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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
________________________________________ 
FORM 10-K
 ________________________________________
(Mark one)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended July 31, 2022
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                 to                 .
Commission file number: 001-35394
________________________________________ 
Guidewire Software, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
________________________________________ 
Delaware36-4468504
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
2850 S. Delaware St., Suite 400, San Mateo, California, 94403
(Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)
(650) 357-9100
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
________________________________________ 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
(Title of each class)(Trading Symbol(s))(Name of each exchange on which registered)
Common Stock, $0.0001 par valueGWRENew York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
_______________________________________ 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes     No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes       No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer  Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
 
  Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.   
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes  
    No  
The aggregate market value of common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant, computed by reference to the closing price at which the common stock was sold on January 31, 2022, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, as reported on the New York Stock Exchange, was approximately $5.4 billion. Shares of common stock held by each executive officer, director and holder of 5% or more of the outstanding common stock have been excluded in that such persons may be deemed to be affiliates. This determination of affiliate status does not reflect a determination that such persons are affiliates of the registrant for any other purpose.
On August 31, 2022, the registrant had 84,084,360 shares of common stock issued and outstanding.


DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant’s definitive Proxy Statement relating to its 2022 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated by reference into Part III of this report where indicated. Such Proxy Statement will be filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after the end of the fiscal year to which this report relates.


Guidewire Software, Inc.
Table of Contents
 
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 1B.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Item 5.
Item 6.[Reserved]
Item 7.
Item 7A.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
Item 9C.
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
Item 15.
 




FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
The sections titled “Business” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” as well as other parts of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and certain information incorporated herein by reference contain forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), which are subject to risks and uncertainties. The forward-looking statements may include statements concerning, among other things, our business strategy (including anticipated trends and developments in, and management plans for, our business and the markets in which we operate), financial results, results of operations, revenue, gross margins, operating expenses, services, products, projected costs and capital expenditures, research and development programs, sales and marketing initiatives, and competition. In some cases, you can identify these statements by forward-looking words, such as “will,” “may,” “might,” “should,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “suggest,” “believe,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “plan” and “continue,” the negative or plural of these words and other comparable terminology. Actual events or results may differ materially from those expressed or implied by these statements due to various factors, including, but not limited to, the matters discussed below, in the section titled “Risk Factors,” and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Many of the forward-looking statements are located in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”
Forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and involve risks and uncertainties. The forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are based on information available to us as of the filing date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and our current expectations about future events, which are inherently subject to change and involve risks and uncertainties. You should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements.
We do not undertake any obligation to update any forward-looking statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K or in any of our other communications, except as required by law. All such forward-looking statements should be read as of the time the statements were made and with the recognition that these forward-looking statements may not be complete or accurate at a later date.
SUMMARY OF MATERIAL RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH OUR BUSINESS
The principal risks and uncertainties affecting our business include the following:
growth prospects of the property and casualty (“P&C”) insurance industry and our company;
the developing market for subscription services and uncertainties attendant on emerging sales and delivery models, including the migration of our existing term license customers to cloud-based offerings on a subscription basis or failure to meet stipulated service levels with our subscription services;
trends in and timing of future sales, including the mix between license and subscription revenue and seasonality;
our competitive environment and changes thereto;
competitive attributes of our software applications and delivery models;
change in our revenue mix resulting in potential declines in our subscription and support gross margin or our services gross margin;
our reliance on orders from a relatively small number of customers in the P&C insurance industry for a substantial portion of our revenue and Annual Recurring Revenue (“ARR”);
our gross and operating margins and factors that affect such margins, including costs related to operating, securing, and enhancing our subscription services;
the timing and number of professional services engagements and the billing rates and utilization of our professional services employees and contractors;
challenges to further increase sales both in the United States and internationally;
potential failure of any of our established services or products to satisfy customer demands or to maintain market acceptance;
our sales and implementation cycles are lengthy and variable, depend upon factors outside our control, and could cause us to expend significant time and resources prior to generating revenue;


our large customers have substantial negotiating leverage, which may require that we agree to terms and conditions that result in increased cost of revenue, decreased revenue, and lower average selling prices and gross margins;
our business depends on customers renewing and expanding their license, support, and subscription contracts for our services and products;
potential inability to develop, introduce, and market new and enhanced versions of our services and products;
effectiveness of our research and development and cloud operations investment and efforts;
our ability to comply with current and evolving local and foreign data privacy laws, including the General Data Protection Regulation in the European Union (“EU”) and in the United Kingdom (“U.K.”) and the California Consumer Privacy Act, the California Privacy Rights Act, and regulations in various other jurisdictions in the United States and abroad, and maintain the security of our customer’s data, our cloud-based services or products, and the related costs and liabilities that we may incur;
retaining existing and hiring new personnel;
expenses to be incurred, and benefits to be achieved, from our acquisitions;
our provision for tax liabilities, judgments related to revenue recognition, and other critical accounting estimates;
the timing and amount of any share repurchases by us;
the impact of new or revised regulations, laws, including tax laws in jurisdictions in which we operate, and accounting standards;
our ability to apply accounting guidance that requires management to make estimates and assumptions and to adapt to and interpret the requirements of new guidance, or to clearly explain to stockholders how new guidance affects reporting of our results of operations;
our exposure to market risks, including geographical and political events such as escalation in the ongoing conflict between Russia and Ukraine, supply chain disruptions and inflation, that may negatively impact our customers, partners, and vendors or our business operations;
data privacy concerns could result in regulatory changes and impose additional costs and liabilities on us and limit our use of information;
the effect of uncertainties related to the global COVID-19 pandemic and future mutations or related strains of the virus on the U.S. and global economies, our business, our employees, results of operations, financial condition, demand for our products, sales and implementation cycles, and the health of our customers’ and partners’ businesses;
data security breaches of our cloud-based services or products or unauthorized access to our customers’ or employees’ data;
our stock price may be volatile, which could result in securities class action litigation against us;
our ability to successfully defend litigation brought against us; and
our ability to satisfy future liquidity requirements.
The summary risk factors described above should be read together with the text of the Risk Factors included in Item 1A of Part I of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and the other information set forth in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including our consolidated financial statements and related notes thereto, as well as in other documents that we file with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). Additional risks and uncertainties, beyond those summarized above or discussed elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K may apply to our business, activities, or operations as currently conducted or as we may conduct them in the future or in the markets in which we operate or may in the future operate.
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Unless the context requires otherwise, we are referring to Guidewire Software, Inc. together with its subsidiaries when we use the terms “Guidewire,” the “Company,” “we,” “our,” or “us.”


Item 1.Business
Overview and Purpose
Guidewire delivers a leading platform that property and casualty (“P&C”) insurers trust to engage, innovate, and grow efficiently. Guidewire’s platform combines core operations, digital engagement, analytics, and artificial intelligence (“AI”) applications delivered as a cloud service or self-managed software.
Our core operational services and products are InsuranceSuite Cloud, InsuranceNow, and InsuranceSuite for self-managed installations. These services and products are transactional systems of record that support the entire insurance lifecycle, including insurance product definition, distribution, underwriting, policyholder services, and claims management. Our digital engagement applications enable digital sales, omni-channel service, and enhanced claims experiences for policyholders, agents, vendor partners, and field personnel. Our Analytics and AI offerings enable insurers to manage data more effectively, gain insights into their business, drive operational efficiencies, and better underwrite new and evolving risks. To support P&C insurers globally, we have localized, and will continue to localize, our platform for use in a variety of international regulatory, language, and currency environments.
InsuranceSuite Cloud is a highly configurable and scalable product, delivered as a service and primarily comprised of three core applications (PolicyCenter Cloud, BillingCenter Cloud, and ClaimCenter Cloud) that can be subscribed to separately or together. These applications are built on and optimized for our Guidewire Cloud Platform (“GWCP”) architecture and leverage our in-house Guidewire cloud operations team. InsuranceSuite Cloud is designed to support multiple releases each year to ensure that cloud customers remain on the latest version and gain fast access to our innovation efforts. Additionally, InsuranceSuite Cloud embeds digital and analytics capabilities natively into our platform. Most new sales and implementations are for InsuranceSuite Cloud.
InsuranceNow is a complete, cloud-based application that offers policy, billing, and claims management functionality to insurers.
InsuranceSuite for self-managed installations is comprised of three core applications (PolicyCenter, BillingCenter, and ClaimCenter) that can be licensed separately or together and can be deployed and updated by our customers and their implementation partners.
Our customers range from some of the largest global insurance companies or their subsidiaries to predominantly national or local insurers that serve specific states and/or regions. Our customer engagement is led by our direct sales team and supported by our system integrator (“SI”) partners. We maintain and continue to grow our sales and marketing efforts globally, and maintain regional sales centers throughout the world.
Because our platform is critical to our new and existing customers’ businesses, their decision-making and product evaluation process is thorough, which often results in an extended sales cycle. These evaluation periods can extend further if a customer purchases multiple services and products or is considering a move to a cloud-based subscription for the first time. Sales to new customers also involve extensive customer due diligence and reference checks. The success of our sales efforts relies on continued improvements and enhancements to our current services and products, the introduction of new services and products, efficient operation of our cloud infrastructure, continued development of relevant local content and automated tools for updating content, and successful implementations.
We sell our cloud-delivered offerings through subscription services and our self-managed products through term licenses. We generally price our services and products based on the amount of direct written premium (“DWP”) that will be managed by our platform. Our subscription, term license, and support fees are typically invoiced annually in advance. Subscription services are generally sold with an initial term of between three and five years with optional annual renewals commencing after the initial term. Subscription revenue is recognized on a ratable basis over the committed term, once all revenue recognition criteria are met including providing access to the service. Term licenses are primarily sold with an initial two-year committed term with optional annual renewals commencing after the initial term. We may enter into term license arrangements with our customers that have an initial term of more than two years or may renew license arrangements for longer than one year. A small portion of our revenue is derived from perpetual licenses. Term and perpetual license revenue are typically recognized when software is made available to the customer, provided that all other revenue recognition criteria have been met. Our support revenue is generally recognized ratably over the committed support term of the licensed software. Our support fees are typically priced as a fixed percentage of the associated license fees. We also offer professional services, both directly and through SI partners, to help our customers deploy, migrate, and utilize our services, products, and platform. A majority of our services revenue is billed monthly on a time and materials basis.
We began our principal business operations in 2001.


