts have also resulted in attacks on vessels, mining of waterways and other efforts to disrupt international shipping, particularly in the Arabian Gulf region. Acts of terrorism and piracy have also affected vessels trading in regions such as the South China Sea, the Gulf of Aden and parts of the Indian Ocean and West Africa. Continuing conflicts and recent developments in the Middle East and North Africa, including Egypt, Syria, Iran, Iraq and Libya, the recent conflict in Ukraine, and the presence of United States and other armed forces in the Middle East and Asia could produce armed conflict or be the target of terrorist attacks, and lead to civil disturbance and uncertainty in financial markets. If these attacks and other disruptions result in areas where our vessels are deployed being characterized by insurers as “war risk” zones or Joint War Committee “war, strikes, terrorism and related perils” listed areas, premiums payable for such coverage could increase significantly and such insurance coverage may be more difficult or impossible to obtain. In addition, we face the risk of a marine disaster, which could include an oil spill and other environmental damage. Although our vessels carry a relatively small amount of oil used for fuel (“bunkers”), a spill of oil from one of our vessels or losses as a result of fire or explosion could be catastrophic under certain circumstances.

 

The operation of certain vessel types, such as dry bulk vessels, also carry certain unique risks. With a dry bulk vessel, the cargo itself and its interaction with the vessel can be a risk factor. By their nature, dry bulk cargoes are often heavy, dense, easily shifted and react badly to water exposure. In addition, dry bulk vessels are often subjected to battering during unloading operations with grabs, jackhammers (to pry encrusted cargoes out of the hold) and small bulldozers. This may cause damage to the vessel. Vessels damaged due to treatment during unloading procedures may be more susceptible to breach while at sea. Hull breaches in dry bulk vessels may lead to the flooding of the vessels holds. If a dry bulk vessel suffers flooding in its forward holds, the bulk cargo may become so dense and waterlogged that its pressure may buckle the vessels bulkheads leading to the loss of a vessel. If we are unable to adequately maintain our vessels, we may be unable to prevent these events. Any of these circumstances or events could negatively impact our business, financial condition, results of operations and ability to pay dividends. In addition, the loss of any of our vessels could harm our reputation as a safe and reliable vessel owner and operator.

 

We may not be adequately insured against all risks, and our insurers may not pay particular claims. With respect to war risks insurance, which we usually obtain for certain of our vessels making port calls in designated war zone areas, such insurance may not be obtained prior to one of our vessels entering into an actual war zone, which could result in that vessel not being insured. Even if our insurance coverage is adequate to cover our losses, we may not be able to timely obtain a replacement vessel in the event of a loss. Under the terms of the CIT Loan Facility, we will be subject to restrictions on the use of any proceeds we may receive from claims under our insurance policies. Furthermore, in the future, we may not be able to maintain or obtain adequate insurance coverage at reasonable rates for our fleet. We may also be subject to calls, or premiums, in amounts based not only on our own claim records but also the claim records of all other members of the protection and indemnity associations through which we receive indemnity insurance coverage for tort liability. Our insurance policies also contain deductibles, limitations and exclusions which may increase our costs in the event of a claim or decrease any recovery in the event of a loss. If the damages from a catastrophic oil spill or other marine disaster exceeded our insurance coverage, the payment of those damages could have a material adverse effect on our business and could possibly result in our insolvency.

 

In general, we do not carry loss of hire insurance. Occasionally, we may decide to carry loss of hire insurance when our vessels are trading in areas where a history of piracy has been reported. Loss of hire insurance covers the loss of revenue during extended vessel off-hire periods, such as those that could occur during an unscheduled drydocking, unscheduled repairs due to damage to the vessel, or as a result of acts of piracy. Accordingly, any loss of a vessel or any extended period of vessel off- hire, due to an incident, accident or otherwise, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

We may also decide that it makes economic sense to lay up one or more vessels. While our vessels are laid up, we will pay lay-up costs, but those vessels will not be able to earn any hire.

 

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We may be subject to funding calls by our protection and indemnity clubs, and our clubs may not have enough resources to cover claims made against them.

 

We are indemnified for legal liabilities incurred while operating our vessels through membership of protection and indemnity, or P&I, associations, otherwise known as P&I clubs. P&I clubs are mutual insurance clubs whose members must contribute to cover losses sustained by other club members. The objective of a P&I club is to provide mutual insurance based on the aggregate tonnage of a member’s vessels entered into the club. Claims are paid through the aggregate premiums of all members of the club, although members remain subject to calls for additional funds if the aggregate premiums are insufficient to cover claims submitted to the club. Claims submitted to the club may include those incurred by members of the club, as well as claims submitted by other P&I clubs with which our club has entered into interclub agreements. We cannot assure you that the P&I club to which we belong will remain viable or that we will not become subject to additional funding calls, which could adversely affect us. 

 

We may be subject to increased inspection procedures, tighter import and export controls and new security regulations.

 

International shipping is subject to various security and customs inspection and related procedures in countries of origin and destination and trans-shipment points. Inspection procedures can result in the seizure of the cargo and contents of our vessels, delays in the loading, offloading or delivery and the levying of customs duties, fines or other penalties against us. It is possible that changes to inspection procedures could impose additional financial and legal obligations on us. Furthermore, changes to inspection procedures could also impose additional costs and obligations on our customers and may, in certain cases, render the shipment of certain types of cargo impractical. Any such changes or developments may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and our ability to pay dividends.

 

Rising fuel prices may adversely affect our profits.

 

Fuel is a significant, if not the largest, expense if vessels are under voyage charter or if consumed during ballast days. Moreover, the cost of fuel will affect the profit we can earn on the short-term or spot market. Upon redelivery of vessels at the end of a time charter, we may be obliged to repurchase the fuel on board at prevailing market prices, which could be materially higher than fuel prices at the inception of the time charter period. As a result, an increase in the price of fuel may adversely affect our profitability. The price and supply of fuel is unpredictable and fluctuates based on events outside our control, including geopolitical events, supply and demand for oil and gas, actions by the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries and other oil and gas producers, war and unrest in oil producing countries and regions, regional production patterns and environmental concerns. Further, fuel has or may become much more expensive in the future, including as a result of the developments in Ukraine and the sanctions against Russia, the imposition of sulfur oxide emissions limits in January 2020 and reductions of carbon emissions from January 2023 under new regulations adopted by the International Maritime Organization, or the IMO, which may reduce the profitability and competitiveness of our business versus other forms of transportation, such as truck or rail.

 

As a result of the sulfur oxide emissions limits, because we do not have scrubbers on our vessels, our vessels require pricier low-sulfur fuel, which may reduce the amount charterers are willing to pay to charter our vessels. This could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition and our ability to pay dividends. 

 

Increases in crew costs may adversely affect our profits.

 

Crew costs are a significant expense for us under our charters. There is a limited supply of well-qualified crew. We generally bear crewing costs under our charters. Increases in crew costs may adversely affect our profitability. In addition, labor disputes or unrest, including work stoppages, strikes and/or work disruptions or increases imposed by collective bargaining agreements covering the majority of our officers on board our vessels could result in higher personnel costs and significantly affect our financial performance. Furthermore, while we do not have any Ukrainian or Russian crew and the Company's vessels currently do not sail in the Black Sea, the extent to which this will impact the Company’s future results of operations and financial condition will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted. Changes in labor laws and regulations, collective bargaining negotiations and labor disputes, and potential shortage of crew due to the conflict between Russia and Ukraine, could increase our crew costs and have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows, financial condition and ability to pay dividends.

 

Maritime claimants could arrest our vessels.

 

Crew members, suppliers of goods and services to a vessel, shippers of cargo and other parties may be entitled to a maritime lien against a vessel, or other assets of the relevant vessel-owning company, for unsatisfied debts, claims or damages even if we are not at fault, for example, if we pay a supplier for bunkers who subcontracts the supply and does not pay such subcontractor. In many jurisdictions, a claimant may seek to obtain security for its claim by arresting a vessel through foreclosure proceedings. The arrest or attachment of one or more of our vessels, could cause us to default on a charter, breach covenants in the CIT Loan Facility, interrupt our cash flow and require us to pay large sums of money to have the arrest or attachment lifted. Please see “Item 5.B. Liquidity and Capital Resources—Indebtedness” for further information.

 

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In addition, in some jurisdictions, such as South Africa, under the “sister ship” theory of liability, a claimant may arrest both the vessel which is subject to the claimant’s maritime lien and any “associated” vessel, which is any vessel owned or controlled by the same owner. Claimants could attempt to assert “sister ship” liability against one vessel in our fleet for claims relating to another of our vessels. 

 

Governments could requisition our vessels during a period of war or emergency.

 

A government could requisition one or more of our vessels for title or for hire. Requisition for title occurs when a government takes control of a vessel and becomes the owner. Requisition for hire occurs when a government takes control of a vessel and effectively becomes the charterer at dictated charter rates. Generally, requisitions occur during a period of war or emergency, although governments may elect to requisition vessels in other circumstances. Even if we would be entitled to compensation in the event of a requisition of one or more of our vessels, the amount and timing of payment would be uncertain. Government requisition of one or more of our vessels may negatively impact our business, financial condition, results of operations and ability to pay dividends.

 

Compliance with safety and other vessel requirements imposed by classification societies may be costly.

 

The hull and machinery of every commercial vessel must be certified as safe and seaworthy in accordance with applicable rules and regulations, and accordingly vessels must undergo regular surveys. All of the vessels that we operate or manage are classed by one of the major classification societies, including Nippon Kaiji Kyokai (Class NK), DNV GL, Lloyds and ABS. Vessels must undergo annual surveys, immediate surveys and special surveys. In lieu of a special survey, a vessel’s machinery may be on a continuous survey cycle, under which the machinery would be surveyed over a five-year period. Our vessels are on special survey cycles for hull inspection and continuous survey cycles for machinery inspection. Every vessel is also required to be drydocked every two to three years for inspection of its underwater parts. If any vessel does not maintain its class and/or fails any annual, intermediate or special survey, certain covenants in the CIT Loan Facility or future credit arrangements may be triggered, including as a result of the vessel being unable to trade between ports and being unemployable. Such an occurrence could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations and ability to pay dividends. Please see “Item 5.B. Liquidity and Capital Resources—Indebtedness” for further information. 

 

A further economic slowdown or changes in the economic, regulatory and political environment in the Asia Pacific region could reduce dry bulk trade demand.

 

A significant number of the port calls made by our vessels involve the transportation of dry bulk products to ports in the Asia Pacific region. As a result, continued economic slowdown in the region or changes in the regulatory environment, and particularly in China or Japan, could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition. Before the global economic financial crisis that began in 2008, China had one of the world’s fastest growing economies as measured by gross domestic product, or GDP, which had a significant impact on shipping demand. China's GDP growth rate for the year ended December 31, 2022 was approximately 3.0%, one of its lowest rates in 50 years, thought to be mainly caused by the country’s zero-COVID policy and strict lockdowns, which was a marked decline from 8.1% for the year ended December 31, 2021. In addition, China previously imposed measures to restrain lending, which may further contribute to a slowdown in its economic growth. China and other countries in the Asia Pacific region may continue to experience slowed or even negative economic growth in the future.

 

Many of the economic and political reforms adopted by the Chinese government are unprecedented or experimental and may be subject to revision, change or abolition based upon the outcome of such experiments. If the Chinese government does not continue to pursue a policy of economic reform, the level of imports of exports of dry bulk products to and from China could be adversely affected by changes to these economic reforms by the Chinese government, as well as by changes in political, economic and social conditions or other relevant policies of the Chinese government, such as changes in laws, regulations or restrictions on importing commodities into the country. Notwithstanding economic reform, the Chinese government may adopt policies that favor domestic shipping companies and may hinder our ability to compete with them effectively. Moreover, a significant or protracted slowdown in the economies of the United States, the European Union or various Asian countries or changes in the regulatory environment may adversely affect economic growth in China and elsewhere. Our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected by an economic downturn or changes in the regulatory environment in any of these countries.

 

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Pandemics such as the coronavirus (COVID-19) make it very difficult for us to operate in the short-term and have unpredictable long-term consequences, all of which could decrease the supply of and demand for the raw materials we transport, the rates that we are paid to carry our cargo, and our financial outlook.

 

Our business may be adversely affected by the lingering effects of COVID-19 and the reimposition of governmental responses to the virus, which has introduced uncertainty into our operational and financial activities and has negatively impacted, and may continue to impact negatively, global economic activity. Although the incidence and severity of COVID-19 and its variants have diminished over time, periodic spikes in incidence occur. Many nations worldwide have significantly eased or eliminated restrictions that were enacted at the outset of the outbreak of COVID-19. The United States has announced that it will terminate the COVID-19 national emergency and public health emergency that was put in place in 2020. Notably, the Chinese government removed its zero-COVID policy in December 2022, although China is now facing a sudden surge in COVID cases after easing the lockdown restrictions nationwide. WHO officials had expressed hope that COVID-19 might be entering an endemic phase by early 2023, but the continued uncertainties associated with the COVID-19 pandemic worldwide may cause an adverse impact on the global economy and the rate environment for tanker and other cargo vessels may deteriorate and our operations and cash flows may be negatively impacted.

 

Average charter rates for dry bulk vessels, as measured by the Baltic Dry Index, improved significantly in 2021 and part of 2022 since the second quarter of 2020, but has reduced in the beginning of 2023; the underlying reasons for this improvement, such as tight supply lines, increased demand for bulk commodities on the back of firmly rebounding industrial activity, increased demand for containerized cargo due to increased consumption mainly from developed countries, and newbuild construction being put on hold due to the pandemic, has somewhat reversed, which could negatively impact our business. Over time, the incidence of COVID-19 and its variants has diminished although periodic spikes in incidence occur. Consequently, restrictions imposed by various governmental health organizations may change over time. Several countries have lifted restrictions only to reimpose such restrictions as the number of cases rise and new variants emerge. Negative impacts could occur, even after the pandemic itself diminishes or ends. It is difficult to predict what impact a resurgence of COVID-19 or the occurrence of another pandemic and resultant government measures may have on our business. The duration of scheduled repairs could exceed our estimates, causing our vessels to remain off-hire for longer periods than planned or to miss scheduled employment. We may face increased costs operating our vessels due to travel restrictions and quarantine requirements. Possible delays due to quarantine of our vessels caused by viral infections of our crew or other related disruptions may lead to the termination of charters leaving our vessels without employment. It is also possible that the companies that charter our vessels may be materially impacted by the effects of the COVID-19 or another virus outbreak and therefore may default on their charters or seek to restructure the terms of their charters (which are legally binding). 

 

We expect that pandemics generally, including the current novel coronavirus pandemic, could affect our business in the following ways, among others:

 

  (1) Pandemics generally reduce the demand for goods worldwide without a commensurate corresponding change in the number of vessels worldwide, thereby increasing competition for cargo and decreasing the market price for transporting dry bulk products.

 

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  (2) Countries could impose quarantine checks and hygiene measures on arriving vessels, which functionally reduce the amount of cargo that we and our competitors are able to move by causing delays in loading and delivery of cargo.

 

  (3) The process of buying, selling, and maintaining vessels is made more onerous and time-intensive. For instance, delays may be caused at shipyards for newbuildings, drydocks and other works, in vessel inspections and related certifications by class societies, customers or government agencies, as well as delays and shortages or a lack of access to required spare parts and lack of berths or shortages in labor, which may in turn delay any repairs to, scheduled or unscheduled maintenance or modifications, or drydocking of, our vessels.

 

  (4) We have seen a decrease in productivity, generally, as people—including our office employees and crews, as well as our counterparties—get sick and take time off from work. We are particularly vulnerable to our crew members getting sick, as if even one of our crew members gets sick, local authorities could require us to detain and quarantine the ship and its crew for an unspecified amount of time, disinfect and fumigate the vessels, or take similar precautions, which would add costs, decrease our utilization, and substantially disrupt our cargo operations. If a vessel’s entire crew fell seriously ill, we may have substantial difficulty operating its vessel and may necessitate extraordinary external aid.

 

  (5) International transportation of personnel could be limited or otherwise disrupted. In particular, our crews generally work on a rotation basis, relying largely on international air transport for crew changes plan fulfillment. Any such disruptions could impact the cost of rotating our crew, and possibly impact our ability to maintain a full crew synthesis onboard all our vessels at any given time. It may also be difficult for our in-house technical teams to travel to shipyards to observe vessel maintenance, and we may need to hire local experts, which local experts may vary in skill and are difficult to supervise remotely, to conduct work we ordinarily address in-house.

 

  (6) Governments impose new regulations, directives or practices, which we may be obligated to implement at our own expense.

 

  (7) Any or all of the foregoing could lead our charterers to try to invoke force majeure clauses. As of the date hereof, however, none of our charterers have invoked a force majeure clause citing the pandemic.

 

  (8) Credit tightening or declines in global financial markets, including to the prices of our publicly traded securities and the securities of our peers, could make it more difficult for us to access capital, including to finance our existing debt obligations.

 

Any of these public health threats and related consequences could adversely affect our financial results.

 

Sulphur regulations to reduce air pollution from ships may require retrofitting of vessels and may cause us to incur significant costs.

 

Since January 1, 2020 the IMO regulations have required vessels to comply with a global cap on the sulphur in fuel oil used on board of 0.5%, down from the previous 3.5%. The interpretation of “fuel oil used on board” includes use in main engine, auxiliary engines and boilers. Shipowners may comply with this regulation by (i) using 0.5% sulphur fuels on board, which costs more than higher sulphur fuel; (ii) installing scrubbers for cleaning of the exhaust gas (which we have not done to any of our vessels); or (iii) by retrofitting vessels to be powered by liquefied natural gas (which we have not done to any of our vessels), which may not be a viable option due to the lack of supply network and high costs involved in this process. Costs of compliance with these regulatory changes may be significant and may have a material adverse effect on our future performance, results of operations, cash flows and financial position. It is unclear how the new emissions standard will affect the employment of our vessels, given that the cost of fuel is borne by our charterers when our vessels are on time charter employment. Over time, however, it is possible that ships not retrofitted to comply with the new emissions standard may become less competitive (compared with ships equipped with exhaust gas scrubbers that can utilize less expensive high sulphur fuel), may have difficulty finding employment, may command lower charter hire and/or may need to be scrapped.

 

A downturn in the worldwide economy may harm our business.

 

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Downturns in the worldwide economy, due to inflation, geopolitics, major central bank policy actions including interest rate increases, public health crises, or other factors, have harmed our business in the past and future downturns could also adversely affect our business. Adverse economic conditions affect demand for goods and oil. Reduced demand for these or other products could result in significant decreases in rates we obtain for chartering our ships. In addition, the cost for crew members, oils and bunkers, and other supplies may increase. A deterioration of conditions in worldwide credit markets could limit our ability to obtain external financing to fund our operations and capital expenditures. In addition, we may experience losses on our holdings of cash and investments due to failures of financial institutions and other parties. Difficult economic conditions may also result in a higher rate of losses on our accounts receivable due to credit defaults. During an inflationary period, such as one we are currently experiencing, the SOFR or similar reference rate will generally be increased, thus costing us more money to service our debt obligations and reducing our net revenues. As a result, downturns in the worldwide economy could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, or financial condition.

Worldwide inflationary pressures could negatively impact our results of operations and cash flows. 

It has been recently observed that worldwide economies have experienced inflationary pressures, with price increases seen across many sectors globally. For example, the U.S. consumer price index, an inflation gauge that measures costs across dozens of items, rose 6.5% in December 2022 compared to the prior year, driven in large part by increases in energy costs. It remains to be seen whether inflationary pressures will continue, and to what degree, as central banks begin to respond to price increases. In the event that inflation becomes a significant factor in the global economy generally and in the shipping industry more specifically, inflationary pressures would result in increased operating, voyage and administrative costs. Furthermore, the effects of inflation on the supply and demand of the products we transport could alter demand for our services. Interventions in the economy by central banks in response to inflationary pressures may slow down economic activity, including by altering consumer purchasing habits and reducing demand for the commodities and products we carry, and cause a reduction in trade. As a result, the volumes of goods we deliver and/or charter rates for our vessels may be affected. Any of these factors could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and operating results.

 

Environmental, social and governance matters may impact our business and reputation.

 

In addition to the importance of their financial performance, companies are increasingly being judged by their performance on a variety of environmental, social and governance matters, or ESG, which are considered to contribute to the long-term sustainability of companies’ performance.

 

A variety of organizations measure the performance of companies on such ESG topics, and the results of these assessments are widely publicized. In addition, investment in funds that specialize in companies that perform well in such assessments are increasingly popular, and major institutional investors have publicly emphasized the importance of such ESG measures to their investment decisions. Topics taken into account in such assessments include, among others, the company’s efforts and impacts on climate change and human rights, ethics and compliance with law, and the role of the company’s board of directors in supervising various sustainability issues.

 

We actively manage a broad range of such ESG matters, taking into consideration their expected impact on the sustainability of our business over time, and the potential impact of our business on society and the environment. However, in light of investors’ increased focus on ESG matters, there can be no certainty that we will manage such issues successfully, or that we will successfully meet society’s expectations as to our proper role. Any failure or perceived failure by us in this regard could have a material adverse effect on our reputation and on our business, share price, financial condition, or results of operations, including the sustainability of our business over time.

 

On December 31, 2018, EU-flagged vessels became subject to Regulation (EU) No. 1257/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 November 2013 on ship recycling (the “EU Ship Recycling Regulation” or “ESRR”) and exempt from the Regulation (EC) No. 1013/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 June 2006 on shipments of waste (the “European Waste Shipment Regulation” or “EWSR”), which had previously governed their disposal and recycling. The EWSR continues to be applicable to Non-European Union Member State-flagged (“non-EU-flagged”) vessels.

 

Under the ESRR, commercial EU-flagged vessels of 500 gross tonnage and above may be recycled only at shipyards included on the European List of Authorised Ship Recycling Facilities (the “European List”). The European List presently includes eight facilities in Turkey, but no facilities in the major ship recycling countries in Asia. The combined capacity of the European List facilities may prove insufficient to absorb the total recycling volume of EU-flagged vessels. This circumstance, taken in tandem with the possible decrease in cash sales, may result in longer wait times for divestment of recyclable vessels as well as downward pressure on the purchase prices offered by European List shipyards. We currently have one vessel flagged in Malta and in the future may have additional vessels flagged in EU jurisdictions.

 

In addition, the EWSR requires that non-EU-flagged ships departing from European Union ports be recycled only in Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) member countries. In March 2018, the Rotterdam District Court ruled that the sale of four recyclable vessels by third-party Dutch ship owner Seatrade to cash buyers, who then reflagged and resold the vessels to non-OECD country recycling yards, were effectively indirect sales to non-OECD country yards, in violation of the EWSR. If European Union Member State courts widely adopt this analysis, it may negatively impact revenue from the residual values of our vessels and we may be subject to a heightened risk of non-compliance, due diligence obligations and costs in instances where we sell older ships to cash buyers.

 

The smuggling of drugs or other contraband onto our vessels may lead to governmental claims against us.

 

We expect that our vessels will call at ports where smugglers may attempt to hide drugs and other contraband on vessels, with or without the knowledge of crew members. To the extent that our vessels are found with contraband, whether inside or attached to the hull of our vessel, and whether with or without the knowledge of any of our crew, we may face governmental or other regulatory claims that could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows, financial condition and ability to pay dividends.

 

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Labor interruptions could disrupt our business.

 

Our vessels are manned by masters, officers and crews (totaling 192 as of December 31, 2022). Seafarers manning the vessels in our fleet are covered by industry-wide collective bargaining agreements that set basic standards. Any labor interruptions or employment disagreements with our crew members could disrupt our operations and could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows, financial condition and ability to pay dividends. We cannot assure you that collective bargaining agreements will prevent labor interruptions.

 

Company-Specific Risk Factors

 

The market values of our vessels have fluctuated and have from time to time triggered certain financial covenants under our existing and potentially future loan and credit facilities.

 

The market value of dry bulk vessels has generally experienced high volatility. The market prices for secondhand and newbuilding dry bulk vessels in the recent past have declined from historically high levels to low levels within a short period of time. In particular, as of March 31, 2020, the Company concluded that the recoverable amounts of the vessels were lower than their carrying amounts and recognized an impairment loss of $4.6 million. However, the market value of our vessels increased the subsequent years and we did not recognize any impairment loss on our vessels in 2021 and 2022.

 

The market value of our vessels may increase and decrease depending on a number of factors including:

 

  Ø

prevailing level of charter rates;

 

  Ø age of vessels;

 

  Ø the environmental friendliness of our vessels;

 

  Ø general economic and market conditions affecting the shipping industry, including relating to COVID-19 and the Ukraine conflict and related sanctions;

 

  Ø competition from other shipping companies;

 

  Ø configurations, sizes and ages of vessels;

 

  Ø supply and demand for vessels;

 

  Ø other modes of transportation;

 

  Ø cost of newbuildings;

 

  Ø governmental or other regulations; and

 

  Ø technological advances.

 

Our loan agreement with First Citizens Bank & Trust Company (formerly known as CIT Bank N.A.), which we refer to as our CIT Loan Facility, is secured by mortgages on seven of our vessels, and requires us to maintain specified collateral coverage ratios and to satisfy financial covenants, including requirements based on the market value of our vessels and our liquidity. Our previous loan facilities had similar requirements, and we expect any future loan agreements to have similar collateral requirements and provisions. Since the middle of 2008 through part of 2021, the prevailing conditions in the dry bulk charter market coupled with the general difficulty in obtaining financing for vessel purchases led to a decline in the market values of our vessels, which have increased since that time. However, we cannot predict when and if vessel values will again start to decline.

 

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As of December 31, 2022, we satisfied the covenants included in our CIT Loan Facility. For a more detailed discussion see “Item 5.B Liquidity and Capital Resources—Indebtedness” and Note 11 in the Consolidated Financial Statements included herewith.

 

Further declines of market values of our vessels may affect our ability to comply with various covenants and could also limit the amount of funds we are permitted to borrow under our current or future loan arrangements. If we breach the financial and other covenants under the CIT Loan Facility, our lenders could accelerate our indebtedness and foreclose on vessels in our fleet, which would significantly impair our ability to continue to conduct our business. If our indebtedness were accelerated in full or in part, it would be very difficult in the current financing environment for us to refinance our debt or obtain additional financing and we could lose our vessels if our lenders foreclose upon their liens, which would adversely affect our business, financial condition, ability to continue our business and for Globus Maritime to pay dividends.

 

For a more detailed discussion on our loan covenants and cross-default provisions, see “Item 5.B Liquidity and Capital Resources—Indebtedness.”

 

If we sell any vessel at a time when vessel prices have fallen and before we have recorded an impairment adjustment to our consolidated financial statements, the sale price may be agreed at a value lower than the vessel’s depreciated book value as in our consolidated financial statements at that time, resulting in a loss and a respective reduction in earnings. If the market values of our vessels decrease, such decrease and its effects could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and ability for Globus Maritime to pay dividends.

 

If a determination is made that a vessel’s future useful life is limited or its future earnings capacity is reduced, it could result in an impairment of its value on our consolidated financial statements that would result in a charge against our earnings and the reduction of our stockholders’ equity. These impairment costs could be very substantial.

 

We may not be able to attract and retain key management personnel and other employees in the shipping industry.

 

Our success will depend to a significant extent upon the abilities and efforts of our management team consisting of our Chief Executive Officer, including our ability to retain our management team and the ability of our management to recruit and hire suitable employees. The loss of our Chief Executive Officer or other key employees could adversely affect our business prospects and financial condition. Difficulty in hiring and retaining personnel could adversely affect our results of operations. 

 

Our loan agreement contains, and we expect that future loan agreements and financing arrangements will contain, restrictive covenants that may limit our liquidity and corporate activities, which could limit our operational flexibility and have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. In addition, because of the presence of cross-default provisions in our loan agreement and the expectation that such will exist in any future loan agreements and financing arrangements, a default by us under one loan could lead to defaults under multiple loans.

 

Our CIT Loan Facility contains, and we expect that future loan agreements and financing arrangements will contain, customary covenants and event of default clauses, financial covenants, restrictive covenants and performance requirements, which may affect operational and financial flexibility. Such restrictions could affect, and in many respects limit or prohibit, among other things, our ability to pay dividends, incur additional indebtedness, create liens, sell assets, change our chief executive officer or chairman or ship manager, or engage in mergers or acquisitions. These restrictions could limit our ability to plan for or react to market conditions or meet extraordinary capital needs or otherwise restrict corporate activities. There can be no assurance that such restrictions will not adversely affect our ability to finance our future operations or capital needs.

 

As a result of these restrictions, we may need to seek permission from our lenders and other financing counterparties in order to engage in some corporate actions. Our lenders’ and other financing counterparties’ interests may be different from ours and we may not be able to obtain their permission when needed. This may prevent us from taking actions that we believe are in our best interests, which may adversely impact our revenues, results of operations and financial condition.

 

If we fail to meet our payment and other obligations, including our financial covenants and any security coverage requirements, could lead to defaults under our financing arrangements. Likewise, a decrease in vessel values or adverse market conditions could cause us to breach our financial covenants or security requirements (the market values of dry bulk vessels have generally experienced high volatility). In the event of a default that we cannot remedy, our lenders and other financing counterparties could then accelerate their indebtedness and foreclose on the respective vessels in our fleet. The loss of any of our vessels could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

 

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There can be no assurance that we will obtain waivers and deferrals from our lenders in the future, if needed, as we have obtained in the past. We are currently in compliance with all applicable financial covenants under our CIT Loan Facility. For more information regarding our current loan facilities, see please see “Item 5.B. Liquidity and Capital Resources.”

 

Because of the presence of cross-default provisions in our CIT Loan Facility and, we expect, any future loan agreements, a default by us under a loan and the refusal of any one lender to grant or extend a waiver could result in the acceleration of our indebtedness under our other loans. A cross-default provision means that if we default on one loan, we would then default on our other loans containing a cross-default provision.

 

We cannot assure you that we will be able to refinance our existing indebtedness or obtain additional financing.

 

We may finance future fleet expansion with additional secured indebtedness. In May 2021, we reached an agreement with First Citizens Bank & Trust Company (formerly known as CIT Bank N.A.) for a loan facility of up to $34.25 million bearing interest at LIBOR plus a margin of 3.75% per annum. The proceeds of this financing were used to repay the outstanding balance of a loan agreement with EnTrust, which we refer to as the EnTrust Loan Facility. In August 2022, we reached an agreement with First Citizens Bank & Trust Company (formerly known as CIT Bank N.A.) for a deed of accession, amendment and restatement of the CIT loan facility by the accession of an additional borrower in order to increase the loan facility from a total of $34.25 million to $52.25 million, by a top up loan amount of $18 million for the purpose of financing our vessel Orion Globe and for general corporate and general working capital purposes. The CIT Loan Facility (including the new top up loan amount) is now further secured by a first preferred mortgage over the vessel Orion Globe. Furthermore, the CIT Loan Facility now bears interest at Term SOFR plus a margin of 3.35%.

 

Our ability to obtain bank financing or to access the capital markets for future offerings may be limited by our financial condition at the time of any such financing or offering, including the actual or perceived credit quality of our charterers and the market value of our fleet, as well as by adverse market conditions resulting from, among other things, general economic conditions, weakness in the financial markets and contingencies and uncertainties that are beyond our control. Significant contraction, de-leveraging and reduced liquidity in credit markets worldwide is reducing the availability and increasing the cost of credit.

