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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-K

 

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF

THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023

Commission File Number: 1-1927

 

THE GOODYEAR TIRE & RUBBER COMPANY

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

Ohio

34-0253240

(State or Other Jurisdiction of

Incorporation or Organization)

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

 

 

 

200 Innovation Way, Akron, Ohio

 

44316-0001

(Address of Principal Executive Offices)

 

(Zip Code)

 

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (330) 796-2121

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of Each Class

Trading Symbol(s)

Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered

Common Stock, Without Par Value

GT

The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

 

 

None

 

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.

 

 

Yes

No

 

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.

 

 

Yes

No

 

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.

 

 

Yes

No

 

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).

 

 

Yes

No

 

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

 

Large Accelerated Filer

Accelerated Filer

Non-accelerated Filer

 

Smaller Reporting Company

Emerging Growth Company

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

 

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.

 

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant's executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).

 

 

Yes

No

 

 

The aggregate market value of the common stock held by nonaffiliates of the registrant, computed by reference to the last sales price of such common stock as of the closing of trading on June 30, 2023, was approximately $3.9 billion.

 

Shares of Common Stock, Without Par Value, outstanding at January 31, 2024:

 

 

283,954,995

 

 

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE:

Portions of the Company’s Proxy Statement for the Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held on April 8, 2024 are incorporated by reference in Part III.


THE GOODYEAR TIRE & RUBBER COMPANY

Annual Report on Form 10-K

For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2023

Table of Contents

 

Item Number

Page Number

PART I

 

1

Business

1

1A

Risk Factors

11

1B

Unresolved Staff Comments

21

1C

Cybersecurity

21

2

Properties

23

3

Legal Proceedings

24

 

PART II

 

5

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

25

7

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

26

7A

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

53

8

Financial Statements

54

9

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

115

9A

Controls and Procedures

115

9B

Other Information

115

 

PART III

 

10

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

116

11

Executive Compensation

116

12

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

116

13

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

116

14

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

116

 

PART IV

 

15

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

117

16

Form 10-K Summary

117

Index to Financial Statement Schedules

FS-1

Index of Exhibits

X-1

Signatures

S-1

 

 

 

 


PART I.

ITEM 1. BUSINESS.

BUSINESS OF GOODYEAR

The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company (the “Company”) is an Ohio corporation organized in 1898. Its principal offices are located at 200 Innovation Way, Akron, Ohio 44316-0001. Its telephone number is (330) 796-2121. The terms “Goodyear,” “Company” and “we,” “us” or “our” wherever used herein refer to the Company together with all of its consolidated U.S. and foreign subsidiary companies, unless the context indicates to the contrary.

We are one of the world’s leading manufacturers of tires, engaging in operations in most regions of the world. In 2023, our net sales were $20,066 million and Goodyear net loss was $689 million. We develop, manufacture, distribute and sell tires for most applications. We also manufacture and sell rubber-related chemicals for various applications. We are one of the world’s largest operators of commercial truck service and tire retreading centers. We operate approximately 950 retail outlets where we offer our products for sale to consumer and commercial customers and provide repair and other services. We manufacture our products in 55 manufacturing facilities in 22 countries, including the United States, and we have marketing operations in almost every country around the world. We employ approximately 71,000 full-time and temporary associates worldwide.

AVAILABLE INFORMATION

We make available free of charge on our website, http://www.goodyear.com, our annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports as soon as reasonably practicable after we file or furnish such reports to the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). Our reports filed with the SEC may be found on the SEC's website at http://www.sec.gov. The information on our website and the SEC's website is not incorporated by reference in or considered to be a part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

DESCRIPTION OF GOODYEAR’S BUSINESS

On June 7, 2021 (the "Closing Date"), we completed our acquisition of Cooper Tire & Rubber Company ("Cooper Tire") for cash and stock consideration totaling approximately $3.1 billion. Cooper Tire’s results of operations have been included in our consolidated financial statements since the Closing Date.

On November 15, 2023, following a comprehensive evaluation by the Strategic and Operational Review Committee of the Board of Directors, we announced a transformation plan, known as “Goodyear Forward,” that is intended to optimize our portfolio, deliver significant margin expansion and reduce leverage in order to drive sustainable, long-term shareholder value creation.

Goodyear Forward’s goals are to deliver: (1) gross proceeds in excess of $2 billion from portfolio optimization by pursuing strategic alternatives for our chemical business, the Dunlop brand and our off-the-road tire business, (2) cost reduction actions driving an annual, run-rate benefit of $1 billion by the end of 2025, (3) top line actions driving an annual, run-rate benefit of $300 million by the end of 2025, (4) segment operating income margin doubling to 10% by the end of 2025, and (5) improved leverage by the end of 2025.

GENERAL INFORMATION REGARDING OUR SEGMENTS

For the year ended December 31, 2023, we operated our business through three operating segments representing our regional tire businesses: Americas; Europe, Middle East and Africa (“EMEA”); and Asia Pacific.

Our principal business is the development, manufacture, distribution and sale of tires and related products and services worldwide. We manufacture and sell numerous lines of rubber tires for:

automobiles
trucks
buses
aircraft
motorcycles
earthmoving and mining equipment
farm implements
industrial equipment, and
various other applications.

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In each case, our tires are offered for sale to vehicle manufacturers for mounting as original equipment (“OE”) and for replacement worldwide. We manufacture and sell tires under the Goodyear, Cooper, Dunlop, Kelly, Mastercraft, Roadmaster, Debica, Sava, Fulda, Mickey Thompson, Avon and Remington brands and various “house” brands, and the private-label brands of certain customers. In certain geographic areas we also:

retread truck, aviation and off-the-road ("OTR") tires,
manufacture and sell tread rubber and other tire retreading materials,
sell chemical products, and/or
provide automotive and commercial repair services and miscellaneous other products and services.

Our principal products are new tires for most applications. Approximately 86% of our sales in 2023, 86% in 2022 and 85% in 2021 were for tire units. Sales of chemical products to unaffiliated customers were 2% of our consolidated sales in 2023 and 3% in 2022 and 2021 (4%, 5% and 6% of Americas total sales in 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively). The percentages of each segment’s sales attributable to tire units during the periods indicated were:

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

Tire Unit Sales

 

2023

 

 

2022

 

 

2021

 

Americas

 

 

84

%

 

 

84

%

 

 

82

%

Europe, Middle East and Africa

 

 

88

 

 

 

88

 

 

 

89

 

Asia Pacific

 

 

95

 

 

 

94

 

 

 

93

 

 

Each segment exports tires to other segments. The financial results of each segment exclude sales of tires exported to other segments, but include operating income derived from such transactions.

Goodyear does not include motorcycle, aviation or race tires in reported tire unit sales.

Tire unit sales for each segment during the periods indicated were:

GOODYEAR’S ANNUAL TIRE UNIT SALES — SEGMENT

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

(In millions of tires)

 

2023

 

 

2022

 

 

2021

 

Americas

 

 

87.3

 

 

 

95.0

 

 

 

85.9

 

Europe, Middle East and Africa

 

 

49.9

 

 

 

55.1

 

 

 

52.7

 

Asia Pacific

 

 

36.1

 

 

 

34.4

 

 

 

30.7

 

Goodyear worldwide tire units

 

 

173.3

 

 

 

184.5

 

 

 

169.3

 

 

Our replacement and OE tire unit sales during the periods indicated were:

GOODYEAR’S ANNUAL TIRE UNIT SALES — REPLACEMENT AND OE

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

(In millions of tires)

 

2023

 

 

2022

 

 

2021

 

Replacement tire units

 

 

130.2

 

 

 

143.9

 

 

 

134.1

 

OE tire units

 

 

43.1

 

 

 

40.6

 

 

 

35.2

 

Goodyear worldwide tire units

 

 

173.3

 

 

 

184.5

 

 

 

169.3

 

 

New tires are sold under highly competitive conditions throughout the world. On a worldwide basis, we have two major competitors: Bridgestone (based in Japan) and Michelin (based in France). Other significant competitors include Continental, Hankook, Kumho, Nexen, Pirelli, Sumitomo, Toyo, Yokohama and various regional tire manufacturers.

We compete with other tire manufacturers on the basis of product design, performance, price and terms, reputation, warranty terms, customer service and consumer convenience. Goodyear, Cooper, Dunlop and Mickey Thompson branded tires enjoy a high recognition factor and have a reputation for performance and product design. The Kelly, Mastercraft, Roadmaster, Debica, Sava, Fulda, Avon and Remington brands and various house brand tire lines offered by us, and tires manufactured and sold by us to private brand customers, compete primarily on the basis of value and price.

We do not consider our tire businesses to be seasonal to any significant degree.

