Company Quick10K Filing
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Grana & Montero
Closing Price ($) Shares Out (MM) Market Cap ($MM)
$3.51 146 $512
20-F 2017-12-31 Annual: 2017-12-31
20-F 2016-12-31 Annual: 2016-12-31
20-F 2015-12-31 Annual: 2015-12-31
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FEPI First Equity Properties 0
GRAM 2017-12-31
Item 1. Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers
Item 2. Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable
Item 3. Key Information
Item 4. Information on The Company
Item 4A. Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects
Item 6. Directors, Senior Management and Employees
Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions
Item 9. The Offer and Listing
Item 10. Additional Information
Item 11. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 13. Defaults, Dividend Arrearages and Delinquencies
Item 15. Controls and Procedures
Item 16B Code of Business Conduct and Ethics
EX-8.01 d709209dex801.htm
EX-12.01 d709209dex1201.htm
EX-12.02 d709209dex1202.htm
EX-13.01 d709209dex1301.htm
EX-13.02 d709209dex1302.htm

Grana & Montero Earnings 2017-12-31

GRAM 20F Annual Report

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow

20-F 1 d709209d20f.htm FORM 20-F Form 20-F
Table of Contents

 

 

U.S. SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM 20-F

 

 

 

REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR (g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

OR

 

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017

OR

 

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

OR

 

SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

Commission file number 001-35991

 

 

GRAÑA Y MONTERO S.A.A.

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

N/A

(Translation of Registrant’s name into English)

Republic of Peru

(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

Av. Paseo de la República 4667

Surquillo

Lima 34, Peru

(Address of principal executive offices)

Daniel Urbina Pérez, Chief Legal Officer

Tel. 011-51-1-213-6565

Av. Paseo de la República 4667

Surquillo

Lima 34, Peru

(Name, telephone, e-mail and/or facsimile number and address of company contact person)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class

 

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Shares, par value s/.1.00 per share,

American Depositary Shares, each representing five

Common Shares

 

New York Stock Exchange*

New York Stock Exchange**

 

* Not for trading purposes, but only in connection with the registration on the New York Stock Exchange of the American Depositary Shares representing those common shares.
** On May 17, 2018, the New York Stock Exchange suspended trading of the Registrant’s American Depositary Shares and commenced proceedings to delist the Registrant. The Registrant has appealed the decision, which is pending.

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

None

Securities for which there is a reporting obligation

pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act:

None

 

 

Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report:

 

At December 31, 2017

   660,053,790 shares of common stock

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities

Act.    Yes   ☐    No  ☒

If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.    Yes  ☐    No  ☒

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  ☐    No   ☒

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate website, if any, every interactive data filed required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 203.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such other period that the Registrant was required to submit and post such files)    Yes  ☒    No  ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

 

Large accelerated filer    ☒

  Accelerated filer    ☐    Non-accelerated filer    ☐   Emerging growth company    ☐

If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.    ☐

The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.

Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the Registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:

 

U.S. GAAP    ☐

  

International Financial Reporting  ☒

Standards as issued by the International

Accounting Standards Board

   Other    ☐

If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the Registrant has elected to follow. Item 17  ☐    Item 18  ☐

If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes  ☐    No   ☒

 

 

 

 


Table of Contents

Explanatory Note

This is the company’s annual report on Form 20-F for the year ended December 31, 2017. The company filed its annual report on Form 20-F for the year ended December 31, 2016 (the “2016 20-F”) on May 15, 2018, as amended on May 16, 2018. As the company disclosed in the 2016 20-F, certain developments caused delays in the filing of 2016 20-F and, as a result, this annual report was also delayed.

As the company disclosed on a Form 6-K furnished on May 17, 2017, the company was previously unable to file the 2016 20-F within the prescribed time period because the company was carrying out additional procedures in connection with the finalization of its consolidated financial statements and the assessment of its internal control over financial reporting as of and for the year ended December 31, 2016 related to its association with affiliates of Odebrecht S.A. in certain projects in Peru. Additionally, on January 24, 2017, the Peruvian government terminated the concession of Gasoducto Sur Peruano S.A., a consortium controlled and operated by Odebrecht affiliates in which the company held a minority investment, due to a failure of the consortium to obtain the required project financing by the stipulated deadline. The termination of the concession, despite the government compensation contemplated under the concession contract, has had a material impact on the consolidated financial results and backlog of the company, which was under review due to the complexity in the accounting for the concession and expected government compensation.

In addition, as the company disclosed on Form 6-Ks furnished on October 5, 2017 and November 3, 2017, the company and its former auditor determined that the former auditor was not independent of the company with respect to the fiscal year 2016 as a consequence of non-audit services provided by it to the company beginning in the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2016. The services relate to the company’s testing of internal controls in accordance with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. As a result, the company and its former auditor mutually agreed on October 4, 2017 to the company’s dismissal of the former auditor with respect to the company’s consolidated financial statements for the fiscal year 2016. A shareholders’ meeting of the company held on November 2, 2017 appointed Moore Stephens SCAI S.A. (“Moore Stephens”) as the new independent auditor for the fiscal year 2016.

Subsequently, on or about March 23, 2018, the former auditor informed the company that it would not authorize the use of its 2015 audit opinion without conducting substantial additional procedures, which represented a difference in understanding from what the company had since October 2017 when the company dismissed the former auditor as the company’s auditor for the 2016 fiscal year. The former auditor could not give any assurance as to when it could complete such additional procedures. To avoid further delay in filing the 2016 20-F, on April 17, 2018, the Audit and Process Committee of the company appointed Moore Stephens to re-audit the 2015 fiscal year, and the shareholders’ meeting of the company held on May 14, 2018 ratified the appointment.

Since the 2016 20-F was filed, the company has worked diligently with Moore Stephens to complete the financial statements for the 2017 fiscal year and file this annual report.

For more information, see “Item 5.A. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Recent Developments” and “Item 16.F. Change in Registrant’s Certifying Accountant” of this annual report.


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

     Page  

PART I INTRODUCTION

     1  

ITEM 1. IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS

     6  

ITEM 2. OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE

     6  

ITEM 3. KEY INFORMATION

     7  

A. Selected Financial Data

     7  

B. Capitalization and Indebtedness

     17  

C. Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds

     17  

D. Risk Factors

     17  

ITEM 4. INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY

     43  

A. History and Development of the Company

     43  

B. Business Overview

     45  

C. Organizational Structure

     105  

D. Property, Plant and Equipment

     107  

ITEM 4A. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

     108  

ITEM 5. OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS

     108  

A. Operating Results

     108  

B. Liquidity and Capital Resources

     142  

C. Research and Development, Patents and Licenses

     150  

D. Trend Information

     150  

E. Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

     154  

F. Tabular Disclosure of Contractual Obligations

     154  

G. Safe Harbor

     154  

ITEM 6. DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND EMPLOYEES

     155  

A. Directors and Senior Management

     155  

B. Compensation

     162  

C. Board Practices

     163  

D. Employees

     165  

E. Share Ownership

     167  

ITEM 7. MAJOR SHAREHOLDERS AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS

     167  

A. Major Shareholders

     167  

B. Related Party Transactions

     169  

C. Interests of Experts and Counsel

     170  

ITEM 8. FINANCIAL INFORMATION

     170  

A. Consolidated Statements and Other Financial Information

     170  

 

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B. Significant Changes

     173  

ITEM 9. THE OFFER AND LISTING

     173  

A. Offer and Listing Details

     173  

B. Plan of Distribution

     175  

C. Markets

     175  

D. Selling Shareholders

     177  

E. Dilution

     177  

F. Expenses of the Issue

     177  

ITEM 10. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

     177  

A. Share Capital

     177  

B. Memorandum and Articles of Association

     177  

C. Material Contracts

     181  

D. Exchange Controls

     182  

E. Taxation

     183  

F. Dividends and Paying Agents

     188  

G. Statement by Experts

     188  

H. Documents on Display

     188  

I. Subsidiary Information

     189  

ITEM 11. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

     189  

ITEM 12. DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES OTHER THAN EQUITY SECURITIES

     190  

A. Debt Securities

     190  

B. Warrants and Rights

     190  

C. Other Securities

     190  

D. American Depositary Shares

     190  

PART II

     192  

ITEM 13. DEFAULTS, DIVIDEND ARREARAGES AND DELINQUENCIES

     192  

ITEM  14. MATERIAL MODIFICATIONS TO THE RIGHTS OF SECURITY HOLDERS AND USE OF PROCEEDS

     193  

ITEM 15. CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

     193  

A. Disclosure Controls and Procedures

     193  

B. Management’s Annual Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

     193  

C. Attestation Report of the Registered Public Accounting Firm

     196  

D. Changes in Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

     196  

ITEM 16. [RESERVED]

     197  

ITEM 16A AUDIT COMMITTEE FINANCIAL EXPERT

     197  

ITEM 16B CODE OF BUSINESS CONDUCT AND ETHICS

     197  

ITEM 16C PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTANT FEES AND SERVICES

     198  

 

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ITEM 16D EXEMPTIONS FROM THE LISTING STANDARDS FOR AUDIT COMMITTEES

     199  

ITEM  16E PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES BY THE ISSUER AND AFFILIATED PURCHASERS

     199  

ITEM 16F CHANGE IN REGISTRANT’S CERTIFYING ACCOUNTANT

     199  

ITEM 16G CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

     200  

ITEM 16H MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURE

     201  

ITEM 17. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

     201  

ITEM 18. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

     201  

ITEM 19. EXHIBITS

     201  

 

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PART I

INTRODUCTION

Certain Definitions

All references to “we,” “us,” “our,” “our company,” “the group” and “Graña y Montero” in this annual report are to Graña y Montero S.A.A., a publicly-held corporation (sociedad anónima abierta) organized under the laws of Peru. In this annual report, we refer to our principal subsidiaries, joint operations, joint ventures and associated companies as follows: (i) in our Engineering and Construction (E&C) segment: GyM S.A. as “GyM”; Stracon GyM S.A. as “Stracon GyM”; Vial y Vives—DSD S.A. as “Vial y Vives—DSD”; GMI S.A. as “GMI”; Morelco S.A.S. as “Morelco”; (ii) in our Infrastructure segment: Norvial S.A. as “Norvial”; Survial S.A. as “Survial”; Concesión Canchaque S.A. as “Canchaque”; GyM Ferrovías S.A. as “GyM Ferrovías”; Concesionaria La Chira S.A. as “La Chira”; GMP S.A. as “GMP”; Gasoducto Sur Peruano S.A. (investee) as “GSP”; Concesionaria Chavimochic S.A.C. (investee) as “Chavimochic”; (iii) in our Real Estate segment: Viva GyM S.A. as “Viva GyM”; Inmobiliaria Almonte S.A.C. as “Almonte” and Concar S.A. as “Concar”; and (iv) in our Technical Services segment, CAM Chile S.A. as “CAM”; Adexus S.A. as “Adexus.” We discuss GSP and Chavimochic in our Infrastructure segment in this annual report, however, as investees, their results are not presented within the Infrastructure segment in our consolidated financial statements. For more information on our subsidiaries, joint operations, joint ventures or associated companies, see notes 6a, 6c and 16 to our audited annual consolidated financial statements included in this annual report.

The GSP gas pipeline concession was terminated on January 24, 2017, and, as a result, we recognized impairments with respect to our investment in GSP and our participation in the related construction consortium (Consorcio Constructor Ductos del Sur). Both GSP and Consorcio Constructor Ductos del Sur are in the process of being liquidated. Additionally, on April 24, 2017 we sold our interest in Compañía Operadora de Gas del Amazonas (“COGA”), and on June 6, 2017, we sold our interest in GMD S.A. (“GMD”). On April 11, 2018, we sold our interest in Stracon GyM. For more information, see “Item 5.A. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Operating Results—Recent Developments.”

The term “U.S. dollar” and the symbol “US$” refer to the legal currency of the United States; the term “sol” and the symbol “S/.” refer to the legal currency of Peru; the term “Chilean peso” and the symbol “CLP” refer to the legal currency of Chile; and the term “Colombian peso” and the symbol “COP” refer to the legal currency of Colombia.

Financial Information

Our consolidated financial statements included in this annual report have been prepared in soles and in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (“IFRS”) issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (“IASB”). Our annual consolidated financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2016 and 2017 have been audited by Moore Stephens in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Our annual consolidated financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2014 have been audited by Gaveglio, Aparicio y Asociados S.C. de R.L., a member firm of PricewaterhouseCoopers. For more information, see “Item 16.F. Change in Registrant’s Certifying Accountant.”

Our consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2015 included in this annual report were restated in our annual report on Form 20-F for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2016. The previously issued consolidated financial statements of the company for the 2015 fiscal year (and the related audit opinion) included in the company’s annual report on Form 20-F for the year ended December 31, 2015 should not be relied upon. The restatement of the 2015 fiscal year resulted in certain significant changes to the company’s consolidated financial statements. For more information, see note 2.30 to our audited annual consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2016 included in our annual report on Form 20-F for the 2016 fiscal year.

 

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We manage our business in four segments: Engineering and Construction (E&C); Infrastructure; Real Estate; and Technical Services. For information on our results of operations per our business segments, see note 7 to our audited annual consolidated financial statements included in this annual report. Beginning on April 1, 2017, we have transferred Concar from our Technical Services segment to our Infrastructure segment. For ease of comparison, the historical segment financial information included in this annual report presents Concar in the Infrastructure segment. This change does not impact our consolidated financial results.

We have requested that the staff of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) grant relief from the financial statement filing requirements of Rule 3.09 of Regulation S-X pursuant to Section 2430 of the Division of Corporation Finance Financial Reporting Manual, with respect to our investment in GSP. We have requested this relief because we believe the burden of producing financial statements of GSP as of and for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2016 and 2017 would outweigh their limited utility to the company’s investors. In particular, such financial statements would not provide additional material information to our investors that is not already included in our own audited annual consolidated financial statements included in this annual report. The SEC has not yet granted this request for relief, and we are in ongoing discussions with SEC regarding this matter. For more information on GSP, see notes 5(e), 5(f) and 16 of our audited annual consolidated financial statements included in this annual report.

On June 6, 2017, we sold our 89.19% interest in our former subsidiary, GMD. As a result, we present GMD as a discontinued operation in our audited annual consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2017. We have reclassified our consolidated financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2016 included in this annual report, to show GMD as a discontinued operation for those years as well.

Non-IFRS Data

In this annual report, we present EBITDA, a non-GAAP financial measure. A non-GAAP financial measure is generally defined as one that purports to measure financial performance, financial position or cash flows but excludes or includes amounts that would not be so adjusted in the most comparable IFRS measure. We present EBITDA because we believe it provides readers with a supplemental measure of the financial performance of our core operations that facilitates period-to-period comparisons on a consistent basis. Furthermore, we regularly present EBITDA in our filings with the Lima Stock Exchange in Peru. Our management uses EBITDA, among other measures, for internal planning and performance measurement purposes. We believe that EBITDA is useful in evaluating our operating performance compared to other companies operating in our sectors because the calculation of EBITDA generally eliminates the effects of financing and income taxes and the accounting effects of capital spending, which items may vary for different companies for reasons unrelated to overall operating performance. EBITDA should not be construed as an alternative to net profit or operating profit, as an indicator of operating performance, as an alternative to cash flow provided by operating activities or as a measure of liquidity (in each case, as determined in accordance with IFRS). EBITDA, as calculated by us, may not be comparable to similarly titled measures reported by other companies. For our definition of EBITDA and a reconciliation of EBITDA to the most directly comparable IFRS financial measure, see “Item 3.A. Key Information—Selected Financial Data—Non-GAAP Financial Measure and Reconciliation.”

Currency Translations

Our consolidated financial statements are prepared in soles. For a description of our translation of amounts in currencies other than soles in our consolidated financial statements, see note 2.4 to our audited annual consolidated financial statements included in this annual report.

We have translated some of the soles amounts contained in this annual report into U.S. dollars and some U.S. dollars amounts contained in this annual report into soles, for convenience purposes only. Unless otherwise indicated or the context otherwise requires, the rate used to translate soles amounts to U.S. dollars and U.S. dollars amounts into soles was S/.3.245 to US$1.00, which was the exchange rate reported for December 31, 2017 by the Peruvian Superintendency of Banks, Insurance and Private Pension Fund Administrators (Superintendencia de Banca, Seguros y AFPs, or “SBS”). We present our backlog in U.S. dollars. For contracts denominated in soles or other local currencies, amounts have been converted into U.S. dollars based on the exchange rate published by the SBS on December 31 of the corresponding year. When we present our ratios of backlog and revenues in this annual report, we similarly convert our revenues, which are reported in soles, into U.S. dollars based on the exchange rate reported for December 31 of the corresponding year. For conversions of macroeconomic indicators (particularly in “Item 5.D. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Trend Information” in this annual report), average annual exchange rates for the currencies of each of the countries addressed are used. The Federal Reserve Bank of New York does not report a noon buying rate for soles. The U.S. dollar equivalent information presented in this annual report is provided solely for convenience of the reader and should not be construed as implying that the soles or other currency amounts represent, or could have been or could be converted into, U.S. dollars at such rates or at any other rate. See “Item 3.A. Key Information—Selected Financial Data—Exchange Rates” for information regarding historical exchange rates of soles to U.S. dollars.

 

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Rounding

Certain figures included in this annual report have been subject to rounding adjustments. Accordingly, figures shown as totals in certain tables may not be arithmetic aggregations of the figures that precede them.

Backlog

This annual report includes our backlog for our Engineering and Construction, Infrastructure, Real Estate and Technical Services segments. We do not include backlog in this annual report in our Infrastructure segment for: (i) our Norvial toll road concession because its revenues from the concession are derived from toll fees charged to vehicles using the highway, and, as a result, such revenues are dependent on vehicular traffic levels; (ii) our Energy line of business because: (a) our revenues from hydrocarbon extraction services are dependent on the amounts of oil and gas we produce and market prices, which fluctuate significantly; (b) our revenues from our gas processing plant are dependent on the amount of gas we process and market prices for natural gas liquids, which fluctuate significantly; and (c) our revenues from our fuel storage terminal operation partially depend on the volume of fuel dispatched; and (iii) COGA, which is not consolidated because it was jointly controlled, and which we sold on April 24, 2017. When we present backlog on a segment basis, we do not include eliminations that are included in our consolidated backlog. Backlog is not a measure defined by IFRS, and our methodology for determining backlog may not be comparable to the methodology used by other companies in determining their backlog. Backlog is not audited. For our definition of backlog, see “Item 4.B. Information on the Company—Business Overview—Backlog.” See also “Item 3.D. Key Information—Risk Factors—Risks Related to our Company—Our backlog and our ratio of historical backlog to revenues may not be reliable indicators of future revenues or profit.”

The GSP gas pipeline concession was terminated on January 24, 2017, which had a significant impact on our backlog for our E&C and our consolidated backlog. For more information, see “Item 5.A. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Operating Results—Recent Developments.”

Reserves Estimates

This annual report includes our estimates for proved reserves in Blocks I and V, where GMP provides hydrocarbon extraction services to, and Blocks III and IV, where GMP extracts hydrocarbon under license agreements with, Perupetro S.A. (“Perupetro”). These reserves estimates were prepared internally by our team of engineers and have not been audited or reviewed by any independent external engineers. For further information on these reserves estimates, see “Item 3.D. Key Information—Rights Relating to Our Company – Additional Risks Related to our Infrastructure Business” and “Item 4.B. Information on the Company—Business Overview—Infrastructure—Principal Infrastructure Lines of Business—Energy—Oil and Gas Production.”

Market Information

We make estimates in this annual report regarding our competitive position and market share, as well as the market size and expected growth of the engineering and construction, infrastructure, real estate and technical services industries in Peru and elsewhere in Latin America. We have made these estimates on the basis of our management’s knowledge and statistics and other information, which we believe to be the most recently available as of the date of this annual report, from government agencies, industry professional organizations, industry publications and other sources. While we believe these estimates to be accurate as of the date of this annual report, we have not independently verified the data from third-party sources and our internal data has not been verified by any independent source. In addition, our former director, Hugo Santa María Guzmán, is a partner in APOYO Consultoría, and Roberto Abusada Salah, a director of the company, is a director of the Peruvian Economy Institute. We paid Great Place to Work ® Institute, a human resources consulting, research and training firm, for our employees to participate in their market survey referenced in this annual report (Copyright © 2017 Great Place to Work ® Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.). In this annual report we present gross domestic product (“GDP”) both on a nominal and real basis. Real GDP is nominal GDP adjusted to exclude the effect of inflation. Unless otherwise indicated, references to GDP are to real GDP.

 

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Measurements and Other Data

In this annual report, we use the following measurements:

 

    “m” means one meter, which equals approximately 3.28084 feet;

 

    “m2” means one square meter, which equals approximately 10.7630 square feet;

 

    “km” means one kilometer, which equals approximately 0.621371 miles;

 

    “hectare” means one hectare, which equals approximately 2.47105 acres;

 

    “tonne” means one metric ton, which equals approximately 2,204.6 pounds;

 

    “bbl” or barrel of oil means one stock tank barrel, which is equivalent to approximately 0.15898 cubic meters;

 

    “boe” means one barrel of oil equivalent, which equals approximately 160.2167 cubic meters, determined using the ratio of 5,658 cubic feet of natural gas to one barrel of oil;

 

    “cf” means one cubic foot;

 

    “M,” when used before bbl, boe or cf, means one thousand bbl, boe and cf, respectively;

 

    “MM,” when used before bbl, boe or cf, means one million bbl, boe and cf, respectively;

 

    “MW” means one megawatt, which equals one million watts; and

 

    “Gwh” means one gigawatt hour, which equals one billion watt hours.

In this annual report, we use the term accident incident rate with respect to our E&C segment, which is calculated as the number of injuries divided by the total number of hours worked by all full-time employees of our E&C segment during the relevant year divided by 200,000 (which reflects 40 hours worked per week in a 50-week year by 100 equivalent full-time workers).

Forward-Looking Statements

This annual report contains forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements convey our current expectations or forecasts of future events. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors, including those listed under “Item 3.D. Key Information—Risk Factors,” which may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to differ materially from the forward-looking statements that we make.

Forward-looking statements typically are identified by words or phrases such as “may,” “will,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “aim,” “estimate,” “intend,” “project,” “plan,” “believe,” “potential,” “continue,” “is/are likely to,” or other similar expressions. Any or all of our forward-looking statements in this annual report may turn out to be inaccurate. Our actual results could differ materially from those contained in forward-looking statements due to a number of factors, including, among others:

 

    the impact on our business reputation from our association with Odebrecht S.A. (“Odebrecht”) affiliates in Peru;

 

    the potential effects of investigations of our company and certain of our former directors and executive officers, or any future investigations, regarding corruption or other illegal acts;

 

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    uncertainty with regards to the timing and amount of the government payment we are entitled to receive in connection with the termination of the GSP pipeline concession;

 

    defaults under our debt instruments arising from certain financial covenants and our failure to deliver the company’s audited consolidated financial statements for the 2016 and 2017 fiscal years on time;

 

    our ability to consummate asset sales on favorable terms on a timely basis, or at all;

 

    the potential impact of the class action civil suit against the company and certain of our former directors and our former and current executive officers;

 

    our ability to successfully appeal the suspension of trading and eventual delisting of our American depositary shares (“ADSs”) on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”);

 

    global macroeconomic conditions, including commodity prices;

 

    economic, political and social conditions in the markets in which we operate, particularly in Peru, including the resignation of former President Pedro Pablo Kuczynski in March 2018 following corruption allegations;

 

    political conflicts and deadlocks in Peru between the Peruvian Congress and the executive branch;

 

    major changes in Peruvian government policies at the national, regional or municipal levels, including in connection with infrastructure concessions, investments in infrastructure and affordable housing subsidies;

 

    social conflicts in Peru that disrupt infrastructure projects, particularly in the mining sector;

 

    interest rate fluctuation, inflation and devaluation or appreciation of the sol in relation to the U.S. dollar (or other currencies in which we receive revenue);

 

    our backlog may not be a reliable indicator of future revenues or profit;

 

    the level of capital investments and financings available for infrastructure projects of the types that we perform, both in the private and public sectors;

 

    competition in our markets, both from local and international companies;

 

    performance under contracts, where a failure to meet schedules, cost estimates or performance targets on a timely basis could result in reduced profit margins or losses and impact our reputation;

 

    developments, some of which may be beyond our control, that affect our reputation in our markets, including a deterioration in our safety record;

 

    industry-specific operational risks, such as operator errors, mechanical failures and other accidents;

 

    availability and costs of energy, raw materials, equipment and labor;

 

    our ability to obtain financing on favorable terms, including our ability to obtain performance bonds and similar financings; required in the ordinary course of our business;

 

    our ability to attract and retain qualified personnel;

 

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    our ability to enter into joint operations, and rules involved in operating under joint operation or similar arrangements;

 

    our exposure to potential liability claims and contract disputes, including as a result of environmental damage alleged to have been caused by our operations;

 

    our and our clients’ compliance with environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, and changes in government policies and regulations in the countries in which we operate;

 

    negotiations of claims with our clients of cost and schedule variances and change orders on major projects;

 

    delays in client payments, and increased financing costs for working capital resulting from those delays;

 

    volatility in global prices of oil and gas;

 

    the cyclical nature of some of our business segments;

 

    limitations on our ability to operate our concessions profitably, including changes in traffic patterns, and limitations on our ability to obtain new concessions;

 

    our ability to accurately estimate the costs of our projects;

 

    changes in real estate market prices, customer demand, preference and purchasing power, and financing availability and terms;

 

    our ability to obtain zoning and other license requirements for our real estate development;

 

    changes in tax laws;

 

    natural disasters, severe weather or other events that may adversely impact our business; and

 

    other factors identified or discussed under “Item 3.D. Key Information—Risk Factors.”

The forward-looking statements in this annual report represent our expectations and forecasts as of the date of this annual report. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, after the date of this annual report.

 

ITEM 1. IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS

Not applicable.

 

ITEM 2. OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE

Not applicable.

 

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ITEM 3. KEY INFORMATION

A. Selected Financial Data

The following selected consolidated financial data should be read together with “Part I. Introduction — Financial Information,” “Item 5. Operations and Financial Review and Prospects” and our audited annual consolidated financial statements included in this annual report.

The following selected financial data as of December 31, 2016 and 2017 and for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2016 and 2017 have been derived from our audited annual consolidated financial statements included in this annual report. The following selected financial data as of December 31, 2013, 2014 and 2015 and for the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2014 have been derived from our audited annual consolidated financial statements not included in this annual report. Our annual consolidated financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2016 and 2017 have been audited by Moore Stephens in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). For more information, see “Item 16.F. Change in Registrant’s Certifying Accountant.” Our consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2015 included in this annual report were restated in our annual report on Form 20-F for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2016. The previously issued consolidated financial statements of the company for the 2015 fiscal year (and the related audit opinion) included in the company’s annual report on Form 20-F for the year ended December 31, 2015 should not be relied upon. On June 6, 2017, we sold our 89.19% interest in our former subsidiary GMD. As a result, we present GMD as a discontinued operation in our audited annual consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2017. We have reclassified our financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2016 included in this annual report to show GMD as a discontinued operation for those years as well. We have not reclassified GMD for the fiscal years 2013 and 2014, due to the immaterial amount of the difference.