Industry Background
The P&C insurance industry is large, fragmented, highly regulated, and complex. It is also highly competitive, with insurers competing primarily on product differentiation, pricing options, customer service, marketing and advertising, affiliate programs, and channel strategies.
P&C insurers modernize their transactional core systems to manage key functional areas of P&C insurance, including product definition, underwriting and policy administration, claims management, and billing. Product definition specifies the insurance coverage, pricing, and financial and legal terms of insurance policies. Underwriting and policy administration includes collecting information from potential policyholders, determining appropriate coverages and terms, pricing policies, issuing policies, and updating and maintaining policies over their lifetimes. Claims management includes loss intake, investigation and evaluation of incidents, settlement negotiation, vendor management, litigation management, and payment processing. Billing includes policyholder invoicing, payment collection, and agent commission calculation. We believe insurers that adopt modern core systems can enhance customer experience, operate more efficiently, and introduce innovative services and products more rapidly.
We believe the P&C insurance industry is experiencing accelerating change in how insurers engage with, sell to, and manage relationships with consumers and businesses. Today, P&C insurers are striving to respond to significant changes in their competitive marketplace and the character of the risks they underwrite. The most significant changes include:
an industry rapidly going through change that requires agility and efficiency from its core systems;
an increase in catastrophes and natural disasters impacting the P&C insurance industry that requires agility and efficiency from its core systems;
a rise in customer expectations for digital, mobile, and omni-channel interaction rather than the traditional agent model;
a need for 100% digital engagement capabilities;
a growth in demand for personalized services and products;
an increase in technology and market-driven changes in vehicular risk, including usage and driving habit based insurance;
demand for coverage of emerging risks such as terrorism, cybersecurity, pandemic, and reputational risk;
a wealth of data and desire to harness data to improve and grow business;
advances in the use of data and analytics to better market to and engage with customers, price policies, and manage claims;
development of opportunities to compete or partner with non-traditional players that offer disruptive technology-based value propositions;
established industry leaders are facing increased competition from new entrants in the market, including insurtech companies; and
the introduction and leveraging of new technologies, such as drones, artificial intelligence, the “Internet of Things,” chatbots, and telematics.
Many of these trends, such as digital engagement capabilities and data analytics, have increased in importance as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. In response to these trends, changes, challenges, and opportunities, we believe that P&C insurers need a core system that can increase agility and enhance digital engagement and analytics offerings.
While each insurer may have different goals and priorities when pursuing new technology investments, there are several major themes that we believe guide these investments:
Digital Engagement Models. We believe that insurers will need to provide a more intuitive, digital user experience to reduce the risk of customer dissatisfaction and loss. Investment in digital user experience will allow insurers to deepen their engagement with customers and transition from passive and transactional customer interactions to active and advisory relationships. This transition will require investments in software services and products that are designed to model user journeys and enable more frequent, informed, and dynamic interactions between insurers and their customers. We believe these efforts can improve financial performance for insurers through increased lead conversions and lower customer churn.


Cloud-Delivered Solutions. We believe that increased recognition of the compelling economic benefits of deploying software solutions on public infrastructure combined with increased confidence in the security and reliability of such platforms will cause more insurers to consider cloud-deployed solutions. Insurers benefit from an optimized division of labor and risk, allowing third parties to manage their infrastructure as they focus on competitively differentiating activities.
Data Driven Decision-Making. Insurers are seeking to explore, visualize, and analyze proprietary and third-party data to optimize decision-making across the insurance lifecycle. We believe that such predictive analytical solutions are most effective when they provide predictive scores and other analytical insights to insurers’ employees as they perform their underwriting and claims management activities. Insurers may also apply data and machine learning to automate certain tasks whenever possible, thereby enabling efficiencies, such as straight-through processing, that lessen the burden on subject matter experts.
Innovation. Insurers are under pressure to innovate across their product lifecycle in order to grow their business and improve service quality. Examples of focus areas include creating services and products to target under-insured risks such as cyber, supply chain disruption, and reputational risk and partnering with insurtech providers to streamline operations and improve service to policyholders and agents.
Legacy System Modernization. A significant portion of the market continues to rely on legacy systems. We believe new claims, policy management, and billing systems will continue to be adopted as insurers that rely on legacy systems seek to gain operating efficiencies, expand into new markets and lines of business, and introduce new digital and data offerings.
Products
Guidewire is designed to be the platform insurers trust in order to engage, innovate, and grow efficiently. Our platform combines core operations, digital engagement, analytics, and AI applications, so that insurers can increase revenue, reduce operational costs and losses, improve pricing, and engage with a customer base that increasingly demands mobile and automated forms of self-service and communication. We are investing in research and development to accelerate improvements in our cloud platform services, products, and marketplace to better serve our customers.
Core Operational Services and Products
We offer the following core operational services and products: Guidewire InsuranceSuite Cloud, Guidewire InsuranceNow, and Guidewire InsuranceSuite for Self-Managed.
Guidewire InsuranceSuite Cloud
Guidewire InsuranceSuite Cloud is comprised of three primary applications (PolicyCenter Cloud, BillingCenter Cloud, and ClaimCenter Cloud) optimized for our GWCP infrastructure. We offer several complementary applications designed to work seamlessly with these primary applications. InsuranceSuite Cloud is hosted on Amazon Web Services (“AWS”) and managed by our internal cloud operations team.
Guidewire PolicyCenter Cloud is our flexible underwriting and policy administration application that serves as a comprehensive system-of-record supporting the entire policy lifecycle, including product definition, underwriting, quoting, binding, issuance, endorsements, audits, cancellations, and renewals. Guidewire BillingCenter Cloud automates the billing lifecycle, enables the design of a wide variety of billing and payment plans, manages agent commissions, and integrates with external payment systems. Guidewire ClaimCenter Cloud is a complete end-to-end claims management solution that offers core claims functionality. These primary applications also include predictive analytics that drive smart decisions, digital engagement, and an ecosystem of partners and insurtechs.
GWCP is a Guidewire-developed infrastructure layer built on top of AWS that provides specialized cloud services, including multi-tenant cloud-native services that support the core operational services and integration of digital experiences and analytics. The Guidewire Data Platform is a P&C insurance-specific data repository, built on GWCP, which collects data from InsuranceSuite Cloud and InsuranceNow, as well as other internal and external sources, to provide analytical insights across the insurance lifecycle for our customers. The Guidewire Data Platform powers all analytical applications. Additionally, we provide tools for automation and self-service of routine implementation and deployment tasks to increase our customers’ agility while providing enterprise-grade performance, availability, privacy, and security. Given the specialized needs of the P&C insurance industry, we have developed a scalable cloud architecture that combines these multi-tenant cloud services and tools with the ability to isolate each customer’s system of record and database instances. This approach provides our customers with the benefits of cloud-native infrastructure and services and the flexibility to provide differentiated services to their customers.


Guidewire InsuranceNow
Guidewire InsuranceNow is a complete, cloud-based core system for P&C insurers in the United States, offering policy, billing, and claims management functionality, plus pre-integrated document production, analytics, and other capabilities, that increases agility without adding complexity.
Guidewire InsuranceSuite for Self-Managed
Guidewire InsuranceSuite for Self-Managed is comprised of three primary applications (PolicyCenter, BillingCenter, and ClaimCenter) that can be licensed separately or together and can be deployed and updated by our customers and their implementation partners on their premises or in a third-party cloud infrastructure.
Guidewire InsuranceSuite: Complementary Applications
We offer several complementary applications designed to work seamlessly with our core operational services and products, including:
Guidewire Rating Management
Guidewire Rating Management enables P&C insurers to manage the pricing of their insurance services and products.
Guidewire Reinsurance Management
Guidewire Reinsurance Management enables P&C insurers to use rules-based logic to execute their reinsurance strategy through their underwriting and claims processes.
Guidewire Client Data Management
Guidewire Client Data Management helps P&C insurers capitalize on customer information more coherently, overcoming traditional siloed practices that impair efficiency and customer service.
Guidewire Product Content Management
Guidewire Product Content Management provides software tools and standards-based, line-of-business templates to enable insurers to more rapidly introduce and modify services and products by reducing product configuration and maintenance efforts. Any such product introduction or modification must connect to and incorporate regulatory or industry-standard data and content, such as Insurance Services Office (“ISO”) or National Council on Compensation Insurance (“NCCI”) content.
Guidewire Underwriting Management
Guidewire Underwriting Management is a cloud-based, integrated business application designed for commercial and specialty line insurers to drive premium growth and profit from better underwriting. This feature-rich workstation delivers straight-through processing, exception-based underwriting, real-time collaboration, and knowledge management in one integrated solution. Guidewire Underwriting Management is typically sold alongside Guidewire PolicyCenter, although it functions with other policy administration systems as well.
Guidewire AppReader
Guidewire AppReader is a submission intake management solution that enables P&C insurers to process Association for Cooperative Operations Research and Development (“ACORD”) forms faster and more accurately than with manual processes or traditional upload solutions. AppReader is available for both Guidewire Underwriting Management and Guidewire PolicyCenter.
Guidewire ClaimCenter Package for the London Market
Guidewire ClaimCenter Package for the London Market supports the claims workflow used by London Market insurers and brokers. Integration of London Market Electronic Claims File (“ECF”) Write-Back lets insurers perform tasks and interact with the central industry market Claims Loss and Advice Settlement system directly from Guidewire ClaimCenter through message queues.
Digital Engagement


Guidewire Digital Engagement Applications
Our Digital Engagement Applications enable insurers to provide digital experiences to customers, agents, vendors, and field personnel through their device of choice. As consumers increasingly use self-service functions on the internet and on mobile devices, we believe that many of them prefer to interact with their insurance providers digitally and that they expect to have a consistent and efficient transactional experience through multiple channels, whether online, in-person or by phone. Our Digital Engagement Applications also benefit agents and brokers who are seeking to automate business processes with insurers to improve customer service and productivity. In order to provide a holistic experience, Digital Applications are unified with InsuranceSuite.
Guidewire for Salesforce
Guidewire for Salesforce integrates Guidewire core systems with Salesforce for insurance carrier agents and service representatives. It provides customer information regarding their policies and claims.
Data, Analytics, and Artificial Intelligence
We offer a variety of applications that allow insurers to uncover hidden opportunities and write more profitable business by enabling a seamless path from data to value.
Guidewire Predict
Guidewire Predict is a P&C-specific machine-learning platform that empowers insurers to make intelligent data-driven decisions throughout the insurance lifecycle. By building (or importing) predictive models built from multiple data sets, designing comprehensive solutions, and operationalizing the predictive insights, Predict allows insurers to rapidly turn any model into business value by delivering guidance to frontline decision makers. Predict for Claims helps customers to better manage claim indemnity and loss-adjustment expenses. Predict for Profitability improves pricing accuracy and customer satisfaction.
Guidewire HazardHub
Guidewire HazardHub allows insurers to understand, assess, price, and manage property risk quickly and intelligently. HazardHub provides a single source of geospatial risk data, and provides access to more than 950 risk variables, including perils from air, water, earth, and fire. HazardHub is a cloud-native solution delivered through an Application Programming Interface (“API”) that provides access to this information for any personal or commercial property located in the United States, and has the ability to evaluate an entire portfolio for property risk.
Guidewire Canvas
Guidewire Canvas is a cloud-native application included with ClaimCenter Cloud. It features an interactive map that enables claims management and catastrophe response teams to geo-visualize claims to help improve customer satisfaction and reduce indemnity by proactively responding to storm events.
Guidewire Compare
Guidewire Compare is a cloud-native application included with ClaimCenter Cloud that monitors key claims measures and gives feedback on how those compare against peer insurers in the Guidewire community, or within a single insurer across regions or over time. Compare allows claims organizations to increase their processing efficiency by monitoring key claims measures such as indemnity, expenses, cycle times, reserves, salvage, subrogation, percentage closed, catastrophe, and litigated.
Guidewire Explore
Guidewire Explore is a cloud-native application that gathers and curates InsuranceSuite data in near real-time to augment decision making inside and outside InsuranceSuite. Explore includes free-form search across the data set, along with visualizations and dashboards for common business metrics. It allows business users to examine operational claims data, underwriting management data, and operational policy data.


