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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from to

img168963129_0.jpg 

Commission file number 000-56132

GREEN THUMB INDUSTRIES INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

British Columbia

98-1437430

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. employer

identification no.)

325 West Huron Street,

Suite 700 Chicago, Illinois

60654

(Address of principal executive offices)

(zip code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code - (312) 471-6720

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

Subordinate Voting Shares

Multiple Voting Shares

Super Voting Shares

(Title of each Class)

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☒ No ☐

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ☐ No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 day. Yes ☒ No ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☒ No ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

Smaller reporting company

Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

 


 

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.

 

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes No ☒

As of February 19, 2024, there were 211,630,766 shares of the registrant’s Subordinate Voting Shares, 37,683 shares of the registrant’s Multiple Voting Shares and 216,690 shares of the registrant’s Super Voting Shares outstanding.

The aggregate market value of the Subordinate Voting Shares, and Multiple Voting Shares, and Super Voting Shares (on an as converted basis, based on the closing price of these Subordinate Voting Shares on the Canadian Stock Exchange) on June 30, 2023, the last business day of the registrant's most recently completed second fiscal quarter, held by nonaffiliates was $1,628,045 thousand.

 

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

 

Part I of this Annual Report on Form 10-K incorporates certain information by reference from the Registrant's Amendment No. 2 Registration Statement on Form S-1 (No. 333-248213) to the extent stated herein under the heading "History of the Company."

 

Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K incorporates certain information by reference from the definitive proxy statement to be filed by the registrant in connection with the 2024 Annual General Meeting of Shareholders (the “2024 Proxy Statement”). The 2024 Proxy Statement will be filed by the registrant with the Securities and Exchange Commission not later than 120 days after December 31, 2023, the end of the registrant’s fiscal year.

 

 

 


 

GREEN THUMB INDUSTRIES INC.

ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K

FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED December 31, 2023

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

Page

PART I

 

 

 

 

ITEM 1.

BUSINESS

 

5

 

ITEM 1A.

RISK FACTORS

 

23

 

ITEM 1B.

UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

 

43

 

 ITEM 1C.

CYBERSECURITY

 

43

 

ITEM 2.

PROPERTIES

 

45

 

ITEM 3.

LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

 

45

 

ITEM 4.

MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

 

45

PART II

 

 

 

 

 

ITEM 5.

MARKET FOR THE REGISTRANTS' COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

 

46

 

ITEM 6.

[RESERVED]

 

49

 

ITEM 7.

MANAGEMENT DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

49

 

ITEM 7A.

QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

 

62

 

ITEM 8.

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA

 

63

 

ITEM 9.

CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE

 

63

 

ITEM 9A.

CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

 

64

 

ITEM 9B.

OTHER INFORMATION

 

64

 

ITEM 9C.

DISCLOSURE REGARDING FOREIGN JURISDICTIONS THAT PREVENT INSPECTIONS

 

64

PART III

 

 

 

 

 

ITEM 10.

DIRECTORS, EXECUTIVE OFFICERS AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

 

65

 

ITEM 11.

EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION

 

65

 

ITEM 12.

SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT AND RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS

 

65

 

ITEM 13.

CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED TRANSACTIONS, AND DIRECTOR INDEPENDENCE

 

65

 

ITEM 14.

PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTING FEES AND SERVICES

 

65

PART IV

 

 

 

 

 

ITEM 15.

EXHIBITS AND FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES

 

66

 

ITEM 16.

FORM 10-K SUMMARY

 

66

 

Index to Consolidated Financial Statements

 

F-1

 

Consolidated Financial Statements and Notes

 

F-1

 

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

 

F-44

 

Exhibits

 

E-67

 

Signatures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

Use of Names

In this Annual Report on Form 10-K, unless the context otherwise requires, the terms “we,” “us,” “our,” “Company,” “Corporation” or “Green Thumb” refer to Green Thumb Industries Inc. together with its wholly-owned subsidiaries.

Currency

Unless otherwise indicated, all references to “$” or “US$” in this document refer to United States dollars, and all references to “C$” refer to Canadian dollars.

Disclosure Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains statements that we believe are, or may be considered to be, “forward-looking statements.” All statements other than statements of historical fact included in this document regarding the prospects of our industry or our prospects, plans, financial position or business strategy may constitute forward-looking statements. In addition, forward-looking statements generally can be identified by the use of forward-looking words such as “may,” “will,” “expect,” “intend,” “estimate,” “foresee,” “project,” “anticipate,” “potential,” “anticipate,” “risk,” “believe,” “plan,” “forecast,” “continue” or “could” or the negative of these terms or variations of them or similar terms. Furthermore, forward-looking statements may be included in various filings that we make with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”), and in press releases or oral statements made by or with the approval of one of our authorized executive officers. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in these forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot assure you that these expectations will prove to be correct. These forward-looking statements are subject to certain known and unknown risks and uncertainties, as well as assumptions that could cause actual results to differ materially from those reflected in these forward-looking statements. Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on any forward-looking statements contained in this document, which reflect management’s opinions only as of the date hereof. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to revise or publicly release the results of any revision to any forward-looking statements. You are advised, however, to consult any additional disclosures we make in our reports to the SEC. All subsequent written and oral forward-looking statements attributable to us or persons acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements contained in this document.

 

4


 

PART I

ITEM 1. BUSINESS

 

Background

 

Green Thumb Industries Inc. is a reporting issuer in the United States and Canada and the Company's Subordinate Voting Shares (as hereinafter defined) are listed for trading on the Canadian Securities Exchange (“CSE”) under the symbol “GTII.” The Company’s Subordinate Voting Shares are also traded in the United States on the OTCQX Best Market (the “OTCQX”) under the symbol “GTBIF.”

 

Originally founded in 2014, Green Thumb began operations in 2015 upon the award of a medical marijuana license for cultivation/processing and retail sale of cannabis in Illinois. The Company has since expanded its operational footprint to 14 U.S. markets, including California, Connecticut, Florida, Illinois, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Nevada, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island and Virginia. Currently, Green Thumb owns, manufactures, and distributes a portfolio of cannabis consumer packaged goods brands, including &Shine, Beboe, Dogwalkers, Doctor Solomon’s, Good Green, incredibles and RYTHM, to third-party retail stores across the United States as well as to Green Thumb owned retail stores (which we refer to as our Consumer Packaged Goods business). The Company also owns and operates retail cannabis stores that include a national chain called RISE Dispensaries, as well as retail stores operating under other names. Our retail stores sell a combination of our products and third-party products (which we refer to as our Retail business).

 

The Company, through its subsidiaries, owns state-licensed medical and/or adult-use marijuana businesses in California, Connecticut, Florida, Illinois, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Nevada, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island and Virginia. The following organizational chart describes the organizational structure of the Company as of December 31, 2023. See Exhibit 21.1 to this document for a list of subsidiaries of the Company. All lines represent 100% ownership of outstanding securities of the applicable subsidiary unless otherwise noted in Exhibit 21.1. In part, the complexity of our organization structure is due to state licensing requirements that mandate that we maintain the corporate identity of our operating license holders.

 

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The registered office of the Company is located at 250 Howe Street, 20th Floor, Vancouver, British Columbia V6C 3R8. The headquarters is located at 325 W. Huron Street, Suite 700, Chicago, Illinois 60654.

 

 

 

 

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History of the Company

 

For information on the history of the Company and the development of the business prior to June 13, 2018, the day our Subordinate Voting Shares began trading on the CSE, see the information set forth under the headings “Business – Our History” and “Business – General Development of the Business” in Amendment No. 2 to our Registration Statement on Form S-1 that was filed with the SEC on February 2, 2021 with Registration No. 333-248213.

 

Financing Activities

 

(i) Senior Secured Notes

 

On April 30, 2021, the Company closed a $216,734 thousand senior secured non-brokered private placement financing through the issuance of senior secured notes (the “April 30, 2021 Notes”) pursuant to the Second Amendment to the Note Purchase Agreement (the “Note Purchase Agreement”). The Company used the proceeds to retire the Company’s existing $105,466 thousand, senior secured notes due May 22, 2023 (the “May 22, 2019 Notes”) and the remaining proceeds for general working capital purposes as well as various growth initiatives. The April 30, 2021 Notes originally had a maturity date of April 30, 2024 and bear interest from the date of issue of 7.00% per annum, payable quarterly, with an option, at the discretion of the Company, to extend for an additional twelve months. The financing permitted the Company to borrow an additional $33,266 thousand over the next twelve months. The purchasers of the April 30, 2021 Notes also received 1,459,044 warrants (the “Warrants”), which allow the holder to purchase one Subordinate Voting Share of the Company at an exercise price of $32.68 per share, for a period of 60 months from the date of issue.

 

On October 15, 2021, the Company amended its existing Note Purchase Agreement with the Second Amended Note Purchase Agreement dated April 30, 2021 (the April 30, 2021 Note Purchase Agreement), for the purposes of borrowing an additional $33,200 thousand, as permitted under the April 30, 2021 Notes Purchase Agreement (the Amended Notes). The additional borrowings have terms consistent with the April 30, 2021 Notes and increased the total amount borrowed to $249,934 thousand. The purchasers of the Amended Notes received an additional 243,303 warrants which allow the holder to purchase one Subordinate Voting Share of the Company at an exercise price of $30.02 per share, for a period of 60 months from the date of issue.

 

On July 14, 2022, Green Thumb announced it exercised its right to extend the maturity date of the April 30, 2021 Notes by one year from April 30, 2024 to April 30, 2025. The extended maturity date did not involve any amendments to the April 30, 2021 Notes or any additional consideration to the existing lenders.

 

From October 19, 2023 through November 30, 2023, the Company repurchased $25,500 thousand of the April 30, 2021 Notes held by unrelated third-party lenders at 95% of their original value. In connection with the repurchase, the Company also wrote-off $350 thousand of the associated unamortized debt discount. The April 30, 2021 Notes have an outstanding principal balance of $224,934 thousand and are recorded net of debt discount, the carrying value of which was $2,775 thousand as of December 31, 2023.

 

(ii) Mortgage Financing Arrangement

 

Low Moor, Virginia Mortgage Note

 

On October 12, 2022, the Company entered into a construction-to-permanent financing arrangement (the “Construction Loan”) which provided funding for the construction of a CPG facility at Low Moor, Virginia in the amount of up to $31,000 thousand.

 

On October 23, 2023, the Construction Loan converted into a $30,998 thousand mortgage note bearing interest of 7.75% per annum, with a maturity date of October 1, 2034.

 

Ocala, Florida Mortgage Note

 

On December 7, 2023, the Company closed on a $15,000 thousand mortgage note associated with its Ocala, Florida CPG facility bearing an interest rate of 7.45% per annum, with a maturity date of December 31, 2028.

 

Cottage Grove, Minnesota Mortgage Note

 

On December 14, 2023, the Company closed on a $17,000 thousand mortgage note associated with its Cottage Grove CPG facility bearing an interest rate of 7.75% per annum, with a maturity date of January 1, 2029.

 

See Note 8 - Notes Payable for details.

 

 

 

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Description of the Business

 

Overview of the Company

 

Established in 2014 and headquartered in Chicago, Illinois, Green Thumb promotes well-being through the power of cannabis through branded consumer packaged goods and people-first retail experiences, while giving back to the communities in which it serves. As of December 31, 2023, Green Thumb has operations across fourteen U.S. markets, employs approximately 4,600 people and serves millions of patients and customers annually.

Green Thumb’s core business is manufacturing, distributing and marketing a portfolio of owned cannabis consumer packaged goods brands (which we refer to as our Consumer Packaged Goods business), including &Shine, Beboe, Dogwalkers, Doctor Solomon’s, Good Green, incredibles and RYTHM. The Company distributes and markets these products to third-party licensed retail cannabis stores across the United States as well as to Green Thumb's own retail stores (which we refer to as our Retail business).

The Company’s Consumer Packaged Goods portfolio is primarily generated from plant material that Green Thumb grows and processes and then use to produce our consumer packaged goods in twenty owned and operated manufacturing facilities. This portfolio consists of cannabis product categories, including flower, pre-rolls, concentrates, vape, capsules, tinctures, edibles, topicals and other cannabis-related products across a range of stock keeping units (“SKUs”) (none of which are individually material to the Company). These Consumer Packaged Goods products are sold in retail locations throughout the thirteen U.S. markets Green Thumb operates in including Green Thumb’s own RISE Dispensaries.

 

Green Thumb owns and operates a national cannabis retail chain called RISE Dispensaries that provides educational and positive retail experiences aimed to deliver a superior level of customer service guided by our knowledgeable Personal Care Specialists while offering a high-quality assortment of cannabis products. In addition, we own stores under other names subject to licensing or similar restrictions. The income from Green Thumb’s retail stores is derived primarily from the sale of cannabis-related products, which includes the sale of Green Thumb produced products as well as those produced by third parties, with an immaterial (less than 10%) portion of this income resulting from the sale of other merchandise (such as t-shirts and accessories for cannabis use). The RISE Dispensaries currently are located in fourteen of the states in which we operate. As of December 31, 2023, the Company had 91 open and operating retail locations. The Company’s new store opening plans will remain fluid depending on market conditions, our ability to obtain local licensing, construction and other permissions and subject to the Company’s capital allocation plans.

 

Financial Highlights and Revenue Streams

 

The Company has generated revenues through its operating businesses from the manufacture, sale and distribution of branded cannabis products to third-party licensed retail customers as well as the sale of finished products to consumers in its retail stores.

 

The percentage of total revenue contributed by operations of the Consumer Packaged Goods segment was 25%, 25% and 31% for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021 respectively. The percentage of total revenue contributed by the Retail segment was 75%, 75% and 69% for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively. See Item 7—“Management Discussion and Analysis of Financial Conditions and Results of Operations” for details on key financial highlights.

 

As of the year ended December 31, 2023, Green Thumb has operating revenue in 14 markets (California, Connecticut, Florida, Illinois, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Nevada, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island and Virginia).

 

 

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Geographic Information

 

Green Thumb operates in 14 U.S. states: California, Connecticut, Florida, Illinois, Maryland, Massachusetts,

Minnesota, Nevada, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island and Virginia.

 

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Product Research, Design and Development

 

The Company’s branded products portfolio includes SKUs across a range of product categories, including flower, pre-rolls, concentrates, vape, tinctures, edibles, topicals and other cannabis-related products. Green Thumb engages in research and development activities focused on developing new extracted or infused cannabis consumer packaged products.

 

Manufacturing

Our branded products are produced in manufacturing facilities across thirteen U.S. states where we cultivate, process and manufacture cannabis consumer packaged goods. Our finished goods production is manufactured by our owned production facilities.

 

We aim to maintain strict brand and quality assurance standards and have implemented standard operating procedures across all production facilities to ensure continuity of product and consistent consumer experience across all operating markets.

 

Sources and Availability of Materials

 

Almost all of the raw material input, except packaging materials, used by the Company to produce finished cannabis consumer packaged goods are cultivated or processed internally for further use in the manufacturing process.

 

Significant Customers

 

Customers of our Consumer Packaged Goods business include legal state-licensed cannabis stores within each U.S. state in which we operate. Green Thumb is not dependent upon a single customer, or a few customers, and the loss of any one or more of our customers would not have a material adverse effect on the business. No customer accounted for 10% or more of our consolidated net revenue during the fiscal years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 or 2021, respectively.

 

 

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Merchandise

 

To meet the array of unique customer needs, we offer a variety of cannabis products at each of our RISE and other retail dispensaries, totaling thousands of SKUs in managed inventory, covering a comprehensive list of packaged product categories including flower, concentrates, topicals (bath and beauty products) and edibles (confection and snacks).

 

We leverage our own retail channel, RISE, and our other stores to distribute our branded product portfolio, such as &Shine, Beboe, Dogwalkers, Doctor Solomon’s, Good Green, incredibles, and RYTHM.

 

All products we sell have passed state-mandated third party testing as required by applicable law to help assure that they do not contain impermissible levels of toxins, microbials or other harmful substances, and that they meet the Company's vendor requirements for quality assurance and reliability. Products are inventoried in a comprehensive seed-to-sale tracking software to minimize product slippage and inventory deviation.

 

Omnichannel Distribution

 

Our primary retail presence is traditional brick and mortar. However, as regulations allow, we expect to continue to expand our e-commerce, in-store guest pick-up and direct to consumer delivery capabilities as part of our commitment to providing a consistent retail brand experience no matter where the consumer might be.

 

Intellectual Property – Patents and Trademarks

 

We believe that brand protection is critical to our business strategy. We regularly seek to protect our intellectual property rights in connection with our operating names (e.g., Green Thumb and RISE), our consumer packaged goods (e.g., &Shine, Beboe, Dogwalkers, Dr. Solomon's, Good Green, incredibles & RYTHM) and certain patentable goods and services. The U.S. trademark statute, The Lanham Act, allows for the protection of trademarks and service marks on products and services used, or intended for use, lawfully. Because cannabis-related products and services remain illegal at the federal level under the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. § 811), we are not able to protect all our intellectual property at the federal level; therefore, we currently seek trademark protections at the state level where commercially feasible. Nonetheless, our success depends upon other areas of our business such as product development and design, production and marketing and not exclusively upon trademarks, patents and trade secrets. The Company also licenses certain intellectual property to and from third parties for the manufacture and sale of consumer products.

 

As the Company became licensed to cultivate cannabis, we have developed proprietary cultivation techniques. The Company has also developed certain proprietary intellectual property for operating hydrocarbon extraction, carbon dioxide extraction, ethanol extraction and solventless extraction, including production best practices, procedures and methods. This requires specialized skills in cultivation, extraction and refining.

 

The Company relies on its code of conduct agreements to protect its intellectual property rights. To the extent the Company describes or discloses its proprietary cultivation or extraction techniques in its applications for cultivation or processing licenses, the Company redacts or requests redaction of such information prior to public disclosure.

 

The Company has sought U.S. patent protection for certain of its Doctor Solomon’s products, namely a utility patent for compositions and methods for treating skin and neuropathic conditions and disorders. Where commercially reasonable, we will seek further U.S. patent protection on other eligible products and services. The Company owns several website domains, including www.gtigrows.com, numerous social media accounts across all major platforms, and various phone and web application platforms.

 

The Company has successfully registered over 100 trademarks across the United States as well as internationally and has additional trademark applications pending. The Company anticipates feedback on outstanding submitted applications on a rolling basis. As such, the Company will continue to rely on common law protection for these brands during the trademark registration process. Moreover, the Company will proactively seek intellectual property protection for brand expansions in current markets as well as any new market expansion. For additional details on the risks associated with the lack of trademark protection, see Item 1A—“Risk Factors” with respect to intellectual property.