AMERICAS

Americas, our largest segment in terms of revenue, develops, manufactures, distributes and sells tires and related products and services in North, Central and South America, and sells tires to various export markets, primarily through intersegment sales. Americas manufactures tires in eight plants in the United States, two plants in Canada and six plants in Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru.

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Americas manufactures and sells tires for automobiles, trucks, buses, earthmoving, mining and industrial equipment, aircraft, and various other applications.

Goodyear brand radial passenger tire lines sold throughout Americas include the Assurance family of product lines for the premium and mid-tier passenger and cross-over utility segments; the Eagle and EfficientGrip Performance families of product lines for the high-performance segment; the Wrangler family of product lines for the sport utility vehicle and light truck segments; as well as the WinterCommand and Ultra Grip family of winter tires. Cooper brand radial passenger tire lines sold throughout Americas include those sold under the Mastercraft and Mickey Thompson brands. Additionally, we offer Dunlop brand radial tire lines, including Signature and SP Sport for the passenger and performance segments; Grandtrek tires for the cross-over and sport utility vehicle and light truck segments; and SP Winter, Winter Maxx and Grandtrek tires for the winter tire segment. Americas also manufactures and sells several lines of Kelly brand radial tires for passenger cars and light trucks including the Kelly Edge A/S, Edge HP and Edge AT. Our Americas commercial business provides commercial truck tires, retreads, services and business solutions to trucking fleets. Cooper brand commercial tires sold throughout Americas include those sold under the Roadmaster brand. Americas also:

manufactures tread rubber and other tire retreading materials for trucks, heavy equipment and aviation,
retreads truck, aviation and OTR tires, primarily as a service to its commercial customers,
sells products and installation services online through our websites, www.goodyear.com for consumer tires and www.goodyeartrucktires.com for commercial tires,
provides automotive maintenance and repair services at approximately 555 Company-owned retail outlets primarily under the Goodyear or Just Tires names,
provides trucking fleets with new tires, retreads, mechanical service, preventative maintenance and roadside assistance from approximately 230 Company-owned locations, primarily Goodyear Commercial Tire & Service Centers,
sells automotive repair and maintenance items, automotive equipment and accessories and other items to dealers and consumers,
sells chemical products and natural rubber to Goodyear’s other business segments and to unaffiliated customers, and
provides miscellaneous other products and services.

In 2023, Americas launched several new consumer tires under the Goodyear and Cooper brands, including the Goodyear Wrangler DuraTrac RT, the Goodyear Wrangler Boulder MT, the Goodyear EcoReady, the Cooper ProControl, the Cooper Cobra Instinct and the Cooper Discover Road+Trail AT. Americas' commercial business launched new tires under the Goodyear RangeMax line, providing a regional drive tire for emerging commercial electric vehicles and new premium retread products under the Fuel Max, ArmorMax and UrbanMax lines for both regional and extreme mixed service customers. Americas also launched new tires under the Cooper WorkSeries and SevereSeries lines for regional and mixed service commercial customers.

Markets and Other Information

Tire unit sales to replacement and OE customers served by Americas during the periods indicated were:

AMERICAS UNIT SALES — REPLACEMENT AND OE

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

(In millions of tires)

 

2023

 

 

2022

 

 

2021

 

Replacement tire units

 

 

73.2

 

 

 

80.5

 

 

 

72.6

 

OE tire units

 

 

14.1

 

 

 

14.5

 

 

 

13.3

 

Total tire units

 

 

87.3

 

 

 

95.0

 

 

 

85.9

 

 

Americas is a major supplier of tires to most manufacturers of automobiles, trucks, buses, aircraft, and earthmoving, mining and industrial equipment that have production facilities located in the Americas.

Americas' primary competitors are Bridgestone and Michelin. Other significant competitors include Continental, Nexen, Pirelli, and imports from other regions, primarily Asia.

The principal channel for the sale of Goodyear and Cooper brand tires in Americas is a large network of independent dealers. Goodyear, Cooper, Dunlop, Kelly and Mastercraft brand tires are also sold to numerous national and regional retailers, in Goodyear Company-owned stores in the United States, and through the wholesale channel, including through TireHub, LLC ("TireHub"), our national wholesale tire distributor in the United States, and a network of aligned U.S. regional wholesale tire distributors.

Our products sold in the United States are subject to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (“FMVSS”) promulgated and enforced by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (“NHTSA”), which has established various standards and

3


regulations applicable to tires sold in the United States and tires sold in a foreign country that are identical or substantially similar to tires sold in the United States. NHTSA has the authority to order the recall of automotive products, including tires, having a defect related to motor vehicle safety or that do not comply with a motor vehicle safety standard. In addition, the Transportation Recall Enhancement, Accountability, and Documentation Act (the “TREAD Act”) imposes numerous reporting requirements with respect to the early warning reporting of warranty claims, property damage claims, and bodily injury and fatality claims. The FMVSS also require tire manufacturers to comply with rigorous tire testing standards. Compliance with these regulations has increased the cost of producing and distributing tires in the United States.

EUROPE, MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA

Europe, Middle East and Africa, our second largest segment in terms of revenue, develops, manufactures, distributes and sells tires for automobiles, trucks, buses, aircraft, motorcycles, and earthmoving, mining and industrial equipment throughout Europe, the Middle East and Africa under the Goodyear, Dunlop, Debica, Sava, Fulda, Cooper and Avon brands and other house brands, and sells tires to various export markets, primarily through intersegment sales. EMEA manufactures tires in fifteen plants in France, Germany, Luxembourg, Poland, Serbia, Slovenia, South Africa and Turkey. EMEA also:

sells aviation tires and manufactures and sells retreaded aviation tires,
provides various retreading and related services for truck and OTR tires, primarily for its commercial truck tire customers,
offers automotive repair services at Company-owned retail outlets, and
provides miscellaneous other products and services.

In 2023, EMEA launched a number of new consumer tires under the Goodyear, Dunlop, Debica, Sava and Fulda brands, including the Goodyear Ultra Grip Performance 3 for the winter high-performance segment, the Goodyear Efficient Grip Compact 2 for the summer segment and the Goodyear Ultra Grip Ice 3 for the Nordic ice segment. EMEA also enhanced its commercial tire portfolio in all product tiers. The Goodyear UrbanMax Commuter has been introduced to address the inter-city people mobility segment, while the Goodyear FuelMax Endurance range, providing better fuel efficiency and lower CO2 emissions across more applications, has been further extended to additional sizes.

Markets and Other Information

Tire unit sales to replacement and OE customers served by EMEA during the periods indicated were:

EUROPE, MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA UNIT SALES — REPLACEMENT AND OE

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

(In millions of tires)

 

2023

 

 

2022

 

 

2021

 

Replacement tire units

 

 

36.8

 

 

 

43.0

 

 

 

41.7

 

OE tire units

 

 

13.1

 

 

 

12.1

 

 

 

11.0

 

Total tire units

 

 

49.9

 

 

 

55.1

 

 

 

52.7

 

 

EMEA is a significant supplier of tires to most vehicle manufacturers across the region.

EMEA’s primary competitors are Michelin, Bridgestone, Continental, Pirelli, several regional and local tire producers, and imports from other regions, primarily Asia.

Goodyear and Dunlop brand tires are sold for replacement in EMEA through various channels of distribution, principally independent multi-brand tire dealers. In some areas, Goodyear brand tires, as well as Dunlop, Debica, Sava, Fulda, Cooper and Avon brand tires, are distributed through independent dealers, regional distributors and retail outlets, of which approximately 40 are owned by Goodyear.

Our European operations are subject to regulation by the European Union. The Tire Safety Regulation sets performance standards that tires for passenger cars and light and commercial trucks need to meet for rolling resistance, wet grip braking (passenger car tires only) and noise in order to be sold in the European Union. The Tire Labeling Regulation applies to all passenger car, light truck and commercial truck tires and requires that consumers be informed about the tire's fuel efficiency, wet grip and noise characteristics.

4


ASIA PACIFIC

Our Asia Pacific segment develops, manufactures, distributes and sells tires for automobiles, trucks, buses, aircraft, farm, and earthmoving, mining and industrial equipment throughout the Asia Pacific region, and sells tires to various export markets, primarily through intersegment sales. Asia Pacific manufactures tires in nine plants in China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia and Thailand. Asia Pacific also:

retreads truck tires and aviation tires,
manufactures tread rubber and other tire retreading materials for aviation tires,
provides automotive maintenance and repair services at Company-owned retail outlets, and
provides miscellaneous other products and services.

In 2023, Asia Pacific released new consumer tires under the Goodyear brand for the premium on and off road market segment, including the Goodyear Wrangler DuraTrac RT, the Goodyear Eagle F1 Asymmetric 6 for the ultra-high performance segment, and the Goodyear Assurance MaxGuard for mainstream passenger vehicles.