 

If we are not able to obtain new debt financing on terms acceptable to us or refinance our existing debt, we will have to dedicate a portion of our cash flow from operations to pay the principal and interest of this indebtedness. If we are not able to satisfy these obligations, we may have to undertake alternative financing plans. In addition, debt service payments under the CIT Loan Facility or alternative financing may limit funds otherwise available for working capital, capital expenditures, the payment of dividends and other purposes. Our inability to obtain additional or replacement financing at anticipated costs or at all may materially affect our results of operation, our ability to implement our business strategy, our payment of dividends and our ability to continue as a going concern. 

 

We depend on short-term or spot charters in volatile shipping markets.

 

We currently charter most of the vessels we own on the short-term charter market. The short-term or spot charter market is highly competitive and short-term or spot charter rates may fluctuate significantly based upon available charters and the supply of and demand for seaborne shipping capacity. While our focus on the short-term or spot market may enable us to benefit if industry conditions strengthen, we must consistently procure short-term or spot charter business. Conversely, such dependence makes us vulnerable to declining market rates for short-term or spot charters and to the off-hire periods including ballast passages. Rates within the short-term or spot charter market are subject to volatile fluctuations while longer-term time charters provide income at pre-determined rates over more extended periods of time. There can be no assurance that we will be successful in keeping our vessels fully employed in these short-term markets or that future short-term or spot rates will be sufficient to enable the vessels to be operated profitably. A significant decrease in charter rates would affect value and further adversely affect our profitability, cash flows and ability to pay dividends. Furthermore, we have in the past, and may in the future, employ our vessels on index-linked time charters, which may have similar fluctuations in hire as short-term or spot charters. We cannot give assurances that future available short-term. spot charters or index-linked charters will enable us to operate our vessels profitably.

 

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We may also decide that it makes economic sense to lay up one or more vessels. While our vessels are laid up, we will pay lay-up costs, but those vessels will not be able to earn any hire.

 

We may be unable to successfully employ our vessels on long-term time charters or take advantage of favorable opportunities involving short-term or spot market charter rates.

 

Our long-term strategy to maximize the value of our fleet is to employ our vessels on a mix of all types of charter contracts, including in the short-term or spot market and on bareboat charters and long-term or fixed-hire or index-linked hire time charters. We believe this strategy provides the cash flow stability, reduced exposure to market downturns and high utilization rates of the charter market, while at the same time enabling us to benefit from periods of increasing short-term or spot market rates. But our short-term strategy at any given point in time is dictated by a multitude of factors and the chartering opportunities before us. We may, for example, seek to employ a greater portion of our fleet on the short-term, spot market or index-linked time charters or on fixed-hire time charters with longer durations, should we believe it to be in our best interests. We generally prefer spot or short-term contracts in order to be versatile, to be able to move quickly to capture a market upswing, and to be more selective with the cargos we carry. Long-term charters, however, provide desirable cash flow stability, albeit at the cost of missing upswings in cargo rates. Accordingly, our mix between short-term or spot charters,longer-term charters and index-linked charters changes from time-to-time. When our ships are not all on the short-term or spot market, we generally seek to stagger the expiration dates of our charters to reduce exposure to volatility in the shipping cycle when our vessels come off of charter. We also continually monitor developments in the dry bulk shipping industry and, subject to market demand, will adjust the number of vessels on charters and the charter periods for our vessels according to market conditions.

 

We and our Manager have developed relationships with a number of international charterers, vessel brokers, financial institutions, insurers and shipbuilders. We have also developed a network of relationships with vessel brokers who help facilitate vessel charters and acquisitions.

 

Although time charters with durations of one to five years may provide relatively steady streams of revenue, if our vessels were committed to such charters they may not be available for re-chartering or for short-term or spot market voyages when such employment would allow us to realize the benefits of comparably more favorable charter rates. In addition, in the future, we may not be able to enter into new time charters on favorable terms. The dry bulk market is volatile. While charter rates are presently generally above our operating expenses, in the past charter rates have declined below operating costs of vessels. If we are required to enter into a charter when charter rates are low, employ our vessels on the short-term or spot market during periods when charter rates have fallen, have index linked charters when rates are low, or we are unable to take advantage of short-term opportunities on the spot or charter market, our earnings and profitability could be adversely affected. We cannot assure you that future charter rates will enable us to cover our costs, operate our vessels profitably or to pay dividends, or all of them.

 

We may also decide that it makes economic sense to lay up one or more vessels. While our vessels are laid up, we will pay lay-up costs, but those vessels will not be able to earn any hire. 

 

We conduct a substantial amount of business in China.

 

The Chinese legal system is based on written statutes and their legal interpretation by the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress. Prior court decisions may be cited for reference but have limited precedential value. Since 1979, the Chinese government has been developing a comprehensive system of commercial laws, and considerable progress has been made in introducing laws and regulations dealing with economic matters such as foreign investment, corporate organization and governance, commerce, taxation and trade. However, because these laws and regulations are relatively new, there is a general lack of internal guidelines or authoritative interpretive guidance and because of the limited number of published cases and their non-binding nature interpretation and enforcement of these laws and regulations involve uncertainties. We conduct a substantial portion of our business in China or with Chinese counterparties. For example, we enter into charters with Chinese customers, which charters may be subject to new regulations in China. We may, therefore, be required to incur new or additional compliance or other administrative costs, and pay new taxes or other fees to the Chinese government. Although the charters we enter into with Chinese counterparties are not governed by Chinese law, we may have difficulties enforcing a judgment rendered by an arbitration tribunal or by an English or U.S. court (or other non-Chinese court) in China.

 

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In addition, China enacted a tax for non-resident international transportation enterprises engaged in the provision of services to passengers or cargo, among other items, in and out of China using their own, chartered or leased vessels, including any stevedore, warehousing and other services connected with the transportation. The law and relevant regulations broaden the range of international transportation companies which may find themselves liable for Chinese enterprise income tax on profits generated from international transportation services passing through Chinese ports. This tax or similar regulations by China may reduce our operating results and may also result in an increase in the cost of goods exported from China and the risks associated with exporting goods from China, as well as a decrease in the quantity of goods to be shipped from or through China, which would have an adverse impact on our charterers’ business, operating results and financial condition and could thereby affect their ability to make timely charter hire payments to us and to renew and increase the number of their time charters with us. Changes in laws and regulations, including with regards to tax matters, and their implementation by local authorities could affect our vessels that are either chartered to Chinese customers or that call to Chinese ports and could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition and our ability to pay dividends.

 

The Chinese economy differs from the economies of western countries in such respects as structure, government involvement, level of development, growth rate, capital reinvestment, allocation of resources, bank regulation, currency and monetary policy, rate of inflation and balance of payments position. Although state-owned enterprises still account for a substantial portion of the Chinese industrial output, in general, the Chinese government is reducing the level of direct control that it exercises over the economy. There is an increasing level of freedom and autonomy in areas such as allocation of resources, production, pricing and management and a gradual shift in emphasis to a “market economy” and enterprise reform, although it still acts with greater control than a truly free-market economy. Many of the Chinese government’s reforms are unprecedented or experimental and may be subject to revision, change or abolition based upon the outcome of such experiments. The level of imports to and exports from China could be adversely affected by the failure to continue market reforms or changes to existing pro-export economic policies. The level of imports to and exports from China may also be adversely affected by changes in political, economic and social conditions (including a slowing of economic growth), the coronavirus, or other relevant policies of the Chinese government, such as changes in laws, regulations or export and import restrictions, internal political instability, changes in currency policies, changes in trade policies and territorial or trade disputes. A decrease in the level of imports to and exports from China could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.

 

As we expand our business, we may have difficulty improving our operating and financial systems and recruiting suitable employees and crew for our vessels.

 

Our current operating and financial systems may not be adequate if we expand the size of our fleet, and our attempts to improve those systems may be ineffective. In addition, as we seek to expand our internal technical management capabilities and our fleet, we or our crewing agents may need to recruit suitable additional seafarers and shore based administrative and management personnel. We cannot guarantee that we or our crewing agents will be able to hire suitable employees or a sufficient number of employees if and as we expand our fleet. If we or our crewing agent encounter business or financial difficulties, we may not be able to adequately staff our vessels. If we are unable to develop and maintain effective financial and operating systems or to recruit suitable employees as we expand our fleet, our financial performance may be adversely affected and, among other things, the amount of cash available for distribution as dividends to our shareholders may be reduced or eliminated.

 

Recently, the limited supply of and increased demand for well-qualified crew, due to the increase in the size of the global shipping fleet, has created upward pressure on crewing costs, which we generally bear under our time and spot charters. Increases in crew costs may adversely affect our profitability, results of operations, cash flows, financial condition and ability to pay dividends. 

 

Our charterers may renegotiate or default on their charters.

 

Our charters provide the charterer the right to terminate the charter on the occurrence of stated events or the existence of specified conditions. In addition, the ability and willingness of each of our charterers to perform its obligations under its charter with us will depend on a number of factors that are beyond our control. These factors may include general economic conditions, the condition of the dry bulk shipping industry and the overall financial condition of the counterparties. The costs and delays associated with the default of a charterer of a vessel may be considerable and may adversely affect our business, results of operations, cash flows, financial condition and ability to pay dividends.

 

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In the recent depressed dry bulk market conditions, there have been numerous reports of charterers renegotiating their charters or defaulting on their obligations under their charters. If a current or future charterer defaults on a charter, we will seek the remedies available to us, which may include arbitration or litigation to enforce the contract, although such efforts may not be successful and for short-term charters may cost more to enforce than the potential recovery. We cannot predict whether our charterers will, upon the expiration of their charters, re-charter our vessels on favorable terms or at all. If our charterers decide not to re-charter our vessels, we may not be able to re-charter them on terms similar to the terms of our current charters or at all. If we receive lower charter rates under replacement charters or are unable to re-charter all of our vessels, this may adversely affect our business, results of operations, cash flows, financial condition and ability to pay dividends.

Contracts for newbuilding vessels present certain economic and other risks. 

Three of our subsidiaries have contracts for the construction of three Ultramax for anticipated delivery in 2024. We may also order additional newbuildings. During the course of construction of a vessel, we are typically required to make progress payments. While two of those three contracts have refund guarantees from banks to cover defaults by the shipyards and our construction contracts would be saleable in the event of our payment default, we can still incur economic losses in the event that we or the shipyards are unable to perform our respective obligations. Shipyards may periodically experience financial difficulties.

 

Delays in the delivery of these vessels, or any newbuilding or secondhand vessels our subsidiaries may agree to acquire, could delay our receipt of revenues generated by these vessels and, to the extent we have arranged charter employment for these vessels, could possibly result in the cancellation of those charters, and therefore adversely affect our anticipated results of operations. The delivery of newbuilding vessels could be delayed because of, among other things: work stoppages or other labor disturbances; bankruptcy or other financial crisis of the shipyard building the vessel; hostilities or political or economic disturbances in the countries where the vessels are being built, including any escalation of tensions involving countries in east Asia; weather interference or catastrophic events, such as a major earthquake, tsunami or fire; our requests for changes to the original vessel specifications; requests from our customers, with whom our commercial managers arrange charters for such vessels, to delay construction and delivery of such vessels due to weak economic conditions and shipping demand or a dispute with the shipyard building the vessel.

 

The aging of our fleet may result in increased operating costs in the future.

 

In general, the cost of maintaining a vessel in good operating condition increases with the age of the vessel. As of December 31, 2022 and 2021, the weighted average age of the vessels in our fleet was 11.2 and 10.2 years, respectively. Our oldest vessel was built in 2005, and our youngest vessel was built in 2018. As our fleet ages, we will incur increased costs to operate and maintain the vessels. Older vessels are typically less fuel efficient and cost more to maintain than more recently constructed vessels due to improvements in engine technology. Cargo insurance rates, paid by charterers, increase with the age of a vessel, making older vessels less desirable to charterers. Governmental regulations, safety or other equipment standards related to the age of vessels may require expenditures for alterations or the addition of new equipment, to our vessels and may restrict the type of activities in which our vessels may engage. We cannot assure you that, as our vessels age, further market conditions will justify those expenditures or enable us to operate our vessels profitably during the remainder of their useful lives. We may also decide that it makes economic sense to lay up one or more vessels. While our vessels are laid up, we will pay lay-up costs, but those vessels will not be able to earn any hire.

 

We may have difficulty managing our planned growth properly.

 

Our recent vessel acquisitions have imposed additional responsibilities on our management and staff, as will any further acquisition of vessels, which may require us to add more personnel and find new customers. Attracting qualified staff and customers are difficult tasks, and we might struggle to do so on attractive terms.

 

We intend to continue to stabilize and then to try to grow our business through disciplined acquisitions of vessels that meet our selection criteria and newly built vessels if we can negotiate attractive purchase prices. Our future growth will primarily depend on:

 

  Ø locating and acquiring suitable vessels;

 

  Ø identifying and consummating acquisitions;

 

  Ø enhancing our customer base;

 

  Ø managing our expansion; and

 

  Ø obtaining required financing on acceptable terms.

 

A delay in the delivery to us of any such vessel, or the failure of the shipyard to deliver a vessel at all, could cause us to breach our obligations under a related charter and could adversely affect our earnings. In addition, the delivery of any of these vessels with substantial defects could have similar consequences. A shipyard could fail to deliver a newbuilding on time or at all because of:

 

  Ø work stoppages or other hostilities or political or economic disturbances that disrupt the operations of the shipyard;

 

  Ø quality or engineering problems;

 

  Ø bankruptcy or other financial crisis of the shipyard;

 

  Ø a backlog of orders at the shipyard;

 

  Ø weather interference or catastrophic events, such as major earthquakes or fires;

 

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  Ø our requests for changes to the original vessel specifications or disputes with the shipyard;

 

  Ø shortages of or delays in the receipt of necessary construction materials, such as steel; or

 

  Ø shortages of or delays in the receipt of necessary equipment, such as main engines, electricity generators and propellers.

 

In addition, if we enter a newbuilding or secondhand purchase contract, we may seek to terminate the contract due to market conditions, financing limitations or other reasons. The outcome of contract termination negotiations may require us to forego deposits on construction or purchase and pay additional cancellation fees. In addition, where we have already arranged a future charter with respect to the terminated newbuilding contract, we would need to provide an acceptable substitute vessel to the charterer to avoid breaching our charter agreement.

 

During periods in which charter rates are high, vessel values generally are high as well, and it may be difficult to consummate vessel acquisitions or enter into newbuilding contracts at favorable prices. During periods when charter rates are low, we may be unable to fund the acquisition of newbuildings, whether through lending or cash on hand. For these reasons, we may be unable to execute our growth plans or avoid significant expenses and losses in connection with our future growth efforts.

 

Growing any business by acquisition presents numerous risks, such as undisclosed liabilities and obligations, the possibility that indemnification agreements will be unenforceable or insufficient to cover potential losses and difficulties associated with imposing common standards, controls, procedures and policies, obtaining additional qualified personnel, managing relationships with customers and integrating newly acquired assets and operations into existing infrastructure. We cannot give any assurance that we will be successful in executing our growth plans or that we will not incur significant expenses and losses in connection with our future growth.

 

To the extent we scrap or sell vessels, we may decide to terminate the employment of some of our staff. 

 

Legislative or regulatory changes in Greece may adversely affect our results from operations.

 

Globus Shipmanagement Corp., our ship management subsidiary, who we refer to as our Manager, is regulated under Greek Law 89/67, and conducts its operations and those on our behalf primarily in Greece. Greece has been implementing new legislative measures to address financial difficulties, several of which as a response from oversight by the International Monetary Fund and by European regulatory bodies such as the European Central Bank. Such legislative actions may impose new regulations on our operations in Greece that will require us to incur new or additional compliance or other administrative costs and may require that our Manager or we pay to the Greek government new taxes or other fees. Any such taxes, fees or costs we incur could be in amounts that are significantly greater than those in the past and could adversely affect our results from operations.

 

For example, in 2013, tax law 4110/2013 amended the long-standing provisions of art. 26 of law 27/1975 by imposing a fixed annual tonnage tax on vessels flying a foreign (i.e., non-Greek) flag which are managed by a Law 89 company, establishing an identical tonnage tax regime as the one already in force for vessels flying the Greek flag. This tax varies depending on the size of the vessel, calculated in gross registered tonnage, as well as on the age of each vessel. Payment of this tonnage tax completely satisfies all income tax obligations of both the shipowning company and of all its shareholders up to the ultimate beneficial owners. Any tax payable to the state of the flag of each vessel as a result of its registration with a foreign flag registry (including the Marshall Islands) is subtracted from the amount of tonnage tax due to the Greek tax authorities.

 

The tax residents of Greece who receive dividends from such shipowning or their holding companies are taxed at 5% on the dividends which they receive and which they import into Greece, not being liable to any other taxation for these, which include those dividends which either remain with the holding company or are paid to the individual Greek tax resident abroad. 

 

We rely on our information systems to conduct our business.

 

The efficient operation of our business is dependent on computer hardware and software systems. Information systems are vulnerable to security breaches by computer hackers, cyber terrorists, and garden variety computer viruses. We rely on what we believe to be industry accepted security measures and technology to securely maintain confidential and proprietary information maintained on our information systems. However, these measures and technology may not adequately prevent security breaches.

 

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In addition, the unavailability of the information systems or the failure of these systems to perform as anticipated for any reason could disrupt our business and could result in decreased performance and increased operating costs, causing our business and results of operations to suffer. Any significant interruption or failure of our information systems or any significant breach of security could adversely affect our business and results of operations.

  

A cyber-attack could materially disrupt our business.

 

We rely on information technology systems and networks in our operations and administration of our business. Our business operations could be targeted by individuals or groups seeking to sabotage or disrupt our information technology systems and networks, or to steal data. A successful cyber-attack could materially disrupt our operations, including the safety of our operations, or lead to unauthorized release of information or alteration of information in our systems. Any such attack or other breach of our information technology systems could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations. In addition, the unavailability of the information systems or the failure of these systems to perform as anticipated for any reason could disrupt our business and could result in decreased performance and increased operating costs, causing our business and results of operations to suffer. Any significant interruption or failure of our information systems or any significant breach of security could adversely affect our business and results of operations. Most recently, the escalation in conflict between Russia and Ukraine has been accompanied by cyber-attacks against the Ukrainian government and other countries in the region. It is possible that these attacks could have collateral effects on additional critical infrastructure and financial institutions globally, which could adversely affect our operations. It is difficult to assess the likelihood of such threat and any potential impact at this time.

 

We expect that a limited number of financial institutions will hold our cash including financial institutions that may be located in Greece and the United States.

 

We expect that a limited number of financial institutions will hold all of our cash, including some institutions located in Greece and the U.S. Our bank accounts are with banks in Switzerland, the U.S. and Greece. Of the financial institutions located in Greece, none are subsidiaries of international banks. Depending on our cash balance in any our accounts at any given point in time, our balances may not be covered by government-backed deposit insurance programs in the event of default by these financial institutions.

For example, a substantial amount of cash is currently held in U.S. banking institutions. While the U.S. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation provides deposit insurance of $250,000 per depositor, per insured bank, the amounts that we have in U.S. banks far exceeds that insurance amount, and therefore if the U.S. government does not impose measures to protect depositors, in the event the bank in which our funds are located fails, we may lose all or a substantial portion of our deposits. In addition, our bank accounts held in Swiss banking institutions are used for daily commercial transactions. Esisuisse, a self-regulatory organisation for banks in Switzerland, guarantees that it will cover protected deposits as part of the self-regulation of Swiss banks and securities firms which provides deposit insurance against loss up to the amount of CHF 100,000. The deposits we have in Swiss banks exceeds that insurance amount and therefore if the Swiss government does not impose measures to protect depositors, in the event the bank in which our funds are located fails, we may lose all or a substantial portion of our deposits. In addition, in the event any of our banks do not allow us to withdraw funds in the time and amounts that we want, we may not timely comply with contractual provisions in any of our contracts or our salary obligations, among other things.

The occurrence of any default of any of our banks could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows, and we may lose part or all of our cash that we deposit with such banks. 

 

Purchasing and operating secondhand vessels may result in increased operating costs and reduced fleet utilization.

 

While we have the right to inspect previously owned vessels prior to our purchase of them, such an inspection does not provide us with the same knowledge about their condition that we would have if these vessels had been built for and operated exclusively by us. A secondhand vessel may have conditions or defects that we are not aware of when we buy the vessel and which may require us to incur costly repairs to the vessel. These repairs may require us to put a vessel into drydocking, which would increase cash outflows and related expenses, while reducing our fleet utilization. Furthermore, we usually do not receive the benefit of warranties on secondhand vessels.

 

Management may be unable to provide reports as to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting or, when applicable, our independent registered public accounting firm may be unable to provide us with unqualified attestation reports as to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting when required.

 

Under Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, which we refer to as Sarbanes-Oxley, we are required to include in each of our annual reports on Form 20-F a report containing our management’s assessment of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. In addition, management may not conclude that our internal control over financial reporting is effective if a material weakness exists in our internal control over financial reporting. If in such annual reports on Form 20-F our management cannot provide a report as to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting or, when applicable, our independent registered public accounting firm is unable to provide us with an unqualified attestation report as to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as required by Section 404, investors could lose confidence in the reliability of our consolidated financial statements, which could result in a decrease in the value of our common shares.

 

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Unless we set aside reserves or are able to raise or borrow funds for vessel replacement, at the end of a vessel’s useful life our revenues will decline.

 

As of December 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, the vessels in our current fleet had a weighted average age of 11.2 and 10.2 years, respectively. Our oldest vessel was built in 2005, and our youngest vessel was built in 2018. Unless we maintain reserves or are able to raise or borrow or raise funds for vessel replacement, we will be unable to replace the vessels in our fleet upon the expiration of their remaining useful lives, which we expect to be 25 years from the date of their construction. Our cash flows and income are dependent on the revenues earned by the chartering of our vessels to customers. If we are unable to replace the vessels in our fleet upon the expiration of their useful lives, our business, results of operations, financial condition and ability to pay dividends will be materially adversely affected. Any reserves set aside for vessel replacement may not be available for dividends.  

 

We depend upon a few significant customers for a large part of our revenues.

 

We may derive a significant part of our revenue from a small number of customers. During the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020, we derived substantially all of our revenues from approximately 37, 23 and 29 customers, respectively, and approximately 39%, 47% and 31%, respectively, of our revenues during those years were derived from four customers. If one or more of our major customers defaults under a charter with us and we are not able to find a replacement charter, or if such a customer exercises certain rights to terminate the charter, we could suffer a loss of revenues that could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distribution as dividends to our shareholders.

 

We could lose a customer or the benefits of a time charter if, among other things:

 

  Ø the customer fails to make charter payments because of its financial inability, disagreements with us or otherwise;

 

  Ø the customer terminates the charter because of our non-performance, including failure to deliver the vessel within a fixed period of time, the vessel is lost or damaged beyond repair, serious deficiencies in the vessel, prolonged periods of off-hire or our default under the charter; or

 

  Ø the customer terminates the charter because the vessel has been subject to seizure for more than 30 days.

 

If we lose a key customer, we may be unable to obtain charters on comparable terms with charterers of comparable standing or we may have increased exposure to the volatile short-term or spot market, which is highly competitive and subject to significant price fluctuations. We would not receive any revenues from such a vessel while it remained unchartered, but we may be required to pay expenses necessary to maintain the vessel in proper operating condition, insure it and service any indebtedness secured by such vessel. The loss of any of our customers, time charters or vessels or a decline in payments under our charters could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition and our ability to pay dividends.

 

We generate revenues from the trading of our vessels in U.S. dollars but incur a portion of our expenses in other currencies.

 

We generate substantially all of our revenues from the trading of our vessels in U.S. dollars, but during the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020 we incurred approximately 30%, 31% and 25%, respectively, of our vessel operating expenses, and certain administrative expenses, in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. This difference could lead to fluctuations in net profit due to changes in the value of the U.S. dollar relative to the other currencies. Expenses incurred in foreign currencies against which the U.S. dollar falls in value can increase, decreasing our results from operations. We have not hedged our currency exposure, and, as a result, our results of operations and financial condition, denominated in U.S. dollars, and our ability to pay dividends could suffer.

 

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If volatility in the Secured Overnight Financing Rate, or SOFR, occurs, it could affect our profitability, earnings and cash flow.

 

The interest rates borne by the CIT Loan Facility fluctuates with changes in SOFR (which replaced the previously used LIBOR), which fluctuations would affect the amount of interest payable on those debts, which, in turn, could have an adverse effect on our profitability, earnings and cash flow. CIT Loan Facility now bears interest at Term SOFR, which is a forward looking term SOFR, plus a margin of 3.35%.

 

In order to manage our exposure to interest rate fluctuations under SOFR, or any other alternative rate, we have and may from time to time use interest rate derivatives to effectively fix some of our floating rate debt obligations. No assurance can however be given that the use of these derivative instruments, if any, may effectively protect us from adverse interest rate movements. The use of interest rate derivatives may affect our results through mark to market valuation of these derivatives. Also, adverse movements in interest rate derivatives may require us to post cash as collateral, which may impact our free cash position.

 

We may have to pay tax on U.S. source shipping income.

 

Under the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, 50% of the gross shipping income of a vessel-owning or chartering corporation that is attributable to transportation that begins or ends, but that does not both begin and end, in the United States is characterized as U.S. source shipping income and such income is subject to a 4% U.S. federal income tax without allowance for deductions, unless that corporation qualifies for exemption from tax under section 883 of the Code and the U.S. Treasury regulations promulgated thereunder, which we refer to as the Section 883 Exemption, or through the application of a comprehensive income tax treaty between the United States and the corporation’s country of residence. The eligibility of Globus Maritime and our subsidiaries to qualify for the Section 883 Exemption is determined each taxable year and is dependent on certain circumstances related to the ownership of our shares and on interpretations of existing U.S. Treasury regulations, each of which could change. We can therefore give no assurance that we will in fact be eligible to qualify for the Section 883 Exemption for all taxable years. In addition, changes to the Code, the U.S. Treasury regulations or the interpretation thereof by the U.S. Internal Revenue Service, or IRS, or the courts could adversely affect the ability of Globus Maritime and our subsidiaries to take advantage of the Section 883 Exemption.

 

If we are not entitled to the Section 883 Exemption or an exemption under a tax treaty for any taxable year in which any company in the group earns U.S. source shipping income, any company earning such U.S. source shipping income, would be subject to a 4% U.S. federal income tax on the gross amount of the U.S. source shipping income for the year (or an effective rate of 2% on shipping income attributable to the transportation of freight to or from the United States). The imposition of this taxation could have a negative effect on our business and revenues and would result in decreased earnings available for distribution to our shareholders.

 

For a more complete discussion, please read the section entitled “Item 10.E. Taxation— United States Tax Considerations— United States Federal Income Taxation of the Company.”

 

U.S. tax authorities could treat us as a “passive foreign investment company,” which could result in adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences to U.S. shareholders.

 

A foreign corporation will be treated as a “passive foreign investment company,” or PFIC, for U.S. federal income tax purposes if either at least 75% of its gross income for any taxable year consists of certain types of “passive income” or at least 50% of the average value of the corporation’s assets produce or are held for the production of those types of “passive income.” For purposes of these tests, “passive income” includes dividends, interest and gains from the sale or exchange of investment property, and rents and royalties other than rents and royalties that are received from unrelated parties in connection with the active conduct of a trade or business. For purposes of these tests, income derived from the performance of services does not constitute “passive income.”

 

U.S. shareholders of a PFIC are subject to a disadvantageous U.S. federal income tax regime with respect to the income derived by the PFIC, the distributions they receive from the PFIC, and the gain, if any, they derive from the sale or other disposition of their shares in the PFIC, unless those shareholders make an election available under the Code (which election could itself have adverse consequences for such shareholders).

  

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In particular, U.S. shareholders who are individuals would not be eligible for the preferential tax rate on qualified dividends. Please read “Item 10.E. Taxation—United States Tax Considerations—United States Federal Income Taxation of United States Holders” for a more comprehensive discussion of the U.S. federal income tax consequences to U.S. shareholders if we are treated as a PFIC.

 

Based on our current operations and anticipated future operations, we believe we should not be treated as a PFIC. In this regard, we intend to treat gross income we derive or are deemed to derive from our time chartering activities as services income, rather than rental income. Accordingly, we believe that our income from our time chartering activities should not constitute “passive income,” and that the assets we own and operate in connection with the production of that income do not constitute assets that produce or are held for the production of “passive income.”

 

There are legal uncertainties involved in this determination because there is no direct legal authority under the PFIC rules addressing our current and projected future operations. Moreover, a case decided in 2009 by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit held that, contrary to the position of the IRS in that case, and for purposes of a different set of rules under the Code, income received under a time charter of vessels should be treated as rental income rather than services income. If the reasoning of this case were extended to the PFIC context, the gross income we derive or are deemed to derive from our time chartering activities would be treated as rental income, and we would be a PFIC unless an active leasing exception applies. Although the IRS has announced that it will not follow the reasoning of this case, and that it intends to treat the income from standard industry time charters as services income, no assurance can be given that a U.S. court will not follow the aforementioned case. Moreover, no assurance can be given that we would not constitute a PFIC for any future taxable year if there were to be changes in our assets, income or operations.

 

If the IRS were to find that we are or have been a PFIC for any taxable year, our U.S. shareholders will face adverse U.S. tax consequences and information reporting obligations, as more fully described under “Item 10.E. Taxation—United States Tax Considerations—United States Federal Income Taxation of United States Holders.” 

 

We could face penalties under European Union, United States or other economic sanctions.  

 

Our business could be adversely impacted if we are found to have violated economic sanctions under the applicable laws of the European Union, the United States or another applicable jurisdiction against countries such as Iran, Syria, North Korea, Russia, and Cuba. U.S. economic sanctions, for example, prohibit a wide scope of conduct, target numerous countries and individuals, are frequently updated or changed and have vague application in many situations.

 

Many economic sanctions relate to our business, including prohibitions on certain kinds of trade with countries, such as exportation or re-exportation of commodities, or prohibitions against certain transactions with designated nationals who may be operating under aliases or through non-designated companies. The imposition of economic sanctions on Russian persons, first imposed in March 2014 and further in 2022, is an example of economic sanctions with a potentially widespread and unpredictable impact on shipping. Certain of our charterers or other parties with whom we have entered into contracts regarding our vessels may be affiliated with persons or entities that are the subject of sanctions imposed by the U.S. government, the European Union and/or other international bodies relating to the annexation of Crimea by Russia in 2014 and the current conflict in Ukraine. If we determine that such sanctions require us to terminate existing contracts or if we are found to be in violation of such applicable sanctions, our results of operations may be adversely affected or we may suffer reputational harm.

 

Additionally, the U.S. Iran Threat Reduction Act (which was signed into law in 2012) amended the Exchange Act to require issuers that file annual or quarterly reports under Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act to include disclosure in their annual and quarterly reports as to whether the issuer or its affiliates have knowingly engaged in certain activities prohibited by sanctions against Iran or transactions or dealings with certain identified persons. We are subject to this disclosure requirement.

 

There can be no assurance that we will be in compliance with all applicable sanctions and embargo laws and regulations in the future, particularly as the scope of certain laws may be unclear and may be subject to changing interpretations. Any such violation could result in fines or other penalties and could severely impact our ability to access U.S. capital markets and conduct our business, and could result in some investors deciding, or being required, to divest their interest, or not to invest, in us. Even inadvertent violations of economic sanctions can result in the imposition of material fines and restrictions and could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations, our reputation, and the market price of our common shares.