 

 

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Joint Ventures

 

We utilize joint ventures and make equity investments in non-affiliated third parties to both comply with state regulatory requirements in certain states and advance our mission to promote a more equitable, diverse cannabis industry. Partnering with one or more non-affiliated third parties provides the Company with the opportunity to mitigate certain operational and financial risks while ensuring continued compliance with the applicable regulatory guidelines. As of December 31, 2023, the Company holds minority interests in several non-affiliated third parties for the operation of dispensaries in Connecticut and Massachusetts, as well as the production, distribution and development of various products. None of these investments or ventures are material to the Company.

 

Working Capital

 

Effective inventory management is critical to the Company’s ongoing success and the Company uses a variety of demand and supply forecasting, planning and replenishment techniques. The Company strives to maintain sufficient levels of inventory of core product categories, maintain positive vendor and customer relationships and carefully plan to minimize markdowns and inventory write-offs.

 

For additional details on liquidity and Capital Resources, see Item 7—“Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”

 

Human Capital Management

 

As of December 31, 2023, Green Thumb employs approximately 4,600 team members including corporate, retail and cultivation and processing, both full- and part-time employees, and including but not limited to: finance and accounting, legal and compliance, supply chain and operations, sales and marketing, commercial and cannabis agriculture, chemists, customer service, construction and project management, real estate, information technology and human resources. We offer a comprehensive package of company-sponsored benefits to our team. Eligibility depends on the full-time or part-time status, employee location and other factors, and benefits include participation in a 401(k) retirement savings plan, medical and dental plans, disability insurance, employee assistance programs and life insurance. Additionally, we believe in aligned incentives and use our employee stock and incentive plan for a competitive total rewards program.

 

Our employees are split across the Company as follows:

 

Corporate:

364

Retail:

2,528

Cultivation and Processing:

1,669

Total

4,561

 

As of December 31, 2023, approximately 575 of our employees at various cultivation and retail facilities have elected to be represented by a labor organization for purposes of collective bargaining.

 

Environmental Compliance

 

Expenditures for compliance with federal, state and local environmental laws and regulations are consistent from year to year and are not material to the Company’s financials. The Company is compliant with all applicable regulations and does not use materials that would pose any known risk under normal conditions.

 

 

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Competitive Conditions and the Company’s Position in the Industry

 

Competition

 

The markets in which the Company distributes its products and operates retail stores are highly competitive. Some of those markets have relatively high barriers to entry due to the licensing requirements. The Company competes directly with other cannabis producers and retailers, some of which operate only in a specific market and some of which operate across several U.S. markets. More broadly, Green Thumb views manufacturers of other consumer products, such as those in the pharmaceuticals; alcohol; tobacco; consumable hemp, including consumable hemp-derived THC variants such as Delta-8 THC and, Delta-9 THC (“psychoactive hemp-based products”); health and beauty; and functional wellness industries, as potential competitors. Product quality, performance, new product innovation and development, packaging, customer experience and consumer price/value are important differentiating factors.

 

The Company faces competition from other companies that may have a longer operating history, a higher capitalization, additional financial resources, more manufacturing and marketing experience, greater access to public equity and debt markets and more experienced management than the Company. Increased competition by larger and better financed competitors could materially affect the business, financial condition and results of operations of the Company. Some of the manufacturing and retail competitors in our markets consist of localized businesses (i.e. doing business in only a single state market). There are also multistate operators with whom the Company competes directly in several of the Company’s operating markets. Aside from this direct competition, out-of-state operators that are capitalized well enough to enter those markets through acquisitions are also part of the competitive landscape. Similarly, as the Company executes its national U.S. growth strategy, operators in any state markets we may enter in the future will inevitably become direct competitors.

 

Because of the early stage of the industry in which the Company operates, the Company faces additional competition from new entrants. If the number of consumers of medical and adult-use cannabis in the states in which the Company operates its business increases, the demand for products will increase and the Company expects that competition will become more intense, as current and future competitors begin to offer an increasing quantity and variety of diversified products. To remain competitive, the Company will require a continued high level of investment in research and development, marketing, sales and client support. The Company may not have sufficient resources to maintain research and development, marketing, sales and client support efforts on a competitive basis, which could materially and adversely affect the business, financial condition and results of its operations.

 

In addition, the Company experiences significant competition for its products from illicit operators who are not licensed pursuant to their state’s cannabis laws and regulations. Moreover, markets across the United States have seen the widespread proliferation of psychoactive hemp-based products. Most psychoactive hemp-based products on the market are derived from the chemical conversion of hemp-derived CBD. These products are marketed in a legal grey area due to ambiguities created in the 2018 Farm Bill (the “Farm Bill”) that effectively legalized hemp (cannabis containing less than 0.3% percent THC) on a national level (“Farm Bill compliant hemp products”). These psychoactive hemp-based products, including Farm Bill compliant hemp products, are frequently not being manufactured and distributed in the U.S by state-licensed cannabis processors and dispensaries. Instead, they are being manufactured and distributed by, for example, convenience stores, gas stations, smoke shops, head shops, and the Internet. These products do not appear to be subject to the testing, packaging, labeling, licensing and other requirements applicable to the Company’s products such as seed-to-sale tracking (which makes product recalls possible) and are being sold without state-mandated cannabis excise taxes applied, thus leading to significant price differentials with the Company’s products.

Given the pricing differential, the absence of the application of Section 280E of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code, as amended (“Section 280E”), state cannabis excise taxes, the continued proliferation of unregulated psychoactive hemp-based products through unlicensed distribution points could ultimately alter certain elements of the current cannabis market in the U.S. Recently, however, several states have begun to promulgate new regulations and interpretations of existing regulations that effectively prohibit the development of these products. If this trend continues, the potential impact of psychoactive hemp-based products on the cannabis market could be blunted. Proposed federal legislation, if passed, could also severely limit or prevent altogether the proliferation of psychoactive hemp-based products.

See Item 1A—“Risk Factors” for more information with respect to competition.

 

 

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Federal and State Regulation of Cannabis

 

Below is a discussion of the federal and state-level regulatory regimes in the jurisdictions where the Company is currently operating through its subsidiaries.

 

Federal illegality of Cannabis

 

The U.S. federal government regulates drugs through the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. § 811), which places controlled substances, including cannabis, in a schedule. Cannabis is classified as a Schedule I controlled substance. A Schedule I controlled substance is defined as a substance that has no currently accepted medical use in the United States, a lack of safety for use under medical supervision and a high potential for abuse. Schedule I controlled substances are federally illegal and the manufacturing, sale and use of cannabis is a violation of federal law.

 

Due to the conflicting views between state legislatures and the federal government regarding cannabis, cannabis businesses are subject to inconsistent laws and regulations. The Obama Administration attempted to address the inconsistent treatment of cannabis under state and federal law in the Cole Memorandum that Deputy Attorney General James Cole sent to all U.S. Attorneys in August 2013. The Cole Memorandum noted that, in jurisdictions that have enacted laws legalizing cannabis in some form and that have also implemented strong and effective regulatory and enforcement systems to control the cultivation, processing, distribution, sale and possession of cannabis, conduct in compliance with such laws and regulations was not a prosecution or enforcement priority for the Department of Justice.

 

On January 4, 2018, then U.S. Attorney General Jeff Sessions rescinded the Cole Memorandum. Despite its rescission, federal prosecutors appear to continue to use the Cole Memorandum’s priorities as an enforcement guide. Attorney General Merrick Garland stated during his congressional testimony in February 2021, that the Justice Department would not pursue cases against Americans complying with laws of the states that have legalized and are regulating cannabis. In October 2022, President Joseph R. Biden, announced that cannabis scheduling under federal law would be reviewed, noting that cannabis is scheduled as more dangerous than fentanyl and methamphetamine, two substances that are driving an overdose epidemic in the country. In October 2022, President Biden also announced a mass pardon of persons who had been convicted of simple marijuana possession under federal law. In December 2022, President Biden signed the Medical Marijuana and Cannabidiol Research Expansion Act into law, which provides for significantly broader opportunities to study cannabis.

 

On August 29, 2023, and in response to President Biden’s directive to review cannabis’s scheduling, the Department of Health and Human Services (“HHS”) formally presented its recommendation to the Drug Enforcement Administration (“DEA”) that cannabis be rescheduled to Schedule III from Schedule I. Section 280E does not apply to those trafficking in Schedule III controlled substances. The DEA, which has final jurisdiction over scheduling decisions, has yet to complete its review of HHS’s recommendation. In December, President Biden built on his previous mass pardon by issuing a presidential proclamation, broadening it to cover convictions for attempted possession of cannabis, as well as convictions under the Code of the District of Columbia and violations of the Code of Federal Regulations.

 

As an industry best practice, the Company continues to employ the following policies to ensure compliance with the guidance provided by the Cole Memorandum:

 

Our operations and our subsidiaries’ operations are compliant with all licensing requirements as established by the applicable state, county, municipality, town, township, borough and other political/administrative divisions; to this end, we retain appropriately experienced legal counsel to help ensure compliance of such operations with all applicable licensing requirements;

 

The cannabis-related activities adhere to the scope of the licensing obtained - for example, in states where only medical cannabis is permitted, the products are only sold to patients who hold the appropriate medical licensing to permit the possession of the cannabis; in states where cannabis is permitted for adult-use, the products are only sold to individuals who meet the requisite age requirements;

 

Our operating subsidiaries must pass a range of requirements, adhere to strict business practice standards and be subject to strict regulatory oversight to ensure that no revenue is distributed to criminal enterprises, gangs or cartels;

 

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We have implemented an inventory tracking system and necessary procedures to help ensure that such compliance system is effective in tracking inventory and preventing diversion of cannabis or cannabis products, and we employ strict customer identification protocols to prevent sales to minors;

 

Our state-authorized cannabis business activity is not used as a cover or pretense for trafficking of other illegal drugs, and we are not engaged in any other illegal activity; and

 

We conduct reviews of products and product packaging to ensure that such products and product packaging comply with applicable regulations and contain necessary disclaimers about the contents of the products.

 

There have been efforts at reforming federal cannabis law. As of December 31, 2023, there were more than a dozen proposed congressional bills addressing a myriad of issues regarding the cannabis industry, from banking and tax reform to full legalization. However, none have passed into law.

 

There does exist a legislative safeguard for the medical cannabis industry, appended to the federal budget bill. For each year since 2015, Congress has adopted a so-called “rider” provision to the Consolidated Appropriations Acts (formerly referred to as the Rohrabacher-Farr Amendment and currently referred to as the Rohrabacher-Blumenauer Amendment) to prevent the federal government from using congressionally appropriated funds to enforce federal law against regulated medical cannabis actors operating in compliance with state and local law. On December 29, 2022, the amendment was renewed as part of the Consolidated Appropriations Acts of 2023, H.R. 2617, which was effective through September 30, 2023. The amendment has since been extended by Continuing Resolutions until February 2, 2024.

 

The sheer size of the cannabis industry, in addition to participation by state and local governments and investors, suggests that a large-scale federal enforcement operation would more than likely create unwanted political backlash for the Department of Justice and the current administration. Regardless, cannabis remains illegal at the federal level. The U.S. federal government has always reserved the right to enforce federal law over the sale and disbursement of medical or adult-use cannabis, even if state law authorizes such sale and disbursement. There is no guarantee that state laws legalizing and regulating the sale and use of cannabis will remain in place or that local governmental authorities will not limit the applicability of state laws within their respective jurisdictions. Unless and until the United States Congress amends the Controlled Substances Act with respect to cannabis, there is a risk that federal authorities may enforce current U.S. federal law criminalizing cannabis.

 

We will continue to monitor compliance on an ongoing basis in accordance with our compliance program and standard operating procedures. While our operations are in compliance with all applicable state laws, regulations and licensing requirements, such activities remain illegal under federal law. For the reasons described above and the risks further described in the section entitled “Risk Factors,” there are significant risks associated with our business. Readers of this Form are strongly encouraged to carefully read all of the risk factors contained in Item 1A—“Risk Factors.”

 

Federal Law and Ability to Access Public and Private Capital

 

Due to the present state of the laws and regulations governing financial institutions in the U.S., banks often refuse to provide services to businesses involved in the cannabis industry and U.S. multistate operators are currently not permitted to list securities on the U.S. securities exchanges. Consequently, it may be difficult for us to obtain financing from large U.S. financial institutions.

 

We have historically, and continue to have, access to equity and debt financing from non-public (i.e., private placement) markets and state-chartered financial institutions. Our executive team and Board also have extensive relationships with sources of capital (such as funds and high net worth individuals).

 

In addition to our working capital, we continue to generate adequate cash to fund our operations from capital raising transactions. Our business plan continues to include growth, in the form of acquisitions and through facility expansion and improvements.

 

However, there can be no assurance that additional financing will be available to us when needed or on terms that are acceptable.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Restricted Access to Banking and Other Financial Services

 

The United States Department of the Treasury's Financial Crimes Enforcement Networks, which we refer to as “FinCEN”, issued the FinCEN Memorandum on February 14, 2014, outlining the pathways for financial institutions to back cannabis businesses in compliance with federal enforcement priorities. These guidelines include burdensome due diligence expectations and reporting requirements. The FinCEN Memorandum outlines the pathways for financial institutions to bank state-sanctioned cannabis businesses in compliance with federal enforcement priorities. The FinCEN Memorandum echoed the enforcement priorities of the Cole Memorandum and states that, in some circumstances, it is permissible for banks to provide services to cannabis-related businesses without risking prosecution for violation of federal money laundering laws. Under these guidelines, financial institutions must submit a Suspicious Activity Report in connection with all cannabis-related banking activities by any client of such financial institution, in accordance with federal money laundering laws.

 

However, the FinCEN Memorandum does not provide any safe harbors or legal defenses from examination or regulatory or criminal enforcement actions by the Department of Justice, FinCEN or other federal regulators for banks and other financial institutions and can be amended or revoked at any time. Thus, most banks and other financial institutions in the United States do not appear comfortable relying on this guidance to provide banking services to the cannabis industry. Banks and/or card networks may also refuse to process debit card payments and credit card companies generally refuse to process credit card payments for cannabis-related businesses. In addition, federal money laundering statutes and regulations under the Bank Secrecy Act, as amended by Title III of the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001, discourage financial institutions from working with any organization that sells a controlled substance, regardless of whether the state in which it operates permits cannabis sales. The inability or limitation on our ability to open or maintain bank accounts, obtain other banking services and/or accept credit card and debit card payments may make it difficult for us to operate and conduct our business as planned or to operate efficiently.

 

On March 7, 2019, Democratic U.S. representative Ed Perlmutter of Colorado introduced the SAFE Banking Act, which would protect banks and their employees from punishment for providing services to cannabis businesses that are legal on a state level. The bill passed with strong bipartisan support in the House of Representatives on September 25, 2019. The House passed the SAFE Banking Act numerous times since then, but it has not passed in the U.S. Senate. On September 27, 2023, the Senate Banking Committee did pass the SAFER Banking Act on a bipartisan vote of 14-9. While the bill has yet to be brought to the Senate floor, the committee vote represents the first occasion a Senate Committee has successfully passed cannabis banking legislation. The bill faces an uncertain future in the current U.S. House of Representatives.

 

State Cannabis Law

 

State laws that permit and regulate the production, distribution and use of cannabis for adult-use or medical purposes are in direct conflict with federal law. Although certain states and territories of the U.S. authorize medical and/or adult-use cannabis production and distribution by licensed or registered entities, under U.S. federal law, the possession, use, cultivation and transfer of cannabis and any related drug paraphernalia are criminal acts under the Controlled Substances Act. Although the Company’s activities are believed to be compliant with applicable state and local laws, strict compliance with state and local laws with respect to cannabis may neither absolve the Company of liability under U.S. federal law, nor may it provide a defense to any federal proceeding that may be brought against the Company.

 

As of December 31, 2023, 38 states (and the territories of Guam, Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, the Northern Mariana Islands and the District of Columbia), have legalized the cultivation and sale of cannabis for medical purposes. In 24 of those states, the sale and possession of cannabis is legal for both medical and adult-use, and the District of Columbia has legalized adult-use but not commercial sale.

 

Company’s Medical-Only Markets

 

All of the medical-only markets in which the Company does business (Florida and Pennsylvania, and until their adult-use programs launch, Ohio, Minnesota and Virginia) have written regulations that impose limitations on the number of cannabis business licenses that can be awarded by the state. In each of these markets, we have a proven track record of: (i) entering the market through state-granted awards based on the merit of our application and business plans; and/or (ii) expanding market reach through accretive mergers, acquisitions, and partnership ventures. Each medical use market that also has a legal adult-use market (including Illinois, California, Connecticut, Maryland, Massachusetts, Nevada, New Jersey, New York and Rhode Island) has regulations specifying which medical conditions qualify a patient for a license to purchase cannabis, and generally require the approval from a physician. Ohio, Minnesota and Virginia have also legalized adult-use cannabis, but have not fully launched their adult-use programs. Ohio adult use sales are expected to begin in Q4 2024. Minnesota adult use sales are expected to begin in Q1 2025. In Virginia, there is currently no date for the start of adult-use retail sales.

 

 

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Company’s Adult-Use Markets

 

The Company has adult-use operations in California, Connecticut, Illinois, Maryland, Massachusetts, Nevada, New Jersey, New York and Rhode Island. Many of the adult-use markets in which the Company operates have fewer barriers to entry and more closely reflect free market dynamics typically seen in mature retail and manufacturing industries. The growth of these markets poses a risk of increased competition. However, management views the Company’s market share as less at risk than operators without a current operating footprint due to our established brand recognition and supply and distribution chains. Purchasers of adult-use cannabis generally are subject to higher sales taxes than those that apply to purchasers who are authorized for medical purposes. However, anecdotal evidence suggests that some consumers who meet the criteria to apply for medical licenses make adult-use purchases and avoid pursuing a state’s medical registration/qualification process.

 

Regulatory Environment in States Where We Operate

 

The risk of federal enforcement and other risks associated with the Company’s business are described in Item 1A—“Risk Factors.”

 

Regulation of the Cannabis Market at State and Local Level

 

Following the thesis that distributing brands at scale will win, we enter markets where we believe that we can profitably and sustainably operate and command significant market share, and thus maximize consumer and brand awareness.