Markets and Other Information

Tire unit sales to replacement and OE customers served by Asia Pacific during the periods indicated were:

ASIA PACIFIC UNIT SALES — REPLACEMENT AND OE

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

(In millions of tires)

 

2023

 

 

2022

 

 

2021

 

Replacement tire units

 

 

20.2

 

 

 

20.4

 

 

 

19.8

 

OE tire units

 

 

15.9

 

 

 

14.0

 

 

 

10.9

 

Total tire units

 

 

36.1

 

 

 

34.4

 

 

 

30.7

 

 

Asia Pacific’s major competitors are Bridgestone and Michelin along with many other global brands present in different parts of the region, including Continental, Dunlop, Hankook and a large number of regional and local tire producers.

Asia Pacific sells primarily Goodyear and Cooper brand tires throughout the region and also sells the Dunlop brand in Australia and New Zealand. Other brands of tires, such as Remington, Kelly and Mastercraft, are sold in smaller quantities. Tires are sold through a network of licensed and franchised retail stores and multi-brand retailers through a network of wholesale dealers as well as through an increasing number of on-line outlets. In Australia, we also operate a network of approximately 100 retail stores, primarily under the Beaurepaires brand. During 2023, we approved a rationalization plan in Asia Pacific to improve profitability in our Australia and New Zealand operations which is expected to lead to the sale or exit of these retail and fleet store locations.

GENERAL BUSINESS INFORMATION

Sources and Availability of Raw Materials

The principal raw materials used by Goodyear are synthetic and natural rubber. Synthetic rubber accounted for approximately 50% of all rubber consumed by us in 2023. Our plants located in Beaumont and Houston, Texas supply a major portion of our global synthetic rubber requirements. We purchase all of our requirements for natural rubber in the world market.

Other important raw materials and components we use are carbon black, steel cord, fabrics and petrochemical-based commodities. Substantially all of these raw materials and components are purchased from independent suppliers, except for certain chemicals we manufacture. We purchase most raw materials and components in significant quantities from several suppliers, except in those instances where only one or a few qualified sources are available. The inflationary cost pressures on raw materials that we experienced in 2022 and the first half of 2023 eased in the second half of 2023. We anticipate the continued availability of raw materials and components we will require during 2024, subject to spot shortages and unexpected disruptions caused by natural disasters, such as hurricanes, or other events.

Substantial quantities of fuel and other petrochemical-based commodities are used in the production of tires, synthetic rubber and other products. Supplies of such fuels and commodities have been and are expected to continue to be available to us in quantities sufficient to satisfy our anticipated requirements, subject to spot shortages.

Human Capital Management

At December 31, 2023, we employed approximately 71,000 full-time and temporary associates throughout the world, including approximately 39,700 associates covered under collective bargaining agreements. Approximately 5,300 of our associates in the

5


United States are covered by a master collective bargaining agreement between Goodyear and the United Steelworkers ("USW"), which expires in July 2026. Approximately 2,200 of our associates at our Texarkana and Findlay plants in the United States are covered by separate collective bargaining agreements with the USW, which expire in June 2024. In addition, approximately 800 of our associates in the United States are covered by other contracts with the USW and various other unions. Approximately 20,000 of our associates outside of the United States are covered by union contracts that currently have expired or that will expire in 2024, primarily in Luxembourg, Poland, Brazil, Mexico, China, Slovenia, Turkey, India and Serbia. Unions represent a major portion of our associates in the United States and Europe.

We continue to experience increased labor-related costs and manufacturing inefficiencies associated with the ongoing tight labor supply, particularly in the U.S. To address this issue, we have accelerated hiring as necessary, increased training capacity and started to adjust future investment plans to consider not just the cost, but also the availability of qualified workers.

Engaging and enabling our associates to realize their full potential is one of our core strategies. This starts with attracting top diverse talent and is followed by fostering inclusion, promoting equity through global inclusive leader training, offering opportunities for skill and career development, supporting health and wellness, providing a safe and healthy workplace, making a positive impact in our communities, and expecting our associates to know and comply with our compliance and ethics policies.

Talent Management Our associates are the driving force behind our success. They underpin every aspect of our strategy and help us deliver value to our customers, shareholders and communities. We provide integrated talent management and learning solutions aimed at enabling our associates to reach their full personal and professional potential at Goodyear. We are guided by our talent strategy which focuses on talent attraction, talent development and talent engagement and retention. An example of how we attract talent is through campus recruiting into our intern and job rotational programs utilized by several of our functional teams. We offer a number of tools for talent development including the Goodyear Learning Center, which is our in-house collection of online courses available to all associates. In our manufacturing plants, one of the pillars of our plant optimization efforts is Continuous Skills Development, which focuses on developing problem-solving and decision-making skills.

Diversity and Inclusion A diverse workforce is critical to our long-term success. Embracing and valuing differences allows us to attract top talent, improve associate satisfaction and engagement, foster innovation, and meld varying experiences and perspectives to drive enhanced customer service, business creativity and decision-making. Our goal is to create a work environment where people have a real sense of belonging and are able to thrive. Our commitment is reflected in the policies that govern our workforce, such as our Business Conduct Manual and Global Zero Tolerance policy and is evidenced in our recruiting strategies, succession planning, diversity and inclusion training and Employee Resource Groups (“ERGs”), which are key to our inclusion efforts. Our ERGs provide associates access to coaching, mentoring and professional development, and include ADAPT (Abled and Disabled Associates Partnering Together), Goodyear Asia India Middle East (AIM), Goodyear Black Network, Goodyear Veterans Association, Goodyear Women’s Network, Goodyear Pride Network, HOLA (Hispanic/Latino) and Next Generation Leaders.

Health and Wellness Our wellness initiatives take a holistic view of associate health, including physical, emotional, financial and social health, to enable our associates to thrive and bring their best selves to work each day. Goodyear strives to be at the forefront of corporate wellness, and that goal is the driver behind our “GoodLife” wellness program, which fosters a culture of wellness for all Goodyear associates and their families. To meet the needs of our diverse workforce and their dependents, we offer varying robust benefits packages for our full-time and part-time associates globally.

Workforce Safety and Wellness Our vision is to have the safest operations in the world. We have established a goal of eliminating all serious injuries and fatalities in our workplace. To reduce the risk of serious injuries we invest in systems that enable us to receive reliable and structured data to enable decision making. We also work to improve our industrial hygiene to prevent work-related illness from noise and the substances used in the manufacturing process and we focus on ergonomics using a six-step problem-solving process to reduce injuries and maximize workplace performance.

Community Engagement Collaborating with community organizations energizes our associates and helps us build a better future. Our global strategy and efforts are an extension of our business and are aimed at safe mobility, inspiring students to reach their full potential and reducing our environmental impacts. We encourage our associates to participate in our Global Week of Volunteering.

Compliance and Ethics To “Act with Integrity” is a core component of our global strategy. Each associate is responsible for acting with honesty, integrity and respect every day and everywhere we do business. Our Business Conduct Manual guides our Board of Directors, executive team and all associates globally. We require our global salaried associates to complete training annually on our Business Conduct Manual and periodically on subjects such as workplace respect (including discrimination and harassment), financial integrity, privacy and data protection, competition law, anti-corruption and anti-bribery, and being a compliance leader.

6


Patents and Trademarks

We own approximately 1,700 product, process and equipment patents issued by the United States Patent Office and approximately 4,400 patents issued or granted in other countries around the world. We have approximately 400 applications for United States patents pending and approximately 600 patent applications on file in other countries around the world. While such patents and patent applications as a group are important, we do not consider any patent or patent application to be of such importance that the loss or expiration thereof would materially affect Goodyear or any business segment.

We own, control or use approximately 1,600 different trademarks, including several using the word “Goodyear,” the word “Dunlop” or the word “Cooper.” Approximately 9,200 registrations and 300 pending applications worldwide protect these trademarks. While such trademarks as a group are important, the only trademarks we consider material to our business, or to the business of any of our segments, are those using the word “Goodyear” or the word “Cooper,” and with respect to certain of our international business segments, those using the word “Dunlop.” We believe our trademarks are valid and most are of unlimited duration as long as they are adequately protected and appropriately used.

Compliance with Government Regulations

We are subject to extensive regulation under environmental and occupational safety and health laws and regulations worldwide. These laws and regulations relate to, among other things, air emissions, discharges to surface and underground waters, the generation, handling, storage, transportation and disposal of waste materials and hazardous substances, and workplace safety and health. We have several continuing programs designed to ensure compliance with foreign, federal, state and local environmental and occupational safety and health laws and regulations. We expect capital expenditures for pollution control facilities and occupational safety and health projects to be approximately $80 million in both 2024 and 2025.