Guidewire Cyence
Guidewire Cyence is a cyber-risk economic modeling product that helps P&C insurers accurately measure the financial impact of cyber risk on their customers. It does this by capturing data about cyber threats from more than 400 sources, including public data, open-source data, proprietary, and third-party data. Cyence then curates and analyzes the data through AI and machine-learning statistical models to extract meaningful signals. Based on these models, Cyence produces insights delivered through reports that will predict the likelihood and economic impact of cyber attacks on a target company or individual. This can be used for underwriting, pricing, and developing cyber insurance products.
Guidewire DataHub and InfoCenter
Guidewire DataHub is an operational data store that unifies, standardizes, and stores data from the patchwork of insurer’s systems as well as from external sources. It is available for self-managed and InsuranceSuite Cloud customers.
Guidewire InfoCenter is a business intelligence warehouse for P&C insurers that provides information in easy-to-use formats for business intelligence, analysis, and enhanced decision making. With Guidewire InfoCenter, insurers gain flexible operational insights as well as the ability to optimize their business.
Guidewire Marketplace
The Guidewire Marketplace is where insurers find trusted applications and content that complement the Guidewire platform from our PartnerConnect partners, as well as from Guidewire product and services teams. These applications and content help insurers to rapidly innovate and differentiate their businesses by allowing them to leverage capabilities provided by the Guidewire partner ecosystem to meet their business goals. The Guidewire Marketplace also empowers customers pursuing innovation initiatives by providing access to a curated collection of insurtech applications. As of July 31, 2022, the Guidewire Marketplace had over 170 partner-developed integrations that have been validated by us and awarded Ready for Guidewire branding and hundreds of Guidewire-developed resources available for download. We anticipate expanding the reach of the Guidewire Marketplace.
Technology
We have increased the scope of our platform and business through internal development and acquisitions. This growing scope has required greater investment in the development of application interfaces and shared services necessary to unify the operations and user experience across our applications. The shift to cloud-delivered solutions has also required significant focus in improving our ability to manage, secure, and operate our applications since our cloud-based deployments, unlike our self-managed implementations, shift many operational responsibilities to us.
Our cloud infrastructure is designed to maximize the security, stability, scalability and efficiency of our applications. Our cloud infrastructure leverages AWS, provides services hosted in AWS regions worldwide, and is tailored to provide both the benefit of cloud subscription services delivered in a cloud-native multi-tenant model while still providing insurers with the ability to configure and extend their applications via single-tenant environments which are easily managed via Guidewire Cloud Console. All of our cloud services and products comply with standards set by ISO, AICPA, and PCI SSC.
Finally, we continue to improve the scalability of our service, which performs millions of complex, business-critical transactions daily. The accuracy and availability of our services must be maintained not only during normal business operations, but also during extraordinary events such as catastrophes, which may result in extremely high transaction volume in a short period of time.
Services
We provide implementation, cloud migration, and integration services to help our customers realize the benefits of our cloud-based services and software products. Our delivery services teams assist customers in building implementation or migration plans, integrating our software with their existing systems, and defining business rules and specific requirements unique to each customer. We also partner with leading SI consulting firms, certified on our software, to achieve scalable, cost-effective implementations for our customers.
Customer Support
We provide support for our subscription customers as part of our subscription services and to our license customers for an annual fee based on a percentage of the license fees. Subscription services also include regular updates to Guidewire software to ensure that Guidewire Cloud customers can easily access our latest innovations. New capabilities are often toggled-off so that


customers can activate them at the right time for their businesses. This enables our customers to deliver improvements at a steady pace, optimized for their employees and customers.
Our subscriptions include Guidewire Cloud Assurance Services, which provides for review of all configurations and integrations to ensure they follow published standards, best practices and required security methodologies. Furthermore, our internal cloud operations team monitors application performance and our customer success team works directly with customers to optimize adoption, user experience, and business requirements.
Employees and Human Capital Resources
Our business requires attracting, developing, and retaining a motivated team of individuals who thrive in a culture based on integrity, rationality, and collegiality and that embraces diversity, inclusion, and belonging. Understanding and proactively anticipating the priorities and needs of our current and future employees is important to realizing our mission to be the platform P&C insurers trust to engage, innovate, and grow efficiently.
As of July 31, 2022, we had 3,376 employees, including 1,668 in global product development and operations (comprised of research and development, cloud operations, and technical support), 755 in professional services, 475 in sales and marketing, and 478 in general and administrative roles. As of July 31, 2022, we had 1,775 employees in the United States and 1,601 employees internationally.
Attracting, Developing, and Retaining Employees
Our recruiting, development, and retention objectives focus on attracting skilled and engaged employees who contribute the talent and diverse perspectives critical to our innovative, forward-looking, and inclusive workforce. Our recruiting process actively sources diverse talent and is designed to reduce bias, supporting our ability to hire candidates with professional qualifications, personal potential, and differing perspectives. Our flexible work policies expand our ability to hire and retain talent in geographies where we do not have physical offices. Fostering career progression by encouraging regular professional education empowers our employees to pursue their professional goals, which is critical to developing and retaining our employees. We invest in broad-based development for all of our employees in various ways such as skills-building programs, on-demand learning options, mentoring programs, and leadership development courses. In an effort to create more development opportunities for all employees, we are currently expanding our intern, mentoring, and leadership development programs. We gauge progress and efficacy, identify opportunities for change, and pursue solutions through tracking and analyzing data from various sources such as annual talent reviews and our progress toward hiring/promotion goals in our development, diversity and inclusion plans.
Diversity, Inclusion, and Belonging
We believe that understanding and respecting another’s perspective, experience, background, and beliefs provides an opportunity to expand horizons, challenge complacency, and foster empathy. Diversity of perspective, experience, background, and beliefs fuel our innovative, collaborative, and engaged workplace. We aim for the highest standards of fairness and equal opportunity in recruitment, hiring, promotions, job assignments, and compensation. Initiatives to create greater diversity and belonging among our employees include inclusive recruiting and outreach programs for diverse candidates, employee resource groups (“ERGs”), and management-led listening circles. Our ERGs are employee-led and comprised of volunteers who represent common interests, experiences, backgrounds, or demographics. As of the end of fiscal year 2022, we had seven ERGs including Womens’ Leadership, African Ancestry, LGBTQ+, Asian and Pacific Islander, and LatinX groups.
Guidewire Gives Back (“GGB”) is a program focused on investing in local communities where we operate by encouraging employee volunteerism, philanthropy, and social impact investment. The GGB program is centered around employee engagement and community impact through volunteer hours from the Guidewire community and financial donations, both of which are geared toward making a measurable difference. The GGB strategy, programs, and collaborative partnerships reflect employees’ passions and embody Guidewire’s corporate mission as well as our customers' purpose.
Positive Corporate Culture
Our employees are critical to our success, and we believe creating a positive, inclusive culture is essential to attracting and retaining engaged employees. Our values of integrity, rationality, and collegiality are the foundation of how we work with one another. We incorporate a wide variety of communication and training activities to encourage collaboration amongst our colleagues around the world. We measure the program’s efficacy and identify opportunities for improvements through an engagement survey distributed annually, with the last survey completed in May 2022, and periodic pulse surveys to elicit feedback.


Health and Wellness
We believe a healthy, engaged, and high-performing workforce is part of our competitive advantage. We want all of our employees to thrive, and we regularly re-evaluate how to best support our employees’ wellness, health, and safety through benefits and resources. Our current benefit and wellness programs drive engagement that positively impacts our culture, job satisfaction, recruiting, and retention programs. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we expanded our physical, mental, and family health programs and informational outreach through professional development opportunities and personal empowerment, safe and healthy workspaces, wellness initiatives (including physical, emotional, and mental health), fair compensation, benefits, and recognition. Additionally, we have announced our intention to transition to a hybrid work environment in which a significant portion of our workforce will work either in-person on a part-time basis or remotely on a permanent basis.
Labor Relations
Our employees in the United States are not represented by a labor union; however, in certain foreign locations, there are workers’ councils that represent our employees. We have not experienced any work stoppages, and we consider our relations with our employees to be good. We recognize the critical role that our supervisors and managers play in fostering a productive, inclusive and respectful work environment, and we encourage employees to work directly with their supervisors, where possible, to efficiently and effectively resolve workplace concerns. We also respect our employees’ rights to voluntarily establish and join unions and similar associations without unlawful interference. We strive to work collaboratively with the councils and associations that represent our workers.
Customers
We market and sell our services and products to a wide variety of global P&C insurers ranging from some of the largest global insurers to national and regional companies. We believe strong customer relationships are a key driver of our success given the long-term nature of our customer engagements and importance of customer references for new sales. We focus on developing and maintaining our customer relationships through customer service and account management. Customers are defined as entities that have placed orders for our services or products. In some instances, a parent corporation can have multiple entities, or insurance brands, that place orders for our services or products. As of July 31, 2022, we had approximately 520 customers representing approximately 520 insurance brands, also referred to as insurers, using one or more of our services or products in 38 countries. The acquisition of HazardHub in August 2021 added approximately 160 customers, many of which are not insurers.
Strategic Relationships
We have extensive relationships with SI, consulting, technology, and industry partners. Our network of partners has expanded as interest in and adoption of our platform has grown. We encourage our partners to co-market, pursue joint sales initiatives, and drive broader adoption of our technology, helping us grow our business more efficiently and enabling us to focus our resources on continued innovation and further enhancement of our solutions.
We work closely with our network of third-party SI partners to facilitate new sales and implementations of both our subscription services and self-managed products. Our partnerships with leading SI partners allow us to increase efficiency and scale while reducing customer implementation costs. We continue to invest time and resources to increase the number of qualified consultants employed by our SI partners, develop relationships with new partners in existing and new markets, and ensure that all SI partners are qualified to assist with implementing our services and products. We believe this model will continue to serve us well, and we intend to continue to expand our network of partners and the number of certified consultants with whom we work so we can leverage our SI partners more effectively, especially for future subscription implementations.
As part of our PartnerConnect alliance program, we have a community of solution partners developing integrations that enable software and insurance business solutions to interoperate with our services and products, many of which are in the Guidewire Marketplace. These integrations help customers reduce implementation risk and effort, and lower the total cost of implementation and operation.
Sales and Marketing
Consistent with our industry focus and the mission-critical needs our services and products address, our sales and marketing efforts are tailored to communicate effectively to senior executives within the P&C insurance industry. Our sales, marketing, and executive teams work together to cultivate long-term relationships with current and prospective customers in each of the geographies in which we are active.