 

Each state in which we operate specifies the types of cannabis licenses that are required for the various activities in which we engage. There are three primary types of licenses: cultivation, processing, and retail/dispensary. Cultivation licenses generally permit the holder to acquire and cultivate cannabis and sell that cannabis to dispensaries or processors. Some states allow cultivation license holders to process cannabis into cannabis-infused products as well, while other states require a separate processing license for this activity. Retail dispensary licenses permit the holder to purchase cannabis from cultivation or processing facilities and sell those products to individuals approved under their state’s medical cannabis program or, where adult-use is permitted, to adults over the age of 21. Some states require a separate license for each activity, while others issue a single vertically integrated license that allows the holder to cultivate, process, and sell cannabis.

 

Below is a summary overview of the regulatory and competitive frameworks in each of our operating markets.

 

California

 

California was the first state to legalize medical cannabis through Proposition 215, the Compassionate Use Act of 1996.

 

In September 2015, the California legislature passed three bills collectively known as the Medical Cannabis Regulation and Safety Act. In November 2016, voters in California overwhelmingly passed Proposition 64, the Adult-Use of Marijuana Act creating an adult-use cannabis program for adults 21 years of age or older. The Medicinal and Adult-Use Cannabis Regulation and Safety Act, which provides for a single set of regulations to govern a medical and adult-use licensing went into effect on January 1, 2018.

 

The three agencies that regulate cannabis at the state level are: (a) the California Department of Food and Agriculture, via CalCannabis, which issues licenses to cannabis cultivators; (b) the California Department of Public Health, via the Manufactured Cannabis Safety Branch, which issues licenses to cannabis manufacturers; and (c) the California Department of Consumer Affairs, via the Bureau of Cannabis Control, which issues licenses to cannabis distributors, testing laboratories, retailers and micro-businesses.

 

California License and Regulations

 

In order to legally operate a medical or adult-use cannabis business in California, the operator must have both a local and state license. This requires license holders to operate in cities with cannabis licensing programs. Municipalities in California are allowed to determine the number of licenses they will issue to cannabis operators or can choose to ban cannabis businesses outright.

 

In 2021, we opened our first California retail operation in Pasadena. We follow all regulatory requirements regarding the reporting of inventory movement and sale, as well as all other data reporting and record retention requirements mandated by California.

 

 

 

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Connecticut

 

Connecticut’s medical cannabis program was introduced in May 2012 when the General Assembly passed legislation PA 12-55 “An Act Concerning the Palliative Use of Marijuana,” providing for the use of cannabis in the state by approved patients with written consent from a physician or advanced practice nurse. In June 2021, PA 21-1 was signed into law, legalizing adult-use cannabis as of July 1, 2021. On July 1, 2021, PA 21-1 went into effect, allowing for the purchase and use of cannabis by any adult over the age of 21. The first adult-use sales in the state began in January 2023.

 

Connecticut Licenses and Regulations

 

The Connecticut Department of Consumer Protection has issued regulations regarding the Medical Marijuana and Adult-use Programs in Connecticut.

 

There are two principal medical cannabis license categories in Connecticut: (1) cultivation/processing and (2) dispensary. We are licensed to operate one hybrid adult-use/medical cannabis cultivation/processing facility two medical cannabis dispensaries and one hybrid adult-use/medical cannabis dispensary. All licenses are, as of the date hereof, active with the State of Connecticut. Each facility licensee is independently issued.

 

We follow all regulatory requirements regarding the reporting of inventory movement and sale, as well as all other data reporting and record retention requirements mandated by Connecticut.

 

Florida

 

In 2016, the Florida Medical Marijuana Legalization Initiative was introduced by citizen referendum and passed on November 8, 2016. This language, known as “Amendment 2,” amended the state constitution and mandated an expansion of the state’s medical cannabis program, which was previously limited to patients suffering from a diagnosed terminal condition.

 

Amendment 2, and the resulting expansion of qualifying medical conditions, became effective on January 3, 2017. On June 9, 2017, the Florida House of Representatives and Florida Senate passed respective legislation to implement the expanded program, which officially became law on June 23, 2017.

 

Florida Licenses and Regulations

 

There is one principal license category in Florida: the vertically-integrated Medical Marijuana Treatment Centers (“MMTC”) license. Licenses are issued by the Florida Department of Health, Office of Medical Marijuana Use, and license holders can only own one license. There is no limit on the number of facilities that can be operated under an MMTC license. We currently are approved to operate two medical cannabis cultivation/processing facilities and fourteen medical cannabis dispensaries under our single MMTC license. All operating facilities are, as of the date hereof, active with the State of Florida.

 

As our operations in Florida are vertically-integrated, we are able to cultivate, harvest, process and sell/dispense/deliver our own medical cannabis products.

 

We follow all regulatory requirements regarding the reporting of inventory movement and sale, as well as all other data reporting and record retention requirements mandated by Florida.

 

Illinois

 

In 2013, the Illinois General Assembly passed the Compassionate Use of Medical Cannabis Pilot Program Act, which went into effect on January 1, 2014, allowing the use of cannabis in the state by approved patients with written medical consent. In June 2019, the Governor signed the Cannabis Regulation and Tax Act, legalizing cannabis for adult-use and the law went into effect on June 25, 2019. Adult-use sales of cannabis began in the state on January 1, 2020.

 

 

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Illinois Licenses and Regulations

 

There are four principal license categories in Illinois: (1) cultivation (which includes processing); (2) infusing; (3) transportation; and (4) dispensary. Dispensaries are regulated by the Illinois Department of Financial and Professional Regulation; the remainder are regulated by the Department of Agriculture. Licenses are independently issued for each approved activity for use at our facilities in Illinois. We have two cultivation facilities operating under two cultivation licenses. We have 10 operating dispensaries, which is the statutory cap, operating under 15 total licenses (10 adult-use dispensary licenses and 5 medical dispensary licenses). By applicable law, we are not permitted to add medical dispensary licenses to the 5 locations that only have adult-use sales.

 

We follow all regulatory requirements regarding the reporting of inventory movement and sale, as well as all other data reporting and record retention requirements mandated by Illinois.

 

Maryland

 

In 2014, the Maryland legislature passed HB 881/SB 923, establishing a comprehensive medical cannabis program and the program became operational on December 1, 2017. The Maryland Medical Cannabis Commission regulates the state program, which allows the use of cannabis in the state by approved patients with written medical consent.

 

In November 2022, a ballot question passed legalizing possession of up to 1.5 ounces of cannabis and home cultivation of up to two plants beginning July 1, 2023. On May 3, 2023, Maryland Governor Moore signed the Cannabis Reform Act, authorizing existing medical dispensaries to transition their licenses into dual medical and adult-use sales by July 1, 2023. The legislation also established the Maryland Cannabis Administration to oversee and regulate Maryland’s cannabis program and to issue additional grower, processor, and dispensary licenses, and newly created micro-grower, micro-processor, micro-dispensary, incubator, and on-site consumption licenses over two licensing application rounds. Adult-use sales in Maryland began on July 1, 2023.

 

Maryland Licenses and Regulations

 

There are three principal license categories in Maryland as of January 2023: (1) cultivation, (2) processing and (3) dispensary. There is generally no distinction between medical and adult-use licenses. We own one cultivation license, one processing license and four retail dispensaries. All licenses are, as of the date hereof, active with the State of Maryland. The licenses are independently issued for each approved activity.

 

We follow all regulatory requirements regarding the reporting of inventory movement and sale, as well as all other data reporting and record retention requirements mandated by Maryland.

 

Massachusetts

 

Massachusetts legalized medical cannabis when voters passed a ballot initiative in 2012. The law took effect on January 1, 2013. Adult-use cannabis became legal in Massachusetts as of December 15, 2016, following a ballot initiative in November 2016. In September 2017, the Cannabis Control Commission was established to regulate medical and adult-use of cannabis in the state.

 

Massachusetts Licenses and Regulations

 

On the medical side, there is one principal license category in Massachusetts: a vertically integrated Medical Marijuana Treatment Center (“MTC”) license. MTCs grow, process and dispense their own cannabis. On the adult-use side, there are many license categories, but the two principal ones are Marijuana Cultivator and Marijuana Establishment (dispensary).

 

The Cannabis Control Commission, a regulatory body created in 2018, oversees the medical and adult-use programs, including licensing of cultivation, processing and dispensary facilities. Licensed medical dispensaries are given priority status in adult-use licensing.

 

We have two MTCs in Massachusetts, which include two medical cultivation facilities and two medical retail dispensaries. We have three adult-use dispensaries and one adult-use cultivation center.

 

We follow all regulatory requirements regarding the reporting of inventory movement and sale, as well as all other data reporting and record retention requirements mandated by Massachusetts.

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Minnesota

 

In 2014, Minnesota created a medical cannabis program for patients with qualifying medical conditions upon physician, physician assistant or nurse practitioner recommendation.

 

Minnesota License and Regulations

 

There is one category of licensure in Minnesota: medical cannabis manufacturer.

 

A medical cannabis manufacturer is an entity registered with the Commissioner of Health that can cultivate, acquire, manufacture, possess, prepare, transfer, transport, supply, and dispense medical cannabis.

 

The main regulatory body for cannabis is the Minnesota Department of Health, Office of Medical Cannabis.

 

As of December 31, 2023, we have one cultivation and processing facility and seven operating dispensaries in Minnesota.

 

In 2022, Minnesota made changes to a hemp statute (Minn. Stat. 151.72), permitting the sale of “low-dose” hemp derived THC products (psychoactive hemp-based products), including edibles, beverages, and topicals, in retail outlets like grocery and convenience stores upon licensure from the State. On June 6, 2023, Minnesota Governor Tim Walz signed the Minnesota Adult Use Cannabis Act creating a framework for adult-use legalization and establishing the Office of Cannabis Management (OCM), which is responsible for regulating cannabis and hemp. Retail sales of Cannabis under the adult-use statute are expected to begin in the first quarter of 2025.
 

We follow all regulatory requirements regarding the reporting of inventory movement and sale, as well as all other data reporting and record retention requirements mandated by Minnesota.

 

Nevada

 

Nevada became a medical cannabis state in 2001. In 2013, the Nevada legislature passed SB374, providing for state licensing of medical cannabis establishments. On November 8, 2016, Nevada voters passed NRS 435D by ballot initiative allowing for the sale of cannabis for adult-use starting on July 1, 2017. On June 12, 2019, the laws were revised, creating the Nevada Cannabis Compliance Board to oversee administration of the program. The new laws also provided that each cannabis establishment must obtain a license from its local jurisdiction as well as the state.

 

Nevada Licenses and Regulations

 

There are three principal license categories in Nevada: (1) cultivation, (2) processing and (3) dispensary. We are licensed to operate two medical and adult-use cultivation facilities, three medical and adult-use processing facilities, five medical dispensary licenses and up to thirteen adult-use retail locations. All licenses are, as of the date hereof, active with the State of Nevada. The licenses are independently issued for each approved activity for use at our facilities in Nevada.

 

We follow all regulatory requirements regarding the reporting of inventory movement and sale, as well as all other data reporting and record retention requirements mandated by Nevada.

 

New Jersey

 

On January 18, 2010, the governor of New Jersey signed into law S.119, the Compassionate Use Medical Marijuana Act, providing for permitting the use of medical cannabis with physician approval.

 

On July 2, 2019, the governor of New Jersey signed the Jake Honig Compassionate Use Medical Cannabis Act into law, which amended the Compassionate Use Medical Marijuana Act to allow for more license types.

 

After voters approved a ballot measure in November 2019, the governor of New Jersey signed three bills into law in 2021 that establish an adult-use program for adults who are at least 21 years old. New Jersey began adult-use sales on April 1, 2022.

 

 

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New Jersey Licenses and Regulations

 

The New Jersey Cannabis Regulatory Commission is responsible for regulating cannabis in New Jersey. License types in New Jersey include vertically integrated medical Alternative Treatment Centers and medical or adult-use cultivator, dispensary, and manufacturer licenses.

 

We are licensed to operate two adult-use/medical cultivation facilities, one of which is co-located with a processing facility, one retail medical cannabis dispensary and two retail adult-use/medical dispensaries in the state of New Jersey. All licenses are, as of the date hereof, active with the State of New Jersey. The licenses are independently issued for each approved activity for use at our facilities in New Jersey.

 

We follow all regulatory requirements regarding the reporting of inventory movement and sale, as well as all other data reporting and record retention requirements mandated by New Jersey.

 

New York

 

In July 2014, the New York Legislature and Governor enacted the Compassionate Care Act to provide a comprehensive, safe and effective medical cannabis program. The Compassionate Care Act provides access to the program for those who suffer from qualifying conditions and have a physician's recommendation.

 

In 2021, the Marijuana Regulation and Tax Act (“MRTA”) was signed into law. The MRTA legalized adult-use cannabis and established the New York Office of Cannabis Management, which continues to promulgate rules and regulations.

 

New York Licenses and Regulations

 

The Office of Cannabis Management is the regulatory agency that oversees the adult-use and medical cannabis program in New York. There is currently one principal medical license category in New York: Registered Organization (a vertically integrated license).

 

We hold a Registered Organization Adult-use Cultivator Processor Distributor Retail Dispensary (“ROD”) license. Under our ROD license, we operate one cultivation/manufacturing facility and five medical cannabis dispensaries. One of our medical dispensaries has co-located adult-use sales. Under the MRTA we may open an additional four medical dispensaries and we may co-locate adult-use sales at a total of three of our medical dispensaries over time. All operating facilities are, as of the date hereof, active with the State of New York.

 

We follow all regulatory requirements regarding the reporting of inventory movement and sale, as well as all other data reporting and record retention requirements mandated by New York.

 

Ohio

 

House Bill 523, effective on September 8, 2016, legalized medical cannabis in Ohio. The Ohio Medical Marijuana Control Program allows people with certain medical conditions, upon the recommendation of an Ohio-licensed physician certified by the State Medical Board, to purchase and use medical cannabis.

 

On November 7, 2023, Ohio voters legalized adult-use cannabis by ballot measure. The new law establishes the Division of Cannabis Control within the Department of Commerce to oversee and regulate the adult-use market and requires state officials to promulgate rules creating new cannabis business applications within six months and to license existing medical cannabis businesses within nine months of enactment.

 

 

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Ohio License and Regulations

 

There are three principal license categories in Ohio: (1) cultivation, (2) processing and (3) dispensary. We are licensed to operate one medical cannabis cultivation facility, one medical cannabis processing facility and five retail medical cannabis dispensaries in the state of Ohio, which is the statutory limit. All licenses are, as of the date hereof, active with the State of Ohio. The licenses are independently issued for each approved activity for use at our facilities in Ohio.

 

The three following state government agencies are responsible for the operation of Ohio’s Medical Marijuana Control Program: (1) the Ohio Department of Commerce oversees medical cannabis cultivators, processors and testing laboratories; (2) the State of Ohio Board of Pharmacy oversees medical cannabis retail dispensaries, the registration of medical cannabis patients and caregivers, the approval of new forms of medical cannabis and coordinating the Medical Marijuana Advisory Committee; and (3) the State Medical Board of Ohio certifies physicians to recommend medical cannabis and may add to the list of qualifying conditions for which medical cannabis can be recommended. The Department of Commerce's Division of Cannabis Control oversees and regulates the adult-use market.

 

We follow all regulatory requirements regarding the reporting of inventory movement and sale, as well as all other data reporting and record retention requirements mandated by Ohio.

 

Pennsylvania

 

The Pennsylvania medical cannabis program was signed into law on April 17, 2016, under Act 16 and provided access to state residents with qualifying conditions.

 

Pennsylvania Licenses and Regulations

 

There are two principal license categories in Pennsylvania: (1) cultivation/processing and (2) dispensary. Our subsidiary GTI Pennsylvania, LLC is licensed to operate a medical cultivation/processing facility and is also licensed to operate medical retail locations. Our subsidiary KW Ventures Holdings, LLC is also licensed to operate medical retail locations. All licenses are, as of the date hereof, active with the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. The licenses are independently issued for each approved activity for use at our facilities in Pennsylvania.

 

All licenses are, as of the date hereof, active with the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Each license is independently issued.

 

All cultivation/processing establishments and dispensaries must register with the Pennsylvania Department of Health.
 

 

We follow all regulatory requirements regarding the reporting of inventory movement and sale, as well as all other data reporting and record retention requirements mandated by Pennsylvania.

 

Rhode Island

 

Rhode Island legalized medical cannabis in 2006. Under this law, Rhode Island offers medical cannabis registration cards for patients with qualifying conditions and physician approval.

 

After a successful ballot measure, Rhode Island’s governor signed two measures into law in May of 2022 approving sales in the state for adults who are at least 21 years old. Adult-use sales commenced on December 1, 2022 for the five licensed medical cannabis compassion centers which were approved for hybrid retail licenses. These hybrid retail licenses allow the centers to sell both medical and adult-use cannabis products in retail settings.

 

Rhode Island Licensure and Regulations

 

There are two categories of medical cannabis licensure in Rhode Island: compassion center (which includes cultivation and dispensary) and cultivator. The program is overseen by the Rhode Island Department of Business Regulation, Office of Cannabis Regulation.

 

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After the passage of Rhode Island’s adult-use law in 2022, existing operators became eligible to receive hybrid licenses, allowing them to cultivate and/or sell cannabis to adults ages 21 and over. The Cannabis Control Commission oversees the regulation, licensing enforcement and control of the medical and adult-use cannabis programs.

 

We follow all regulatory requirements regarding the reporting of inventory movement and sale, as well as all other data reporting and record retention requirements mandated by Rhode Island.

 

Virginia

 

In 2017, Virginia passed a law that allowed patients suffering from intractable epilepsy access to CBD or THC-A oil. In 2018, this law was significantly expanded, which allowed any medical condition to qualify with state-certified physician, nurse practitioner or physician assistant recommendation. The next year, the law was amended to allow for higher potency THC. In February 2021, cannabis was legalized for adult-use. There is currently no date for the start of adult-use retail sales.

 

Virginia License and Regulations

 

There are currently two principal license categories in Virginia: (1) pharmaceutical processing and (2) dispensing. The primary regulatory body for cannabis is the Virginia Department of Health Professions: Board of Pharmacy. A pharmaceutical processor must obtain a permit from the Board of Pharmacy.

 

A cannabis dispensing facility is owned, at least in part, by a pharmaceutical processor.

 

We have one pharmaceutical processor permit and six dispensary permits. We have the right to open two more dispensaries pending regulatory approval.

 

We follow all regulatory requirements regarding the reporting of inventory movement and sale, as well as all other data reporting and record retention requirements mandated by Virginia.