 

     For the year ended December 31,  
     2013(2)     2014(2)     2015     2016(3)     2017     2017  
           (in millions of S/.)                

(in millions of

US$)(4)

 

Income Statement Data: (1)

            

Revenues

     5,967.5       7,008.7       7,582.9       6,190.3       6,080.1       1,873.7  

Cost of sales

     (4,963.4     (6,057.1     (6.969.9     (5,633.0     (5,407.4     (1,666.4
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Gross profit

     1,004.1       951.6       613.0       557.3       672.7       207.3  

Administrative expenses

     (361.8     (421.4     (394.2     (382.4     (429.2     (132.3

Other income and expenses, net(5)

     26.0       15.2       54.7       (12.7     (21.0     (6.5

Profit (losses) from sale of investments

     5.7       —         (8.3     46.3       274.4       84.6  

Other (expenses) income, net

     (0.7     (0.1     (0.1     (0.7     0.4       0.1  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Operating profit

     673.4       545.3       265.1       207.8       497.3       153.2  

Financial (expense) income, net(5)

     (112.4     (91.4     (130.4     (201.0     (170.0     (52.4

Share of the profit and loss obtained from associates and joint ventures under the equity method of accounting

     33.6       53.4       7.7       (589.7     1.3       0.4  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Profit before income tax

     594.5       507.4       142.3       (582.9     328.6       101.2  

Income tax

     (182.3     (146.2     (95.9     119.3       (123.0     (37.9

Profit from continuing operations

     412.1       299.7       46.4       (463.6     205.6       63.3  

Profit from discontinued operations

     —         —         9.1       12.0       3.6       1.1  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net profit

     412.1       361.2       55.6       (451.6     209.2       64.4  

Net profit (loss) attributable to controlling interest(6)

     320.0       299.7       7.1       (509.7     148.7       45.8  

Net profit (loss) attributable to non-controlling interest(6)

     92.1       61.5       48.5       58.1       60.5       18.6  

 

(1) Includes the results of operations of DSD since August 2013, Morelco since January 2015 and Adexus which began consolidating in August 2016. See “Item 5.A. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Operating Results—Factors Affecting our Results of Operations—Acquisitions.” Additionally includes the results of Stracon, although we sold our interest in Stracon on April 11, 2018.
(2) We have not reclassified our financial information included in this annual report for the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2014 to show GMD as a discontinued operation, due to the immaterial amount of the difference.
(3) For the effects on our results of operations for 2016 resulting from the termination of the GSP gas pipeline concession, see “Item 5.A. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Operating Results—Recent Developments” and notes 5(e), 5(f), and 16 to our audited annual consolidated financial statements included in this annual report. In particular, we recognized an impairment to our investment in GSP of S/.593.1 million in 2016, which is recorded in Share of the profit and loss obtained from associates and joint ventures under the equity method of accounting.
(4) Calculated based on an exchange rate of S/.3.245 to US$1.00 as of December 31, 2017.
(5) Reflects exchange losses due to the depreciation of the sol against the U.S. dollar and our U.S. dollar denominated liabilities. For more information, see note 28 to our audited annual consolidated financial statements included in this annual report.
(6) We consolidate the results of our subsidiaries in our financial statements and we reflect the profit corresponding to the minority interests in our subsidiaries under “net profit attributable to non-controlling interests” in our income statement. With respect to our joint operations, we recognize in our consolidated financial statements the revenue and expenses, including our share of any asset, liability, revenue or expense we hold jointly with partners. We reflect the results of our associated companies under the equity method of accounting in our consolidated financial statements under the line item “share of the profit and loss in associates” in our income statement. See “Item 5.A. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Operating Results—Factors Affecting Our Results of Operations—Acquisitions,” “—General—Accounting for Subsidiaries, Joint Operations, Joint Ventures and Associated Companies” and note 2.2 to our audited annual consolidated financial statements included in this annual report.

 

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     As of December 31,  
     2013      2014      2015      2016(1)      2017      2017  
Balance Sheet Data:           (in millions of S/.)                    (in millions of
US$)(2)
 

Total current assets

     3,903.5        4,623.9        5,200.4        4,328.7        3,891.9        1,199.4  

Cash and cash equivalents

     959.4        818.4        554.0        607.0        626.2        193.0  

Accounts receivables

     1,162.4        1,768.6        2,143.3        1,862.5        1,858.9        572.9  

Outstanding work in progress

     971.7        1,161.8        1,278.2        680.9        584.8        180.2  

Inventories(3)

     762.8        833.6        1,159.2        1,104.3        770.7        237.5  

Total non-current assets

     2,412.6        3,106.8        3,699.6        4,718.0        4,775.7        1,471.7  

Long-term accounts receivables(4)

     591.9        580.0        621.8        667.5        848.6        261.5  

Investments in associates and

joint ventures

     88.0        229.6        637.0        389.8        268.7        82.8  

Property, plant and equipment

     952.9        1,147.0        1,111.8        1,113.6        865.7        266.8  

Intangible assets(5)

     480.9        778.7        878.3        960.3        940.1        289.7  

Total current liabilities

     2,416.3        3,794.9        4,092.3        4,537.0        3,549.2        1,093.7  

Short-term borrowings

     486.1        1,425.5        1,265.1        2,007.1        1,093.4        336.9  

Accounts payables(6) (7)

     1,762.1        2,151.4        2,779.6        2,453.1        2,356.7        726.3  

Total non-current liabilities

     703.1        762.1        1,725.8        2,019.9        2,529.4        779.5  

Long-term borrowings

     309.7        326.1        1,310.3        1,341.0        1,544.2        475.9  

Capital stock

     660.1        660.1        660.1        660.1        660.1        203.4  

Shareholders’ equity

     2,765.4        2,691.7        2,558.8        1,980.4        2,123.3        654.3  

Non-controlling interest

     431.3        482.5        523.1        509.3        465.7        143.5  

 

(1) For the effects on our financial condition as of December 31, 2016 resulting from the termination of the GSP gas pipeline concession, see “Item 5.A. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Operating Results—Recent Developments” and notes 5(e), 5(f) and 26 to our audited annual consolidated financial statements included in this annual report.
(2) Calculated based on an exchange rate of S/.3.245 to US$1.00 as of December 31, 2017.
(3) Includes investments for the purchase of land by our Real Estate segment. These investments in land are recorded at acquisition cost and are not marked-to-market for changes in fair value. See note 15 to our audited annual consolidated financial statements included in this annual report.
(4) Includes payments required to be made by the Peruvian government for the amounts we invest to purchase trains and other infrastructure for the Lima Metro. See “Item 5.A. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Operating Results—Results of Operations—General—Infrastructure” and note 11 to our audited annual consolidated financial statements included in this annual report.
(5) We recognize our investments in the construction of the highway of our Norvial concession as intangible assets. See note 18(c) to our audited annual consolidated financial statements included in this annual report.
(6) Includes S/.701.8 million, S/.684.3 million, S/.607.1 million, S/.810.8 million and S/.726.3 million in advance payments made by our clients as of December 31, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017, respectively, in connection with our E&C and operation and maintenance of infrastructure assets contracts. See “Item 5.A. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Operating Results—Results of Operations—General—Engineering and Construction” and “—Technical Services” and note 22 to our audited annual consolidated financial statements included in this annual report.
(7) Includes our US$15.6 million payable to Chubb Insurance Company (US$52.5 million as of December 31, 2016 and US$15.6 million as of December 31, 2017) relating to the termination of the GSP gas pipeline concession. For more information, see “Item 5.A. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Operating Results—Recent Developments” and “—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Indebtedness.”

 

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Table of Contents
     As of and for the year ended December 31,  
     2013     2014     2015     2016(2)     2017     2017  
    

(in millions of S/.)

         

(in millions of

US$)(3)

 

Other Data: (1)

            

EBITDA(4) (in millions of S/. or US$)

     966.1       858.8       579.2       (93.6     785.1       241.9  

Gross margin

     16.8     13.6     8.1     9.0     11.1     11.1

EBITDA margin(5)

     16.2     12.3     7.6     (1.5 )%      12.9     12.9

Outstanding shares (thousands)

     660,054       660,054       660,054       660,054       660,054       660,054  

Profit per share (in S/.or US$)

     0.62       0.55       0.08       (0.68     0.31       0.10  

Profit attributable to controlling interest per share (in S/.or US$)

     0.48       0.45       0.01       (0.77     0.23       0.07  

Dividend per share (in S/.or US$)(6)

     0.17       0.16       0.05       —         —         —    

Net debt(7)/ EBITDA ratio

     (0.2 )x      1.1x       3.5x       (29.3     2.6       2.6  

Backlog (in millions of US$) (Unaudited)(8)

     3,935.0       3,765.4       3,918.4       3,011.6       2,388.4       2,388.4  

Backlog/revenues ratio (Unaudited)(8)

     1.9x       1.6x       1.9x       1.8x       1.3x       1.3x  

 

(1) Includes the results of operations of DSD since August 2013, Morelco since January 2015 and Adexus which began consolidating in August 2016. See “Item 5.A. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Operating Results—Factors Affecting our Results of Operations—Acquisitions.” Additionally includes the results of Stracon, although we sold our interest in Stracon on April 11, 2018.
(2) For the effects on our results of operations and backlog for 2016 resulting from the termination of the GSP gas pipeline concession, see “Item 5.A. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Operating Results—Recent Developments” and notes 5(e), 5(f) and 16 to our audited annual consolidated financial statements included in this annual report.
(3) Calculated based on an exchange rate of S/.3.245 to US$1.00 as of December 31, 2017.
(4) For further information on the definition of EBITDA, see “—Non-GAAP Financial Measure and Reconciliation.”
(5) Reflects EBITDA as a percentage of revenues.
(6) Payment of dividends for the year’s profit.
(7) Net debt is calculated as total borrowings (including current and non-current borrowings) less cash and cash equivalents.
(8) For further information on our backlog, see “Item 4.B. Business Overview—Backlog.” Does not include, in our Infrastructure segment, our Norvial toll road concession; our Energy line of business; or our jointly controlled COGA venture (which we sold on April 24, 2017). Backlog is calculated as of the last day of the applicable year. Revenues are calculated for that year and converted into U.S. dollars based on the exchange rate published by the SBS on December 31 of the corresponding year, which was S/.2.796 to US$1.00 as of December 31, 2013, S/.2.989 to US$1.00 as of December 31, 2014, S/.3.413 to US$1.00 as of December 31, 2015, S/.3.36 to US$1.00 as of December 31, 2016 and S/.3.245 to US$1.00 as of December 31, 2017. Includes revenues only for businesses included in our backlog.

The following tables set forth summary financial data for each of our business segments. For more information on the results of operations of our segments, see “Item 5.A. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Operating Results—Results of Operations” and note 7 to our audited annual consolidated financial statements included in this annual report. The effects of the termination of the GSP gas pipeline concession on our results of operations and financial condition for 2016 are reflected in Corporate (the Parent Company Operations) and, with respect to the related construction consortium (Consorcio Constructor Ductos del Sur), in our E&C segment.

Beginning on April 1, 2017, we have transferred Concar from our Technical Services segment to our Infrastructure segment. For ease of comparison, the historical segment financial information included in this annual report presents Concar in the Infrastructure segment. This change does not impact our consolidated financial results.

1. Engineering & Construction

 

     For the year ended December 31,  
     2013     2014     2015      2016     2017     2017  
    

(in millions of S/.)

   

(in millions of

US$)(1)

 

Income Statement Data:

             

Revenues

     4,075.3       5,035.7       5,829.4        4,159.5       3,353.2       1,033.3  

Cost of sales

     (3,515.7     (4,500.3     5,516.7        (3,934.9     (3,062.9     (943.9
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Gross profit

     559.5       535.4       312.8        224.6       290.3       89.5  

 

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     For the year ended December 31,  
     2013     2014     2015     2016     2017     2017  
    

(in millions of S/.)

   

(in millions of

US$)(1)

 

Administrative expenses

     (217.9     (258.6     (289.1     (258.6     (231.0     (71.2

Other income and (expenses), net

     10.8       (9.8     30.8       (9.2     (42.7     (13.2

Other (losses) gains, net

     —         —         (0.2     —         25.8       8.0  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Operating profit

     352.4       267.0       54.2       (43.2     42.4       13.1  

Financial (expense) income, net

     (26.6     (62.4     (118.5     (53.9     (43.4     (13.4

Share of the profit or loss in

associates under the equity

method of accounting

     42.0       48.2       (2.2     16.5       30.6       9.4  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Profit (loss) before income tax

     367.7       252.8       (66.5     (80.6     29.6       9.1  

Income tax

     (111.2     (59.3     (55.4     (12.8     (17.14     (5.3
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net profit (loss)

     256.5       193.6       (121.8     (93.4     12.5       3.9  

Net profit attributable to controlling interest

     211.6       164.1       (131.2     (87.7     12.1       3.7  

Net profit (loss) attributable to non-controlling interest

     44.9       29.5       9.3       (5.7     0.3       0.1  

 

     As of December 31,  
     2013      2014      2015      2016      2017      2017  
    

(in millions of S/.)

    

(in millions of

US$)(1)

 

Balance Sheet Data:

                 

Total current assets

     1,858.0        2,676.6        3,157.1        1,910.9        1,949.0        600.6  

Cash and cash equivalents

     265.8        285.4        172.1        93.5        184.4        56.8  

Accounts receivables

     737.7        1,092.9        1,526.4        1,060.5        1,117.0        344.2  

Outstanding work in progress

     735.0        1,145.4        1,260.5        648.9        578.7        178.3  

Other current assets

     119.6        152.9        198.1        108.0        68.9        21.2  

Total non-current assets

     931.1        1,250.0        1,118.4        1,328.0        1,382.3        426.0  

Long-term accounts receivables

     —          6.2        0.5        42.7        333.5        102.8  

Property, plant and equipment

     534.1        651.2        606.2        592.2        509.7        157.1  

Other non-current assets

     397.0        592.6        511.7        521.4        480.1        148.0  

Total current liabilities

     1,633.6        2,500.2        2,846.3        2,101.5        2,189.6        674.8  

Short-term borrowings

     195.1        629.6        653.0        582.3        592.0        182.4  

Accounts payables(2)

     1,321.5        1,701.9        2,174.0        1,482.1        1,561.6        481.2  

Total non-current liabilities

     385.6        445.2        629.2        471.8        546.3        168.4  

Long-term borrowings

     127.1        144.1        376.0        246.3        127.8        39.4  

Other long-term liabilities

     258.5        301.1        253.3        225.5        418.6        129.0  

Shareholders’ equity

     622.9        817.8        639.2        551.7        487.9        150.4  

Non-controlling interest

     147.0        163.4        160.8        113.9        107.5        33.1  

2. Infrastructure

 

     For the year ended December 31,  
     2013     2014     2015     2016     2017     2017  
    

(in millions of S/.)

         

(in millions of

US$)(1)

 

Income Statement Data:

            

Revenues

     1,109.9       1,249.1       1,353.1       1,174.8       1,447.9       446.2  

Cost of sales

     (876.8     (995.4     (1,107.2     (963.4     (1,187.8     (366.0
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Gross profit

     233.1       253.7       245.9       211.4       260.2       80.2  

Administrative expenses

     (67.0     (71.5     (67.0     (66.1     (63.9     (19.7

Other income and (expenses), net

     (1.0     (2.6     2.0       1.3       5.8       1.8  

Other (losses) gains, net

     0.3       (0.1     (0.1     (0.5     0.4       0.1  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Operating profit

     165.3       179.5       180.8       146.1       202.5       62.4  

Financial (expense) income, net

     (44.5     (30.4     (22.9     (9.6     (19.5     (6.0

Share of the profit or loss in associates under the equity method of accounting

     1.6       —         0.9       1.6       1.6       0.5  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Profit before income tax

     122.4       149.2       158.9       138.1       184.5       56.9  

Income tax

     (40.0     (56.6     (46.5     (39.9     (55.2     (17.0
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net profit

     82.4       92.6       112.4       98.3       129.3       39.8  

Net profit attributable to controlling interest

     70.1       80.9       93.0       74.4       103.8       32.0  

Net profit (loss) attributable to non-controlling interest

     12.3       11.7       19.4       23.8       25.5       7.9  

 

10


Table of Contents
     2013      2014      2015      2016      2017      2017  
     (in millions of S/.)             (in millions of
US$)(1)
 

Balance Sheet Data:

                 

Total current assets

     651.8        614.1        639.3        806.5        923.3        284.5  

Cash and cash equivalents

     142.5        173.4        240.3        303.9        331.1        102.0  

Accounts receivables

     286.1        378.8        331.9        409.2        535.0        164.9  

Outstanding work in progress

     172.6        16.4        17.7        32.1        —          —    

Other current assets

     50.6        45.6        49.5        61.3        57.2        17.6  

Total non-current assets

     1,111.1        1,297.9        1,514.4        1,801.6        2,098.4        646.7  

Long-term accounts receivables(3)

     603.9        602.3        670.7        930.2        1,164.0        358.7  

Property, plant and equipment

     226.4        236.3        225.4        200.2        190.4        58.7  

Other non-current assets

     279.8        412.8        536.1        623.5        676.9        208.6  

Total current liabilities

     1,094.2        1,180.4        458.4        407.2        580.2        178.8  

Short-term borrowings

     140.4        588.8        197.2        85.1        86.2        26.6  

Accounts payables

     934.6        568.3        241.3        261.5        486.2        149.8  

Total non-current liabilities

     163.6        154.5        1,010.3        1,444.7        1,585.9        488.7  

Long-term borrowings

     99.6        103.3        842.5        1,004.6        1,014.4        312.6  

Other long-term liabilities

     63.9        51.1        167.8        440.1        571.4        176.1  

Shareholders’ equity

     434.2        497.1        586.2        643.3        729.5        224.8  

Non-controlling interest

     70.9        80.0        98.8        112.9        126.1        38.9  

3. Real Estate

 

     For the year ended December 31,  
     2013     2014     2015     2016     2017     2017  
    

(in millions of S/.)

          (in millions of
US$)(1)
 

Income Statement Data:

            

Revenues

     313.7       224.6       215.8       411.5       647.5       199.5  

Cost of sales

     (200.0     (162.1     (164.0     (275.0     (500.2     (154.1
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Gross profit

     113.7       62.4       51.8       136.5       147.4       45.4  

Administrative expenses

     (21.0     (21.1     (20.5     (28.4     (21.2     (6.5

Other income and (expenses), net

     (0.7     (0.8     1.8       0.8       (3.7     (1.1

Other (losses) gains, net

     (1.0     —         —         —         49.0       15.1  

Profit from the sale of investments

     3.2       —         —         —         —         —    
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Operating profit

     94.2       40.5       33.0       108.9       171.5       52.9  

Financial (expense) income, net

     (13.8     (14.7     (10.9     (11.6     (18.3     (5.6

Share of the profit or loss in associates under the equity method of accounting

     0.1       12.2       14.9       6.8       0.5       0.2  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Profit before income tax

     80.5       38.0       37.0       104.2       153.6       47.3  

Income tax

     (21.4     (11.5     (7.6     (27.1     (35.9     (11.1
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net profit

     59.0       26.5       29.3       77.2       117.7       36.3  

Net profit attributable to controlling interest(4)

     19.2       9.5       12.4       22.1       48.6       15.0  

Net profit (loss) attributable to non-controlling interest(4)

     39.9       17.0       17.0       55.1       69.1       21.3  

 

     As of December 31,  
     2013      2014      2015      2016      2017      2017  
    

(in millions of S/.)

            (in millions of
US$)(3)
 

Balance Sheet Data:

                 

Total current assets

     672.6        760.8        1,109.3        1,117.1        884.6        272.6  

Cash and cash equivalents

     43.0        54.3        74.5        58.9        85.2        26.3  

Accounts receivables

     36.4        75.6        114.4        111.2        155.3        47.9  

Outstanding work in progress

     593.2        631.0        920.4        947.0        644.1        198.5  

Other current assets(5)

     76.5        117.4        91.7        113.6        78.5        24.2  

Total non-current assets

     11.8        9.7        14.7        17.9        9.8        3.0  

Long-term accounts receivables(3)

     5.6        7.3        11.3        13.0        11.6        3.6  

Property, plant and equipment

     36.9        36.2        34.7        49.4        45.7        14.1  

Other non-current assets

     22.1        64.1        30.9        33.3        11.3        3.5  

Total current liabilities

     217.6        266.6        555.1        515.8        352.1        108.5  

Short-term borrowings

     77.9        144.3        224.4        206.5        162.0        49.9  

Accounts payables

     136.6        120.1        330.7        291.2        144.8        44.6  

Total non-current liabilities

     97.8        138.9        159.6        104.2        44.1        13.6  

Long-term borrowings

     52.3        16.4        27.6        16.5        12.0        3.7  

Other long-term liabilities

     45.4        122.5        132.0        87.6        32.1        9.9  

Shareholders’ equity

     152.7        157.3        158.6        234.4        217.3        67.0  

Non-controlling interest(4)

     281.0        315.4        327.6        376.3        349.6        107.7  

 

11


Table of Contents

4. Technical Services

 

     For the year ended December 31,  
     2013     2014     2015     2016     2017     2017  
    

(in millions of S/.)

          (in millions of
US$)(1)
 

Income Statement Data:(6)

            

Revenues

     740.2       843.8       563.9       841.1       1,061.0       327.0  

Cost of sales

     (607.3     (709.6     (487.0     (763.8     (1,003.2     (309.2
    

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Gross profit

     132.9       134.2       76.9       77.3       57.8       17.8  

Administrative expenses

     (96.5     (91.3     (60.9     (69.9     (74.2     (22.9

Other income and expenses, net

     22.6       7.3       12.0       4.2       8.6       2.7  

Gain from business combination

     —         —         (8.3     —         —         —    

Other (losses) gains, net

     —         (2.1     0.2       (0.2     —         —    
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Operating profit

     59.0       48.1       19.9       11.4       (7.8     (2.4

Financial (expense) income, net

     (16.0     (20.7     (17.7     (17.2     (26.3     (8.1

Share of the profit or loss in associates

under the equity method of accounting

     1.1       0.6       0.6       0.4       1.2       0.4  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Profit before income tax

     44.1       28.0       2.8       (5.4     (32.9     (10.1

Income tax

     (12.1     (6.6     20.6       (1.6     4.8       1.5  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Profit from continuing operations

         23.4       (7.0     (28.1     (8.7

Profit from discontinued operations

         5.2       7.9       2.3       0.7  

Net profit (loss)

     32.0       21.4       28.6       0.9       (25.8     (8.0

Net profit (loss) attributable to controlling interest(4)

     24.2       16.0       20.1       1.6       (18.2     (5.6

Net profit (loss) attributable to non-controlling interest(4)

     7.8       5.5       8.5       (0.7     (7.6     (2.3
     As of December 31,  
     2013     2014     2015     2016     2017     2017  
    

(in millions of S/.)

          (in millions of
US$)(1)
 

Balance Sheet Data:

            

Total current assets

     310.4       429.3       390.0       591.6       403.2       124.3  

Cash and cash equivalents

     26.3       128.7       41.7       37.7       21.9       6.7  

Accounts receivables

     171.6       255.5       286.0       479.0       321.8       99.2  

Outstanding work in progress

     64.2       —         —         —         —         —    

Other current assets

     48.3       45.1       62.2       74.8       59.5       18.3  

Total non-current assets

     169.4       214.4       223.6       361.3       246.9       76.1  

Long-term accounts receivables

     12.3       4.9       0.5       24.5       42.0       12.9  

Property, plant and equipment

     89.1       139.5       145.9       195.5       100.9       31.1  

Other non-current assets

     67.9       70.0       77.2       141.3       103.9       32.0  

Total current liabilities

     262.1       277.5       308.0       600.2       463.6       142.9  

Short-term borrowings

     72.2       62.1       87.7       155.1       139.8       43.1  

Accounts payables

     163.3       194.3       212.0       438.2       313.9       96.7  

Total non-current liabilities

     104.7       181.8       161.8       166.6       104.2       32.1  

Long-term borrowings

     27.9       60.1       64.4       73.5       26.5       8.2  

Other long-term liabilities

     76.8       121.7       97.5       93.1       77.8       24.0  

Shareholders’ equity

     88.5       94.6       108.4       148.0       81.3       25.1  

Non-controlling interest

     24.4       89.7       35.4       38.0       1.0       0.3  

 

(1) Calculated based on an exchange rate of S/.3.245 to US$1.00 as of December 31, 2017.
(2) Includes advance payments, which reflects advance payments made by our clients in connection with our E&C and Operation and Maintenance of Infrastructure Assets contracts. See “Item 5.A. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Operating Results—Results of Operations—General—Engineering and Construction” and “—Technical Services” and note 22 to our audited annual consolidated financial statements included in this annual report.
(3) Includes payments required to be made by the Peruvian government for the amounts we invest to purchase trains and other infrastructure for the Lima Metro. See “Item 5.A. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Operating Results—Results of Operations—General—Infrastructure” and note 11 to our audited annual consolidated financial statements included in this annual report.
(4) The net profit attributable to controlling interests of our Real Estate segment is significantly affected by the financing and commercial arrangements we use to purchase land and to develop real estate projects. Depending on the level of non-controlling interests used to finance our real estate projects, our Real Estate segment tends to have significant net profit attributable to non-controlling interests. See “Item 5.A. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Operating Results—Results of Operations—General—Real Estate.”
(5) Includes inventories, which includes investments for the purchase of land by our Real Estate segment. These investments in land are recorded at book value and are not marked-to-market for changes in fair value. See note 15 to our audited annual consolidated financial statements included in this annual report.
(6) We have not reclassified our financial information included in this annual report for the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2014 to show GMD as a discontinued operation, due to the immaterial amount of the difference.

 

12


Table of Contents

Non-GAAP Financial Measure and Reconciliation

In this annual report, we present EBITDA, a non-GAAP financial measure. A non-GAAP financial measure is generally defined as one that purports to measure financial performance, financial position or cash flows but excludes or includes amounts that would not be so adjusted in the most comparable IFRS measure. We define EBITDA as net profit plus: financial (expense) income, net; income tax; and depreciation and amortization.

We present EBITDA because we believe it provides readers with a supplemental measure of the financial performance of our core operations that facilitates period-to-period comparisons on a consistent basis. Furthermore, we regularly present EBITDA in our filings with the Lima Stock Exchange in Peru. Our management uses EBITDA, among other measures, for internal planning and performance measurement purposes. We believe that EBITDA is useful in evaluating our operating performance compared to that of other companies operating in our sectors because the calculation of EBITDA and EBITDA generally eliminates the effects of financing and income taxes and the accounting effects of capital spending, which items may vary for different companies for reasons unrelated to overall operating performance. EBITDA should not be construed as an alternative to net profit or operating profit, as an indicator of operating performance, as an alternative to cash flow provided by operating activities or as a measure of liquidity (in each case, as determined in accordance with IFRS). EBITDA, as calculated by us, may not be comparable to similarly titled measures reported by other companies. The following table sets forth the reconciliation of our net profit to EBITDA on a consolidated basis.