 

Our vessels may call on ports subject to economic sanctions or embargoes.

 

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From time to time on charterers’ instructions, our vessels may call on ports located in countries subject to sanctions and embargoes imposed by the United States government and countries identified by the U.S. government as state sponsors of terrorism, such as Iran, Cuba, North Korea, and Syria. It is also possible for us to call on a port in Russia. The U.S. sanctions and embargo laws and regulations vary in their application, as they do not all apply to the same covered persons or proscribe the same activities, and such sanctions and embargo laws and regulations may be amended or strengthened over time.

 

Although we believe that we have been in compliance with all applicable sanctions and embargo laws and regulations, and intend to maintain such compliance, there can be no assurance that we will be in compliance in the future as such regulations and sanctions may be amended over time. Any such violation could result in fines, penalties or other sanctions that could severely impact our ability to access U.S. capital markets and conduct our business, and could result in some investors deciding, or being required, to divest their interest, or not to invest, in us. In addition, certain institutional investors may have investment policies or restrictions that prevent them from holding securities of companies that have contracts with countries identified by the U.S. government as state sponsors of terrorism. The determination by these investors not to invest in, or to divest from, our common shares may adversely affect the price at which our common shares trade. Moreover, our charterers may violate applicable sanctions and embargo laws and regulations as a result of actions that do not involve us or our vessels, and those violations could in turn negatively affect our reputation. In addition, our reputation and the market for our securities may be adversely affected if we engage in certain other activities, such as entering into charters with individuals or entities in countries subject to U.S. sanctions and embargo laws that are not controlled by the governments of those countries, or engaging in operations associated with those countries pursuant to contracts with third parties that are unrelated to those countries or entities controlled by their governments. Investor perception of the value of our common shares may be adversely affected by the consequences of war, the effects of terrorism, civil unrest and governmental actions in these and surrounding countries. 

 

As a Marshall Islands corporation with principal executive offices in Greece, and also having subsidiaries in the Marshall Islands and other offshore jurisdictions such as Malta, our operations may be subject to economic substance requirements.

 

On March 12, 2019, the Council of the European Union published a list of “non-cooperative jurisdictions” for tax purposes in which the Republic of the Marshall Islands, among others, was placed by the E.U. on this list for failing to implement certain commitments previously made to the E.U. by the agreed deadline. However, it was announced by the Council of the European Union on October 10, 2019 that the Marshall Islands had been removed from that list, but was put back on the list in February 2023. E.U. member states have agreed upon a set of measures, which they can choose to apply against the listed countries, including increased monitoring and audits, withholding taxes and non-deductibility of costs. The European Commission has stated it will continue to support member states' efforts to develop a more coordinated approach to sanctions for the listed countries in 2019. E.U. legislation prohibits certain E.U. funds from being channeled or transited through entities in non-cooperative jurisdictions. 

 

We are a Marshall Islands corporation with principal executive offices in Greece. Our management company is also a Marshall Islands entity and one of our subsidiaries is organized in Malta. The Marshall Islands has enacted economic substance regulations with which we may be obligated to comply. Those regulations require certain entities that carry out particular activities to comply with an economic substance test whereby the entity must show that it (i) is directed and managed in the Marshall Islands in relation to that relevant activity, (ii) carries out core income-generating activity in relation to that relevant activity in the Marshall Islands (although it is being understood and acknowledged by the regulators that income-generated activities for shipping companies will generally occur in international waters) and (iii) having regard to the level of relevant activity carried out in the Marshall Islands has (a) an adequate amount of expenditures in the Marshall Islands, (b) adequate physical presence in the Marshall Islands and (c) an adequate number of qualified employees in the Marshall Islands.

 

If we fail to comply with our obligations under this legislation or any similar law applicable to us in any other jurisdictions, we could be subject to financial penalties and spontaneous disclosure of information to foreign tax officials, or could be struck from the register of companies, in related jurisdictions. Any of the foregoing could be disruptive to our business and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial conditions and operating results.

 

We do not know: if the E.U. will remove the Marshall Islands from the list of non-cooperative jurisdictions, or add Malta to that list; how quickly the E.U. would react to any changes in legislation of the Marshall Islands or Malta; or how E.U. banks or other counterparties will react while we or any of our subsidiaries remain as entities organized and existing under the laws of listed countries. The effect of the E.U. list of non-cooperative jurisdictions, and any noncompliance by us with any legislation adopted by applicable countries to achieve removal from the list, including economic substance regulations, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial conditions and operating results.

 

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It may be difficult to serve us with legal process or enforce judgments against us, our directors or our management.

 

Our business is operated primarily from our offices in Greece. In addition, a majority of our directors and officers are non-residents of the United States, and all of our assets and a substantial portion of the assets of these non-residents are located outside the United States. As a result, it may be difficult or impossible for you to bring an action against us or against these individuals in the United States if you believe that your rights have been infringed under securities laws or otherwise. You may also have difficulty enforcing, both within and outside of the United States, judgments you may obtain in the United States courts against us or these persons in any action, including actions based upon the civil liability provisions of United States federal or state securities laws. There is also substantial doubt that the courts of the Marshall Islands or Greece would enter judgments in original actions brought in those courts predicated on United States federal or state securities laws.

 

The international nature of our operations may make the outcome of any bankruptcy proceedings difficult to predict.

 

We redomiciled into the Marshall Islands and our subsidiaries are incorporated under the laws of the Marshall Islands or Malta, we have limited operations in the United States, and we maintain limited assets, if any, in the United States. Consequently, in the event of any bankruptcy, insolvency, liquidation, dissolution, reorganization or similar proceeding involving us or any of our subsidiaries, bankruptcy laws other than those of the United States could apply. The Marshall Islands does not have a bankruptcy statute or general statutory mechanism for insolvency proceedings. If we become a debtor under U.S. bankruptcy law, bankruptcy courts in the United States may seek to assert jurisdiction over all of our assets, wherever located, including property situated in other countries. There can be no assurance, however, that we would become a debtor in the United States, or that a U.S. bankruptcy court would accept, or be entitled to accept, jurisdiction over such a bankruptcy case, or that courts in other countries that have jurisdiction over us and our operations would recognize a U.S. bankruptcy court’s jurisdiction if any other bankruptcy court would determine it had jurisdiction. These factors may delay or prevent us from entering bankruptcy in the United States and may affect the ability of our shareholders to receive any recovery following our bankruptcy. 

 

Risks Relating to our Common Shares

 

Our stock price has been volatile and no assurance can be made that it will not substantially depreciate.

 

Our stock price has been volatile recently. The closing price of our common shares within 2022 has ranged from a peak of $2.57 on April 20, 2022 to a low of $1.05 on December 30, 2022, representing a decrease of 59%. We can offer no comfort or assurance that our stock price will stop being volatile or not substantially depreciate. Our stock price was $1.10 on March 15, 2023.  

 

We may continue to incur rapid and substantial increases or decreases in our stock price in the foreseeable future that may not coincide in timing with the disclosure of news or developments by or affecting us. Accordingly, the market price of our common shares may decline or fluctuate rapidly, regardless of any developments in our business. Overall, there are various factors, many of which are beyond our control, that could negatively affect the market price of our common shares or result in fluctuations in the price or trading volume of our common shares, which include but are not limited to:

 

• investor reaction to our business strategy;

• the sentiment of the significant number of retail investors whom we believe to hold our common shares, in part due to direct access by retail investors to broadly available trading platforms, and whose investment thesis may be influenced by views expressed on financial trading and other social media sites and online forums;

• the amount and status of short interest in our common shares, access to margin debt, trading in options and other derivatives on our common shares and any related hedging and other trading factors;

• our continued compliance with the listing standards of the Nasdaq Capital Market;

• regulatory or legal developments in the United States and other countries, especially changes in laws or regulations applicable to our industry;

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• variations in our financial results or those of companies that are perceived to be similar to us;

• our ability or inability to raise additional capital and the terms on which we raise it;

• our dividend strategy;

• our continued compliance with our debt covenants;

• variations in the value of our fleet;

• declines in the market prices of stocks generally;

• trading volume of our common shares;

• sales of our common shares by us or our shareholders;

• speculation in the press or investment community about our Company or industry;

• general economic, industry and market conditions; and

• other events or factors, including those resulting from such events, or the prospect of such events, including war, terrorism and other international conflicts, public health issues including health epidemics or pandemics, including worldwide pandemics similar to the COVID-19 pandemic, and natural disasters such as fire, hurricanes, earthquakes, tornados or other adverse weather and climate conditions, whether occurring in the United States or elsewhere, could disrupt our operations or result in political or economic instability.

In addition, some companies that have experienced volatility in the market price of their common shares have been subject to securities class-action litigation. If instituted against us, such litigation could result in substantial costs and diversion of management’s attention and resources, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results and growth prospects. There can be no guarantee that the price of our common shares will remain at its current level or that future sales of our common shares will not be at prices lower than those sold to investors.

 

We may issue additional common shares or other equity securities without shareholder approval, which would dilute our existing shareholders’ ownership interests and may depress the market price of our common shares.

 

We may issue additional common shares or other equity securities of equal or senior rank in the future without shareholder approval for cash or in connection with, among other things, future vessel acquisitions, the repayment of outstanding indebtedness, and the conversion of convertible financial instruments.

 

Our issuance of additional common shares or other equity securities of equal or senior rank in these situations would have the following effects:

 

· our existing shareholders’ proportionate ownership interest in us would decrease;

 

· the proportionate amount of cash available for dividends payable on our common shares could decrease;

 

· the relative voting strength of each previously outstanding common share could be diminished; and

 

· the market price of our common shares could decline.

 

In addition, we may be obligated to issue, upon exercise or conversion of outstanding agreements and warrants pursuant to the terms thereof:

 

·388,700 common shares issuable upon the exercise of outstanding Class A Warrants (at an exercise price of $35.00 per share) which expire in June 2025;

 

·458,500 common shares issuable upon exercise of outstanding June PP Warrants (at an exercise price of $18.00 per share) issued in a private placement that closed on June 30, 2020 and expire in December 2025;

 

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·833,333 common shares issuable upon exercise of outstanding July PP Warrants (at an exercise price of at $18.00 per share) issued in a private placement that closed on July 21, 2020 and expire in January 2026;

 

·1,270,587 common shares issuable upon exercise of the December 2020 Warrants (at an exercise price of $6.25 per share) which expire in June 2026;

 

·1,950,000 common shares issuable upon the exercise of the January 2021 Warrants (at an exercise price of $6.25 per share) which expire in July 2026; and

 

·4,800,000 common shares issuable upon the exercise of the February 2021 Warrants (at an exercise price of $6.25 per share) which expire in August 2026.

 

·10,000,000 common shares issuable upon the exercise of the June 2021 Warrants (at an exercise price of $5.00 per share) which expire in December 2026.

 

In addition:

·We historically issued, on a quarterly basis, common shares to certain of our directors, although we have changed our compensation arrangements with directors to pay only cash.

 

·We have issued an aggregate of 10,300 of our Series B preferred shares, par value $0.001 per share, to Goldenmare Limited, which shares have 25,000 votes per share, subject to maximum voting rights of 49.99%.

 

Our issuance of additional common shares upon the exercise of such warrants and agreements would cause the proportionate ownership interest in us of our existing shareholders, other than the exercising warrant or agreement holder, to decrease; the relative voting strength of each previously outstanding common share held by our existing shareholders to decrease; and, depending on our share price when and if these warrants are exercised, may result in dilution to our shareholders. Because we are a foreign private issuer, we are not bound by Nasdaq rules that require shareholder approval for issuances of our securities. We therefore can issue securities in such amounts and at such times as we feel appropriate, all without shareholder approval. See “Item 16G. Corporate Governance.”

 

Future issuances or sales, or the potential for future issuances or sales, of our common shares may cause the trading price of our securities to decline and could impair our ability to raise capital through subsequent equity offerings.

 

We have issued a significant number of our common shares and may do so in the future. Shares to be issued pursuant to the exercise of our outstanding warrants could cause the market price of our common shares to decline and could have an adverse effect on our earnings per share. In addition, future sales of our common shares or other securities in the public or private markets, or the perception that these sales may occur, could cause the market price of our common shares to decline, and could materially impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional securities.

 

The market price of our common shares could decline due to sales, or the announcements of proposed sales, of a large number of common shares in the market, including sales of common shares by our large shareholders, or the perception that these sales could occur. These sales or the perception that these sales could occur could also depress the market price of our common shares and impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional equity securities or make it more difficult or impossible for us to sell equity securities in the future at a time and price that we deem appropriate. We cannot predict the effect that future sales of common shares or other equity-related securities would have on the market price of our common shares.

 

The market price of our common shares may be volatile, which could result in substantial losses for investors who purchase our shares; and the volatility in the stock prices of other companies may contribute to volatility in our stock price. 

 

Our common shares have experienced price and volume fluctuations and may continue to experience volatility in the future. The closing price of our common shares within 2022 has ranged from a peak of $2.57 on April 20, 2022 to a low of $1.05 on December 30, 2022, representing a decrease of 59%. You may not be able to sell your shares quickly or at the latest market price if trading in our stock is not active or the volume is low. Some of the factors that may cause the market price of our common shares to fluctuate include:

 

●       the trading of our ships, and whether one or more ships are not trading or otherwise offhire;

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●       regulatory or legal developments in the United States and other countries;

●       the recruitment or departure of key personnel;

●       the level of expenses related to our business or to comply with changing laws, including in relation to environmental laws;

●       actual or anticipated changes in estimates as to financial results or recommendations by securities analysts;

●       announcement or expectation of additional financing efforts;

●       sales of our securities by us, our insiders, or other shareholders, and the exercise of our warrants and other convertible securities and instruments;

●       variations in our financial results or those of companies that are perceived to be similar to us;

●       changes in estimates or recommendations by securities analysts, if any, that cover our stock;

●       market conditions in the shipping industry and dry bulk sector; and

●       general economic, industry, and market conditions.

On December 30, 2022, the closing price of our common shares on the Nasdaq Capital Market was $1.05 per share, as compared to $1.10, which was the closing price on March 15, 2023 . In addition, there has been volatility for our intra-day common share price. For example, the high and low intra-day prices on March 7, 2022 were $2.59 and $2.02, respectively, and the high and low intra-day prices on October 5, 2022 were $1.74 and $1.30, respectively. As a result, there is a potential for rapid and substantial decreases in the price of our common shares, including decreases unrelated to our operating performance or prospects.

 

In recent years, the stock market in general, Nasdaq, and the markets for shipping companies, has experienced significant price and volume fluctuations and depressions that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to changes in the operating performance of the companies whose stock is experiencing those price and volume fluctuations. Broad market and industry factors may seriously affect the market price of our common shares, regardless of our actual operating performance. Following periods of such volatility in the market price of a company’s securities, securities class action litigation has often been brought against that company. Because of the potential volatility of our stock price, we may become the target of securities litigation in the future. Securities litigation could result in substantial costs and divert management’s attention and resources from our business. 

 

A possible “short squeeze” due to a sudden increase in demand of our common shares that largely exceeds supply may lead to further price volatility in our common shares.

 

Investors may purchase our common shares to hedge existing exposure in our common shares or to speculate on the price of our common shares. Speculation on the price of our common shares may involve long and short exposures. To the extent aggregate short exposure exceeds the number of common shares available for purchase in the open market, investors with short exposure may have to pay a premium to repurchase our common shares for delivery to lenders of our common shares. Those repurchases may in turn, dramatically increase the price of our common shares until investors with short exposure are able to purchase additional common shares to cover their short position. This is often referred to as a “short squeeze.” A short squeeze could lead to volatile price movements in common shares that are not directly correlated to the performance or prospects of our company and once investors purchase the common shares necessary to cover their short position the price of our common shares may decline. 

 

Our common shares could be delisted from Nasdaq, which could affect their market price and liquidity.

 

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We are required to meet certain qualitative and financial tests (including a minimum bid price for our common shares of $1.00 per share, at least 500,000 publicly held shares, at least 300 public holders, a market value of publicly held securities of $1 million and net income from continuing operations of $500,000), as well as other corporate governance standards, to maintain the listing of our common shares on the Nasdaq Capital Market, or Nasdaq. It is possible that we could fail to satisfy one or more of these requirements. There can be no assurance that we will be able to maintain compliance with the minimum bid price, shareholders’ equity, number of publicly held shares, net income requirements or other listing standards in the future. We may receive notices from Nasdaq that we have failed to meet its requirements, and proceedings to delist our stock could be commenced. We have received in the past, and most recently on March 6, 2020, received a written notification from Nasdaq, indicating that because the closing bid price of our common stock for the last 30 consecutive business days was below $1.00 per share, we no longer meet the minimum bid price continued listing requirement for Nasdaq, as set forth in Nasdaq Listing Rule 5450(a)(1). We were able to regain compliance within the grace period prescribed pursuant to a reverse stock split effective October 21, 2020. We discuss this reverse stock split and others further in this annual report on Form 20-F. See “Item 4.A. History and Development of the Company— History relating to our shares.” In such event, Nasdaq rules permit us to appeal any delisting determination to a Nasdaq Hearings Panel. If we are unable to maintain or regain compliance in a timely manner and our common shares are delisted, it could be more difficult to buy or sell our common shares and obtain accurate quotations, and the price of our shares could suffer a material decline. Delisting may also impair our ability to raise capital. Delisting of our shares may breach our CIT Loan Facility, which contains cross default provisions, and the purchase agreement pursuant to which we sold some of our outstanding warrants. There could also be adverse tax consequences—please read “Item 10.E Taxation – United States Tax Considerations - United States Federal Income Taxation of United States Holders – Distributions” for further information.

 

There can be no assurance that we will be able to maintain compliance with the minimum bid price, shareholders’ equity, number of publicly held shares or other listing standards in the future. We may receive notices from Nasdaq that we have failed to meet its requirements, and proceedings to delist our stock could be commenced. If we are unable to maintain or regain compliance in a timely manner and our common shares are delisted, it could be more difficult to buy or sell our common shares and obtain accurate quotations, and the price of our shares could suffer a material decline. The Company agreed, in its securities purchase agreements relating to share and warrant issuances in 2020 and 2021, to use commercially reasonable efforts to maintain the listing or quotation of the common shares on Nasdaq, and to take all action reasonably necessary to continue the listing and trading of our common shares on Nasdaq. 

 

Our ability to declare and pay dividends to holders of our common shares will depend on a number of factors and will always be subject to the discretion of our board of directors.

 

If we are not in compliance with our loan covenants and received a notice of default and were unable to cure it under the terms of our loan covenants, we may be forbidden from issuing dividends. There can be no assurance that dividends will be paid to holders of our shares in any anticipated amounts and frequency at all. We may incur other expenses or liabilities that would reduce or eliminate the cash available for distribution as dividends, including as a result of the risks described in this section of this annual report on Form 20-F.

 

For instance, the CIT Loan Facility presently prohibits our declaration and payment of dividends under some circumstances. Under the CIT Loan Facility Globus Maritime Limited is prohibited from making dividends (other than up to $500,000 annually on or in respect of its preferred shares) in cash or redeem or repurchase its shares unless there is no event of default under the CIT Loan Facility, the net loan to value ratio is less than 60% before the making of the dividend and Globus Maritime Limited is in compliance with the debt service coverage ratio, and Globus Maritime Limited must prepay the CIT Loan Facility in an equal amount of the dividend. Please read “Item 5.B. Liquidity and Capital Resources—Indebtedness” for further information.

 

We may also enter into new financing or other agreements that may restrict our ability to pay dividends even without an event of default or make it less desirable for us to do so. In addition, we may pay dividends to the holders of our preferred shares prior to the holders of our common shares, depending on the terms of the preferred shares.

 

If we pay a dividend, the terms of our outstanding warrants provide that the exercise price shall be decreased by the amount of cash and/or the fair market value of any securities or other assets paid on each common share in respect of such dividend in order that subsequent thereto upon exercise of the warrants the holder of the warrants may obtain the equivalent benefit of such dividend.

 

The declaration and payment of dividends to holders of our shares will be subject at all times to the discretion of our board of directors, and will be paid equally on a per-share basis between our common shares and our Class B shares, to the extent any are issued and outstanding. We can provide no assurance that dividends will be paid in the future.

 

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There may be a high degree of variability from period to period in the amount of cash, if any, that is available for the payment of dividends based upon, among other things:

 

  Ø the rates we obtain from our charters as well as the rates obtained upon the expiration of our existing charters;

 

  Ø the level of our operating costs;

 

  Ø the number of unscheduled off-hire days and the timing of, and number of days required for, scheduled drydocking of our vessels;

 

  Ø vessel acquisitions and related financings;

 

  Ø restrictions in our current and future debt arrangements;

 

  Ø our ability to obtain debt and equity financing on acceptable terms as contemplated by our growth strategy;

 

  Ø prevailing global and regional economic and political conditions;

 

  Ø the effect of governmental regulations and maritime self-regulatory organization standards on the conduct of our business;

 

  Ø our overall financial condition;

 

  Ø our cash requirements and availability;

 

  Ø the amount of cash reserves established by our board of directors; and

 

  Ø restrictions under Marshall Islands law.

 

Marshall Islands law generally prohibits the payment of dividends other than from surplus or certain net profits, or while a company is insolvent or would be rendered insolvent by the payment of such a dividend. We may not have sufficient funds, surplus, or net profits to make distributions.

 

We may incur expenses or liabilities or be subject to other circumstances in the future that reduce or eliminate the amount of cash that we have available for distribution as dividends, if any. Our growth strategy contemplates that we will finance the acquisition of our newbuildings or selective acquisitions of vessels through a combination of our operating cash flow and debt financing through our subsidiaries or equity financing. If financing is not available to us on acceptable terms, our board of directors may decide to finance or refinance acquisitions with a greater percentage of cash from operations to the extent available, which would reduce or even eliminate the amount of cash available for the payment of dividends. We may also enter into other agreements that will restrict our ability to pay dividends or make it less desirable for us to do so.

 

The amount of cash we generate from our operations may differ materially from our net income or loss for the period, which will be affected by non-cash items. We may incur other expenses or liabilities that could reduce or eliminate the cash available for distribution as dividends. As a result of these and the other factors mentioned above, we may pay dividends during periods when we record losses and may not pay dividends during periods when we record net income, if we pay dividends at all.

 

We are a holding company, and we will depend on the ability of our subsidiaries to distribute funds to us in order to satisfy our financial obligations or to make dividend payments.

 

We are a holding company and our subsidiaries, which are all directly and wholly owned by us, will conduct all of our operations and own all of our operating assets. We have no significant assets other than the equity interests in our wholly owned subsidiaries. As a result, our ability to make dividend payments depends on our subsidiaries and their ability to distribute funds to us. If we are unable to obtain funds from our subsidiaries, our board of directors may exercise its discretion not to declare or pay dividends. In addition, our subsidiaries are subject to limitations on the payment of dividends under Marshall Islands or Maltese law.

 

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Provisions of our articles of incorporation and bylaws may have anti-takeover effects, which could depress the trading price of our common shares.

 

Several provisions of our articles of incorporation and bylaws, which are summarized below, may have anti-takeover effects. These provisions are intended to avoid costly takeover battles, lessen our vulnerability to a hostile change of control and enhance the ability of our board of directors to maximize shareholder value in connection with any unsolicited offer to acquire our company. However, these anti-takeover provisions could also discourage, delay or prevent the merger or acquisition of our company by means of a tender offer, a proxy contest or otherwise that a shareholder may consider in its best interest and the removal of incumbent officers and directors, which could affect the desirability of our shares and, consequently, our share price.

 

Multi Class Stock.

 

Our multi-class stock structure, which consists of common shares, Class B common shares, and preferred shares, can provide holders of our Class B common shares or preferred shares a significant degree of control over all matters requiring shareholder approval, including the election of directors and significant corporate transactions, such as a merger or other sale of our company or its assets, because our different classes of shares can have different numbers of votes.

 

For instance, while our common shares have one vote on matters before the shareholders, each of our 10,300 outstanding Series B preferred shares has 25,000 votes on matters before the shareholders; provided however, that no holder of Series B preferred shares may exercise voting rights pursuant to any Series B preferred shares that would result in the total number of votes a holder is entitled to vote on any matter submitted to a vote of shareholders of the Company to exceed 49.99% of the total number of votes eligible to be cast on such matter. No Class B common shares are presently outstanding, but if and when we issue any, each Class B common share will have 20 votes on matters before the shareholders.

 

At present, and until a substantial number of additional securities are issued, our holder of Series B preferred shares exerts substantial control of the Company’s votes and is able to exert substantial control over our management and all matters requiring shareholder approval, including electing directors and significant corporate transactions, such as a merger. Such holder’s interest could differ from other shareholders’ interests.

 

Blank Check Preferred Shares.

 

Under the terms of our articles of incorporation, our board of directors has authority, without any further vote or action by our shareholders, to issue up to 100 million “blank check” preferred shares, almost all of which currently remain available for issuance. Our board could authorize the issuance of preferred shares with voting or conversion rights that could dilute the voting power or rights of the holders of common shares, in addition to preferred shares that are already outstanding. The issuance of preferred shares, while providing flexibility in connection with possible acquisitions and other corporate purposes, could, among other things, have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control of us or the removal of our management and may harm the market price of our common shares.

 

Classified Board of Directors.

 

Our articles of incorporation provide for the division of our board of directors into three classes of directors, with each class as nearly equal in number as possible, serving staggered, three-year terms beginning upon the expiration of the initial term for each class. Approximately one-third of our board of directors is elected each year. This classified board provision could discourage a third party from making a tender offer for our shares or attempting to obtain control of us. It could also delay shareholders who do not agree with the policies of our board of directors from removing a majority of our board of directors for up to two years.

 

Election of Directors.

 

Our articles of incorporation do not provide for cumulative voting in the election of directors. Our bylaws require parties, other than the chairman of the board of directors, board of directors and shareholders holding 30% or more of the voting power of the aggregate number of our shares issued and outstanding and entitled to vote, to provide advance written notice of nominations for the election of directors. These provisions may discourage, delay or prevent the removal of incumbent officers and directors.

 

Advance Notice Requirements for Shareholder Proposals and Director Nominations.

 

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Our bylaws provide that shareholders, other than shareholders holding 30% or more of the voting power of the aggregate number of our shares issued and outstanding and entitled to vote, seeking to nominate candidates for election as directors or to bring business before an annual meeting of shareholders must provide timely notice of their proposal in writing to the corporate secretary.

 

Generally, to be timely, a shareholder’s notice must be received at our principal executive offices not less than 150 days or more than 180 days prior to the first anniversary date of the immediately preceding annual meeting of shareholders. Our bylaws also specify requirements as to the form and content of a shareholder’s notice. These provisions may impede a shareholder’s ability to bring matters before an annual meeting of shareholders or make nominations for directors at an annual meeting of shareholders.

 

Calling of Special Meetings of Shareholders

 

Our bylaws provide that special meetings of our shareholders may be called only by the chairman of our board of directors, by resolution of our board of directors or by holders of 30% or more of the voting power of the aggregate number of our shares issued and outstanding and entitled to vote at such meeting.

 

Action by Written Consent in Lieu of a Meeting

 

Our articles permit any action which may or is required by the BCA to be taken at a meeting of the shareholders to be authorized by consents in writing signed by the holders of outstanding shares having not less than the minimum number of votes that would be necessary to authorize or take such action at a meeting at which all shares entitled to vote thereon were present and voted. Presently and until and unless we issue a significant number of securities, Goldenmare Limited, a company affiliated with our Chief Executive Officer, holds Series B preferred shares controlling a significant portion of the voting power of our outstanding capital stock. Goldenmare could, together with shareholders possessing a relatively small number of shares, act by written consent in lieu of a meeting and authorize major transactions on behalf of the Company, all without calling a meeting of shareholders.

 

Business Combinations

 

Our articles prohibit us from engaging in a business combination with an interested shareholder for a period of three years following the date of the transaction in which the person became an interested shareholder, subject to certain exceptions. Please see “Item 10B.—Memorandum and Articles of Association—Anti-Takeover Effects of Certain Provisions of our Articles of Incorporation and Bylaws—Business Combinations.”

 

We are subject to Marshall Islands corporate law, which is not well-developed.

 

Our corporate affairs are governed by our articles of incorporation, our bylaws and by the Marshall Islands Business Corporations Act, or the BCA. The provisions of the BCA resemble provisions of the corporation laws of a number of states in the United States. However, there have been few judicial cases in the Marshall Islands interpreting the BCA. The rights and fiduciary responsibilities of directors under the laws of the Marshall Islands are not as clearly established as the rights and fiduciary responsibilities of directors under statutes or judicial precedent in existence in certain United States jurisdictions. The rights of shareholders of corporations incorporated in or redomiciled into the Marshall Islands may differ from the rights of shareholders of corporations incorporated in the United States. While the BCA provides that it is to be applied and construed to make the laws of the Marshall Islands, for non-resident entities such as us, with respect of the subject matter of the BCA, uniform with the laws of the State of Delaware and other states with substantially similar legislative provisions (and adopts their case law to the extent it does not conflict with the BCA), there have been few court cases interpreting the BCA in the Marshall Islands and we cannot predict whether Marshall Islands courts would reach the same conclusions as United States courts. Thus, you may have more difficulty in protecting your interests in the face of actions by our management, directors or controlling shareholders than would shareholders of a corporation incorporated in a United States jurisdiction that has developed a more substantial body of case law in the corporate law area.

 

Increases in interest rates may cause the market price of our shares to decline.

 

An increase in interest rates may cause a corresponding decline in demand for equity investments in general. Any such increase in interest rates or reduction in demand for our shares resulting from other relatively more attractive investment opportunities may cause the trading price of our shares to decline. If the relevant SOFR increases, then our payments pursuant to certain existing loan will increase. See “Item 11. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.” 

 

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The public market may not continue to be active and liquid enough for our shareholders to resell our common shares in the future.

 

The price of our common shares may be volatile and may fluctuate due to factors such as:

 

  Ø actual or anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly and annual results and those of other public companies in our industry;

 

  Ø mergers and strategic alliances in the dry bulk shipping industry;

 

  Ø market conditions in the dry bulk shipping industry;

 

  Ø changes in government regulation;

 

  Ø shortfalls in our operating results from levels forecast by securities analysts;

 

  Ø announcements concerning us or our competitors; and

 

  Ø the general state of the securities market.

 

The dry bulk shipping industry has been highly unpredictable and volatile. The market for our common shares may be equally volatile.

 

Item 4.  Information on the Company

 

A.  History and Development of the Company

 

History relating to our shares and certain financings

 

We originally incorporated as Globus Maritime Limited on July 26, 2006 pursuant to the Companies (Jersey) Law 1991 (as amended) and began operations in September 2006. Following the conclusion of our initial public offering on June 1, 2007, our common shares were listed on the London Stock Exchange’s Alternative Investment Market, or AIM, under the ticker “GLBS.L.” On July 29, 2010, we effected a 1-4 reverse stock split, with our issued share capital resulting in 7,240,852 common shares of $0.004 each. (These figures do not reflect the 1-4 reverse stock split which occurred in October 2016, the 1-10 reverse stock split which occurred in October 2018 or the 1-100 reverse stock split which occurred in October 2020.)

On November 24, 2010, we redomiciled into the Marshall Islands pursuant to the BCA and a resale registration statement for our common shares was declared effective by the SEC. Once the resale registration statement was declared effective by the SEC, our common shares began trading on the Nasdaq Global Market under the ticker “GLBS.” Our common shares were suspended from trading on the AIM on November 24, 2010 and were delisted from the AIM on November 26, 2010.