 

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State License Renewal Requirements

 

For each of our provisional and operational licenses, the states impose strict license renewal requirements that vary state by state. We generally must complete the renewal application process within a prescribed period of time prior to the expiration date and pay an application fee. The state licensing body can deny or revoke licenses and renewals for a variety of reasons, including (a) submission of materially inaccurate, incomplete or fraudulent information, (b) failure of the company or any of its directors or officers to comply, or have a history of non-compliance, with any applicable law or regulation, including laws relating to minimum age of customers, safety and non-diversion of cannabis or cannabis products, taxes, child support, workers compensation and insurance coverage, or failure to otherwise remain in good standing (c) failure to submit or implement a plan of correction for any identified violation, (d) attempting to assign registration to another entity without state approval, (e) insufficient financial resources, (f) committing, permitting, aiding or abetting of any illegal practices in the operation of a facility, (g) failure to cooperate or give information to relevant law enforcement related to any matter arising out of conduct at a licensed facility and (h) lack of responsible operations, as evidenced by negligence, disorderly or unsanitary facilities or permitting a person to use a registration card belonging to another person. Certain jurisdictions also require licensees to attend a public hearing or forum in connection with their license renewal application.

 

Newly Established Legal Regime

 

Our business activities rely on newly established and/or developing laws and regulations in the states in which we operate. These laws and regulations are rapidly evolving and subject to change with minimal notice. Regulatory changes may adversely affect our profitability or cause us to cease operations entirely. The cannabis industry may come under further scrutiny by the Food and Drug Administration, the SEC, the Department of Justice, the Financial Industry Regulatory Advisory and other regulatory authorities that supervise or regulate the production, distribution, sale and use of cannabis for medical and nonmedical purposes in the United States. It is impossible to determine the extent of the impact of new laws, regulations or initiatives that may be proposed. The regulatory uncertainty surrounding the industry may adversely affect our business and operations, including without limitation, the costs to remain compliant with applicable laws and the impairment of our business or the ability to raise additional capital.

 

Available Information

 

Our website address is www.gtigrows.com. Through this website, our filings with the SEC, including annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and all amendments to those reports, will be accessible (free of charge) as soon as reasonably practicable after materials are electronically filed with or furnished to the SEC. We also make available through our website our Code of Ethical Business Conduct. The information provided on our website is not part of this document.

 

 

 

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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS

 

Summary of Risk Factors

Our business is subject to a number of risks and uncertainties of which you should be aware before making a decision to invest in our Subordinate Voting Shares. This summary does not address all of the risks that we face. Additional discussion of the risks summarized in this risk factor summary; and other risks we face, can be found below under the heading “Risk Factors” and should be carefully considered, together with other information in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and our other filings with the SEC, before making a decision to invest in our Subordinate Voting Shares. These risks include, among others, the following:

Cannabis remains illegal under U.S. federal law, and enforcement of cannabis laws could change.
State regulation of cannabis is uncertain.
We may not be able to obtain or maintain necessary permits and authorizations.
We may be subject to heightened scrutiny by Canadian regulatory authorities.
We may face limitations on ownership of cannabis licenses.
We may become subject to U.S. Food and Drug Administration or Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives regulation.
As a cannabis business, we are subject to applicable anti-money laundering laws and regulations and have restricted access to banking and other financial services.
We may face difficulties acquiring additional financing.
We lack access to U.S. bankruptcy protections.
We operate in a highly regulated sector and may not always succeed in complying fully with applicable regulatory requirements in all jurisdictions where we carry on business.
We face intense competition.
We face competition from the illicit market as well as actual or purported Farm Bill compliant hemp products.
We are dependent on the popularity and of consumer acceptance of our brand portfolio.
We have limited trademark protection.
Cannabis businesses are subject to unfavorable U.S. tax treatment and may incur significant tax liability.
We are subject to proceeds of crime statutes.
We face exposure to fraudulent or illegal activity.
We face risks due to industry immaturity or limited comparable, competitive or established industry best practices.
We face risks related to our products.
Our business is subject to the risks inherent in agricultural operations.
We may be adversely impacted by rising or volatile energy costs and availability.
We face risks related to our information technology systems and potential cyber-attacks and security breaches.
We rely on third-party software providers for numerous capabilities we depend upon to operate, and a disruption of one or more or more of these systems could adversely affect our business.
We rely on the expertise of our management team and other employees experienced in the cannabis industry, and the loss of key personnel could negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We face an inherent risk of product liability and similar claims.
Our products may be subject to product recalls.
We may face unfavorable publicity or consumer perception.
Our voting control is concentrated.

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Our capital structure and voting control may cause unpredictability.
Sales of substantial amounts of Subordinate Voting Shares by our shareholders in the public market may have an adverse effect on the market price of our Subordinate Voting Shares.

Risk Factors

 

Certain factors may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. Investing in our shares involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the following risks, together with all of the other information contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including the sections titled “Disclosure Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Any of the following risks could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, operating results, or prospects and could cause the trading price of our common stock to decline, which would cause you to lose all or part of your investment. Our business, financial condition, operating results, or prospects could also be harmed by risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently do not believe are material.

Risks Related to Our Business

 

Cannabis remains illegal under U.S. federal law, and enforcement of cannabis laws could change.

 

Cannabis is illegal under U.S. federal law. In those states in which the use of cannabis has been legalized, its use remains a violation of federal law pursuant to the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. § 811). The Controlled Substances Act classifies cannabis as a Schedule I controlled substance, and as such, medical and adult-use cannabis use is illegal under U.S. federal law. Unless and until Congress amends the Controlled Substances Act with respect to cannabis (and the President approves such amendment), there is a risk that federal authorities may enforce current federal law. If that occurs, we may be deemed to be producing, cultivating or dispensing cannabis and drug paraphernalia in violation of federal law. Since federal law criminalizing the use of cannabis pre-empts state laws that legalize its use, enforcement of federal law regarding cannabis is a significant risk and would greatly harm our business, prospects, revenue, results of operation and financial condition.

 

Our activities are, and will continue to be, subject to evolving regulation by governmental authorities. We are directly or indirectly engaged in the medical and adult-use cannabis industry in the United States where local and state law permits such activities. The legality of the production, cultivation, extraction, distribution, retail sales, transportation and use of cannabis differs among states in the United States. Due to the current regulatory environment in the United States, new risks may emerge, and management may not be able to predict all such risks.

 

As of December 31, 2023, 38 states (and the territories of Guam, Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, the Northern Mariana Islands, and the District of Columbia) have legalized the cultivation and sale of cannabis for medical purposes. In 24 of those states, the sale and possession of cannabis is legal for both medical and adult-use, and the District of Columbia has legalized adult-use but not commercial sale. Ten of those states legalized adult-use sales within the last three years, and of those, four legalized adult-use sales in 2023.

 

Despite this, our activities in the medical and adult-use cannabis industry are illegal under the applicable federal laws of the United States. There can be no assurances that the federal government of the United States will not seek to enforce the applicable laws against us. The consequences of such enforcement would be materially adverse to us and our business, including our reputation, profitability and the market price of our publicly traded shares, and could result in the forfeiture or seizure of all or substantially all of our assets.

 

It is further possible that Department of Justice or an aggressive federal prosecutor could allege that Green Thumb Industries Inc., and our Board, our executive officers and, potentially, our shareholders, “aided and abetted” violations of federal law by providing finances and services to our portfolio cannabis companies. Under these circumstances, federal prosecutors could seek to seize our assets, and to recover the “illicit profits” previously distributed to shareholders resulting from any of our financing or services. In these circumstances, the Company’s operations would cease, shareholders may lose their entire investments and directors, officers and/or shareholders may be left to defend any criminal charges against them at their own expense and, if convicted, be sent to federal prison.

 

Additionally, there can be no assurance as to the position the Biden administration or any future administration may take on cannabis, and a new administration could decide to enforce federal laws against state-regulated cannabis companies. Any enforcement of current federal cannabis laws could cause significant financial damage to us and our shareholders.

 

 

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Violations of any federal laws and regulations could result in significant fines, penalties, administrative sanctions, convictions or settlements arising from civil proceedings conducted by either the federal government or private citizens, or criminal charges, including, but not limited to, disgorgement of profits, cessation of business activities or divestiture. These results could have a material adverse effect on us, including, but not limited to, our reputation and ability to conduct business, our holding (directly or indirectly) of cannabis licenses in the United States, the listing of our securities on various stock exchanges, our financial position, operating results, profitability or liquidity or the market price of our Subordinate Voting Shares. In addition, it is difficult to estimate the time or resources that would be needed for the investigation or final resolution of any such matters because: (i) the time and resources that may be needed depend on the nature and extent of any information requested by the authorities involved, and (ii) such time or resources could be substantial.

State regulation of cannabis is uncertain.

 

There is no assurance that state laws legalizing and regulating the sale and use of cannabis will not be repealed or overturned, or that local governmental authorities will not limit the applicability of state laws within their respective jurisdictions. If the U.S. federal government begins to enforce U.S. federal laws relating to cannabis in states where the sale and use of cannabis is currently legal, or if existing state laws are repealed or curtailed, the Company’s business or operations in those states or under those laws would be materially and adversely affected. As they amend or develop legislation and regulations, state and local regulators and legislatures may use the regulatory process to slow the growth of multistate operators like the Company, with the intent of creating increased opportunities for resident farmers and entrepreneurs, which could severely restrict our ability to operate in those jurisdictions. Federal actions against any individual or entity engaged in the cannabis industry or a substantial repeal of cannabis related legislation could adversely affect the Company, our business and our assets or investments. Maintaining compliance with complex and ever-changing regulations and laws, including sometimes unclear regulations and laws, can be a difficult task, and a materially compliant business can be found in violation of one or more laws, rules or regulations while remaining materially or substantially compliant with applicable state cannabis laws.

The rulemaking process at the state level that applies to cannabis operators in any state will be ongoing and result in frequent changes. As a result, a compliance program is essential to manage regulatory risk. All operating policies and procedures implemented by the Company are compliance-based and are derived from the state regulatory structure governing ancillary cannabis businesses and their relationships to state-licensed or permitted cannabis operators, if any. Notwithstanding the Company’s efforts and diligence, regulatory compliance and the process of obtaining and maintaining regulatory approvals can be costly and time-consuming. No assurance can be given that the Company will receive or be able to maintain the requisite licenses, permits or cards to continue operating our businesses.

 

In addition, local laws and ordinances could restrict the Company’s business activity. Although the Company’s operations are legal under the laws of the states in which the Company’s business operate, local governments have the ability to limit, restrict and ban cannabis businesses from operating within their jurisdiction. Land use, zoning, local ordinances and similar laws could be adopted or changed and have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business.

 

Multiple states where medical and/or adult-use cannabis is legal have or are considering special taxes or fees on businesses in the cannabis industry. It is uncertain at this time whether other states are in the process of reviewing such additional taxes and fees. The implementation of special taxes or fees could have a material adverse effect upon the Company’s business, prospects, revenue, results of operation and financial condition.

 

We may not be able to obtain or maintain necessary permits and authorizations.

Our subsidiaries may not be able to obtain or maintain the necessary licenses, permits, certificates, authorizations or accreditations to operate their respective businesses, or may only be able to do so at great cost. In addition, our subsidiaries may not be able to comply fully with the wide variety of laws and regulations applicable to the cannabis industry. Failure to comply with or to obtain the necessary licenses, permits, certificates, authorizations or accreditations could result in restrictions on a subsidiary’s ability to operate in the cannabis industry, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

 

We may be subject to heightened scrutiny by Canadian regulatory authorities.

 

Currently, the Company is traded on the CSE and on over-the-counter markets in the United States. The business, operations and investments of the Company in the United States, and any future business, operations or investments, may become the subject of heightened scrutiny by regulators, stock exchanges and other authorities in Canada and the United States. As a result, the Company may be subject to significant direct and indirect interaction with public officials. There can be no assurance that this heightened scrutiny will not in turn lead to the imposition of certain restrictions on the Company’s ability to operate or invest in the United States or any other jurisdiction, in addition to those described herein.

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In 2017, there were concerns that the Canadian Depository for Securities Limited, through its subsidiary CDS Clearing and Depository Services Inc. (“CDS”), Canada’s central securities depository (clearing and settling trades in the Canadian equity, fixed income and money markets), would refuse to settle trades for cannabis issuers that have investments in the United States. However, CDS has not implemented this policy.

 

On February 8, 2018, the Canadian Securities Administrators published Staff Notice 51-352 describing the Canadian Securities Administrators’ disclosure expectations for specific risks facing issuers with cannabis-related activities in the U.S. Staff Notice 51-352 confirms that a disclosure-based approach remains appropriate for issuers with U.S. cannabis-related activities. Staff Notice 51-352 includes additional disclosure expectations that apply to all issuers with U.S. cannabis-related activities, including those with direct and indirect involvement in the cultivation and distribution of cannabis, as well as issuers that provide goods and services to third parties involved in the U.S. cannabis industry.

 

On February 8, 2018, following discussions with the Canadian Securities Administrators and recognized Canadian securities exchanges, the TMX Group, which is the owner and operator of CDS, announced the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding (“MOU”) with Aequitas NEO Exchange Inc., the CSE, the Toronto Stock Exchange and the TSX Venture Exchange (“TSXV”). The MOU outlines the parties’ understanding of Canada’s regulatory framework applicable to the rules, procedures and regulatory oversight of the exchanges and CDS as it relates to issuers with cannabis-related activities in the United States. The MOU confirms, with respect to the clearing of listed securities, that CDS relies on the Canadian securities exchanges to review the conduct of listed issuers. The MOU notes that securities regulation requires that the rules of each of the exchanges must not be contrary to the public interest and that the rules of each of the exchanges have been approved by the securities regulators. Pursuant to the MOU, CDS will not ban accepting deposits of or transactions for clearing and settlement of securities of issuers with cannabis-related activities in the United States. Even though the MOU indicated that there are no plans to ban the settlement of securities through CDS, there can be no guarantee that this approach to regulation will continue in the future. If such a ban were implemented at a time when Subordinate Voting Shares are listed on a Canadian stock exchange, it would have a material adverse effect on the ability of holders of Subordinate Voting Shares to make and settle trades. In particular, the Subordinate Voting Shares would become highly illiquid until an alternative (if available) was implemented, and investors would have no ability to effect a trade of Subordinate Voting Shares through the facilities of the applicable Canadian stock exchange.

 

We may face limitations on ownership of cannabis licenses.

 

In certain states, the cannabis laws and regulations limit not only the number of cannabis licenses issued, but also the number of cannabis licenses that one person or entity may own. Such limitations on the ownership of additional licenses within certain states may limit the Company’s ability to grow in such states.

 

We may become subject to U.S. Food and Drug Administration or Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives regulation.

 

Cannabis remains a Schedule I controlled substance under U.S. federal law. If the federal government reclassifies cannabis to a Schedule III controlled substance, it is possible that the FDA would seek to regulate cannabis under the Food, Drug and Cosmetics Act of 1938. Additionally, the FDA may issue rules and regulations, including good manufacturing practices, related to the growth, cultivation, harvesting and processing of medical cannabis. Clinical trials may be needed to verify the efficacy and safety of cannabis. It is also possible that the FDA would require facilities where medical use cannabis is grown to register with the FDA and comply with certain federally prescribed regulations. In the event that some or all of these regulations are imposed, the impact they would have on the cannabis industry is unknown, including the costs, requirements and possible prohibitions that may be enforced. If the Company is unable to comply with the potential regulations or registration requirements prescribed by the FDA, it may have an adverse effect on the Company’s business, prospects, revenue, results of operation and financial condition.

 

It is also possible that the federal government could seek to regulate cannabis under the U.S. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives. The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives may issue rules and regulations related to the use, transporting, sale and advertising of cannabis or cannabis products, including smokeless cannabis products.

 

As a cannabis business, we are subject to applicable anti-money laundering laws and regulations and have restricted access to banking and other financial services.

 

We are subject to a variety of laws and regulations in the United States that involve money laundering, financial record-keeping and proceeds of crime, including the U.S. Currency and Foreign Transactions Reporting Act of 1970, (which we refer to as the Bank Secrecy Act), as amended by Title III of the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (which we refer to as the USA Patriot Act), and any related or similar rules, regulations or guidelines, issued, administered or enforced by governmental authorities in the United States. Accordingly, pursuant to the Bank

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Secrecy Act, banks or other financial institutions that provide a cannabis business with a checking account, debit or credit card, small business loan or any other service could be found guilty of money laundering, aiding and abetting, or conspiracy.

 

The United States Department of the Treasury’s Financial Crimes Enforcement Network, which we refer to as FinCEN, issued a memorandum on February 14, 2014, which we refer to as the FinCEN Memorandum, outlining the pathways for financial institutions to bank cannabis businesses in compliance with federal enforcement priorities. The FinCEN Memorandum states that in some circumstances, it is permissible for banks to provide services to cannabis-related businesses without risking prosecution for violation of federal money laundering laws. The FinCEN Memorandum refers to the Cole Memorandum’s enforcement priorities.

 

The Department of Justice continues to have the right and power to prosecute crimes committed by banks and financial institutions, such as money laundering and violations of the Bank Secrecy Act, that occur in any state including states that have in some form legalized the sale of cannabis. Further, the conduct of the Department of Justice’s enforcement priorities could change for any number of reasons. A change in the Department of Justice’s priorities could result in the prosecution of banks and financial institutions for crimes that were not previously prosecuted.

 

If our operations, or proceeds thereof, dividend distributions or profits or revenues derived from our operations were found to be in violation of money laundering legislation or otherwise, such transactions may be viewed as proceeds from a crime (the sale of a Schedule I drug) under the Bank Secrecy Act’s money laundering provisions. This may restrict our ability to declare or pay dividends or effect other distributions.

 

The FinCEN Memorandum does not provide any safe harbors or legal defenses from examination or regulatory or criminal enforcement actions by the Department of Justice, FinCEN or other federal regulators. Thus, most banks and other financial institutions in the United States do not appear comfortable providing banking services to cannabis-related businesses or relying on this guidance given that it has the potential to be amended or revoked by the current administration. In addition to the foregoing, banks may refuse to process debit card payments and credit card companies generally refuse to process credit card payments for cannabis-related businesses. As a result, we may have limited or no access to banking or other financial services in the United States. In addition, federal money laundering statutes and Bank Secrecy Act regulations discourage financial institutions from working with any organization that sells a controlled substance, regardless of whether the state it operates in permits cannabis sales. Our inability or limitation of our ability to open or maintain bank accounts, obtain other banking services and/or accept credit card and debit card payments may make it difficult for us to operate and conduct our business as planned or to operate efficiently.