 

     For the year ended December 31,  
     2013     2014     2015     2016(1)     2017     2017  
     (in millions of S/.)           (in millions of
US$)(2)
 

Net profit (loss)(3)

     412.1       361.2       46.4       (463.6     205.7       63.4  

Financial expense

     583.5       460.1       590.2       977.0       515.9       159.0  

Financial income

     (471.0     (368.8     (459.8     (776.0     (345.9     (106.6

Income tax

     182.3       146.2       95.9       (119.3     123.0       37.9  

Depreciation and amortization

     259.1       260.0       306.4       288.3       286.4       88.3  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

EBITDA

     967.2       858.8       579.2       93.6       785.1       241.9  

The following table is the reconciliation of the EBITDA for our four segments, Parent company operations and elimination:

 

     For the year ended December 31,  
     2013     2014     2015     2016(1)     2017     2017  
     (in millions of S/.)           (in millions of
US$)(2)
 

Engineering and construction

     545.5       459.5       220.1       106.1       194.3       59.9  

Infrastructure

     236.6       257.2       272.2       237.8       300.9       92.7  

Real state

     97.9       56.5       52.8       121.4       177.3       54.6  

Technical services

     91.7       78.8       35.1       39.8       36.8       11.3  

Parent company operations

     309.1       252.3       (35.6     (1,026.4     216.7       66.8  

Eliminations intercompany

     (314.7     (245.4     34.6       427.8       (140.9     (43.4
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

EBITDA(5)

     967.2       858.8       579.2       (93.6     785.1       241.9  

The following tables set forth the reconciliation of our net profit to EBITDA for each of our business segments and certain of our lines of business or subsidiaries within these segments. The effects of the termination of the GSP gas pipeline concession on our results of operations and financial condition for 2016 are reflected in Corporate (the Parent Company Operations) and, with respect to the related construction consortium (Consorcio Constructor Ductos del Sur), in our E&C segment. Beginning on April 1, 2017, we have transferred Concar from our Technical Services segment to our Infrastructure segment. For ease of comparison, the historical segment financial information included in this annual report presents Concar in the Infrastructure segment. This change does not impact our consolidated financial results. For more information, see note 7 to our audited annual consolidated financial statements included in this annual report.

 

13


Table of Contents

1. Engineering & Construction

 

     For the year ended December 31,  
     2013     2014     2015     2016(1)     2017     2017  
     (in millions of S/.)          

(in millions

of US$)(2)

 

Net profit (loss)(3)

     256.5       193.6       (121.8     (93.4     12.4       3.8  

Financial expense

     318.4       256.9       433.3       560.1       218.1       67.2  

Financial income

     (291.8     (194.5     (314.8     (506.2     (174.7     (53.8

Income tax

     111.2       59.3       55.4       12.8       17.1       5.3  

Depreciation and amortization

     151.2       144.2       168.1       132.8       121.4       37.4  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

EBITDA

     545.5       459.5       220.1       106.1       194.2       59.9  
2. Infrastructure             
2.1 Full Segment             
     For the year ended December 31,  
     2013     2014     2015     2016(1)     2017     2017  
     (in millions of S/.)          

(in millions

of US$)(2)

 

Net profit

     82.4       92.6       112.4       98.3       129.3       39.8  

Financial expense

     117.5       101.6       78.2       101.7       62.6       19.3  

Financial income

     (72.9     (71.2     (55.3     (92.0     (43.1     (13.3

Income tax

     40.0       56.6       46.5       39.9       55.2       17.0  

Depreciation and amortization

     69.7       77.6       90.5       90.0       96.9       29.9  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

EBITDA

     236.7       257.2       272.3       237.8       300.9       92.7  
2.2(a) All Toll Roads             
     For the year ended December 31,  
     2013     2014     2015     2016     2017     2017  
     (in millions of S/.)          

(in millions

of US$)(2)

 

Net profit

     40.4       43.0       53.5       44.9       55.0       16.9  

Financial expense

     22.4       19.0       10.8       14.9       7.7       2.4  

Financial income

     (18.0     (9.5     (14.8     (9.6     (3.5     (1.1

Income tax

     15.0       16.2       18.8       15.5       20.9       6.4  

Depreciation and amortization

     10.0       11.4       10.9       11.1       11.0       3.4  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

EBITDA

     69.8       80.1       79.2       76.8       91.1       28.1  
2.2(b) Norvial             
     For the year ended December 31,  
     2013     2014     2015     2016     2017     2017  
     (in millions of S/.)          

(in millions

of US$)(2)

 

Net profit

     30.1       31.1       40.9       47.3       49.4       15.2  

Financial expense

     13.3       9.7       4.1       4.9       3.4       1.0  

Financial income

     (3.8     (0.4     (0.4     (1.6     (0.9     (0.3

Income tax

     10.2       10.9       13.6       16.3       18.7       5.8  

Depreciation and amortization

     9.8       11.0       10.8       10.9       10.8       3.3  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

EBITDA

     59.6       62.3       68.9       77.7       81.4       25.1  

 

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2.3 Mass Transit

 

     For the year ended December 31,  
     2013     2014     2015     2016     2017     2017  
     (in millions of S/.)          

(in millions

of US$)(2)

 

Net profit (loss)(5)

     (13.1     12.1       18.8       23.9       19.5       6.0  

Financial expense

     60.3       39.8       7.9       20.5       18.4       5.7  

Financial income

     (34.3     (35.3     (4.9     (25.8     (14.0     (4.3

Income tax

     (0.5     10.8       8.1       10.9       9.5       2.9  

Depreciation and amortization

     0.6       0.9       0.1       0.1       0.1       0.0  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

EBITDA

     13.0       28.3       30.0       29.6       33.5       10.3  

2.4 Energy

 

     For the year ended December 31,  
     2013     2014     2015     2016     2017     2017  
     (in millions of S/.)          

(in millions

of US$)(2)

 

Net profit

     45.0       62.7       20.2       12.0       38.1       11.7  

Financial expense

     28.5       30.6       50.3       61.7       34.8       10.7  

Financial income

     (14.3     (19.2     (30.5     (52.0     (23.3     (7.2

Income tax

     20.1       29.8       7.7       5.3       13.2       4.1  

Depreciation and amortization

     53.4       58.1       74.2       72.5       79.4       24.5  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

EBITDA

     132.8       162.0       121.8       99.5       142.1       43.8  

2.5 Concar

 

     For the year ended December 31,  
     2013     2014     2015     2016     2017     2017  
     (in millions of S/.)          

(in millions

of US$)(2)

 

Net profit (loss)

     7.9       (26.5     18.5       14.0       16.9       5.2  

Financial expense

     6.2       12.0       9.1       4.5       1.7       0.5  

Financial income

     (6.3     (7.2     (5.0     (4.6     (2.3     (0.7

Income tax

     4.6       (0.8     11.4       6.7       11.4       3.5  

Depreciation and amortization

     5.6       7.1       5.3       6.4       6.4       2.0  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

EBITDA

     18.0       (15.3     39.3       27.0       34.1       10.5  

3. Real Estate

 

     For the year ended December 31,  
     2013     2014     2015     2016     2017(1)     2017  
     (in millions of S/.)          

(in millions

of US$)(2)

 

Net profit

     59.0       26.5       29.3       77.2       117.7       36.3  

Financial expense

     27.0       30.4       47.7       65.1       36.0       11.1  

Financial income

     (13.2     (15.6     (36.8     (53.5     (17.7     (5.5

Income tax

     21.4       11.5       7.6       27.1       35.9       11.1  

Depreciation and amortization

     3.6       3.8       4.9       5.6       5.3       1.6  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

EBITDA

     97.9       56.5       52.8       121.4       177.3       54.6  

 

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4. Technical Services

4.1 Full Segment

 

     For the year ended December 31,  
     2013     2014     2015     2016     2017     2017  
     (in millions of S/.)          

(in millions

of US$)(2)

 

Net profit (loss)

     32.0       21.4       23.3       (7.0     (28.0     (8.6

Financial expense

     29.0       27.9       22.8       36.8       39.4       12.1  

Financial income

     (13.1     (7.1     (5.1     (19.6     (13.2     (4.1

Income tax

     12.1       6.6       (20.6     1.6       (4.8     (1.5

Depreciation and amortization

     31.6       30.1       14.7       28.0       43.3       13.3  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

EBITDA

     91.6       78.9       35.1       39.8       36.7       11.3  

4.2 CAM

 

     For the year ended December 31,  
     2013     2014     2015     2016     2017     2017  
     (in millions of S/.)          

(in millions

of US$)(2)

 

Net profit

     23.5       15.5       23.3       (3.0     (28.0     (8.6

Financial expense

     16.2       19.6       22.8       28.2       27.8       8.6  

Financial income

     (5.3     (3.4     (5.1     (16.2     (12.1     (3.7

Income tax

     6.2       1.2       (20.6     3.5       (4.6     (1.4

Depreciation and amortization

     16.3       11.5       14.7       19.5       23.3       7.2  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

EBITDA

     56.9       44.4       35.1       31.9       6.5       2.0  

 

(1) For the effects on our results of operations for 2016 resulting from the termination of the GSP gas pipeline concession, see “Item 5.A. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Operating Results—Recent Developments” and notes 5(e) and 16 to our audited annual consolidated financial statements included in this annual report.
(2) Calculated based on an exchange rate of S/3.245 to US$1.00 as of December 31, 2017.
(3) Includes the results of operations of DSD since August 2013, Morelco since January 2015 and Adexus which began consolidating in August 2016. See “Item 5.A. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Operating Results—Factors Affecting Our Results of Operations—Acquisitions.” Additionally includes the results of Stracon, although we sold our interest in Stracon on April 11, 2018.
(4) Our E&C segment EBITDA includes S/.42.0 million, S/.48.2 million, S/.2.2 million, S/.15.8 million and S/.30.6 million in 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017, respectively, which represents GyM’s 39.0% equity interest in Viva GyM’s net profit.
(5) In 2013 we generated losses as a result of the limited number of trains we initially operated in the Lima Metro. For more information on our Lima Metro, see “Item 5.A. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Operating Results—Factors Affecting Our Results of Operations—Infrastructure.”

 

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Exchange Rates

The Peruvian sol is freely traded in the exchange market. Current Peruvian regulations on foreign investment allow foreign equity holders of Peruvian companies to receive and repatriate 100% of the cash dividends distributed by these companies. Non-Peruvian equity holders are allowed to purchase foreign currency at free market currency rates through any member of the Peruvian banking system and transfer such foreign currency outside Peru without restriction. Peruvian law in the past, however, has imposed restrictions on the conversion of Peruvian currency and the transfer of funds abroad, and we cannot assure you that Peruvian law will continue to permit such payments, transfers, conversions or remittances without restrictions.

The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, certain information regarding the exchange rates for soles per U.S. dollar, as published by the SBS. The Federal Reserve Bank of New York does not report a noon buying rate for soles.

 

     High      Low      Average      Period end  

2013

     2.820        2.541        2.704        2.796  

2014

     2.990        2.761        2.840        2.989  

2015

     3.413        2.983        3.186        3.413  

2016

     3.537        3.249        3.375        3.360  

2017

     3.392        3.231        3.261        3.241  

December 2017

     3.289        3.231        3.246        3.241  

January 2018

     3.229        3.207        3.215        3.216  

February 2018

     3.269        3.212        3.248        3.260  

March 2018

     3.271        3.217        3.252        3.227  

April 2018

     3.249        3.216        3.231        3.249  

May 2018

     3.291        3.259        3.274        3.273  

June 2018 (through June 26, 2018)

     3.284        3.260        3.271        3.271  

B. Capitalization and Indebtedness

Not applicable.

C. Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds

Not applicable.

D. Risk Factors

Risk Relating to Recent Developments

Our reputation has been adversely affected by our association with Odebrecht’s affiliates in Peru

We have participated in consortia with Odebrecht affiliates in Peru. Our reputation has been adversely affected as a result of the plea agreements and criminal convictions of Odebrecht and certain key persons related to Odebrecht in connection with corruption, money laundering and criminal organization. Peruvian authorities have initiated congressional inquiries and criminal investigations into the dealings of Odebrecht’s affiliates in Peru, the scope of which include certain consortia in which we participated. Moreover, as a result, our company and certain of our former directors and executive officers have been the subject of congressional and criminal investigations related to corruption investigations. These investigations are ongoing.

Our reputation is a key factor in our clients’ evaluation of whether to engage our services, key industry players’ willingness to partner with us, financial institutions’ willingness to provide us credit, and recruiting and retaining talented personnel to our company. The impact on our business reputation related to our association with Odebrecht and the alleged actions of our former board members and executive officers has had, and is likely to continue to have, a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operation.

 

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Investigations regarding potential corruption or other illegal acts could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations

The Lava Jato commission of the Peruvian congress has undertaken congressional inquiries into the company and other construction companies in Peru, which have included certain of the company’s former board members and executive officers.

Peruvian prosecutors have included José Graña Miró Quesada, a shareholder and the former Chairman of the company, in an investigation for the crime of collusion, and Hernando Graña Acuña, a shareholder, a former board member of the company and chairman of our subsidiary GyM, for the crime of money laundering against the Peruvian government, each in connection with the IIRSA South project concession (tranches II and III), in which we participated with Odebrecht. Gonzalo Ferraro Rey, the former Chief Infrastructure Officer of the company, has also been included in an investigation for the crime of money laundering in connection with the same project.

In connection with investigations relating to the IIRSA South project concession (tranches II and III), the Peruvian criminal prosecutor moved to charge the company and our construction subsidiary, GyM, as criminal defendants in connection with the projects. Separately, an Ad Hoc Public Prosecutor appointed by the Peruvian executive branch to investigate matters of corruption (the “Ad Hoc Prosecutor”) moved to directly include the company as a civilly-responsible third party. In response, the Peruvian First National Preparatory Investigation Court (Primer Juzgado de Investigación Preparatoria Nacional) notified us of its decision to formally include the company and GyM in its criminal investigation. We appealed the court’s decision and, on June 22, 2018, the First Court of Appeals of the Superior Court of Lima revoked the judicial order No. 05 dated February 28, 2018 that indicted the company and GyM, among other corporate defendants, in the criminal investigation on charges of collusion and other crimes and rejected the petition, without prejudice, made by the prosecutor to incorporate both companies in the aforementioned process. Nevertheless, we cannot assure you that the criminal prosecutor will not appeal this decision, or file a new claim, against the company and GyM, or that our position will ultimately prevail. Furthermore, a decision from the Peruvian judiciary on whether our company will be included in the investigation proceedings as a civilly responsible third party remains pending, and we cannot assure you that our company will not be included or that our position would ultimately prevail.

The Ad Hoc Prosecutor has also moved to directly include GyM as a civilly-responsible third party in the investigation relating to Tranches 1 and 2 of Line 1 of the Lima Metro. A decision from the Peruvian judiciary regarding these matters remains pending, and we cannot assure you that our subsidiary will not be included or that our position would ultimately prevail.

We cannot assure you that other of our former or current board members and executive officers will not be included in the foregoing proceedings as criminal defendants or civilly-responsible third parties as well, or that the company will not be included in other investigations.

A conviction of corruption or settlements with government authorities could lead to criminal and civil fines as well as penalties, sanctions, injunctions against future conduct, profit disgorgement, disqualifications from directly and indirectly engaging in certain types of business, the loss of business licenses or permits or other restrictions. Moreover, our alleged involvement in corruption investigations, and any findings of wrongdoing in such investigations, could further damage our reputation and have a material adverse impact on our ability to compete for business. Such investigations may also adversely affect our ability to pursue strategic projects, and could potentially result in the termination or modification of certain existing contracts or relationships. In addition, such investigations may affect the company’s ability to secure financing in the future. Furthermore, investigations could continue to divert management’s attention and resources from other issues facing our business.

There is substantial uncertainty with regard to the amount, timing and manner in which the payment for the termination of the GSP gas pipeline concession will be paid

There is substantial uncertainty with regards to the payment contemplated under the GSP gas pipeline concession contract as a result of the termination of the gas pipeline concession, including with respect to the amount, timing and manner in which the payment will be made or if it will be made at all.

 

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Although the concession contract provides that payment must be made within one year of termination, the Peruvian Ministry of Energy and Mines has not made payment or, to our knowledge, initiated the payment process or the auction process for a new concessionaire. As a result, we may be forced to assert our rights against the Peruvian government in judicial or arbitration proceedings, which may place us in an adversarial position with the Peruvian government and/or other GSP shareholders. We cannot assure you that we will pursue any such claims, or that any such claims would ultimately prevail in a timely manner, or at all.

To initiate arbitration against the Peruvian government, we need the approval of all three shareholders of GSP. We have sought such approval on two occasions but have not succeeded. We cannot assure you that we will obtain the consent needed to initiate legal proceedings in the short term.

In 2016, in connection with efforts to restructure or sell Odebrecht’s participation in GSP, due to the corruption scandal surrounding Odebrecht, Odebrecht contractually agreed to subordinate its claims under the concession to other GSP shareholders, Enagás and ourselves. On January 2, 2018, we received a notification that Odebrecht commenced arbitration proceedings against us and Enagás, seeking to invalidate the contractual subordination. While we believe that the subordination arrangement with respect to Odebrecht’s claims in connection with the anticipated payment is enforceable, we cannot assure you that our position will prevail. See “Item 5.A. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Operating Results—Recent Developments.”

In addition, we have made certain estimates in our consolidated financial statements with respect to the expected payment for the termination of the GSP contract. In particular, after taking into account the S/.593.1 million impairment we recognized to our investment in GSP during 2016, we continue to record S/.218.3 million in connection with our investment in GSP as of December 31, 2017. If our assumptions and estimates are incorrect, our actual results could differ significantly from those reflected in our consolidated financial statements. Failure to receive the expected payment on a timely basis, or at all, would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We are in default under certain of our debt instruments and may not reach agreement with our creditors to amend or waive the covenants

We are currently in default under certain of our debt instruments and are initiating the process of renegotiating with our creditors under such instruments. See “Item 13. Defaults, Dividend Arrearages and Delinquencies.” Failure to successfully renegotiate new payment terms could force us to precipitate the sale of assets, including on unfavorable terms, to repay these debt instruments. Moreover, if we are not able to renegotiate the terms of these debt instruments or repay them promptly, our ability to obtain financings, including performance guarantees or similar financings required under many of our business contracts, would be impaired, which may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We may not be able to sell assets on favorable terms or at all

As part of our strategic action plan, our board of directors has approved the sale of certain non-strategic assets, to make payments in respect of debt related to the termination of the GSP gas pipeline concession. We cannot assure you that we will be able to sell assets on favorable terms or at all. If we are not able to sell assets on a timely basis, our ability to address our liquidity needs could be adversely affected and we may breach our payment obligations under our debt related to the termination of the GSP gas pipeline concession.

Conversely, if we sell significant assets, our business and results of operations will be diminished.

 

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A class action civil lawsuit in the United States may adversely affect our company

A securities class action civil lawsuit has been filed against the company and certain of our former directors and former and current executive officers in the United States. The suit is in early stages, and we cannot assure you that our position will prevail. If our position does not prevail, the case may have substantial adverse effects on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We may be unable to access credit that we need to operate our business

Due to uncertainty relating to the investigations of our company, our creditors and other banks operating in the Peruvian market have placed restrictions on our ability, and the ability of other construction companies, to acquire future credit lines or other financings. This may affect our ability to obtain financing for new or existing projects on favorable terms or at all, and also may render us unable to compete for or win new projects.

Changes in key personnel could affect our future business

Our success depends significantly on the services of our senior management, board of directors and other key personnel. On February 27, 2017, our former chairman of the board, our former CEO and board member, and our former board member and the former chairman of our subsidiary GyM resigned from their positions at our company. Effective March 2, 2017, we appointed a new CEO, and on March 31, 2017, our shareholders at the annual shareholders’ meeting appointed a new board of directors, replacing all but two of our existing directors. Moreover, other senior managers have recently left the company.

While most of these officers have already been replaced, the replacement of directors and senior management is likely to have an impact on our business and results of operations. Moreover, we cannot assure you that we will be able to continue to attract and retain senior management, qualified engineers and other key personnel.

INDECOPI and Peruvian prosecutors have initiated investigations in response to a news report alleging that certain construction companies in Peru, Brazil and Spain, including our company, colluded to receive public contracts

In July 2017, media reports alleged that certain construction companies in Peru, Brazil and Spain, including our company, colluded as a “construction club” to receive public contracts. As a result of these reports, the Peruvian National Institute for the Defense of Free Competition and the Protection of Intellectual Property (“INDECOPI”) has initiated an investigation regarding the anti-competitive activities of construction companies in Peru, including our company. In July 2017, INDECOPI conducted a search of our facilities related to these allegations. Separately, a former employee of GyM has been included in a criminal investigation for collusion and other alleged crimes. Neither the company nor GyM have been formally included in these criminal investigations

We cannot assure you that the company or any of its current or former directors or senior management will not be included in these investigations in the future, nor can we predict the outcome of any such investigations, the timing thereof or how they may impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Risks Related to Our Company

Global economic conditions could adversely affect our financial performance

The global financial crisis and ensuing global recession in 2008 and 2009 had a significant adverse effect on the development of large-scale infrastructure and real estate projects worldwide. Subsequently, global economic conditions, including slower growth in China, declines in global commodity, in particular oil and gas prices, the

 

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appreciation of the U.S. dollar against foreign currencies, the withdrawal of investments from emerging markets and continued concerns about the U.S. and European economies, generated economic uncertainty which affected private- and public-sector investments. The United Kingdom voted to exit the European Union on June 23, 2016. As of the date hereof, the actions to be taken by the United Kingdom to effectively exit the European Union and the duration of this process are uncertain. The results of the referendum in the United Kingdom have caused, and are expected to continue to cause, volatility in financial markets, which in turn could have substantial adverse effects on our business, financial condition and results of operations. On November 8, 2016, Mr. Donald J. Trump was elected president of the United States. President Trump has implemented greater restrictions on free trade and limitations on immigration. Changes in social, political, regulatory and economic conditions in the United States or in laws and policies governing foreign trade could create uncertainty in the international markets and could have a negative impact on emerging market economies, including the Peruvian economy, which in turn could have a negative impact on our operations. Future global economic conditions, in particular fluctuations in commodity prices and financings costs, may impact our clients’ investment decisions. Should our clients choose to postpone or suspend new investments or delay or cancel the execution of existing projects as a result of global economic conditions, demand for our products and services, including our backlog, would decline, which may result in a decline in revenues and in under-utilization of our capacity. In addition, our business may be impacted by adverse economic developments even after economic conditions have improved because of the lag time between when investments decisions are made and when the projects are executed. Furthermore, financial difficulties suffered by our clients, joint operation partners, subcontractors or suppliers due to global economic conditions could result in payment delays or defaults, or increase our costs or adversely impact our project execution. Accordingly, a global economic downturn could have a material adverse effect on our financial performance.

We face significant competition in each of our markets

Each of the markets in which we operate is competitive. We compete on the basis of, among other factors, price, performance, product and service quality, skill and execution capability, client relations, reputation and brand, and health, safety and environmental record. We face significant competition from both local and international players. Some of these competitors may have greater resources than us or specialized expertise in certain sectors. In addition, a portion of our business is derived from open bidding processes which can be highly competitive. Certain of our markets are highly fragmented with a large number of companies competing for market share. Our competitors may be more inclined to take greater or unusual risks or accept terms and conditions in a contract that we might not deem acceptable. Moreover, we cannot assure you that we will not face new competition from industry players entering or expanding their operations in our markets. If we are unable to compete effectively, our ability to continue to grow our business or maintain our market share would be affected. In addition, because one of the factors on which we generally compete is price, increased competition could impact our operating margins. Accordingly, our business and financial performance could be adversely affected by competition in our markets.

A major change in Peruvian government policies could affect our business

Our business is significantly affected by national, regional and municipal government policies and regulations, including with respect to infrastructure concessions or similar contracts to the private sector, public spending in infrastructure investment and government housing subsidies, among others. Any adverse change in government policies with respect to these matters could result in a material adverse effect on our business and financial performance.

Social conflicts may disrupt infrastructure projects

Despite Peru’s ongoing economic growth and stabilization, high levels of poverty and unemployment and social and political tensions continue to be pervasive problems in the country. Peru has, from time to time, experienced social and political turmoil, including riots, nationwide protests, strikes and street demonstrations. In recent years, certain regions experienced strikes and protests related mainly to the environmental impact of mining activities, which resulted in commercial disruptions, including in the departments of Cajamarca and Arequipa. These protests may lead to the suspension of mining projects. Social conflicts may disrupt, delay or suspend infrastructure projects in the future, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial performance.

 

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New projects may require the prior approval of local indigenous communities

In September 2011, Peru enacted Law No. 29,785, regarding the Prior Consultation Right of Local Indigenous Communities, in accordance with the International Labor Organization Convention No. 169 (Ley del Derecho a la Consulta Previa a los Pueblos Indígenas y Originarios, Reconocido en el Convenio 169 de la Organización Internacional del Trabajo). This law establishes a prior non-binding consultation procedure (procedimiento de consulta previa) that the Peruvian government must carry out with local indigenous communities, whose rights may be directly affected by new legislative or administrative measures, including the granting of certain permits or new concessions or similar contracts, such as for mining, energy and oil and gas projects. Local indigenous communities do not have a veto right; and therefore, upon completion of this prior consultation procedure, the Peruvian government retains the discretion to approve or reject the applicable legislative or administrative measure. However, we cannot assure you that these consultation procedures will not negatively influence a decision by Peruvian government to grant us a permit, concession or consent and, therefore, adversely affect new projects and concessions. Accordingly, our business and financial performance may be materially and adversely affected.

Our backlog and our ratio of historical backlog to revenues may not be reliable indicators of future revenues or profit

Our backlog amount is subject to revision over time and our ability to realize revenues from our backlog is subject to a number of uncertainties. Cancellations, scope adjustments or deferrals may occur, from time to time, with respect to contracts reflected in our backlog and could reduce the amount of our backlog and the revenue and profits that we actually earn. For example, the termination of the GSP gas pipeline concession on January 24, 2017 reduced our backlog as of December 31, 2016 by US$855 million, 30.2% of our E&C backlog and 21.4% of our total backlog as of that date. Contracts may also remain in our backlog for an extended period of time and poor performance could also impact our profit from the contracts in our backlog. In addition, our backlog is expressed in U.S. dollars based on period-end exchange rates while a significant portion of our contracts are payable in soles or other local currencies. As a result, any depreciation of local currency would diminish the amount of revenues eventually earned relative to backlog. Moreover, as of December 31, 2017, one client, Ecopetrol, concentrated 23.3% of Morelco’s backlog. For more information, see “Item 5.A. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Operating Results—Recent Developments.” The amount of our backlog is not necessarily indicative of future revenues or profits related to the performance of the related contracts.

Our backlog may decline further. We cannot assure you that we will be able to obtain sufficient contracts in the future in number and magnitude to increase our backlog. Additionally, the amount of new contracts that we obtain can fluctuate significantly from period to period due to factors that are beyond our control.