On April 11, 2016, our common shares began trading on the Nasdaq Capital Market and ceased trading on the Nasdaq Global Market.

On October 20, 2016, we effected a 1-4 reverse stock split which reduced the number of outstanding common shares from 10,510,741 to 2,627,674 shares (adjustments were made based on fractional shares). (These figures do not reflect the 1-10 reverse stock split which occurred in October 2018 or the 1-100 reverse stock split which occurred in October 2020.)

 

On October 15, 2018, we effected a 1-10 reverse stock split which reduced the number of outstanding common shares from 32,065,077 to 3,206,495 shares (adjustments were made based on fractional shares). (These figures do not reflect the 1-100 reverse stock split which occurred in October 2020.)

 

In November 2018, we entered into a credit facility for up to $15 million with Firment Shipping Inc., a related party to us, for the purpose of financing our general working capital needs, which facility was amended and restated on May 8, 2020. The Firment Shipping Credit Facility was unsecured and remained available until its final maturity date at October 31, 2021, as amended. We had the right to drawdown any amount up to $15 million or prepay any amount in multiples of $100,000. Any prepaid amount could have been re-borrowed.

 

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Interest on drawn and outstanding amounts was charged at 3.5% per annum until December 31, 2020, and thereafter at 7% per annum. No commitment fee was charged on the amounts remaining available and undrawn. Interest was payable the last day of a period of three months after the drawdown date, after this period in case of failure to pay any sum due a default interest of 2% per annum above the regular interest was charged. We had also the right, in our sole option, to convert in whole or in part the outstanding unpaid principal amount and accrued but unpaid interest under this Agreement into common shares. The conversion price would have equaled the higher of (i) the average of the daily dollar volume-weighted average sale price for the common stock on the Principal Market on any trading day during the period beginning at 9.30 a.m. New York City time and ending at 4.00 p.m. over the Pricing Period multiplied by 80%, where the “Pricing Period” equals the ten consecutive trading days immediately preceding the date on which the conversion notice was executed or (ii) $280.00. On July 27, 2020, the Company repaid the total outstanding principal and interest of the Firment Shipping Credit Facility of approximately $863,000. This facility expired by its terms on October 31, 2021.

 

On March 13, 2019, the Company signed a securities purchase agreement with a private investor and on March 13, 2019 issued, for gross proceeds of $5 million, a senior convertible note (the “Convertible Note”) that was convertible into shares of the Company’s common stock, par value $0.004 per share. If not converted or redeemed beforehand pursuant to the terms of the Convertible Note, the Convertible Note was scheduled to mature on March 13, 2020, the first anniversary of its issue, but its holder waived the Convertible Note’s maturity until March 13, 2021. The Convertible Note was issued in a transaction exempt from registration under the Securities Act. The Convertible Note provided for interest to accrue at 10% annually, to be paid at maturity unless the Convertible Note was converted or redeemed pursuant to its terms beforehand. The interest could have been paid in common shares of the Company, if certain conditions described within the Convertible Note were met. The outstanding balance of the Convertible Note not previously converted into shares was fully repaid in June 2020.

 

On June 22, 2020, we completed a public offering of 342,857 units of the Company. Each unit consisted of one common share and one Class A Warrant to purchase one common share (a “Class A Warrant”), for $35 per unit. At the time of the closing, the underwriters exercised and closed a part of their over-allotment option, and purchased an additional 51,393 common shares and Class A Warrants to purchase 51,393 common shares.

 

The exercise price of the Class A Warrants is $35 per whole share at any time after their original issuance up to the date that is five years after their original issuance. If a registration statement registering the issuance of the common shares underlying the warrants under the Securities Act is not effective or available, the holder may, in its sole discretion, elect to exercise the warrant through a cashless exercise, in which case the holder would receive upon such exercise the net number of common shares determined according to the formula set forth in the warrant. We may be required to pay certain amounts as liquidated damages as specified in the warrants in the event we do not deliver common shares upon exercise of the warrants within the time periods specified in the warrants.

 

On June 30, 2020, we issued 458,500 of our common shares in a registered direct offering and 458,500 of June Private Placement (“PP”) Warrants in a concurrent private placement for a purchase price of $27 per common share and June PP Warrant. The exercise price of each June PP Warrant was initially $30 per share but in July 2020 was reduced to $18 per share.

 

On July 21, 2020, we issued 833,333 of our common shares in a registered direct offering and 833,333 of July PP Warrants to purchase common shares in a concurrent private placement for a purchase price of $18 per common share and July PP Warrant. The exercise price of each July PP Warrant is $18 per share.

 

On December 9, 2020, we issued (a) 1,256,765 common shares, (b) pre-funded warrants to purchase 155,000 common shares, and (c) warrants (the “December 2020 Warrants”) to purchase 1,270,587 common shares. The pre-funded warrants have all been exercised. No December 2020 Warrants have been exercised as of the date hereof, and may be exercised at any time prior to 5:00 PM New York time on June 9, 2026. The exercise price of the December 2020 Warrants was reduced from $8.50 per share to $6.25 per share on January 29, 2021.

 

On January 29, 2021, we issued (a) 2,155,000 common shares, (b) pre-funded warrants to purchase 445,000 common shares, and (c) warrants (the “January 2021 Warrants”) to purchase 1,950,000 common shares at an exercise price of $6.25 per share, which may be exercised at any time prior to 5:00 PM New York time on July 29, 2026. The pre-funded warrants were all exercised prior to the date of this annual report. No January 2021 Warrants have been exercised as of the date hereof.

 

On February 17, 2021, we issued (a) 3,850,000 common shares, (b) pre-funded warrants to purchase 950,000 common shares, and (c) warrants (the “February 2021 Warrants”) to purchase 4,800,000 common shares at an exercise price of $6.25 per share, which may be exercised at any time prior to 5:00 PM New York time on August 17, 2026. The pre-funded warrants have all been exercised. No February 2021 Warrants have been exercised as of the date hereof.

 

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On June 29, 2021, we issued (a) 8,900,000 common shares, (b) pre-funded warrants to purchase 1,100,000 common shares, and (c) warrants (the “June 2021 Warrants”) to purchase 10,000,000 common shares at an exercise price of $5.00 per share, which may be exercised at any time prior to 5:00 PM New York time on December 29, 2026. The pre-funded warrants have all been exercised. No June 2021 Warrants have been exercised as the date hereof.

 

Each of the June PP Warrants, July PP Warrants, December 2020 Warrants, January 2021 Warrants, February 2021 Warrants and June 2021 Warrants is exercisable for a period of five and one-half years commencing on the date of issuance. The warrants are exercisable at the option of each holder, in whole or in part by delivering to us a duly executed exercise notice with payment in full in immediately available funds for the number of common shares purchased upon such exercise. If a registration statement registering the resale of the common shares underlying the private placement warrants under the Securities Act is not effective or available at any time after the six month anniversary of the date of issuance of the private placement warrants, the holder may, in its sole discretion, elect to exercise the private placement warrant through a cashless exercise, in which case the holder would receive upon such exercise the net number of common shares determined according to the formula set forth in the warrant. If a registration statement covering the issuance of the shares under the Securities Act is not effective or available at any time after the issuance of the December 2020 Warrants, January 2021 Warrants, February 2021 Warrants and June 2021 Warrants, the holder may, in its sole discretion, elect to exercise the such warrants through a cashless exercise, in which case the holder would receive upon such exercise the net number of common shares determined according to the formula set forth in the warrant. If we do not issue the shares in a timely fashion, each warrant contains certain liquidated damages provisions.

 

Each of the warrants described above, other than the Class A Warrants, were issued pursuant to a securities purchase agreement and a placement agency agreement.

 

From June 22, 2020 to date hereof, we have issued 5,550 common shares pursuant to exercises of outstanding Class A Warrants. As of the date of this annual report, no June PP Warrants, July PP Warrants, December 2020 Warrants, January 2021 Warrants, February 2021 Warrants or June 2021 Warrants have been exercised.

 

On October 21, 2020, we effected a 1-100 reverse stock split which reduced the number of shares outstanding from 175,675,651 to 1,756,720 (adjustments were made based on fractional shares). Unless otherwise noted, all historical share numbers, per share amounts, including common share, preferred shares and warrants, have been adjusted to give effect to this reverse split.

 

On June 12, 2020, we entered into a stock purchase agreement and issued 50 of our newly designated Series B preferred shares, par value $0.001 per share, to Goldenmare Limited, a company controlled by our Chief Executive Officer, Athanasios Feidakis, in return for $150,000, which amount was settled by reducing, on a dollar for dollar basis, the amount payable by the Company to Goldenmare Limited pursuant to a consultancy agreement.

 

In July 2020, we issued an additional 250 of our Series B preferred shares to Goldenmare Limited in return for $150,000. The $150,000 was paid by reducing, on a dollar-for-dollar basis, the amount payable by the Company to Goldenmare Limited pursuant to a consultancy agreement. In addition, we increased the maximum voting rights under the Series B preferred shares from 49.0% to 49.99%.

 

In March 2021, we issued an additional 10,000 of our Series B preferred shares to Goldenmare Limited in return for $130,000, which was settled by reducing, on a dollar-for-dollar basis, the amount payable by the Company to Goldenmare Limited pursuant to a consultancy agreement.

 

Each Series B preferred share entitles the holder thereof to 25,000 votes per share on all matters submitted to a vote of the shareholders of the Company, provided however, that no holder of Series B preferred shares may exercise voting rights pursuant to Series B preferred shares that would result in the aggregate voting power of any beneficial owner of such shares and its affiliates (whether pursuant to ownership of Series B preferred shares, common shares or otherwise) to exceed 49.99% of the total number of votes eligible to be cast on any matter submitted to a vote of shareholders of the Company. To the fullest extent permitted by law, the holders of Series B preferred shares shall have no special voting or consent rights and shall vote together as one class with the holders of the common shares on all matters put before the shareholders. The Series B preferred shares are not convertible into common shares or any other security. They are not redeemable and have no dividend rights. Upon any liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the Company, the Series B preferred shares are entitled to receive a payment with priority over the common shareholders equal to the par value of $0.001 per share.

 

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The Series B preferred shareholder has no other rights to distributions upon any liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the Company. All issued and outstanding Series B preferred shares must be held of record by one holder, and the Series B preferred shares shall not be transferred without the prior approval of our Board of Directors. Finally, in the event the Company (i) declares any dividend on its common shares, payable in common shares, (ii) subdivides the outstanding common shares or (iii) combines the outstanding common shares into a smaller number of shares, there shall be a proportional adjustment to the number of outstanding Series B preferred shares.

 

Each issuance of Series B preferred shares to Goldenmare Limited was approved by an independent committee of the Board of Directors of the Company, which (in each instance) received a fairness opinion from an independent financial advisor that the transaction was for a fair value.

 

In March 2021, the Company prepaid $6.0 million of the Entrust loan facility, which represented all amounts that would otherwise come due during calendar year 2021. As a result, after this pre-payment we had an aggregate debt outstanding of $31 million, gross of unamortized debt costs, from the Entrust Loan Facility.

 

On May 10, 2021, we reached an agreement with First Citizens Bank & Trust Company (formerly known as CIT Bank N.A.) for a loan facility of $34.25 million bearing interest at LIBOR plus a margin of 3.75% per annum. This loan facility is referred to as the CIT loan facility. The proceeds of this financing were used to repay the outstanding balance of the EnTrust Loan Facility. In August 2022, we reached an agreement with First Citizens Bank & Trust Company (formerly known as CIT Bank N.A.) for a deed of accession, amendment and restatement of the CIT loan facility by the accession of an additional borrower in order to increase the loan facility from a total of $34.25 million to $52.25 million, by a top up loan amount of $18 million for the purpose of financing vessel Orion Globe and for general corporate and working capital purposes of all the borrowers and Globus. Following the agreement reached in August 2022 the benchmark rate was amended from LIBOR to Term SOFR and the applicable margin was decreased from 3.75% to 3.35%.

 

As of December 31, 2022, our issued and outstanding capital stock consisted of 20,582,301 common shares and 10,300 Series B preferred shares.

 

Recent history relating to our ships

 

In October 2020, we purchased a 2015-built Kamsarmax dry bulk carrier for $18.4 million. The vessel was delivered on October 29, 2020 and was named Galaxy Globe. Galaxy Globe was built at the Hudong-Zhonghua Shipyard in China and has a carrying capacity of 81,167 dwt.

 

On June 9, 2021, we took delivery of the m/v “Diamond Globe”, a 2018-built Kamsarmax dry bulk carrier, through its subsidiary, Argo Maritime Limited, for a purchase price of $27 million financed with available cash. The m/v “Diamond Globe” was built at Jiangsu New Yangzi Shipbuilding Co., Ltd and has a carrying capacity of 82,027 dwt.

 

On July 20, 2021, we took delivery of the m/v “Power Globe”, a 2011-built Kamsarmax dry bulk carrier, through its subsidiary, Talisman Maritime Limited, for a purchase price of $16.2 million financed with available cash. The m/v “Power Globe” was built at Universal Shipbuilding Corporation in Japan and has a carrying capacity of 80,655 dwt.

 

On November 29, 2021, we took delivery of the m/v “Orion Globe”, a 2015-built Kamsarmax dry bulk carrier, through its subsidiary, Salaminia Maritime Limited, for a purchase price of $28.4 million financed with available cash. The m/v “Orion Globe” was built at Tsuneishi Zosen in Japan and has a carrying capacity of 81,837 dwt.

On April 29, 2022, we entered into a contract, through our subsidiary Calypso Shipholding S.A., for the construction and purchase of one fuel efficient dry bulk carrier with a carrying capacity of about 64,000 dwt. The vessel will be built at Nihon Shipyard Co. in Japan and is scheduled to be delivered during the first half of 2024. The total consideration for the construction of the vessel is approximately $37.5 million, which we intend to finance with a combination of debt and equity. In May 2022 we paid the first installment of $7.4 million and in March 2023 we paid the second installment of $3.7 million.

 

On May 13, 2022, we signed two contracts, through our subsidiaries Daxos Maritime Limited and Paralus Shipholding S.A., for the construction and purchase of two fuel efficient bulk carriers of about 64,000 dwt each. The sister vessels will be built at Nantong COSCO KHI Ship Engineering Co. in China with the first one scheduled to be delivered during the third quarter of 2024 and the second one scheduled during the fourth quarter of 2024. The total consideration for the construction of both vessels is approximately $70.3 million, which we intend to finance with a combination of debt and equity. In May 2022 we paid the first installment of $13.8 million and in November 2022 paid the second installment of $6.9 million for both vessels under construction.

 

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Our fleet is currently comprised of a total of nine dry bulk vessels consisting of four Kamsarmaxes, one Panamax and four Supramaxes, and we have contracted for the construction of three additional Ultramaxes. The weighted average age of the vessels we owned as of December 31, 2022 was 11.2 years, and their carrying capacity was 626,257 dwt.

On March 6, 2023, we, through a wholly owned subsidiary, entered into an agreement to sell the 2007-built Sun Globe for a gross price of $14.1 million, before commissions, to an unaffiliated third party, which sale is subject to standard closing conditions. We expect the sale to occur in the second quarter of 2023.

 

General

 

Our executive office is located at the office of Globus Shipmanagement Corp., which we refer to as our Manager, at 128 Vouliagmenis Avenue, 3rd Floor, 166 74 Glyfada, Attica, Greece. Our telephone number is +30 210 960 8300. Our registered agent in the Marshall Islands is The Trust Company of the Marshall Islands, Inc. and our registered address in the Marshall Islands is Trust Company Complex, Ajeltake Road, Ajeltake Island, Majuro, Marshall Islands MH96960. We maintain our website at www.globusmaritime.gr. Information that is available on or accessed through our website does not constitute part of, and is not incorporated by reference into, this annual report on Form 20-F. The SEC maintains an internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding us and other issuers that file electronically with the SEC at http://www.sec.gov.

 

B.  Business Overview

 

We are an integrated dry bulk shipping company, providing marine transportation services on a worldwide basis. We own, operate and manage a fleet of dry bulk vessels that transport iron ore, coal, grain, steel products, cement, alumina and other dry bulk cargoes internationally. We intend to grow our fleet through timely and selective acquisitions of modern vessels or acquisition through construction of new vessels in a manner that we believe will provide an attractive return on equity and will be accretive to our earnings and cash flow based on anticipated market rates at the time of purchase. There is no guarantee however, that we will be able to find suitable vessels to purchase or that such vessels will provide an attractive return on equity or be accretive to our earnings and cash flow.

 

Our operations are managed by our Glyfada, Greece-based wholly owned subsidiary, Globus Shipmanagement Corp., which we refer to as our Manager, which provides in-house commercial and technical management for our vessels and provided consulting services for an affiliated ship-management company. Our Manager has entered into a ship management agreement with each of our wholly owned vessel-owning subsidiaries to provide services that include managing day-to-day vessel operations, such as supervising the crewing, supplying, maintaining of vessels and other services.

 

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The following table presents information concerning the vessels we own:

 

Vessel  

Year Built

  Flag  

Direct Owner

  Shipyard   Vessel Type  

Delivery Date

 

Carrying Capacity (dwt)

m/v River Globe   2007   Marshall Islands   Devocean Maritime Ltd.   Yangzhou Dayang   Supramax   December 2007   53,627
m/v Sky Globe   2009   Marshall Islands   Domina Maritime Ltd.   Taizhou Kouan   Supramax   May 2010   56,855
m/v Star Globe   2010   Marshall Islands   Dulac Maritime S.A.   Taizhou Kouan   Supramax   May 2010   56,867
m/v Moon Globe   2005   Marshall Islands   Artful Shipholding S.A.   Hudong-Zhonghua   Panamax   June 2011   74,432
 m/v Sun Globe   2007   Malta    Longevity Maritime Limited    Tsuneishi Cebu    Supramax    September 2011   58,790
m/v Galaxy Globe   2015   Marshall Islands   Serena Maritime Limited   Hudong-Zhonghua   Kamsarmax   October 2020   81,167
 m/v Diamond Globe   2018   Marshall Islands   Argo Maritime Limited    Jiangsu New Yangzi Shipbuilding Co.    Kamsarmax    June 2021   82,027
m/v Power Globe   2011   Marshall Islands    Talisman Maritime Limited    Universal Shipbuilding Corporation    Kamsarmax    July 2021   80,655
 m/v Orion Globe   2015   Marshall Islands   Salaminia Maritime Limited   Tsuneishi Zosen    Kamsarmax    November 2021   81,837
                             
                    Total:       626,257

 

We own each of our vessels through separate, wholly owned subsidiaries, eight of which are incorporated in the Marshall Islands, and one of which is incorporated in Malta. All of our Supramax vessels are geared. Geared vessels can operate in ports with minimal shore-side infrastructure. Due to the ability to switch between various dry bulk cargo types and to service a wider variety of ports, the day rates for geared vessels tend to have a premium.

 

In addition to the above vessels, we have contracted for the construction of three additional Ultramaxes. See “Item 4.A. History and Development of the Company.”

 

On March 6, 2023, we, through a wholly owned subsidiary, entered into an agreement to sell the 2007-built Sun Globe for a gross price of $14.1 million, before commissions, to an unaffiliated third party, which sale is subject to standard closing conditions. We expect the sale to occur in the second quarter of 2023.

 

Employment of our Vessels

 

Our long-term strategy to maximize the value of our fleet is to employ our vessels on a mix of all types of charter contracts, including in the short-term or spot market and on long-term charters and index-linked charters. We believe this strategy provides the cash flow stability, reduced exposure to market downturns and high utilization rates of the charter market, while at the same time enabling us to benefit from periods of increasing short-term or spot market rates. But our short-term strategy at any given point in time is dictated by a multitude of factors and the chartering opportunities before us. We may, for example, seek to employ a greater portion of our fleet on the short-term or spot market or on time charters with longer durations, should we believe it to be in our best interests. We generally prefer spot or short-term contracts in order to be versatile, to be able to move quickly to capture a market upswing, and to be more selective with the cargos we carry. Long-term charters, however, provide desirable cash flow stability, albeit at the cost of missing upswings in cargo rates. Finally, the index-linked charters reflect similar rate volatility as spot/voyage rates, although the index-linked hire rate may enable us to capture increased profit margins during periods of improvements in vessel charter rates. Accordingly, our mix between short-term or spot charters, longer-term charters and index-linked charters changes from time-to-time. When our ships are not all on the short-term or spot market, we generally seek to stagger the expiration dates of our charters to reduce exposure to volatility in the shipping cycle when our vessels come off of charter. We also continually monitor developments in the dry bulk shipping industry and, subject to market demand, will adjust the number of vessels on charters and the charter periods for our vessels according to market conditions.

 

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We and our Manager have developed relationships with a number of international charterers, vessel brokers, financial institutions, insurers and shipbuilders. We have also developed a network of relationships with vessel brokers who help facilitate vessel charters and acquisitions.

On the date of the filing of this annual report on 20-F, eight of our vessels were employed on short-term time charters, of which two are index-linked.

 Each of our vessels travels across the world and not on any particular route. The charterers of our vessels, whether time, bareboat or on the spot market, select the locations to which our vessels travel, subject to any restrictions under terms of employment.

 

Time Charter

 

A time charter is a contract for the use of a vessel for a fixed period of time at a specified daily rate. Under a time charter, the vessel owner provides crewing, insuring, repairing and maintenance and other services related to the vessel’s operation, the cost of which is included in the daily rate, and the customer is responsible for substantially all of the vessel voyage costs, including the cost of bunkers (fuel oil) and canal and port charges. The owner also pays commissions typically ranging from 0% to 6.25% of the total daily charter hire rate of each charter to unaffiliated ship brokers and to in-house brokers associated with the charterer, depending on the number of brokers involved with arranging the charter.

 

Basic Hire Rate and Term

 

“Basic hire rate” refers to the basic payment from the customer for the use of the vessel. The hire rate is generally payable semi-monthly or 15 days, in advance, in U.S. dollars as specified in the charter. A hire rate can be fixed or index-linked, with the latter reflecting similar rate volatility as spot/voyage rates, although the index-linked hire rate may enable us to capture increased profit margins during periods of improvements in vessel charter rates.

 

Off-hire

 

When the vessel is “off-hire,” the charterer generally is not required to pay the basic hire rate, and we are responsible for all costs. Prolonged off-hire may lead to vessel substitution or termination of the time charter. A vessel generally will be deemed off-hire if there is a loss of time due to, among other things, operational deficiencies; drydocking for examination or painting the bottom; equipment breakdowns; damages to the hull; or similar problems.

 

Ship Management and Maintenance

 

We are responsible for the technical management of the vessel and for maintaining the vessel, periodic drydocking, cleaning and painting and performing work required by regulations. Globus Shipmanagement provides the technical, commercial and day-to-day operational management of our vessels. Technical management includes crewing, maintenance, repair and drydockings. During the 2022 year, we paid Globus Shipmanagement $700 per vessel per day. All fees payable to Globus Shipmanagement for vessels that we own are eliminated upon consolidation of our accounts.

 

Termination

 

We are generally entitled to suspend performance under the time charter if the customer defaults in its payment obligations. Either party may terminate the charter in the event of war in specified countries.

 

Commissions

 

During the year ended December 31, 2022, we paid commissions ranging from 5% to 6.25% relevant to each time charter agreement then in effect.

 

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Bareboat Charter

 

A bareboat charter is a contract pursuant to which the vessel owner provides the vessel to the charterer for a fixed period of time at a specified daily rate, and the charterer provides for all of the vessel’s operating expenses. The charterer undertakes to maintain the vessel in a good state of repair and efficient operating condition and drydock the vessel during this period as per the classification society requirements.

 

Redelivery

 

Upon the expiration of a bareboat charter, typically the charterer must redeliver the vessel in as good structure, state, condition and class as that in which the vessel was delivered.

 

Ship Management and Maintenance

 

Under a bareboat charter, the charterer is responsible for all of the vessel’s operating expenses, including crewing, insuring, maintaining and repairing the vessel, any drydocking costs, and the stores, lube oils and communication expenses. Under a bareboat charter, the charterer is also responsible for the voyage costs, and generally assumes all risk of operation. The charterer covers the costs associated with the vessel’s special surveys and related drydocking falling within the charter period.

 

Commissions

 

Commissions on bareboat charters typically range from 0% to 3.75%.

 

Our Customers

 

We seek to charter our vessels to customers who we perceive as creditworthy thereby minimizing the risk of default by our charterers. We also try to select charterers depending on the type of product they want to carry and the geographical areas in which they tend to trade.

 

Our assessment of a charterer’s financial condition and reliability is an important factor in negotiating employment for our vessels. We generally charter our vessels to operators, trading houses (including commodities traders), shipping companies and producers and government-owned entities and generally avoid chartering our vessels to companies we believe to be speculative or undercapitalized entities. Since our operations began in September 2006, our customers have included Hyundai Glovis Co. Ltd., Dampskibsselskabet NORDEN A/S, NYK Bulk & Projects Carriers Ltd. and Olam Global Agri Pte Ltd. In addition, during the periods when some of our vessels were trading on the spot market, they have been chartered to charterers such as Cargill International SA, Oldendorff GmbH & Co KG, Western Bulk Pte. Ltd., Ausca Shipping HK Limited and others, thus expanding our customer base.

 

Competition

 

Our business fluctuates in line with the main patterns of trade of the major dry bulk cargoes and varies according to changes in the supply and demand for these items. We operate in markets that are highly competitive and based primarily on supply and demand. We compete for charters on the basis of price, vessel location, size, age and condition of the vessel, as well as on our reputation as an owner and operator. We compete with other owners of dry bulk vessels in the Panamax, Supramax and Kamsarmax dry bulk vessels, but we also compete with owners for the purchase and sale of vessels of all sizes. Those competitors may be better capitalized or have more liquidity than we do. In this period of significantly depressed pricing and over capacity, better liquidity may be a major competitive advantage, and we believe that some of our competitors may be better capitalized than we are.

 

Ownership of dry bulk vessels is highly fragmented. It is likely that we will face substantial competition for long-term charter business from a number of experienced companies. Many of these competitors will have larger dry bulk vessel fleets and greater financial resources than us, which may make them more competitive. It is also likely that we will face increased numbers of competitors entering into our transportation sectors, including in the dry bulk sector. Many of these competitors have strong reputations and extensive resources and experience. Increased competition may cause greater price competition, especially for long-term charters. We believe that no single competitor has a dominant position in the markets in which we compete.

 

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The process for obtaining longer term time charters generally involves a lengthy and intensive screening and vetting process and the submission of competitive bids. In addition to the quality and suitability of the vessel, longer term shipping contracts may be awarded based upon a variety of other factors relating to the vessel operator, including:

 

  Ø environmental, health and safety record;

 

  Ø compliance with regulatory industry standards;

 

  Ø reputation for customer service, technical and operating expertise;

 

  Ø shipping experience and quality of vessel operations, including cost-effectiveness;

 

  Ø quality, experience and technical capability of crews;

 

  Ø the ability to finance vessels at competitive rates and overall financial stability;

 

  Ø environmental, social, and governance criteria;

 

  Ø relationships with shipyards and the ability to obtain suitable berths;

 

  Ø construction management experience, including the ability to procure on-time delivery of new vessels according to customer specifications;

 

  Ø willingness to accept operational risks pursuant to the charter, such as allowing termination of the charter for force majeure events; and

 

  Ø competitiveness of the bid in terms of overall price.

 

As a result of these factors, we may be unable to expand our relationships with existing customers or obtain new customers for long-term time charters on a profitable basis, if at all. However, even if we are successful in employing our vessels under longer term charters, our vessels will not be available for trading on the short-term or spot market during an upturn in the market cycle, when short-term or spot trading may be more profitable. If we cannot successfully employ our vessels in profitable charters, our results of operations and operating cash flow could be materially adversely affected.

 

The Dry Bulk Shipping Industry

 

The world dry bulk fleet is generally divided into six major categories, based on a vessel’s cargo carrying capacity. These categories consist of: Handysize, Handymax/Supramax, Panamax, Kamsarmax, Capesize and Very Large Ore Carrier.

 

Ø      Handysize.  Handysize vessels have a carrying capacity of up to 39,999 dwt. These vessels are primarily involved in carrying minor bulk cargoes. Increasingly, vessels of this type operate on regional trading routes, and may serve as trans-shipment feeders for larger vessels. Handysize vessels are well suited for small ports with length and draft restrictions. Their cargo gear enables them to service ports lacking the infrastructure for cargo loading and unloading.

 

Ø      Handymax/Supramax. Handymax vessels have a carrying capacity of between 40,000 and 59,999 dwt. These vessels operate on a large number of geographically dispersed global trade routes, carrying primarily iron ore, coal, grains and minor bulks. Within the Handymax category there is also a sub-sector known as Supramax. Supramax bulk vessels are vessels between 50,000 to 59,999 dwt, normally offering cargo loading and unloading flexibility with on-board cranes, while at the same time possessing the cargo carrying capability approaching conventional Panamax bulk vessels. Hence, the earnings potential of a Supramax dry bulk vessel, when compared to a conventional Handymax vessel of 45,000 dwt, is greater.

 

Ø     Ultramax. Ultramax vessels are medium-sized vessels. Larger than Supramax vessels, they have a carrying capacity generally between 60,000 to 65,000 dwt.

 

Ø      Panamax. Panamax vessels have a carrying capacity of between 60,000 and 79,999 dwt. These vessels carry coal, grains, and, to a lesser extent, minor bulks, including steel products, forest products and fertilizers. The term “Panamax” refers to vessels that were able to pass through the Panama Canal before the Panama Canal was expanded in June 2016 (to allow vessels of up to 120,000 dwt, a size sometimes referred to as New Panamax). Panamax vessels are more versatile than larger vessels.

 

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Ø      Kamsarmax. Kamsarmax vessels typically have a carrying capacity of between 80,000 and 109,999 dwt. These vessels tend to be shallower and have a larger beam than a standard Panamax vessel with a higher cubic capacity. They have been designed specifically for loading high cubic cargoes from draught restricted ports. The term Kamsarmax stems from Port Kamsar in Guinea, where large quantities of bauxite are exported from a port with only 13.5 meter draught and a 229 meter length overall restriction, but no beam restriction.

 

Ø      Capesize. Capesize vessels have carrying capacities of between 110,000 and 199,999 dwt. Only the largest ports around the world possess the infrastructure to accommodate vessels of this size. Capesize vessels are mainly used to transport iron ore or coal and, to a lesser extent, grains, primarily on long-haul routes.

 

Ø      VLOC. Very large ore carriers are in excess of 200,000 dwt. VLOCs are built to exploit economies of scale on long-haul iron ore routes.

 

The supply of dry bulk shipping capacity, measured by the amount of suitable vessel tonnage available to carry cargo, is determined by the size of the existing worldwide dry bulk fleet, the number of new vessels on order, the scrapping of older vessels and the number of vessels out of active service (i.e., laid up or otherwise not available for hire). In addition to prevailing and anticipated freight rates, factors that affect the rate of newbuilding, scrapping and laying-up include newbuilding prices, secondhand vessel values in relation to scrap prices, costs of bunkers and other voyage expenses, costs associated with classification society surveys, normal maintenance and insurance coverage, the efficiency and age profile of the existing fleets in the market and government and industry regulation of marine transportation practices. The supply of dry bulk vessels is not only a result of the number of vessels in service, but also the operating efficiency of the fleet. Dry bulk trade is influenced by the underlying demand for the dry bulk commodities which, in turn, is influenced by the level of worldwide economic activity. Generally, growth in gross domestic product and industrial production correlate with peaks in demand for marine dry bulk transportation services.