 

In the United States, the “SAFE Banking Act” which has been passed by the U.S. House of Representatives seven times, most recently on July 14, 2022 as an amendment to the National Defense Authorization Act, would grant banks and other financial institutions immunity from federal criminal prosecution for servicing Marijuana-Related Businesses if the underlying cannabis business follows state law. However, while the U.S. Senate Banking Committee passed the “SAFER Banking Act” on a bipartisan vote of 14-9 in September 2023, that bill has yet to be brought to the U.S. Senate floor and faces an uncertain future in the U.S. House of Representatives. There can be no assurance that it will be passed as presently proposed or at all.

In both Canada and the United States, transactions involving banks and other financial institutions are both difficult and unpredictable under the current legal and regulatory landscape. Legislative changes could help to reduce or eliminate these challenges for companies in the cannabis space and would improve the efficiency of both significant and minor financial transactions.

 

We may face difficulties acquiring additional financing.

 

We may require equity and/or debt financing to support on-going operations, to undertake capital expenditures or to undertake acquisitions and/or other business combination transactions. There can be no assurance that additional financing will be available to us when needed or on terms which are acceptable. Our inability to raise financing through traditional banking to fund on-going operations, capital expenditures or acquisitions could limit growth and may have a material adverse effect upon the Company’s business, prospects, revenue, results of operation and financial condition.

 

We lack access to U.S. bankruptcy protections.

 

Many courts have denied cannabis businesses bankruptcy protections because the use of cannabis is illegal under federal law. In the event of a bankruptcy, it would be very difficult for lenders to recoup their investments in the cannabis industry. If the Company were to experience a bankruptcy, there is no guarantee that U.S. federal bankruptcy protections would be available to us, which would have a material adverse effect on us.

 

 

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We operate in a highly regulated sector and may not always succeed in complying fully with applicable regulatory requirements in all jurisdictions where we carry on business.

Our business and activities are heavily regulated in all jurisdictions where we conduct business. Our operations are subject to various laws, regulations and guidelines by state and local governmental authorities relating to the manufacture, marketing, management, transportation, storage, sale, pricing and disposal of cannabis and cannabis oil, and also including laws and regulations relating to health and safety, insurance coverage, the conduct of operations and the protection of the environment. Laws and regulations, applied generally, grant government agencies and self-regulatory bodies broad administrative discretion over our activities, including the power to limit or restrict business activities as well as impose additional disclosure requirements on our products and services. Achievement of our business objectives is contingent, in part, upon compliance with regulatory requirements enacted by these governmental authorities and obtaining all necessary regulatory approvals for the manufacture, production, storage, transportation, sale, import and export, as applicable, of our products. The commercial cannabis industry is still a new industry at the state and local level. The effect of relevant governmental authorities’ administration, application and enforcement of their respective regulatory regimes and delays in obtaining, or failure to obtain, applicable regulatory approvals which may be required may significantly delay or impact the development of markets, products and sales initiatives and could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, revenue, results of operation and financial condition. Any failure to comply with the regulatory requirements applicable to our operations may lead to possible sanctions including the revocation or imposition of additional conditions on licenses to operate our business; the suspension or expulsion from a particular market or jurisdiction or of our key personnel; the imposition of additional or more stringent inspection, testing and reporting requirements; and the imposition of fines and censures. In addition, changes in regulations, more vigorous enforcement thereof or other unanticipated events could require extensive changes to our operations, increase compliance costs or give rise to material liabilities and/or revocation of our licenses and other permits, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. Furthermore, governmental authorities may change their administration, application or enforcement procedures at any time, which may adversely impact our ongoing costs relating to regulatory compliance. Maintaining compliance with complex and ever-changing regulations, including sometimes unclear regulations and laws, can be a difficult task, and a materially compliant business can be found in violation of one or more laws, rules or regulations while remaining materially or substantially compliant with applicable state cannabis laws.

 

We face intense competition.

 

We face intense competition from other companies, some of which have longer operating histories and more financial resources and manufacturing, retail and marketing experience than us. Increased competition by larger and better financed competitors could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Because of the early stage of the industry in which we operate, we face additional competition from new entrants, participants in the illicit market that face significantly lower costs to operate, and sellers of unregulated psychoactive hemp-based products. If the number of consumers of cannabis in the states in which we operate our business increases, the demand for products and qualified talent will increase and we expect that competition will become more intense, as current and future competitors begin to offer an increasing number of diversified products. To remain competitive, we will require a continued high level of investment in research and development, marketing, sales, talent retention and client support. We may not have sufficient resources to maintain research and development, marketing, sales and client support efforts on a competitive basis, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Additionally, as the number of available licenses increase in the markets in which we operate, additional competition and increased product availability may result in competitors undercutting our prices. From time to time, we may need to reduce our prices in response to competitive and customer pressures and to maintain our market share, which could materially reduce our revenues. A decline in the price of the Subordinate Voting Shares could affect our ability to raise further working capital and adversely impact our ability to continue operations.

 

A prolonged decline in the price of the Subordinate Voting Shares could result in a reduction in the liquidity of the Subordinate Voting Shares and a reduction in our ability to raise capital, if needed. Such reductions may force us to reallocate funds from other planned uses and may have a significant negative effect on our business plan and operations, including our ability to develop new products and continue our current operations. If our stock price declines, there can be no assurance that we will be able to raise additional capital or generate funds from operations sufficient to meet our obligations. If we are unable to raise sufficient capital in the future, we may not be able to have the resources to continue our normal operations.

 

 

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We face competition from the illicit market as well as actual or purported Farm Bill compliant hemp products.

 

We face and expect to continue to face competition from unregulated psychoactive hemp-based products, including actual or purported Farm Bill compliant hemp products and illicit cannabis businesses, which are unlicensed and unregulated. Psychoactive hemp-based products, including Farm Bill compliant hemp products, are generally not subject to the intensive and costly state-level regulatory regimes that medical and adult-use cannabis are subject to. These products generally are not produced in adherence with the same laws, regulations, rules, tax regimes and other restrictions that are applicable to us, which significantly reduces these producers’ costs, and may have a material adverse effect on our business. In addition, although not subject to the same quality and health and safety regulations applicable to medical and adult-use cannabis businesses, if actual or purported Farm Bill compliant hemp products cause harm to their users, that could result in a material adverse effect on the perception of cannabis use and its legality.

 

The competition presented by illicit cannabis businesses, and the inability or unwillingness of law enforcement authorities to enforce existing laws prohibiting the unlicensed or otherwise illegal cultivation and sale of cannabis, could result in the perpetuation of the illegal market for cannabis and/or have a material adverse effect on the perception of cannabis use.

 

We are dependent on the popularity of consumer acceptance of our brand portfolio.

 

Our ability to generate revenue and be successful in the implementation of our business plan is dependent on consumer acceptance of and demand for our products. Acceptance of our products depends on several factors, including availability, cost, ease of use, familiarity of use, convenience, effectiveness, safety and reliability. If these customers do not accept our products, or if such products fail to adequately meet customers’ needs and expectations, our ability to continue generating revenues could be reduced. As the number of available licenses increase in the markets in which we operate, and the illicit market and psychoactive hemp-based products proliferate, additional competition and increased product availability may result in competitors undercutting our prices. From time to time, we may need to reduce our prices in response to competitive and customer pressures and to maintain our market share, which could materially reduce our revenues.

 

We may face difficulties in enforcing our contracts.

 

Because our contracts involve cannabis and other activities that are not legal under federal law and in some state jurisdictions, we may face difficulties in enforcing our contracts in federal courts and certain state courts. We cannot be assured that we will have a remedy for breach of contract, which could have a material adverse effect on us.

 

We have limited trademark protection.

 

We are not able to register any federal trademarks for our cannabis products. Because producing, manufacturing, processing, possessing, distributing, selling and using cannabis is a crime under the Controlled Substances Act, the Patent and Trademark Office will not permit the registration of any trademark that identifies cannabis products. As a result, we likely will be unable to protect our cannabis product trademarks beyond the geographic areas in which we conduct business. The use of our trademarks outside the states in which we operate by one or more other persons could have a material adverse effect on the value of such trademarks.

 

We are and may continue to be subject to constraints on marketing our products.

 

Certain states in which we operate have enacted strict regulations regarding marketing and sales activities on cannabis products. There may be restrictions on sales and marketing activities imposed by government regulatory bodies that can hinder the development of the Company’s business and operating results. Restrictions may include regulations that specify what, where and to whom product information and descriptions may appear and/or be advertised. Marketing, advertising, packaging and labeling regulations also vary from state to state, potentially limiting the consistency and scale of consumer branding communication and product education efforts. The regulatory environment in the U.S. limits our ability to compete for market share in a manner similar to other industries. If we are unable to effectively market our products and compete for market share, or if the costs of compliance with government legislation and regulation cannot be absorbed through increased selling prices for our products, our sales and operating results could be adversely affected.

 

We face risks related to the results of future clinical research.

 

Research regarding the medical benefits, viability, safety, efficacy, dosing and social acceptance of cannabis or isolated cannabinoids (such as cannabidiol, commonly referred to as CBD and THC) remains in early stages. There have been relatively few clinical trials on the benefits of cannabis or isolated cannabinoids (such as CBD and THC). Although we believe that various articles, reports and studies support our beliefs regarding the medical benefits, viability, safety, efficacy, dosing and social acceptance of cannabis, future research and clinical trials may prove such statements to be incorrect, or could raise concerns regarding, and perceptions relating to, cannabis. Further, the federal illegality of cannabis and associated limits on our ability to properly fund and

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conduct research on cannabis and the lack of formal Food and Drug Administration oversight of cannabis, there is limited information about the long-term safety and efficacy of cannabis in it various forms, when combusted or combined with various cannabis and/or non-cannabis derived ingredients and materials or when ingested, inhaled or topically applied. Future research or oversight may reveal negative health and safety effects, which may significantly impact our reputation, operations and financial performance.

 

Given these risks, uncertainties and assumptions, prospective purchasers of Subordinate Voting Shares should not place undue reliance on such articles and reports. Future research studies and clinical trials may draw opposing conclusions to those stated in this Annual Report on Form 10-K or reach negative conclusions regarding the medical benefits, viability, safety, efficacy, dosing, social acceptance or other facts and perceptions related to cannabis, which could have a material adverse effect on the demand for our products, with the potential to have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, revenue, results of operation and financial condition.

 

We are subject to taxation in Canada and the United States.

 

We are and will continue to be a Canadian corporation as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. We are treated as a Canadian resident company (as defined in the Income Tax Act (Canada)) subject to Canadian income taxes. We are also treated as a U.S. corporation subject to U.S. federal income tax pursuant to Section 7874 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, (which we refer to as the “IRC”) and are subject to U.S. federal income tax on our income. As a result, we are subject to taxation both in Canada and the United States, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

 

It is unlikely that we will pay any dividends on the Subordinate Voting Shares in the foreseeable future. However, dividends received by shareholders who are residents of Canada for purposes of the Income Tax Act (Canada) will be subject to U.S. withholding tax. Any such dividends may not qualify for a reduced rate of withholding tax under the Canada-United States tax treaty. In addition, a foreign tax credit or a deduction in respect of foreign taxes may not be available.

 

Dividends received by U.S. shareholders will not be subject to U.S. withholding tax but will be subject to Canadian withholding tax. Dividends paid by us will be characterized as U.S. source income for purposes of the foreign tax credit rules under the IRC. Accordingly, U.S. shareholders generally will not be able to claim a credit for any Canadian tax withheld unless, depending on the circumstances, they have an excess foreign tax credit limitation due to other foreign source income that is subject to a low or zero rate of foreign tax.

 

Dividends received by shareholders that are neither Canadian nor U.S. shareholders will be subject to U.S. withholding tax and will also be subject to Canadian withholding tax. These dividends may not qualify for a reduced rate of U.S. withholding tax under any income tax treaty otherwise applicable to our shareholders, subject to examination of the relevant treaty. Because the Subordinate Voting Shares are treated as shares of a U.S. domestic corporation, the U.S. gift, estate and generation-skipping transfer tax rules generally apply to a non-U.S. shareholder of Subordinate Voting Shares. Each shareholder should seek tax advice, based on such shareholder’s particular circumstances, from an independent tax advisor.

 

Cannabis businesses are subject to unfavorable U.S. tax treatment and may incur significant tax liability.

 

Under Section 280E, we are not allowed to take any deductions or credits for any amounts paid or incurred during the taxable year in carrying on business if the business (or the activities which comprise the trade or business) consists of trafficking in controlled substances (within the meaning of Schedules I and II of the Controlled Substances Act). The U.S. Internal Revenue Service has applied this provision to cannabis operations, prohibiting them from deducting certain expenses associated with cannabis businesses. Section 280E may have a lesser impact on cannabis cultivation and manufacturing operations. Accordingly, Section 280E has a significant impact on the operations of cannabis companies and an otherwise profitable business may operate at a loss, after taking into account its U.S. income tax expenses.

 

As a cannabis businesses, we may be subject to civil asset forfeiture.

 

Any property owned by participants in the cannabis industry used in the course of conducting such business, or that is the proceeds of such business, could be subject to seizure by law enforcement and subsequent civil asset forfeiture because of the illegality of the cannabis industry under federal law. Even if the owner of the property is never charged with a crime, the property in question could still be seized and subject to an administrative proceeding by which, with minimal due process, it could be subject to forfeiture.

 

 

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We are subject to proceeds of crime statutes.

 

We are subject to a variety of laws that concern money laundering, financial recordkeeping and proceeds of crime. These include: the Bank Secrecy Act, as amended by Title III of the USA Patriot Act, the Proceeds of Crime (Money Laundering) and Terrorist Financing Act (Canada), the rules and regulations under the Criminal Code of Canada and any related or similar rules, regulations or guidelines, issued, administered or enforced by governmental authorities in the United States and Canada.

 

In the event that any of our license agreements, or any proceeds thereof, in the United States were found to be in violation of money laundering legislation or otherwise, such transactions may be viewed as proceeds of crime under one or more of the statutes noted above, or any other applicable legislation. This could have a material adverse effect on us, among other things, could restrict or otherwise jeopardize our ability to declare or pay dividends, effect other distributions or subsequently repatriate such funds back to Canada.

 

We face exposure to fraudulent or illegal activity.

 

We face exposure to the risk that employees, independent contractors or consultants may engage in fraudulent or other illegal activities. Misconduct by these parties could be intentional, reckless and/or negligent conduct. There may be disclosure of unauthorized activities that violate government regulations, manufacturing standards, healthcare laws, abuse laws and other financial reporting laws. Further, it may not always be possible for us to identify and deter misconduct by our employees and other third parties, and the precautions taken by us to detect and prevent these activities may not always be effective. As a result, we could face potential penalties and litigation.

 

We are a holding company.

 

We are a holding company and essentially all of our assets are the capital stock of our subsidiaries in our 14 markets, including California, Connecticut, Florida, Illinois, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Nevada, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island and Virginia. As a result, investors in the Company are subject to the risks attributable to our subsidiaries. As a holding company, we conduct substantially all of our business through our subsidiaries, which generate substantially all of our revenues. Consequently, our cash flows and ability to complete current or desirable future enhancement opportunities are dependent on the earnings of our subsidiaries and the distribution of those earnings to us. The ability of these entities to pay dividends and other distributions depends on their operating results and is subject to applicable laws and regulations, which require that solvency and capital standards be maintained by the subsidiaries and contractual restrictions are contained in the instruments governing their debt. In the event of a bankruptcy, liquidation or reorganization of any of our material subsidiaries, holders of indebtedness and trade creditors may be entitled to payment of their claims from the assets of those subsidiaries before us.

 

Our internal controls over financial reporting may not be effective, and our independent auditors may not be able to certify as to their effectiveness, which could have a significant and adverse effect on our business.

 

We are subject to various SEC reporting and other regulatory requirements. We have incurred and will continue to incur expenses and, to a lesser extent, diversion of our management’s time, in our efforts to comply with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act regarding internal controls over financial reporting. Effective internal controls over financial reporting are necessary for us to provide reliable financial reports and, together with adequate disclosure controls and procedures, are designed to prevent fraud. Any failure to implement required new or improved controls, or difficulties encountered in their implementation could cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations. In addition, any testing by us conducted in connection with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, or the subsequent testing by our independent registered public accounting firm, may reveal deficiencies in our internal controls over financial reporting that are deemed to be material weaknesses or that may require prospective or retrospective changes to our consolidated financial statements or identify other areas for further attention or improvement. Inferior internal controls could also cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information, which could have a negative effect on the trading price of our Subordinate Voting Shares.

 

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Material acquisitions, dispositions and other strategic transactions involve a number of risks for us.

 

Material acquisitions, dispositions and other strategic transactions involve a number of risks for us, including: (i) potential disruption of our ongoing business; (ii) distraction of management; (iii) increased financial leverage; (iv) the anticipated benefits and cost savings of those transactions may not be realized or may take longer to realize than anticipated; (v) increased scope and complexity of our operations; and (vi) loss or reduction of control over certain of our assets. Multiple non-material acquisitions, dispositions or strategic transactions that occur on or about the same time, even though not individually material, may present similar risks to the Company.

 

Additionally, we may issue additional Subordinate Voting Shares in connection with such transactions, which would dilute a shareholder’s holdings in the Company.

 

The presence of one or more material liabilities of an acquired company that are known, but believed to be immaterial, or unknown to us at the time of acquisition could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, revenue, results of operation and financial condition. A strategic transaction may result in a significant change in the nature of our business, operations and strategy. In addition, we may encounter unforeseen obstacles or costs in implementing a strategic transaction or integrating any acquired business into our operations. These and other circumstances could also result in the impairment of goodwill and long-lived assets.

 

We may invest in companies which may not be able to meet anticipated development targets or be successful in the future.

 

We may make investments in companies with no significant sources of operating cash flow and no revenue from operations, that are in early stages of development, or that have high-risk profiles. Our investments in such companies will be subject to risks and uncertainties that new companies with no or limited operating history may face. In particular, there is a risk that our investment in these companies will not be able to meet anticipated development targets or will not generate revenue at all. If these companies underperform or fail to continue to develop, their businesses may fail, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, revenue, results of operation and financial condition.

 

Our use of joint ventures, strategic partnerships and alliances may expose us to risks associated with jointly owned investments.

We currently operate parts of our business through joint ventures with other companies, and we may enter into additional joint ventures and strategic alliances in the future. Joint venture investments may involve risks not otherwise present in investments made solely by us, including: (i) we may not control the joint ventures; (ii) our joint venture partners may not agree to distributions that we believe are appropriate; (iii) where we do not have substantial decision-making authority, we may experience impasses or disputes with our joint venture partners on certain decisions, which could require us to expend additional resources to resolve such impasses or disputes, including litigation or arbitration; (iv) our joint venture partners may become insolvent or bankrupt, fail to fund their share of required capital contributions or fail to fulfill their obligations as a joint venture partner; (v) the arrangements governing our joint ventures may contain certain conditions or milestone events that may never be satisfied or achieved; (vi) our joint venture partners may have business or economic interests that are inconsistent with ours and may take actions contrary to our interests; (vii) we may suffer losses as a result of actions taken by our joint venture partners with respect to our joint venture investments; and (viii) it may be difficult for us to exit a joint venture if an impasse arises or if we desire to sell our interest for any reason. Any of the foregoing risks could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, we may, in certain circumstances, be liable for the actions of our joint venture partners.