We also incur ongoing expenses to maintain and operate our pollution control facilities and conduct our other environmental activities, including the control and disposal of hazardous substances. These expenditures are expected to be sufficient to comply with existing environmental laws and regulations and are not expected to have a material adverse effect on our competitive position. In the future, we may incur increased costs and additional charges associated with environmental compliance and cleanup projects necessitated by the identification of new waste sites, the impact of new environmental laws and regulatory standards, or the availability of new technologies. Compliance with foreign, federal, state and local environmental laws and regulations in the future may require a material increase in our capital expenditures and could adversely affect our earnings and competitive position.

In addition, compliance with complex foreign and U.S. laws and regulations that apply to our international operations increases our cost of doing business in international jurisdictions. These numerous and sometimes conflicting laws and regulations include import and export laws, anti-competition laws, anti-corruption laws, such as the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the U.K. Bribery Act and other local laws prohibiting corrupt payments to governmental officials, data privacy laws such as the European Union's General Data Protection Regulation ("GDPR"), tax laws, and accounting, internal control and disclosure requirements.

Refer to “Description of Goodyear’s Business – Americas” and “Description of Goodyear’s Business – Europe, Middle East and Africa” included in this Item 1, “Business” for information regarding compliance with government regulations in each of those segments.

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Climate Change and Sustainability

We are committed to reaching net-zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions across our value chain by 2050 from a 2019 base year. In addition, we are committed to reducing absolute Scope 1 and 2 GHG emissions by 46% by 2030 from a 2019 base year, and absolute Scope 3 GHG emissions from purchased goods and services, fuel and energy-related activities and upstream transportation by 28% within the same timeframe. In 2023, our science-based near-term and net-zero GHG reduction targets were validated by the Science Based Targets initiative (SBTi).

Climate considerations continue to drive change in the transportation sector. Advanced forms of mobility—such as fleets, autonomous, connected, electric and sustainable vehicles—are transforming the tire industry and have the potential to make driving safer and more sustainable. Companies in the transportation sector are setting ambitious climate goals that require the support of the entire supply chain to achieve. 

Additionally, we have established a robust process that uses internal and external insights to identify, assess and report climate-related risks and opportunities. The move to a low-carbon economy creates growth opportunities within the tire industry that we are well positioned to leverage through our continued innovation. We have a proven track record of producing tires for electric and autonomous vehicles, developing tires and rubber compounds that contribute to reduced GHG emissions by lowering rolling resistance and reducing tire weight, and providing fleet solution services that promote fuel efficiency. We maintain strong relationships with our supply chain partners which, coupled with our global scale, can be leveraged to either avoid or minimize climate-related supply chain disruptions. 

Climate change poses risks that could adversely impact our operations, including risks related to our plans to continue to develop and supply the types of products, services and technologies requested by consumers. Such risks also include an increase in severe weather events that could temporarily disrupt our operations or supply chain or the operations of our customers and the cost of compliance associated with increased climate-related regulations globally, including increased disclosure obligations or being subject to carbon taxes or similar mechanisms in the European Union or the emergence of such programs in other countries. Refer to Item 1A. “Risk Factors” for a discussion of these and our other risk factors. 

Federal, state, local and foreign governments and regulatory agencies continue to consider various options and measures to control GHG emissions in response to climate change. We strive to comply with all applicable laws and regulations, carefully monitor our energy usage and GHG emissions, and set company-wide and facility-specific goals to reduce our operational impacts. As part of our commitment to reduce our operational impact, we continue to focus on reducing energy consumption and emissions in our factories and utilizing renewable energy sources. Goodyear has committed to using 100% renewable electricity in all manufacturing facilities by 2030 and 100% renewable energy in all manufacturing facilities by 2040.

We continue to focus on the resiliency of our supply chain by developing alternative, sustainable material sources and increasing our use of sustainable materials that deliver product performance while meeting our high standards of quality and safety. We also select suppliers that uphold fair working conditions, use sustainable harvesting practices and share our values. Our technology teams work to investigate and incorporate new technologies and materials, including renewable and recycled materials, into our products. Sustainable materials refers to a bio-based (defined as material of biological origin); renewable; or recycled (defined as material that has been reprocessed from recovered or reclaimed material); or one produced using or contributing to other practices designed to promote resource conservation and/or emissions reductions, including ISCC PLUS mass-balance (defined as a certification verifying our capability to track the amount and sustainability characteristics of circular and/or bio-based material in the value chain and attribute it based on verifiable bookkeeping).

In late 2023, we introduced the EcoReady, a commercially available consumer tire made with 70% sustainable materials. This tire is engineered with soybean oil to reduce petroleum-based oil, high-quality rice husk ash silica to help reduce waste going to landfill and sustainably sourced natural rubber. Goodyear has a goal to introduce the industry’s first 100% sustainable material tire by 2030.

 

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INFORMATION ABOUT OUR EXECUTIVE OFFICERS

Set forth below are: (1) the names and ages of all executive officers of the Company at February 13, 2024, (2) all positions with the Company presently held by each such person, and (3) the positions held by, and principal areas of responsibility of, each such person during the last five years.

Name

Position(s) Held

Age

      Mark W. Stewart

Chief Executive Officer and President

56

Mr. Stewart was named Chief Executive Officer and President on January 29, 2024. He is the principal executive officer of the Company. Mr. Stewart joined Goodyear from Stellantis N.V., a leading global automaker and provider of innovative mobility solutions, where he served as Chief Operating Officer of North America and a member of the Group Executive Council from December 2018 to January 2024.

      Darren R. Wells

Executive Vice President and Chief Administrative Officer

58

Mr. Wells was named Executive Vice President and Chief Administrative Officer on January 1, 2023. Mr. Wells served as Goodyear’s Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer from September 2018 to December 31, 2022. Mr. Wells has announced his retirement effective February 29, 2024.

      Christina L. Zamarro

Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer

52

Ms. Zamarro was named Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer on January 1, 2023. She is Goodyear’s principal financial officer. Ms. Zamarro joined Goodyear in 2007 and has served as Vice President, FP&A and Investor Relations (April 2018 to April 2020) and Vice President, Finance and Treasurer (May 2020 to December 31, 2022).

      Stephen R. McClellan

President, Americas

58

Mr. McClellan was named President, Americas in January 2016. He is the executive officer responsible for Goodyear's operations in North, Central and South America. Mr. McClellan joined Goodyear in 1988. Mr. McClellan has announced his retirement effective April 1, 2024.

      Christopher R. Delaney

President, Europe, Middle East and Africa

62

Mr. Delaney was named President, Europe, Middle East and Africa in September 2017. He is the executive officer responsible for Goodyear’s operations in Europe, the Middle East and Africa. Mr. Delaney joined Goodyear in 2015.

      Nathaniel Madarang

President, Asia Pacific

53

Mr. Madarang was named President, Asia Pacific in March 2021. He is the executive officer responsible for Goodyear’s operations in Asia, Australia, New Zealand and the Western Pacific. Mr. Madarang joined Goodyear in 2008 and has served as Vice President, Finance, Asia Pacific (July 2018 to September 2019) and Managing Director, China (October 2019 to February 2021).

      Laura P. Duda

Senior Vice President and Chief Communications Officer

54

Ms. Duda was named Senior Vice President and Chief Communications Officer in January 2019. She is the executive officer responsible for Goodyear’s communications activities worldwide. Ms. Duda joined Goodyear in 2016.

      Christopher P. Helsel

Senior Vice President, Global Operations and Chief Technology Officer

58

Mr. Helsel was named Senior Vice President, Global Operations and Chief Technology Officer in March 2021. He is the executive officer responsible for Goodyear’s global operations and research and development activities. Mr. Helsel joined Goodyear in 1996 and has served as Vice President and Chief Technology Officer (September 2017 to February 2019) and Senior Vice President and Chief Technology Officer (February 2019 to February 2021).

      David E. Phillips

Senior Vice President and General Counsel

48

Mr. Phillips was named Senior Vice President and General Counsel in June 2019. He is Goodyear's chief legal officer. Mr. Phillips joined Goodyear in 2011 and has served as Associate General Counsel, Americas (September 2016 to June 2019).

 

 

 

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Name

Position(s) Held

Age

      Gary S. VanderLind

Senior Vice President and Chief Human Resources Officer

61

Mr. VanderLind was named Senior Vice President and Chief Human Resources Officer in February 2019. He is the executive officer responsible for Goodyear’s global human resources activities. Mr. VanderLind joined Goodyear in 1985 and has served as Vice President, Human Resources - Americas (September 2016 to January 2019).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

      Margaret V. Snyder

Vice President and Controller

39

Ms. Snyder was named Vice President and Controller on March 31, 2023. She is Goodyear's principal accounting officer. Ms. Snyder joined Goodyear in 2020 and has served as Director, Corporate Accounting and Financial Reporting (April 2020 to November 2022) and Controller, Latin America (December 2022 to March 2023). Prior to joining Goodyear, Ms. Snyder was Senior Manager, Accounting & Auditing, at Ernst & Young LLP from October 2015 to April 2020.