Our direct sales team serves as both our exclusive sales channel and our account management function and is organized by geographic region across the Americas, EMEA, and APAC. We augment our sales professionals with a pre-sales team possessing insurance domain and technical expertise, who engage customers to understand their specific business needs and then represent our services and products through demonstrations tailored to address those needs.
Our marketing team supports sales with competitive analysis and sales tools, while investing to strengthen our brand name and reputation. We participate at industry conferences, are published frequently in the industry press, and have active relationships with all of the major industry analysts. We also host Connections, our annual user conference where customers both participate in and deliver in-person and virtual presentations on a wide range of Guidewire and insurance technology topics. We invite potential customers and partners to our user conference, as we believe customer references are a key component of driving new sales. Our strong relationships with leading system integrators enhance our direct sales through co-marketing efforts and by providing additional market validation of the distinctiveness and quality of our offerings.
Research and Development
Our research and development efforts focus on enhancing our platform, services, and products to meet the complex requirements of P&C insurers with a focus on capabilities, operational efficiency, data analytics, security, and privacy in the cloud. These efforts are intended to help our customers improve their operations; drive greater digital engagement with their customers, agents, and brokers; and gather, store and analyze data to improve business decisions. We also invest significantly in developing our services and products and necessary integrations to meet the market requirements, including regulations, language, currency, and local terminology, of each country or state in which our customers operate. This market-segment specific functionality must be updated regularly in order to stay current with regulatory changes in each market. We rely on a multi-national engineering team, which has grown organically and through acquisitions.
Competition
The software market that caters to the P&C insurance industry is highly competitive and fragmented. Increased spending by insurers on software solutions and the emergence of new platforms that have broadened from core system modernization to new digital engagement and data and analytics solutions have generated significant interest among investors and entrepreneurs. Increased capital allows market participants, or potential market participants such as insurtech companies, to adopt more aggressive go-to-market strategies, improve existing services or products, introduce new services or products, develop innovative solutions that disrupt the market, and consolidate with other vendors. This market is also subject to changing technology preferences, shifting customer needs, and the adoption of cloud deployed solutions. These factors create an environment of increasing competition. Our current and future competitors vary in size and in the breadth and scope of the services or products they offer. As we expand our product portfolio, we may begin to compete with software and service providers we have not traditionally competed against. Our current competitors include, but are not limited to, customers’ internally developed proprietary solutions; P&C insurance software vendors such as Duck Creek, EIS Group, Insurity, Majesco, Prima Solutions, RGI, Origami Risk, and Sapiens; and horizontal software vendors such as SAP and Salesforce.
Competitive factors in our industry depend on the product being offered and the size, geographic market, and line of business of potential customers. The principal competitive factors include product functionality, performance, customer references, total cost of ownership, solution completeness, implementation track record, security and in-depth knowledge of the P&C insurance industry. We typically compete favorably on the basis of these factors in most geographies.
Intellectual Property
The software industry is characterized by the existence of a large number of patents and frequent claims and related litigation regarding patent and other intellectual property rights. Our success and ability to compete depend in part upon our ability to protect our proprietary technology, to establish and adequately protect our intellectual property rights, and to protect against third-party claims and litigation related to intellectual property. To accomplish these objectives, we rely on a combination of patent, trademark, copyright, and trade secret laws in the United States and other jurisdictions, as well as license agreements and other contractual protections. We own or have pending patents and patent applications, which generally apply to our software. Our owned patents have expiration dates starting in 2025. We also rely on several registered and unregistered trademarks, as well as pending applications for such registrations, in order to protect our brand both in the United States and internationally.
Our investments in services and partners are designed to ensure customer success by committing additional resources to both cloud-based and self-managed implementation projects. Our investments in cloud operations are focused on managing the infrastructure for our cloud-based customers in a secure, efficient, and cost-effective manner.


Information about Segment and Geographic Revenue
Information about geographic revenue is set forth in Note 2 “Revenue” and information about segment reporting is set forth in Note 13 “Segment Information” to our consolidated financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Seasonality
We have experienced seasonal variations in our license revenue and, to a lesser extent, in our subscription revenue as a result of increased customer orders in our fourth fiscal quarter. We generally see significantly increased orders in our fourth fiscal quarter, which is the quarter ending July 31, due to efforts by our sales team to achieve annual incentives. Because we recognize revenue upfront for new term licenses and multi-year renewals compared to over time for subscription services, changes in the mix between term license and subscription services may impact our quarterly results. Additionally, any quarter in which a significant multi-year term license or multi-year term license renewal or non-renewal occurs could be impacted. For example, in the first quarter of fiscal year 2021, we experienced license revenue growth due to a five-year term license renewal under which revenue was recognized upfront, which overshadowed the comparison with our second fiscal quarter of 2021 and created a challenging comparable period for the first quarter of fiscal year 2022. Additionally, as subscriptions increase as a percentage of total sales, the revenue we can recognize in the initial fiscal quarter and fiscal year of an order is reduced, deferred revenue increases, and our reported revenue growth will be adversely affected in the near term due to the ratable nature of these arrangements. The concentration of our sales in our fiscal fourth quarter increases this impact as the revenue impact of most fiscal fourth quarter subscription sales will not be realized until the following fiscal year.
Our services revenue is also subject to seasonal fluctuations, though to a lesser degree than our license revenue and subscription revenue. Our services revenue is impacted by the number of billable days in a given fiscal quarter. The fiscal quarter ending January 31 usually has fewer billable days due to the impact of the Thanksgiving, Christmas, and New Year’s holidays. The fiscal quarter ending July 31 usually has fewer billable days due to the impact of vacations taken by our services professionals. Because we pay our services professionals the same amount throughout the year, our gross margins on our services revenue are usually lower in these quarters. This seasonal pattern, however, may be absent in any given year.
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION
The following filings are available to view and download free of charge on our investor relations website as soon as reasonably practicable after we file them with the SEC: Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and our Proxy Statement for our annual meeting of stockholders. Our website is located at www.guidewire.com, and our investor relations website is located at ir.guidewire.com. We also provide a link to the section of the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov that has all of our public filings, including periodic reports, proxy statements, and other information.
We provide access to a recording of our earnings calls and certain events we participate in or host with members of the investment community on our investor relations website. Additionally, we also provide notifications on our investor relations website of news or announcements regarding our financial performance, including SEC filings, investor events, press releases, and earnings releases. Investors and others can receive notifications of new information posted on our investor relations website in real time by signing up for email alerts and RSS feeds. Corporate governance information, including our governance guidelines and code of business conduct and ethics, is also available on our investor relations website under the heading “Corporate Governance.” Corporate sustainability information, including our approach and progress in respect of environmentally and socially responsible business practices, is available on our website and is located at www.guidewire.com/corporate-sustainability. The contents of our websites, including any information contained in reports or other resources found on such websites, are not intended to be incorporated by reference into this Annual Report on Form 10-K or in any other report or document we file with the SEC. Any references to our websites are intended to be inactive, textual references only.




Item 1A.Risk Factors
A description of the risks and uncertainties associated with our business is set forth below. You should carefully consider such risks and uncertainties, together with the other information contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, and in our other public filings. If any of such risks and uncertainties actually occurs, our business, financial condition or results of operations could differ materially from the plans, projections and other forward-looking statements included in the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and in our other public filings. In addition, if any of the following risks and uncertainties, or if any other risks and uncertainties, actually occurs, our business, financial condition or results of operations could be harmed substantially, which could cause the market price of our stock to decline, perhaps significantly.

Risks Related to our Business and Industry
We may experience significant quarterly and annual fluctuations in our results of operations due to a number of factors.
Our quarterly and annual results of operations may fluctuate significantly due to a variety of factors, many of which are outside of our control. This variability may lead to volatility in our stock price as investors and research analysts respond to quarterly fluctuations. In addition, comparing our results of operations on a period-to-period basis, particularly on a sequential quarterly basis, may not be meaningful. You should not rely on our past results as an indication of our future performance.
Factors that may affect our results of operations include:
the impact of economic downturns and related market volatility caused by economic volatility, inflation, or other national and worldwide events on our business and the businesses of our customers, partners, and vendors;
our ability to attract new domestic and international customers and renew existing customers;
seasonal buying patterns of our potential customers and our ability to sell additional software and services to existing customers;
the proportion and timing of subscription sales as opposed to term or perpetual software licenses, and the variations in revenue recognition between these contract types;
changes in contract durations of term software licenses and renewals;
increases in costs related to cloud operations, product development, and services;
our ability to develop and achieve market adoption of cloud-based services, including the impact of our customers transitioning from term software licenses to subscription services;
erosion in services margins or significant fluctuations in services revenue caused by changing customer demand, negotiated professional services billing rates, investments in customer implementation and migration projects, or fixed fee contracts;
our ability to enter into contracts on favorable terms, including terms related to price, payment timing, service levels, acceptance, and product delivery, especially with customers and prospects that possess substantial negotiating leverage and procurement expertise;
the incurrence of penalties or having to renegotiate contract terms for failing to meet certain contractual obligations, including service levels, product development cycles and functionality, and implementation times and objectives;
security and privacy concerns related to employee data, customer data, and systems that are accessed or otherwise used by our hybrid workforce and customers;
future accounting pronouncements or changes in accounting rules and our related accounting policies, interpretations, and controls;
our ability to realize expected benefits from our acquisitions and other strategic business transactions;
reductions in our customers’ budgets for information technology purchases and delays in their purchasing decisions;
employee retention, the ability to hire appropriate personnel, and the timing of hiring personnel and employee related expenses;