 

There can be no assurance that our current and future strategic alliances or expansions of scope of existing relationships will have a beneficial impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

We currently have, and may in the future enter into, additional strategic alliances with third parties that we believe will complement or augment our existing business. Our ability to complete strategic alliances is dependent upon, and may be limited by, the availability of suitable candidates and capital. In addition, strategic alliances could present unforeseen integration obstacles or costs, may not enhance our business and may involve risks that could adversely affect us, including significant amounts of management time that may be diverted from operations in order to pursue and complete such transactions or maintain such strategic alliances. Future strategic alliances could result in the incurrence of additional debt, costs and contingent liabilities, and there can be no assurance that future strategic alliances will achieve, or that our existing strategic alliances will continue to achieve, the expected benefits to our business or that we will be able to consummate future strategic alliances on satisfactory terms, if at all. Any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

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Competition for the acquisition and leasing of properties suitable for the cultivation, production and sale of medical and adult-use cannabis may impede our ability to make acquisitions or increase the cost of these acquisitions, which could adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.

 

We compete for the acquisition of properties suitable for the cultivation, production and sale of medical and adult-use cannabis with entities engaged in agriculture and real estate investment activities, including corporate agriculture companies, cultivators, producers and sellers of cannabis. In addition, in certain markets the local governments have authority to choose where any cannabis establishment will be located. These authorized areas are frequently removed from other retail operations. Because ‎the cannabis industry remains illegal under U.S. federal law, the disadvantaged tax status of businesses ‎deriving their income from cannabis, and the reluctance of the banking industry to support cannabis businesses, it ‎may be difficult for us to locate and obtain the rights to operate at various preferred locations. Property ‎owners may violate their mortgages by leasing to us, and those property owners that are willing to allow ‎use of their facilities may require payment of above fair market value rents to reflect the scarcity of such locations ‎and the risks and costs of providing such facilities. All of these factors may prevent us from acquiring and leasing desirable properties, may cause an increase in the price we must pay for properties or may result in us having to lease our properties on less favorable terms than we expect.

 

Our competitors may adopt transaction structures similar to ours, which would decrease our competitive advantage in offering flexible transaction terms. In addition, due to a number of factors, the number of entities and the amount of funds competing for suitable investment properties may increase, resulting in increased demand and increased prices paid for these properties. If we pay higher prices for properties or enter into leases for such properties on less favorable terms than we expect, our profitability and ability to generate cash flow and make distributions to our stockholders may decrease. Increased competition for properties may also preclude us from acquiring those properties that would generate attractive returns to us.

 

Our reputation and ability to do business may be negatively impacted by the improper conduct by our business partners, employees or agents.

 

We depend on third-party suppliers to produce and timely ship our orders. Products purchased from our suppliers are resold to our customers. These suppliers could fail to produce products to our specifications or quality standards and may not deliver units on a timely basis. Any changes in our suppliers to resolve production issues could impact our ability to fulfill orders and could also disrupt our business due to delays in finding new suppliers.

 

Furthermore, we cannot provide assurance that our internal controls and compliance systems will protect us from acts committed by our employees, agents or business partners in violation of U.S. federal or state or local laws. Any improper acts or allegations could damage our reputation and subject us to civil or criminal investigations and related shareholder lawsuits, could lead to substantial civic and criminal monetary and non-monetary penalties and could cause us to incur significant legal and investigatory fees.

We face risks due to industry immaturity or limited comparable, competitive or established industry best practices.

As a relatively new industry, there are not many established operators in the medical and adult-use cannabis industries whose business models we can follow or build upon. Similarly, there is no or limited information about comparable companies available for potential investors to review in making a decision about whether to invest in us.

Shareholders and investors should consider, among other factors, our prospects for success in light of the risks and uncertainties encountered by companies, like us, that are in their early stages. For example, unanticipated expenses and problems or technical difficulties may occur, which may result in material delays in the operation of our business. We may fail to successfully address these risks and uncertainties or successfully implement our operating strategies. If we fail to do so, it could materially harm our business to the point of having to cease operations and could impair the value of the Subordinate Voting Shares to the extent that investors may lose their entire investment.

 

 

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We face risks related to our products.

 

We have committed and expect to continue committing significant resources and capital to develop and market existing products and new products and services. These products are relatively untested in the marketplace, and we cannot assure shareholders and investors that we will achieve market acceptance for these products, or other new products and services that we may offer in the future, or that our products that achieve market acceptance will be able to maintain that acceptance over time. Moreover, these and other new products and services may be subject to significant competition with offerings by new and existing competitors in the business. In addition, new products and services may pose a variety of challenges and require us to attract additional qualified employees. The failure to successfully develop and market these new products and services could seriously harm our business, prospects, revenue, results of operation and financial condition. As discussed above under Item 1—“Business - Competitive Conditions and the Company’s Position in the Industry - Competition”, the Company also faces competition from products that are not subject to testing or regulation by state agencies, not subject to the same taxes, and otherwise able to be priced significantly lower than the Company’s products.

Psychoactive hemp-based products are federally illegal if they exceed the limits of the Farm Bill.

 

Hemp-derived products that exceed the limits in the Farm Bill are federally illegal. Although currently not a material part of our business, we have begun producing, or licensing third parties to produce, Farm Bill compliant hemp products. Any products we may produce or license that are intended to be Farm Bill compliant but exceed the limits of psychoactive material allowable under the Farm Bill could subject the Company to action by regulatory authorities and/or to lawsuits by consumers, which may have a material adverse effect on the Company, including due to damage to our reputation and our ability to obtain or maintain the licenses supporting our medical and adult use cannabis businesses.

 

Our business is subject to the risks inherent in agricultural operations.

 

The Company’s business involves the growing of cannabis, an agricultural product. The Company’s business is subject to the risks inherent in the agricultural business, such as insects, plant diseases and similar agricultural risks. Although the Company’s cultivation is substantially completed indoors under climate control, some cultivation is completed outdoors, and there can be no assurance that natural elements will not have a material adverse effect on any future production.

 

We may be adversely impacted by rising or volatile energy costs and availability.

 

The Company’s cannabis growing operations require energy supply, which makes it vulnerable to rising energy costs. Accordingly, rising or volatile energy costs may adversely affect the business of the Company and our ability to operate profitably. Further, from time to time in some markets in which we operate, our demand for energy may exceed the available supply. In limited circumstances, we have had to rely on alternative power sources such as generators to power our cultivation and processing facilities. A more prolonged disruption in our ability to maintain sufficient power to operate our facilities could result in a significant disruption of our operations, damage to our agricultural products or equipment, and result in a material adverse effect to our business.

 

We may encounter unknown environmental risks.

 

There can be no assurance that the Company will not encounter hazardous conditions, such as asbestos or lead, at the sites of the real estate used to operate our businesses, which may delay the development of our businesses. Climate change or significant weather events may accelerate or exacerbate environmental conditions in ways that adversely affect the business due to potential negative effects on agricultural conditions, increased difficulty in construction projects to support our operations, and ownership or leasing of real property generally. Upon encountering a hazardous condition, work at the facilities of the Company may be suspended. If the Company receives notice of a hazardous condition, it may be required to correct the condition prior to continuing construction. If additional hazardous conditions were present, it would likely delay construction and may require significant expenditure of the Company’s resources to correct the conditions. Such conditions could have a material impact on the investment returns of the Company.

 

In addition, the operations of the Company are subject to environmental regulation in the various jurisdictions in which we operate. These regulations mandate, among other things, the maintenance of air and water quality standards and land reclamation. They also set forth limitations on the generation, transportation, storage and disposal of solid and hazardous waste. Environmental legislation is evolving in a manner which will require stricter standards and enforcement, increased fines and penalties for non-compliance, more stringent environmental assessments of proposed projects and a heightened degree of responsibility for companies and their officers, directors (or the equivalent thereof) and employees. There is no assurance that future changes in environmental regulation, if any, will not adversely affect the operations of the Company.

 

 

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We face risks related to our information technology systems, and potential cyber-attacks and security breaches.

 

Our operations depend, in part, on how well we and our suppliers protect networks, equipment, information technology, which we refer to as IT, systems and software against damage and threats, including, but not limited to, cable cuts, damage to physical plants, natural disasters, intentional damage and destruction, fire, power loss, hacking, computer viruses, vandalism, fraud and theft. Our operations also depend on the timely maintenance and replacement of network equipment, IT systems and software, as well as pre-emptive expenses to mitigate associated risks. Given the nature of our products and the lack of legal availability outside of channels approved by the federal government, as well as the concentration of inventory in our facilities, there remains a risk of shrinkages, as well as theft. If there was a breach in security and we fell victim to theft, fraud, cyber-attack or robbery, the loss of cannabis plants, cannabis oils, cannabis flowers and cultivation and processing equipment, or if there was a failure or breach in information systems, it could adversely affect our reputation and business continuity. Breaches or other unauthorized access, theft, modification or destruction of confidential patient, customer, employee or other confidential information that is stored in our systems could adversely affect our business.

 

Additionally, we may store and collect personal information about patients and customers and are responsible for protecting that information from privacy breaches that may occur through procedural or process failure, IT malfunction or deliberate unauthorized intrusions. Any such theft or privacy breach, or one that involved competitively sensitive or other protected information, would have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, revenue, results of operation and financial condition.

 

We could experience a cyber incident, which generally refers to any intentional attack or an unintentional event that results in unauthorized access to systems to disrupt operations, corrupt data or steal or expose confidential information or intellectual property, or a ransomware attack, which is a type of malicious software that infects a computer and restricts users' access to it until a ransom is paid to unlock it. Any such incident that compromises the information stored on our systems could result in widespread negative publicity, damage to our reputation, a loss of patients and customers, disruption of our business and legal liabilities. If any of our critical suppliers is the subject of a cyber or ransomware attack, we could experience a significant disruption in our supply chain and possibly shortages of key resources.

 

We are subject to laws, rules and regulations in the United States such as the California Privacy Rights Act, which went into effect on January 1, 2023, Connecticut Personal Data Privacy and Online Monitoring Act (CPDPOMA), which went into effect July 1, 2023 and the Virginia Consumer Data Protection Act (VCDPA), which went into effect on January 1, 2023, and those of other jurisdictions relating to the collection, processing, storage, transfer and use of personal data. Our ability to execute transactions and to possess and use personal information and data in conducting our business subjects us to legislative and regulatory burdens that may require us to notify regulators and customers, employees and other individuals of a data security breach. Evolving compliance and operational requirements under applicable privacy laws, rules and regulations of other jurisdictions in which we operate impose significant costs that are likely to increase over time. In addition, non-compliance could result in proceedings against us by governmental entities and/or significant fines, could negatively impact our reputation and may otherwise adversely impact our business, financial condition and operating results.

 

We rely on third parties to provide numerous capabilities that we depend upon on to operate, and a disruption of these systems could adversely affect our business.

 

We are dependent on vendors and third-party software providers, such as our seed-to-sale tracking software providers and point of sale transaction processing providers to operate our business. A serious disruption to any of these could significantly limit our ability to serve our customers and operate profitably. The failure of one or more such providers to provide the expected services, provide them on a timely basis or provide them at the prices we expect, or otherwise meet our performance standards and expectations (including with respect to data security, compliance and data privacy and protection laws) may adversely affect our business. Further, if we found it necessary to replace any such service provider, disruptions arising from the transition of functions to an alternative provider, or the costs developing our own software if we were unable to find an alternate provider, may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations or financial condition. Any disruption could cause our business and competitive position to suffer and cause our operating results to be reduced.

 

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We face risks related to our insurance coverage and uninsurable risks.

 

Our business is subject to a number of risks and hazards generally, including adverse environmental conditions, accidents, labor disputes, destruction from civil unrest and changes in the regulatory environment. Such occurrences could result in damage to assets, personal injury or death, environmental damage, delays in operations, monetary losses and possible legal liability.

 

Although we intend to continue to maintain insurance to protect against certain risks in such amounts as we consider to be reasonable, our insurance will not cover all the potential risks associated with our operations. We may also be unable to maintain insurance to cover these risks at economically feasible premiums. Insurance coverage may not continue to be available or may not be adequate to cover any resulting liability. Moreover, insurance against risks such as environmental pollution or other hazards encountered in our operations is not generally available on acceptable terms. We might also become subject to liability for pollution or other hazards which the Company may not be insured against or which we may elect not to insure against because of premium costs or other reasons. Losses from these events may cause us to incur significant costs that could have a material adverse effect upon our financial performance and results of operations.

 

We are dependent on key inputs, suppliers and skilled labor; and fluctuations in the cost or availability of materials we use in our products and supply chain could negatively affect our results.

 

The marijuana business is dependent on a number of key inputs and their related costs, including raw materials and supplies related to growing operations, as well as electricity, water and other local utilities. Any significant interruption or negative change in the availability or economics of the supply chain for key inputs, such as the raw material cost of cannabis, materials we use in our products and for the construction and development of our facilities, or natural or other disruptions to power or other utility systems, could materially impact our business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects. Some of these inputs may only be available from a single supplier or a limited group of suppliers, or be sourced abroad. If a sole source supplier was to go out of business, we might be unable to find a replacement for such source in a timely manner, or at all. If a sole source supplier were to be acquired by a competitor, that competitor may elect not to sell to us in the future. Manufacturing delays or unexpected transportation delays, particularly from materials we source abroad, can also cause us to incur significantly increased costs. Any of these fluctuations may increase our cost of products and have an adverse effect on our profit margins, results of operations and financial condition. Any inability to secure required supplies and services, or to do so on appropriate terms, could have a materially adverse impact on our business, prospects, revenue, results of operations and financial condition.

 

Our ability to compete and grow will be dependent on us having access, at a reasonable cost and in a timely manner, to skilled labor, equipment, parts and components. No assurances can be given that we will be successful in maintaining our required supply of skilled labor, equipment, parts and components.

 

We rely on the expertise of our management team and other employees experienced in the cannabis industry, and the loss of key personnel could negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Our success largely depends upon the continued services of our executive officers and management team members. If one or more of our executive officers or management members is unable or unwilling to continue in their present position, we may not be able to replace such individual readily, if at all. Additionally, we may incur additional expenses to recruit and retain new executive officers and management members and personnel with experience in the cannabis industry. We do not maintain “key person” life insurance on any of our executive officers. Because of these factors, the loss of the services of any key persons could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

We must attract and maintain key personnel or our business will fail.

 

Our success is dependent upon the ability, expertise, judgment, discretion and good faith of our senior management and key personnel. We compete with other companies both within and outside the cannabis industry to recruit and retain competent employees. If we cannot maintain qualified employees to meet the needs of our anticipated growth, our business and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.

 

 

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Our sales are difficult to forecast.

 

As a result of recent and ongoing regulatory and policy changes in the medical and adult-use cannabis industries, laws that prevent widespread participation in and otherwise hinder market research in the medical and adult-use cannabis industry, and unreliable levels of market supply, the market data available is limited and unreliable. We must rely largely on our own market research to forecast sales, as detailed forecasts are not generally obtainable from other sources in the states in which our business operates. Additionally, any market research and our projections of estimated total retail sales, demographics, demand and similar consumer research, are based on assumptions from limited and unreliable market data. A failure in the demand for our products to materialize as a result of competition, technological change, failure of states to enforce cannabis regulations, the use of psychoactive hemp-based products or other factors could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

 

We may be subject to growth-related risks.

 

We may be subject to growth-related risks, including capacity constraints and pressure on our internal systems and controls. Our ability to manage growth effectively will require us to continue to implement and improve our operational and financial systems and to expand, train and manage our employee base. Our inability to deal with this growth may have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, revenue, results of operation and financial condition.

 

We may be subject to litigation.

 

We may become party to litigation from time to time in the ordinary course of business, which could adversely affect our business. Should any litigation in which we become involved be determined against us, such a decision could adversely affect our ability to continue operating and the market price for the Subordinate Voting Shares and could potentially use significant resources. Even if we are involved in litigation and win, litigation can redirect significant resources of Green Thumb Industries Inc. and/or its subsidiaries.

 

We face an inherent risk of product liability and similar claims.

 

As a producer, distributor and retailer of products designed to be ingested by humans, we face an inherent risk of exposure to product liability claims, regulatory action and litigation if our products are alleged to have failed to meet expected standards or to have caused significant loss or injury. In addition, the sale of our products involves the risk of injury to consumers due to tampering by unauthorized third parties or product contamination. Previously unknown adverse reactions resulting from human consumption of our products alone or in combination with other medications or substances could occur. We may be subject to various product liability claims, including, among others, that our products caused injury, illness or death, include inadequate instructions for use or include inadequate warnings concerning possible side effects or interactions with other substances. As an agricultural product, the quality of cannabis is inherently variable, and consumers may raise claims that our quality control or labeling processes have not sufficiently ensured that our grown and manufactured processes are sufficient to meet expected standards. A product liability claim or regulatory action against us could result in increased costs, could adversely affect our reputation with our clients and consumers generally and could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. There can be no assurances that we will be able to obtain or maintain product liability insurance on acceptable terms or with adequate coverage against potential liabilities. Such insurance is expensive and may not be available in the future on acceptable terms, or at all. The inability to obtain sufficient insurance coverage on reasonable terms or to otherwise protect against potential product liability claims could prevent or inhibit the commercialization of our potential products.

 

We may be exposed to infringement or misappropriation claims by third parties, which, if determined adversely to us, could subject us to significant liabilities and other costs.

 

Our success may depend on our ability to use and develop new extraction technologies, recipes, know-how and new strains of marijuana without infringing the intellectual property rights of third parties. We cannot assure that third parties will not assert intellectual property claims against us. We are subject to additional risks if entities licensing intellectual property to us do not have adequate rights to the licensed materials. If third parties assert copyright or patent infringement or violation of other intellectual property rights against us, we will be required to defend ourselves in litigation or administrative proceedings, which can be both costly and time consuming and may significantly divert the efforts and resources of management personnel. An adverse determination in any such litigation or proceedings to which we may become a party could subject us to significant liability to third parties, require us to seek licenses from third parties, require us to pay ongoing royalties or subject us to injunctions that may prohibit the development and operation of our applications.