No family relationship exists between any of the above executive officers or between the executive officers and any director of the Company.

Each executive officer is elected by the Board of Directors of the Company at its annual meeting to a term of one year or until his or her successor is duly elected. In those instances where the person is elected at other than an annual meeting, such person’s term will expire at the next annual meeting.

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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS.

You should carefully consider the risks described below and other information contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K when considering an investment decision with respect to our securities. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us, or that we currently deem immaterial, may also impair our business operations. Any of the events discussed in the risk factors below may occur. If they do, our business, results of operations, financial condition or liquidity could be materially adversely affected. In such an instance, the trading price of our securities could decline, and you might lose all or part of your investment.

Risks Related to Strategic Initiatives and Operations

If we do not successfully implement the Goodyear Forward plan and our other strategic initiatives, our operating results, financial condition and liquidity may be materially adversely affected.

On November 15, 2023, we announced a transformation plan, known as “Goodyear Forward,” that is intended to optimize our portfolio, deliver significant margin expansion and reduce leverage in order to drive sustainable and substantial shareholder value creation. We believe that the Goodyear Forward plan has ambitious, but achievable, goals. However, the successful implementation of the Goodyear Forward plan may face material challenges, including the ability of management and our employees to focus on implementing the Goodyear Forward plan as well as attending to our ongoing business; retaining key management and other employees; the possibility of faulty assumptions underlying the specific initiatives and goals included within the Goodyear Forward plan and the associated costs of implementing the plan; as well as potential unknown or unforeseen challenges, expenses or delays in implementing the Goodyear Forward plan. As a result, we cannot assure you that we will be able to successfully implement the cost reduction or top line actions in the Goodyear Forward plan or to realize or sustain the anticipated run-rate benefits within the time frames set out in the Goodyear Forward plan or at all.

In addition, our ability to successfully market and sell our chemical business, the Dunlop brand and our OTR tire business is subject to prevailing general and industry-specific economic conditions and certain financial, business and other factors beyond our control. We cannot assure you that we will be able to sell these assets or operations within the time frames set out in the Goodyear Forward plan or at all or, even if we were able to take such actions, that we could do so at prices and on terms that are acceptable to us.

If we are unable to successfully implement the actions set forth in the Goodyear Forward plan or other strategic initiatives, we may not be able to improve our operating results, including our operating margin, generate additional cash flow, or reduce our debt levels and leverage.

We believe that our manufacturing footprint is less cost-competitive than that of our principal competitors. To begin to address this competitive disadvantage, we are closing several high-cost manufacturing facilities and curtailing production of tires for declining, less profitable segments of the tire market. We are also undertaking significant capital investments in building, expanding and modernizing certain manufacturing facilities around the world to strengthen the competitiveness of our manufacturing footprint and increase production of premium, large-rim diameter consumer tires. In addition, plant closures, construction and modernization may temporarily disrupt our manufacturing operations and lead to temporary increases in our costs. The failure to implement successfully this or our other important strategic initiatives may materially adversely affect our operating results, financial condition and liquidity.

We are pursuing other important strategic initiatives, such as our innovation excellence, sales and marketing excellence and operational excellence initiatives. Our innovation excellence initiatives are designed to create leading technologies, products and services that anticipate the mobility and sustainability needs of consumers and fleets. Our sales and marketing excellence initiatives are intended to capture the value of our brands and grow our market share, helping our customers win in their markets and ensuring we are the preferred choice of consumers. Our operational excellence initiatives are aimed at improving our safety, quality and efficiency and creating an advantaged supply chain that delivers the right tire, to the right place, at the right time, at the right cost. If we fail to execute these initiatives successfully or if the assumptions used in developing the initiatives vary significantly from actual conditions, we may fail to achieve our financial goals.

Our performance is also dependent on our ability to improve the volume and mix of higher margin tires we sell in our targeted market segments. In order to do so, we must be successful in developing, producing, marketing and selling products that consumers desire and that offer higher margins to us. Shifts in consumer demand away from higher margin tires could materially adversely affect our business. We have been capacity constrained from time to time with respect to the production of certain higher margin tires, particularly in the United States. When faced with these constraints, we try to alleviate them by utilizing our global manufacturing footprint to meet the demand for our tires and by adding manufacturing capacity. However,

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in spite of these initiatives, we may not be able to meet all of the demand for certain of our higher margin tires, which could harm our competitive position and limit our growth.

We cannot assure you that our strategic initiatives will be successful. If not, we may not be able to achieve or sustain future profitability, which would impair our ability to meet our debt and other obligations and would otherwise negatively affect our operating results, financial condition and liquidity.

We face significant global competition and our market share could decline.

New tires are sold under highly competitive conditions throughout the world. We compete with other tire manufacturers on the basis of product design, performance, price and terms, reputation, warranty terms, customer service and consumer convenience. On a worldwide basis, we have two major competitors, Bridgestone (based in Japan) and Michelin (based in France), that have large shares of the markets of the countries in which they are based and are aggressively seeking to maintain or improve their worldwide market share. Other significant competitors include Continental, Hankook, Kumho, Nexen, Pirelli, Sumitomo, Toyo, Yokohama and various regional tire manufacturers. Our competitors produce significant numbers of tires in low-cost countries, and have announced plans to further increase their production capacity in countries around the globe. Increasingly, our competitors are making decisions on where to produce tires based not only on production cost, but in combination with total delivery cost, supply chain reliability and sustainability considerations. These increases in production capacity may result in even greater competition in the United States and elsewhere.

Our ability to compete successfully will depend, in significant part, on our ability to continue to innovate and manufacture the types of tires demanded by consumers, and to reduce costs by such means as reducing excess and high-cost capacity, leveraging global purchasing, improving productivity, eliminating redundancies and increasing production at low-cost supply sources. If we are unable to compete successfully, our market share may decline, materially adversely affecting our results of operations and financial condition.

In addition, the automotive industry may experience significant changes due to the introduction of new technologies, such as electric and autonomous vehicles, or new services, business models or methods of travel, such as ride sharing. As the automotive industry evolves, we may need to provide a wider range of products and services to remain competitive, including products that we do not currently have the capability to manufacture or services that we do not currently offer. The demand for our products may also decline if automotive production declines and/or total vehicle miles traveled declines, including as a result of increasing fuel costs. If we do not accurately predict, prepare for and respond to market developments, technological innovations and changing customer and consumer needs and preferences, our results of operations and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.

Our capital expenditures may not be adequate to maintain our competitive position and may not be implemented in a timely or cost-effective manner.

Our capital expenditures are limited by our liquidity and capital resources and by the need to pay our other expenses and to maintain adequate cash reserves and borrowing capacity to meet unexpected demands that may arise. We believe that our ratio of capital expenditures to sales is lower than the comparable ratio for our principal competitors.

Productivity improvements and manufacturing cost improvements may be required to offset potential increases in labor and raw material costs, including inflationary increases, and competitive price pressures. In addition, as part of our strategy to reduce high-cost and excess manufacturing capacity and to increase our capacity to produce higher margin tires, we may need to modernize or expand our facilities. We may also need to make additional capital expenditures in order to achieve our global climate ambition and related goals. We are currently undertaking significant construction, expansion and modernization projects globally.

We may not have sufficient resources to implement planned capital expenditures with minimal disruption to our existing manufacturing operations, or within desired time frames and budgets. Any disruption to our operations, delay in implementing capital improvements or unexpected costs may materially adversely affect our business and results of operations.

If we are unable to make sufficient capital expenditures, or to maximize the efficiency of the capital expenditures we do make, we may be unable to achieve productivity improvements, which may harm our competitive position, to manufacture the products necessary to compete successfully in our targeted market segments, or to achieve our global climate ambition and related goals. In addition, plant construction and modernization may temporarily disrupt our manufacturing operations and lead to temporary increases in our costs.

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A prolonged economic downturn or economic uncertainty could adversely affect our business and results of operations.

Deterioration of global or regional economic conditions, including recession, financial instability, inflation, labor shortages or energy availability and costs (including fuel surcharges), could negatively impact our business and our results of operations. A prolonged economic downturn can adversely affect OE production levels and consumer spending habits on replacement tires, resulting in lower-than-expected net sales. Inflation, which has risen significantly, has and may continue to increase our operational costs, including labor, transportation and energy costs, and continued increases in interest rates in response to concerns about inflation may have the effect of further increasing economic uncertainty or creating recessionary economic conditions. As a result, instability and weakness of the U.S. and global economies, including due to recession, inflation, high unemployment, disruptions to financial markets, geopolitical events and public health crises, and the corresponding negative effects on consumer spending, may materially negatively affect our business and results of operations, including impairment charges relating to goodwill, intangible assets, investments and other long-lived assets.