The ratio of our historical backlog to revenues earned in subsequent years is volatile and substantially affected by a number of factors, some of which are outside our control, including levels of contract scope adjustments and our ability to enter into new contracts (which are substantially influenced by general macroeconomic conditions), delays and cancellations, foreign exchange rate movements and our ability to increase the scale of our operations to expand the amount of work we carry out beyond that previously contracted. Accordingly, historical correlations between backlog and revenues may not recur in future periods.

Our success depends on key personnel

Our success depends, to a significant degree, upon the services of our senior management, board of directors and other key personnel. Members of our management team are not subject to long-term employment agreements or non-competition agreements with us. We cannot assure you that we will be successful in retaining our current senior management or members of our board of directors, nor can we assure you that, in such event, we would be able to find suitable replacements. In addition, the success of our business depends on our ongoing ability to attract, train and retain qualified engineers and other personnel. In recent years, the availability in Peru of qualified personnel who have the necessary expertise and experience has been lower than demand and, therefore, competition for human resources has become intense. We cannot assure that we will be able to hire and retain the number of qualified personnel required to meet the needs of, or to grow, our business. If we are unable to attract, train and retain the qualified personnel that we require at reasonable cost, our business and financial performance could be adversely affected.

 

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Our success depends, to a large extent, on our reputation for the quality, reliability, timely delivery and safety of our products and services

We believe our track record and reputation are key factors in our clients’ evaluation of whether to engage our services and purchase our products, encouraging key industry players to partner with us, and recruiting and retaining talented personnel to our company. Our reputation is based, to a large extent, on the quality, reliability, timeliness and safety of our products and services. If our products do not meet expected standards or we fail to meet our deadlines, our relationship with our clients and partners could suffer, the reputation of our company could be adversely affected, we may not be invited to new bidding processes and our ability to capture new business could be severely diminished.

The nature of our business exposes us to potential liability claims and contract disputes

We may be subject to a variety of legal or administrative proceedings, liability claims or contract disputes. The government, clients and other third parties may present claims against us for injury or damage caused, directly or indirectly, by our operations, for example for alleged failures in our engineering and construction, the operation of our infrastructure concessions (such as our toll roads or the Lima Metro), and real estate developments we sell. Although we have a range of insurance coverage policies and have adopted risk management and risk avoidance programs designed to reduce potential liabilities, a catastrophic event resulting from the services we have performed or products we have provided could result in significant professional or product liability, warranty or other claims against us as well as reputational harm, especially if public safety is impacted. We may in the future be named as a defendant in legal proceedings where our clients or third parties may make a claim for damages or other remedies with respect to our projects or other matters. Any liability not covered by our insurance, or in excess of our insurance limits, could result in a significant loss for us, which may affect our financial performance. Moreover, certain of our clients have executed the performance guarantees that we were required to deliver in connection with their project in order to gain leverage, we believe, in the negotiation of contract disputes with us.

We are susceptible to operational risks that could affect our business and financial performance

Our business is subject to numerous industry-specific operational risks, including natural disasters, adverse weather conditions, operator error or other accidents, mechanical and technical failures, explosions and other events and accidents, many of which are beyond our control. Such occurrences could result in injury or loss of life, severe damage to and destruction of property and equipment, business interruption, pollution and other environmental damage, clean-up responsibilities, regulatory requirements, investigations and penalties, potential liability claims and contractual disputes. In addition, such occurrences could materially impact our reputation. Although we maintain comprehensive insurance covering our assets and operations at levels that our management believes to be adequate, our insurance coverage will not be sufficient in all circumstances or to protect against all hazards. The occurrence of such an operational risk could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial performance.

Deterioration in our safety record could adversely affect our business and financial performance

Our ability to retain existing clients and attract new business is dependent on our ability to safely operate our business. Existing and potential clients consider the safety record of their services providers to be of high importance in their decision to award service contracts. Some of our activities, in particular in our E&C segment, as well as our electricity networks services line of business, can be high risk by their nature. If one or more accidents were to occur at a site, the affected client may terminate or cancel our contract and may be less likely to continue to use our services. Although our track record on safety matters is consistent with industry standards, we cannot assure you that we will not experience accidents in the future, causing our safety record to deteriorate. Accidents may be more likely as we continue to grow, particularly if we are required to hire less experienced employees due to shortages of skilled labor. Moreover, often times we do not perform these activities by ourselves and accidents can happen due to errors committed by partners and subcontractors over whom we have no control. Because many of our clients require us to report our safety metrics to them as part of the bidding process and because a substantial part of our client base is comprised of major companies with high safety standards, a general deterioration in our safety record could have a material adverse impact on our business including our ability to bid for new contracts.

 

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Any safety incidents or deterioration in our safety record could adversely impact our ability to attract and retain qualified employees. In addition, we could also be subject to liability for damages as a result of accidents and could incur penalties or fines for violations of applicable safety laws and regulations.

Increases in the prices of energy, raw materials, equipment or wages could increase our operating costs

Our business requires significant purchases of energy, raw materials and components, including, among others, large quantities of fuel, cement and steel, as well as purchases or leases of equipment. Certain inputs used in our operations are susceptible to significant fluctuations in prices, over which we may have little control. The prices of some of these inputs are affected to a significant extent by the prices of commodities, such as oil and iron. Global oil prices in particular have declined significantly in recent years, although they increased in 2017, and we cannot assure you that oil prices will not continue to increase in the future (although increased oil prices would benefit revenues in our Energy line of business). Substantial increases in the prices of such commodities generally result in increases in our suppliers’ operating costs and, consequently, lead to increases in the prices they charge for their products. Moreover, we do not have long-term contracts for the supply of our key inputs, and, as a result, if prices increase significantly or if we are required to find alternative suppliers, our costs to procure these inputs may increase significantly. In addition, growing demand for labor, especially when coupled with shortages of qualified employees in the countries where we operate, may result in significant wage inflation. To the extent that we are unable to pass along to our clients increases in the prices of our key inputs or increases in the wages that we must pay, our operating margins could be materially adversely impacted.

We may not be able to obtain financing on favorable terms

Our ability to undertake large investments (particularly in our Infrastructure and Real Estate segments) or consummate significant acquisitions will depend on the availability of equity and debt financing. We cannot assure you that we will be able to obtain new financings in the future on favorable terms or at all. Our ability to obtain financings will depend in part upon prevailing conditions in credit and capital markets, which are beyond our control. In 2008 and 2009, global markets suffered turmoil, which significantly constrained the availability of new financings. In addition, our ability to obtain new financing, or refinance existing debt, may at certain times be adversely affected by the cyclicality of our business, particularly our E&C segment, as has occurred in the past. Furthermore, in response to the ensuing global economic recession in 2009, many countries, in particular the United States as well as the countries where we operate, have maintained target interest rates at very low levels. However, more recently, the U.S. Federal Reserve has begun to increase target interest rates in the United States. Emerging markets have been affected by this change in the U.S. monetary policy, resulting in a withdrawal of investments and increased volatility in the value of their currencies. If interest rates rise significantly in the United States, emerging market economies, including Peru, could find it more difficult and expensive to borrow capital and refinance existing debt. Higher interest rates globally or in Peru would in turn impact our costs of funding. If adequate funds are not available, or are not available on favorable terms, we may not be able to make future investments or pursue acquisitions or other opportunities.

We may not be able to recover on claims against clients for payment

If a client fails to pay our invoices on time or defaults in making its payments to us, we could incur significant losses. We occasionally bring claims against clients, principally the government, for delayed payments, additional costs that exceed the contract price or for amounts not included in the original contract price, including change orders. These types of claims can occur due to matters such as owner-caused delays or changes from the initial project scope, and, occasionally, they can be the subject of lengthy proceedings. When these types of events occur and unresolved claims are pending, we may invest significant working capital in projects to cover cost overruns pending the resolution of the relevant claims. Moreover, we have recently encountered difficulties collecting on claims, even following successful arbitration awards, particularly against the government. A failure to promptly recover on these types of claims and change orders could have a material adverse effect on our financial performance.

 

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If we are unable to enter into consortia or other strategic alliances, our ability to compete for new business may be adversely affected

We may join with other companies to form joint operations or other strategic alliances to compete for a specific concession or contract, including with partners that contribute expertise in a specific field. Because a consortium or alliance can often offer stronger combined qualifications than a company on a stand-alone basis, these arrangements can be important to the success of a particular bid. If we are unable to enter into consortia or other strategic alliances, our ability to compete for new business may be adversely affected.

Our consortia and other strategic alliances may be affected by disputes with, or the unsatisfactory performance by, our partners

Although we have a thorough partner selection process, consortia and other strategic alliances that we enter into as part of our business, including arrangements where operating control may be shared with unaffiliated third parties, may involve risks not otherwise present when we operate independently, including: sharing approval rights over major decisions; responsibility for our partners’ unpaid obligations or liabilities; ensuring ethical and compliance behavior; and inconsistencies in our and our partners’ economic or business interests or goals. Any disputes between us and our partners may result in delays, litigation or operational impasses. We may also incur liabilities as a result of action taken by our partners. In addition, if we participate in consortia or other strategic alliances where we are not the controlling party, we may have limited control over operation decisions and actions and the success of the consortium or other strategic alliance will depend largely on the performance of our partners. These risks could adversely affect our ability to transact the business that is the object of such consortium or other strategic alliance, and could result in the termination of the applicable concession or contract. Under these circumstances, we may be required to make additional investments and provide additional services to ensure adequate performance and delivery. These additional obligations could result in reduced profits or, in some cases, increased liabilities or significant losses for us. In addition, failure by a partner to comply with applicable laws or regulations could negatively impact our business and, in the case of government contracts, could result in fines, suspension or even debarment from participating in bidding processes. As a result, our business and financial performance could be adversely affected by disputes involving our consortia or other strategic alliances. We have recently been involved in ongoing disputes, including arbitration proceedings, with our minority partner in Adexus. These disputes could result in disruptions in Adexus’ operations.

We are dependent upon third parties to complete many of our contractual obligations

We rely on third-party suppliers to provide a significant amount of the materials and equipment used in our businesses. A portion of the work performed under our infrastructure concessions and, to a lesser extent, other contracts is performed by third-party subcontractors. As a result, the timely completion and quality of our projects may depend on factors beyond our control, including the quality and timeliness of the delivery of materials supplied for use in the project and the technical skills of subcontractors hired for the project. If we are unable to find qualified suppliers or hire qualified subcontractors, our ability to meet our contractual obligations could be impaired. In addition, if the amount we are required to pay for supplies, equipment or subcontractors exceeds what we have estimated, we may suffer losses under our contract. If a supplier or a subcontractor fails to provide supplies, equipment or services as required under a negotiated arrangement for any reason, or provides supplies, equipment or services that are not of an acceptable quality, we may be required to source those supplies, equipment or services on a delayed basis or at a higher price than anticipated, which could impact our financial performance. In addition, faulty materials or equipment could result in claims against us for failure to meet contractual specifications, and failure by suppliers or subcontractors to comply with applicable laws and regulations could negatively impact our reputation and our business and, in the case of government contracts, could result in fines, suspension or even debarment from participating in bidding processes. These risks may be intensified during economic downturns if these suppliers or subcontractors experience financial difficulties. As a result, our business and financial performance may be adversely affected by our dependence on third-party providers.

 

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Debarment from participating in government bidding processes would have a material adverse effect on our business and financial performance

We would face debarment from participating in government bidding processes for one to three years if we were found to have violated certain provisions of the Peruvian State Contracting Law (Ley de Contrataciones del Estado). We are required to comply with a large number of contractual obligations with the government in our business, and we cannot assure you that we will be in full compliance at all times. Moreover, such a debarment would affect the ability of our entire company (including any of our subsidiaries), and not just the line of business where the alleged violation took place, to participate in government bids under the Peruvian State Contracting Law. In April 2013, Perupetro initiated an administrative proceeding against a subsidiary in our E&C segment, claiming that the subsidiary had submitted a bid to provide engineering services while not being in compliance with certain technical requirements. We lost the administrative proceeding as well as the first and second instances of the judicial proceeding we had initiated to contest such administrative proceeding. We appealed the adverse judgment and are currently in annulment proceedings. Although we believe that the likelihood of an adverse outcome in this proceeding is remote, an adverse outcome would affect that particular subsidiary’s participation in government bidding processes under the Peruvian State Contracting Law. Subsequently, we canceled the road maintenance services contract because the regional government of Cusco did not pay any valuations (January, February and March of 2014) and did not give us access to the entire stretch of the related road. We have initiated an action against the regional government of Cusco for an amount of S/.97.4 million, and the government has filed a counterclaim for S/.403 million. All these proceedings remain pending as of the date of this annual report, and we cannot assure you that our position will prevail.

During 2016 and 2017, 11% and 4.5%, respectively, of our revenues on a consolidated basis was derived from public sector contracts in Peru (excluding public infrastructure concessions). As of December 31, 2017, 12.2% of our backlog is comprised of contracts with the public sector. As a result, if our company is debarred from participating in government bidding processes, our business and financial performance would be materially and adversely affected.

We may not be able to successfully expand outside of Peru

One of our long term strategies has been to continue to expand our operations outside of Peru, particularly in Chile and Colombia, and we expect that our international operations could become a more significant part of our consolidated business in future. We cannot assure you that we will be able to replicate our success in Peru in other countries. Our international expansion is subject to additional challenges, including: our ability to assimilate cultural differences and practices; our limited familiarity with local laws, regulators and contractors; our ability to attract and manage foreign personnel; the absence of a local workforce formed in our corporate values and familiar with our operations; competition in foreign markets, including from industry players with significantly greater local experience and reputation; and other risks specific to these countries. Moreover, we may not be able to make equity investments when needed by our foreign operations, due to restrictions imposed by Law 30737 in our ability to transfer funds abroad. Section II of Law 30737, promulgated in March 2018, imposes certain restrictions on companies that have been consortium partners of groups that have been, or whose officers or representatives have been, convicted of, or have admitted to, corruption, money-laundering or similar crimes. Among other things, the law requires that these companies suspend money transfers abroad.

Many countries in Latin America have suffered significant economic, political and social crises in the past, and these events may occur again in the future. If we are unable to overcome these challenges, we may not be able to successfully expand internationally.

We may not be able to make successful acquisitions

Part of our long-term strategy has been to evaluate strategic acquisition opportunities to expand our operations and geographic footprint, especially in Chile and Colombia. We may not be able to identify appropriate acquisition opportunities, or, if we do, we may overpay for these acquisitions or may not otherwise be able to negotiate terms and conditions that are acceptable to us. We may also face difficulties obtaining financing to pay for acquisitions. In addition, we may not be able to obtain regulatory approvals, including antitrust approvals, required to consummate acquisitions. Furthermore, even if we are able to successfully consummate an acquisition, we may

 

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encounter challenges in integrating the acquired business effectively and profitably into our operations. The integration of an acquisition involves a number of factors that may affect our operations, including diversion of management’s attention, difficulties in retaining personnel and entry into unfamiliar markets. Acquired businesses may not achieve the levels of productivity anticipated or otherwise perform as expected. Acquisitions may bring us into businesses we have not previously conducted and expose us to additional business risks that are different from those we have traditionally experienced, including new geographic, market, operating and financial risks. Moreover, acquisitions involve special risks, including the potential assumption of unanticipated liabilities and contingencies. Even if such liabilities are assumed by the sellers, we may have difficulties enforcing our rights, contractual or otherwise. We cannot assure you that future acquisitions will meet our strategic objectives.

Failure to comply with, or changes in, laws or regulations could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial performance

We operate in highly regulated industries. Our business and financial performance depends on our and our clients’ ability to comply on a timely and efficient basis with extensive national, regional and municipal laws and regulations relating to, among other matters, environmental, health and safety, building and zoning, labor, tax and other matters. The cost of complying with these laws and regulations can be substantial. In addition, compliance with these laws and regulations can cause scheduling delays. Although we believe we are in compliance with all applicable concessions, other similar contracts, laws and regulations in all material respects, we cannot assure you we have been or will be at all times in full compliance. Failure by us or our clients to comply with our concessions, similar contracts or these laws and regulations could result in a range of adverse consequences for our business, including subjecting us to significant fines, civil liabilities and criminal sanctions, requiring us to comply with costly restorative orders, the shutdown of operations, and revocation of permits and termination of concessions or similar contracts. In addition, we cannot assure you that future changes to existing laws and regulations, or stricter interpretation or enforcement of existing laws and regulations, will not impair our ability to comply with such laws and regulations or increase our compliance costs.

We may be held liable for environmental damage caused by our operations

The nature of certain of our operations requires us to assume risks of causing environmental and other damages. We may be held liable for the environmental damage we cause, including the incidental consequences of human exposure to hazardous substances or other environmental damage. We may be subject to clean up costs or penalties in the event of certain discharges into the environment and/or environmental contamination and damage. Our environmental liability insurance may not be sufficient or may not apply to certain types of environmental damage. Any substantial liability for environmental damage could have a material adverse effect on our financial performance.

New environmental regulation as a result of climate change could impact our business and financial performance

Growing concerns about climate change could result in the imposition of additional or more stringent environmental requirements or regulations. For example, there are ongoing international efforts to address greenhouse emissions, such as the Kyoto Protocol or the more recent Paris Agreement, which are in various stages of negotiation and implementation. If more stringent environmental regulation is adopted in the countries where we operate, we may be obliged to incur higher expenditures than anticipated, adversely affecting our financial performance. In addition, future remediation requirements in the event that we are found responsible for environmental damage may be substantial and could impact our financial condition. Moreover, more stringent environmental regulation could increase the costs of projects for our clients or, in some cases, prevent a project from going forward, thereby potentially reducing the demand for our services. Accordingly, new environmental regulation could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial performance.

We may not be able to effectively protect ourselves against financial market risks

Our operations are exposed to financial market risks, such as risks related to exchange rates, commodity prices and, to a lesser extent, interest rates. Fluctuations in currency, commodity prices or interest rates could adversely affect our financial performance. We cannot assure you that derivative financial instruments will protect

 

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us from the adverse effects of financial market risks. While hedging transactions are intended to reduce market risks, such transactions may expose us to other risks, such as counterparty risk. We may not be able to adequately protect ourselves against financial market risks and may not ultimately achieve an economic benefit from our hedging strategy.

The loss of a key client in some of our lines of business may affect our business and financial performance

In some of our lines of business, such as our Infrastructure and Technical Services segments, a substantial amount of the revenue we receive is concentrated among a limited number of clients, including the Peruvian government. If one or more of these major clients fail or delay in paying our fees, or if there is a significant reduction or cancellation of business by one or more of these major clients, our business and financial performance may be adversely affected. If we are not able to capture new clients to replace the loss of business from existing key clients, our financial performance may be adversely affected.

Our use of the percentage-of-completion method of accounting for our Engineering and Construction segment could result in a reduction of previously recorded profits

In accordance with IFRS, we measure and recognize a large portion of our revenues under the percentage-of-completion accounting methodology. This methodology allows us to recognize revenues ratably over the life of a contract, without regard to the timing of receipt of cash payments, by comparing the amount of the costs incurred to date against the total amount of costs expected to be incurred. The effect of revisions to estimated costs, and thus revenues, is recorded when the amounts are known and can be reasonably estimated. These revisions can occur at any time and could be material. On a historical basis, we believe that we have made reasonably reliable estimates of the progress towards completion on our long-term contracts. However, given the uncertainties associated with these types of contracts and inherent in the nature of some of the industries in which we operate, it is possible for actual costs to vary from estimates previously made, which may result in reductions or reversals of previously recorded profits.

Labor unrest could adversely affect our financial performance

All of our manual laborers and a portion of our employees are members of labor unions. Our practice is generally to extend benefits we offer our unionized employees to non-unionized employees. In our E&C segment, collective bargaining agreements are negotiated at two levels, on an annual basis between the Peruvian National Federation of Civil Construction and the Peruvian Chamber of Construction, without our direct involvement, and on a per project basis directly between the unions and us in accordance with such annual agreement. We also have collective agreements with our employees in certain of our business segments, which are also negotiated periodically. Although we consider that our relationship with unions is currently positive, we cannot assure you that we will not experience work slowdowns, work stoppages, strikes or other labor disputes in the future, which could result in the interruption or delay of our operations. Such interruptions or delays could have an adverse impact on our business, including on the cost of our projects and our ability to make timely delivery. Moreover, our operations may also be affected by labor unrest in our clients’ or our partners’ workforce.

The proceeds from our insurance policies may not be sufficient and we may not be insured against all risks

We maintain insurance coverage both as a corporate risk management strategy and in order to satisfy the requirements under certain regulations and contracts. We cannot assure you that proceeds from our insurance policies, however, will be sufficient to cover the damages resulting from any event covered by such policies. Certain risks are not covered under the terms of our insurance policies, such as interruption of operations. In such event, we may incur significant expenses to rebuild our facilities, repair or replace our equipment, or cover other damages. In addition, if any of our third-party insurers fail, abruptly cancel our coverage or otherwise cannot satisfy their insurance requirements to us, then our overall risk exposure and operational expenses could be increased. Moreover, we may not be able to renew our insurance policies on favorable terms, or at all. Although in the past we have been generally able to cover our insurance needs, we cannot assure you that we will be able to secure all necessary insurance in the future.

 

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An increase in import duties and controls may have a material adverse effect on our financial performance

Our future success depends in part on our ability to select and purchase high quality mechanical instruments and equipment at attractive prices. While we have historically been able to do so, such instruments and equipment may become subject to higher import taxes than currently apply. We cannot assure you that there will not be further increases in import taxes, changes in laws related to imports or the imposition of quotas by countries from which we import mechanical instruments and equipment, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.

The government may declare the nullity of public bidding processes after we have been awarded a project or concession

Even if we win the public bidding for a project or concession, the government may subsequently declare the process void for political, budgetary or other reasons and may cancel or terminate the project or concession awarded to us. For example, in June 2014, we were determined the winner of a public bidding for a concession to operate the fare collection system of Lima’s integrated transportation system for a period of 16 years. However, in January 2015, the Municipality of Lima notified us that the board of directors of the Instituto Metropolitano Protransporte de Lima – Protransporte had declared the nullity of the public bidding process, based on a report issued by the Peruvian Ministry of Economy and Finance, which concluded that the Ministry should have pronounced itself with respect to the concession prior to the bidding process instead of afterwards. We initiated a judicial proceeding in July 2015 to challenge such declaration of nullity, which proceedings remain ongoing. If upheld by the courts, the declaration of nullity of projects or concessions awarded to us could affect our future results of operations. Moreover, the uncertainty that results from these type of decisions may adversely impact investor confidence in Peru and our business.

Additional Risks Related to our Engineering and Construction Business

We are vulnerable to the cyclical nature of the end-markets we serve

Demand for our engineering and construction services is dependent on conditions in the end-markets we serve, which include, among others, the mining, power, oil and gas, transportation, real estate and other infrastructure sectors in Peru, as well as the mining sector in Chile and the energy sector in Colombia. Consequently, our engineering and construction business is closely linked to the performance and growth of these sectors, and it is exposed to many of the risks faced by our clients operating in these sectors, over which we have no control. These industries tend to be cyclical in nature and, as a result, although downturns can impact our entire company, our engineering and construction business has historically been subject to periods of very high and low demand. For example, between 2000 and 2003, there was a significant decline in activity in the Peruvian real estate and construction sectors, which consequently affected our and our competitors’ business and financial performance during that time. Factors that can affect these sectors include, among others, macroeconomic conditions, climate conditions, the level of private and public investment, the availability of credit, changes in laws and regulations, and political and social stability. The mining and oil and gas sectors, in particular, are also driven by worldwide demand for the underlying commodities, including, among others, silver, gold, copper, oil and gas, which can be affected by such other factors as global economic conditions and geopolitical affairs. A decline in prices for minerals, oil and gas has had in the past, and could have in the future, a significant impact on our clients’ exploration and production activities and, as a result, on their demand for our engineering and construction services. Accordingly, continuing adverse developments in the end-markets served by our engineering and construction business could have a material adverse effect on our financial performance.

Decreases in capital investments by our clients may adversely affect the demand for our services

Our engineering and construction business is directly affected by changes in private-sector and, to a lesser extent, public-sector investments for large-scale infrastructure projects. In addition, our engineering and construction business is directly affected by the availability and cost of financings for these projects. In the markets where we operate, investments and financings for large-scale projects have historically been influenced by macroeconomic and other factors which are beyond our control, including in the case of public-sector investment, government

 

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spending levels. As a result, we cannot assure you that clients will not choose to limit or not undertake new projects or delay, suspend or cancel existing projects. Further reductions in anticipated capital investments or available financing for large-scale projects could have a material adverse effect on our financial performance. Public and private investment in Peru, Colombia and Chile slowed significantly during 2016 and 2017 as a result of market conditions and, in the case of Peru, as a result of corruption investigations and political uncertainty.

Our revenues may fluctuate based on project cycles, which we may not control

The substantial majority of the revenues from our engineering and construction business is generated from project awards, the timing of which may be unpredictable and outside of our control, especially considering the highly competitive bidding processes and complex and lengthy negotiations they involve. These processes can be impacted by a wide variety of outside factors including governmental approvals, financing contingencies and overall market and economic conditions. Moreover, because a significant portion of our revenues is generated from large-scale projects, our results of operations can fluctuate quarterly or yearly depending on whether and when project awards occur and the commencement and progress of work under awarded contracts. As a result, we are subject to the risk that revenues may not be derived from awarded projects as quickly as anticipated.

Our business may be adversely affected if we incorrectly estimate the costs of our projects

We conduct our engineering and construction business under various types of contractual arrangements where costs are estimated in advance. In some of our contracts (i.e., lump-sum, unit price and EPC), we bear the risk of some or all unanticipated cost overruns, including due to inflation or certain unforeseen events. Risks under contracts which could result in cost overruns include: difficulties in performance of our subcontractors, suppliers, or other third parties; changes in laws and regulations or difficulties in obtaining permits or other approvals; unanticipated technical problems; unforeseen increases in the cost of inputs, components, equipment, labor, or the inability to obtain these on a timely basis; delays caused by weather conditions; incorrect assumptions related to productivity or scheduling estimates; and project modifications that create unanticipated costs or delays. These risks tend to be exacerbated for longer term contracts since there is increased risk that the circumstances under which we based our original bid could change. In many of our contracts, we may not be able to obtain compensation for additional work performed or expenses incurred. Our failure to estimate accurately the resources and time required to complete a project could adversely affect our profitability. Even under our cost-plus contracts, our inability to complete projects within the estimated budget could affect our relationship with our clients and negatively impact awards of future contracts. As a result, if we incorrectly estimate the costs of our projects, our business and financial performance could be adversely affected.

We may be unable to deliver our services in a timely manner

The success of our engineering and construction business depends on our ability to meet the standards and schedules required by our clients. Significant delays that prevent us from providing our services on agreed time frames could adversely affect our client relations and reputation. Delays may occur for a number of reasons, including: our inability to adequately foresee the needs of our clients; delays caused by our joint operation partners, subcontractors or suppliers; insufficient production capacity; equipment failure; shortage of qualified workers; changes to customs regulations; and natural disasters. Failure to finish construction by the contractual completion date set forth in the contract could result in costs that reduce our projected profit margins, including a requirement to pay daily penalties and damages. If we are unable to meet deadlines, either due to internal problems or as a result of events over which we have no control, we may lose the trust of our clients and, therefore, experience a decrease in the demand for our services. In such event, our business and financial performance could be adversely affected.