 

 

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Our products may be subject to product recalls.

 

Manufacturers, distributors and retailers of products are sometimes subject to the recall or return of their products for a variety of reasons, including product defects, such as contamination, unintended harmful side effects or interactions with other substances, packaging safety and inadequate or inaccurate labeling disclosure. If any of our products or products sold at our retail stores are recalled due to an alleged product defect or for any other reason, we could be required to incur the unexpected expense of the recall and any legal proceedings that might arise in connection with the recall. We may lose a significant amount of sales and may not be able to replace those sales at an acceptable margin, if at all. In addition, a product recall may require significant management attention. Although we have detailed procedures in place for testing our products and requiring compliant labeling of third-party products we sell, there can be no assurance that any quality, potency or contamination problems will be detected in time to avoid unforeseen product recalls, regulatory action or lawsuits. Additionally, if any of our brands were subject to recall, our image and the image of that brand could be harmed. A recall for any of the foregoing reasons could lead to decreased demand for our products and could have a material adverse effect on the results of our operations and financial condition. Additionally, product recalls may lead to increased scrutiny of our operations by the Food and Drug Administration, or other regulatory agencies, requiring further management attention and potential legal fees and other expenses.

 

We may face unfavorable publicity or consumer perception.

 

Management believes the medical and adult-use cannabis industry is highly dependent upon consumer perception regarding the safety, efficacy and quality of the cannabis produced. Consumer perception of our products may be significantly influenced by scientific research or findings, regulatory investigations, litigation, media attention and other publicity regarding the consumption of cannabis products. There can be no assurance that future scientific research, findings, regulatory proceedings, litigation, media attention or other research findings or publicity will be favorable to the cannabis market or any particular product, or consistent with earlier publicity. Future research reports, findings, regulatory proceedings, litigation, media attention or other publicity that is perceived as less favorable than, or questions earlier research reports, findings or publicity could have a material adverse effect on the demand for our products. Our dependence upon consumer perceptions means that such adverse reports, whether or not accurate or with merit, could ultimately have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. Further, adverse publicity reports or other media attention regarding the safety, efficacy and quality of cannabis in general, or our products specifically, or associating the consumption of cannabis with illness or other negative effects or events, could have such a material adverse effect. Although the Company uses quality control processes and procedures to ensure our consumer packaged goods meet our standards, a failure or alleged failure of such processes and procedures could result in negative consumer perception of our products or legal claims against us. Adverse publicity reports or other media attention could arise even if the adverse effects associated with such products resulted from consumers’ failure to consume such products appropriately or as directed.

 

Certain of our products are e-vapor or “vape” products. The use of vape products and vaping may pose health risks. According to the Centers for Disease Control, vape products may contain ingredients that are known to be toxic to humans and may contain other ingredients that may not be safe. Because clinical studies about the safety and efficacy of vape products have not been submitted to the Food and Drug Administration, consumers currently have no way of knowing whether they are safe for their intended use or what types or concentrations of potentially harmful chemicals or by-products are found in these products. It is also uncertain what implications the use of vape or other inhaled products, such as flower that is smoked, may have on respiratory illnesses such as that caused by the Coronavirus Disease 2019, which we refer to as COVID-19. Adverse findings, regulatory investigations, litigation, media attention and other publicity regarding the consumption of vape or other inhaled products, including adverse publicity regarding underage use of vape or other inhaled products, may adversely affect the Company.

 

We may have increased labor costs based on union activity.

 

Labor unions are working to organize workforces in the cannabis industry in general, and regulators are increasingly requiring us to enter into labor peace agreements with unions as a condition of receiving a license. Currently, under 15% of our workforce has elected to be represented by a labor organization for purposes of collective bargaining. However, it is possible that greater portions of our workforce at retail and/or manufacturing locations will be organized in the future, which could lead to work stoppages or increased labor costs and adversely affect our business, profitability and our ability to reinvest into the growth of our business. We cannot predict how stable our relationships with U.S. labor organizations will remain or whether we can meet any unions’ requirements without impacting our financial condition. Labor unions may also limit our flexibility in dealing with our workforce. Work stoppages and instability in our union relationships could delay the production and sale of our products, which could strain relationships with customers and cause a loss of revenues which would adversely affect our operations.

 

 

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We are subject to general economic risks and risks of continued inflation.

 

Our operations could be affected by the economic context should the unemployment level, interest rates or inflation reach levels that influence consumer trends and spending and, consequently, impact our sales and profitability. A continued upward rate of inflation could influence the profits that we generate from our business. When the rate of inflation rises, the operational costs of running our company also increases, such as labor costs, raw materials and public utilities, thus affecting our ability to provide our products at competitive prices. An increase in the rate of inflation could force our customers to search for other products, causing us to lose business and revenue. As the number of available licenses increase in the markets in which we operate, additional competition and increased product availability may result in competitors undercutting our prices. From time to time, we may need to reduce our prices in response to competitive and customer pressures and to maintain our market share, which could materially reduce our revenues.

 

We may be negatively impacted by challenging global economic conditions.

 

Our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flow may be negatively impacted by challenging global economic conditions. For example, during the COVID-19 pandemic, the U.S and other world economies experienced turmoil due to the pandemic, which resulted in global economic uncertainty, supply chain disruptions and other issues.

 

A global economic slowdown would cause disruptions and extreme volatility in global financial markets, increased rates of default and bankruptcy and declining consumer and business confidence, which can lead to decreased levels of consumer spending. These macroeconomic developments could negatively impact our business, which depends on the general economic environment and levels of consumer spending. As a result, we may not be able to maintain our existing customers or attract new customers, or we may be forced to reduce the price of our products. We are unable to predict the likelihood of the occurrence, duration or severity of such disruptions in the credit and financial markets or adverse global economic conditions. Any general or market-specific economic downturn could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flow.

 

Additionally, the U.S. has imposed and may impose additional quotas, duties, tariffs, retaliatory or trade protection measures or other restrictions or regulations and may adversely adjust prevailing quota, duty or tariff levels, which can affect both the materials that we use to package our products and the sale of finished products. For example, the tariffs imposed by the U.S. on materials from China are impacting materials that we import for use in packaging in the U.S. Measures to reduce the impact of tariff increases or trade restrictions, including geographical diversification of our sources of supply, adjustments in packaging design and fabrication or increased prices, could increase our costs, delay our time to market and/or decrease sales. Other governmental action related to tariffs or international trade agreements has the potential to adversely impact demand for our products and our costs, customers, suppliers and global economic conditions and cause higher volatility in financial markets. While we actively review existing and proposed measures to seek to assess the impact of them on our business, changes in tariff rates, import duties and other new or augmented trade restrictions could have a number of negative impacts on our business, including higher consumer prices and reduced demand for our products and higher input costs.

 

We may be required to disclose personal information of our owners, investors, officers, managers, and directors to regulators and failure to do so could endanger our ability to expand, endanger our licenses, or cause the Company to incur costs to redeem securities held by uncooperative shareholders.

 

Ownership in and applications for cannabis licenses can entail lengthy disclosures of personal information to the relevant regulatory authorities. The obligation often extends to all persons holding an ownership interest in the license, whether direct, indirect, present, or future, and often includes those with a mere nominal interest. Analogous disclosures are often required from persons with managerial authority or control over the licenses, as well, including officers, directors, and managers. Disclosures can include providing personal information needed to satisfy extensive criminal history reports and investigations (e.g., fingerprints, address and employment history), tax returns, social security numbers, a history of personal addresses, employment agreements, and other personal information. While some states allow exceptions for individuals with ownership in publicly traded companies like the Company, not all states provide such exceptions. If these requirements were applied to all persons with ownership in the Company, all such persons would be required to comply or the Company would risk losing the opportunity to apply for or renew the license(s), or similarly face the possibility that the license may be revoked.

 

 

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We are subject to risks arising from epidemic diseases.

A public health epidemic, such as the recent COVID-19 pandemic, or the fear of a potential epidemic or pandemic, poses the risk that we or our employees, contractors, suppliers, and other partners may be prevented from conducting business activities for an indefinite period of time, including due to shutdowns or other preventative measures that may be requested or mandated by governmental authorities. Although our operations continued during the COVID-19 pandemic, as the cultivation, processing and sale of cannabis products was considered an essential business by all states in which we operated with respect to all customers when shutdowns were imposed, there can be no assurances that would be the case in any future actual or anticipated epidemic disease outbreak or pandemic. Our ability to continue to operate without any significant negative operational impact from any future public health crisis will in part depend on our ability to protect our employees, customers and supply chain.

 

While it is not possible at this time to estimate the impact any actual or potential pandemic could have on our business, measures taken by the governments of countries affected could disrupt the supply chain and the manufacture or shipment or sale of our products and adversely impact our business, financial condition or results of operations. It could also affect the health and availability of our workforce at our facilities, as well as those of our suppliers, particularly those in China and India. Such an event, and any measures taken to avert significant health crises may also have an adverse impact on global economic conditions which could have an adverse effect on our business and financial condition. Because cannabis remains federally illegal, it is possible that we would not be eligible to participate in any government relief programs (such as federal loans or access to capital) resulting from any actual or potential pandemic.

 

Risks Related to Our Securities

 

A return on our securities is not guaranteed.

There is no guarantee that our Subordinate Voting Shares will earn any positive return in the short term or long term. A holding of Subordinate Voting Shares is speculative and involves a high degree of risk and should be undertaken only by holders whose financial resources are sufficient to enable them to assume such risks and who have no need for immediate liquidity in their investment. Holding of Subordinate Voting Shares is appropriate only for holders who have the capacity to absorb a loss of some or all of their holdings.

 

We may be affected by currency fluctuations.

 

We face exposure to significant currency fluctuations because of our present operations in the U.S. Recent events in the global financial markets have been coupled with increased volatility in the currency markets. All or substantially all of our revenue is earned in U.S. dollars, but our shares, and some of our warrants issued to holders of our notes are denominated in Canadian dollars which can provide variability for results of operations. We do not have currency hedging arrangements in place and there is no expectation that we will put any currency hedging arrangements in place in the future. Fluctuations in the exchange rate between the U.S. dollar and the Canadian dollar may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position or results of operations.

 

Our voting control is concentrated.

 

Our senior executives exercise a significant majority of the voting power with respect to our outstanding shares because of the Super Voting Shares that they hold. These officials include Benjamin Kovler, our Founder, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Andrew Grossman, our Head of Capital Markets, and Anthony Georgiadis, our President. Subordinate Voting Shares are entitled to one vote per share, Multiple Voting Shares are entitled to 100 votes per share, and Super Voting Shares are entitled to 1,000 votes per share. As a result, Mr. Kovler, Mr. Grossman and Mr. Georgiadis potentially have the ability to control the outcome of matters submitted to our shareholders for approval, including the election and removal of directors and any arrangement or sale of all or substantially all of our assets.

 

This concentrated control could delay, defer or prevent a change of control, arrangement or merger involving sale of all or substantially all of our assets that our other shareholders may support. Conversely, this concentrated control could allow the holders of the Super Voting Shares to consummate such a transaction our other shareholders do not support. In addition, the holders of the Super Voting Shares may make long-term strategic investment decisions and take risks that may not be successful and/or may seriously harm our business.

 

 

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Our capital structure and voting control may cause unpredictability.

 

Although other Canadian-based companies have dual class or multiple voting share structures, given our unique capital structure and the concentration of voting control that is held by the holders of the Super Voting Shares, this structure and control could result in greater fluctuations in the trading price of our Subordinate Voting Shares, adverse publicity to us or other adverse consequences.

Additional issuances of Super Voting Shares, Multiple Voting Shares or Subordinate Voting Shares may result in dilution.

 

We may issue additional equity or convertible debt securities in the future, which may dilute an existing shareholder’s holdings. Our articles permit the issuance of an unlimited number of Super Voting Shares, Multiple Voting Shares and Subordinate Voting Shares, and existing shareholders will have no pre-emptive rights in connection with such further issuances. Our board of directors has discretion to determine the price and the terms of further issuances, and such terms could include rights, preferences and privileges superior to those existing holders of Subordinate Voting Shares. Moreover, additional Subordinate Voting Shares will be issued by us on the conversion of the Multiple Voting Shares and Super Voting Shares in accordance with their terms. To the extent holders of our options or other convertible securities convert or exercise their securities and sell Subordinate Voting Shares they receive, the trading price of the Subordinate Voting Shares may decrease due to the additional amount of Subordinate Voting Shares available in the market. We cannot predict the size or nature of future issuances or the effect that future issuances and sales of Subordinate Voting Shares will have on the market price of the Subordinate Voting Shares. Issuances of a substantial number of additional Subordinate Voting Shares, or the perception that such issuances could occur, may adversely affect prevailing market prices for the Subordinate Voting Shares. With any additional issuance of Subordinate Voting Shares, investors will suffer dilution to their voting power and economic interest in us.

 

Sales of substantial amounts of Subordinate Voting Shares by our shareholders in the public market may have an adverse effect on the market price of the Subordinate Voting Shares.

 

Sales of substantial amounts of Subordinate Voting Shares, or the availability of such securities for sale, could adversely affect the prevailing market prices for the Subordinate Voting Shares. A decline in the market prices of the Subordinate Voting Shares could impair our ability to raise additional capital through the sale of securities should we desire to do so.

 

The market price for the Subordinate Voting Shares may be volatile.

 

The market price for securities of cannabis companies generally are likely to be volatile. In addition, the market price for the Subordinate Voting Shares has been and may be subject to wide fluctuations in response to numerous factors beyond our control, including, but not limited to:

actual or anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly results of operations;
recommendations by securities research analysts;
changes in the economic performance or market valuations of companies in the industry in which we operate;
addition or departure of our executive officers and other key personnel;
release or expiration of transfer restrictions on outstanding Subordinate Voting Shares;
sales or perceived sales of additional Subordinate Voting Shares;
operating and financial performance that varies from the expectations of management, securities analysts and investors;
regulatory changes affecting our industry generally and our business and operations both domestically and abroad;
announcements of developments and other material events by us or our competitors;
fluctuations in the costs of vital production materials and services;
changes in global financial markets, global economies and general market conditions, such as interest rates and pharmaceutical product price volatility;
significant acquisitions or business combinations, strategic partnerships, joint ventures or capital commitments by or involving us or our competitors;
operating and share price performance of other companies that investors deem comparable to us or from a lack of market comparable companies; and

41


 

news reports relating to trends, concerns, technological or competitive developments, regulatory changes and other related issues in our industry or target markets.

 

Financial markets have at times historically experienced significant price and volume fluctuations that: (i) have particularly affected the market prices of equity securities of companies and (ii) have often been unrelated to the operating performance, underlying asset values or prospects of such companies. Accordingly, the market price of the Subordinate Voting Shares from time to time may decline even if our operating results, underlying asset values or prospects have not changed. Additionally, these factors, as well as other related factors, may cause decreases in asset values that may result in impairment losses to us. There can be no assurance that further fluctuations in price and volume of equity securities will not occur. If increased levels of volatility and market turmoil continue, our operations could be adversely impacted, and the trading price of the Subordinate Voting Shares may be materially adversely affected.

 

If securities or industry analysts do not publish or cease publishing research or reports or publish misleading, inaccurate or unfavorable research about us, our business or our market, our stock price and trading volume could decline.

The trading market for our Subordinate Voting Shares will be influenced by the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us, our business, our market or our competitors. If no or few securities or industry analysts cover our Corporation, the trading price and volume of our shares would likely be negatively impacted. If one or more of the analysts who covers us downgrades our shares or publishes inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, or provides more favorable relative recommendations about our competitors, our stock price would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts ceases coverage of us or fails to publish reports on us regularly, demand for our shares could decrease, which could cause our stock price or trading volume to decline.

 

We face liquidity risks.

 

Our Subordinate Voting Shares currently trade on the CSE and on over-the-counter markets in the U.S. We cannot predict at what prices the Subordinate Voting Shares will continue to trade, and there is no assurance that an active trading market will be sustained.

 

Our Subordinate Voting Shares do not currently trade on any U.S. securities exchange. In the event our Subordinate Voting Shares do trade on any U.S. securities exchange, we cannot predict at what prices the Subordinate Voting Shares will trade and there is no assurance that an active trading market will develop or be sustained. There is a significant liquidity risk associated with an investment in us.

 

We are subject to increased costs as a result of being a public company in Canada and the United States.

 

As a public company in Canada and the United States, we are subject to the reporting requirements, rules and regulations under the applicable Canadian and American securities laws and rules of stock exchanges on which the Company’s securities may be listed. The requirements of existing and potential future rules and regulations will increase our legal, accounting and financial compliance costs, make some activities more difficult, time-consuming or costly and may place undue strain on our personnel, systems and resources, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

We face costs of maintaining a public listing.

As a public company, there are costs associated with legal, accounting and other expenses related to regulatory compliance. Securities legislation and the rules and policies of the CSE require listed companies to, among other things, adopt corporate governance and related practices, and to continuously prepare and disclose material information, all of which add to a company’s legal and financial compliance costs. We may also elect to devote greater resources than it otherwise would have on communication and other activities typically considered important by publicly traded companies.

 

We do not intend to pay dividends on our Subordinate Voting Shares and, consequently, your ability to achieve a return on your investment will depend on appreciation in the price of our Subordinate Voting Shares.

We have never declared or paid any cash dividend on our Subordinate Voting Shares and do not currently intend to do so in the foreseeable future. We currently anticipate that we will retain future earnings, if materialized, for the development, operation and expansion of our business and do not anticipate declaring or paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Therefore, the success of an investment in our Subordinate Voting Shares will depend upon any future appreciation in their value. There is no guarantee that our Subordinate Voting Shares will appreciate in value or even maintain the price at which you purchased them.

 

 

42


 

The market for the Subordinate Voting Shares may be limited for holders of our securities who live in the United States.

 

Given the heightened risk profile associated with cannabis in the United States, capital markets participants may be unwilling to assist with the settlement of trades for U.S. resident securityholders of companies with operations in the U.S. cannabis industry, which may prohibit or significantly impair the ability of securityholders in the United States to trade our securities. In the event residents of the United States are unable to settle trades of our securities, this may affect the pricing of such securities in the secondary market, the transparency and availability of trading prices and the liquidity of these securities.

 

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

 

None.

 

43


 

 

 

 

 

ITEM 1C. CYBERSECURITY

 

Cybersecurity Risk Management

 

The Company has processes for assessing, identifying, and managing material risks from cybersecurity threats. These processes are integrated into the Company’s overall risk management systems. These processes also include overseeing and identifying risks from cybersecurity threats associated with the use of third-party service providers. The Company has established monitoring procedures in its effort to mitigate risks related to data breaches or other security incidents originating from third parties. The Company, from time-to-time, may engage third-party consultants, legal advisors, and audit firms to evaluate and test the Company’s risk management systems and assess and remediate certain potential cybersecurity incidents, as appropriate.