Raw material, energy and transportation costs may materially adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.

Raw material, energy and transportation costs can be volatile. Inflationary cost pressures, among other factors, may cause increases in the prices of natural and synthetic rubber, carbon black and petrochemical-based commodities. Market conditions, including actions by competitors, or contractual obligations may prevent us from passing any such increased costs on to our customers through timely price increases. Additionally, increased demand for consumer products and supply chain disruptions as a result of global events, including disruptions to transportation routes, port congestion and container shortages, has led to inflationary cost pressures on transportation. Higher raw material, energy and transportation costs around the world may offset our efforts to reduce our cost structure. High demand for and/or limited availability of raw materials and other energy sources could result in declining margins and operating results and adversely affect our financial condition. The volatility of raw material costs may cause our margins, operating results and liquidity to fluctuate. In addition, lower raw material costs may put downward pressure on the price of tires, which could ultimately reduce our margins and adversely affect our results of operations. If the Company is unable to obtain adequate sources of raw materials, energy or transportation, its operations could be interrupted. In addition, fluctuations in the price of gasoline for consumers can affect driving and purchasing habits and impact demand for tires.

If we fail to extend or renegotiate significant collective bargaining contracts with our labor unions as they expire from time to time, or if our unionized employees were to engage in a strike or other work stoppage or interruption, our business, results of operations, financial condition and liquidity could be materially adversely affected.

We are a party to collective bargaining contracts with our labor unions, which represent a significant number of our employees, including our collective bargaining agreements with the USW. Our primary collective bargaining agreement with the USW, which covers approximately 5,300 of our associates in the United States at December 31, 2023, expires in July 2026. Approximately 2,200 of our associates at our Texarkana and Findlay plants in the United States at December 31, 2023 are covered by separate collective bargaining agreements with the USW, which expire in June 2024. In addition, approximately 20,000 of our associates outside of the United States are covered by union contracts that have expired or are expiring in 2024, primarily in Luxembourg, Poland, Brazil, Mexico, China, Slovenia, Turkey, India and Serbia. Although we believe that our relations with our associates are satisfactory, no assurance can be given that we will be able to successfully extend or renegotiate our collective bargaining agreements as they expire from time to time. If we fail to extend or renegotiate our collective bargaining agreements, if disputes with our unions arise, or if our unionized workers engage in a strike or other work stoppage or interruption, we could experience a significant disruption of, or inefficiencies in, our operations or incur higher labor costs, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and liquidity.

Our international operations have certain risks that may materially adversely affect our operating results, financial condition and liquidity.

We have manufacturing and distribution facilities throughout the world. Our international operations are subject to certain inherent risks, including:

exposure to local economic conditions;
adverse foreign currency fluctuations;
adverse currency exchange controls;
withholding taxes and restrictions on the withdrawal of foreign investment and earnings;
tax policies and regulations;

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labor regulations;
tariffs;
government price and profit margin controls;
expropriations of property;
adverse changes in the diplomatic relations of foreign countries with the United States;
the potential instability of foreign governments;
hostility from local populations and insurrections or armed conflicts;
risks of renegotiation or modification of existing agreements with governmental authorities;
export and import restrictions; and
other changes in laws or government policies.

The likelihood of such occurrences and their potential effect on us vary from country to country and are unpredictable. Certain regions, including Latin America, Asia, Eastern Europe, the Middle East and Africa, are inherently more economically and politically volatile and, as a result, our business units that operate in these regions could be subject to significant fluctuations in sales and operating income from quarter to quarter. Because a significant percentage of our operating income in recent years has come from these regions, adverse fluctuations in the operating results in these regions could have a significant impact on our results of operations in future periods.

In addition, compliance with complex foreign and U.S. laws and regulations that apply to our international operations increases our cost of doing business in international jurisdictions. These numerous and sometimes conflicting laws and regulations include import and export laws, anti-competition laws, anti-corruption laws, such as the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the U.K. Bribery Act and other local laws prohibiting corrupt payments to governmental officials, data privacy laws such as the GDPR, labor laws, tax laws, and accounting, internal control and disclosure requirements. Violations of these laws and regulations could result in civil and criminal fines, penalties and sanctions against us, our officers or our employees, prohibitions on the conduct of our business and on our ability to offer our products and services in one or more countries, and could also materially affect our reputation, business and results of operations. In certain foreign jurisdictions, there is a higher risk of fraud or corruption and greater difficulty in maintaining effective internal controls and compliance programs. Although we have implemented policies and procedures designed to promote compliance with applicable laws and regulations, there can be no assurance that our employees, contractors or agents will not violate our policies or applicable laws and regulations.

Russia’s invasion of Ukraine and the resulting government sanctions could result in significant macroeconomic consequences, including increased inflationary pressures, market volatility, economic restrictions and business disruptions, which could negatively impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We suspended all shipments of tires to Russia during the first quarter of 2022 and discontinued our Russian operations in January 2023. The war between Russia and Ukraine has not had and is not expected to have a direct material impact on our financial results. Nonetheless, the ongoing conflict has aggravated already challenging macroeconomic trends, including global supply chain disruptions, higher costs for certain raw materials and higher energy and transportation costs. The conflict has led to increases in the cost of energy and the potential for energy shortages, especially in Europe. We have taken steps to offset the increased cost, but we cannot predict the degree to or the time period over which energy costs will increase.

In response to Russia’s invasion in Ukraine, a number of countries, including the United States, the United Kingdom and members of the European Union, have implemented economic sanctions on Russia and certain Russian enterprises and individuals. The conflict could result in further sanctions and embargoes, regional instability and potential retaliatory action by the Russian government, including cyber-attacks. While we continue to take actions to ensure the safety of our associates and the continuity of our business operations, the extent of the conflict’s impact on the global economy cannot be predicted, particularly if the conflict were to intensify or expand.

Financial difficulties, work stoppages, supply disruptions or economic conditions affecting our major customers, dealers or suppliers could harm our business.

Automotive vehicle production and global tire industry demand continues to be difficult to predict. Although sales to our OE customers accounted for approximately 17% of our net sales in 2023, demand for our products by OE customers and production levels at our facilities are impacted by automotive vehicle production. Automotive production and sales are highly cyclical and

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sensitive to general economic conditions and other factors, such as credit availability, interest rates, fuel prices, and consumer preference and confidence. Economic declines that result in a significant reduction in automotive production would have an adverse effect on our sales to OE customers. We may experience future declines in sales volume due to declines in new vehicle production and sales, the performance, discontinuation or sale of certain OE brands, platforms or programs, increased competition, or weakness in the demand for replacement tires, which could result in us incurring under-absorbed fixed costs at our production facilities or slowing the rate at which we are able to recover those costs. At various times, some regions around the world may be more particularly impacted by these factors than other regions.

Automotive production can also be affected by labor relation issues or shortages, financial difficulties or supply disruptions. Our OE customers could experience production disruptions resulting from their own or supplier labor, financial or supply difficulties. Such events may cause an OE customer to reduce or suspend vehicle production. Other customers, such as dealers, retailers or distributors, may experience similar disruptions to their operations. As a result, a customer could halt or significantly reduce purchases of our products, which would harm our results of operations, financial condition and liquidity. We cannot predict when customers will decide to increase or decrease inventory levels or whether new inventory levels will approximate historical inventory levels. Uncertainty and other unexpected fluctuations could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition.

Our suppliers could also experience production disruptions due to labor, financial, supply or transportation difficulties, or new environmental laws or stricter enforcement of existing environmental laws. Any such production disruptions may result in the unexpected closure of our suppliers' facilities or increases in the cost of our raw materials, which would adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

In addition, the bankruptcy, restructuring or consolidation of one or more of our major customers, dealers or suppliers could result in the write-off of accounts receivable, a reduction in purchases of our products or a supply disruption to our facilities, which could negatively affect our results of operations, financial condition and liquidity.

If we are unable to attract and retain key personnel our business could be materially adversely affected.

Our business substantially depends on the continued service of key members of our management. The loss of the services of a significant number of members of our management could have a material adverse effect on our business. Our future success will also depend on our ability to attract and retain highly skilled personnel, such as engineering, marketing and senior management professionals. Competition for these employees is intense, and we could experience difficulty from time to time in hiring and retaining the personnel necessary to support our business. Our ability to attract and retain employees may also be hampered by downturns in the automotive and tire industries, which could result in reduced payments under our incentive compensation plans, as well as by greater competition due to the increase in use of remote working environments. If we do not succeed in retaining our current employees and attracting new high quality employees, our business could be materially adversely affected.

Increasing competition for highly skilled and talented workers, as well as labor shortages, could adversely affect our business.