We may not be able to obtain compensation for additional work or expenses incurred as a result of client-requested change orders

Clients often determine, after commencement of the project, to change various elements of the project. Some of our contracts may also require that clients provide us with design or engineering information or with equipment or materials to be used on the project, and, in some cases, the client may provide us with deficient design or engineering information or equipment or materials or may provide the information or equipment or materials to us later than required by the project schedule. Our project contracts generally require the client to compensate us for

 

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additional work or expenses incurred due to client requested change orders or failure of the client to provide us with specified design or engineering information or equipment or materials. Under these circumstances, we generally negotiate with the client with respect to the amount of additional time required to make these changes and the compensation to be paid to us. We are subject to the risk that we are unable to obtain, through negotiation, arbitration, litigation or otherwise, adequate amounts to compensate us for the additional work or expenses incurred by us due to client-requested change orders or failure by the client to timely provide required items. A failure to obtain adequate compensation for these matters could require us to record an adjustment to amounts of revenue and gross profit that were recognized in prior periods. Any such adjustments, if substantial, could have a material adverse effect on our financial performance.

We may have difficulty obtaining performance bonds that we require in the normal course of our operations

In our engineering and construction business, it is industry practice for customers to require performance bonds or other forms of credit enhancement to secure, among other things, bids, advance payments and performance. We cannot assure you that in the future we will not encounter difficulties in obtaining such performance bonds or credit enhancements. The Peruvian market for these types of credit instruments is small; moreover, under Peruvian banking regulations, lenders are required to impose limits on the amount of credit they extend to a group of affiliated companies. Failure to provide performance bonds or credit enhancements on terms required by clients may result in our inability to compete for or win new projects.

Additional Risks Related to our Infrastructure Business

A substantial or extended decline in oil prices may adversely affect our financial performance

A substantial part of the revenues of our infrastructure business depends upon prevailing prices for oil. Historically, oil prices and markets have been volatile and are likely to continue to be volatile in the future. Moreover, global oil prices have declined significantly in recent years, with the average Brent crude prices declining from US$108.64 in 2013, US$99.02 in 2014 and US$52.46 per barrel in 2015 to US$43.55 per barrel in 2016 and US$54.20 per barrel in 2017. During the first quarter of 2018, the average Brent crude price was US$66.82 per barrel. Oil is a commodity and its price is subject to wide fluctuations in response to relatively minor changes in supply and demand for oil, market uncertainty, and a variety of additional factors beyond our control. Those factors include, among others: global demand and supply; political developments in producing regions; weather conditions; governmental regulations; international conflicts and acts of terrorism; the price and availability of alternative sources of energy; and overall local and global economic conditions. Moreover, lower oil prices may not only decrease our revenues on a per unit basis, but may also reduce the amount of oil we can produce economically, if any, and, as such, may have a negative impact on the reserves of the fields in which we operate. As result, our financial performance could be materially and adversely affected by declines in oil prices.

Our reserves estimates depend on many assumptions that may turn out to be inaccurate and are not subject to review by independent reserve auditors

The process of estimating oil and gas reserves is complex, although the fields where we produce oil and gas are mature (Block I has been in production for over 100 years, Block III for approximately 100 years, Block IV for approximately 95 years and Block V for over 50 years). In order to prepare our reserves estimates presented in this annual report, we must project production rates and timing of development expenditures as well as analyze available geological, geophysical, production and engineering data, and the extent, quality and reliability of this data can vary. The process also requires economic assumptions about matters such as oil prices, drilling and operating expenses, capital expenditures, taxes, and availability of funds. Therefore, estimates of reserves are inherently imprecise. Moreover, our reserve estimates included in this annual report have been prepared internally by our team of engineers, and have not been audited or reviewed by independent engineers. Future real production, oil and gas prices, revenues, taxes, development expenditures, operating expenses and quantities of recoverable reserves will most likely vary from the estimates presented in this annual report, and those variances may be material. Any significant variance could materially affect the estimated reserves of the fields in which we operate.

 

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Our return on our investment in our concessions may not meet estimated returns

Our return on any investment in a concession is based on the terms and conditions of the concession, its duration and the amount of capital invested as well as the amount of revenues collected, debt service costs, payment of penalties and other factors. For example, traffic volume at toll roads may be affected by a number of factors beyond our control, including security conditions; general economic conditions; demographic changes; fuel prices; reduction in commercial or industrial activities in the regions served by the roads; and natural disasters. Decreased traffic at Norvial could adversely affect our financial performance. Although some of our concessions allow for adjustments based on economic conditions, certain concessions provide that adjustment requests be approved only if certain limited events specified in our concession contracts have occurred. If a request of adjustment is not granted, our financial performance could be affected. Given these factors and the possibility that governmental authorities could implement policies that affect our contractual return on investment in a way that we did not anticipate, we cannot assure you that our return on any investment under any concession will meet our estimates.

Governmental entities may terminate prematurely our concessions and similar contracts under various circumstances, some of which are beyond our control

Our ability to continue operating our concessions and similar public-sector contracts depends on governmental authorities, which may terminate the concession or contract pursuant to the provisions set forth therein or in accordance with applicable legislation, including the failure to comply with any contractual terms (including the concessionaire’s default on debt) or applicable law. Moreover, the relevant governmental authority may terminate and/or repossess a concession at any time, if, in accordance with applicable law, the governmental authority determines that it is in the public interest to do so. The relevant governmental authority may also assume the operation of a concession in certain emergency situations, such as war, public disturbance or threat to national security. In addition, in the case of force majeure, the relevant governmental authority may require us to implement certain changes to our operations. If the government terminates any of our concessions, under Peruvian law, it is generally required to compensate us for the amount of our unrecovered investment, unless the concession is revoked pursuant to applicable law or the terms of the concession which would imply a serious breach of the concession’s terms by us. Such compensation process is likely to be time consuming and the amount paid to us may not fully compensate us. We cannot assure you that we would receive such compensation on a timely basis or in an amount equivalent to the value of our investment in a concession plus lost profits.

We are exposed to risks related to the operation and maintenance of our concessions and similar contracts

The operation and maintenance requirements under our concessions could encounter delays or cause us to exceed our budgeted costs for such projects, which could limit our ability to realize the expected return on these projects, increase our operating or capital expenses and adversely affect our business and financial performance. In addition, our operations may be adversely affected by interruptions or failures in the technology and infrastructure systems that we use to support our operations, including toll road collection and traffic measurement systems. The Lima Metro in particular may be susceptible to outages due to power loss, telecommunications failures and similar events. The failure of any of our technology systems may cause disruptions in our operations, adversely affecting our profitability. While we have business continuity plans in place to reduce the adverse impact of information technology system failures on our operations, we cannot assure you that these plans will be effective. Furthermore, accidents and natural disasters may also disrupt the construction, operation or maintenance of our projects and concessions, which could adversely affect our business and financial performance.

We may not be successful in obtaining new concessions

The market for infrastructure concessions in Peru is competitive. We compete with Peruvian and foreign companies for infrastructure concessions in Peru, some of whom may have greater financial and other resources or particular expertise pertinent to a specific concession. Additionally, our public-sector clients may face budget deficits that may prohibit the development of infrastructure concessions, which could affect our business. We may also not be able to obtain additional concessions if the government decides not to award new concessions, due to budget constraints or policy changes or because alternative financing mechanisms are used. Recently, the awarding of concessions and the use of public-private associations in Peru have stalled, due in part to concerns related to the corruption scandal surrounding Odebrecht and its potential effect on government officials in the country. Our inability to bid for or obtain new concessions may adversely affect our business and financial performance.

 

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Our contract with Petroperú S.A. (“Petroperú”) for fuel storage at the South terminal is currently scheduled to expire in August 2018. However, on June 6, 2018, the concessionaire, Consorcio Terminales, received a letter from Petroperú to initiate negotiations to extend the contract up to one more year. Moreover, we cannot assure you whether or when we will undertake any of the projects that have been awarded to us but for which contract negotiations are ongoing or stalled, in particular the concessions for Via Expresa Sur and Via Expresa Javier Prado.

Additional Risks Related to our Real Estate Business

We are exposed to risks associated with the development of real estate

Our real estate business is subject to the risks that generally affect the real estate industry, such as availability and prices of suitable land, environmental and zoning regulations, interruptions in supply and volatility of the prices of construction materials and equipment, and changes in the demand for real estate. Our real estate business is specifically affected by the following risks: macroeconomic conditions in Peru that may impact the growth of the real estate sector as a whole, particularly in the residential market, including an increase in unemployment or a decrease in wage levels; an increase in prevailing interest rates or lack of available credit; changes in government subsidies for affordable housing; unfavorable real estate market conditions, such as an oversupply of residential units or scarcity of suitable land in particular areas; the level of customer interest in our new projects or the sales price per unit necessary to sell the unit may be lower than expected; customer perception of the security, convenience and attractiveness of our projects and the areas in which they are located; cost overruns, many of which may be beyond our control, that exceed our estimates and affect our profit margins, including the price of labor, land, insurance, taxes and public charges; the construction and sale of units may not be completed on schedule; bankruptcy or significant financial difficulties of large industry players, which cause a loss of confidence in the industry; limitations when contracting with government entities; and restrictions on real estate development imposed by local, regional and national authorities which often render restrictive or higher bureaucratic laws and regulations. Recently, real estate sales have slowed due to modifications by the government to a program (Bono de Buen Pagador) that encourages social interest housing sales as well as access to credit. The occurrence or continuation of any of the above events may have a material adverse effect on our business and financial performance.

Real estate prices may not continue to rise and may decline

Real estate prices in Peru have risen significantly over the last decade. We cannot assure you that this increase in real estate prices does not represent a bubble. Real estate prices in Peru may not continue to rise or may decline significantly, particularly if financing costs rise or consumer confidence in the real estate market erodes. If real estate prices decline significantly, our business and financial performance could be materially and adversely affected.

Our business may be adversely affected if we are not able to obtain the necessary licenses and/or authorizations for our developments in due time

Real estate development requires obtaining certain licenses, authorizations and registrations. In Peru, municipal authorities are responsible for issuing most of the licenses that are required during the development stage, including zoning, demolition, construction and conformity (conformidad de obra) licenses, among others. Currently, we have approximately 22 real estate projects in various stages of development. For some of these projects, we have not yet initiated administrative proceedings with the appropriate authorities, or such proceedings are pending approval. A denial or an extended delay in issuing licenses, authorizations or registrations, or an extended delay by municipal authorities in approving licensing procedures, may render land unsuitable for development, delay the completion of planned projects, increase our costs or otherwise negatively impact the pricing of projects and adversely affect our business and financial performance.

 

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The scarcity of financing, an increase in interest rates or an increase in the security required by financial institutions as collateral may adversely affect the ability or willingness of prospective buyers to purchase our real estate properties. In most cases, the purchasers of our residential or commercial properties finance at least part of the purchase price with mortgage loans. In 2016 and 2017, approximately 95% and 88%, respectively, of our residential units were sold to purchasers who received government subsidies to finance the purchase of homes. An increase in interest rates, whether as a result of market conditions or government action or otherwise, may cause a decrease in the demand for our residential and commercial properties and for land development. An increase in interest rates could also increase our own financing costs, which may, in turn, increase the sale price of our projects and adversely affect our business and financial performance.

We may experience difficulties in finding desirable land and increases in the price of land may increase our cost of sales and decrease our earnings

The continued growth of our real estate business depends in large part on our ability to continue to acquire land at a reasonable cost. As more developers enter or expand their operations in the Peruvian real estate sector, land prices could rise significantly and suitable land could become scarce or overpriced due to increased demand or decreased supply. A resulting rise in land prices may increase our cost of sales and decrease our earnings. We may not be able to acquire suitable land at reasonable prices in the future, which may have a negative impact on our financial performance.

Changing market conditions may adversely affect our ability to sell home inventories in our land and at expected prices

There is a lag between the time we acquire land and the time that we can bring the developed properties to market. Lag time varies by sector and on a project-by-project basis. As a result, we face the risk that demand for real estate may decline or that other developments may occur during this period that affect market conditions, and that we will not be able to dispose of developed properties or undeveloped land at expected prices or profit margins or within anticipated time frames or at all. Significant expenditures associated with investments in real estate, such as maintenance costs, architectural fees in high-end projects, construction costs and debt payments, cannot generally be reduced if changes in market conditions cause a decrease in expected revenues from our properties. Moreover, the market value of home inventories and undeveloped land can fluctuate significantly because of changing market conditions. As a result of these and other factors beyond our control, we may be forced to sell properties or land at a loss or for prices that generate lower profit margins than we anticipate.

Determinations by INDECOPI may adversely affect our ability to enforce binding contracts

In resolving consumer protection complaints in the real estate and insurance sectors, INDECOPI has made determinations against real estate developers resulting in the modification of contractual provisions applicable to purchasers. Some purchasers of real estate properties have taken advantage of these INDECOPI determinations and filed complaints against developers before INDECOPI and/or made public claims through the media seeking to obtain compensation for alleged deficiencies in housing construction as well as the modification of the terms of their contracts, which may have a negative impact on our real estate business. Although we have a small number of such complaints in INDECOPI, an increase in consumer complaints and consumer protective measures, particularly those resulting in the modification of contractual terms, may affect our ability to enforce our contracts under their original terms if we are not able to counter such claims, which in turn may have a negative impact on our real estate business.

Additional Risks Related to our Technical Services Business

Our engagements with clients may not be profitable or may be terminated or not renewed

The pricing and other terms of many of our client contracts in our technical services business necessarily require us to make estimates and assumptions at the time we enter into these contracts that could differ from actual results. These estimates reflect our best judgments regarding the nature of the engagement and our expected costs to provide the contracted services. Because of the competitive nature of the markets in which we operate, particularly

 

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in IT services, the risks related to errors in these estimates are heightened. Any increased or unexpected costs of unanticipated delays or complications in connection with the performance of these engagements, including delays caused by factors outside our control, could make these contracts less profitable or not profitable, which would have an adverse effect on our profit margin. Our exposure to this risk increases generally in proportion to the scope of services provided under a contract.

In addition, the success of our technical services business is dependent on our ability to retain our clients. In our electricity networks services line of business in particular, Enel, which acquired Enersis (from whom we acquired control of the business in 2011) remains a key client; however, we cannot assure you that they will continue to use our services in the future. Also, in our IT services business in particular, we may lose clients due to their conversion to in-house service providers. We are also vulnerable to reduced volumes from our clients due to business downturns or for other reasons, which can reduce the scope and price of services we provide. A contract termination by a major client could cause us to experience a higher than expected number of unassigned employees, which would affect our profitability until we are able to reduce or reallocate our personnel. We may not be able to replace any client that elects to terminate or not renew its contract with us, and the termination or non-renewal of a significant number of our agreements, or of our most important contracts, may adversely affect our business and financial performance. In addition, non-compliance on a contract with a public-sector client may lead to debarment from participating in government bidding processes and, consequently, inability to contract with other public-sector clients, not just for the line of business where the alleged violation took place, but also for all of our other businesses.

We may not be successful in obtaining new government contracts

We compete to provide services to the Peruvian government, and some of our competitors may have greater financial and other resources or particular expertise pertinent to a specific contract. In addition, we may not be able to obtain additional government contracts for the provision of IT and electrical networks services, due to budget constraints, policy changes or otherwise. Our inability to obtain new government contracts may adversely affect our business and financial performance.

We face risks related to the delivery of products and services by our suppliers

In the course of our IT services and electricity networks services, we depend on technology providers that may commit errors or omissions related to the delivery or the quality of equipment, services or products that are essential to our business. A significant error or failure to deliver such equipment, products or services made by one of our suppliers, particularly in our IT services business where we may have an exclusive arrangement with a specific supplier for a client, may adversely affect our business and financial performance.

Our IT security measures may be breached or compromised and we may sustain system outages

We rely on encryption, authentication technology and firewalls to provide security for confidential information, including personal data, transmitted to and by us over the internet. A breach of our network security measures could result in the misappropriation of proprietary or personal information or cause interruptions in our IT services or operations, could damage our reputation and harm our ability to deliver services to our clients. This may result in client dissatisfaction and a loss of business. Our security measures may be inadequate to prevent security breaches, and we may be required to expand significant capital and other resources to protect against the threat of security breaches and to alleviate problems caused by breaches as well as by any unplanned unavailability of our IT systems caused by other reasons, which may adversely affect our business and financial performance.

Our services may infringe upon the intellectual property rights of others

Our IT services, or third-party products we offer our clients, may infringe the intellectual property rights of third parties, and we may have infringement claims asserted against us. These claims may harm our reputation, increase our costs and prevent us from offering certain services or products. Any claims or litigation relating to intellectual property, even if ultimately decided in our favor, could be time-consuming and costly, injure our reputation or require us to enter into royalty or licensing arrangements. Any limitation on our ability to provide a service or product could result in our loss of revenue-generating opportunities and require us to incur additional expenses to develop new or modified solutions for future projects, which may adversely affect our business and financial performance.

 

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Risks Relating to Peru

Economic, social and political developments in Peru could adversely affect our business and financial performance

The substantial majority of our operations are conducted in Peru and depend on economic and political developments in the country. As a result, our business may be materially and adversely affected by economic downturns, currency depreciation, inflation, interest rate fluctuation, government policies, regulation, taxation, social instability, political unrest, terrorism and other developments in or affecting the country, over which we have no control. In the past, Peru has experienced periods of severe economic recession, large currency devaluation and high inflation. We cannot assure you that Peru will not experience similar adverse economic developments in the future. In addition, Peru has experienced periods of political instability that has included a succession of regimes with differing economic policies and programs. Previous governments have imposed controls on prices, exchange rates, local and foreign investments and international trade, restricted the ability of companies to dismiss employees, expropriated private-sector assets and prohibited the remittance of profits to foreign investors. We cannot assure you that the Peruvian government will continue to pursue open-market policies that stimulate economic growth and social stability.

Moreover, investigations against former or current government officials relating to bribery payments made by Odebrecht have, and may continue to, result in political uncertainty in Peru. On March 22, 2018, President Pedro Pablo Kuczynski presented his resignation, due to allegations of corruption for vote-buying in connection with the impeachment proceeding against him. On March 23, 2018, the Congress accepted his resignation and his first vice president, Martín Vizcarra, was sworn in as acting president. We cannot assure you whether President Vizcarra will remain in office for the remainder of the presidential term, which ends in July 2021. If President Vizcarra and the current second vice president both resign, the president of the Congress would become acting president and the Congress would call for new elections.

A separate criminal investigation and extradition order has been initiated against former President Alejandro Toledo. Investigations have also been initiated against former Presidents Ollanta Humala, Alan García and Pedro Pablo Kuczynski.

Several corruption scandals regarding authorities at municipal, regional and national ministry-levels are also ongoing, and former and current government officials have been detained. These corruption investigations have resulted in lower investments in large projects.

The political instability caused by these events could affect macroeconomic conditions in the country, including currency volatility, as well as have a negative effect on our business.

Fluctuations in the value of the sol could adversely affect financial performance

Fluctuations in the value of the sol relative to the U.S. dollar could adversely affect Peru’s economy. In addition, fluctuations in the value of the sol to the U.S. dollar can materially adversely affect our results of operations. In 2017, 39.3% and 43.8% of our revenues were denominated in soles and U.S. dollars, respectively, whereas 63.9% and 18.3% of our costs of sales were denominated in soles and U.S. dollars, respectively. In the past the exchange rate between the sol and the U.S. dollar has fluctuated significantly. We cannot assure you that the value of sol against other currencies will not fluctuate significantly in the future, which could adversely affect the Peruvian economy and our business, financial condition and results of operations.

In addition, although Peruvian law currently imposes no restrictions on the ability to convert soles to foreign currency and transfer foreign currency outside of the country, in the 1980s and early 1990s, Peru imposed exchange controls, including controls affecting the remittance of dividends to foreign investors. We cannot assure you that exchange controls in Peru will not be implemented in the future. The imposition of exchange controls could have an adverse effect on the economy and on your ability to receive dividends from us as a holder of ADSs.

 

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Inflation could adversely affect our financial performance

In the past, Peru has suffered through periods of hyperinflation, which have materially undermined the Peruvian economy and the government’s ability to create conditions that support economic growth. A return to a high inflation environment would also undermine Peru’s foreign competitiveness, with negative effects on the level of economic activity and employment.

As a result of reforms initiated in the 1990s, Peruvian inflation decreased significantly from four-digit inflation during the 1980s. The Peruvian economy experienced annual inflation of 2.9% in 2013, 3.2% in 2014, 4.4% in 2015, 3.2% in 2016 and 1.4% in 2017, as measured by the Peruvian Consumer Price Index (Índice de Precios al Consumidor del Perú).

If Peru experiences substantial inflation in the future, our costs of sales and administrative expenses could increase which could affect our operating margins. Inflationary pressures may lead to governmental intervention in the economy, including the introduction of government policies that may adversely affect the overall performance of the Peruvian economy. For example, in response to increased inflation, the Peruvian Central Bank, which sets the Peruvian basic interest rate, may increase or decrease the basic interest rate in an attempt to control inflation or foster economic growth.

Changes in tax laws may increase our tax burden and, as a result, negatively affect our financial performance

The Peruvian congress and government regularly implement changes to tax laws that may increase our tax burden. These changes may include modifications in our tax rates and, on occasions, the enactment of temporary taxes that in some cases have become permanent taxes. Tax reforms related to the Peruvian income tax, value added tax and tax code have recently been approved, but we are unable to estimate the impacts that these reforms may have on business. The effects of any tax reforms that could be proposed in the future and any other changes that result from the enactment of additional reforms have not been, and cannot be, quantified. However, any changes to our tax regime may result in increases in our overall costs and/or our overall compliance costs, which could negatively affect our financial performance.

Earthquakes, severe weather and other natural disasters could adversely affect our business and financial performance

Peru is located in an area that experiences seismic activity and occasionally is affected by earthquakes. For example, in 2007, an earthquake with a magnitude of 7.9 on the Richter scale struck the central coast of Peru, severally damaging the region south of Lima. Such conditions may result in physical damage to our properties and equipment, closure of one or more of our project sites and infrastructure concessions, inadequate work forces in our markets and temporary disruptions in the supply of construction materials. In addition, Peru has also experienced adverse climate conditions (due to climate change or otherwise) and adverse weather patterns, such as El Niño, an oceanic and atmospheric phenomenon that causes a warming of temperatures in the Pacific Ocean, resulting in heavy rains off the coast of Peru and potentially flooding. Poor weather conditions can have significant adverse effects on our engineering and construction activities as well as on our operation and maintenance of infrastructure assets business. Any of these factors may materially adversely affect the Peruvian economy and our business and financial performance.

A resurgence of terrorism in Peru could adversely affect the Peruvian economy and, as a result, our business and results of operations

In the past, Peru experienced severe terrorist activity that reached its peak of violence against the government and private sector in the late 1980s and early 1990s. In the mid-1990s, terrorist groups suffered significant defeats, including the arrest of leaders, resulting in considerable limitations in their activities. Despite the suppression of terrorist activity, we cannot assure you that a resurgence of terrorism in Peru will not occur, or if there is such a resurgence, it will not disrupt the economy of Peru and our business.

 

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The Peruvian economy could be affected by adverse economic developments in regional or global markets

Financial and securities markets in Peru are influenced, to varying degrees, by economic and market conditions in regional or global markets. Although economic conditions vary from country to country, investors’ perceptions of events occurring in one country may adversely affect cash flows and securities from issuers in other countries, including Peru. For example, the Peruvian economy was adversely affected by the political and economic events that occurred in several emerging economies in the 1990s, including in Mexico in 1994, the Asian crisis in 1997, the economic crisis in Russia in 1998, the Brazilian currency devaluation in 1999 and the Argentine crisis in 2001, which affected the market value of securities issued by companies from markets throughout Latin America. In addition, Peru’s economy continues to be affected by events in the economies of its major regional partners and in developed economies that are trading partners or that affect the global economy. The 2008-2009 global economic recession, principally driven by the subprime mortgage market in the United States, substantially affected the international financial system, including Peru’s securities market and economy. More recently, global economic conditions, including slower growth in China, low global commodity prices, in particular oil and gas prices, and the appreciation of the U.S. dollar against foreign currencies generated economic uncertainty which may reduce the confidence of foreign investors, causing volatility in the securities markets and affecting the ability of companies to obtain financing globally. The United Kingdom voted to exit the European Union on June 23, 2016. As of the date hereof, the actions to be taken by the United Kingdom to effectively exit the European Union and the duration of this process are uncertain. The results of the referendum in the United Kingdom have caused, and are expected to continue to cause, volatility in financial markets, which in turn could have substantial adverse effects on our business, financial condition and results of operations. On November 8, 2016, Mr. Donald J. Trump was elected president of the United States. President Trump has implemented restrictions on free trade and limitations on immigration. Changes in social, political, regulatory and economic conditions in the United States or in laws and policies governing foreign trade could create uncertainty in the international markets and could have a negative impact on emerging market economies, including the Peruvian economy, which in turn could have a negative impact on our operations. The worsening of current global conditions or a new economic or financial crisis could affect Peru’s economy, and, consequently, materially adversely affect our business and financial performance.

Risks relating to Chile, Colombia and other Latin American Countries

We face risks relating to our operations outside of Peru

Latin American economic, political and social conditions may adversely affect our business. Our financial performance may be significantly affected not only by general economic, political and social conditions in Peru but also in other markets where we operate or intend to operate, including Chile and Colombia. During 2016 and 2017, approximately 26.5% and 28.0%, respectively, of our revenues on a consolidated basis derived from operations outside of Peru.

These countries have suffered significant economic, political and social crises in the past, and these events may occur again in the future. We cannot predict whether changes in current administrations will result in changes in governmental policy and whether such changes will affect our business. Instability in the region has been caused by many different factors, including: significant governmental influence over local economies; substantial fluctuations in economic growth; high levels of inflation; changes in currency values; exchange controls or restrictions on expatriation of earnings; high domestic interest rates; wage and price controls; changes in governmental economic or tax policies, including retroactive changes; imposition of trade barriers, including import duties on information technology equipment; electricity rationing; liquidity of domestic capital and lending markets; unexpected changes in regulation; expropriations; and high levels of organized crime, terrorism and social conflicts, as well as overall political, social and economic instability. Moreover, macroeconomic conditions in these countries are highly influenced by global commodity prices, including the price of copper for Chile and the price of oil and gas for Colombia.

 

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Risks Relating to our ADSs

We have identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting, and if we cannot maintain effective internal controls or provide reliable financial and other information in the future, investors may lose confidence in the reliability of our consolidated financial statements, which could result in a decrease in the value of our ADSs

Based on the assessment of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2017, management has concluded that, as of such date, our internal control over financial reporting was not effective at the reasonable assurance level due to control deficiencies that constituted material weaknesses. These material weaknesses consisted of:

 

    Control Environment. The control environment was not always sufficient to ensure adequate monitoring mechanisms were in place to secure that internal controls over financial reporting operated effectively. Personnel also lacked sufficient knowledge, experience and training in these areas. Management found deficiencies in the implementation of our internal control system of financial reporting in accordance with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act throughout all subsidiaries.