 

Dry bulk vessels are one of the most versatile elements of the global shipping fleet in terms of employment alternatives. They seldom operate on round trip voyages with high ballasting times. Rather, they often participate in triangular or multi-leg voyages.

 

Charter Rates

 

In the time charter market, rates vary depending on the length of the charter period and vessel specific factors such as age, speed, size and fuel consumption. In the voyage charter market, rates are influenced by cargo size, commodity, port dues and canal transit fees, as well as delivery and redelivery regions. In general, a larger cargo size is quoted at a lower rate per ton than a smaller cargo size. Routes with costly ports or canals generally command higher rates. Voyages loading from a port where vessels usually discharge cargo, or discharging from a port where vessels usually load cargo, are generally quoted at lower rates. This is because such voyages generally increase vessel efficiency by reducing the unloaded portion (or ballast leg) that is included in the calculation of the return charter to a loading area.

 

Within the dry bulk shipping industry, the freight rate indices issued by the Baltic Exchange in London are the references most likely to be monitored. These references are based on actual charter hire rates under charters entered into by market participants as well as daily assessments provided to the Baltic Exchange by a panel of major shipbrokers. The Baltic Exchange, an independent organization comprised of shipbrokers, shipping companies and other shipping players, provides daily independent shipping market information and has created freight rate indices reflecting the average freight rates (that incorporate actual business concluded as well as daily assessments provided to the exchange by a panel of independent shipbrokers) for the major bulk vessel trading routes. These indices include the Baltic Panamax Index, the index with the longest history and, more recently, the Baltic Capesize Index.

 

Charter (or hire) rates paid for dry bulk vessels are generally a function of the underlying balance between vessel supply and demand. Over the past 25 years, dry bulk cargo charter rates have passed through cyclical phases and changes in vessel supply and demand have created a pattern of rate “peaks” and “troughs.” Generally, spot/voyage charter rates will be more volatile than time charter rates, as they reflect short-term movements in demand and market sentiment. The BDI remained significantly depressed from 2008-2020. In 2021, the BDI rose to a high of 5,650 on October 7, 2021 and had a low of 1,303 on February 10, 2021. In 2022, the BDI ranged from a low of 965 on August 31, 2022 to a high of 3,369 on May 23, 2022.

 

During calendar year 2023 to date, the BDI has ranged from a high of 1,587 (on March 14, 2023) to a low of 601 (on February 7, 2023). 

 

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Vessel Prices

 

Newbuilding vessel prices generally fell as part of the sudden and steep decline in freight rates after August 2008, and continued to gradually decline, but started to increase in 2021 (although not at the 2008 levels) although have fallen in the latter half of 2022 and in the beginning of 2023.

 

In broad terms, the secondhand market is affected by both the newbuilding prices as well as the overall freight expectations and sentiment observed at any given time. As with newbuild prices, secondhand vessel values have continued to gradually decline since August 2008 until 2021, when they started to increase, although have fallen in the latter half of 2022 and in the beginning of 2023.

 

Seasonality

 

Our fleet consists of dry bulk vessels that operate in markets that have historically exhibited seasonal variations in demand and, as a result, in charter rates. The dry bulk sector is typically stronger in the fall and winter months in anticipation of increased consumption of coal and other raw materials in the northern hemisphere during the winter months. Such seasonality will affect the rates we obtain on the vessels in our fleet that operate on the short-term or spot market.

 

Permits and Authorizations

 

We are required by various governmental and quasi-governmental agencies to obtain certain permits, licenses and certificates with respect to our vessels. The kinds of permits, licenses and certificates required depend upon several factors, including the commodity transported, the waters in which the vessel operates, the nationality of the vessel’s crew and the age of a vessel. We have been able to obtain all permits, licenses and certificates currently required to permit our vessels to operate. Additional laws and regulations, environmental or otherwise, may be adopted which could limit our ability to do business or increase our cost of doing business.

 

Disclosure of Activities pursuant to Section 13(r) of the U.S. Securities Exchange Act of 1934

 

Section 219 of the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012 added Section 13(r) to the Exchange Act. Section 13(r), as amended, requires an issuer to disclose whether it or any of its affiliates knowingly engaged in certain activities, transactions or dealings relating to Iran or certain other sanctioned parties. Disclosure is required even where the activities, transactions or dealings are conducted in compliance with applicable law. Provided in this section is information concerning the activities of us and our affiliates that occurred in 2022 and which we believe may be required to be disclosed pursuant to Section 13(r) of the Exchange Act. Because the term “affiliate” is broadly interpreted pursuant to Exchange Act Rule 12b-2, certain activities that occurred during the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022 may be deemed to have been conducted by one of our affiliates.

 

In 2022, our vessels did not call on any port call in Iran.

 

However, in 2022, the vessels Eolos Angel and Eolos G each a vessel that is owned by an entity that may be affiliated with our chairman, Mr. George Feidakis, and therefore each vessel may be an affiliate of ours, made calls to Iran. Based on information provided to us, the Eolos Angel made calls to (1) the port of Bandar Imam Khomeini on February, 2022, discharging corn, and remained in that port during 2022 for 31.5 days, pursuant to a time charter with an unaffiliated third party charterer at a gross rate of $24,750 per day, (2) the port of Bandar Imam Khomeini on June, 2022, discharging soya beans, and remained in that port during 2022 for 20 days, pursuant to a time charter with an unaffiliated third party charterer at a gross rate of $24,750 per day, and (3) the port of Bandar Imam Khomeini on October, 2022, discharging corn, and remained in that port during 2022 for 8.6 days. The Eolos G made calls to (1) the port of Bandar Imam Khomeini on February, 2022, discharging soya beans, and remained in that port during 2022 for 27.5 days, pursuant to a time charter with an unaffiliated third party charterer at a gross rate of $35,000 per day, and (2) the port of Bandar Imam Khomeini on June, 2022, discharging corn, and remained in that port during 2022 for 18 days, pursuant to a time charter with an unaffiliated third party charterer at a gross rate of $35,000 per day. The United States maintains broad authorizations and exceptions that allow for the sale of agricultural commodities and food to Iran. The position is similar under the relevant EU Regulations. As part of the charter arrangements between the vessel owner and third-party charterers or sub-charterers, the vessel owner or its manager may pay fees and expenses related to the port calls made in Iran through a private third-party agent in Iran appointed by the third-party charterer or sub-charterer. Globus Maritime Limited and its subsidiaries did not earn any income from this activity and did not control this activity.

 

Our charter party agreements for our vessels restrict the charterers from calling in Iran in violation of U.S. sanctions, or carrying any cargo to Iran which is subject to U.S. sanctions. However, there can be no assurance that our vessels will not, from time to time in the future on charterer's instructions, perform voyages which would require disclosure pursuant to Exchange Act Section 13(r).

 

We currently have no intention to charter our vessels to charterers and sub-charterers, including, as the case may be, Iran-related parties, who may make, or may sub-let the vessels to sub-charterers who may make, port calls to Iran. In addition, our affiliate has informed us that it currently has no intention to continue to charter its vessels to charterers and sub-charterers, including, as the case may be, Iran-related parties, who may make, or may sub-let the vessels to sub-charterers who may make, port calls to Iran.

 

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Inspection by Classification Societies

 

Every oceangoing vessel must be “classed” by a classification society. The classification society certifies that the vessel is “in class,” signifying that the vessel has been built and maintained in accordance with the rules of the classification society and complies with applicable rules and regulations of the vessel’s country of registry and the international conventions of which that country is a member. In addition, where surveys are required by international conventions and corresponding laws and ordinances of a flag state, the classification society will undertake them on application or by official order, acting on behalf of the authorities concerned.

 

The classification society also undertakes on request other surveys and checks that are required by regulations and requirements of the flag state. These surveys are subject to agreements made in each individual case and/or to the regulations of the country concerned. For maintenance of the class certification, regular and extraordinary surveys of hull, machinery, including the electrical plant, and any special equipment classed are required to be performed as follows:

 

  Ø Annual Surveys. For seagoing vessels, annual surveys are conducted for the hull and the machinery, including the electrical plant and where applicable for special equipment classed, at intervals of 12 months from the date of commencement of the class period indicated in the certificate.

 

  Ø Intermediate Surveys. Extended annual surveys are referred to as intermediate surveys and typically are conducted two and one-half years after commissioning and each class renewal. Intermediate surveys may be carried out on the occasion of the second or third annual survey.

 

  Ø Class Renewal Surveys. Class renewal surveys, also known as special surveys, are carried out for the vessel’s hull, machinery, including the electrical plant, and for any special equipment classed, at the intervals indicated by the character of classification for the hull. At the special survey the vessel is thoroughly examined, including audio-gauging to determine the thickness of the steel structures. Should the thickness be found to be less than class requirements, the classification society would prescribe steel renewals. The classification society may grant a one-year grace period for completion of the special survey. Substantial amounts of money may have to be spent for steel renewals to pass a special survey if the vessel experiences excessive wear and tear. In lieu of the special survey every four or five years, depending on whether a grace period was granted, a shipowner has the option of arranging with the classification society for the vessel’s hull or machinery to be on a continuous survey cycle, in which every part of the vessel would be surveyed within a five-year cycle. At an owner’s application, the surveys required for class renewal may be split according to an agreed schedule to extend over the entire period of class. This process is referred to as continuous class renewal.

 

All areas subject to survey as defined by the classification society are required to be surveyed at least once per class period, unless shorter intervals between surveys are prescribed elsewhere. The period between two subsequent surveys of each area must not exceed five years.

 

Most insurance underwriters make it a condition for insurance coverage that a vessel be certified as “in class” by a classification society that is a member of the International Association of Classification Societies. All the vessels that we own and operate are certified as being “in class” by Nippon Kaiji Kyokai (Class NK), DNV GL, Lloyds or ABS. Typically, all new and secondhand vessels that we purchase must be certified “in class” prior to their delivery under our standard purchase contracts and memoranda of agreement. Under our standard purchase contracts, unless negotiated otherwise, if the vessel is not certified on the date of closing, we would have no obligation to take delivery of the vessel. Although we may not have an obligation to accept any vessel that is not certified on the date of closing, we may determine nonetheless to purchase the vessel, should we determine it to be in our best interests. If we do so, we may be unable to charter such vessel after we purchase it until it obtains such certification, which could increase our costs and affect the earnings we anticipate from the employment of the vessel.

 

Vessels are drydocked during intermediate and special surveys for repairs of their underwater parts. If “in water survey” notation is assigned, the vessel owner has the option of carrying out an underwater inspection of the vessel in lieu of drydocking, subject to certain conditions. In the event that an “in water survey” notation is assigned and other requirements as stipulated by class rules permit, dry docking required as part of an Intermediate Survey may be carried out “in lieu” thereby achieving a higher utilization for the relevant vessel. As per rules each vessel must dry dock twice within a five year cycle.

 

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One drydock must coincide with the special survey while the time distance between two dry docks must not exceed 36 months. We budget 40 days per drydocking per vessel. Actual length will vary based on the condition of each vessel, shipyard schedules and other factors.

 

The following table lists the dates by which we expect to carry out the next drydockings and special surveys for the vessels in our fleet:

 

Vessel Name Drydocking Special Survey Classification Society
m/v River Globe August 2025 August 2027 Class NK
m/v Sky Globe November 2024 November 2024 Class NK
m/v Star Globe May 2025 May 2025 DNV GL
m/v Moon Globe November 2025 November 2025 Class NK
m/v Sun Globe November 2025 August 2027 ABS
m/v Galaxy Globe October 2023 October 2025 Class NK
m/v Power Globe October 2024 June 2026 Class NK
m/v Orion Globe April 2023 March 2025 Class NK
m/v Diamond Globe May 2023 May 2023 Lloyds

  

Following an incident or a scheduled survey, if any defects are found, the classification surveyor will issue a “recommendation” or “condition of class” which must be rectified by the vessel owner within the prescribed time limits.

 

Risk Management and Insurance

 

General

 

The operation of any cargo vessel embraces a wide variety of risks, including the following:

 

  Ø mechanical failure or damage, for example by reason of the seizure of a main engine crankshaft;

 

  Ø cargo loss, for example arising from hull damage;

 

  Ø personal injury, for example arising from collision or piracy;

 

  Ø losses due to piracy, terrorist or war-like action between countries;

 

  Ø environmental damage, for example arising from marine disasters such as oil spills and other environmental mishaps;

 

  Ø physical damage to the vessel, for example by reason of collision;

 

  Ø damage to other property, for example by reason of cargo damage or oil pollution; and

 

  Ø business interruption, for example arising from strikes and political or regulatory change.

 

The value of such losses or damages may vary from modest sums, for example for a small cargo shortage damage claim, to catastrophic liabilities, for example arising out of a marine disaster, such as a serious oil or chemical spill, which may be virtually unlimited. While we maintain the traditional range of marine and liability insurance coverage for our fleet (hull and machinery insurance, war risks insurance and protection and indemnity coverage) in amounts and to extents that we believe are prudent to cover normal risks in our operations, we cannot insure against all risks, and we cannot be assured that all covered risks are adequately insured against. Furthermore, there can be no guarantee that any specific claim will be paid by the insurer or that it will always be possible to obtain insurance coverage at reasonable rates. Any uninsured or under-insured loss could harm our business and financial condition.

 

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Hull and Machinery and War Risks

 

The principal coverages for marine risks (covering loss or damage to the vessels, rather than liabilities to third parties) are hull and machinery insurance and war risk insurance. These address the risks of the actual or constructive total loss of a vessel and accidental damage to a vessel’s hull and machinery, for example from running aground or colliding with another ship. These insurances provide coverage which is limited to an agreed “insured value” which, as a matter of policy, is never less than the particular vessel’s fair market value. Reimbursement of loss under such coverage is subject to policy deductibles that vary according to the vessel and the nature of the coverage. Hull and machinery deductibles may, for example, be between $75,000 and $150,000 per incident whereas the war risks insurance has a more modest incident deductible of, for example, $30,000.  

 

Protection and Indemnity Insurance

 

Protection and indemnity insurance is a form of mutual indemnity insurance provided by mutual marine protection and indemnity associations, or “P&I Clubs,” formed by vessel owners to provide protection from large financial loss to one club member by contribution towards that loss by all members.

 

Each of the vessels that we operate is entered in the Gard P&I (Bermuda) Ltd. which we refer to as the Club, for third party liability marine insurance coverage. The Club is a mutual insurance vehicle. As a member of the Club, we are insured, subject to agreed deductibles and our terms of entry, for our legal liabilities and expenses arising out of our interest in an entered ship, out of events occurring during the period of entry of the ship in the Club and in connection with the operation of the ship, against specified risks. These risks include liabilities arising from death of crew and passengers, loss or damage to cargo, collisions, property damage, oil pollution and wreck removal.

 

The Club benefits from its membership in the International Group of P&I Clubs, or the International Group, for its main reinsurance program, and maintains a separate complementary insurance program for additional risks.

 

The Club’s policy year commences each February. The mutual calls are levied by way of Estimated Total Premiums, or ETP, and the amount of the final installment of the ETP varies in accordance with the actual total premium ultimately required by the Club for a particular policy year. Members have a liability to pay supplementary calls which may be levied by the Club if the ETP is insufficient to cover the Club’s outgoings in a policy year.

 

Cover per claim is generally limited to an unspecified sum, being the amount available from reinsurance plus the maximum amount collectable from members of the International Group by way of overspill calls. Certain exceptions apply, including a $1.0 billion limit on claims in respect of oil pollution, a $3.0 billion limit on cover for passenger and crew claims and a sub-limit of $2.0 billion for passenger claims.

 

To the extent that we experience either a supplementary or an overspill call, our policy is to expense such amounts. To the extent that the Club depends on funds paid in calls from other members in our industry, if there were an industry-wide slow-down, other members might not be able to meet the call and we might not receive a payout in the event we made a claim on a policy.

 

Uninsured Risks

 

Not all risks are insured and not all risks are insurable. The principal insurable risks which nevertheless remain uninsured across our fleet are “loss of hire” and “strikes.” We generally do not insure these risks because we regard the costs as disproportionate. These insurances provide, subject to a deductible, a limited indemnity for hire that is not receivable by the shipowner for reasons set forth in the policy. For example, loss of hire risk may be covered on a 14/90/90 basis, with a 14 days deductible, 90 days cover per incident and a 90-day overall limit per vessel per year. Should a vessel on time charter, where the vessel is paid a fixed hire day by day, suffer a serious mechanical breakdown, the daily hire will no longer be payable by the charterer. The purpose of the loss of hire insurance is to secure the loss of hire during such periods.

 

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Environmental and Other Regulations 

 

Sources of Applicable Rules and Standards

 

Shipping is one of the world’s most heavily regulated industries, and it is subject to many industry standards. Government regulation significantly affects the ownership and operation of vessels. These regulations consist mainly of rules and standards established by international conventions, but they also include national, state and local laws and regulations in force in jurisdictions where vessels may operate or are registered, and which may be more stringent than international rules and standards. This is the case particularly in the United States and, increasingly, in Europe.

 

A variety of governmental and private entities subject vessels to both scheduled and unscheduled inspections. These entities include local port authorities (the U.S. Coast Guard, harbor masters or equivalent entities), classification societies, flag state administration (country vessel of registry), port state control, charterers and particularly terminal operators. Certain of these entities require vessel owners to obtain permits, licenses and certificates for the operation of their vessels. Failure to maintain necessary permits or approvals could require a vessel owner to incur substantial costs or temporarily suspend operation of one or more of its vessels.

 

Heightened levels of environmental and quality concerns among insurance underwriters, regulators and charterers continue to lead to greater inspection and safety requirements on all vessels and may accelerate the scrapping of older vessels throughout the industry. Increasing environmental concerns have created a demand for vessels that conform to stricter environmental standards. Vessel owners are required to maintain operating standards for all vessels that will emphasize operational safety, quality maintenance, continuous training of officers and crews and compliance with U.S. and international regulations. Because laws and regulations are frequently changed and may impose increasingly stricter requirements, we cannot predict the ultimate cost of complying with these requirements, or the impact of these requirements on the resale value or useful lives of our vessels. In addition, a future serious marine incident that causes significant adverse environmental impact could result in additional legislation or regulation that could negatively affect our profitability.

 

The following is a non-exhaustive overview of certain material conventions, laws and regulations that affect our business and the operation of our vessels. It is not a comprehensive summary of all the conventions, laws and regulations to which we are subject.

 

The IMO is a United Nations agency setting standards and creating a regulatory framework for the shipping industry and has negotiated and adopted a number of international conventions. These fall into two main categories, consisting firstly of those concerned generally with vessel safety and security standards, and secondly of those specifically concerned with measures to prevent pollution from vessels.

 

Ship Safety Regulation

 

A primary international safety convention is the Safety of Life at Sea Convention of 1974, as amended, or SOLAS, including the regulations and codes of practice that form part of its regime. Much of SOLAS is not directly concerned with preventing pollution, but some of its safety provisions are intended to prevent pollution as well as promote safety of life and preservation of property. These regulations have been and continue to be regularly amended as new and higher safety standards are introduced with which we are required to comply.

 

Under Chapter IX of the SOLAS Convention, or the International Safety Management Code for the Safe Operation of Ships and for Pollution Prevention, or the ISM Code, our operations are also subject to environmental standards and requirements. The purpose of the ISM Code is to provide an international standard for the safe management and operation of vessels and for pollution prevention. Under the ISM Code, the party with operational control of a vessel is required to develop, implement and maintain an extensive safety management system that includes, among other things, the adoption of a safety and environmental protection policy setting forth instructions and procedures for operating its vessels safely and protecting the environment and describing procedures for responding to emergencies. The ISM Code requires that vessel operators obtain a Safety Management Certificate for each vessel they operate. This certificate issued after verification that the vessel’s operator and its shipboard management operate in accordance with the approved safety management system and evidence that the vessel complies with the requirements of the ISM Code. No vessel can obtain a Safety Management Certificate unless its operator has been awarded a document of compliance, issued by the respective flag state for the vessel, under the ISM Code.

 

Another amendment of SOLAS, made after the terrorist attacks in the United States on September 11, 2001, introduced special measures to enhance maritime security, including the International Ship and Port Facility Security Code, or ISPS Code, which sets out measures for the enhancement of security of vessels and port facilities. To trade internationally, a vessel must attain an International Ship Security Certificate, or ISSC, from a recognized security organization approved by the vessel's flag state.

 

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The vessels that we operate maintain ISM and ISPS certifications for safety and security of operations.

 

Regulations to Prevent Pollution from Ships

 

In the second main category of international regulation which deals with prevention of pollution, the primary convention is the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships 1973 as amended by the 1978 Protocol, or MARPOL, which imposes environmental standards on the shipping industry set out in its Annexes I-VI. These contain regulations for the prevention of pollution by oil (Annex I), by noxious liquid substances in bulk (Annex II), by harmful substances in packaged forms within the scope of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code (Annex III), by sewage (Annex IV), by garbage (Annex V) and by air emissions (Annex VI).

 

These regulations have been and continue to be regularly amended and supplemented as new and higher standards of pollution prevention are introduced with which we are required to comply.

 

For example, MARPOL Annex VI sets limits on Sulphur Oxides (SOx) and Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) and particulate matter emissions from vessel exhausts and prohibits deliberate emissions of ozone depleting substances. It also regulates the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from cargo tankers and certain gas carriers, as well as shipboard incineration of specific substances. Annex VI also includes a global cap on the sulphur content of fuel oil with a lower cap on the sulphur content applicable inside special areas, the “Emission Control Areas” or ECAs. Already established ECAs include the Baltic Sea, the North Sea, including the English Channel, the North American area and the US Caribbean Sea area. Recently the IMO approved a proposal for a new ECA in the Mediterranean to apply from 1 July 2025 such that the sulphur content of marine fuels does not exceed 0.1%. The global cap on the sulphur content of fuel oil was reduced to 0.5% as of January 1, 2020, regardless of whether a ship is operating outside a designated ECA. From January 1, 2015 the cap on the sulphur content of fuel oil for vessels operating in ECAs has been 0.1%. Additional amendments to Annex VI revising, among other terms, the definition of “Sulphur content of fuel oil” and “low-flashpoint fuel”, and pertaining to the sampling and testing of onboard fuel oil, which became effective in 2022. These regulations subject ocean-going vessels to stringent emissions controls and may cause us to incur substantial costs.

 

Annex VI also provides for progressive reductions in NOx emissions from marine diesel engines installed in vessels. Limiting NOx emissions is set on a three tier reduction, the final tier (“Tier III”) applying to engines installed on vessels constructed on or after January 1, 2016 and which operate in the North American ECA or the US Caribbean Sea ECA, and to engines installed on vessels constructed on or after January 1, 2021 and which operate in the Baltic Sea ECA or the North Sea ECA. The Tier III requirements would also apply to engines of vessels operating in other ECAs as may be designated in the future by the IMO’s Marine Environment Protection Committee (or MEPC) for Tier III NOx control. The Tier III requirements do not apply to engines installed on vessels constructed prior to January 1, 2021, if they are of less than 500 gross tons, of 24 meters or over in length, and have been designed and used solely for recreational purposes. We anticipate incurring costs at each stage of implementation on all these areas. Currently we are compliant in all our vessels. Additionally, amendments to Annex II, which strengthen discharge requirements for cargo residues and tank washings in specified sea areas (including North West European waters, Baltic Sea area, Western European waters and Norwegian Sea), came into effect in January 2021.

 

Greenhouse Gas Emissions

 

In February 2005, the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change entered into force. Pursuant to the Kyoto Protocol, adopting countries are required to implement national programs to reduce emissions of certain gases, generally referred to as greenhouse gases, which are suspected of contributing to global warming. Currently, the greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping do not come under the Kyoto Protocol (this task having been delegated to the IMO). In December 2009, more than 27 nations, including the United States, entered into the Copenhagen Accord. The Copenhagen Accord is non-binding, but is intended to pave the way for a comprehensive, international treaty on climate change. On December 12, 2015 the Paris Agreement was adopted by 195 countries. The Paris Agreement deals with greenhouse gas emission reduction measures and targets from 2020 in order to limit the global temperature increases above pre-industrial levels to well below 2˚ Celsius. Although shipping was ultimately not included in the Paris Agreement, it is expected that the adoption of the Paris Agreement may lead to regulatory changes in relation to curbing greenhouse gas emissions from shipping. The Paris Agreement has been ratified by a large number of countries and entered into force on November 4, 2016. The United States rejoined the Paris Agreement in February 2021.

 

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In July 2011 the IMO adopted regulations imposing technical and operational measures for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. These new regulations formed a new chapter in Annex VI of MARPOL and became effective on January 1, 2013. The new technical and operational measures include the “Energy Efficiency Design Index,” which is mandatory for newbuilding vessels, and the “Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan,” which is mandatory for all vessels. In October 2016 the MEPC adopted updated guidelines for the calculation of the Energy-Efficiency Design Index. In addition, the IMO is evaluating various mandatory measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping, which may include market-based instruments or a carbon tax. In October 2016, the IMO adopted a mandatory data collection system under which vessels of 5,000 gross tonnage and above are to collect fuel consumption data and to report the aggregated data to their flag state at the end of each calendar year. The new requirements entered into force on March 1, 2018. In April 2018, the MEPC adopted an initial strategy on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from ships, which envisages a reduction in total greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping by at least 50% by 2050 compared to 2008.

 

IMO’s MEPC 76 adopted amendments to Annex VI that will require ships to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions; effective January 2023, the Revised MARPOL Annex VI includes requirements for ships to calculate their Energy Efficiency Existing Ship Index, or “EEXI,” following technical means to improve their energy efficiency and to establish their annual operational carbon intensity indicator and rating, or “CII.” MEPC 76 also adopted guidelines to support implementation of the amendments. The EEXI measures apply to newbuild ships and all existing ships above 400 GT and CII requirements apply to all ships of 5000 GT or above. This means that the first annual reporting will be completed in 2023, with the first rating awarded in 2024. The CII regulations state that a ship rated D for three consecutive years, or E for one year, will be required to submit a corrective action plan showing how C or above will be achieved.

 

The EU adopted Regulation (EU) 2015/757 on the monitoring, reporting and verification of carbon dioxide emissions from vessels (or the MRV Regulation), which was published in the Official Journal on May 19, 2015 and entered into force on July 1, 2015 (as amended by Regulation (EU) 2016/2071). The MRV Regulation applies to all vessels over 5,000 gross tonnage (except for a few types, such as, amongst others, warships and fish catching or fish processing vessels), irrespective of flag, in respect of carbon dioxide emissions released during intra-EU voyages and EU incoming and outgoing voyages. The first reporting period commenced on January 1, 2018. The monitoring, reporting and verification system adopted by the MRV Regulation was the precursor to a market-based mechanism to be adopted in the future (see below).

 

Furthermore, the 70th MEPC meeting in October 2016 adopted a mandatory data collection system (DCS) which requires ships above 5 000 gross tonnes to report consumption data for fuel oil, hours under way and distance travelled. Unlike the EU MRV (see below), the IMO DCS covers any maritime activity carried out by ships, including dredging, pipeline laying, ice-breaking, fish-catching and off-shore installations. The system, adopted by resolution MEPC.278(70), entered into force on 1 March 2018. Reporting commenced with the year 2019. The Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plans of all ships covered by the IMO DCS must include a description of the methodology for data collection and reporting. After each calendar year, the aggregated data are reported to the flag state. If the data have been reported in accordance with the requirements, the flag state issues a statement of compliance to the ship. Flag states subsequently transfer this data to an IMO ship fuel oil consumption database, which is part of the Global Integrated Shipping Information System (GISIS) platform. IMO will then produce annual reports, summarising the data collected. Thus, currently, data related to the GHG emissions of ships above 5 000 gross tonnes calling at ports in the European Economic Area (EEA) must be reported in two separate, but largely overlapping, systems: the EU MRV – which applies since 2018 – and the IMO DCS – which applies since 2019. The proposed revision of Regulation (EU) 2015/757 adopted on 4 February 2019 aims to align and facilitate the simultaneous implementation of the two systems however it is still not clear when the proposal will be adopted.

 

In the United States, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, or EPA, issued an “endangerment finding” regarding greenhouse gases under the Clean Air Act. While this finding in itself does not impose any requirements on our industry, it authorizes the EPA to regulate directly greenhouse gas emissions through a rule-making process. Any passage of new climate control legislation or other regulatory initiatives by the IMO, EU, the United States or other countries or states where we operate that restrict emissions of greenhouse gases could have a significant financial and operational impact on our business through increased compliance costs or additional operational restrictions that we cannot predict with certainty at this time.

 

Anti-Fouling Requirements

 

In 2001, the IMO adopted the International Convention on the Control of Harmful Anti-fouling Systems on Ships, or the Anti-fouling Convention. The Anti-fouling Convention, which entered into force in September 2008, prohibits and/or restricts the use of organotin compound coatings to prevent the attachment of mollusks and other sea life to the hulls of vessels. Vessels of over 400 gross tons engaged in international voyages must obtain an International Anti-Fouling System Certificate and undergo a survey before the vessel is put into service or before the Anti-fouling System Certificate is issued for the first time and when the anti-fouling systems are altered or replaced.

 

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In 2023, amendments to the Anti-fouling Convention will come into effect and will include controls on the biocide cybutryne; ships shall not apply or re-apply anti-fouling systems containing this substance from January 1, 2023. MEPC 76 adopted amendments to the Anti-fouling Convention to include controls on the biocide cybutryne; ships shall not apply or re-apply anti-fouling systems containing that substance starting January 1, 2023. The amendments require ships to remove this substance, or apply a coating to anti-fouling systems with this substance, at the next scheduled renewal of the anti-fouling system after January 1, 2023.

 

Other International Regulations to Prevent Pollution

 

In addition to MARPOL, other more specialized international instruments have been adopted to prevent different types of pollution or environmental harm from vessels.

 

In February 2004, the IMO adopted an International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments, or the BWM Convention. The BWM Convention, which entered into force on September 8, 2017, aims to prevent the spread of harmful aquatic organisms from one region to another, by establishing standards and procedures for the management and control of vessels’ ballast water and sediments. The BWM Convention’s implementing regulations require vessels to conduct ballast water management in accordance with the standards set out in the convention, which include performance of ballast water exchange in accordance with the requirements set out in the relevant regulation and the gradual phasing in of a ballast water performance standard which requires ballast water treatment and the installation of ballast water treatment systems on board the vessels. Under the BWM Convention, vessels are required to implement a Ballast Water and Sediments Management Plan, carry a Ballast Water Record Book and an International Ballast Water Management Certificate. Pursuant to the BWM Convention amendments that entered into force in October 2019, ballast water management systems (“BWMSs”) installed on or after October 28, 2020 shall be approved in accordance with BWMS Code, while BWMSs installed before October 23, 2020 must be approved taking into account guidelines developed by the IMO or the BWMS Code. Additionally, many countries already regulate the discharge of ballast water carried by vessels from country to country to prevent the introduction of invasive and harmful species via such discharges. The U.S., for example, requires vessels entering its waters from another country to conduct mid-ocean ballast exchange, or undertake some alternate measure, and to comply with certain reporting requirements. Ships sailing in U.S. waters are required to employ a type-approved BWMS which is compliant with USCG regulations. The U.S. Coast Guard has approved a number of BWMS. Amendments to the BWM Convention concerning commissioning testing of BWMS became effective in June 2022.