the impact of a recession or any other adverse global economic condition on our business, including pandemics, geographic and political conflicts, trade tariffs, trade agreements, and other uncertainties that may cause a delay in entering into or a failure to enter into significant customer agreements or the fulfillment of professional service arrangements;
adverse litigation judgments, dispute-related settlement payments, or litigation-related costs;
fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates; and
the effects of inflation or deflation in the economies in which we operate and its impact on our revenues given the multi-year term of most customer agreements.
The foregoing factors are difficult to forecast, and these, as well as other factors, could materially adversely affect our quarterly and annual results of operations. Further, due to multi-year term licenses and multi-year term license renewals, increased cloud-based subscription services, timing of and billing rates for professional services engagements, and other ongoing changes to our business, it is challenging to forecast our quarterly and annual results.
We believe our ability to adjust spending quickly enough to compensate for a potential revenue shortfall is very limited and our inability to do so could magnify the adverse impact of a potential revenue shortfall on our results of operations. If we fail to achieve our quarterly forecasts, if our forecasts fall below the expectations of investors or research analysts, or if our actual results fail to meet the expectations of investors or research analysts, our stock price may decline.
Seasonal sales patterns may cause significant fluctuations in our results of operations and cash flows and may prevent us from achieving our quarterly or annual forecasts, which may cause our stock price to decline.
We generally see increased new orders in our fourth fiscal quarter, which is the quarter ended July 31, due to efforts by our sales team to achieve annual incentives. As a result, a significantly higher percentage of our annual license revenue has historically been recognized in our fourth fiscal quarter. Since a substantial majority of our license revenue has annual renewals after the initial term of the contract, we expect to continue to experience this seasonality effect in subsequent years. Generally, accounting under ASC 606 has and may continue to heighten or change the seasonal impact due to license revenue for the entire committed term of our new term licenses and multi-year term license renewals being recognized at the beginning of the agreement. Because of the upfront nature of revenue recognition for new multi-year term licenses and multi-year term license renewals, any quarter in which a significant agreement of this nature is signed, renewed, cancelled, or not renewed when scheduled to do so may be impacted.
We currently anticipate that sales of, and revenue from, subscription services will continue to increase in the future. Subscriptions are recognized ratably over the term of the agreement after provisioning of the service. Over time, this may reduce the impact of our historic revenue seasonality, but in the near term the introduction of proportionally more subscription services into our revenue stream, together with their delayed and ratable recognition, will likely impact quarter-over-quarter and year-over-year revenue growth comparisons. Cash flow expectations and comparisons could also be impacted because of the ramped nature of the annual installments of these multi-year subscription services arrangements. Additionally, ARR, which reflects the annualized recurring value of active customer contracts at the end of a reporting period, will be impacted by the seasonality of new sales orders, even if the revenue is recognized ratably.
Our quarterly growth in revenue or ARR also may not coincide with new orders or cash flows in a given quarter, which could mask the impact of seasonal variations. This mismatch is primarily due to the following reasons:
our subscription arrangements are recognized ratably and only a portion, if any, of the revenue from an order is recognized in the same fiscal period of the order;
subscription arrangements generally have ramped invoicing schedules over the initial term, which affects ARR, but revenue is recognized ratably over the initial term;
our term license agreements and multi-year term license renewals generally have annual billing arrangements even though revenue is recognized upfront for the entire committed term;
as customers enter into a subscription agreement to migrate from an existing term license agreement or as we invest in certain cloud implementations to assist our customers with their migration to our cloud services, the timing of revenue recognition may be impacted by the allocation of revenue between different performance obligations;
we may enter into agreements with future product delivery requirements, specified terms for product upgrades or functionality, acceptance terms, early termination rights, or unconditional return rights, which may require us to delay revenue recognition for a period of time; and


revenue recognition may not occur in the period when the order is placed due to certain revenue recognition criteria not being met, such as delivery of the software or providing access to the subscription services.
Additionally, seasonal patterns may be affected by the timing of particularly large transactions and the large number of renewals that occur in the first fiscal quarter. For example, in the first quarter of fiscal year 2021, we achieved higher revenue growth due to a five-year renewal of a single license agreement, which resulted in the first quarter of fiscal year 2021 lacking comparability to the prior year and creating a challenging comparable for the first quarter of fiscal year 2022.
Seasonal and other variations may cause significant fluctuations in our revenues, ARR, results of operations and cash flows, may make it challenging for an investor to predict our performance on a quarterly basis and may prevent us from achieving our quarterly or annual forecasts or meeting or exceeding the expectations of research analysts or investors, which in turn may cause our stock price to decline.
If we fail to successfully manage our transition to a business model focused on delivering cloud-based offerings on a subscription basis or fail to meet stipulated service levels with our subscription services, our results of operations could be harmed.
To address demand trends in the P&C insurance industry, we now offer customers the use of our software products through a cloud-based offering sold on a subscription basis in addition to our self-managed offering. This change to our business model requires a considerable investment of technical, operational, financial, legal, and sales resources. Our software and cloud services involve the storage and transmission of customer data, including in some cases, personal data, and security breaches could result in the loss of this information, which in turn could result in litigation, breach of contract claims, indemnity obligations, harm to our reputation, and other liabilities for us. Our transition to cloud offerings will continue to be the focus of existing resources, require us to hire additional resources, and increase costs, especially in cost of subscription and support revenue, cost of services revenue, and research and development, in any given period. We may not be able to efficiently scale such investments to meet customer demand and expectations, which may impact our long-term growth and results of operations. Further, the increase in some costs associated with our cloud services, such as the cost of third-party infrastructure in which we rely to host our subscription services, may be difficult to predict over time, especially in light of our limited experience with the costs of delivering cloud-based versions of our applications. Furthermore, we may assume greater responsibilities for implementation of subscription services due to our operating and maintaining the cloud environment for our customers. As a result, we may face risks associated with new and complex implementations, the cost of which may differ from original estimates. Our subscription contracts also contain penalty clauses, for matters such as failing to meet stipulated service levels or other contractual provisions, which represent new risks we are not accustomed to managing. Should these penalties be triggered, our results of operations may be adversely affected. These penalties and costs could take the form of monetary credits for current or future service engagements, reduced fees for additional services or products or upon renewal of existing agreements, and a customer’s renegotiation or refusal to pay its contractually-obligated subscription or service fees.
Revenue under our cloud-based subscription model will generally be recognized ratably over the term of the contract. The transition to ratable revenue recognition will result in lower revenue than we otherwise would have recognized in the initial period of the customer agreement under term license agreements. This effect on recognized revenue may be magnified in any fiscal year due to the concentration of our orders in the fourth fiscal quarter. A combination of increased costs and delayed recognition of revenue would adversely impact our gross and operating margins compared to prior periods. Additionally, the change in our business model and the timing of our customers’ decision to transition from self-managed licenses to cloud-based subscription services could negatively affect our ability to forecast the timing and amount of our revenues in any period.
In addition, market acceptance of our cloud-based offerings may be affected by a variety of factors, including, but not limited to, price, security, reliability, performance, customer preference, public concerns regarding privacy, and the enactment of restrictive laws or regulations. We are in the early stages of re-architecting our existing services and products and developing new services and products in an effort to offer customers greater choices on how they utilize our software. As our business practices in this area develop and evolve over time, we may be required to revise our current subscription agreements, which may result in revised terms and conditions that impact how we recognize revenue and the costs and risks associated with these offerings. Whether our product development efforts or business model transition will prove successful and accomplish our business objectives is subject to numerous uncertainties and risks, including, but not limited to, customer demand, our ability to further develop, manage, and scale infrastructure, our ability to include functionality and usability in such offerings that address customer requirements, our customers’ ability to successfully migrate to and implement our subscription services, tax and accounting implications, and our costs.
In addition, the metrics we and our investors use to gauge the status of our business model transition may evolve over the course of the transition as significant trends emerge. It may be difficult, therefore, to accurately determine the impact of this transition on our business on a contemporaneous basis, or to clearly communicate the appropriate metrics to our investors. If we


are unable to successfully establish these new cloud offerings and navigate our business model transition in light of the foregoing risks and uncertainties, our reputation could suffer and our results of operations could be harmed, which may cause our stock price to decline.
We have relied and expect to continue to rely on orders from a relatively small number of customers in the P&C insurance industry for a substantial portion of our revenue and ARR, and the loss of any of these customers would significantly harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
Our revenue and ARR are dependent on orders from customers in the P&C insurance industry, which may be adversely affected by worldwide economic, environmental, public health, and political conditions. A relatively small number of customers have historically accounted for a significant portion of our revenue. The composition of our individual top customers has and will vary from year to year. In fiscal year 2020, our ten largest customers accounted for 27% of our revenue, in fiscal year 2021 they accounted for 28%, and in fiscal year 2022 they accounted for 23%. Additionally, our ten largest customers based on ARR accounted for 26% of total ARR at July 31, 2022. Customers for these metrics are calculated at the parent corporation level, while our total customer count is based on entities that have placed orders for our services or products. While we expect this reliance to decrease over time as our revenue, customer base and subscription services as a percentage of revenue grows, we expect that we will continue to depend upon a relatively small number of customers for a significant portion of our revenue for the foreseeable future. As a result, if we fail to successfully sell our services and products to one or more of these anticipated customers in any particular period or fail to identify additional potential customers or such customers purchase fewer of our services or products, defer or cancel orders, fail to renew their license or subscription agreements or otherwise terminate or reduce their relationship with us, our business, results of operations, and financial condition would be harmed. Additionally, if one or more of these anticipated customers enters into or transitions to a subscription agreement in any particular period, or if we fail to achieve the required performance or acceptance criteria for one or more of this relatively small number of customers, our quarterly and annual results of operations may fluctuate significantly.
Failure of any of our established services or products to satisfy customer demands or to maintain market acceptance could harm our business, results of operations, financial condition, and growth prospects.
We derive a significant majority of our revenue and cash flows from our established product offerings, including Guidewire InsuranceSuite Cloud, Guidewire InsuranceNow, Guidewire InsuranceSuite for self-managed installations, and our digital and data services and products. We expect to continue to derive a substantial portion of our revenue from these sources. As such, continued market acceptance of these services and products is critical to our growth and success. Demand for our services and products is affected by a number of factors, some of which are beyond our control, including the successful implementation of our services and products, the timing of development and release of product upgrades and new products by us and our competitors, the cost and effort to migrate from self-managed products to subscription services, the ease of integrating our software to third-party software and services, technological advances that reduce the appeal of our services and products, changes in the regulations that our customers must comply with in the jurisdictions in which they operate, and the growth or contraction in the worldwide market for technological solutions for the P&C insurance industry. If we are unable to continue to meet customer demands, to achieve and maintain a technological advantage over competitors, or to maintain market acceptance of our services and products, our business, results of operations, financial condition and growth prospects may be adversely affected.
Recent global events have adversely affected, and may continue to adversely affect, our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
Recent global events have adversely affected and are continuing to adversely affect workforces, organizations, economies, and financial markets globally, leading to economic downturns, inflation, and increased market volatility. The continuing COVID-19 pandemic, the ongoing conflict between Russia and Ukraine, inflation higher than we have seen in decades, and supply chain issues have added to global economic and market volatility. Our business and financial results during fiscal year 2022, including our ARR growth rates, services revenue, and margins, were adversely impacted due to the disruptions resulting from these events. The pandemic, as well as measures undertaken to contain the spread of COVID-19 variants, have affected and could further affect our ability to travel to customers and prospects, resulting in delays in services delivery, delays in implementations, and interruptions or modifications in our sales and marketing activities, including Connections, our annual user conference, which has adversely affected, and may continue to adversely affect, our business, results of operations, and financial condition. These global events have also disrupted the normal operations of our customers’ businesses and our SI partners’ businesses. The related impacts of recent global events on the global economy could decrease or delay technology spending and adversely affect demand for our products. Further, our sales and implementation cycles have increased and could continue to increase, which has resulted in and could result in contract terms more favorable to customers and a potentially longer delay between incurring operating expenses and the generation of corresponding revenue, if any, or difficulty in accurately forecasting our financial results. Additionally, our customers may be unable to pay outstanding invoices or may request amended payment terms due to the economic impacts from these global events and related implementation