 

    Risk Assessment. We identified deficiencies in the controls to address the risks of material misstatements, which contributed to deficiencies in controls with respect to: (i) the review, approval and documentation related to journal entries; (ii) the segregation of duties; (iii) timely accounting for signed contracts to prevent or detect material inaccuracies; (iv) accounting for revenue; and (vi) inventory.

 

    Information and Communication. We identified deficiencies in the controls over information and communication.

 

    Monitoring and Evidential Matter. We identified deficiencies in the monitoring controls related to the design and operational effectiveness of our internal controls.

These material weaknesses resulted in adjustments to the accounting for revenue and accounts receivable and a number of adjustments and reclassifications in other accounts. Additionally, these material weaknesses could result in other misstatements in our financial results and disclosures, which could result in a material misstatement to our annual or interim consolidated financial statements not being prevented or detected. Because of these material weaknesses, management concluded that we did not maintain effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2017, based on criteria in Internal Control-Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the COSO.

For more information, see “Item 15. Controls and Procedures.” A “material weakness” is a deficiency, or combination of deficiencies, in internal controls such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement in financial statements will not be prevented or detected in a timely basis.

We are in the process of implementing measures to address these material weaknesses. We may not be able to remediate these identified material weaknesses. Moreover, we may in the future discover other areas of our internal controls that have material weaknesses or that need improvement, particularly with respect to businesses that we acquire.

Any failure to maintain an effective internal control over financial reporting, or implement required new or improved controls, could harm our operating results or cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations. If we are unable to conclude that we have effective internal control over financial reporting, or if our independent registered public accounting firm is unable to provide us with an unqualified opinion regarding the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting, investors could lose confidence in the reliability of our consolidated financial statements, which could result in a decrease in the value of our ADSs.

 

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The New York Stock Exchange has commenced delisting procedures with respect to our ADSs

On May 17, 2018, the New York Stock Exchange suspended trading of our ADSs on the exchange and commenced proceedings to delist the company due to our delay in filing this annual report. The company has appealed the decision. As a result, our ADSs have traded on the over-the-counter (OTC) market in the United States since May 21, 2018, which is a significantly less liquid market than the New York Stock Exchange.

If our appeal is unsuccessful and the New York Stock Exchange does not resume trading of our ADSs on the exchange and halt the delisting process, our ADSs may not trade on the New York Stock Exchange in the future. In addition, although the company may continue to be subject to reporting and corporate governance requirements applicable under U.S. securities laws and regulations, we would not be subject to the listing requirements under the New York Stock Exchange. If we are not able to resume the trading of our ADSs on the New York Stock Exchange, this could materially impact the market price of our ADSs.

The market price of our ADSs may fluctuate significantly, and you could lose all or part of your investment

Volatility in the market price of our ADSs may prevent you from being able to sell your ADSs at or above the price you paid for them. The market price and liquidity of the market for our ADSs may be significantly affected by numerous factors, some of which are beyond our control and may not be directly related to our operating performance. These factors include, among others: actual or anticipated changes in our results of operations, quarterly fluctuations, or failure to meet expectations of financial market analysts and investors; investor perceptions of our prospects or our industries; operating performance of companies comparable to us and increased competition in our industries; new laws or regulations or new interpretations of laws and regulations applicable to our business; general economic trends in Peru; catastrophic events, such as earthquakes and other natural disasters; and developments and perceptions of risks in Peru and in other countries.

Substantial sales of ADSs or common shares could cause the price of our ADSs or common shares to decrease

Significant shareholders hold a large number of our common shares. These securities are eligible for sale. The market price of our ADSs could decline significantly if we or our significant shareholders sell securities in our company or the market perceives that we or our significant shareholders intend to do so.

We may raise additional capital in the future through the issuance of equity securities, which may result in dilution of the interests of our shareholders

We may need to raise additional capital and may opt for obtaining such capital through the public or private placement of debt securities or securities convertible into our common shares. In the event of a public or private debt financing, or the financing through the issuance of securities convertible into our common shares, such additional funds may be obtained with the exclusion of the preemptive rights of our shareholders, including the investors in our common shares, which may dilute the percentage interests of investors in our common shares.

No shareholder or group of shareholders holds a majority of our common shares

Our former chairman beneficially owns 17.81% of our outstanding share capital. No shareholder or group of shareholders currently owns a majority of our common shares. In addition, there is no shareholders’ agreement among any of our significant shareholders. Accordingly, no shareholder or group of shareholders may on its own determine the outcome of substantially all matters submitted for a vote to our shareholders. In addition, a new investor or group of investors may in the future seek to acquire a significant stake in, or control of, our company, subject to compliance with Peruvian tender offer requirements which require that a tender offer be made to all shareholders upon, among other matters, acquisition of 25%, 50% and 60% of our voting rights. If a new investor or group of investors acquires a significant stake in, or control of, our company, we cannot assure you that such investor or group of investors will not seek to change how our business is managed.

 

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Holders of ADSs may be unable to exercise voting rights with respect to our common shares underlying the ADSs at our shareholders’ meetings

As a holder of ADSs representing common shares being held by the depositary in your name, you may exercise voting rights with respect to the common shares represented by the ADSs only in accordance with the deposit agreement relating to the ADSs. Holders of our common shares will receive notice of shareholders’ meetings through publication of a notice 25 days in advance, in accordance with Peruvian law, in the official gazette in Peru, a Peruvian newspaper of general circulation and the website of the Peruvian Securities Commission, and will be able to exercise their voting rights by either attending the meeting in person or voting by proxy. ADS holders will not receive notice directly from us. Instead, pursuant to the deposit agreement, we will notify the depositary, who will mail to holders of ADSs the notice of the meeting and a statement as to the manner in which voting instructions may be given. To exercise their voting rights, ADS holders must instruct the depositary how to exercise the voting rights for the common shares which underlie their ADSs. Due to these additional procedural steps involving the depositary, the process for exercising voting rights may take longer for ADS holders than for holders of our common shares.

Holders of ADSs also may not receive voting materials in time to instruct the depositary to vote the common shares underlying their ADSs. In addition, the depositary and its agents are not responsible for failing to carry out voting instructions of the holders of ADS or for the manner of carrying out such instructions, unless such failure can be attributed to gross negligence, bad faith or willful misconduct on the part of the depositary or its agents. Accordingly, holders of ADSs may not be able to exercise voting rights, and they will have little, if any, recourse if the underlying common shares are not voted as requested.

Our shareholders’ ability to receive cash dividends may be limited

Our shareholders’ ability to receive cash dividends may be limited by the ability of the depositary to convert cash dividends paid in soles into U.S. dollars. Under the terms of our deposit agreement with the depositary for the ADSs, the depositary will convert any cash dividend or other cash distribution we pay on the common shares underlying the ADSs into U.S. dollars, if it can do so on a reasonable basis and can transfer the U.S. dollars to the United States. If this conversion is not possible or if any government approval is needed and cannot be obtained, the deposit agreement allows the depositary to distribute the foreign currency only to those ADR holders to whom it is possible to do so. If the exchange rate fluctuates significantly during a time when the depositary cannot convert the foreign currency, you may lose some or all of the value of the dividend distribution.

Holders of ADSs may be unable to exercise preemptive or accretion rights with respect to the common shares underlying their ADSs

Under Peruvian corporate law, if we issue new common shares as part of a capital increase, unless otherwise agreed to by holders of 40% of our subscribed voting common shares and, provided that such capital increase does not favor, directly or indirectly, certain shareholders to the detriment of others, our shareholders will generally have the right to subscribe to a proportional number of common shares of the class held by them to maintain their existing ownership percentage, which is known as preemptive rights. In addition, shareholders are entitled to the right to subscribe for the unsubscribed common shares at the end of a preemptive rights offering, on a pro rata basis, which is known as accretion rights. You may not be able to exercise the preemptive or accretion rights relating to common shares underlying your ADSs unless a registration statement under the Securities Act is effective with respect to those rights or an exemption from the registration requirements of the Securities Act is available. We are not obligated to file a registration statement with respect to the common shares relating to these preemptive and accretion rights, and we cannot assure you that we will file any such registration statement. Unless we file a registration statement or an exemption from registration is available, you may receive only the net proceeds from the sale of your preemptive and accretion rights by the depositary or, if the preemptive and accretion rights cannot be sold, they will be allowed to lapse. As a result, U.S. holders of our ADSs may suffer dilution of their interest in our company upon future capital increases.

 

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We are entitled to amend the deposit agreement and to change the rights of ADS holders under the terms of such agreement without the prior consent of the ADS holders

We are entitled to amend the deposit agreement and to change the rights of the ADS holders under the terms of such agreement without the prior consent of the ADS holders. Any change related to an increase in deposits or charges for book-entry securities services or any modification that might hinder the rights of the ADS holders will be effective within 30 days after the ADS holders have received notice of such change or modification and such holders will have no right to any compensation whatsoever.

Peru has different corporate disclosure and accounting standards than those you may be familiar with in the United States

Financial reporting and securities disclosure requirements in Peru differ in certain significant respects from those required in the United States. There are also material differences among IFRS, Peruvian GAAP and U.S. GAAP. Accordingly, the information about us available to you will not be the same as the information available to holders of shares issued by a U.S. company. In addition, the Peruvian Securities Market Law, which governs open or publicly listed companies, such as us, imposes disclosure requirements that are more limited than those in the U.S. in certain important respects. Although Peruvian law imposes restrictions on insider trading and price manipulation, applicable Peruvian laws are different from those in the United States, and the Peruvian securities markets are not as highly regulated and supervised as the U.S. securities markets.

Our status as a foreign private issuer allows us to follow alternate standards to the corporate governance standards of the New York Stock Exchange, which may limit the protections afforded to investors

We are a foreign private issuer within the meaning of the New York Stock Exchange corporate governance standards. Under New York Stock Exchange rules, a foreign private issuer may elect to comply with the practices of its home country and not to comply with certain corporate governance requirements applicable to U.S. companies with securities listed on the exchange. We currently follow certain Peruvian practices concerning corporate governance and intend to continue to do so. Accordingly, holders of our ADSs will not have the same protections afforded to shareholders of companies that are subject to all New York Stock Exchange corporate governance requirements.

For example, the New York Stock Exchange listing standards provide that the board of directors of a U.S. listed company must have a majority of independent directors at the time the company ceases to be a “controlled company.” Under Peruvian corporate governance practices, a Peruvian company is not required to have a majority of independent members on its board of directors. The listing standards for the New York Stock Exchange also require that U.S. listed companies, at the time they cease to be “controlled companies,” have a nominating/corporate governance committee and a compensation committee (in addition to an audit committee). Each of these committees must consist solely of independent directors and must have a written charter that addresses certain matters specified in the listing standards. Under Peruvian law, a Peruvian company may, but is not required to, form special governance committees, which may be composed partially or entirely of non-independent directors. In addition, New York Stock Exchange rules require the independent non-executive directors of U.S. listed companies to meet on a regular basis without management being present. There is no similar requirement under Peruvian law.

The New York Stock Exchange’s listing standards also require U.S. listed companies to adopt and disclose corporate governance guidelines. In July 2002, the Peruvian Securities Commission and a committee comprised of regulatory agencies and associations prepared and published a list of suggested non-mandatory corporate governance guidelines called the “Principles of Good Governance for Peruvian Companies.” Although we have implemented these measures, we are not legally required to comply with the corporate governance guidelines, only disclose whether or not we are in compliance.

 

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Minority shareholders in Peru are not afforded equivalent protections as minority shareholders in other jurisdictions and investors may face difficulties in commencing judicial and arbitration proceedings against our company or the controlling shareholder

Our company is organized and existing under the laws of Peru. Accordingly, investors may face difficulties in serving process on our company, officers and directors or significant shareholders in the United States of certain other jurisdictions, and in enforcing decisions granted by courts located in other jurisdictions against our company, our officers and directors or significant shareholders that are based on securities laws of jurisdictions other than Peru.

In Peru, there are no proceedings to file class action suits or shareholder derivative actions with respect to issues arising between minority shareholders and an issuer, its controlling shareholders or directors and officers. Furthermore, the procedural requirements to file actions by shareholders differ from those of other jurisdictions, such as in the United States. As a result, it may be more difficult for our minority shareholders to enforce their rights against us, our directors, officers or significant shareholders as compared to the shareholders of a U.S. company. The deposit agreement provides that the depositary has no obligation to commence or become involved in any judicial proceedings and any other legal actions relating to the ADSs or the deposit agreement, either on behalf of the ADS holders or on behalf of any other person.

Judgments of Peruvian courts with respect to our common shares will be payable only in soles

If proceedings are brought in the courts of Peru seeking to enforce our obligations in respect of the common shares, we will not be required to discharge our obligations in a currency other than soles. Under Peruvian exchange control limitations, an obligation in Peru to pay amounts denominated in a currency other than soles may be satisfied in Peruvian currency only at the exchange rate, as determined by the Peruvian Central Bank, in effect on the date the judgment is obtained, and such amounts are then adjusted to reflect exchange rate variations through the effective payment date. The then prevailing exchange rate may not afford non-Peruvian investors with full compensation for any claim arising out of or related to our obligations under the ADSs.

If securities or industry analysts publish unfavorable research about our business or if they cease to follow our business, the price and trading volume of the ADSs could decline

The trading market for the ADSs will depend, in part, on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. If one or more of the analysts who covers us downgrades the ADSs or publishes unfavorable research about our business, the price of the ADSs would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts ceases coverage of our company or fails to publish reports on us regularly, demand for the ADSs could decrease, which could cause the price and trading volume of the ADSs to decline.

 

ITEM 4. INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY

A. History and Development of the Company

Graña y Montero has been operating in Peru since 1933 and it is listed on the Lima Stock Exchange since 1997. Set forth below are key highlights in our company’s history:

 

    Graña y Montero traces its origins to its predecessor company GRAMONVEL, founded 84 years ago by, and named after, engineers Alejandro Graña Garland, Carlos Montero Bernales and Carlos Graña Elizalde. We began primarily as a construction company.

 

    We expanded our operations internationally in 1943 with our contract to build a Nestle factory in Venezuela.

 

    In 1948, we began one of our largest projects since our founding—the construction of the city of Talara for the International Petroleum Company, which was completed in 1957.

 

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    In 1949, GRAMONVEL merged with Morris y Montero to form Graña y Montero Contratistas Generales S.A. (now GyM S.A., our construction subsidiary), expanding its service offerings and increasing its capacity to undertake large-scale infrastructure projects.

 

    In 1983, we began a diversification strategy by developing complementary lines of business. In 1984, we founded GMP, our oil and gas subsidiary. In 1985, we partnered with Sonda S.A. (a Chilean IT services company) to form GMD, our IT services subsidiary. Beginning in 1987, we founded our real estate development business, currently Viva GyM.

 

    In 1996, we reorganized our subsidiaries and founded Graña y Montero, which became the principal shareholder of all our subsidiaries. In 1997, we listed our company on the Lima Stock Exchange.

 

    In 1998, the company built Larcomar, a landmark shopping center in Lima that has become a popular tourist destination, which we sold in 2010.

 

    In 2003, 2006 and 2007, we were awarded the concessions for the construction, operation and maintenance of the Norvial, Canchaque and Survial toll roads, respectively.

 

    In 2007, we also developed the first large-scale affordable housing project in Lima, consisting of 3,400 apartment units and located in the district of El Agustino.

 

    In 2011, Graña y Montero acquired 75.0% of CAM, a leading company in the electricity sector based in Chile, and formerly part of the Latin American power generation and distribution company Enersis.

 

    In 2012, we began operating the Lima Metro.

 

    In July 2013, we listed our company on the New York Stock Exchange.

 

    In 2012 and 2013, Graña y Montero acquired 74.0% and 6.4%, respectively, of Ingeniería y Construcción Vial y Vives S.A. (“Vial y Vives”), an engineering and construction company specializing in the Chilean mining sector. In August 2013, we acquired 86.0% of DSD Construcciones y Montajes S.A. (“DSD Construcciones y Montajes”), a Chilean engineering and construction company specialized in providing services to the energy, oil and gas, cellulose and mining sectors in Chile and Latin America. In July 2014, our subsidiary Vial y Vives merged with DSD Construcciones y Montajes to form Vial y Vives-DSD S.A. (“Vial y Vives-DSD”), through our subsidiary GyM Chile SpA, we hold an 86.2% interest in Vial y Vives-DSD. As of the date of this annual report, we hold a 94.5% interest in Vial y Vives-DSD.

 

    In March 2014, we acquired control of Coasin Instalaciones Ltda. (“Coasin”) for an amount of US$2.1 million (S/.7.1 million).

 

    In September 2014, our subsidiary Norvial established its first bond program for a maximum amount of S/.380 million or its equivalent in U.S. dollars. Norvial undertook its first and second issuances under this program for amounts of S/.80 million and S/.285 million, respectively, in July 2015.

 

    In December 2014, our subsidiary GyM S.A. acquired 70% of the share capital of Morelco S.A.S. (“Morelco”), a Colombian engineering and construction company specialized in the oil and gas and other energy sectors.

 

    In April 2015, GMP started operations of its hydrocarbon extraction services in Blocks III and IV for Perupetro, in the provinces of Talara and Paita in northern Peru.

 

    In August 2015, we acquired 44% of Adexus S.A., an information technology firm in Chile, for an approximate value of US$13.8 million (S/.44.1 million). In January 2016, we acquired an additional 8% stake in Adexus for US$2.5 million (S/.8.4 million) and, in August 2016, we increased our interest to 91%. In June 2018, we increased our stake to 100%.

 

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    In July 2016, our subsidiary GyM Ferrovías S.A., subscribed the Addendum N° 4 to the Line one concession contract of the Basic Metro Network of Lima-Mass Electrical Transport System for Lima and Callao, in order to purchase a total of 20 trains and 39 railcars. The total amount of the investment is approximately US$505 million (S/.1,696.8 million).

Graña y Montero, S.A.A. was incorporated in 1996 and is a publicly-held corporation (sociedad anónima abierta) organized under the laws of Peru. Our principal executive office is located at Avenida Paseo de la República 4667, Lima 34, Peru, and our main telephone number is +511-213-6565. Our website address is www.granaymontero.com.pe. Information contained on, or accessible through, our website is not incorporated in this annual report, and you should not consider any such information part of this annual report.

For information on our organizational structure, see “Item 4.C. Information on the Company – Organizational Structure.”

For information on our capital expenditures and divestitures, see “Item 5.B. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects— Liquidity and Capital Resources—Capital Expenditures.”

B. Business Overview

Overview

We are the largest engineering and construction company in Peru as measured by revenues during 2017, and one of the largest publicly-traded engineering and construction company in Latin America as measured by market capitalization as of December 31, 2017, with strong complementary businesses in infrastructure and real estate.

With 85 years of operations, we have a long track record of successfully completing the engineering and construction of many of Peru’s landmark private- and public-sector infrastructure projects, such as the Lima International Airport and the Peru LNG gas liquefaction plant, and we believe we have a track record of operational excellence in our markets. We have developed a highly-experienced management team, a talented pool of more than 2,996 engineers and a skilled work force that share our core corporate values of quality, professionalism, reliability and efficiency. As a company listed on the Lima Stock Exchange since 1997 and the New York Stock Exchange since 2013, we also abide by the highest corporate governance standards in Peru.

Beginning in the mid-1980s, we leveraged our engineering and construction expertise into complementary lines of business, such as the development, ownership, operation and maintenance of infrastructure assets (including the Lima Metro, Peru’s only urban railway system), real estate development, and the provision of technical services primarily to infrastructure-related assets. We believe our business mix creates significant opportunities across our lines of business, generates more stable revenues and earnings on a consolidated basis, and provides additional financial stability to our company.

As a result of our performance in Peru, we have been requested by clients to undertake the engineering and construction of large and complex projects outside our home market, such as the Pueblo Viejo gold mine for Barrick Gold in the Dominican Republic. Through the successful execution of those projects, we have developed operational experience in other Latin American countries. We have further expanded our activities in other key markets of the region through the acquisition of businesses with solid positions in those markets. In February 2011, we acquired a controlling interest in Compañía Americana de Multiservicios (CAM), which is headquartered in Chile and provides technical services to power utility companies in Chile, Peru and Colombia. In October 2012, we acquired a controlling interest in Vial y Vives, an engineering and construction company specializing in the Chilean mining sector, and in August 2013, we acquired a controlling interest in DSD Construcciones y Montajes, a Chilean engineering and construction company specialized in providing services to the energy, oil and gas, cellulose and mining sectors in Chile and Latin America. In December 2014, we acquired a controlling interest in Morelco, an engineering and construction company specialized in the Colombian oil and gas and other energy sectors.

 

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The tables below show our backlog, revenues and EBITDA from 2013 to 2017.

 

BACKLOG(1)   REVENUES(1)   EBITDA(1)

LOGO

 

(1) On June 6, 2017, we sold our 89.19% interest in our former subsidiary, GMD. As a result, we present GMD as a discontinued operation in our audited annual consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2017. We have reclassified our consolidated financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2016 included in this annual report, to show GMD as a discontinued operation for those years as well.

During 2017, we generated revenues of S/.6,080.1 million (US$1,873.7 million), EBITDA of S/.788.7 million (US$243.1 million), and net profit of S/.209.2 million (US$64.5 million) including net profit attributable to controlling interest of S/.148.7 million (US$45.8 million).

Our Strengths

We believe our company’s strengths provide us with significant competitive advantages. Our principal strengths include the following:

Leader in growing markets

We are the largest engineering and construction company in Peru as measured by revenues during 2017, and one of the largest publicly-traded engineering and construction company in Latin America as measured by market capitalization as of December 31, 2017. Peru is undergoing a period of development, with over 4.4% average annual real GDP growth between 2009 and 2017 and significant private and public investments in the mining, power, oil and gas, transportation, real estate and other infrastructure sectors. We have completed some of the most complex and large-scale infrastructure projects in the country, and we believe we are an integral part of Peru’s ongoing transformation with projects that contribute to the overall economic development of the country. We believe our expertise, track record, scale and operational capabilities in Peru position us to take advantage of the country’s favorable economic conditions and growth opportunities. We believe we are also a significant infrastructure concessionaire in Peru and a large apartment building developer in Peru.

Long-standing track record for operational excellence

During our 85-year history, we have focused on the successful and on-time execution of complex projects, through our “deliver before deadline” and “lean construction” initiatives. Our extensive experience has allowed us to gain deep market knowledge and expertise, which help us better serve our clients and manage risks in our contractual arrangements. We believe we have a track record of operational excellence. We believe that our track record of operational excellence are key factors in winning new and repeat business, as well as in partnering with strategic industry players and attracting top talent to our company.

Complementary lines of business which generate more stable cash flows and create additional business opportunities across our segments

We have expanded our company by developing complementary lines of business, many of which have become leaders in their respective markets. These lines of business create significant business opportunities across our segments, enabling us to capture a greater share of infrastructure spending, and also generate cost synergies. One

 

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example is Norvial, a toll-road concession operated within our Infrastructure segment. In addition to managing the concession, we used our E&C segment to design and construct the expansion of the highway and, once constructed, we are now using our Infrastructure segment to operate and maintain the highway. In addition to increasing our levels of consolidated activity, many of these lines of business enable us to achieve more stable cash flows through medium and long-term client service contracts and concessions, which counter in part the cyclicality of the engineering and construction business.

Significant backlog

Our backlog amounted to US$2,388.4 million as of December 31, 2017. We believe that our backlog, which as of December 31, 2017 represented approximately 1.42x of our related 2017 revenues, provides visibility as to our potential for growth in the coming years, although backlog may not always be an accurate indicator of future revenues. See “Item 3.D. Key Information—Risk Factors—Risks Related to our Company—Our backlog and our ratio of historical backlog to revenues may not be reliable indicators of future revenues or profit.” Moreover, we believe our backlog is strategically targeted to our key end-markets such as mining, infrastructure, power, energy and real estate. Approximately 72.7% of our backlog as of December 31, 2017 is comprised of contracts with the private sector. Furthermore, we continuously evaluate bidding on contracts arising from the significant ongoing private and public investments in Latin America.

Proven ability to create and grow businesses organically and through acquisitions

We have proven our ability to extend our engineering and construction capabilities into complementary lines of business in a diverse range of industries, some of which began as innovative start-ups in response to client needs. For example, in 1984, we created a new IT business division, which grew and evolved through the years to become the second largest IT company in Peru (we sold this business in June 2017). Additionally, we also have successfully acquired and integrated new businesses. In February 2011, we acquired a controlling interest in CAM, our electricity services business headquartered in Santiago, Chile, and have integrated its operations and personnel into our company, while improving its operational performance. In October 2012, we acquired Vial y Vives, an engineering and construction company specializing in the Chilean mining sector which complements our leading E&C practice in the mining sector. In August 2013, we acquired a controlling interest in DSD Construcciones y Montajes, a Chilean engineering and construction company whose main focus is electromechanical works and assemblies in construction projects related to oil refineries, pulp and paper, power plants and mining plants. More recently, in December 2014 we acquired a controlling interest in Morelco, an engineering and construction company specialized in the Colombian oil and gas and other energy sectors. We believe that our proven ability to create new businesses, develop businesses organically and acquire and successfully integrate new businesses into our platform is a key competitive advantage to expand our operations in Latin America.

Highly experienced management, talented engineers and skilled workforce, with shared core corporate values

Our senior management team has an average tenure within our company of approximately 20 years. We motivate our management through performance-based compensation, which align their interests with those of our shareholders. In addition, through our efforts to attract, train and retain our workforce, we have built a talented team of employees, including more than 2,996 engineers. We also have access to a network of approximately 156,000 manual laborers throughout Peru that can supplement our workforce when required by our construction pipeline. Thanks to our extensive and talented team, we have the capability and scale to undertake large and complex projects in Peru and elsewhere.

We have developed a strong corporate culture based on principles of high-quality, professionalism, reliability and efficiency. We safeguard the health and safety of our collaborators and of all the persons participating in our operations and services. To that end, we provide safe work conditions, we manage risks in a timely manner and we promote a culture of prevention, starting from the leadership and commitment of our senior management. In 2017, we had an accident incidence rate of 0.46, calculated over 200,000 hours worked.

 

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Our Strategies

In response to the impact of our association with Odebrecht in certain projects in Peru and the termination of the GSP pipeline concession, we are implementing a strategic action plan, as described in “Item 5.A. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Operating Results—Recent Developments.”

Our vision is to be “the most reliable engineering services company in Latin America.” Our key long-term strategies to achieve this vision include the following:

Be the contractor of choice for large-scale and complex projects in Peru and other key Latin American markets

We intend to enhance our position as a contractor of choice for large-scale and complex infrastructure projects in Peru and other key Latin American markets, by (i) utilizing the scale, expertise and market knowledge we have accumulated during our more than 80-year operating history to strengthen and expand our E&C segment; (ii) maintaining and further developing our long-standing client relationships based on our ongoing pursuit of operational excellence; (iii) continuing to strategically partner with global industry leaders, such as Bechtel and Fluor, with complementary capabilities for specific projects that we undertake; and (iv) leveraging our expertise in the mining sector with a view to becoming the premier mining services provider throughout Latin America.