 

The Hong Kong International Convention for the Safe and Environmentally Sound Recycling of Ships adopted by the IMO in 2009, or the Recycling Convention, deals with issues relating to ship recycling and aims to address the occupational health and safety, as well as environmental risks relating to ship recycling. It contains regulations regarding the design, construction, operation, maintenance and recycling of vessels, as well as regarding their survey and certification to verify compliance with the requirements of the Recycling Convention. The Recycling Convention, amongst other things, prohibits and/or restricts the installation or use of hazardous materials on vessels and requires vessels to have on board an inventory of hazardous materials specific to each vessel. It also requires ship recycling facilities to develop a ship-recycling plan for each vessel prior to its recycling. Parties to the Recycling Convention are to ensure that ship-recycling facilities are designed, constructed and operated in a safe and environmentally sound manner and that they are authorized by competent authorities after verification of compliance with the requirements of the Recycling Convention. The Recycling Convention (which is not effective yet) is to enter into force 24 months after a specified minimum number of states with a combined gross tonnage and maximum annual recycling volume during the preceding 10 years have ratified it.

 

A MARPOL regulation and the International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Co-operation, 1990 also require owners and operators of vessels to adopt Shipboard Oil Pollution Emergency Plans. Another MARPOL regulation sets out similar requirements for the adoption of shipboard marine pollution emergency plans for noxious liquid substances with respect to vessels carrying such substances in bulk. Periodic training and drills for response personnel and for vessels and their crews are required.

 

European Union Regulations

 

European regulations in the maritime sector are in general based on international law most of which were promulgated by the IMO and then adopted by the Member States. However, since the Erika incident in 1999, when the Erika broke in two off the coast of France while carrying heavy fuel oil, the European Union (or EU) has become increasingly active in the field of regulation of maritime safety and protection of the environment. It has been the driving force behind a number of amendments of MARPOL (including, for example, changes to accelerate the timetable for the phase-out of single hull tankers, and prohibiting the carriage in such tankers of heavy grades of oil), and if dissatisfied either with the extent of such amendments or with the timetable for their introduction it has been prepared to legislate on a unilateral basis. In some instances where it has done so, international regulations have subsequently been amended to the same level of stringency as that introduced in the EU, but the risk is well established that EU regulations (and other jurisdictions) may from time to time impose burdens and costs on shipowners and operators which are additional to those involved in complying with international rules and standards.

 

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In some areas of regulation the EU has introduced new laws without attempting to procure a corresponding amendment of international law. Notably, it adopted in 2005 a directive on ship-source pollution (which was amended in 2009), imposing criminal sanctions for discharges of oil and other noxious substances from vessels sailing in its waters, irrespective of their flag not only where such pollution is caused by intent or recklessness (which would be an offense under MARPOL), but also where it is caused by “serious negligence.” The directive could therefore result in criminal liability being incurred in circumstances where it would not be incurred under international law. Experience has shown that in the emotive atmosphere often associated with pollution incidents, retributive attitudes towards vessel interests have found expression in negligence being alleged by prosecutors and found by courts on grounds which the international maritime community has found hard to understand. Moreover, there is skepticism that the notion of “serious negligence” is likely to prove any narrower in practice than ordinary negligence. Criminal liability for a pollution incident could not only result in us incurring substantial penalties or fines but may also, in some jurisdictions, facilitate civil liability claims for greater compensation than would otherwise have been payable.

 

The EU has also adopted legislation (Directive 2009/16/EC on Port State Control, as subsequently amended) which requires the Member States to refuse access to their ports to certain sub-standard vessels according to various factors, such as the vessel’s condition, flag and number of previous detentions within certain preceding periods; creates obligations on the part of EU member port states to inspect minimum percentages of vessels using their ports annually; and provides for increased surveillance of vessels posing a high risk to maritime safety or the marine environment. If deficiencies are found that are clearly hazardous to safety, health or the environment, the state is required to detain the vessel or stop loading or unloading until the deficiencies are addressed. Member states are also required to implement their own separate systems of proportionate penalties for breaches of these standards.

 

Commission Regulation (EU) No 802/2010, which was adopted by the European Commission in September 2010, as part of the implementation of the Port State Control Directive and came into force on January 1, 2011, as subsequently amended by Regulation 1205/2012 of December 14, 2012, introduced a ranking system (published on a public website and updated daily) displaying shipping companies operating in the EU with the worst safety records. The ranking is judged upon the results of the technical inspections carried out on the vessels owned by a particular shipping company. Those shipping companies that have the most positive safety records are rewarded by being subjected to fewer inspections, whilst those with the most safety shortcomings or technical failings recorded upon inspection are to be subjected to a greater frequency of official inspections of their vessels.

 

By Directive 2009/15/EC of April 23, 2009 (on common rules and standards for ship inspection and survey organizations and for the relevant activities of maritime administrations) as amended by Directive 2014/111/EU of December 17, 2014, the European Union has established measures to be followed by the Member States for the exercise of authority and control over classification societies, including the ability to seek to suspend or revoke the authority of classification societies that are negligent in their duties.

 

The EU has also adopted legislation requiring the use of low sulphur fuel. Under Council Directive 1999/32/EC as subsequently amended, from January 1, 2015, vessels have been required to burn fuel with a sulphur content not exceeding 0.1% while within EU member states’ territorial seas, exclusive economic zones and pollution control zones falling within sulphur oxide (SOx) Emission Control Areas (or SECAs), such as the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, including the English Channel. Further sea areas may be designated as SECAs in the future by the IMO in accordance with MARPOL Annex VI. Directive 1999/32/EC was repealed and codified by 2016/802/EU to align with the revised Annex VI.

 

Regulation (EU) 2015/757 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2015 ( amended by Regulation (EU) 2016/2071 with respect to methods of calculating, inter alia, emission and consumption) governs the monitoring, reporting and verification of carbon dioxide emissions from maritime transport, and, subject to some exclusions, requires companies with ships over 5,000 gross tonnage to monitor and report carbon dioxide emissions annually, which may cause us to incur additional expenses. As of January 2019, large ships calling at EU ports have been required to collect and publish data on carbon dioxide emissions and other information. The system entered into force on 1 March 2018.

 

July 2020 saw the European Parliament’s Committee on Environment, Public Health and Food Safety vote in favor of the inclusion of vessels of 5000 gross tons and above in the EU Emissions Trading System (in addition to voting for a revision to the monitoring, reporting and verification of CO2 emissions). In September 2020, the European Parliament adopted the proposal from the European Commission to amend the regulation on monitoring carbon dioxide emissions from maritime transport.

 

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On July 14, 2021, the European Commission published a package of draft proposals as part of its ‘Fit for 55’ environmental legislative agenda and as part of the wider EU Green Deal growth strategy. The Proposals are not yet in final form and may be subject to amendment. There are two key initiatives relevant to maritime arising from the Proposals: (a) a bespoke emissions trading scheme for maritime (Maritime ETS) which is due to commence in 2024 and which is to apply to all ships above a gross tonnage of 5000; and (b) a FuelEU draft regulation which seeks to require all ships above a gross tonnage of 5000 to carry on board a ‘FuelEU certificate of compliance’ from 30 June 2025 as evidence of compliance with the limits on the greenhouse gas intensity of the energy used on-board by a ship and with the requirements on the use of on-shore power supply (OPS) at berth. More specifically, Maritime ETS is to apply gradually over the period from 2024-2026. The cap under the ETS would be set by taking into account EU MRV system emissions data for the years 2018 and 2019, adjusted, from year 2021 and is to capture 100% of the emissions from intra-EU maritime voyages; 100% of emissions from ships at berth in EU ports; and 50% of emissions from voyages which start or end at EU ports (but the other destination is outside the EU). More recent proposed amendments signal that 100% of non-EU emissions may be caught if the IMO does not introduce a global market-based measure by 2028. Furthermore, the proposals envisage that all maritime allowances would be auctioned and there will be no free allocation. Whilst the FuelEU Maritime Regulation is still being negotiated, Maritime ETS deal was reached in December 2022 and the final legal text is expected to be published in the coming months.

 

Concerned at the lack of progress in satisfying the conditions needed to bring the Hong Kong Convention into force, the EU published its own Ship Recycling Regulation 1257/2013 (SRR) in 2013, with a view to facilitating early ratification of the Hong Kong Convention both within the EU and in other countries outside the EU. As the Hong Kong Convention has yet to come into force, the 2013 regulations are vital to responsible ship recycling in the EU. The SRR Regulation applies to vessels flying the flag of a Member State and certain of its provisions apply to vessels flying the flag of a third country calling at a port or anchorage of a Member State. For example, when calling at a port or anchorage of a Member State, the vessels flying the flag of a third country will be required, amongst other things, to have on board an inventory of hazardous materials which complies with the requirements of the Regulation and to be able to submit to the relevant authorities of that Member State a copy of a statement of compliance issued by the relevant authorities of the country of their flag and verifying the inventory. Pursuant to the Regulation, the EU Commission publishes from time to time a European List of approved ship recycling facilities meeting the requirements of the Regulation. On November 11, 2020 the EU Commission published an implementing decision which included an updated version of the European List. Furthermore, the SRR requires that, from 31 December 2020, all existing ships sailing under the flag of EU member states and non-EU flagged ships calling at an EU port or anchorage must carry on-board an Inventory of Hazardous Materials (IHM) with a certificate or statement of compliance, as appropriate. For EU-flagged vessels, a certificate (either an Inventory Certificate or Ready for Recycling Certificate) will be necessary, while non-EU flagged vessels will need a Statement of Compliance.

 

Compliance Enforcement

 

The flag state, as defined by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, has overall responsibility for the implementation and enforcement of international maritime regulations for all vessels granted the right to fly its flag. The “Shipping Industry Guidelines on Flag State Performance” issued by the International Chamber of Shipping in cooperation with other international shipping associations evaluates flag states based on factors such as port state control record, ratification of major international maritime treaties, use of recognized organizations conducting survey work on their behalf which comply with the IMO guidelines, age of fleet, compliance with reporting requirements and participation at IMO meetings. The vessels that we operate are flagged in the Marshall Islands and Malta. Marshall Islands- and Malta-flagged vessels have historically received a good assessment in the shipping industry.

 

Noncompliance with the ISM Code or other IMO regulations may subject the shipowner or bareboat charterer to increased liability and, if the implementing legislation so provides, to criminal sanctions, may lead to decreases in available insurance coverage for affected vessels or may invalidate or result in the loss of existing insurance cover and may result in the denial of access to, or detention in, some ports. The U.S. Coast Guard and European Union authorities have, for example, indicated that vessels not in compliance with the ISM Code will be prohibited from trading in U.S. and European Union ports, respectively. As of the date of this annual report on Form 20-F, each of our vessels is ISM Code certified. However, there can be no assurance that such certificate will be maintained.

 

The IMO, the EU and other regulatory authorities continue to review and introduce new regulations. It is impossible to predict what additional regulations, if any, may be passed by the IMO, the EU and/or other regulatory authorities and what effect, if any, such regulations may have on our operations.

 

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United States Environmental Regulations and Laws Governing Civil Liability for Pollution

 

Environmental legislation in the United States merits particular mention as it is in many respects more onerous than international laws, representing a high-water mark of regulation with which shipowners and operators must comply, and of liability likely to be incurred in the event of non-compliance or an incident causing pollution.

 

U.S. federal legislation, including notably the OPA, establishes an extensive regulatory and liability regime for the protection and cleanup of the environment from oil spills, including bunker oil spills from dry bulk vessels as well as cargo or bunker oil spills from tankers. The OPA affects all owners and operators whose vessels trade in the United States, its territories and possessions or whose vessels operate in United States waters, which includes the United States’ territorial sea and its 200 nautical mile exclusive economic zone. Under OPA, vessel owners, operators and bareboat charterers are “responsible parties” and are jointly, severally and strictly liable without regard to fault (unless the spill results solely from the act or omission of a third party, an act of God or an act of war) for all containment and clean-up costs and other damages arising from discharges or substantial threats of discharges of oil from their vessels. The OPA expressly allows the individual states of the United States to impose their own liability regimes for the discharge of petroleum products. In addition to potential liability under the OPA as the relevant federal legislation, vessel owners may in some instances incur liability on an even more stringent basis under state law in the particular state where the spillage occurred.

 

The OPA requires the owner or operator of any non-tank vessel of 400 gross tons or more that carries oil of any kind as a fuel for main propulsion, including bunkers, to prepare and submit a response plan for each vessel. The vessel response plans must include detailed information on actions to be taken by vessel personnel to prevent or mitigate any discharge or substantial threat of such a discharge of oil from the vessel.

 

The OPA contains statutory caps on liability and damages; such caps do not apply to direct clean-up costs. On December 23, 2022, the USCG adjusted the limits of OPA liability for a non-tank vessel, to the greater of $1,300 per gross ton or $1,076,000 (subject to periodic adjustment for inflation). However, these limits of liability do not apply if an incident was proximately caused by violation of applicable United States federal safety, construction or operating regulations or by a responsible party’s gross negligence or willful misconduct, or if the responsible party fails or refuses to report the incident or to cooperate and assist in connection with oil removal activities.

 

In addition, the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, or CERCLA, which applies to the discharge of hazardous substances (other than oil) whether on land or at sea, contains a similar liability regime and provides for cleanup, removal and natural resource damages. Liability under CERCLA is limited to the greater of $300 per gross ton or $0.5 million for vessels not carrying hazardous substances as cargo or residue (or the greater of $300 per gross ton or $5.0 million for vessels carrying hazardous substances) unless the incident is caused by gross negligence, willful misconduct or a violation of certain regulations, in which case liability is unlimited.

 

We maintain, for each of our vessels, protection and indemnity coverage against pollution liability risks in the amount of $1.0 billion per event. This insurance coverage is subject to exclusions, deductibles and other terms and conditions. If any liabilities or expenses fall within an exclusion from coverage, or if damages from a catastrophic incident exceed the $1.0 billion limitation of coverage per event, our cash flow, profitability and financial position could be adversely impacted.

 

We believe our insurance and protection and indemnity coverage as described above meets the requirements of the OPA.

 

The OPA requires owners and operators of all vessels over 300 gross tons, even those that do not carry petroleum or hazardous substances as cargo, to establish and maintain with the U.S. Coast Guard evidence of financial responsibility sufficient to meet their potential liabilities under the OPA. Under the regulations, vessel owners and operators may evidence their financial responsibility by showing proof of insurance, surety bond, self-insurance or guaranty.

 

Under the OPA, an owner or operator of a fleet of vessels is required only to demonstrate evidence of financial responsibility in an amount sufficient to cover the vessel in the fleet having the greatest limited liability under the OPA.

 

The U.S. Coast Guard’s regulations concerning certificates of financial responsibility provide, in accordance with the OPA, that claimants may bring suit directly against an insurer or guarantor that furnishes the guaranty that supports the certificates of financial responsibility. In the event that such insurer or guarantor is sued directly, it is prohibited from asserting any contractual defense that it may have had against the responsible party and is limited to asserting those defenses available to the responsible party and the defense that the incident was caused by the willful misconduct of the responsible party.

 

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The OPA specifically permits individual states to impose their own liability regimes with regard to oil pollution incidents occurring within their boundaries, and some states have enacted legislation providing for unlimited liability for oil spills. In some cases, states that have enacted such legislation have not yet issued implementing regulations defining vessels owners’ responsibilities under these laws. We intend to comply with all applicable state regulations in the ports where our vessels call.

 

The United States Clean Water Act, or CWA, prohibits the discharge of oil or hazardous substances in U.S. navigable waters and imposes strict liability in the form of penalties for unauthorized discharges. The CWA also imposes substantial liability for the costs of removal, remediation and damages and complements the remedies available under CERCLA. In 2015, the EPA expanded the definition of “waters of the United States,” or WOTUS, thereby expanding federal authority under the CWA. On December 30, 2022, the EPA and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers announced the final revised WOTUS rule, which was published on January 18, 2023, and will become effective on March 20, 2023. The revised WOTUS rule replaces the 2020 Navigable Waters protection Rule and generally reflects an expansion of the CWA jurisdiction.

 

The EPA enacted rules governing the regulation of ballast water discharges and other discharges incidental to the normal operation of vessels within U.S. waters. Under the rules, commercial vessels 79 feet in length or longer (other than commercial fishing vessels), or Regulated Vessels, are required to obtain a CWA permit regulating and authorizing such normal discharges. This permit, which the EPA had designated as the Vessel General Permit for Discharges Incidental to the Normal Operation of Vessels, or VGP, incorporated the then current U.S. Coast Guard requirements for ballast water management as well as supplemental ballast water requirements, including limits applicable to specific discharge streams, such as deck runoff, bilge water and gray water. The Vessel Incidental Discharge Act (or VIDA) was signed into law on December 4, 2018, and establishes a new framework for the regulation of vessel incidental discharges under the CWA. On October 26, 2020, the EPA published a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for Vessel Incidental Discharge National Standards of Performance under VIDA, and in November 2020, held virtual public meetings, but a final rule has not been promulgated. The new regulations could require the installation of new equipment. Under VIDA, all provisions of the 2013 Vessel General Permit remain in force and effect as currently written until the EPA publishes standards and the corresponding U.S. Coast Guard regulations are published.

 

Vessels that are constructed after December 1, 2013, are subject to the ballast water numeric effluent limitations. Several U.S. states, including California, have added specific requirements to the VGP and, in some cases, may require vessels to install ballast water treatment technology to meet biological performance standards.

 

Security Regulations

 

Since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, there have been a variety of initiatives intended to enhance vessel security. In November 2002, the MTSA came into effect. To implement certain portions of the MTSA, in July 2003, the U.S. Coast Guard issued regulations requiring the implementation of certain security requirements aboard vessels operating in waters subject to the jurisdiction of the United States. Similarly, in December 2002, amendments to SOLAS created a new chapter of the convention dealing specifically with maritime security. The chapter imposes various detailed security obligations on vessels and port authorities, most of which are contained in the newly created ISPS Code. Among the various requirements are:

 

  Ø on-board installation of automatic information systems to enhance vessel-to-vessel and vessel-to-shore communications;

 

  Ø on-board installation of ship security alert systems;

 

  Ø the development of vessel security plans; and

 

  Ø compliance with flag state security certification requirements.

 

The U.S. Coast Guard regulations, intended to be aligned with international maritime security standards, exempt non-U.S. vessels from MTSA vessel security measures, provided such vessels have on board a valid International Ship Security Certificate that attests to the vessel’s compliance with SOLAS security requirements and the ISPS Code. The vessels in our fleet that we operate have on board valid International Ship Security Certificates and, therefore, will comply with the requirements of the MTSA.

 

International Laws Governing Civil Liability to Pay Compensation or Damages

 

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Although the United States is not a party to the International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage of 1969, as amended by the 1992 Protocol and further amended in 2000, or the CLC (which has been adopted by the IMO and sets out a liability regime in relation to oil pollution damage), many countries are parties and have ratified either the original CLC or its 1992 Protocol. Under the CLC, a vessel’s registered owner is strictly liable for pollution damage caused in the territorial waters or, under the 1992 Protocol, in the exclusive economic zone or equivalent area, of a contracting state by discharge of persistent oil, subject to certain defenses and subject to the right to limit liability. The original CLC applies to vessels carrying oil as cargo and not in ballast, whereas the CLC as amended by the 1992 Protocol applies to tanker vessels and combination carriers (i.e., vessels which sometimes carry oil in bulk and sometimes other cargoes) but only when the latter carry oil in bulk as cargo and during any voyage following such carriage (to the extent they have oil residues on board). Vessels trading with states that are parties to these conventions must provide evidence of insurance covering the liability of the owner. In jurisdictions where the CLC has not been adopted, various legislative schemes or common law govern, and liability is imposed either on the basis of fault or in a manner similar to that of the convention. We believe that our protection and indemnity insurance will cover the liability under the regime adopted by the IMO.

 

The CLC is supplemented by the International Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund for Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage 1971, as amended (or the Fund Convention). The purpose of the Fund Convention was the creation of a supplementary compensation fund (the International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund, or IOPC Fund) which provides additional compensation to victims of a pollution incident who are unable to obtain adequate or any compensation under the CLC.

 

In 2001, the IMO adopted the International Convention on Civil Liability for Bunker Oil Pollution Damage, or the Bunker Convention, which covers liability and compensation for pollution damage caused in the territorial waters or the exclusive economic zone or equivalent area of ratifying states by discharges of “bunker oil.” The Bunker Convention defines “bunker oil” as “any hydrocarbon mineral oil, including lubricating oil, used or intended to be used for the operation or propulsion of the ship, and any residues of such oil.” The Bunker Convention imposes strict liability (subject to certain defenses) on the shipowner (which term includes the registered owner, bareboat charterer, manager and operator of the vessel). It also requires registered owners of vessels over a certain size to maintain insurance for pollution damage in an amount equal to the limits of liability under the applicable national or international limitation regime (but not exceeding the amount calculated in accordance with the Convention on Limitation of Liability for Maritime Claims of 1976, as amended by the 1996 Protocol to it, or the 1976 Convention). The Bunker Convention entered into force in November 2008. In other jurisdictions, liability for spills or releases of oil from vessels’ bunkers continues to be determined by the national or other domestic laws in the jurisdiction where the events or damages occur.

 

The IMO’s International Convention on Liability and Compensation for Damage in Connection with the Carriage of Hazardous and Noxious Substances by Sea 1996, as superseded by the 2010 Protocol, or the HNS Convention, sets out a liability regime for loss or damage caused by hazardous or noxious substances carried on board a vessel. These substances are listed in the convention itself or defined by reference to lists of substances included in various IMO conventions and codes. The HNS Convention covers loss or damage by contamination to the environment, costs of preventive measures and further damage caused by such measures, loss or damage to property outside the ship and loss of life or personal injury caused by such substances on board or outside the ship. It imposes strict liability (subject to certain defenses) on the registered owner of the vessel and provides for limitation of liability and compulsory insurance. The owner’s right to limit liability is lost if it is proved that the damage resulted from the owner’s personal act or omission, committed with the intent to cause such damage, or recklessly and with knowledge that such damage would probably result. The HNS Convention has not entered into force yet.

 

Outside the United States, national laws generally provide for the owner to bear strict liability for pollution, subject to a right to limit liability under applicable national or international regimes for limitation of liability. The most widely applicable international regime limiting maritime pollution liability is the 1976 Convention. However, claims for oil pollution damage within the meaning of the CLC or any Protocol or amendment to it are expressly excepted from the limitation regime set out in the 1976 Convention. Rights to limit liability under the 1976 Convention are forfeited where it is proved that the loss resulted from the shipowner’s personal act or omissions, committed with the intent to cause such loss, or recklessly and with knowledge that such loss would probably result. Some states have ratified the 1996 Protocol to the 1976 Convention, which provides for liability limits substantially higher than those set forth in the original 1976 Convention to apply in such states. Finally, some jurisdictions are not a party to either the 1976 Convention or the 1996 Protocol, and some are parties to other earlier limitation of liability conventions and, therefore, shipowners’ rights to limit liability for maritime pollution in such jurisdictions may be different or uncertain.

 

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The Maritime Labour Convention

 

The International Labour Organization’s Maritime Labour Convention was adopted in 2006 (“MLC 2006”). The basic aims of the MLC 2006 are to ensure comprehensive worldwide protection of the rights of seafarers and to establish a level playing field for countries and ship owners committed to providing decent working and living conditions for seafarers, protecting them from unfair competition on the part of substandard ships. The Convention was ratified on August 20, 2012, and all our vessels have been certified, as required. The MLC 2006 requirements have not had a material effect on our operations.

 

C.  Organizational Structure

 

Globus Maritime Limited is a holding company. As of the date of this annual report, Globus wholly owns ten operational subsidiaries, nine of which are Marshall Islands corporations and one of which is incorporated in Malta. Nine of our operational subsidiaries each own one vessel, and one of our operational subsidiaries is our Manager and does not own any vessels. Our Manager provides the technical and day-to-day commercial management of our fleet and our financial reporting. Our Manager provides consultancy services to an affiliated ship management company. Our Manager maintains ship management agreements with each of our vessel-owning subsidiaries. In addition, three additional Marshall Islands subsidiaries have each entered into a shipbuilding contract for the construction of a new vessel. See “Item 4.A. History and Development of the Company.”

 

D.  Property, Plants and Equipment

 

In 2016 our Manager entered into a rental agreement for 350 square meters of office space for our operations within a building owned by Cyberonica S.A., a related party to us at a monthly rate of €10,360 with a lease period ending January 2, 2025. However, in August 2021, our Manager entered into a new rental agreement for 902 square metres of office space for its operations within a building owned by Cyberonica S.A. (a company controlled by our chairman of the board) at a monthly rate of €26,000 with a lease period ending August 2024, and the 2016 rental agreement was terminated. In June 2022, we entered into a new rental agreement with F.G. Europe (an affiliate of our chairman) for the same office space, at the same rate of Euro 26,000 (absolute amount) and with the same lease period ending of August 4, 2024. The previous rental agreement with Cyberonica was terminated. We do not presently own any real estate. As of December 31, 2022, we did not owe to F.G. Europe any amount of back rent.

 

As of December 31, 2022 and 2021 we owned and operated a fleet of nine vessels with an aggregate carrying value of $129.5 and $130.7 million, respectively.

 

A vessel-by-vessel carrying value summary as of December 31, 2022 and 2021 follows:

 

Dry bulk Vessels Dwt Year Built Month and Year of Acquisition Purchase Price (in millions of U.S. Dollars) Carrying Value
as of December 31, 2022 (in millions of U.S. Dollars)
Carrying Value
as of December 31, 2021 (in millions of U.S. Dollars)
m/v River Globe 53,627 2007 December 2007 57.5 7.6 7.4
m/v Sky Globe 56,855 2009 May 2010 32.8 8.2 7.0
m/v Star Globe 56,867 2010 May 2010 32.8 9.8 8.9
m/v Sun Globe 58,790 2007 September 2011 30.3 9.3 8.3
m/v Moon Globe 74,432 2005 June 2011 31.4 10.2 9.9
m/v Galaxy Globe 81,167 2015 October 2020 18.4 16.7 17.4
m/v Diamond Globe 82,027 2018 June 2021 27.0 25.0 26.3
m/v Power Globe 80,655 2011 July 2021 16.2 16.0 17.2
m/v Orion Globe 81,837 2015 November 2021 28.4 26.7 28.3
          129.5 130.7

 

Other than our vessels and contracts to construct vessels, we do not have any material property. Seven of our vessels are subject to priority mortgages, which secure our obligations under the First Citizens Bank & Trust Company (“CIT Loan Facility”) (formerly known as CIT Bank N.A.). For more information on our vessels, please see “Item 4.B.   Business Overview.” For more information on the shipbuilding contracts, see “Item 4.A.—History and Development of the Company.”

 

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On March 6, 2023, we, through a wholly owned subsidiary, entered into an agreement to sell the 2007-built Sun Globe for a gross price of $14.1 million, before commissions, to an unaffiliated third party, which sale is subject to standard closing conditions. We expect the sale to occur in the second quarter of 2023.

 

For further details regarding our credit facilities, please see “Item 5.B. Liquidity and Capital Resources — Indebtedness.”

 

We have no manufacturing capacity, nor do we produce any products.

 

We believe that our existing credit facility is adequate to meet our needs for the foreseeable future.

 

Item 4A.  Unresolved Staff Comments

 

None.

 

Item 5.  Operating and Financial Review and Prospects

 

The following discussion should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes thereto included elsewhere in this annual report on Form 20-F. We believe that the following discussion contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Actual results or plan of operations could differ materially from those anticipated by forward-looking information due to factors discussed under “Item 3.D.  Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this annual report on Form 20-F. Please see the section “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” at the beginning of this annual report on Form 20-F.

 

The following Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (MD&A) is intended to help the reader understand our results of operations and financial condition. The MD&A is provided as a supplement to, and should be read in conjunction with, our consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included in “Item 18 – Financial Statements.”

 

The MD&A generally discusses 2022 and 2021 items and year-to-year comparisons between 2022 and 2021. Discussions of 2020 items and year-to-year comparisons between 2021 and 2020 that are not included in this Form 20-F can be found in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 20-F for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021 filed with the SEC.

 

A.  Operating Results

 

Overview and History

 

We are an integrated dry bulk shipping company, which began operations in September 2006, providing marine transportation services on a worldwide basis. We own, operate and manage a fleet of dry bulk vessels that transport iron ore, coal, grain, steel products, cement, alumina and other dry bulk cargoes internationally. Following the conclusion of our initial public offering on June 1, 2007, our common shares were listed on the AIM under the ticker “GLBS.L.” On November 24, 2010, we redomiciled into the Marshall Islands pursuant to the BCA and a resale registration statement for our common shares was declared effective by the SEC. Once the resale registration statement was declared effective by the SEC, our common shares began trading on the Nasdaq Global Market under the ticker “GLBS.” We delisted our common shares from the AIM on November 26, 2010.

 

On April 11, 2016 our common shares began trading on the Nasdaq Capital Market and ceased trading on the Nasdaq Global Market, without a change in our ticker.

 

On July 29, 2010, we effected a 1-4 reverse stock split, with our issued share capital resulting in 7,240,852 common shares of $0.004 each. On October 20, 2016, we effected a 1-4 reverse stock split which reduced the number of outstanding common shares from 10,510,741 to 2,627,674 shares (adjustments were made based on fractional shares). (These figures do not reflect the 1-10 reverse stock split which occurred in October 2018 or the 1-100 reverse stock split occurred in October 2020.) On October 15, 2018, we effected a 1-10 reverse stock split which reduced the number of outstanding common shares from 32,065,077 to 3,206,495 shares (adjustments were made based on fractional shares). (These figures do not reflect the 1-100 reverse stock split occurred in October 2020.)

In November 2018, we entered into a credit facility for up to $15 million with Firment Shipping Inc., a related party to us, for the purpose of financing our general working capital needs, which facility was amended and restated on May 8, 2020. The Firment Shipping Credit Facility was unsecured and remained available until its final maturity date at October 31, 2021, as amended. We have the right to drawdown any amount up to $15 million or prepay any amount in multiples of $100,000.

 

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Any prepaid amount cannot be re-borrowed. Interest on drawn and outstanding amounts is charged at 3.5% per annum until December 31, 2020, and thereafter at 7% per annum. No commitment fee is charged on the amounts remaining available and undrawn. Interest is payable the last day of a period of three months after the drawdown date, after this period in case of failure to pay any sum due a default interest of 2% per annum above the regular interest is charged. We have also the right, in our sole option, to convert in whole or in part the outstanding unpaid principal amount and accrued but unpaid interest under this Agreement into common shares. The conversion price shall equal the higher of (i) the average of the daily dollar volume-weighted average sale price for the common stock on the Principal Market on any trading day during the period beginning at 9.30 a.m. New York City time and ending at 4.00 p.m. over the Pricing Period multiplied by 80%, where the “Pricing Period” equals the ten consecutive trading days immediately preceding the date on which the conversion notice was executed or (ii) $280.00. The outstanding amount under the Firment Shipping Credit Facility was fully repaid on July 27, 2020. This facility expired on its terms on October 31, 2021.

 

On April 23, 2019, the Company converted the outstanding principal amount of $3.1 million plus the accrued interest of $0.1 million with a conversion price of $2.80 per share and issued 1,132,191 new common shares on behalf of Firment Shipping Inc. in accordance with the provisions of the Firment Shipping Credit Facility. This conversion resulted in a gain of $0.1 million. As of December 31, 2020, $14.2 million was available to be drawn under the Firment Shipping Credit Facility. (These figures do not reflect the 1-100 reverse stock split occurred in October 2020.)