delays. In the third quarter of our fiscal year 2022, the ongoing conflict between Russia and Ukraine resulted in our ceasing operations in Russia, which resulted in our recording $3.0 million of bad debt expense and removing $3.1 million of ARR due to our cancellation of contracts with customers in Russia. As a result of these developments and the related economic impact to our business, we may be required to record impairment related to our operating lease assets, investments, long-lived assets, or goodwill. We may experience further operational challenges, including increased costs, as a portion of our workforce returns to working in person and gradually shifts to assisting customers in person, difficulty in hiring necessary personnel, and higher employee attrition. Due to the continuing and evolving nature of these global events, it is not possible for us to accurately predict the duration or magnitude of the adverse impacts and effects on our business, results of operations, or financial condition. Further, to the extent recent global events adversely affects our business, results of operations, or financial condition, it may also have the effect of heightening many of the other risks described in this “Risk Factors” section.
We are in the process of transitioning to a hybrid in-person and remote workforce, which will subject us to certain operational challenges and risks and potential harm to our business.
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, our workforce shifted from in-person to remote work. We have announced our intention to transition to a hybrid work environment in which a significant portion of our workforce will work either in-person on a part-time basis or remotely on a permanent basis. As a result, we expect to continue to be subject to the challenges and risks of having a remote workforce, as well as new challenges and risks from operating with a hybrid workforce. For example, certain security systems in homes or other remote workplaces may be less secure than those used in our offices, which may subject us to increased security risks, including cybersecurity-related events, and expose us to risks of data or financial loss and associated disruptions to our business operations. Members of our workforce who work remotely may not have access to technology that is as robust as that in our offices, which could cause the networks, information systems, applications, and other tools available to those remote workers to be more limited or less reliable than in our offices. We may also be exposed to risks associated with the locations of remote workers, including compliance with local laws and regulations or exposure to compromised internet infrastructure. Allowing members of our workforce to work remotely may create intellectual property risk if employees create intellectual property on our behalf while residing in a jurisdiction with unenforced or uncertain intellectual property laws. Further, if employees fail to inform us of changes in their work location, we may be exposed to additional risks without our knowledge. The transition to hybrid in-person as well as remote working may also subject us to other operational challenges and risks. For example, our shift to hybrid working may adversely affect our ability to recruit and retain personnel who prefer a fully remote or fully in-person work environment. Operating our business with both remote and in-person workers, or workers who work in flexible locations and on flexible schedules, could have a negative impact on our corporate culture, decrease the ability of our workforce to collaborate and communicate effectively, decrease innovation and productivity, or negatively affect workforce morale and retention rates. In addition, we expect to incur costs related to the transition to a hybrid workforce to, among other things, facilitate permanent remote work for a portion of our workforce and update our offices to offer more collaborative workspaces. If we are unable to effectively transition to a hybrid workforce, manage the cybersecurity and other risks of remote work, and maintain our corporate culture and workforce morale, our business could be harmed or otherwise negatively impacted.
We face intense competition in our market, which could negatively impact our business, results of operations, and financial condition and cause our market share to decline.
The market for our software and services is intensely competitive. The competitors we face in any sale opportunity may change depending on, among other things, the line of business purchasing the software, the application or service being sold, the geography in which the customer is operating, and the size of the insurance carrier to which we are selling. For example, we are more likely to face competition from small independent firms when addressing the needs of small insurers. These competitors may compete on the basis of price, the time and cost required for implementation, custom development, or unique product features or functions. Outside of the United States, we are more likely to compete against vendors that may differentiate themselves based on local advantages in language, market knowledge, and pre-built content applicable to that jurisdiction. We also compete with vendors of horizontal software products that may be customized to address needs of the P&C insurance industry.
Additionally, many of our prospective customers operate firmly entrenched legacy systems, some of which have been in operation for decades. Our implementation cycles may be lengthy, variable, and require the investment of significant time and expense by our customers. These expenses and associated operating risks attendant on any significant process re-engineering and new technology implementation, may cause customers to prefer maintaining legacy systems. Also, maintaining these legacy systems may be so time consuming and costly for our potential customers that they do not have adequate resources to devote to the purchase and implementation of our services and products. We also compete against technology consulting firms that either helped create such legacy systems or may own, in full or in part, subsidiaries that develop software and systems for the P&C insurance industry.


As we expand our product portfolio, we may begin to compete with software and service providers we have not competed against previously. Such potential competitors offer data and analytics tools that may, in time, become more competitive with our offerings.
We expect the intensity of competition to remain high in the future, as the amount of capital invested in current and potential competitors, including insurtech companies, has increased significantly in recent years. As a result, our competitors or potential competitors may develop improved product or sales capabilities, or even a technology breakthrough that disrupts our market. Continuing intense competition could result in increased pricing pressure, increased sales and marketing expenses, and greater investments in research and development, each of which could negatively impact our profitability. In addition, the failure to increase, or the loss of, market share would harm our business, results of operations, financial condition, and/or future prospects. Our larger current and potential competitors may be able to devote greater resources to the development, promotion, and sale of their services and products than we can devote to ours, which could allow them to respond more quickly than we can to new technologies and changes in customer needs, thus leading to their wider market acceptance. We may not be able to compete effectively and competitive pressures may prevent us from acquiring and maintaining the customer base necessary for us to increase our revenue and profitability.
In addition, the insurance industry is evolving rapidly, and we anticipate the market for cloud-based solutions will become increasingly competitive. If our current and potential customers move a greater proportion of their data and computational needs to the cloud, new competitors may emerge that offer services either comparable or better suited than ours to address the demand for such cloud-based solutions, which could reduce demand for our offerings. To compete effectively we will likely be required to increase our investment in research and development, as well as the personnel and third-party services required to improve reliability and lower the cost of delivery of our cloud-based solutions. New competitors are able to develop cloud-based solutions without the cost of maintaining or migrating existing solutions and satisfying existing customer requirements, which may allow them to introduce new services and products more quickly and on more efficient technologies than us. This may increase our costs more than we anticipate and may adversely impact our results of operations.
Our current and potential competitors may also establish cooperative relationships among themselves or with third parties to further enhance their resources and offerings. Current or potential competitors may be acquired by other vendors or third parties with greater available resources. As a result of such acquisitions, our current or potential competitors might be more able than we are to adapt quickly to new technologies and customer needs, to devote greater resources to the promotion or sale of their services and products, to initiate or withstand substantial price competition, or to take advantage of emerging opportunities by developing and expanding their product and service offerings more quickly than we can. Additionally, they may hold larger portfolios of patents and other intellectual property rights as a result of such relationships or acquisitions. If we are unable to compete effectively with these evolving competitors for market share, our business, results of operations, and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected.
Our sales and implementation cycles are lengthy and variable, depend upon factors outside our control, and could cause us to expend significant time and resources prior to generating revenue.
The typical sales cycle for our services and products is lengthy and unpredictable, requires pre-purchase evaluation by a significant number of employees in our customers’ organizations, often involves a significant operational decision by our customers, and could be affected by factors outside of our control. Our sales efforts involve educating our customers about the use and benefits of our services and products, including the technical capabilities of our services and products and the potential cost savings achievable by organizations deploying our services and products. Customers typically undertake a significant evaluation process, which frequently involves not only our services and products, but also those of our competitors. We spend substantial time, effort, and money in our sales efforts without any assurance that our efforts will produce sales, and our customers have significant negotiating power during the sales process which may result in a lengthy sales cycle and significant contractual complexity. Additionally, we may be unable to predict the size and terms of the initial contract until very late in the sales cycle, which affects our ability to accurately forecast revenue and ARR. In addition, we sometimes commit to include specific functions in our base service and product offering at the request of a customer or group of customers and are unable to recognize revenue until the specific functions have been added to our services and products. Providing this additional functionality may be time consuming and may involve factors that are outside of our control. Customers may also insist that we commit to certain time frames in which systems built around our services and products will be operational or that once implemented our services and products will be able to meet certain operational requirements. Our ability to meet such timeframes and requirements may involve factors that are outside of our control, and failure to meet such timeframes and requirements could result in us incurring penalties and costs and/or making additional resource commitments, which would adversely affect our business and results of operations.
The implementation and testing of our services and products by our customers typically lasts six to 24 months or longer and unexpected implementation delays and difficulties can occur. Implementing our services and products typically involves


integration with our customers’ and third parties’ systems, as well as adding customer and third-party data to our platform. This process can be complex, time consuming, and expensive for our customers and can result in delays in the implementation and deployment of our services and products. Failing to meet the expectations of our customers during the implementation of our services and products could result in a loss of customers and negative publicity about us and our services and products. Such failure could result from deficiencies in our product capabilities, performance issues, or inadequate service engagements by us, our SI partners, or our customers’ employees, the latter two of which are beyond our direct control. The consequences of such failure could include, and have included, monetary credits for current or future service engagements, reduced fees for additional services or products sales or upon renewals of existing licenses and services, potential reversals of previously recognized revenue, renegotiating existing customer’s contractual terms, and a customer’s refusal to pay their contractually-obligated license, support, or service fees. In addition, time-consuming and delayed implementations may also increase the amount of services personnel we must allocate to the implementation for it to be successful, thereby increasing our costs and adversely affecting our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
Furthermore, our sales and implementation cycles could be interrupted or affected by other factors outside of our control. For example, the COVID-19 pandemic caused sales and implementation cycles to lengthen, along with other impacts on our business. We have had, and may in the future have, restrictions on travel, which are in accordance with recommendations by the U.S. government, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and other equivalent agencies in the locations in which we operate, and our customers, SI partners, and prospects have likewise enacted their own preventative policies and travel restrictions. Widespread restrictions on travel and in-person meetings have affected and could continue to affect services delivery, delay implementations, and interrupt sales activity. We cannot predict the duration or the extent of adverse impacts from the COVID-19 pandemic and other global events on our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
Failure to manage our expanding operations effectively could harm our business.
We have experienced consistent growth and expect to continue to expand our operations, including the number of employees and the locations and scope of our international operations. Additionally, we have announced our intention to transition to a hybrid work environment in which a large portion of our workforce will work either in-person on a part-time basis or remotely on a permanent basis, which brings new challenges to managing our business and workforce. This expansion and changing work environment has placed, and will continue to place, a significant strain on our operational and financial resources and our personnel. To manage our anticipated future operational expansion effectively, we must continue to maintain and may need to enhance our information technology and cybersecurity infrastructure and financial and accounting systems and controls, and manage expanded operations and employees in geographically distributed locations. Our growth could require significant capital expenditures and may divert financial resources from other projects, such as the development of new or enhanced services and products or investments in cloud operations. If we increase the size of our organization without experiencing an increase in sales of our services and products, we will experience reductions in our gross and operating margins and net income. If we are unable to effectively manage our expanding operations or hybrid work environment, our expenses may increase more than expected, our revenue could decline or grow more slowly than expected, and we may be unable to implement our business strategy.
Revenue mix, as well as declines in our subscription and support gross margin or our services gross margin, could adversely affect our overall gross margin and profitability.
Our subscription and support revenue was 42%, 34%, and 27% of total revenue for fiscal years 2022, 2021, and 2020, respectively. Our subscription and support revenue produces lower gross margins than our license revenue. The gross margin of our subscription and support revenue was 38%, 35%, and 42% for fiscal years 2022, 2021, and 2020, respectively, while the gross margin for license revenue was 97%, 97%, and 97% for fiscal years 2022, 2021, and 2020, respectively. As our cloud transition continues, we expect that subscription revenue will continue to increase as a percentage of total revenue as we contract with new cloud customers and existing customers migrate from term licenses to subscription services. Additionally, we are incurring significant expenses to develop our cloud services and scale our cloud operations which may result in further erosion of our subscription and support gross margin. These trends, along with other factors, some of which may be beyond our control, may adversely affect our overall gross and operating margins. These other factors include the percentage of new customers that enter into subscription services agreements as compared to term license agreements, the revenue impact of allocating total contract consideration between license revenue and subscription and support revenue when existing customers transition from term license to subscription services agreements, investments in certain cloud implementations to assist our customers with their migration to our cloud services, continued growth and efficiency of our cloud operations and technical support teams, and the impact on the global economy as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, inflation, or other global events and disasters.
Further, our services revenue was 26%, 25%, and 28% of total revenue for fiscal years 2022, 2021, and 2020, respectively. Our services revenue produces lower gross margin than either our license revenue or our subscription and support