Maintain highly capitalized balance sheet

We seek to maintain a prudent and sustainable capital structure and a strong financial position to allow us to capitalize on additional business opportunities as they arise. With the renegotiation and eventual repayment of debt related to GSP, we intend to regain our financially disciplined approach by significantly limiting our debt incurrence to identified projects with repayment sources.

Continue fostering our core corporate values throughout the organization

We will continue to instill our core corporate values throughout our organization, while also transmitting these values to surrounding communities. We will continue to attract and develop our human capital through various training, mentorship and reward programs in order to maintain our position as the best company in Peru to learn and work in the engineering and construction field. We also seek to promote social welfare by fostering relationships with the communities that surround our areas of operation. We strive to promote our corporate values to strengthen our organization and improve our performance as well as to have a positive impact on the markets where we operate.

Engineering and Construction

Our E&C segment has an 85-year track record and is the largest player in Peru as measured by revenues during 2017, according to our estimates based on Peru: The Top 10,000 Companies 2017 undertaking a broad range of activities relating to: engineering; civil construction; electromechanic construction; building construction; and contract mining. We provide E&C services for a diverse range of end-markets, focusing on the mining, power, oil and gas, transportation, real estate and other infrastructure sectors. The following chart sets forth our 2017 revenues by end-market.

 

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2017 E&C Revenues by End-Market

 

LOGO

We mainly undertake private-sector projects, particularly projects with a high degree of complexity, which enable us to develop innovative and tailor-made solutions to our clients. We provide our clients with an integral service offering by leveraging our various areas of expertise and engaging in virtually all aspects of project execution, thereby capturing a larger share of investment projects.

In 1999, we began adopting the “lean construction” philosophy as a pillar in our design and construction projects. “Lean construction” aims to create value for customers by better understanding and considering clients’ needs to improve project design, functionality and cost optimization. “Lean construction” also provides techniques and tools that significantly reduce construction waste by improving planning reliability, process design, coordination and collaboration.

Although we primarily undertake engineering and construction projects in Peru, our clients often ask us to undertake the engineering and construction of large and complex projects in other countries, such as Mexico, the Dominican Republic, Bolivia, Panama and Chile. As a result, we have developed extensive experience executing projects throughout Latin America. To further capitalize on our capabilities and expertise, we have decided to expand our activities into other key markets, such as Chile and Colombia, which have been benefitting from high levels of investment and are aligned with our areas of strategic focus. In 2017, approximately US$256.4 million (S/.832.1 million) of our E&C revenues were derived from international projects outside of Peru.

The acquisition of Vial y Vives – DSD has solidified our presence in Chile. While we have been undertaking projects in Chile since 1995, such as the construction of the transmission line and crusher of the Caserones mine for SCM Minera Lumina Copiapo, we believe we will benefit from the established and long-lasting presence in the country of both Vial y Vives and DSD Construcciones y Montajes. Moreover, through the acquisition in December 2014 of Morelco, an engineering and construction company focused on the oil and gas and other energy sectors, we established our presence in the Colombian market.

Given the prevalence of mining operations in our principal markets—Peru has projected investment flows of approximately US$18.7 billion between 2017 and 2021 and Chile as projected investment flows of approximately 64.9 billion between 2017 and 2026, according to the Peruvian Ministry of Economy and Finance, respectively—we have significant expertise with respect to specialized engineering and construction services for the mining sector. As a result, we believe we are one of the leading mining construction companies in Latin America and we leverage this expertise both within our principal markets as well as to selectively undertake complex projects across the region.

 

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The table below sets forth selected financial information for our E&C business segment.

 

     As of and for the year ended December 31,  
     2015      2016(1)     2017     2017  
     (in millions of S/., except as indicated)     (in millions of
US$)(2)
 

Revenues

     5,829.4       4,159.5       3,353.2       1,033.3  

Net profit

     (121.8     (93.4     12.4       3.8  

Net profit (loss) attributable to controlling

     (131.2     (87.7     12.1       3.7  

EBITDA

     220.1       106.1       194.3       59.9  

EBITDA margin

     3.8     2.6     5.8     5.8

Backlog (in millions of US$)(3)(4)

     3,129.4       1,977.9       1,456.7       1,456.7  

Backlog/revenues ratio(3)(4)

     1.8x       1.6x       1.4x       1.4x  

 

(1) For the effects on our results of operations and backlog for 2016 resulting from the termination of the GSP gas pipeline concession, see “Item 5.A. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Operating Results—Recent Developments” and notes 5(e), 5(f) and 16 to our audited annual financial statements included in this annual report.

 

(2) Calculated based on an exchange rate of S/.3.245 to US$1.00 as of December 31, 2017.

 

(3) For more information on our backlog, see “—Backlog.” Backlog is calculated as of the last day of the applicable year. Revenues are calculated for such year and converted into U.S. dollars based on the exchange rate published by the SBS on December 31 of the corresponding year.

 

(4) In the third quarter of 2015 we added US$1,067 million in backlog from our participation in the engineering procurement and construction contract for the southern gas pipeline project of GSP. When the GSP gas pipeline concession was terminated on January 24, 2017, our E&C backlog as of December 31, 2016 decreased by US$855 million, representing 30.2% of our E&C backlog.

Principal Engineering and Construction Activities

The following chart sets forth our 2017 revenues by E&C activity.

2017 E&C Revenues by Activities

 

LOGO

Engineering Services

Our engineering activities consist of a broad range of services relating to engineering, supervision, geometrics and environmental consultancy, including pre-investment studies, pre-feasibility studies, process design, project development, supervision of executive designs and construction management, including construction site reviews.

Civil Construction

Our civil construction activities focus on infrastructure projects, including earthworks, the construction of roads, highways, transportation facilities (e.g., mass transit systems such as the Lima Metro), dams, hydroelectric plants, water supply and sewage projects, excavation, structural concrete construction and tunneling. Our civil construction projects are generally large and complex, requiring the use of large construction equipment and sophisticated managerial and engineering techniques.

 

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Electromechanic Construction

Our electromechanic construction activities include the construction and assembly of concentrator plants, pipelines, transmission lines, gas and oil networks, and substations, predominantly for energy projects and industrial plants.

Building Construction

Through our building construction activities, we respond to the demands of the Peruvian real estate market with a focus on the construction of hotels, affordable housing projects, residential buildings, office buildings, shopping centers, and industrial plants.

Contract Mining

Our contract mining activities consist of mine planning, development, construction works, operation (including earthworks, blasting, loading and hauling ore) and mine closure.

Major Projects

We have played an active role in the development of the infrastructure sector in Peru, as well as other countries in Latin America, including the construction of roads, hotels, hospitals, shopping centers, housing developments, concentrator plants, hydroelectric power plants, thermal power plants and transmission lines as well as water supply and sewage projects, irrigation projects and dam building, among others. Throughout our history, we have participated, on our own or through minority or majority interests in joint operations, in a diverse range of landmark projects, including the following:

 

    in 1948, Talara city in northern Peru for the International Petroleum Company, consisting of 2,000 homes, schools, churches, a movie theater and airport;

 

    in 1950, a 430 km stretch of the Panamericana Sur highway;

 

    in 1952, the Rebagliati hospital, the largest public hospital in Peru;

 

    in 1960, the Cañón del Pato hydroelectric power plant, the second largest hydroelectric plant in Peru in terms of installed capacity;

 

    in 1961, the Jorge Chavez International Airport, Peru’s first international airport, located in Lima;

 

    in 1969, the Cuajone mining project, the largest copper mine and smelter complex in the world at that time and, in 1997, the Ilo smelter and refinery for Southern Copper Corporation;

 

    in 1974, the Sheraton Hotel in Lima, and, in 1995, the Sheraton Hotel in Santiago, Chile;

 

    in 1988, the Chavimochic irrigation project, the most significant irrigation project in Peru;

 

    in 1992, the Four Seasons Hotel in Mexico City, Mexico;

 

    in 1995, the U.S. Embassy in Peru;

 

    in 1998, the Mantaro-Socobaya 605 km transmission line, which connected the country’s electrical grids;

 

    in 2000, the Marriott Hotel in Lima;

 

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    in 2002, began providing open pit mining services, which are ongoing, to Brocal;

 

    in 2004, the Ralco hydroelectric power plant in Chile;

 

    in 2004, the gas fractionation plant and, in 2008, its expansion for Consorcio Camisea, Camisea project, the largest energy project in Peru’s history;

 

    in 2005, the San Cristobal concentrator plant in Bolivia;

 

    in 2005, the Cerro Verde mine concentrator plant for Phelps Dodge; in 2008, the Cerro Corona concentrator plant for GoldFields;

 

    in 2008, the Parque Agustino real estate development project, the first major affordable housing project in Peru, which consists of 3,400 units;

 

    in 2009, the Westin Lima Hotel, one of the tallest buildings in Peru;

 

    in 2010, the Melchorita liquefaction plant for Peru LNG, Camisea project;

 

    in 2010, the Bayóvar plant for Vale;

 

    in 2010, the Gran Teatro Nacional, the most modern theater in Peru;

 

    in 2011, the Pueblo Viejo Mine concentrator plant for Barrick Gold Corp. in the Dominican Republic;

 

    in 2011, the first stretch of Line One of the Lima Metro for the Peruvian Ministry of Transport and Communications;

 

    in 2012, for project manager Bechtel, the Antapaccay copper concentrator developed by Xstrata Copper, the world’s fourth largest copper producer;

 

    in 2013, expansion of the plant for Cementos Lima, the largest cement producer in Peru;

 

    in 2013, the Huanza hydroelectric plant for Compañía de Minas Buenaventura;

 

    in 2013, the leaching pad La Quinua for the Yanacocha mine;

 

    in 2014, the second stretch of Line One of the Lima Metro for the Peruvian Ministry of Transport and Communications;

 

    in 2014, construction of a natural gas distribution network for Contugas, providing access to natural gas for five districts south of Lima;

 

    in 2014, construction of the Nueva Fuerabamba city, an integral real estate development project for the population surrounding the Las Bambas mining project;

 

    in 2014, construction of a concentrator plant for the Toromocho copper mine, developed by Chinalco Mining;

 

    in 2014, construction of a primary crusher for Mina Caserones, developed by Minera Lumina Copiapo, which is expected to have a daily production capacity of 144,230 tonnes;

 

    in 2015, construction of a copper concentrator plant for the Las Bambas mining project, managed by Bechtel and developed by Xstrata Copper;

 

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    in 2015, expansion of the process plant for the Cerro Verde mine, one of the biggest concentrator plants in Latin America;

 

    in 2015, engineering, procurement and construction of Guyana Goldfields’ Aurora gold project in Guyana, with the scope of works including a 1.75 Mt/a processing plant, power station and integration management; and

 

    in 2015, design, engineering, procurement and construction of a new stock pile and 10,000 conveyor belts for the Escondida Mine, managed by Bechtel;

 

    in 2016, engineering, procurement and construction of the 510 MW Cerro del Águila S.A. hydroelectric plant for IC Power, which is expected to represent approximately 10% of Peru’s installed generation capacity;

 

    in 2016, engineering, procurement and construction of La Chira, a waste water treatment plant for the city of Lima for which we also have the concession through a joint operation with Acciona Agua;

 

    in 2016, engineering, procurement and construction of a concentrator plant for the La Inmaculada silver and gold project, developed by Hochschild Mining. This project is expected to have a daily processing capacity of 3,500 tonnes;

 

    in 2016, construction of an Open Plaza shopping center in the city of Huancayo, province of Junin;

 

    in 2016, construction of civil works and electromechanical assembly of the combined cycle power plant in the Kelar combined cycle thermoelectric plant located in Mejillones, Antofagasta Region, Chile;

 

    in 2017, prefabrication of certain products for the modernization of the Talara refinery in Peru;

 

    in 2017, electromechanical assembly of certain infrastructure in connection with the Cuajone mine improvement project in Peru;

 

    in 2017, various urban and industrial projects in the Lurin district of Lima, Peru, including moving earth for a road platform, a secondary network for potable waters and sewage, and electrical distribution networks;

 

    in 2017, construction of a 20-story residential building on the Pezet Avenue of Lima;

 

    in 2017, construction of a pavillion at the Universidad del Pacifico, Peru; and

 

    in 2017, construction of a multi-use hall at the Universidad ESAN in Peru.

We currently have a diversified portfolio of ongoing projects, on our own or through majority or minority interests in joint operations, in a wide range of sectors in Peru and the other countries where we operate, including the following:

 

    construction and design of a luxury business complex consisting of offices and a hotel in Lima, with state-of-the-art technology which will make it a smart building. This project named Talbot is scheduled to be completed in July 2018;

 

    execution of civil and electromechanical works in the interconnections area and off-sites of Talara’s refinery modernization project, which are scheduled to be completed in November 2018; and

 

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    execution of civil works and assembly of structures for the wet area of Toquepala, which were completed in May of 2018, and assembly of equipment and installation of pipelines, electricity and instrumentation of the wet area of Toquepala’s unit expansion, which is scheduled to be completed in September 2018.

Clients

We believe that we have developed long-term relationships with many clients as a result of our performance over the years and are focused on the successful and on-time execution of complex projects, through our “deliver before deadline” and “lean construction” initiatives. Our extensive experience of operational excellence has allowed us to gain deep market knowledge and expertise, which help us better serve our clients. The principal clients of our E&C segment include renowned domestic and multinational mining, power, oil and gas, transportation and infrastructure development companies, such as Glencore, Sociedad Minera Cerro Verde, Guyana Goldfields, Luz Del Sur, Kallpa Generación, Samsung Engineering, Rio Alto, Chinalco Mining, Hudbay Minerals and Red Eagle Mining Corporation, among others. We have a well-diversified client base, as none of our engineering and construction clients accounted for 7% or more of our consolidated revenues in 2017.

Project Selection and Bidding

We win new engineering and construction contracts through private and public bidding processes or direct negotiation, from a variety of sources, including potential client requests, proposals from existing or former clients, opportunities sought by our commercial team and from requests by the Peruvian government. Approximately 98.3% of our 2017 revenues came from private-sector contracts. The Peruvian government and its agencies typically award construction contracts through a public bidding process conducted in accordance with the Peruvian State Contracting Law (Ley de Contrataciones del Estado). In the private sector, in addition to obtaining new projects, another important source of revenue involves increases in the scope of work to be performed in connection with already existing projects. These arrangements are typically negotiated directly with the client, often during the course of the work we are already performing for that client.

We have a designated team that oversees the management of project proposals and a commercial team that reviews and evaluates potential projects in order to estimate costs. In considering whether to bid for a potential project, we principally consider the following factors: competition and the probability of being awarded the project; project size; the client; our experience undertaking similar projects; and the availability of resources, including human resources. As part of the project selection process, our commercial team performs a detailed cost analysis utilizing sophisticated software we developed to assist in determining whether the project is viable and cost-effective. If we choose to pursue a project, a budget leader is assigned to prepare the offer that is eventually presented to our potential client.

Despite the budgeting risks generally associated with engineering and construction contracts, our management believes that our experience generally allows us to estimate our project costs accurately. Our project management teams also periodically review project budgets for inconsistencies between budgeted and actual costs in order to recover for cost variations through contract renegotiation. Budgeting risks are also mitigated through advance payments. Considering that we receive advance payments for most of our E&C contracts, our E&C projects typically do not require significant working capital investment. Our E&C segment secures financing primarily to purchase machinery and equipment for our construction and contract mining services.

We are required, in the majority of our construction contracts, to provide a performance bond to guarantee project performance and completion, which remain in effect for the contract’s duration. We are also required to provide performance bonds to secure any advance payments provided to us by our clients. These bonds are periodically reduced during the project’s execution in accordance with project advancement. After the expiration of the contract term, we are typically required to provide an additional performance bond that remains valid for one year.

 

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Contracts

We principally enter into four types of engineering and construction contracts:

 

    Cost-plus fee contracts. The contract price is based upon actual costs incurred for time and materials plus a fee, which may be a percentage of the costs incurred or a pre-determined fee. Sometimes, cost-plus fee contracts include a target price, and a contractual arrangement that determines our responsibility in the event the total cost of the project exceeds the target price or the benefit we receive if the total contract price results in cost savings. Cost-plus fee contracts tend to involve the least budgeting risk for us.

 

    Unit price contracts. The contract price is based upon a price per unit (i.e., variable quantities of work priced at defined unit rates). Each line item of the project budget, such as cubic meter of earth excavated or cubic meter of concrete poured, has a defined price, but the quantities of the units may vary. Our bid price reflects our estimate of the costs that we expect to incur for each work unit. These contracts typically include an “escalation” clause which is essentially an adjustment mechanism to account for Peruvian inflation.

 

    Lump-sum contracts. The contract price is fixed. Our bid is meant to cover all costs and include a profit. The principal risk in these types of contracts are errors in calculating our costs, including those of raw materials; miscalculation of the number of units or workers needed to complete the project; unanticipated technical complexities; or other unexpected events or circumstances that may increase our costs.

 

    Engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) contracts. EPC contracts, known as “single source” or “turn-key” contracts, are also lump-sum contracts. Pursuant to EPC contracts, we provide a broad range of basic and detailed engineering services, including preparation of the technical project specifications, detailed drawings and construction specifications; technical studies; and identification of lists of materials and equipment necessary for the project. These contracts, which we utilize predominantly for our mining contracts, require a high-level of expertise and generally involve the most budgetary risks for us.

For further information, see “Item 5.A. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Operating Results—Results of Operations.”

Raw Materials

The principal inputs we use in our E&C segment are, among others, fuel, cement and steel. These and the other products we require in our E&C segment may be subject to the availability of raw materials, such as oil and iron, and commodity pricing fluctuations, which we monitor on a regular basis. We typically aim to enter into master supply agreements for a period of six months to one year. Although we obtain the majority of our inputs needs in Peru, we believe we have access to numerous global supply sources. The availability of these inputs, however, may vary significantly from year to year due to various factors including client demand, producer capacity, market conditions, transport costs and specific material shortages, and we may incur additional costs in obtaining them.

We purchase and lease the equipment we require for our E&C segment business from several local and international suppliers, currently with no significant concentration with any particular suppliers. While we do not have difficulty obtaining the equipment we need, we may face difficulties finding skilled personnel who are able to operate certain equipment and machinery.

 

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Competition

We generally compete with some of the largest contractors in Peru and the other countries where we operate. Because the E&C sector is highly competitive, the markets served by our business generally require substantial resources and highly-skilled and experienced technical personnel. The principal competitors of our E&C segment include local companies such as Besalco Cosapi S.A., San Martín Contratistas Generales, ICCGSA, JJC Contratistas Generales S.A., and international companies such as Techint S.A.C., SSK Montajes e Instalaciones S.A.C., Skanska del Perú S.A., Mota-Engil Peru S.A., Salfacorp S.A., OHL, Acciona, Astaldi, Grupo FCC, Ismocol, Termotecnica, Masa, Thiess, Redpath, among others. For certain projects, due to the size of the project, expertise required and other factors, we may choose to partner with our competitors, including the aforementioned companies.

Competition for our E&C segment is driven by performance, skill and project execution capabilities for completing complex projects in a safe, timely and cost-efficient manner, as well as price.

Infrastructure

We are an important toll road concessionaire in Peru, operating three toll roads. Moreover, we are the concessionaire for the Lima Metro, the largest mass-transit rail system in Peru, and a waste water treatment plant. Additionally, we operate ten multiple fuel storage facilities, four producing oil fields under long-term government contracts and we own a gas processing plant. Also, we provide services to maintain and operate different infrastructure projects.

The table below sets forth selected financial information for our Infrastructure business segment.

 

     As of and for the year ended December 31,  
     2015     2016     2017     2017  
     (in millions of S/., except as
indicated)
    (in millions of
US$)(2)
 

Revenues

     1,353.1       1,174.8       1,447.9       446.2  

Net profit

     112.4       98.3       129.3       39.9  

Net profit attributable to controlling

     93.0       74.4       103.8       32.0  

EBITDA

     272.2       237.8       300.9       92.7  

EBITDA margin

     20.1     20.2     20.8     20.8

Backlog (in millions of US$)(3)

     385.2       519.0       544.8       544.8  

Backlog/revenues ratio(3)

     1.0     1.5     1.2     1.2

 

 

(1) Two of our four oilfields started operations in April 2015.

 

(2) Calculated based on an exchange rate of S/.3.245 to US$1.00 as of December 31, 2017.

 

(3) For more information on our backlog, see “—Backlog.” Does not include our Norvial toll road concession, our Energy line of business and our jointly controlled COGA venture (which we sold on April 24, 2017). Backlog is calculated as of the last day of the applicable year. Revenues are calculated for such year and converted into U.S. dollars based on the exchange rate published by the SBS on December 31 of the corresponding year. Includes revenues only for businesses included in backlog.

Our strategy is to pursue concessions with the potential to generate business opportunities across our organization. Once we obtain a concession, our goal is to be involved virtually in all aspects of project execution through the participation of our different business segments, from the design and construction to the operation and maintenance of the infrastructure asset.

Through our Infrastructure segment we participate in a number of joint operations with the objective of bidding for government concessions or other long-term contracts. When bidding, we occasionally look for partners to reduce our risks and achieve the level of expertise needed to meet the demands of each particular project.

 

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The following table shows selected information about our current concessions and long-term contracts as of December 31, 2017.

 

Project

   Year
Granted
     Initiated
Operations
     Expiration     

Characteristics

   % Owned
by Us
    Status  

Toll Roads:

                

Norvial

     2003        2003        2028      183 km      67.0     Operating  

Survial

     2007        2008        2032      750 km      99.9     Operating  

Canchaque

     2006        2010        2025      78 km      99.9     Operating  

Mass Transit:

                

Lima Metro

     2011        2012        2041      33.1 km      75.0     Operating  

Water Treatment:

                

La Chira

     2010       
June
2016
 
 
     2037      Avg. treatment capacity of 6.3 m3/sec (expected)      50.0     Operating  

Energy:

                

Oil Production(1)

Block I

     1995        1995        2021      Avg. daily production of 1,307 bbl (2016)      100.0     Operating  

Block V

     1993        1993        2023      Avg. daily production of 728 bbl (2016)      100.0     Operating  

Block III

     2015        2015        2045      Avg. daily production of 950 bbl (2016)      100.0     Operating  

Block IV

     2015        2015        2045      Avg. daily production of 638 bbl (2016)      100.0     Operating  

Gas Processing(2)

     2006        2006        N/A      Avg. daily processing capacity of 44 MMcf (2016)      100.0     Operating  

North and Central Fuel Terminals

     2014        2014        2034      Aggregate storage capacity of 2.2 MMbbl      50.0     Operating  

South Fuel Terminals

     1997        1998       
August
2018
 
 
   Aggregate storage capacity of 1.4 MMbbl      50.0     Operating  

 

(1) Percentages owned in Energy reflect GMP’s ownership. We own 95% of GMP.

 

(2) We own a gas processing plant and have a long-term delivery and gas processing contract with Enel Generación Piura S.A.

Additionally, the Chavimochic concession was awarded in 2013 for the design, construction, operation and maintenance of major hydraulic works in northern Peru. Affiliates of Odebrecht own 73.5% of the Chavimochic consortium, with the remaining 26.5% stake held by us. The second phase of the hydraulic works project has not begun as a result of the government’s failure to deliver the required lands for the project. Chavimochic has requested the termination of the concession in light of the government’s breach, and the parties are currently in discussions with the government, including for a potential sale of the project.

On November 11, 2013, we entered into a memorandum of understanding with Canada Pension Plan Investment Board (“CPPIB”), to create an alliance regarding a partnership to invest in infrastructure projects in Latin America, mainly Peru, Chile and Colombia. This alliance is non-exclusive and investments will be determined on a case-by-case basis. In December 2014, we undertook our first large investment with CPPIB, by formalizing an agreement with Enagás (as defined below) and CPPIB whereby we acquired 51% of Tecgas and owner of 100% of the shares of COGA, the current operator of TGP while Enagás acquired 30% and CPPIB maintained 19% of the participation. COGA is dedicated to the management, operation, maintenance, and integrity management of transport and distribution hydrocarbon pipelines and installations as well as industrial plants and ancillary installations. COGA operates and maintains more than 1,430km of pipelines, one compression plant with 72,000 horse power and four pump stations with 19,200 horse power each. COGA operates two pipelines: one which is 730 km and transports natural gas (GN) with a 1,275 MM cubic feet per day capacity; and the other one which is 530 km and transports natural gas liquids (NGL) with a 130,000 barrels per day capacity. Both pipelines run from Cusco to Ayacucho and Huancavelica, with the GN pipeline extending to Lurin and the NGL pipeline continuing to the Pisco fractionation plant. As this is a joint operation, we do not include the results of our COGA venture in our consolidated results under our Infrastructure segment. On April 24, 2017, we sold our interest in COGA.

 

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On September 29, 2015, we entered into a memorandum of understanding with Odebrecht Latinvest to participate with a 20% stake in the shareholder equity of Concesionaria Gasoducto Sur Peruano S.A., for an amount of US$215 million (S/.722.4 million). On November 2, 2015, we acquired this 20% stake in GSP through a capital increase. The other shareholders are Odebrecht Latinvest with a 55% stake and Enagás with a 25% stake. Concesionaria Gasoducto Sur Peruano S.A. was responsible for the design, financing, construction and operation of the southern gas pipeline, a project which would bring natural gas to the southern region of Peru, particularly to the provinces of Cuzco, Arequipa, Puno and Moquegua. The GSP gas pipeline concession was terminated by the Peruvian Ministry of Energy and Mines on January 24, 2017. For more information, see “Item 5.A. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Operating Results—Recent Developments.”

Beginning on April 1, 2017, we have transferred Concar from our Technical Services segment to our Infrastructure segment. For ease of comparison, the historical segment financial information included in this annual report presents Concar in the Infrastructure segment. This change does not impact our consolidated financial results.

Principal Infrastructure Lines of Business

Toll Roads

Peru’s economic development is underpinned by a strong government commitment to infrastructure investment, with a particular focus on improving the country’s road system through the award of new concessions to the private sector. We believe this commitment offers significant opportunities to our Infrastructure segment.

Our Infrastructure segment currently has three toll road concessions through our subsidiaries Norvial, Survial and Canchaque. All three toll roads are currently in operation and we have the authorizations, permits and licenses necessary to fulfill our obligations under each concession, including releases of rights of way. All of our toll road concessions have utilized the construction services of our E&C segment and the roads are currently operated and maintained by our subsidiary Concar. The table below sets forth selected financial information relating to our toll roads.

 

     For the year ended December 31,  
     2015     2016     2017     2017  
     (in millions of S/.)     (in millions of
US$)(1)
 

Revenues

     394.5       264.4       263.8       81.3  

EBITDA

     79.2       76.8       91.1       28.1  

EBITDA margin

     20.1     29.0     34.5     34.5

 

(1) Calculated based on an exchange rate of S/.3.245 to US$1.00 as of December 31, 2017.

The charts below set forth the breakdown of our revenues and EBITDA from our toll road concessions for 2017.

 

LOGO

 

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Norvial

Under our Norvial concession, we operate and maintain part of the only major highway that connects Lima to the northwest of Peru. This 183-km road, known as Red Vial 5, runs from the cities of Ancón to Pativilca and has three toll stations. The concession was awarded to Norvial in 2003 for a 25-year term. We own 67% of Norvial; and our partner in this concession is JJC Contratistas Generales. The following map shows the location of the Red Vial 5 road in Peru.