 

On June 22, 2020, we completed a public offering of 342,857 units of the Company. Each unit consisted of one common share and one Class A Warrant to purchase one common share (a “Class A Warrant”), for $35 per unit. At the time of the closing, the underwriters exercised and closed a part of their over-allotment option, and purchased an additional 51,393 common shares and Class A Warrants to purchase 51,393 common shares.

 

The exercise price of the Class A Warrants is $35 per whole share at any time after their original issuance up to the date that is five years after their original issuance. If a registration statement registering the issuance of the common shares underlying the warrants under the Securities Act is not effective or available, the holder may, in its sole discretion, elect to exercise the warrant through a cashless exercise, in which case the holder would receive upon such exercise the net number of common shares determined according to the formula set forth in the warrant. We may be required to pay certain amounts as liquidated damages as specified in the warrants in the event it does not deliver common shares upon exercise of the warrants within the time periods specified in the warrants.

 

On June 30, 2020, we issued 458,500 of our common shares in a registered direct offering and 458,500 of our June PP Warrants in a concurrent private placement for a purchase price of $27 per common share and June PP Warrant. No June PP Warrants have been exercised as of the date hereof, and may be exercised at any time prior to 5:00 PM New York time on December 30, 2025. The exercise price of each June PP Warrant was originally $30 per share, but in July 2020 was reduced to $18 per share.

 

On July 21, 2020, we issued 833,333 of our common shares in a registered direct offering and 833,333 of our July PP Warrants to purchase common shares in a concurrent private placement for a purchase price of $18 per common share and July PP Warrant. No July PP Warrants have been exercised as of the date hereof, and may be exercised at any time prior to 5:00 PM New York time on January 21, 2026. The exercise price of each July PP Warrant is $18 per share.

 

On December 9, 2020, we issued (a) 1,256,765 common shares, (b) pre-funded warrants to purchase 155,000 common shares, and (c) warrants (the “December 2020 Warrants”) to purchase 1,270,587 common shares. The pre-funded warrants have all been exercised. No December 2020 Warrants have been exercised as of the date hereof, and may be exercised at any time prior to 5:00 PM New York time on June 9, 2026. The exercise price of the December 2020 Warrants was reduced from $8.50 per share to $6.25 per share on January 29, 2021.

 

On January 29, 2021, we issued (a) 2,155,000 common shares, (b) pre-funded warrants to purchase 445,000 common shares, and (c) warrants (the “January 2021 Warrants”) to purchase 1,950,000 common shares at an exercise price of $6.25 per share, which may be exercised at any time prior to 5:00 PM New York time on July 29, 2026. The pre-funded warrants were all exercised. No January 2021 Warrants have been exercised as of the date hereof.

 

On February 17, 2021, we issued (a) 3,850,000 common shares, (b) pre-funded warrants to purchase 950,000 common shares, and (c) warrants (the “February 2021 Warrants”) to purchase 4,800,000 common shares at an exercise price of $6.25 per share, which may be exercised at any time prior to 5:00 PM New York time on August 17, 2026. The pre-funded warrants have all been exercised. No February 2021 Warrants have been exercised as of the date hereof.

 

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On June 29, 2021, we issued (a) 8,900,000 common shares, (b) pre-funded warrants to purchase 1,100,000 common shares, and (c) warrants (the “June 2021 Warrants”) to purchase 10,000,000 common shares at an exercise price of $5.00 per share, which may be exercised at any time prior to 5:00 PM New York time on December 29, 2026. The pre-funded warrants have all been exercised. No June 2021 Warrants have been exercised as the date hereof.

 

Each of the June PP Warrants, July PP Warrants, December 2020 Warrants, January 2021 Warrants, February 2021 Warrants and June 2021 Warrants is exercisable for a period of five and one-half years commencing on the date of issuance. The warrants are exercisable at the option of each holder, in whole or in part by delivering to us a duly executed exercise notice with payment in full in immediately available funds for the number of common shares purchased upon such exercise. If a registration statement registering the resale of the common shares underlying the private placement warrants under the Securities Act is not effective or available at any time after the six month anniversary of the date of issuance of the private placement warrants, the holder may, in its sole discretion, elect to exercise the private placement warrant through a cashless exercise, in which case the holder would receive upon such exercise the net number of common shares determined according to the formula set forth in the warrant. If a registration statement covering the issuance of the shares under the Securities Act is not effective or available at any time after the issuance of the December 2020 Warrants, January 2021 Warrants, February 2021 Warrants and June 2021 Warrants, the holder may, in its sole discretion, elect to exercise the such warrants through a cashless exercise, in which case the holder would receive upon such exercise the net number of common shares determined according to the formula set forth in the warrant. If we do not issue the shares in a timely fashion, each warrant contains certain liquidated damages provisions.

 

From June 22, 2020 through the date hereof, we have issued 5,550 common shares pursuant to exercises of outstanding Class A Warrants. As of the date of this annual report, no June PP Warrants, July PP Warrants, December 2020 Warrants, January 2021 Warrants, February 2021 Warrants or June 2021 Warrants have been exercised.

 

On October 21, 2020, we effected a 1-100 reverse stock split which reduced the number of shares outstanding from 175,675,651 to 1,756,720 (adjustments were made based on fractional shares). Unless otherwise noted, all historical share numbers, per share amounts, including common share, preferred shares and warrants, have been adjusted to give effect to this reverse split.

 

As of December 31, 2022, our issued and outstanding capital stock consisted of 20,582,301 common shares and 10,300 Series Preferred Shares.

 

On June 12, 2020, we entered into a stock purchase agreement and issued 50 of our newly-designated Series B preferred shares, par value $0.001 per share, to Goldenmare Limited, a company controlled by our Chief Executive Officer, Athanasios Feidakis, in return for $150,000, which amount was settled by reducing, on a dollar-for-dollar basis, the amount payable by the Company to Goldenmare Limited pursuant to the consultancy agreement.

 

In July 2020, we issued an additional 250 of our Series B preferred shares to Goldenmare Limited in return for $150,000. The $150,000 was paid by reducing, on a dollar-for-dollar basis, the amount payable by the Company to Goldenmare Limited pursuant to a consultancy agreement. In addition, we increased the maximum voting rights under the Series B preferred shares from 49.0% to 49.99%.

 

In March 2021, we issued an additional 10,000 of our Series B preferred shares to Goldenmare Limited in return for $130,000, which was settled by reducing, on a dollar-for-dollar basis, the amount payable by the Company to Goldenmare Limited pursuant to a consultancy agreement.

 

Each Series B preferred share entitles the holder thereof to 25,000 votes per share on all matters submitted to a vote of the shareholders of the Company, provided however, that no holder of Series B preferred shares may exercise voting rights pursuant to Series B preferred shares that would result in the aggregate voting power of any beneficial owner of such shares and its affiliates (whether pursuant to ownership of Series B preferred shares, common shares or otherwise) to exceed 49.99% of the total number of votes eligible to be cast on any matter submitted to a vote of shareholders of the Company. To the fullest extent permitted by law, the holders of Series B preferred shares shall have no special voting or consent rights and shall vote together as one class with the holders of the common shares on all matters put before the shareholders. The Series B preferred shares are not convertible into common shares or any other security. They are not redeemable and have no dividend rights. Upon any liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the Company, the Series B preferred shares are entitled to receive a payment with priority over the common shareholders equal to the par value of $0.001 per share.

 

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The Series B preferred shareholder has no other rights to distributions upon any liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the Company. All issued and outstanding Series B preferred shares must be held of record by one holder, and the Series B preferred shares shall not be transferred without the prior approval of our Board of Directors. Finally, in the event the Company (i) declares any dividend on its common shares, payable in common shares, (ii) subdivides the outstanding common shares or (iii) combines the outstanding common shares into a smaller number of shares, there shall be a proportional adjustment to the number of outstanding Series B preferred shares.

 

Each issuance of the Series B preferred shares to Goldenmare Limited was approved by an independent committee of the Board of Directors of the Company, which (in each instance) received a fairness opinion from an independent financial advisor that the transaction was for a fair value.

 

In May 2021, we entered into an agreement with First Citizens Bank & Trust Company (formerly known as CIT Bank N.A.) for a loan facility of $34.25 million bearing interest at LIBOR plus a margin of 3.75% per annum. The proceeds of this financing were used to repay the outstanding balance of the EnTrust Loan Facility.

 

In August 2022, we reached an agreement with First Citizens Bank & Trust Company (formerly known as CIT Bank N.A.) for a deed of accession, amendment and restatement of the CIT loan facility by the accession of an additional borrower that increased the loan facility from $34.25 million to $52.25 million, for the purpose of financing vessel Orion Globe and for general corporate and working capital purposes. The CIT Loan Facility (including the new top up loan amount) is now further secured by a first preferred mortgage over the vessel Orion Globe. The CIT Loan Facility bears interest at Term SOFR plus a margin of 3.35%.

 

On April 29, 2022, we entered into a contract, through our subsidiary Calypso Shipholding S.A., for the construction and purchase of one fuel efficient bulk carrier with a carrying capacity of about 64,000 dwt. The vessel will be built at Nihon Shipyard Co. in Japan and is scheduled to be delivered during the first half of 2024. The total consideration for the construction of the vessel is approximately $37.5 million, which we intend to finance with a combination of debt and equity. In May 2022 we paid the first installment of $7.4 million and in March 2023 we paid the second installment of $3.7 million.

 

On May 13, 2022, we entered into two contracts, through our subsidiaries Daxos Maritime Limited and Paralus Shipholding S.A., for the construction and purchase of two fuel efficient bulk carriers with a carrying capacity of about 64,000 dwt each. The sister vessels will be built at Nantong COSCO KHI Ship Engineering Co. in China with the first one scheduled to be delivered during the third quarter of 2024 and the second one scheduled during the fourth quarter of 2024. The total consideration for the construction of both vessels is approximately $70.3 million, which we intend to finance with a combination of debt and equity. In May 2022 we paid the first installment of $13.8 million and in November 2022 we paid the second installment of $6.9 million for both vessels under construction.

On March 6, 2023, we, through a wholly owned subsidiary, entered into an agreement to sell the 2007-built Sun Globe for a gross price of $14.1 million, before commissions, to an unaffiliated third party, which sale is subject to standard closing conditions. We expect the sale to occur in the second quarter of 2023.

  

We intend to grow our fleet through timely and selective acquisitions of modern vessels or acquisition through construction of new vessels in a manner that we believe will provide an attractive return on equity and will be accretive to our earnings and cash flow based on anticipated market rates at the time of purchase. There is no guarantee however, that we will be able to find suitable vessels to purchase or that such vessels will provide an attractive return on equity or be accretive to our earnings and cash flow.

 

Our strategy is to generally employ our vessels on a mix of all types of charter contracts, including bareboat charters, time charters and spot charters. We may, from time to time, enter into charters with longer durations depending on our assessment of market conditions.

 

We seek to manage our fleet in a manner that allows us to maintain profitability across the shipping cycle and thus maximize returns for our shareholders. To accomplish this objective we have historically deployed our vessels primarily on a mix of bareboat and time charters (with terms of between one month and five years). According to our assessment of market conditions, we have historically adjusted the mix of these charters to take advantage of the relatively stable cash flow and high utilization rates associated with time charters or to profit from attractive spot charter rates during periods of strong charter market conditions.

 

The average number of vessels in our fleet for the year ended December 31, 2022 was 9.0 for the year ended December 31, 2021 was 7.1, and for the year ended December 31, 2020 was 5.2.

 

Our operations are managed by our Glyfada, Greece-based wholly owned subsidiary, Globus Shipmanagement Corp., our Manager, who provides in-house commercial and technical management services to our vessels and consultancy services to an affiliated ship-management company. Our Manager enters into a ship management agreement with each of our wholly owned vessel-owning subsidiaries to provide such services and also entered into a consultancy agreement with an affiliated ship-management company.

 

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COVID-19

 

In March 2020, the World Health Organization (the “WHO”) declared the outbreak of a novel coronavirus strain, or COVID-19, to be a pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic is having widespread, rapidly evolving, and unpredictable impacts on global society, economies, financial markets, and business practices. Over the course of the pandemic, governments have implemented measures in an effort to contain the virus, including social distancing, travel restrictions, border closures, limitations on public gatherings, working from home, supply chain logistical changes, and closure of non-essential businesses. This led to a significant slowdown in overall economic activity levels globally and a decline in demand for certain of the raw materials that our vessels transport.

 

Dry bulk shipping rates, and therefore our voyage revenues, depend to a significant degree on global economic activity levels and specifically, economic activity in China. As the world’s second largest economy, China is the largest importer of dry bulk commodities globally, which drives demand for iron ore, coal and other cargoes we carry. In particular, starting in the first quarter of 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in reduced industrial activity in China on which our business is substantially dependent, with temporary closures of factories and other facilities. The pandemic resulted in a contraction in China’s GDP during the first quarter of 2020, with the most significant impact occurring in January and February. Since March 2020, China’s economy has substantially improved, as various economic indicators such as fixed asset investment and industrial production rose as compared to the previous months of the year, which led to a return to GDP growth for the balance of 2020 and into 2021 and 2022. Demand for the commodities that we carry continued to increase through 2021, which positively impacted the rate our vessels earned during that year. Economic activity levels in regions outside of China declined significantly beginning in the first quarter of 2020 and continued into the second quarter of the year due to various forms of nationwide shutdowns being imposed to prevent the spread of COVID-19. Over time, several economies around the world gradually eased measures taken earlier in 2020 resulting in improved activity levels from earlier year lows and leading to a demand rebound for 2021 and 2022. Although rebounding economies around the world have had a positive impact on our revenues in 2021, our vessel operating expenses continued to be affected by higher than anticipated costs related to COVID-19 disruptions. The impact of COVID-19 on both our revenues and operating expenses remains highly dependent on the trajectory of COVID-19, potential variants, as well as vaccine distribution and efficacy, which remains uncertain.

 

While China-led global economic activity levels have improved, the outlook for China and the rest of the world remains uncertain and is highly dependent on the path of COVID-19 and measures taken by governments around the world in response to it. Dry bulk commodities that are closely tied to global GDP growth and energy demand, experienced reduced trade flows in 2020 due to lower end user demand resulting from a decline in global economic activity. As countries worldwide gradually reopened their respective economies in mid-2020, trade flows and demand for raw materials increased. Dry bulk spot freight rates rebounded from the 2020 lows towards the end of the second quarter and remained firm in the second half of 2020. In 2021, spot rates for Kamsarmax, Panamax, and Supramax vessels reached levels not seen since 2010. In 2022 spot freight rates remained relatively high for the first half of the year and then started falling. While vaccinations are rising in developed countries, developing countries vaccination rates have lagged. Global vaccination rates, vaccine effectiveness together with the onset of variants, could impact the sustainability of this recovery in addition to dry bulk specific seasonality described in further detail below.

 

As our vessels trade commodities globally, we have taken measures to safeguard our crew and work toward preventing the spread of COVID-19. Crew members have received gloves, face masks, hand sanitizer, goggles and handheld thermometers. Genco requires its vessel crews to wear masks when in contact with other individuals who board the vessel. We continue to monitor the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (the “CDC”) and the WHO guidelines and are also limiting access of shore personnel boarding our vessels. Specifically, no shore personnel with fever or respiratory symptoms are allowed on board, and those that are allowed on board are restricted to designated areas that are thoroughly cleaned after their use. Face masks are also provided to shore personnel prior to boarding a vessel. Precautionary materials are posted in common areas to supplement safety training while personal hygiene best practices are strongly encouraged on board.

 

We have implemented protocols with regard to crew rotations to keep our crew members safe and healthy which includes polymerase chain reaction (PCR) antibody testing as well as a 10-day quarantine period prior to boarding a vessel.

 

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Genco is enacting crew changes where permitted by regulations of the ports and of the country of origin of the mariners, in addition to strict protocols that safeguard our crews against COVID-19 exposure. Crew rotations have been challenging due to port and travel restrictions globally, as well as promoting the health and safety of both on and off signing crew members.

 

The COVID-19 pandemic and measures to contain its spread thus have negatively impacted and could continue to impact regional and global economies and trade patterns in markets in which we operate, the way we operate our business, and the businesses of our charterers and suppliers. These impacts may continue or become more severe. Although we have successfully completed many crew changes over the course of the pandemic to date, additional crew changes could remain challenging due to COVID-19 related factors. The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic impacts our business going forward will depend on numerous evolving factors we cannot reliably predict, including the duration and scope of the pandemic; governmental, business, and individuals’ actions in response to the pandemic; and the impact on economic activity, including the possibility of recession or financial market instability.

 

Conflicts

 

The conflict between Russia and Ukraine, which commenced in February 2022, has disrupted supply chains and caused instability and significant volatility in the global economy. Much uncertainty remains regarding the global impact of the conflict in Ukraine, and it is possible that such instability, uncertainty and resulting volatility could significantly increase our costs and adversely affect our business, including our ability to secure charters and financing on attractive terms, and as a result, adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operation and cash flows.

 

As a result of the conflict between Russia and Ukraine, Switzerland, the United States, the European Union, the United Kingdom and others have announced unprecedented levels of sanctions and other measures against Russia and certain Russian entities and nationals. Such sanctions against Russia may adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operation and cash flows. For example, apart from the immediate commercial disruptions caused in the conflict zone, escalating tensions and fears of potential shortages in the supply of Russian crude caused the price of oil to trade above $100 per barrel in March 2022. The ongoing conflict could result in the imposition of further economic sanctions against Russia, with uncertain impacts on the dry bulk market and the world economy. While we do not have any Ukrainian or Russian crew and our vessels currently do not sail in the Black Sea, it is possible that the conflict in Ukraine, including any increased shipping costs, disruptions of global shipping routes, any impact on the global supply chain and any impact on current or potential customers caused by the events in Russia and Ukraine, could adversely affect our operations or financial performance. Due to the recent nature of these activities, the full impact on our business is not yet known.

 

IMO 2020 Compliance

 

On October 27, 2016, the Marine Environment Protection Committee (“MEPC”) of the International Maritime Organization (“IMO”) announced the ratification of regulations mandating reduction in sulfur emissions from 3.5% currently to 0.5% as of the beginning of 2020 rather than pushing the deadline back to 2025. Accordingly, ships now have to reduce sulfur emissions, for which the principal solutions are the use of exhaust gas cleaning systems (“scrubbers”) or buying fuel with low sulfur content. If a vessel is not retrofitted with a scrubber, it will need to use low sulfur fuel, which is currently more expensive than standard marine fuel containing 3.5% sulfur content.  This increased demand for low sulfur fuel resulted in an increase in prices for such fuel during the beginning of 2020. Until the middle of 2022 bunker prices increased until the middle of the year and then started decreasing again..

 

None of our vessels currently have scrubbers. We will continue to evaluate all options to comply with IMO regulations. Our fuel costs and fuel inventories may increase as a result of these sulfur emission regulations. Low sulfur fuel is more expensive than standard marine fuel containing 3.5% sulfur content and may become more expensive or difficult to obtain as a result of increased demand.  If the cost differential between low sulfur fuel and high sulfur fuel is significantly higher than anticipated, or if low sulfur fuel is not available at ports on certain trading routes, it may not be feasible or competitive to operate vessels on certain trading routes without installing scrubbers or without incurring deviation time to obtain compliant fuel. 

 

Lack of Historical Operating Data for Vessels Before their Acquisition

 

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Consistent with shipping industry practice, we were not and have not been able obtain the historical operating data for the secondhand vessels we purchase, in part because that information is not material to our decision to acquire such vessels, nor do we believe such information would be helpful to potential investors in our common shares in assessing our business or profitability. We generally purchase our vessels under a standardized agreement commonly used in shipping practice, which, among other things, provides us with the right to inspect the vessel and the vessel’s classification society records. The standard agreement does not provide us the right to inspect, or receive copies of, the historical operating data of the vessel. Accordingly, such information was not available to us. Prior to the delivery of a purchased vessel, the seller typically removes from the vessel all records, including past financial records and accounts related to the vessel. Typically, the technical management agreement between a seller’s technical manager and the seller is automatically terminated and the vessel’s trading certificates are revoked by its flag state following a change in ownership.

 

In addition, and consistent with shipping industry practice, we treat the acquisition of vessels from unaffiliated third parties as the acquisition of an asset rather than a business. We believe that, under the applicable provisions of Rule 11-01(d) of Regulation S-X under the Securities Act, the acquisition of our vessels does not constitute the acquisition of a “business” for which historical or pro forma financial information would be provided pursuant to Rules 3-05 and 11-01 of Regulation S-X.

 

Although vessels are generally acquired free of charter, we may in the future acquire some vessels with charters. Where a vessel has been under a voyage charter, the vessel is usually delivered to the buyer free of charter. It is rare in the shipping industry for the last charterer of the vessel in the hands of the seller to continue as the first charterer of the vessel in the hands of the buyer. In most cases, when a vessel is under time charter and the buyer wishes to assume that charter, the vessel cannot be acquired without the charterer’s consent and the buyer entering into a separate direct agreement, called a novation agreement, with the charterer to assume the charter. The purchase of a vessel itself does not transfer the charter because it is a separate service agreement between the vessel owner and the charterer.

 

If the Company acquires a vessel subject to a time charter, it amortizes the amount of the component that is attributable to favorable or unfavorable terms relative to market terms and is included in the cost of that vessel, over the remaining term of the lease. The amortization is included in line “amortization of fair value of time charter attached to vessels” in the income statement component of the consolidated statement of comprehensive income/(loss).

 

If we purchase a vessel and assume or renegotiate a related time charter, we must take the following steps before the vessel will be ready to commence operations:

 

  Ø obtain the charterer’s consent to us as the new owner;

 

  Ø obtain the charterer’s consent to a new technical manager;

 

  Ø in some cases, obtain the charterer’s consent to a new flag for the vessel;

 

  Ø arrange for a new crew for the vessel, and where the vessel is on charter, in some cases, the crew must be approved by the charterer;

 

  Ø replace all hired equipment on board, such as gas cylinders and communication equipment;

 

  Ø negotiate and enter into new insurance contracts for the vessel through our own insurance brokers;

 

  Ø register the vessel under a flag state and perform the related inspections in order to obtain new trading certificates from the flag state;

 

  Ø implement a new planned maintenance program for the vessel; and

 

  Ø ensure that the new technical manager obtains new certificates for compliance with the safety and vessel security regulations of the flag state.

 

The following discussion is intended to help you understand how acquisitions of vessels affect our business and results of operations.

 

Our business is comprised of the following main elements:

 

  Ø

employment and operation of our dry bulk vessels and management of a vessel owned by a third party; and

 

  Ø management of the financial, general and administrative elements involved in the conduct of our business and ownership of our dry bulk vessels.

 

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The employment and operation of our vessels and the vessel we manage require the following main components:

 

  Ø vessel maintenance and repair;

 

  Ø crew selection and training;

 

  Ø vessel spares and stores supply;

 

  Ø contingency response planning;

 

  Ø onboard safety procedures auditing;

 

  Ø accounting;

 

  Ø vessel insurance arrangement;

 

  Ø vessel chartering;

 

  Ø vessel security training and security response plans (ISPS);

 

  Ø obtaining ISM certification and audit for each vessel within the six months of taking over a vessel;

 

  Ø vessel hire management;

 

  Ø vessel surveying; and

 

  Ø vessel performance monitoring.

 

The management of financial, general and administrative elements involved in the conduct of our business and ownership of our vessels requires the following main components:

 

  Ø management of our financial resources, including banking relationships, i.e., administration of bank loans and bank accounts;

 

  Ø management of our accounting system and records and financial reporting;

 

  Ø administration of the legal and regulatory requirements affecting our business and assets; and

 

  Ø management of the relationships with our service providers and customers.

 

The principal factors that affect our profitability, cash flows and shareholders’ return on investment include:

 

  Ø rates and periods of hire;

 

  Ø levels of vessel operating expenses, including repairs and drydocking;

 

  Ø purchase and sale of vessels;

 

Ømanagement fees for any third party ships that we manage;

 

  Ø depreciation expenses;

 

  Ø

financing costs; and

 

  Ø fluctuations in foreign exchange rates.

 

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Revenue

 

Overview

 

We generate revenues by charging our customers for the use of our vessels to transport their dry bulk commodities. Under a time charter, the charterer pays us a fixed daily charter hire rate and bears all voyage expenses, including the cost of bunkers (fuel oil) and port and canal charges. We remain responsible for paying the chartered vessel’s operating expenses, including the cost of crewing, insuring, repairing and maintaining the vessel, the costs of spares and consumable stores, tonnage taxes and other miscellaneous expenses. Under a bareboat charter, the charterer pays us a fixed daily charter hire rate and bears all voyage expenses, as well as the vessel’s operating expenses.

 

Spot charters can be spot voyage charters or spot time charters. Spot voyage charters involve the carriage of a specific amount and type of cargo on a load-port to discharge-port basis, subject to various cargo handling terms, and the vessel owner is paid on a per-ton basis. Under a spot voyage charter, the vessel owner is responsible for the payment of all expenses including capital costs, voyage expenses, such as port, canal and bunker costs. A spot time charter is a contract to charter a vessel for an agreed period of time at a set daily rate. Under spot time charters, the charterer pays the voyage expenses.

 

Voyage revenues and management & consulting fee income

 

Our voyage revenues are driven primarily by the number of vessels in our fleet, the number of days during which our vessels operate and the amount of daily hire rates that our vessels earn under charters or on the spot market, which, in turn, are affected by a number of factors, including:

 

  Ø the duration of our charters;

 

  Ø the number of days our vessels are hired to operate on the short-term or spot market;

 

  Ø our decisions relating to vessel acquisitions and disposals;

 

  Ø the amount of time that we spend positioning our vessels for employment;

 

  Ø the amount of time that our vessels spend in drydocking undergoing repairs;

 

  Ø maintenance and upgrade work;

 

  Ø the age, condition and specifications of our vessels;

 

  Ø levels of supply and demand in the dry bulk shipping industry; and

 

  Ø other factors affecting short-term or spot market charter rates for dry bulk vessels.

 

In 2022, our voyage revenues increased when compared to 2021, mainly due to the increase of our fleet from an average of 7.1 vessels in 2021 to 9.0 vessels in 2022. In 2021, our voyage revenues increased when compared to 2020, mainly due to higher daily time charter and spot rates earned on average from our vessels on a year over year basis.

 

Employment of our Vessels

 

As of the date of this annual report on Form 20-F, we employed our vessels as follows:

 

Øm/v River Globe – on a time charter that began in January 2023 and is expected to expire in April 2023, at a gross rate of $10,500 per day.

 

Øm/v Sky Globe – on a time charter that began in March 2023 and is expected to expire in the end of March 2023, at a gross rate of $24,000 per day.

 

Øm/v Star Globe – on a time charter that began in March 2023 and is expected to expire in May 2023, at a gross rate of $18,000 per day.

 

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Øm/v Moon Globe – on a time charter that began in March 2023 and is expected to expire in May 2023, at a gross rate of $15,000 per day, and we were paid a bonus of $500,000 upon commencement of the charter.

 

Øm/v Sun Globe – on a time charter that began in February 2023 and is expected to expire in April 2023, at a gross rate of $6,650 per day for the first 65 days and at a gross rate of $10,000 per day after April 20, 2023 and until the end of the time charter.

 

Øm/v Galaxy Globe – on a time charter that began in December 2022 and is expected to expire between September to December 2023, at a gross rate of $ 104.5% of the average BPI-82 5TC INDEX as quoted by the Baltic Exchange per day.

 

Øm/v Diamond Globe – on a time charter that began in October 2022 and is expected to expire in June 2024, at a gross rate of 104% of the average BPI-82 5TC INDEX as quoted by the Baltic Exchange per day.

 

Øm/v Power Globe – on a time charter that began in March 2023 and is expected to expire in May 2023, at a gross rate of $12,600 per day.

 

Øm/v Orion Globe – on a time charter that began in January 2023 and is expected to expire in April 2023, at a gross rate of $ 16,500 per day. 

 

Our charter agreements subject us to counterparty risk. In depressed market conditions, charterers may seek to renegotiate the terms of their existing charter parties or avoid their obligations under those contracts. Should counterparties to one or more of our charters fail to honor their obligations under their agreements with us, we could sustain significant losses which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and ability to pay dividends.

 

Voyage Expenses

 

We charter our vessels primarily through time charters under which the charterer is responsible for most voyage expenses, such as the cost of bunkers (fuel oil), port expenses, agents’ fees, canal dues, extra war risks insurance and any other expenses related to the cargo.

 

Whenever we employ our vessels on a voyage basis (such as trips for the purpose of geographically repositioning a vessel or trip(s) after the end of one-time charter and up to the beginning of the next charter), we incur voyage expenses that include port expenses and canal charges and bunker (fuel oil) expenses.

 

If we charter our vessels on bareboat charters, the charterer will pay for most of the voyage expenses and operating expenses.

 

As is common in the shipping industry, we have historically paid commissions ranging from 1.25% to 2.50% of the total daily charter hire rate of each charter to unaffiliated ship brokers and in-house brokers associated with the charterers, depending on the number of brokers involved with arranging the charter.

 

For the year ended December 31, 2022, commissions amounted to $0.9 million. For the year ended December 31, 2021, commissions amounted to $0.6 million. For the year ended December 31, 2020, commissions amounted to $0.2 million.

 

We believe that the amounts and the structures of our commissions are consistent with industry practices.

 

These commissions are directly related to our revenues. We therefore expect that the amount of total commissions will increase if the size of our fleet grows as a result of additional vessel acquisitions and employment of those vessels or if charter rates increase.

 

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Vessel Operating Expenses

 

Vessel operating expenses include costs for crewing, insurance, repairs and maintenance, lubricants, spare parts and consumable stores, statutory and classification tonnage taxes and other miscellaneous expenses. We calculate daily vessel operating expenses by dividing vessel operating expenses by ownership days for the relevant time period excluding bareboat charter days.

 

Our vessel operating expenses have historically fluctuated as a result of changes in the size of our fleet. In addition, a portion of our vessel operating expenses is in currencies other than the U.S. dollar, such as costs related to repairs, spare parts and consumables. These expenses may increase or decrease as a result of fluctuation of the U.S. dollar against these currencies.

 

We expect that crewing costs will increase in the future due to the shortage in the supply of qualified sea-going personnel. In addition, we expect that maintenance costs will increase as our vessels age. Other factors that may affect the shipping industry in general, such as the cost of insurance, may also cause our expenses to increase. To the extent that we purchase additional vessels, we expect our vessel operating expenses to increase accordingly. Other factors beyond our control, some of which may affect the shipping industry in general, including, for instance, developments relating to market prices for crewing, lubes, and insurance, may also cause these expenses to increase. The impact of COVID-19 could result in potential shortages or a lack of access to required spare parts for the operation of our vessels, potential delays in any unscheduled repairs, deviations for crew changes or increased costs to successfully execute a crew change, which could lead to business disruptions and delays. We expect that crew costs for the crew that we utilize on our vessels will increase going forward due to expected higher wages, as well as the impact of COVID-19 restrictions. In 2022 operating expenses were higher due to industry-wide inflationary pressures and if these pressures continue to exist during 2023 combined with higher regulatory-related costs we expect higher costs in relation to crew, spares and parts.