revenue. The gross margin of our services revenue was negative for fiscal years 2022, 2021, and 2020. If we experience an increase in the percentage of total revenue represented by services revenue, like we did in fiscal year 2018 due to acquisitions and other factors, such increase could reduce our overall gross and operating margins. Fluctuation in our services revenue can result from several factors, some of which may be beyond our control, including the pace of our customers’ migration from term license to subscription services as we continue our cloud transition, change in customer demand for our services team’s involvement in the implementation of new services and products, the rates we charge or discounts we offer for our services, our ability to bill our customers for all time incurred to complete a project, the extent and quality of implementations and migrations provided by our SI partners, and the impact on the global economy as a result of economic volatility, inflation, or other global events and disasters. Additionally, the failure to improve, or the erosion of, our services margin, whether due to discounts related to encouraging clients to accelerate their cloud transition or otherwise, particularly in combination with any increase in services revenue, could adversely affect our overall gross and operating margins. Our services margin may erode if we hire and train additional services personnel to support cloud-based services or markets prior to having customer engagements, if we make investments in customer migrations from self-managed term licenses to subscription services, if we enter into fixed fee services arrangements, if our services personnel are underutilized, or if we require additional personnel on unexpectedly difficult projects to ensure customer success, perhaps without receiving commensurate compensation.
Our large customers have substantial negotiating leverage, which may require that we agree to terms and conditions that result in increased cost of sales, decreased revenue, and lower average selling prices and gross margins, all of which could harm our results of operations.
Some of our customers include the world’s largest P&C insurers. These customers have significant bargaining power when negotiating new licenses or subscriptions or renewals of existing agreements, and have the ability to buy similar services and products from other vendors or develop such systems internally. These customers have and may continue to seek advantageous pricing and other commercial and performance terms that may require us to develop additional features in the services and products we sell to them or add complexity to our customer agreements. We have been required to, and may continue to be required to, reduce the average selling price of our services and products in response to these pressures. If we are unable to avoid reducing our average selling prices, our results of operations could be harmed.
Our business depends on customers renewing and expanding their license, support, and subscription contracts for our services and products. A decline in our customer renewals and expansions could harm our future results of operations.
Our customers have no obligation to renew their term licenses or subscriptions after their contract period expires, and these licenses and subscriptions, if renewed, may be done so on less favorable terms. Moreover, under certain circumstances, our customers have the right to cancel their licenses or subscriptions before they expire. We may not accurately predict future trends in customer renewals. In addition, our perpetual license customers have no obligation to renew their support arrangements after the expiration of the initial contractual period. Our customers’ renewal rates may fluctuate or decline because of several factors, including their satisfaction or dissatisfaction with our services and products, the prices of our services and products, the prices of services and products offered by our competitors, reduction in our customers’ business including their DWP, reductions in our customers’ spending levels due to the macroeconomic environment or other factors, or the sale of their operations to a buyer that is not a current customer.
Also, in some cases, our customers have a right to exercise a perpetual buyout of their term licenses at the end of the initial contract term, which if exercised would eliminate future term license revenue. If our customers do not renew their term licenses or subscriptions for our solutions or renew on less favorable terms, our revenue may decline or grow more slowly than expected and our profitability may be harmed.
If we are unable to develop, introduce, and market new and enhanced versions of our services and products, we may be put at a competitive disadvantage.
Our success depends on our continued ability to develop, introduce, and market new and enhanced versions of our services and products to meet evolving customer requirements. Because some of our services and products are complex and require rigorous testing, new features, new functionality, and updates to our existing products and services can take significant time and resources to develop and bring to market. As we expand internationally, our services and products must be modified and adapted to comply with regulations and other requirements of the countries in which our customers do business. Additionally, market conditions may dictate that we change the delivery method of our services and products or the technology platform underlying our existing services and products or that new services and products be developed on different technology platforms, potentially adding material time and expense to our development cycles. The nature of these development cycles may cause us to experience delays between the time we incur expenses associated with research and development and the time we generate revenue, if any, from such expenses.


If we fail to develop new services and products, enhance our existing services and products, or migrate our products to the cloud, our business could be adversely affected, especially if our competitors are able to introduce services and products with enhanced functionality in the cloud. It is critical to our success for us to anticipate changes in technology, industry standards, and customer requirements and to successfully introduce new, enhanced, and competitive services and products to meet our customers’ and prospective customers’ needs on a timely basis. We have invested and intend to increase investments in research and development and cloud operations to meet these challenges. Revenue may not be sufficient to support the future product development that is required for us to remain competitive. If we fail to develop services and products in a timely manner that are competitive in technology and price or develop services and products that fail to meet customer demands, our market share will decline and our business and results of operations could be harmed. If our development efforts do not develop services, products or features that our customers find valuable, then we might incur impairment charges related to our capitalized software development costs.
Real or perceived errors or failures in our services and products, including implementation services, may affect our reputation, cause us to lose customers, and reduce sales and renewal rates, which may harm our business and results of operations and subject us to liability for breach of warranty claims.
Because we offer complex services and products, undetected errors or failures may exist or occur, especially when services and products are first introduced or when new versions or updates are released. Our services and products are often installed and used in large-scale computing environments with different operating systems, system management software, and equipment and networking configurations, which may cause errors or failures in our services and products or may expose undetected errors, failures, or bugs in our services and products. Despite testing by us, we may not identify all errors, failures, or bugs in new services and products or releases until after commencement of commercial sales or installation. In the past, we have discovered software errors, failures, and bugs in some of our offerings after their introduction. Additionally, our Guidewire Cloud offerings rely on third-party hosting services, primarily AWS. Any material disruption or slowdown in these services or the systems of third parties who we depend upon could cause outages or delays in our services, which could harm our reputation and adversely affect our results of operations.
We provide our customers with upfront estimates regarding the duration, resources, and costs associated with the migration and implementation of our services and products. Failure to meet these upfront estimates and the expectations of our customers could result from our product capabilities or service engagements performed by us, our SI partners, or our customers’ employees, the latter two of which are beyond our direct control. The consequences could include, and have included, monetary credits for current or future service engagements, reduced fees for additional services or product sales or upon renewals of existing licenses or services, renegotiation or modification of existing contracts that could potentially result in reversals of previously recognized revenue, or a customer’s refusal to pay its contractually-obligated fees. In addition, time-consuming or difficult migrations and implementations may also increase the amount of services personnel we must allocate to the project, potentially without commensurate compensation, thereby increasing our costs, lowering our services margin, and adversely affecting our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
The license, subscription, and support of our services and products creates the risk of significant liability claims against us. Our license and subscription agreements with our customers contain provisions designed to limit our exposure to potential liability claims. It is possible, however, that the limitation of liability provisions contained in such agreements may not be enforced as a result of international, federal, state, and local laws or ordinances or unfavorable judicial decisions. Breach of warranty or damage liability, or injunctive relief resulting from such claims, could harm our results of operations and financial condition.
Our ability to sell our services and products is highly dependent on the quality of our professional services and technical support services and the support of our SI partners, and the failure of us or our SI partners to offer high-quality professional services or technical support services could damage our reputation and adversely affect our ability to sell our services and products to new customers and renew agreements with our existing customers.
If we or our SI partners do not effectively assist our customers in deploying our services and products, successfully help our customers quickly resolve post-deployment issues, assist our customers in migrating from self-managed licenses to subscription services, and provide effective ongoing support, our ability to renew existing agreements and sell additional services and products to existing customers would be adversely affected and our reputation with potential customers could be damaged. Once our services and products are deployed and integrated with our customers’ existing information technology environment, our customers may depend on our technical support services and/or the support of SI partners or internal resources to resolve any issues relating to our services and products. High-quality support is critical for the continued successful marketing and sale of our services and products. In addition, as we continue to expand our operations internationally, our support organization will face additional challenges, including those associated with delivering support, training, and