A number of factors may adversely affect the labor force available to us or increase labor costs, including high employment levels and government regulations. Although we have not experienced any material labor shortages to date, we have observed an increasingly competitive labor market. The increasing competition for highly skilled and talented employees has resulted, and could in the future result, in higher compensation costs and could result in difficulties in maintaining a capable workforce. If we are unable to hire and retain employees capable of performing at a high-level, or if mitigation measures we may take to respond to a decrease in labor availability, such as overtime and third-party outsourcing, have unintended negative effects, our business could be adversely affected. A sustained labor shortage, lack of skilled labor, increased turnover or labor cost inflation as a result of general macroeconomic factors could lead to increased costs, such as increased overtime to meet demand and increased wage rates to attract and retain employees, which could negatively affect our ability to efficiently operate our manufacturing and distribution facilities and overall business and have other adverse effects on our results of operations and financial condition.

We have substantial fixed costs and, as a result, our operating income fluctuates disproportionately with changes in our net sales.

We operate with significant operating and financial leverage. Significant portions of our manufacturing, selling, administrative and general expenses are fixed costs that neither increase nor decrease proportionately with sales. In addition, a significant portion of our interest expense is fixed. There can be no assurance that we would be able to reduce our fixed costs proportionately in response to a decline in our net sales and therefore our competitiveness could be significantly impacted. As a result, a decline in our net sales could result in a higher percentage decline in our income from operations and net income.

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Environmental issues, including climate change, or legal, regulatory or market measures to address environmental issues, may negatively affect our business and operations and cause us to incur significant costs.

Our manufacturing and distribution facilities are subject to numerous federal, state, local and foreign laws and regulations designed to protect the environment, including increased government regulations to limit carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions as a result of concern over climate change, and we expect that additional requirements with respect to environmental matters, including reporting requirements, will be imposed on us in the future. In addition, we have contractual indemnification obligations for environmental remediation costs and liabilities that may arise relating to certain divested operations.

There is also growing concern that carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere may have an adverse impact on global temperatures, weather patterns, and the frequency and severity of extreme weather and natural disasters. In the event that issues related to such climate change have a negative effect on our business, we may be subjected to decreased availability or less favorable pricing for certain raw materials, including natural rubber. Natural disasters and extreme weather conditions may also disrupt the productivity of our facilities, our supply chain or the operations of our customers. If the frequency or severity of extreme weather and natural disasters increases over time, we may experience a greater number of losses at certain of our facilities. Such losses could lead to an increase in the deductibles or cost of insurance for those facilities, a reduction of insurance available to us, or the unavailability of insurance on terms that are acceptable to us.

Our manufacturing facilities may become subject to further limitations on the emission of greenhouse gases due to public policy concerns regarding climate change issues or other environmental or health and safety concerns. While the form of any additional regulations cannot be predicted, a “cap-and-trade” system similar to the one adopted in the European Union could be adopted in the United States. Any such “cap-and-trade” system (including the system currently in place in the European Union) or other limitations imposed on the emission of greenhouse gases could require us to increase our capital expenditures, use our cash to acquire emission credits or restructure our manufacturing operations, which could have a material adverse effect on our operating results, financial condition and liquidity.

Material future expenditures may be necessary if compliance standards change, if material unknown conditions that require remediation are discovered, or if required remediation of known conditions becomes more extensive than expected. If we fail to comply with present and future environmental laws and regulations, we could be subject to future liabilities or the suspension of production, which could harm our business or results of operations. Environmental laws could also restrict our ability to expand our facilities or could require us to acquire costly equipment or to incur other significant expenses in connection with our manufacturing processes.

Risks Related to Our Capital Structure

Our long-term ability to meet our obligations, to repay maturing indebtedness or to implement strategic initiatives may be dependent on our ability to access capital markets in the future and to improve our operating results.

The adequacy of our liquidity depends on our ability to achieve an appropriate combination of operating improvements, financing from third parties and access to capital markets. We may need to undertake additional financing actions in the capital markets in order to ensure that our future liquidity requirements are addressed or to implement strategic initiatives. These actions may include the issuance of additional debt or equity, or the factoring of our accounts receivable.

Our access to the capital markets cannot be assured and is dependent on, among other things, the ability and willingness of financial institutions to extend credit on terms that are acceptable to us or our suppliers, or to honor future draws on our existing lines of credit, and the degree of success we have in implementing our strategic initiatives. We have continued our use of supplier financing programs and the factoring of our accounts receivable in order to improve our working capital efficiency and reduce our costs. If these programs become unavailable or less attractive to us or our suppliers, our liquidity could be adversely affected.

Future liquidity requirements, or our inability to access cash deposits or make draws on our lines of credit, also may make it necessary for us to incur additional debt. A substantial portion of our assets is subject to liens securing our indebtedness. As a result, we are limited in our ability to pledge our remaining assets as security for additional secured indebtedness.

Our inability to access the capital markets or incur additional debt in the future could have a material adverse effect on our liquidity and operations, and could require us to consider further measures, including deferring planned capital expenditures, reducing discretionary spending, selling additional assets and restructuring existing debt.

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We have a substantial amount of debt, which could restrict our growth, place us at a competitive disadvantage or otherwise materially adversely affect our financial health.

We have a substantial amount of debt. As of December 31, 2023, our debt (including finance leases) on a consolidated basis was approximately $7.6 billion. Our substantial amount of debt and other obligations could have important consequences. For example, it could:

make it more difficult for us to satisfy our obligations;
impair our ability to obtain financing in the future for working capital, capital expenditures, research and development, acquisitions or general corporate requirements;
increase our vulnerability to adverse economic and industry conditions;
limit our ability to use cash flows from operating activities in other areas of our business or to return cash to shareholders because we would need to dedicate a substantial portion of these funds for payments on our indebtedness;
limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and the industry in which we operate; and
place us at a competitive disadvantage compared to our competitors.

The agreements governing our debt, including our credit agreements, limit, but do not prohibit, us from incurring additional debt and we may incur a significant amount of additional debt in the future, including additional secured debt. If new debt is added to our current debt levels, our ability to satisfy our debt obligations may become more limited.

Our ability to make scheduled payments on, or to refinance, our debt and other obligations will depend on our financial and operating performance, which, in turn, is subject to our ability to implement our strategic initiatives, prevailing economic conditions and certain financial, business and other factors beyond our control. If our cash flow and capital resources are insufficient to fund our debt service and other obligations, we may be forced to reduce or delay expansion plans and capital expenditures, sell material assets or operations, obtain additional capital or restructure our debt. We cannot assure you that our operating performance, cash flow and capital resources will be sufficient to pay our debt obligations when they become due. We cannot assure you that we would be able to dispose of material assets or operations, obtain additional capital or restructure our debt or other obligations if necessary or, even if we were able to take such actions, that we could do so on terms that are acceptable to us.

Any failure to be in compliance with any material provision or covenant of our debt instruments, or a material reduction in the borrowing base under our revolving credit facility, could have a material adverse effect on our liquidity and operations.

The agreements governing our secured credit facilities, senior unsecured notes and our other outstanding indebtedness impose significant operating and financial restrictions on us. These restrictions may affect our ability to operate our business or implement strategic initiatives, such as the Goodyear Forward plan, and may limit our ability to take advantage of potential business opportunities as they arise. These restrictions limit our ability to, among other things:

incur additional debt or issue redeemable preferred stock;
pay dividends, repurchase shares or make certain other restricted payments or investments;
incur liens;
sell assets;
incur restrictions on the ability of our subsidiaries to pay dividends or to make other payments to us;
enter into affiliate transactions;
engage in sale/leaseback transactions; and
engage in certain mergers or consolidations or transfers of substantially all of our assets.

Certain of the strategic alternatives that we may pursue for our chemical business, the Dunlop brand or our OTR tire business may, depending on the terms of any particular transaction, require a waiver or an amendment of our credit facilities. We cannot assure you that we will be able to obtain waivers from our lenders or amend the relevant covenants in our credit facilities.

Availability under our first lien revolving credit facility is subject to a borrowing base, which is based on eligible accounts receivable and inventory, the value of our principal trademarks, the value of eligible machinery and equipment, and certain cash in an amount not to exceed $275 million. To the extent that our eligible accounts receivable and inventory and other components of the borrowing base decline in value, our borrowing base will decrease and the availability under that facility

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may decrease below its stated amount. In addition, if at any time the amount of outstanding borrowings and letters of credit under that facility exceeds the borrowing base, we are required to prepay borrowings and/or cash collateralize letters of credit sufficient to eliminate the excess.

Our ability to comply with these covenants or to maintain our borrowing base may be affected by events beyond our control, including deteriorating economic conditions, and these events could require us to seek waivers or amendments of covenants or alternative sources of financing or to reduce expenditures. We cannot assure you that such waivers, amendments or alternative financing could be obtained, or if obtained, would be on terms acceptable to us.