 

LOGO

Norvial’s revenue derives from the collection of tolls. For the Norvial toll road, the toll rate is set out in the Norvial concession agreement and adjusted in accordance with a contractual formula that takes into account the sol/U.S. dollar exchange rate and Peruvian and U.S. inflation. We are required to transfer 5.5% of our monthly toll revenue to the Peruvian Ministry of Transport and Communications and pay a 1% regulatory fee to the Peruvian Supervisory Agency for Investment in Public Transportation Infrastructure.

Our obligations under the concession include expanding the already existing road by, among other things, adding two additional lanes. The first stage of construction was completed in 2008, and the second stage commenced in the second quarter of 2014 and is expected to be completed by March 2019. We estimate that our capital investment for the second stage will be approximately US$95 million (S/.319.2 million).

Unlike other toll roads in Peru, Norvial charges toll fees in both directions. Our road is highly transited both by heavy vehicles, primarily for the purpose of transporting goods, and also by passenger vehicles, which typically use the road to access tourist destinations. The following table sets forth average daily traffic volume and average toll fees charged for vehicle equivalents in respect to the Norvial toll road concession for 2015, 2016 and 2017.

 

     For the year ended December 31,  
     2015      2016      2017  

Average daily traffic by vehicle equivalents(1)

     21.965        24.140        24.965  

Average toll fee charged for vehicle equivalents (in S/.)

     13.83        14.3        14.76  

 

(1) Each automobile is counted as one equivalent vehicle and commercial vehicles (such as trucks or buses) represent the number of equivalent vehicles equal to the ratio between the toll rate applicable to commercial vehicles and that which is applicable to one automobile.

 

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The table below sets forth selected financial information relating to Norvial.

 

     For the year ended December 31,  
     2015     2016     2017     2017  
     (in millions of S/.)     (in millions of
US$)(1)
 

Revenues

     246.2       216.3       149.5       46.1  

Net profit

     40.9       47.3       49.4       15.2  

EBITDA

     68.9       77.7       81.4       25.1  

EBITDA margin

     28.0     35.9     54.5     54.5

 

(1) Calculated based on an exchange rate of S/./.3.245 to US$1.00 as of December 31, 2017.

Survial

Under our Survial concession, we operate and maintain a 750 km road from the San Juan de Marcona port to Urcos, Peru, which is connected to an interoceanic road that runs up to the Peruvian-Brazilian border. The road has five toll stations and three weigh stations. The concession was awarded to Survial in 2007 for a 25-year term. We own 99.9% of Survial. The following map shows the location of the road in Peru.

 

LOGO

Our obligations under the concession include the construction of the road, which was completed in 2010.

Our revenue from this concession consists of an annual fee paid to Survial by the Peruvian Ministry of Transport and Communications in consideration for the operation and maintenance of the road, which fee can vary depending on the amount of maintenance required due to road damages. In 2015, 2016 and 2017 the fee amounted to US$33.9 million (S/.115.7 million), US$8.1 million (S/.27.2 million) and US$28.4 million (S/.92.2 million), respectively. Our revenue in this concession does not depend on traffic volume.

 

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Canchaque

Under our Canchaque concession, we operate and maintain a 78 km road from the towns of Buenos Aires to Canchaque, in Peru. The road has one toll station. The concession was awarded to Canchaque in 2006 for a 15- year term. We own 99.9% of Canchaque. Our obligations under the concession include the construction of the road, which was completed in 2009. Our revenue from this concession consists of an annual fee paid by the Peruvian Ministry of Transport and Communications in consideration for the operation and maintenance of the road, which fee can vary depending on the amount of road maintenance required due to road wear and tear. In 2015, 2016 and 2017, the fee amounted to US$1.3 million (S/.4.4 million), US$1.2 million (S/.4.0 million) and US$2.6 million (S/.8.5 million), respectively. Our revenue in this concession does not depend on traffic volume.

Additional Toll Road Projects

We continuously evaluate infrastructure projects and strategically present public-private partnership proposals and participate in bidding processes for road concessions. In 2012 we were awarded, and in 2013 we signed the contract for, a 40-year concession for a 4.6 km extension of Vía Expresa Sur, one of the main roads in Lima, which crosses the city from north to south. The road will connect downtown Lima to Panamericana Sur, a highway that runs from Ecuador to Chile. Our estimate of the total investment under the concession, as submitted in our bid, is approximately US$200 million (S/.672 million). Such investment will be made during the construction phase, which was originally to be completed in 2018. Our revenue will derive from the collection of a toll fee upon completion of the construction. The concession is expected to generate a minimum annual revenue of US$18 million (S/.60.5 million) during the first two years of the concession term, US$19.6 million (S/.65.9 million) for the third year. If in a particular year, our annual revenue is lower than the minimum guaranteed, we expect the government to compensate us for the difference, up to an amount not to exceed US$10 million (S/.33.6 million). The beginning of the construction phase is subject to expropriation by the government of the land necessary for the construction of the road. Moreover, in June of 2017, we signed Initial and Additional Acts of Suspension of the Concession with the municipality of Lima to freeze the responsibilities of the government, on the one hand, and the concessionaire, on the other hand, with respect to the concession for a period of 12 months. The concessionaire continues to act as custodian of certain assets of which it had taken possession and continues to maintain certain performance guaranties in connection with the concession. Also, the government and the concessionaire continue to meet and coordinate aspects of the project, with the goal of resuming operations. We cannot assure you that this concession contract will be resumed.

A joint operation in which we have a 50% interest has been awarded, and is in the process of negotiating the terms for, a 37-year concession for Via Expresa Javier Prado, a 20 km toll road that crosses Lima from east to west, traversing through eight districts. According to estimates from the Municipality of Lima, the total investment in the concession is expected to amount to approximately US$700 million (S/.2,352 million). Such investment will be made during the construction phase which is expected to take between five to seven years. Our revenue will derive from the collection of a toll fee upon completion of the construction. This concession was awarded to the joint operation at the end of the 1990s and negotiations were discontinued but were resumed in 2012. A project contract was approved by the City of Lima’s Council in November 2013 and was submitted to the Peruvian Ministry of Economy and Finance, which requested additional studies prior to approving the project. Subsequently, on July 26, 2017, the municipality of Lima signed an agreement that annulled the granting of the concession. The company has initiated legal action in Peru against such decision, and the municipality of Lima responded, but a decision remains pending. A preliminary injunction is pending that would prevent the municipality of Lima from granting the concession to another party. We cannot assure you that our position in these proceedings will prevail, nor can we assure you if or when the concession contracts will be agreed or whether the contractual terms will be favorable to us.

These projects are not included in our backlog. See “Item 3.D. Key Information—Risk Factors—Risks Related to our Infrastructure Business.”

Mass Transit

In 2011, we were awarded a 30-year concession for the operation of Line One of the Lima Metro, Peru’s only urban railway system. The concession was awarded to our subsidiary GyM Ferrovías, in which we hold a 75% ownership interest, with the other 25% being held by Ferrovías S.A.C. Our obligations under the contract include: (i) the operation and maintenance of the five trains provided by the government; (ii) the acquisition of 19 new trains on

 

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behalf of the Peruvian government, which will be the legal owner of such trains; (iii) the operation and maintenance of the 19 new trains (24 trains in the aggregate); and (iv) the design and construction of the railway maintenance and repair yard, which was built by our E&C segment. We currently have all 24 trains (including two backup trains) in operation. The construction of the second stretch of Line One was completed in July 2014, and started operations on July 25, 2014.

We entered into the fourth addendum to the Lima Metro concession contract on July 11, 2016, in order to expand the transportation capacity of Line One. In accordance with the fourth addendum, the expansion project involves: (i) the purchase of 20 new trains with five-car from Alstom; (ii) the purchase of 39 new cars from Alstom, to be coupled with the 19 existing Alstom trains and the 20 new Alstom trains, resulting in a consolidated fleet of 39 Alstom trains with a six-car configuration; and (iii) the expansion and improvement of the existing infrastructure, including revamping and improvement of five stations, improvements in the electrical systems, a new access route to the maintenance workshop and new switches on the main track. The construction of the expansion of the infrastructure will be carried out by our E&C segment and it is scheduled to be completed by the end of 2018 with the additional trains and rail cars to be delivered by the end of 2019.

As compensation for the investments of the expansion project, we are entitled to receive from the Ministry of Transportation and Communication, an advance payment of 30% of each investment component as well as the balance of 70% of each investment component compensated through an annual payment for complementary investments (pago annual por inversiones complementarias), which represents the unconditional and irrevocable right to receive a series of 56 quarterly payments from the Ministry of Transportation and Communication. In 2016 we received the advance payment of the trains and cars, and in the third quarter of 2017 we have received the advance payment corresponding to the infrastructure expansion.

The construction of the first and second stretches of Line One was carried out by our E&C segment. The operation and maintenance of the trains is carried out by our subsidiary Concar. The map below shows the route of Line One.

 

LOGO

As of December 31, 2017, GyM Ferrovías had spent a total of S/.8.0 million (US$2.4 million) in capital expenditures in connection with the Lima Metro.

 

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Our revenue from this concession consists of a quarterly fee that we receive from the Ministry of Transport and Communications based on the kilometers travelled per train and adjusted for inflation, with the fee per kilometer, the number of trains required to be in operation and the number of kilometers that we are required to travel established by the terms of the concession. Our revenues do not depend on passenger traffic volume.

As of May 31, 2018, we operated 34 trains (including three backup trains), which we expect to enable us to travel 3,476,154.48 kilometers per year. The average frequency of the trains is 4 to 8.5 minutes and the fee per kilometer traveled is, for our original 24 trains, S/.81.43, and for our 10 newer trains, S/.53.19.

Pursuant to the concession, we must comply with certain requirements in the operation of the trains. According to the concession, at least 95% of our trains must be running and available for use and not less than 85% of our trains that are available for use must arrive to destination on scheduled time. The table below shows our monthly average results during 2017.

 

LOGO

 

LOGO

Water Treatment

In 2010, we were awarded a 25-year concession for the construction, operation and maintenance of La Chira waste water treatment plant in the south of Lima. The project is aimed at addressing Lima’s environmental problems caused by sewage discharged directly into the sea. We hold a 50% share in this concession and our partner Acciona Agua holds the remaining 50%. The plant began operations in June 2016.

 

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La Chira’s total investment in the concession was S/.250 million (US$74.4 million). Once the project is completed, La Chira will be entitled to collect (i) an annual payment for the investment made in the construction of the project for an amount of S/.24.2 million (approximately US$7.1 million), and (ii) and annual payment for the operation and maintenance of the project for an amount of S/.6.8 million. These fees will be paid by Sedapal S.A., the public utility company responsible for the supervision of the water service in Lima, for a period of 25 years. We funded our construction costs related to La Chira through the sale of government certificates to financial institutions, and, as a result, will not receive future cash flows from item (i). See “Item 5.A. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Operating Results—Factors Affecting Our Results of Operations—Infrastructure.” A joint operation in which our E&C segment participates is undertaking the construction of the waste water treatment plant.

Energy

We currently operate three energy businesses within our Infrastructure segment: Exploration and Production; Natural Gas; and Transport and Distribution. We operate and extract oil from four onshore fields (Block I, Block III, Block IV and Block V) located in the provinces of Talara and Paita in northern Peru. We have two long-term hydrocarbon extraction service contracts with Perupetro, the Peruvian entity responsible for the administration and supervision of all exploration and production contracts in Peru, under which we operate two oil producing fields, Blocks I and V. In addition, we have two long-term license contracts with Perupetro for two other blocks, Block III and IV, which started operations in April 2015. During 2017, the oil production of our four blocks was approximately 3,140 bbl per day. We also own and operate a natural gas processing plant located in northern Peru, which processes and fractions natural gas liquids and delivers dry gas to a gas-fired power generation company under a long-term processing and fractionation agreement. In addition, we are a 50% partner in two consortiums named Consorcio Terminales (CT) and Terminales del Peru (IP) both of which have contract with Petroperú, a state owned oil and gas company, to operate and maintain ten fuel storage terminals.

In addition, we are a 50% partner in Oil Tanking Andina Services S.A.C. (“OTAS”). This subsidiary operates a fuel terminal named Terminal Marino Pisco Camisea under a contract subscribed with Pluspetrol to operate an export terminal for gasoline, diesel, propane and butane. Additionally, through OTAS, we are also a 25% partner in Logística Químicos del Sur S.A. (“LQS”), which operates the Terminal de Químicos de Matarani and which in 2017 dispatched 54,878 tonnes of sodium hydrosulfide for international mining companies.

The table below sets forth selected financial information relating to our Energy line of business.

 

     For the year ended December 31,  
     2015(1)     2016     2017     2017  
     (in millions of S/.)     (in millions of
US$)(2)
 

Revenues

     389.4       382.2       436.9       130.0  

Net Profit

     20.2       12.0       38.1       11.3  

EBITDA

     121.8       99.5       142.1       42.3  

EBITDA margin

     31.3     26.0     32.5     32.5

 

(1) Includes production from the start of operations of Blocks III and IV in April 2015.
(2) Calculated based on an exchange rate of S/3.245 to US$1.00 as of December 31, 2017.

The pie charts below set forth the breakdown of our revenues and EBITDA from our Energy line of business for 2017.

 

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Revenues   EBITDA
LOGO

Oil and Gas Production

We operate and extract oil from four mature fields (Block I, Block III, Block IV and Block V) located in the provinces of Talara and Paita in northern Peru. Two of these fields, Blocks I and V, are operated under long-term service contracts under which we provide hydrocarbon extraction services to Perupetro. Hydrocarbons extracted from these two blocks belong to Perupetro, which in turn pays us, once a month, a variable fee per barrel of lifted hydrocarbons. This extraction fee is based on a basket of international crude prices and the level of production. The other two fields, Blocks III and IV, are operated under long-term license contracts with Perupetro. The hydrocarbons extracted are owned by our subsidiary GMP, which in turn pays royalties, on a fortnightly basis, to Perupetro, based on the average prices of three international crude oil prices: Fortis, Suez Blend and Oman Blend crudes. Our activities are focused on proved reserves development and production and are conducted in mature oil fields, which have been producing oil for over 100 years in the case of Block I, approximately 96 years in the case of Block III, approximately 95 years in the case of Block IV, and over 50 years in the case of Block V. We believe our activities in these fields bear limited exploration risk.

The following table shows selected information about our fields.    

 

Property

   Basin      GMP’s
Ownership
    Expiration      Developed
Acres
     Undeveloped
Acres
 

Block I

     Talara        100     2021        25,154        4,110  

Block III

     Talara        100     2045        7,475        80,986  

Block IV

     Talara        100     2045        8,400        64,550  

Block V

     Talara        100     2023        6,320        2,220  

Block I:

We operate and extract oil and natural gas from Block I under a 20-year hydrocarbon extraction service contract with Perupetro, which was extended for an additional 10-year term and expires in December 2021. Average daily production during 2017 was 852 barrels of crude oil. We operate 204 wells using various oil extraction systems and operate a network of production batteries and pipelines to collect, measure and deliver oil in fiscalization point close to the Talara refinery. The field is located in the province of Talara, department of Piura, in northern Peru, approximately five miles from the Talara refinery, the second largest refinery in the country. Block I is the oldest oil producing field in Peru and has been producing oil since around 1890.

Block III:

We operate and extract oil and natural gas from Block III under a 30-year license agreement with Perupetro, which expires in April 2045. Average daily production during 2017 was 734 barrels of crude oil. We operate 167 wells using various oil extraction systems and operate a network of production batteries and pipelines to collect, measure and deliver oil in a fiscalization point close to the Talara refinery, which purchases the oil according to a contract based on an average price of three international crude oil prices: Fortis Blend, Suez Blend and Oman crudes, as adjusted by certain factors. The field is located between the provinces of Talara and Paita, department of Piura, in northern Peru, approximately 21 miles from the Talara refinery.

 

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Block IV:

We operate and extract oil and natural gas from Block IV under a 30-year license agreement with Perupetro, which expires in April 2045. Average daily production during 2017 was 1,454 barrels of crude oil. We operate 251 wells using various oil extraction systems and operate a network of production batteries and pipelines to collect, measure and deliver oil in a fiscalization point close to the Talara refinery, which purchases the oil according to a contract based on an average price of three international crude oil prices: Fortis Blend, Suez Blend and Oman crudes, adjusted for costs related to hydrocarbon transportation. The field is located in the province of Talara, department of Piura, in northern Peru, approximately 21 miles from the Talara refinery.

Block V:

We operate and extract oil and natural gas from Block V under a 20-year hydrocarbon extraction service contract with Perupetro, which was extended for an additional 10-year term and expires in October 2023. Average daily production during 2017 in this field was 99 barrels of crude oil. We operate 32 wells in this field using various oil extraction systems. The Block V field is located in the province of Los Órganos, department of Piura, Peru, close to the border with Ecuador. Block V has been producing oil since the 1950s.

The map below shows the geographic location of our oil producing blocks in northern Peru.

 

LOGO

For Block I and Block V, we are entitled to a variable fee paid by Perupetro, which is based on the level of production of each field and a price formula that is based on an average price of three international crude oil prices: Fortis blend, Suez blend and Oman crudes, and a discount over this price of approximately of 72% per barrel. For Block III and Block IV, we pay royalties to Perupetro based on an average price of three international crude oil prices: Fortis blend, Suez blend and Oman crudes. The royalties paid to Perupetro were US$12.76 per barrel during 2016 and US$18.79 per barrel during 2017.

During 2015, 2016 and 2017, we received an average revenue (for all blocks) of US$45.59, US$38.55 and US$49.19, respectively, per barrel of extracted oil, which was equivalent to approximately 84.26 %, 88.52% and 91.84%, respectively, of average Brent crude oil prices in the same years. We are not committed to provide a fixed volume of oil or natural gas under our four contracts.

We produce natural gas as a byproduct of the production of crude oil (an average of 7,291 MMcf per day during 2017). In Block I, we provide natural gas to ENEL under a “take or pay” contract (an average of 5,619 MMcf

 

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per day during 2017), and we pay to Perupetro a fee which varies depending on market conditions. The additional volume of natural gas extracted is sent to our Pariñas plant to be processed and commercialized as liquid natural gas. In Block V, we reinject the natural gas produced back into the wells. In Block III, we use part of the produced gas as fuel to operate wells equipment (pumping units) and we are looking for a market to sell the excess. In Block IV, we also use a volume of gas as fuel and the residual volume is burnt. Our revenues for the sale of natural gas are not material relative to our oil production revenues.

Estimated Proved Reserves:

The following table sets forth estimated proved crude oil and natural gas reserves in Blocks I, III, IV and V as of December 31, 2017. We have only included estimates of proved and have not included any estimates of probable and possible reserves.

 

     Crude Oil
(Mbbl)
     Natural Gas
(MMcf)
     Crude Oil
Equivalents
(MBoe)
 

Block I:

        

Proved developed producing

     1,4076        9,354        2,709  

Proved developed non—producing

     —          —          —    

Proved undeveloped

     —          —          —    

Total proved reserves

     1,406        9,354        2,709  

Block III:

        

Proved developed producing

     2,635        —          2,635  

Proved developed non—producing

     22        —          22  

Proved undeveloped

     11,989        —          11,989  

Total proved reserves

     14,647        —          14,647  

Block IV:

        

Proved developed producing

     4,475        —          4,475  

Proved developed non—producing

     228        —          228  

Proved undeveloped

     5,844        —          5,844  

Total proved reserves

     10,547        —          10,547  

Block V:

        —       

Proved developed producing

     256        —          256  

Proved developed non—producing

     —          —          —    

Proved undeveloped

     —          —          —    

Total proved reserves

     256        —          256  

Total:

        

Proved developed producing

     8,412        9,354        10,075  

Proved developed non—producing

     251        —          251  

Proved undeveloped

     17,833        —          17,833  

Total proved reserves

     26,496        9,354        28,159  

Proved reserves are those quantities of oil and natural gas which, by analysis of geosciences and engineering data, can be estimated with reasonable certainty to be economically producible from a given date forward, from known reservoirs, and under existing economic conditions, operating methods, and government regulations. The term “reasonable certainty” implies a high degree of confidence that the quantities of oil and/or natural gas actually recovered will equal or exceed the estimate. To achieve reasonable certainty, we employed methodologies that have been demonstrated to yield results with consistency and repeatability. The methodologies and economic data used in the estimation of the proved reserves in the fields include, but are not limited to, well logs, geologic maps and available down hole and production data, seismic data, and well test data.

Reserve amounts were based on the 12-month unweighted arithmetic average of the first-day-of-the-month Brent crude price for each month in the period January through December 2017, which, pursuant to our contractual agreements, resulted in average oil and gas prices of US$53.02 per barrel and US$3.36 per million British Thermal Units, respectively, that for the purpose of reserve amount estimation were assumed to remain constant.

 

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Proved undeveloped reserves in the fields as of December 31, 2017 were 17,833 MBbbl consisting of 17,833 Mbbl of crude oil (0 MMcf of proved undeveloped reserves of natural gas). We estimate that during 2017, proved undeveloped reserves increased by 2,905 Mboe of crude oil and approximately 1,776 Mboe of crude oil of proved undeveloped reserves were converted into proved developed reserves. Capital expenditures, for both drilling activities and workovers, made during 2017 to convert undeveloped reserves to prove developed reserves amounted to approximately US$17.04 million (S/.55.3 million).

The principal changes in proved undeveloped reserves during 2017 were:

 

    Crude oil reserves: in 2017, due to drilling in Block IV and to an increase in the price of oil, 2.570 MMbbl were re-categorized from “resources” to “reserves.” In addition, 1,408 MMbbl were recategorized from “undeveloped” to “developed” reserves). As a result, proved, undeveloped crude oil reserves increased 1,162 MMbbl during 2017;

 

    Associated natural gas reserves increased 1,742 Mboe (9,802 MMcf) during 2017 due to development of a project to transport gas of the Block IV to our gas processing plant, which remains in progress.

For changes in proved developed and undeveloped reserves from December 31, 2015 to December 31, 2017, see supplementary data (unaudited) annexed to our audited annual consolidated financial statements included in this annual report.

Qualifications of Technical Persons and Internal Controls Over Reserves Estimation Process:

The reserves estimates shown in this annual report have been prepared internally by our engineers in accordance with the definitions and guidelines of the SEC. Our reserves are estimated at the property level and compiled by our engineering staff. Our engineering staff interacts with our internal staff of operations engineers and geoscience professionals and with accounting employees to obtain the necessary data for the reserves estimation process. Our reservoir engineers and geoscience professionals have worked to ensure the integrity, accuracy and timeliness of the data, methods and assumptions used in the preparation of the reserves estimates. Mr. Luis Huaranga and Javier Portuguez are our Reservoir Engineers. The reserves estimate report was submitted to our Committee of Reserves, which is formed by Mr. Anthony Alfaro (Exploration and Production Manager), Mr. Iván Miranda (Exploration and Production Technical Manager), Mr. Jose Pisconte Lomas (Chief of Geology), and Mr. Manuel Gomez (Chief of Reservoir Engineering). Mr. Huaranga holds a Petroleum Engineering degree from Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería in Lima, Peru and has 20 years of experience, developed as a reservoir engineer at Pluspetrol, Petrobras, and Repsol. He has been working for GMP since September 2016. Mr. Portuguez holds a Petroleum Engineering degree from Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería in Lima, Peru and has 23 years of experience, developed as a production and reservoir engineer at Mercantile and Interoil Peru. Mr. Gomez holds a Petroleum Engineering degree from Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería in Lima, Peru and has 10 years of experience, most of it as drilling, completion, stimulation, and reservoir engineer. Mr. Pisconte Lomas, holds a Geologist Engineering degree and a Regional Geology Master’s degree from Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos and has 25 years of experience in the oil industry. Mr. Miranda holds a degree in Petroleum Engineering from Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería in Lima and a Petroleum Engineering Master’s degree from Texas A&M University of Texas—USA, and has 33 years of experience in the oil industry developed at Petroperu, Unipetro ABC, and GMP. Mr. Alfaro holds a Petroleum Engineering degree from Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería in Lima, Peru, Master´s degree in Business Administration from Universidad Rafael Belloso Chacin in Maracaibo, Venezuela, a Master´s degree in Projects Management an Administration from Universidad de Ciencias Aplicadas in Lima, Peru and has 28 years of experience developed at Petroperu, Perez Companc Peru and Argentina, Petrobras Venezuela and Peru, Grupo Synergy E&P Ecuador, and GMP.

 

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Production, Revenues, Prices and Costs:

The following table sets forth information regarding our production, revenues, prices and production costs for 2015, 2016 and 2017.

 

     For the year ended December 31,  
     2015(1)      2016      2017  

Production volumes(2):

        

Crude oil (Mbbl)

        

Block I

     507.9        381.3        310.9  

Block III

     319.7        347.7        267.8  

Block IV

     174.7        232.7        530.9  

Block V

     59.0        46.9        3.2  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total (crude oil Mbbl)

     1,061.40        1,008.60        1,145.8  

Natural gas (MMcf)

        

Block I

     3,729.9        2,025.8        2,979.0  

Block III

     1,075.7           —    

Block IV

     156.7           —    

Block V

     175.7           —    
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total (natural gas MMcf)

     5,138.0        2,025.8        2,979.0  

Crude oil equivalents (Mboe)

     913.4        360.1        529.5  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total Company

     1,974.8        1,368.7        1,675.3  

Average sales prices(3):

        

Crude oil (US$/bbl)

     45.59        38.48        49.81  

Natural Gas (US$/Mcf)

     2.15        1.53        4.07  

Crude oil equivalents (US$/boe)

     37.56        30.62        41.95  

Costs and expenses(3):

        

Production expenses (US$/boe)

     10.07        10.08        17.35  

Royalties (US$/boe)

     4.0        5.4        9.27  

General and administrative expenses (US$/boe)

     2.42        2.09        2.02  

Depreciation, depletion, amortization and accretion expenses (US$/boe)

     8.57        12.58        8.99  

 

(1) Includes operations of Blocks III and IV starting in April 2015.
(2) Hydrocarbons extracted from Blocks I and V belong to Perupetro, which in turns pays us a per barrel fee for lifted hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbons extracted from Blocks III and IV belong to GMP, which in turn pays Perupetro a royalty as per the extracted hydrocarbons.
(3) Crude oil sales volume differs from total production volume due to operational circumstances such as the inventory of product stored in our field batteries at the end of each monthly measurement. “Average sales prices” refers to the fees received in consideration for our extraction services, which do not equal the sales prices of crude oil. Average sales prices have been calculated using a basket price formula according to the service and license contracts of each block. Such formulation is at a discount to global oil prices for Blocks I and V, and for Blocks III and IV we pay royalties on the oil extracted. Per unit costs have been calculated using sales volumes.

Acreage, Productive and Development Wells, Drilling:

The following table sets forth certain information regarding the total developed and undeveloped acreage as of December 31, 2017.

 

Formation

   Developed Acreage      Undeveloped Acreage  

Block I

     

Pariñas

     2,271        70  

Mogollón

     2,583        320  

Basal Salina

     1,850        100  

Mesa

     1,485        1,650