 

Governance

 

As part of our enterprise risk management program, the Board of Directors (the “Board”) and Audit Committee meet with our senior management team, which includes our Chief Executive Officer, President, Chief Financial Officer, and General Counsel to address risks associated with cybersecurity threats on a regular basis. The Board and the Audit Committee receive prompt and timely information regarding any cybersecurity incident that meets established reporting thresholds, as well as ongoing updates regarding any such incident until it has been resolved.

 

Cybersecurity threats are one of the Company’s most critical risks, with our Senior Vice President -Technology assigned as the executive risk owner. Our Senior Vice President - Technology, in coordination with our senior management team, works collaboratively across the Company to implement a program designed to protect the Company’s information systems from cybersecurity threats and to promptly respond to any cybersecurity incidents in accordance with the Company’s incident response and recovery plans. Multidisciplinary teams throughout the Company are deployed to address cybersecurity threats and to respond to cybersecurity incidents. Through ongoing communications with these teams, the Senior Vice President - Technology and the senior management team monitor the prevention, detection, mitigation and remediation of cybersecurity threats and incidents in real time and report such threats and incidents to the Board and Audit Committee, when appropriate.

 

Our Senior Vice President - Technology has served in various roles in information technology and information security for over 25 years. He holds undergraduate and graduate degrees in computer science and business.

 

During the year ended December 31, 2023, we did not identify any cybersecurity threats that have materially affected or are reasonably likely to materially affect our business strategy, results of operations, or financial condition. However, despite the capabilities, processes, and other security measures we employ that we believe are designed to detect, reduce, and mitigate the risk of cybersecurity incidents, we may not be aware of all vulnerabilities or might not accurately assess the risks of incidents, and such preventative measures cannot provide absolute security and may not be sufficient in all circumstances or mitigate all potential risks.

 

See “Item 1 A. Risk Factors” for more information on the Company’s cybersecurity-related risks.

 

44


 

ITEM 2. PROPERTIES

 

Our headquarters is located in Chicago, IL. The following table sets forth the Company’s principal cultivation and processing properties.

 

Production Properties

Type

Location

Leased / Owned

West Haven Facility

West Haven, CT

Leased

Homestead Facility

Homestead, FL

Owned

Ocala Facility

Ocala, FL

Owned

Oglesby Facility

Oglesby, IL

Leased

Rock Island Facility

Rock Island, IL

Owned

Clinton Facility

Clinton, MA

Leased

Holyoke Facility

Holyoke, MA

Leased

Centreville Facility

Centreville, MD

Owned

Cottage Grove Facility

Cottage Grove, MN

Owned

Hackettstown Facility

Hackettstown, NJ

Leased

Carson City Facility

Carson City, NV

Leased

Las Vegas Facility 1

Las Vegas, NV

Owned

Las Vegas Facility 2

Las Vegas, NV

Leased

Paterson Facility

Paterson, NJ

Leased

Warwick Facility

Warwick, NY

Owned

Toledo Facility

Toledo, OH

Leased

Danville Facility

Danville, PA

Leased

Warwick Facility

Warwick, RI

Leased

Abingdon Facility

Abingdon, VA

Owned

Low Moor Facility

Low Moor, VA

Owned

 

 

In addition to the above properties, as of December 31, 2023, the Company has 91 open and operating retail stores, of which, the Company owns 14.

 

Properties Subject to an Encumbrance. The Company has collateralized the properties in (i) Rock Island, IL, (ii) Homestead, FL, (iii) Centreville, MD, (iv) Las Vegas, NV, (v) Low Moor, VA, (vi) Abingdon, VA, (vii) Ocala, FL, and (viii) Cottage Grove, MN. In addition, the Company has collateralized four retail stores, none of which are considered material.

 

 

 

Legal Proceedings Related to Contractual Obligations

 

From time to time, the Company may be involved in litigation relating to claims arising out of operations in the normal course of business. The following is an update to the status of previously disclosed matters as of December 31, 2023:

 

Cresco Labs New York, LLC and Cresco Labs LLC (“Plaintiffs”) filed an amended complaint (the “Complaint”) against one of the Company’s subsidiaries, Fiorello Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (“Defendant”) on November 20, 2018, in the Supreme Court of the State of New York, alleging Defendant breached the parties’ Equity Purchase Agreement Letter of Intent relating to the acquisition of Defendant by Plaintiffs. On October 18, 2023, all pending motions were withdrawn and Plaintiffs' claims were dismissed with prejudice. Accordingly, the Company reduced its loss contingency associated with the Complaint from $900 thousand as of December 31, 2022 to $0 at December 31, 2023.

 

At December 31, 2023 and 2022, other than as discussed above, there were no pending or threatened lawsuits that could reasonably be expected to have a material effect on the results of the Company’s consolidated operations. There are also no proceedings in which any of the Company’s directors, officers or affiliates is an adverse party or has a material interest adverse to the Company’s interest.

 

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.

 

 

45


 

PART II

 

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR THE REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

 

Trading Price and Volume

 

The Subordinate Voting Shares of the Company are traded on the CSE under the symbol “GTII.”. The following table sets forth trading information for the Subordinate Voting Shares for the periods indicated, as quoted on the CSE.(1)

 

Low Trading Price

 

 

High Trading Price

 

Volume

 

Period

(C$)

 

 

(C$)

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31, 2023

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

First Quarter (March 31, 2023)

$

9.95

 

 

$

12.25

 

 

21,160,377

 

Second Quarter (June 30, 2023)

$

9.11

 

 

$

11.55

 

 

25,159,806

 

Third Quarter (September 30, 2023)

$

8.65

 

 

$

16.05

 

 

32,652,396

 

Fourth Quarter (December 31, 2023)

$

10.92

 

 

$

15.82

 

 

23,126,166

 

Year Ended December 31, 2022

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

First Quarter (March 31, 2022)

$

19.50

 

 

$

27.12

 

 

33,236,094

 

Second Quarter (June 30, 2022)

$

10.30

 

 

$

23.90

 

 

26,657,631

 

Third Quarter (September 30, 2022)

$

10.48

 

 

$

17.78

 

 

23,496,921

 

Fourth Quarter (December 31, 2022)

$

10.93

 

 

$

21.34

 

 

39,484,018

 

 

Notes:

(1) Source: Bloomberg.

 

The Subordinate Voting Shares of the Company are also traded on the OTCQX under the symbol “GTBIF.”

 

The following table sets forth trading information for the Subordinate Voting Shares for the periods indicated, as quoted on the OTCQX.(1)

 

 

Low Trading Price

 

 

High Trading Price

 

Volume

 

Period

($)

 

 

($)

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31, 2023

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

First Quarter (March 31, 2023)

$

7.48

 

 

$

9.05

 

 

27,968,283

 

Second Quarter (June 30, 2023)

$

6.80

 

 

$

8.62

 

 

18,713,212

 

Third Quarter (September 30, 2023)

$

6.58

 

 

$

11.90

 

 

26,248,320

 

Fourth Quarter (December 31, 2023)

$

7.80

 

 

$

11.70

 

 

23,904,216

 

Year Ended December 31, 2022

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

First Quarter (March 31, 2022)

$

15.28

 

 

$

22.67

 

 

27,366,428

 

Second Quarter (June 30, 2022)

$

8.00

 

 

$

19.09

 

 

21,710,304

 

Third Quarter (September 30, 2022)

$

7.97

 

 

$

13.69

 

 

27,751,360

 

Fourth Quarter (December 31, 2022)

$

7.89

 

 

$

15.64

 

 

39,455,514

 

 

Notes:

(1) Source: Bloomberg.

(2) Over-the-counter market quotations reflect inter-dealer prices, without retail mark-up or mark-down or commission and may not necessarily represent actual transactions.

Shareholders

 

As of February 19, 2024, there are 751 holders of record of our Subordinate Voting Shares.

 

46


 

Dividends

 

The Company has not declared distributions on Subordinate Voting Shares in the past. The Company currently intends to reinvest all future earnings to finance the development and growth of its business. As a result, the Company does not intend to pay dividends on Subordinate Voting Shares in the foreseeable future. Any future determination to pay distributions will be at the discretion of the Company's Board of Directors and will depend on the financial condition, business environment, operating results, capital requirements, any contractual restrictions on the payment of distributions and any other factors that the Board deems relevant. The Company is not bound or limited in any way to pay dividends in the event that the Board determines that a dividend is in the best interest of its shareholders.

 

Equity Compensation Plans

 

For more information on equity compensation plans, see Item 12 of Part III of the Annual Report.

 

Peer Performance Table

 

The following graph compares the cumulative total shareholder return on Green Thumb Industries Inc. Subordinate Voting Shares for the five years ended December 31, 2023, with the comparable cumulative return of the Russell 2000 Index and a selected peer group of companies. The comparison assumes all dividends have been reinvested (if any) and an initial investment of $100 on December 31, 2018. The returns of each company in the peer group have been weighted to reflect their market capitalizations. All amounts below are disclosed in U.S. Dollars. The stock price performance on the following graph is not necessarily indicative of future stock price performance.

 

img168963129_3.jpg 

 

Base Period

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

12/31/18

 

12/31/19

 

12/31/20

 

12/31/21

 

12/31/22

 

12/31/23

Green Thumb Industries

$

100

$

116.58

$

305.01

$

266.14

$

110.17

$

140.03

Russell 2000

$

100

$

123.40

$

146.44

$

170.68

$

134.29

$

156.29

Peer Group

$

100

$

122.52

$

243.84

$

153.90

$

56.70

$

53.46

 

 

47


 

Below are the specific companies included in the peer group.

 

Peer Group Companies

- Cresco Labs Inc.

- Trulieve Cannabis Corp.

- Curaleaf Holdings, Inc

- Verano Holdings Corp.

 

This performance graph and other information furnished under this Part II Item 5 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K shall not be deemed to be “soliciting material” or to be “filed” with the SEC or subject to Regulation 14A or 14C, or to the liabilities of Section 18 of the Exchange Act.

Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities

 

The following information represents securities sold by the Company for the period covered by this Annual Report on Form 10-K which were not registered under the Securities Act. Included are new issues, securities issued in exchange for property, services or other securities, securities issued upon conversion from other share classes and new securities resulting from the modification of outstanding securities. The Company sold all of the securities listed below pursuant to the exemption from registration provided by Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act, or Regulation D or Regulation S promulgated thereunder.

 

Subordinate Voting Shares

 

Beginning on October 1, 2023 through December 31, 2023, our shareholders converted 5,000 Multiple Voting Shares into 500,000 Subordinate Voting Shares.

 

Multiple Voting Shares

 

Beginning on October 1, 2023 through December 31, 2023, our shareholders converted 5,000 Multiple Voting Shares into 500,000 Subordinate Voting Shares.

 

Super Voting Shares

 

Beginning on October 1, 2023 through December 31, 2023, our shareholders converted 5,000 Super Voting Shares into 5,000 Multiple Voting Shares.

 

 

48


 

Recent Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

The following table sets forth repurchases of our Subordinate Voting Shares during the year ended December 31, 2023:

 

(Dollars in thousands except per share amounts)

Period

Total Number of Shares Purchased

 

Average Price Paid per Share

Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Program (1)

 

Approximate Dollar Value of Shares that may yet be Purchased Under the Program

January 1, 2023 through January 31, 2023

$

$

February 1, 2023 through February 28, 2023

 

 

March 1, 2023 through March 31, 2023

 

 

April 1, 2023 through April 30, 2023

 

 

May 1, 2023 through May 31, 2023

 

 

June 1, 2023 through June 30, 2023

 

 

July 1, 2023 through July 31, 2023

 

 

August 1, 2023 through August 31, 2023

 

 

September 1, 2023 through September 30, 2023

2,500,000

 

9.96

2,500,000

 

25,110

October 1, 2023 through October 31, 2023

 

 

November 1, 2023 through November 30, 2023

 

 

December 1, 2023 through December 31, 2023

1,343,125

 

11.14

1,343,125

 

10,144

 

3,843,125

$

10.37

3,843,125

$

10,144

 

(1) On September 5, 2023, the Company announced that its Board of Directors authorized the repurchase of up to 5%, or 10,486,951, of its Subordinate Voting Shares, over a 12-month period at a cost of up to $50,000 thousand. Through December 31, 2023, the Company purchased a total of 3,843,125 Subordinate Voting Shares at an average price of $10.37 per share. On February 28, 2024, the Company's Board of Directors authorized an increase in its share repurchase program by $50,000 thousand, bringing the total remaining repurchase ability to approximately $60,000 thousand.

 

ITEM 6. RESERVED

 

Reserved.

 

ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATION

 

The following information should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and related notes thereto included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

In addition to historical information, this report contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties which may cause our actual results to differ materially from plans and results discussed in forward-looking statements. We encourage you to review the risks and uncertainties discussed in the sections entitled Item 1A. “Risk Factors” and “Disclosure Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” included at the beginning of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The risks and uncertainties can cause actual results to differ significantly from those forecast in forward-looking statements or implied in historical results and trends.

 

We caution readers not to place undue reliance on any forward-looking statements made by us, which speak only as of the date they are made. We disclaim any obligation, except as specifically required by law and the rules of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”), to publicly update or revise any such statements to reflect any change in our expectations or in events, conditions or circumstances on which any such statements may be based, or that may affect the likelihood that actual results will differ from those set forth in the forward-looking statements.

 

This management discussion and analysis (“MD&A”) of the financial condition and results of operations of Green Thumb Industries Inc. (the “Company” or “Green Thumb”) is for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021. It is supplemental to, and should be read in conjunction with, the Company’s consolidated financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021 and the accompanying notes for each respective period. The Company’s financial statements are prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”). Financial information presented in this MD&A is presented in thousands of United States dollars (“$” or “US$”), unless otherwise indicated.

 

This MD&A contains certain “forward-looking statements” and certain “forward-looking information” as defined under applicable United States securities laws. Please refer to the discussion of forward-looking statements and information set out under the heading “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Information,” identified in the ‘‘Risks and Uncertainties’’ section of this MD&A. As a result of many factors, the Company’s actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements and information.

 

49


 

 

OVERVIEW OF THE COMPANY

 

Established in 2014 and headquartered in Chicago, Illinois, Green Thumb, a national cannabis consumer packaged goods company and retailer promotes well-being through the power of cannabis while being committed to community and sustainable profitable growth. As of December 31, 2023, Green Thumb has operations in fourteen U.S. markets, employs approximately 4,600 people and serves millions of patients and customers annually.

 

Green Thumb’s core business is manufacturing, distributing and marketing a portfolio of owned cannabis consumer packaged goods brands (which we refer to as our Consumer Packaged Goods business), including &Shine, Beboe, Dogwalkers, Doctor Solomon’s, Good Green, incredibles and RYTHM. The Company distributes and markets these products primarily to third-party licensed retail cannabis stores across the United States as well as to Green Thumb-owned retail stores (which we refer to as our Retail business).

 

The Company’s Consumer Packaged Goods portfolio is primarily generated from plant material that Green Thumb grows and processes itself, which we use to produce our consumer packaged goods in twenty manufacturing facilities. This portfolio consists of cannabis product categories, including flower, pre-rolls, concentrates, vape, capsules, tinctures, edibles, topicals and other cannabis-related products across a range of stock keeping units (“SKUs”) (none of which are individually material to the Company).

 

Green Thumb owns and operates a national cannabis retail chain called RISE Dispensaries that provides relationship-centric retail experiences aimed to deliver a superior level of customer service through high-engagement consumer interaction, a consultative, transparent and education-forward selling approach and a consistently available assortment of cannabis products. In addition, Green Thumb owns stores under other names, primarily where naming is subject to licensing or similar restrictions. The income from Green Thumb’s retail stores is primarily derived from the sale of cannabis-related products, which includes the sale of Green Thumb produced products as well as those produced by third parties, with an immaterial (under 10%) portion of this income resulting from the sale of other merchandise (such as t-shirts and accessories for cannabis use). The RISE Dispensaries currently are located in fourteen of the states in which we operate. As of December 31, 2023, the Company had 91 open and operating retail locations. The Company’s new store opening plans will remain fluid depending on market conditions, obtaining local licensing, construction and other permissions and subject to the Company’s capital allocation plans as described above and under the heading “Liquidity, Financing Activities During the Period, and Capital Resources” below.

 

 

50


 

Results of Operations – Consolidated

 

The following table sets forth the Company’s selected consolidated financial results for the periods, and as of the dates, indicated. The (i) consolidated statements of operations for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022, 2021 and (ii) consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2023 and 2022 have been derived from, and should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes presented in Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

The Company’s consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP and on a going-concern basis that contemplates continuity of operations and realization of assets and liquidation of liabilities in the ordinary course of business. Amounts have been presented in thousands of U.S. dollars except for share and per share amounts.

 

 

 

Years Ended December 31,

 

 

2023 vs. 2022

 

2022 vs. 2021

 

 

 

2023

 

2022

 

2021

 

 

$

%

 

$

%

 

(in thousands, except share and per share amounts)

 

 

Increase (Decrease)

Revenues, Net of Discounts

 

$

1,054,553

$

1,017,375

$

893,560

 

$

37,178

4%

$

123,815

14%

Cost of Goods Sold, Net

 

 

(528,058)

 

(513,412)

 

(401,631)

 

 

14,646

3%

 

111,781

28%

Gross Profit

 

 

526,495

 

503,963

 

491,929

 

 

22,532

4%

 

12,034

2%

Expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Selling, General, and Administrative

 

 

341,863

 

294,396

 

277,087

 

 

47,467

16%

 

17,309

6%

Impairment of Goodwill and Intangible Assets

 

 

 

88,503

 

 

 

(88,503)

(100)%

 

88,503

0%

Total Expenses

 

 

341,863

 

382,899

 

277,087

 

 

(41,036)

(11)%

 

105,812

38%

Income From Operations

 

 

184,632

 

121,064

 

214,842

 

 

63,568

53%

 

(93,778)

(44)%

Total Other Expense

 

 

(28,583)

 

(12,632)

 

(9,867)

 

 

15,951

126%

 

2,765

28%

Income Before Provision for Income Taxes And Non-Controlling Interest

 

 

156,049

 

108,432

 

204,975

 

 

47,617

44%

 

(96,543)

(47)%

Provision for Income Taxes

 

 

118,630

 

94,777

 

124,612

 

 

23,853