A breach of any of the covenants or restrictions contained in any of our existing or future financing agreements, including the financial covenants in our secured credit facilities, could result in an event of default under those agreements. Such a default could allow the lenders under our financing agreements, if the agreements so provide, to discontinue lending, to accelerate the related debt as well as any other debt to which a cross-acceleration or cross-default provision applies, and/or to declare all borrowings outstanding thereunder to be due and payable. In addition, the lenders could terminate any commitments they have to provide us with further funds. If any of these events occur, we cannot assure you that we will have sufficient funds available to pay in full the total amount of obligations that become due as a result of any such acceleration, or that we will be able to find additional or alternative financing to refinance any such accelerated obligations. Even if we obtain additional or alternative financing, we cannot assure you that it would be on terms that would be acceptable to us.

We cannot assure you that we will be able to remain in compliance with the covenants to which we are subject in the future and, if we fail to do so, that we will be able to obtain waivers from our lenders or amend the covenants.

Our variable rate indebtedness subjects us to interest rate risk, which could cause our debt service obligations to increase significantly.

Certain of our borrowings are at variable rates of interest and expose us to interest rate risk. If interest rates increase, our debt service obligations on the variable rate indebtedness would increase even though the amount borrowed remained the same, which would require us to use more of our available cash to service our indebtedness. There can also be no assurance that we will be able to enter into swap agreements or other hedging arrangements in the future if we desire to do so, or that any existing or future hedging arrangements will offset increases in interest rates. As of December 31, 2023, we had approximately $1.5 billion of variable rate debt outstanding.

Risks Related to Information Technology and Intellectual Property

We may be adversely affected by any disruption in, or failure of, our information technology systems.

We rely upon the capacity, reliability and security of our information technology ("IT") systems across all of our major business functions, including our research and development, manufacturing, retail, financial and administrative functions. We also face the challenge of supporting our older systems and implementing upgrades when necessary. Our security measures are focused on the prevention, detection and remediation of damage from computer viruses, unauthorized access, cyber-attack, natural disasters and other similar disruptions. We may incur significant costs in order to implement the security measures that we feel are necessary to protect our IT systems. However, our IT systems may remain vulnerable to damage despite our implementation of security measures that we deem to be appropriate. In addition, we are also dependent on third parties to provide important IT services relating to, among other things, human resources, electronic communications and certain finance functions.

We collect and store sensitive data, including intellectual property, proprietary business information and the proprietary business information of our customers and suppliers, as well as personally identifiable information of our customers and associates, in data centers and on IT networks.

Additionally, we are subject to privacy, data protection, and information security laws and regulations (“Data Protection Laws”) in the United States and in jurisdictions around the globe that restrict the use, disclosure, transfer and processing of personal data. For example, we are subject to the GDPR, the California Consumer Privacy Act (“CCPA”), and the Brazilian Lei Geral de Proteção de Dados. Costs to comply with these Data Protection Laws are significant and the failure to comply with these laws could result in material legal exposure and business impact. The GDPR, for example, imposes onerous accountability obligations on companies, with penalties for non-compliance of up to the greater of €20 million or four percent of annual global revenue. The GDPR, and other Data Protection Laws, also grant corrective powers to supervisory authorities, including the ability to impose a limit on processing personal data or to order companies to cease operations.

The Data Protection Laws are part of an evolving global data protection landscape in which the number, complexity, requirements and consequences of non-compliance with these laws are increasing. This landscape includes legislative proposals recently adopted or currently pending in the United States, at both the federal and state levels, as well as in other jurisdictions,

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implementing new or additional requirements for data protection that could further increase compliance costs, the cost and complexity of delivering our products and services, and significantly affect our business.

Any system failure, accident or security breach involving our or our third party's IT systems could result in disruptions to our operations. A breach in the security of our IT systems could include the theft of our intellectual property or trade secrets, negatively impact our manufacturing or retail operations, or result in the compromise of personal information of our employees, customers or suppliers. While we have, from time to time, experienced system failures, accidents and security and privacy breaches involving our IT systems, these incidents have not had a material impact on our operations, and we are not aware of any resulting theft, loss or disclosure of, or damage to, material data or confidential information. To the extent that any system failure, accident or security or privacy breach results in material disruptions to our operations or the theft, loss or disclosure of, or damage to, material data or confidential information, our reputation, business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.

We may not be able to protect our intellectual property rights adequately.

Our success depends in part upon our ability to use and protect our proprietary technology and other intellectual property, which generally covers various aspects of the design and manufacture of our products and processes. We own and use tradenames and trademarks worldwide. We rely upon a combination of trade secrets, confidentiality policies, nondisclosure and other contractual arrangements and patent, copyright and trademark laws to protect our intellectual property rights. The steps we take in this regard may not be adequate to protect our intellectual property or to prevent or deter challenges or infringement or other violations of our intellectual property, and we may not be able to detect unauthorized use or take appropriate and timely steps to enforce our intellectual property rights.

In addition, the laws of some countries may not protect and enforce our intellectual property rights to the same extent as the laws of the U.S. Further, while we believe we have rights to use all of the intellectual property we use, if we are found to infringe on the rights of others, we could be adversely impacted.

Damage to our brand and reputation could have an adverse effect on our business.

Our well-known and trusted brand names are a key competitive advantage. We believe that our future success depends, in part, on preserving, enhancing, and leveraging the value of our brands and executing our brand strategies, which are designed to drive end-user demand for our products. A decline in the reputation of one or more of our brands as a result of deficiencies or defects in the design or manufacture of our products, or from legal proceedings, product recalls or warranty claims resulting from such deficiencies or defects, may harm our reputation, reduce demand for our products and adversely affect our business.

Risks Related to Litigation, Laws and Regulations

We could be negatively impacted by changes in tariffs, trade agreements or other trade restrictions on imported tires, raw materials and other goods or equipment.

The imposition of new tariffs, changes in existing tariff rates, changes in or the repeal of trade agreements or other trade restrictions may reduce our flexibility to utilize our global manufacturing footprint to meet demand for our tires around the world. In addition, the imposition of tariffs in the United States may result in the tires subject to such tariffs being diverted to other regions of the world, such as Europe, Latin America or Asia, or in retaliatory tariffs or other actions by affected countries. Broad-based tariffs and other trade restrictions could also increase costs for our suppliers who may increase prices to us. Finally, tariffs and other trade restrictions may weaken the economies of key markets for us, such as China, resulting in lower economic growth rates and weakened demand for our products and services. These factors, individually or together, could materially adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition and liquidity.

We may incur significant costs in connection with our contingent liabilities and tax matters.

We have significant reserves for contingent liabilities and tax matters. The major categories of our contingent liabilities include workers' compensation and other employment-related claims, product liability and other tort claims, including asbestos claims, and environmental matters. Our recorded liabilities and estimates of reasonably possible losses for our contingent liabilities are based on our assessment of potential liability using the information available to us at the time and, where applicable, any past experience and recent and current trends with respect to similar matters. Our contingent liabilities are subject to inherent uncertainties, and unfavorable judicial or administrative decisions could occur that we did not anticipate. Such an unfavorable decision could include monetary damages, fines or other penalties or an injunction prohibiting us from taking certain actions or selling certain products. If such an unfavorable decision were to occur, it could result in a material adverse impact on our financial position and results of operations in the period in which the decision occurs, or in future periods.

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The calculation of our tax liabilities involves dealing with uncertainties in the application of complex tax regulations, including with respect to transfer pricing. While we apply consistent transfer pricing policies and practices globally, support transfer prices through economic studies, seek advance pricing agreements and joint audits to the extent possible and believe our transfer prices to be appropriate, such transfer prices, and related interpretations of tax laws, are occasionally challenged by various taxing authorities globally. We have received various tax assessments challenging our interpretations of applicable tax laws in various jurisdictions. Although we believe we have complied with applicable tax laws, have strong positions and defenses and have historically been successful in defending such claims, our results of operations could be materially adversely affected in the case we are unsuccessful in the defense of existing or future claims.

If we wish to appeal any future adverse judgment in any of these proceedings, we may be required to post an appeal bond with the relevant court. If we were subject to a significant adverse judgment or experienced an interruption or reduction in the availability of bonding capacity, we may be required to provide letters of credit or post cash collateral, which may have a material adverse effect on our liquidity.

We have significant deferred tax assets. We must generate sufficient earnings of the appropriate character in order to utilize our deferred tax assets. If our earnings remain flat or decline over an extended period of time, we may not be able to utilize our deferred tax assets and we may need to record a valuation allowance against them that could materially adversely affect our results of operations in the period in which the valuation allowance is recorded.

For further information regarding our contingent liabilities and tax matters, refer to Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements No. 20, Commitments and Contingent Liabilities, and No. 7, Income Taxes. For further information regarding our accounting policies with respect to certain of our contingen