 

Depreciation

 

The cost of each of the Company’s vessels is depreciated on a straight-line basis over each vessel’s remaining useful economic life, after considering the estimated residual value of each vessel, beginning when the vessel is ready for its intended use. Management estimates that the useful life of new vessels is 25 years, which is consistent with industry practice. The residual value of a vessel is the product of its lightweight tonnage and estimated scrap value per lightweight ton. The residual values and useful lives are reviewed at each reporting date and adjusted prospectively, if appropriate. For the year 2020 we maintained the scrap rate at the same level of $300/ton. During the fourth quarter of 2021, we adjusted the scrap rate from $300/ton to $380/ton due to the increased scrap rates worldwide. This resulted to a decrease of approximately $145,000 of the depreciation charge included in the consolidated statement of comprehensive income/(loss) for 2021. During the fourth quarter of 2022, we adjusted the scrap rate from $380/ton to $440/ton due to the increased scrap rates worldwide. This resulted to a decrease of approximately $118,000 to the depreciation charge included in the consolidated statement of comprehensive income/(loss) for 2022.

 

We do not expect these assumptions to change significantly in the near future. We expect that these depreciation charges will increase if we acquire additional vessels.

 

Depreciation of Drydocking Costs

 

Approximately every 2.5 years, our vessels are required to be taken out of service and removed from water (known as “drydocking”) for major repairs and maintenance that cannot be performed while the vessels are operating. The costs associated with the drydockings are capitalized and depreciated on a straight-line basis over the period between drydockings, to a maximum of 2.5 years. At the date of acquisition of a vessel, we estimate the component of the cost that corresponds to the economic benefit to be derived until the first scheduled drydocking of the vessel under our ownership and this component is depreciated on a straight-line basis over the remaining period through the estimated drydocking date. We expect that drydocking costs will increase as our vessels age and if we acquire additional vessels.

 

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Administrative Expenses

 

Our administrative expenses include payroll expenses, traveling, promotional and other expenses associated with us being a public company, which include the preparation of disclosure documents, legal and accounting costs, director and officer liability insurance costs and costs related to compliance. We expect that our administrative expenses will increase as we enlarge our fleet.

 

Administrative Expenses Payable to Related Parties

 

Our administrative expenses payable to related parties include cash remuneration of our executive officers and directors.

 

Share Based Payments

 

We operated until 2021 an equity-settled, share based compensation plan. The value of the service received in exchange of the grant of shares is recognized as an expense. The total amount to be expensed over the vesting period, if any, was determined by reference to the fair value of the share awards at the grant date. The relevant expense was recognized in the income statement component of the consolidated statement of comprehensive income/(loss), with a corresponding impact in equity.

 

Impairment Loss and Reversal of Previously Recognized Impairment Losses

 

We assess at each reporting date whether there is an indication that a vessel that we own may be impaired. Such indicators are:

 

·Observable indications that the vessel’s value has declined/ increased significantly
·Significant adverse / favorable changes in the technological, economic or legal environment incurred or are expected to be incurred and negatively / positively affect vessel’s value or decrease / increase its revenue generating ability
·Market interest rates of return on investments have increased / decreased during the period, which will result in increase /decrease of the discount rate.

 

The vessel’s recoverable amount is estimated when events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value may not be recoverable. If such indication exists and where the carrying value exceeds the estimated recoverable amounts, the vessel is written down to its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of fair value less costs to sell and value-in-use. In assessing value-in-use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the vessel. Impairment losses are recognized in the consolidated statement of comprehensive income/(loss). A previously recognized impairment loss is reversed only if there has been a change in the estimates used to determine the asset’s recoverable amount since the last impairment loss was recognized. If that is the case, the carrying amount of the asset is increased to its recoverable amount. That increased amount cannot exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined, net of depreciation, had no impairment loss been recognized for the asset in prior years. Such reversal is recognized in the consolidated statement of comprehensive income/(loss). After such a reversal, the depreciation charge is adjusted in future periods to allocate the asset’s revised carrying amount, less any residual value, on a systematic basis over its remaining useful life. As of December 31, 2022 and 2021, no impairment indicators were identified for the Company’s vessels as the vessels’ recoverable amounts exceeded their carrying amounts.


We also assess at each reporting date whether there is any indication that an impairment loss recognized in prior periods for a vessel may no longer exist or may have decreased. As of December 31, 2022 and 2021, no indicators for reversal of impairment were present and no reversal of previously recognized impairment losses is required for the financial years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021.

 

Gain/(Loss) on Sale of Vessels

 

Gain or loss on the sale of vessels is the residual value remaining after deducting from the vessels’ sale proceeds, the carrying value of the vessels at the respective date of delivery to their new owners and the total expenses associated with the sale.

 

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Other (Expenses)/Income, Net

 

We include other operating expenses or income that is not classified otherwise. It mainly consists of provisions for insurance claims deductibles and refunds from insurance claims.

 

Interest Income from Bank Balances & Bank Deposits

 

We earn interest on the funds we have deposited with certain banks as well as from short-term certificates of deposit.

 

Interest Expense and Finance Costs

 

We incur interest expense and financing costs in connection with the indebtedness under our credit arrangements. We also incurred financing costs in connection with establishing those arrangements, which is included in our finance costs and amortization and write-off of deferred finance charges. As of December 31, 2022 and 2021, we had $44.4 million and $31.8 million of indebtedness outstanding under our then existing credit arrangements, respectively. We incurred interest expense and financing costs relating to our outstanding debt. We will incur additional interest expense in the future on our outstanding borrowings and under future borrowings to finance future acquisitions. Please see “Item 5.B. Liquidity and Capital Resources—Indebtedness” for further information.

 

Gain/ (Loss) on Derivative Financial Instruments

 

Derivative financial instruments, including embedded derivative financial instruments, are initially recognized at fair value on the date a derivative contract is entered into and are subsequently remeasured at fair value. Changes in the fair value of these derivative instruments are recognized immediately in the income statement component of the consolidated statement of comprehensive income/(loss). These instruments are not designated for hedge accounting.

 

Foreign Exchange Gains/ (Losses), Net

 

We generate substantially all of our revenues from the trading of our vessels in U.S. dollars but incur a portion of our expenses in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. We convert U.S. dollars into foreign currencies to pay for our non-U.S. dollar expenses, which we then hold on deposit until the date of each transaction. Fluctuations in foreign exchange rates create foreign exchange gains or losses when we mark-to-market these non-U.S. dollar deposits. Because a portion of our expenses is payable in currencies other than the U.S. dollar, our expenses may from time to time increase relative to our revenues as a result of fluctuations in exchange rates, which could affect the amount of net income that we report in future periods.

 

Factors Affecting Our Results of Operations

 

We believe that the important measures for analyzing trends in our results of operations consist of the following:

 

  Ø Ownership days. We define ownership days as the aggregate number of days in a period during which each vessel in our fleet has been owned by us. Ownership days are an indicator of the size of our fleet over a period and affect both the amount of revenues and the amount of expenses that we record during a period.

 

  Ø Available days. We define available days as the number of our ownership days less the aggregate number of days that our vessels are off-hire due to scheduled repairs or repairs under guarantee, vessel upgrades or special surveys. The shipping industry uses available days to measure the number of days in a period during which vessels should be capable of generating revenues.

 

  Ø Operating days. Operating days are the number of available days in a period less the aggregate number of days that the vessels are off-hire due to any reason, including unforeseen circumstances but excluding days during which vessels are seeking employment. The shipping industry uses operating days to measure the aggregate number of days in a period during which vessels generate revenues.

 

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  Ø Fleet utilization. We calculate fleet utilization by dividing the number of our operating days during a period by the number of our available days during the period. The shipping industry uses fleet utilization to measure a company’s efficiency in finding suitable employment for its vessels and minimizing the amount of days that its vessels are off-hire for reasons other than scheduled repairs or repairs under guarantee, vessel upgrades and special surveys.

 

  Ø Average number of vessels. We measure average number of vessels by the sum of the number of days each vessel was part of our fleet during a relevant period divided by the number of calendar days in such period.

 

  Ø TCE rates. We define TCE rates as our revenue less net revenue from our bareboat charters less voyage expenses during a period divided by the number of our available days during the period excluding bareboat charter days, which is consistent with industry standards. TCE is a non-GAAP measure. TCE rate is a standard shipping industry performance measure used primarily to compare daily earnings generated by vessels on time charters with daily earnings generated by vessels on voyage charters, because charter hire rates for vessels on voyage charters are generally not expressed in per day amounts while charter hire rates for vessels on time charters generally are expressed in such amounts.

 

The following table reflects our ownership days, available days, operating days, average number of vessels and fleet utilization for the periods indicated.

 

     Year Ended December 31,
    2022   2021   2020   2019   2018
Ownership days   3,285     2,594     1,894     1,825     1,825
Available days   3,073     2,531     1,778     1,788     1,755
Operating days   3,029     2,477     1,733     1,756     1,723
Fleet utilization   98.5%     97.9%     97.5%     98.2%     98.2%
Average number of vessels   9     7.1     5.2     5.0     5.0
Daily time charter equivalent (TCE) rate* $ 18,227   $ 16,627   $ 5,210   $ 7,564   $ 9,213

 

*Amounts subject to rounding.

 

We utilize TCE because we believe it is a meaningful measure to compare period-to-period changes in our performance despite changes in the mix of charter types (i.e., voyage charters, spot charters and time charters) under which our vessels may be employed between the periods. Our management also utilizes TCE to assist them in making decisions regarding employment of our vessels. We believe that our method of calculating TCE is consistent with industry standards and is determined by dividing revenue after deducting voyage expenses, and net revenue from our bareboat charters, by available days for the relevant period excluding bareboat charter days. Voyage expenses primarily consist of brokerage commissions and port, canal and fuel costs that are unique to a particular voyage, which would otherwise be paid by the charter under a time charter contract.

 

The following table reflects the Voyage Revenues to Daily Time Charter Equivalent (“TCE”) Reconciliation for the periods presented.

 

   Year Ended December 31,
  (Expressed in Thousands of U.S. Dollars, except number of days and daily TCE rates)
  2022   2021   2020   2019   2018
             
Voyage revenues 61,390   43,211   11,753   15,623   17,354
Less: Voyage expenses 5,373   1,128   2,490   2,098   1,188
Net revenue 56,017   42,083   9,263   13,525   16,166
Available days net of bareboat charter days 3,073   2,531   1,778   1,788   1,755
Daily TCE rate* 18,227   16,627   5,210   7,564   9,213

 

*Amounts subject to rounding.

 

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Results of Operations

 

The following is a discussion of our operating results for the year ended December 31, 2022 compared to the year ended December 31, 2021. Variances are calculated on the numbers presented in the discussion over operating results.

 

Year ended December 31, 2022 compared to the year ended December 31, 2021

 

As of December 31, 2022 and 2021, our fleet consisted of nine (four Supramaxes, four Kamsarmaxes and one Panamax) with an aggregate carrying capacity of 626,257 dwt. During the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021 we had an average of 9 and 7.1 dry bulk vessels in our fleet, respectively.

 

For the year ended December 31, 2022, we had an operating income of $23.6 million, while for the year ended December 31, 2021, we had an operating income of $17.9 million.

 

Voyage revenues. Voyage revenues increased by $18.2 million, or 42%, to $61.4 million in 2022, compared to $43.2 million in 2021. The increase is attributable to the increase of the average number of vessels from 7.1 in 2021 to 9 in 2022 and the increase of TCE from $16,627 in 2021 to $18,227 in 2022. In 2022, we had total operating days of 3,029 and fleet utilization of 98.5%, compared to 2,477 operating days and a fleet utilization of 97.9% in 2021. The foregoing fleet utilization percentage are based upon the available days of each vessel, being the number of our ownership days less the aggregate number of days that our vessels are off-hire due to scheduled repairs or repairs under guarantee, vessel upgrades or special surveys. We also had 3,285 and 2,594 ownership days in 2022 and 2021, respectively, which increase is primarily due to our acquisition of additional vessels.

 

Voyage expenses. Voyage expenses increased by $4.3 million, or 391%, to $5.4 million in 2022, compared to $1.1 million in 2021. This increase is attributed to the longer periods travelling seeking employment of the vessels in 2022 compared to 2021 and the substantially more days of dry-docking repairs in 2022 compared to 2021. These two factors led to a higher bunker expense in 2022 compared to 2021.

 

Vessel operating expenses. Vessel operating expenses increased by $4.2 million, or 30%, to $18 million in 2022, compared to $13.8 million in 2021. The breakdown of our operating expenses for the year 2022 was as follows:

 

Crew expenses 50%
Repairs and spares 22%
Insurance 7%
Stores 13%
Lubricants 5%
Other 3%

 

The increase is mainly attributed to the increase of the fleet from 7.1 vessels on average for 2021 to 9.0 vessels on average for 2022. The increase is also partly attributed to the increase of the daily operating expenses of the vessels. Daily vessel operating expenses were $5,483 in 2022 compared to $5,325 in 2021, representing an increase of 3%, mainly due to industry-wide inflationary pressures.

 

Depreciation. Depreciation charge during the year ended December 31, 2022 reached $5.6 million compared to $3.9 million during 2021. This is mainly attributed to the increase of the fleet from 7.1 vessels on average for 2021 to 9 vessels on average for 2022. During the fourth quarter of 2022, we adjusted the scrap rate from $380/ton to $440/ton due to the increased scrap rates worldwide. This resulted to a decrease of $118,000 to the depreciation charge included in the consolidated statement of comprehensive income/(loss) for 2022.

 

Depreciation of dry-docking costs. Depreciation of dry-docking costs increased by $1.8 million, or 64%, to $4.6 million in 2022, compared to $2.8 million in 2021. This is due to the increase of the fleet and because five of our vessels underwent in 2022 dry dockings.

 

Administrative expenses. Administrative expenses increased by $0.3 million or 11% to $2.9 million in 2022 from $2.6 million in 2021, this is mainly attributed to the increased Greek taxes paid in 2022 amounting to $292 thousand compared to $45 thousand in 2021.

 

Administrative expenses payable to related parties. Administrative expenses payable to related parties amounted to $1.4 million in 2022 and 2021.

 

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Share-based payments. Share-based payments for 2021 amounted to $40,000. On February 14, 2022 we changed the compensation of the non-executive directors and in the aggregate, the annual service fee for each of the directors (based on their current roles and committee seats) would be $80,000 based on the annual service fees, committee fees, and other similar fees. Following this change there were no share-based payments for 2022.

 

Interest expense and finance costs. Interest expense and finance costs decreased by $1 million, or 30%, to $2.3 million in 2022, compared to $3.3 million in 2021. This decrease is because during the second quarter of 2021 other finance expenses include approximately $0.6 million that were the loan prepayment fee and expenses relating to the prepayment of EnTrust Loan Facility. Our weighted average interest rate for 2022 was 5.58% compared to 5.69% during 2021. Total borrowings outstanding as of December 31, 2022 amounted to $44.38 million compared to $31.75 million as of December 31, 2021. Our sole current credit facility is denominated in U.S. dollars.

 

Gain / (Loss) on derivative financial instruments.

Following the new loan facility with First Citizens Bank & Trust Company (formerly known as CIT Bank N.A.), we entered into an Interest Rate Swap agreement on May 10, 2021.

 

Following the deed of accession, amendment and restatement of the CIT loan facility by the accession of an additional borrower in order to increase the loan facility from a total of $34.25 million to $52.25 million in August 2022, we also entered into a new swap agreement in order for the additional borrower to enter into hedging transactions (separately from those entered by the other borrowers) with First Citizens Bank & Trust Company (formerly known as CIT Bank N.A.).

 

For the year ended December 31, 2022, the Company recognized a total gain of $2.5 million. The $2 million gain was in relation with the initial swap agreement entered in 2021, approximately $1.6 million gain is according to the Interest Rate Swap valuation minus approximately $0.4 million was the interest for the Interest Rate Swap during the year ended December 31, 2022, and is included in the consolidated statement of comprehensive income/(loss).

 

For the year ended December 31, 2022, the Company recognized a gain of approximately $514,000 in relation with the new swap agreement entered in 2022, approximately $493,000 of the gain is according to the Interest Rate Swap valuation and approximately $21,000 was the interest for the Interest Rate Swap during the year ended December 31, 2022, and is included in the consolidated statement of comprehensive income/(loss).

  

For the year ended December 31, 2021, the Company recognized a gain of approximately $181,000, approximately $325,000 gain is according to the Interest Rate Swap valuation minus approximately $144,000 was the interest for the Interest Rate Swap during the year ended December 31, 2021, and is included in the consolidated statement of comprehensive income/(loss).

 

Inflation

 

Although inflation has had a moderate impact on our vessel operating expenses and corporate overheads, management does not consider inflation to be a significant risk to direct costs in the current and foreseeable economic environment. It is anticipated that insurance costs, which have risen over the last three years, may well continue to rise over the next few years. Maritime transportation is a specialized area and the number of vessels is increasing. There will therefore be an increased demand for qualified crew and this has and will continue to put inflationary pressure on crew costs. However, in a shipping downturn, costs subject to inflation can usually be controlled because shipping companies typically monitor costs to preserve liquidity and encourage suppliers and service providers to lower rates and prices in the event of a downturn.

  

B.  Liquidity and Capital Resources

 

Our primary sources of liquidity are cash flow from operations, cash on hand, equity offerings and credit facility borrowings. We currently use our funds primarily for the acquisition of vessels generally, fleet renewal and repairs, drydocking for our vessels, payment of dividends (if any), debt repayments and satisfying working capital requirements as may be needed to support our business. Our ability to continue to meet our liquidity needs is subject to and will be affected by cash generated from operations, the economic or business environment in which we operate, shipping industry conditions, the financial condition of our customers, vendors and service providers, our ability to comply with the financial and other covenants of our indebtedness, and other factors.

 

We believe, given our current cash holdings, if dry bulk shipping rates do not decline significantly from current levels, our capital resources, including cash anticipated to be generated within the year, are sufficient to fund our operations for at least the next twelve months. Such resources include unrestricted cash and cash equivalents of $52.8 million as of December 31, 2022, which compares to a minimum liquidity requirement under our CIT Loan Facility of $6 million as of December 31, 2022. Given the anticipated capital expenditures related to commitments under shipbuilding contracts and drydockings during 2023 and 2024, respectively, we anticipate continuing to have significant cash expenditures. Refer to “—Capital Expenditures” below for further details. However, if market conditions were to worsen significantly due to the current COVID-19 pandemic or other causes, then our cash resources may decline to a level that may put at risk our ability to pay our lender and other creditors. In May 2021, we entered into an agreement with First Citizens Bank & Trust Company (formerly known as CIT Bank N.A.) for a loan facility of up to $34.25 million bearing interest at LIBOR plus a margin of 3.75% per annum. The proceeds of this financing were used to repay the outstanding balance of the EnTrust Loan Facility.

 

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In August 2022, we reached an agreement with First Citizens Bank & Trust Company (formerly known as CIT Bank N.A.) for a deed of accession, amendment and restatement of the CIT loan facility by the accession of an additional borrower in order to increase the loan facility from a total of $34.25 million to $52.25 million, by a top up loan amount of $18 million for the purpose of financing vessel Orion Globe and for general corporate and working capital purposes of all the borrowers and Globus. The CIT loan facility (including the new top up loan amount) is now further secured by a first preferred mortgage over the vessel Orion Globe. Furthermore, the loan facility bears interest at Term SOFR plus a margin 3.35% for the whole CIT loan facility.

 

The mandatory debt repayments in 2023 under the CIT Loan Facility are $6.5 million, and we have already paid $1.6 million of such amount.

 

As of December 31, 2022, our CIT Loan Facility contained covenants that require (1) a minimum loan to value ratio of 75% for the first 18 months of the CIT Loan Facility and thereafter 70% and (2) a maximum leverage ratio of 0.75:1.00. If the values of our vessels were to decline as a result of COVID-19 or otherwise, we may not satisfy these requirements. If we do not satisfy these requirement, we will need to post additional collateral or prepay outstanding loans to bring us back into compliance, or we will need to seek waivers, which may not be available or may be subject to conditions.

 

In the future, we may require capital to fund acquisitions or to improve or support our ongoing operations and debt structure, particularly in light of economic conditions resulting from the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, the Russian/Ukraine conflict, and general conditions in the dry bulk market. We may from time to time seek to raise additional capital through equity or debt offerings, selling vessels or other assets, pursuing strategic opportunities, or otherwise. We may also from time to time seek to incur additional debt financing from private or public sector sources, refinance our indebtedness or obtain waivers or modifications to our credit agreements to obtain more favorable terms, enhance flexibility in conducting our business, or otherwise. We may also seek to manage our interest rate exposure through hedging transactions. We may seek to accomplish any of these independently or in conjunction with one or more of these actions. However, if market conditions are unfavorable, we may be unable to accomplish any of the foregoing on acceptable terms or at all.

 

As of December 31, 2022, we were in compliance with all financial covenants under the CIT Loan Facility.

 

As of December 31, 2022, we had approximately $6 million in “restricted cash.” As of December 31, 2022, we had an aggregate debt outstanding of $44.4 million, from the CIT Loan Facility. Please see “–Cash Flows” below to see our cash position at December 31, 2022.

 

Please see “Item 5.B. Liquidity and Capital Resources—Indebtedness” for further information about our loan agreements and credit facilities.

 

Our primary uses of funds have been vessel operating expenses, general and administrative expenses, expenditures incurred in connection with ensuring that our vessels comply with international and regulatory standards, financing expenses, installments under construction contracts and repayments of bank loans.

 

Working capital, which is current assets, minus current liabilities, amounted to approximately $45 million as of December 31, 2022 and to $37.8 million as of December 31, 2021. If we are unable to satisfy our liquidity requirements, we may not be able to continue as a going concern. Seven of our vessels are pledged as collateral to the banks, and therefore if we were to sell one or more of those vessels, the net proceeds of such sale would be used first to repay the outstanding debt to which the vessel collateralized, and the remainder, if any, would be for our use, subject to the terms of our remaining loan and credit arrangements.

 

Cash Flows

 

Cash and cash equivalents were $52.8 million in unrestricted bank deposits as of December 31, 2022, and $45.2 million in unrestricted bank deposits as of December 31, 2021.

 

Restricted cash that consist of cash pledged as collateral was $6 million at the end of 2022, and $5.2 million at the end of 2021. We consider highly liquid investments such as bank time deposits with an original maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents.

 

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Net Cash Generated From / (Used In) Operating Activities

 

Net cash generated from operating activities in 2022 amounted to $26.9 million compared to $20.8 million in 2021. The increase is primarily attributable to an increase in the average number of vessels of our fleet and the average TCE rates achieved by the vessels in our fleet in 2022.

 

Net Cash Used In Investing Activities

 

Net cash used in investing activities was $29 million during the year ended December 31, 2022, which was mainly attributable to the advances paid for the three newbuildings during 2022.

 

Net cash used in investing activities was $72 million during the year ended December 31, 2021, which was mainly attributable to the purchase of Power Globe, Diamond Globe and Orion Globe in 2021.

 

Net Cash Generated From Financing Activities

 

Net cash generated from financing activities during the year ended December 31, 2022 amounted to $9.7 million and consisted of $18 million proceeds from our new deed of accession, amendment and restatement of the CIT loan facility reduced by $0.3 million payment of financing costs, $1.6 million of interest paid, $5.4 million of indebtedness that we repaid, a $0.7 million increase of pledged bank deposits and a $0.3 million repayment of lease liability.

 

Net cash generated from financing activities during the year ended December 31, 2021 amounted to $77.4 million and consisted of $89.6 million proceeds drawn from the issuance of share capital plus $34.3 million proceeds from our new loan agreement reduced by $0.6 million payment of financing costs for CIT Loan Facility, $0.4 million of transaction costs that we paid for the issuance of new common shares,, $2.6 million of interest paid, $39.5 million of indebtedness that we prepaid under our former loan facility, a $3.1 million increase of pledged bank deposits and a $0.2 million repayment of lease liability.

 

Please see Item 5.A. of our Form 20-F filed with the SEC on April 11, 2022 for a discussion of the year-to-year comparison between 2021 and 2020. Please see Item 5.B. of our Form 20-F filed with the SEC on April 11, 2022 for a discussion of the liquidity and capital resources that we had in 2021.

 

Indebtedness

 

We operate in a capital-intensive industry which requires significant amounts of investment, and we fund a portion of this investment through long-term bank debt.

 

As of December 31, 2022 and 2021, we and our vessel-owning subsidiaries had outstanding borrowings under the CIT Loan Facility of an aggregate of $44.4 million and $31.75 million, respectively.

 

Firment Shipping Credit Facility

 

In November 2018, we entered into a credit facility for up to $15 million with Firment Shipping Inc., a related party to us, for the purpose of financing our general working capital needs, which facility was amended and restated on May 8, 2020. The Firment Shipping Credit Facility was unsecured and remained available until its final maturity date at October 31, 2021, as amended. We had the right to drawdown any amount up to $15 million or prepay any amount in multiples of $100,000. Any prepaid amount could have been re-borrowed. Interest on drawn and outstanding amounts was charged at 3.5% per annum until December 31, 2020, and thereafter at 7% per annum. No commitment fee was charged on the amounts remaining available and undrawn. Interest was payable the last day of a period of three months after the drawdown date, after this period in case of failure to pay any sum due a default interest of 2% per annum above the regular interest was charged. We had also the right, in our sole option, to convert in whole or in part the outstanding unpaid principal amount and accrued but unpaid interest under this Agreement into common shares. The conversion price would have equaled the higher of (i) the average of the daily dollar volume-weighted average sale price for the common stock on the Principal Market on any trading day during the period beginning at 9.30 a.m. New York City time and ending at 4.00 p.m. over the Pricing Period multiplied by 80%, where the “Pricing Period” equals the ten consecutive trading days immediately preceding the date on which the conversion notice was executed or (ii) $280.00.

 

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The Firment Shipping Credit Facility required that Athanasios Feidakis remain our Chief Executive Officer and that Firment

Shipping Inc. maintain at least a 40% shareholding in us, other than due to actions taken by Firment Shipping Inc., such as sales of shares. The Company obtained waivers from Firment Shipping Inc. waiving this obligation in connection with the public offering on June 22, 2020, the registered direct offerings on June 30, 2020, July 21, 2020, December 7, 2020, January 29, 2021, February 17, 2021 and June 29, 2021, and the issuances of the Series B preferred shares.

 

On July 27, 2020, the Company repaid the total outstanding principal and interest of the Firment Shipping Credit Facility

amounting to approximately $863,000. On October 31, 2021, the Firment Shipping Credit Facility expired in accordance with its terms.

 

EnTrust Loan Facility

 

On June 24, 2019, the Company drew down $37 million and fully prepaid the existing loan facilities with Hamburg Commercial Bank AG (formerly known as HSH Nordbank AG) and Macquarie Bank International Limited. The loan facility was in the names of Devocean Maritime Ltd., Domina Maritime Ltd, Dulac Maritime S.A., Artful Shipholding S.A. and Longevity Maritime Limited as the borrowers and is guaranteed by Globus. The loan facility bore interest at LIBOR plus a margin of 8.50% (or 10.5% default interest) for interest periods of three months. This loan facility was referred to as EnTrust Loan Facility.

 

In March 2021, the Company prepaid $6.0 million of the Entrust loan facility, which represented all amounts that would otherwise come due during calendar year 2021 and on May 10, 2021, the Company fully prepaid the balance of the EnTrust Loan facility.

 

CIT Loan Facility

 

In May 2021, we entered into a term loan facility with First Citizens Bank & Trust Company (formerly known as CIT Bank N.A.), relating to the refinancing of our ships, the River Globe, Sky Globe, Star Globe, Moon Globe, Sun Globe, and Galaxy Globe. The borrowers under the CIT Loan Facility are Devocean Maritime Ltd., Domina Maritime Ltd, Dulac Maritime S.A., Artful Shipholding S.A., Longevity Maritime Limited and Serena Maritime Limited and the CIT Loan Facility is guaranteed by Globus Maritime Limited.

 

The loan agreement was for the lesser of $34.25 million and 52.5% of the aggregate market value of our ships. We drew an aggregate of $34.25 million at closing and used a significant portion of the proceeds to fully repay the amounts outstanding under our loan agreement with EnTrust. We also entered into a swap agreement with respect to LIBOR. We paid First Citizens Bank & Trust Company (formerly known as CIT Bank N.A.) an upfront fee in the amount of 1.25% of the total commitment of the loan.

 

In August 2022, we reached an agreement with First Citizens Bank & Trust Company (formerly known as CIT Bank N.A.) for a deed of accession, amendment and restatement of the CIT loan facility by the accession of an additional borrower, Salaminia Maritime Limited, in order to increase the loan facility from a total of $34.25 million to $52.25 million, by a top up loan amount of $18 million for the purpose of financing vessel Orion Globe and for general corporate and working capital purposes. The CIT Loan Facility (including the new top up loan amount) became further secured by a first preferred mortgage over the vessel Orion Globe. Furthermore, the CIT Loan Facility now bears interest at Term SOFR plus a margin of 3.35% (or 5.35% default interest).

 

The CIT Loan Facility, as amended, consists of seven tranches, which shall be repaid in consecutive quarterly installments with the final installment due in May 2026, with each installment in an aggregate amount of $1,625,000 as well as a balloon payment in an aggregate amount of $21,625,000 due together.

 

The CIT Loan Facility may be prepaid. If the prepayment of any tranche other than the tranche financing Orion Globe occurs on or before May 10, 2023, the prepayment fee is 1% of the amount prepaid, subject to certain exceptions. If the prepayment of the tranche financing Orion Globe occurs on or before August 10, 2023, the prepayment fee is 2% of the amount prepaid and thereafter until August 10, 2024, the prepayment fee is 1% of the amount prepaid, subject to certain exceptions. We cannot reborrow any amount of the CIT Loan that is prepaid or repaid.

 

The CIT Loan Facility is secured by:

 

• First preferred mortgage over m/v River Globe, m/v Sky Globe, m/v Star Globe, m/v Moon Globe, m/v Sun Globe, m/v Galaxy Globe and m/v Orion Globe.

 

• Guarantee from Globus Maritime Limited and joint liability of the seven vessel owning companies (each of which is a borrower under the CIT Loan Facility).

 

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• Shares pledges respecting each borrower.

 

• Pledges of bank accounts, a pledge of each borrower’s rights under any interest rate hedging agreement in respect of the CIT Loan Facility, a general assignment over each ship's earnings, insurances and any requisition compensation in relation to that ship, and an assignment of the rights of Globus Maritime with respect to any indebtedness owed to it by the borrowers.

 

We are not permitted, without the written consent of CIT, to enter into a charter the duration of which exceeds or is capable of exceeding, by virtue of any optional extensions, 12 months.

 

The CIT Loan Facility contains various covenants requiring the vessels owning companies and/or Globus Maritime Limited to, among other things, ensure that:

 

·The borrowers, must maintain a minimum liquidity at all times of not less than $500,000 for each mortgaged ship.
·A minimum loan (including any exposure under a related hedging agreement) to value ratio of 70%, except for the tranche financing Orion Globe, for which for the first 18 months of the utilization of that tranche including any exposure under a related hedging agreement), a minimum loan to value ratio of 75% and thereafter 70%.
·Each borrower must maintain in its earnings account $150,000 in respect of each ship then subject to a mortgage.
·Globus Maritime Limited must maintain cash in an amount of not less than $150,000 for each ship that it owns that is not subject to a mortgage as part of the CIT Loan.
·Globus Maritime Limited must have a maximum leverage ratio of 0.75:1.00.
·If Globus Maritime Limited pays a dividend, subject to certain exceptions, then the debt service coverage rat