documentation in multiple languages. Many enterprise customers require higher levels of support than smaller customers. If we fail to meet the requirements of our larger customers, it may be more difficult to sell additional services and products to these customers or to transition existing license customers to subscription services, a key strategy for the growth of our revenue and profitability. In addition, as we further expand our cloud-based services and products, our professional services, cloud operations and support organizations will face new challenges, including hiring, training, and integrating a large number of new personnel with experience in delivering high-quality services and support for cloud-based offerings. Further, as we continue to rely on SIs to provide deployment, migration, and on-going services, our ability to ensure a high level of quality in addressing customer issues and providing a maintainable and efficient cloud environment could be diminished as we may be unable to control the quality or timeliness of the implementation of our services and products by our SI partners. Our failure to maintain high-quality implementation and support services, or to ensure that SIs provide the same, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, and growth prospects.
We may expand through acquisitions or partnerships with other companies, which may divert our management’s attention and result in unexpected operating and technology integration difficulties, increased costs, and dilution to our stockholders.
Our business strategy includes the potential acquisition of shares or assets of companies with software, cloud-based services, technologies, or businesses complementary to ours. Our strategy also includes alliances with such companies. For example, we have made several acquisitions in the past, including most recently in August 2021, we acquired HazardHub, Inc., a leading insurtech provider of API-driven property risk insights. Acquisitions and alliances may result in unforeseen operating difficulties and expenditures, be dilutive to earnings, and may not result in the benefits anticipated by such corporate activity. In particular, we may fail to assimilate or integrate the businesses, technologies, services, products, personnel, or operations of the acquired companies, retain key personnel necessary to favorably execute the combined companies’ business plan, or retain existing customers or sell acquired services and products to new customers. Acquisitions and alliances may also disrupt our ongoing business, divert our resources, and require significant management attention that would otherwise be available for ongoing development of our current business. In addition, we may be required to make additional capital investments or undertake remediation efforts to ensure the success of our acquisitions, which may reduce the benefits of such acquisitions. We also may be required to use a substantial amount of our cash or issue debt or equity securities to complete an acquisition or realize the potential of an alliance, which could deplete our cash reserves and/or dilute our existing stockholders. Following an acquisition or the establishment of an alliance offering new services and products, the timing of revenue from the sale of services and products that we acquired or that result from the alliance, or from the sale of a bundle of services and products that includes such new services and products, may be different than the timing of revenue from existing services and products. In addition, our ability to maintain favorable pricing of new services and products may be challenging if we bundle such services and products with existing services and products. A delay in the recognition of revenue from sales of acquired or alliance services and products, or reduced pricing due to bundled sales, may cause fluctuations in our quarterly financial results, may adversely affect our operating margins, and may reduce the benefits of such acquisitions or alliances.
Additionally, competition within the software industry for acquisitions of businesses, technologies, and assets has been, and may continue to be, intense. As such, even if we are able to identify an acquisition that we would like to pursue, the target may be acquired by another strategic buyer or financial buyer such as a private equity firm, or we may otherwise not be able to complete the acquisition on commercially reasonable terms, if at all. Moreover, in addition to our failure to realize the anticipated benefits of any acquisition, including our revenue or return on investment assumptions, we may be exposed to unknown liabilities or impairment charges to acquired intangible assets and goodwill as a result of acquisitions we do complete.
If we are unable to continue the successful development of our global direct sales force and the expansion of our relationships with our strategic partners, sales of our services and products will suffer and our growth could be slower than we project.
We believe that our future growth will depend on the continued recruiting, retention, and training of our global direct sales force and their ability to obtain new customers, both large and small P&C insurers, and to manage our existing customer base. New hires require significant training and may, in some cases, take more than a year before becoming productive, if at all. If we are unable to hire and develop sufficient numbers of productive global direct sales personnel, sales of our services and products will suffer and our growth will be impeded.
Our SI partners help us reach additional customers. We believe our future growth also will depend on the retention and expansion of successful relationships with SI partners, including with SI partners that will focus on services and products we may acquire in the future. Our growth in revenue, particularly in international markets, will be influenced by the development and maintenance of relationships with SI partners, including regional and local SI partners. Although we have established relationships with some of the leading SI partners, our services and products may compete directly against services and products that such leading SI partners support or market. Additionally, we are unable to control the quantity or quality of


resources that our SI partners commit to migrating or implementing our services and products, the quality or timeliness of such migrations and implementations, or the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and other global events on our SI partners. If our partners do not commit sufficient or qualified resources to these activities, our customers will be less satisfied, be less supportive with references, or may require the investment of our resources at discounted rates. These, and other failures by our partners to successfully implement our services and products, would have an adverse effect on our business and our results of operations could fail to grow in line with our projections.
Our international sales and operations subject us to additional risks that can adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
We sell our services and products to customers located outside the United States, and we are continuing to expand our international operations as part of our growth strategy. In fiscal years 2022, 2021, and 2020, $296.2 million, $271.1 million, and $279.8 million of our revenue, respectively, was from customers outside of the United States. Our current international operations and our plans to expand our international operations subject us to a variety of risks, including:
increased management, travel, infrastructure, and legal compliance costs associated with having multiple international operations;
unique terms and conditions in contract negotiations imposed by customers in foreign countries;
longer payment cycles and difficulties in enforcing contracts and collecting accounts receivable;
the need to localize our contracts and our services and products for international customers;
lack of familiarity with and unexpected changes in foreign regulatory requirements;
increased exposure to fluctuations in currency exchange rates, especially on revenue and ARR;
highly inflationary international economies, such as Argentina;
geographic and political conflicts, such as that between Russia and Ukraine;
the burdens and costs of complying with a wide variety of foreign laws and legal standards, including the General Data Protection Regulation in the European Union (“EU”) and the U.K.;
compliance with the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, the U.K. Bribery Act of 2010 and other anti-corruption regulations, particularly in emerging market countries;
compliance by international staff with accounting practices generally accepted in the United States, including adherence to our accounting policies and internal controls;
import and export license requirements, tariffs, taxes and other trade barriers;
increased financial accounting, tax and reporting burdens and complexities;
weaker protection of intellectual property rights in some countries;
multiple and possibly overlapping tax regimes;
government sanctions that may interfere with our ability to sell into particular countries, such as Russia;
disruption to our operations caused by epidemics or pandemics, such as COVID-19; and
political, social, and economic instability abroad, terrorist attacks, and security concerns in general.
As we continue to expand our business globally, our success will depend, in large part, on our ability to anticipate and effectively manage these and other risks associated with our international operations. Any of these risks could harm our international operations and reduce our international sales, adversely affecting our business, results of operations, financial condition and growth prospects.
Incorrect or improper use of our services and products or our failure to properly train customers on how to utilize our services and products could result in customer dissatisfaction and negatively affect our business, results of operations, financial condition, and growth prospects.
Our services and products are complex and are deployed in a wide variety of network environments. The proper use of our services and products requires training of the customer. If our services and products are not used correctly or as intended, inadequate performance may result. Our services and products may also be intentionally misused or abused by customers or their employees or third parties who are able to access or use our services and products. Because our customers rely on our services, products, and support to manage a wide range of operations, the incorrect or improper use of our services and products, our failure to properly train customers on how to efficiently and effectively use our services and products, or our


failure to properly provide services to our customers may result in negative publicity or legal claims against us. Also, any failure by us to properly provide training or other services to existing customers will likely result in lost opportunities for follow-on and increased sales of our services and products.
In addition, if there is substantial turnover of customer personnel responsible, especially at the executive level, for the use and support of our services and products, or if customer personnel are not well trained in the use and support of our services and products, customers may defer the deployment of our services and products, may deploy them in a more limited manner than originally anticipated, or may not deploy them at all. Further, if there is substantial turnover of the customer personnel responsible for use of our services and products, our ability to renew existing licenses and make additional sales may be substantially limited.
We may not be able to obtain capital when desired on favorable terms, if at all, and we may not be able to obtain capital or complete acquisitions through the use of equity without dilution to our stockholders.
We may need additional financing to execute on our current or future business strategies, including to develop new or enhance existing services and products, acquire businesses and technologies, or otherwise to respond to competitive pressures.
If we raise additional funds through the issuance of equity or convertible debt securities, the percentage ownership of our existing stockholders could be significantly diluted, and newly-issued securities may have rights, preferences, or privileges senior to those of existing stockholders. If we accumulate additional funds through debt financing, a substantial portion of our operating cash flow may be dedicated to the payment of principal and interest on such indebtedness, thus limiting funds available for our business activities. We cannot be assured that additional financing will be available on terms favorable to us, or at all. If adequate funds are not available, or are not available on acceptable terms, when we desire them, our ability to fund our operations, take advantage of unanticipated opportunities, develop or enhance our services and products, or otherwise respond to competitive pressures would be significantly limited. Any of these factors could harm our results of operations.
Risks Related to Data Security and Privacy, Intellectual Property, and Information Technology
If our products or cloud-based services experience data security breaches or there is unauthorized access to our customers’ data, we may lose current or future customers and our reputation and business may be harmed.
If our security measures are breached or unauthorized access to customer data is otherwise obtained, our cloud services may be perceived as not being secure, customers may reduce the use of or stop using our services, we may incur significant liabilities, and our reputation could be harmed. Our software and cloud services involve the storage and transmission of customer data, including in some cases, personal data, and security breaches could result in the loss of this information, which in turn could result in litigation, breach of contract claims, indemnity obligations, and other liabilities for our company. While we have taken, and are continually updating and enhancing, steps to protect the confidential information and customer data to which we have access, including confidential information we may obtain through our customer support services or customer usage of our cloud-based services, our security measures or the security measures of companies we rely on, such as AWS, could be breached. We rely on third-party technology and systems for a variety of services, including, without limitation, encryption and authentication technology, employee email, content delivery to customers, back-office support, and other functions, and our ability to control or prevent breaches of any of these systems may be beyond our control. Because techniques used to obtain unauthorized access or infiltrate systems change frequently and generally are not identified until they are launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate preventative measures despite our efforts in implementing and deploying security measures. Although we have developed systems and processes that are designed to protect customer data and prevent data loss and other security breaches, including systems and processes designed to reduce the impact of a security breach at a third-party vendor, such measures cannot provide absolute security. Any or all of these issues could negatively impact our ability to attract new customers or to increase engagement with existing customers, could cause existing customers to elect not to renew their term licenses or subscription agreements, or could subject us to third-party lawsuits, regulatory fines or other action or liability, thereby adversely affecting our results of operations and reputation.
Privacy concerns could result in regulatory changes and impose additional costs and liabilities on us, limit our use of information, and adversely affect our business.
As adoption of our cloud-based services occurs, the amount of customer data, including customer personal information, that we manage, hold, and/or collect continues to increase. In addition, our services and products may collect, process, store, and use transaction-level data aggregated across insurers using our common data model. We anticipate that over time we will continue to expand the use and collection of personal information as greater amounts of such personal information may be


transferred from our customers to us and we recognize that privacy and data security has become a significant issue in the United States, Europe, the U.K., and many other jurisdictions where we operate.
Many federal, state, and foreign legislatures and government agencies have imposed, are considering imposing, or are considering changing restrictions and requirements about the collection, use, and disclosure of personal information. Changes to laws or regulations affecting privacy could impose additional costs and liabilities, including fines, on us and could limit our use of such information to add value for customers, including for example, the California Consumer Privacy Act, the California Privacy Rights Act, which takes substantial effect on January 1, 2023, and the Court of Justice of the EU’s invalidation of the Privacy Shield framework in July 2020. On July 16, 2020, the Court of Justice of the EU issued a verdict that ruled that the EU-US Privacy Shield, on which many companies relied on to transfer their data between the EU and the U.S., was invalidated due to concerns around surveillance by U.S. state and law enforcement agencies, known as the Schrems II decision. Schrems II now requires companies to conduct case-by-case assessments of each data transfer to a non-EU, or non-UK, country in order to ensure that such data is adequately protected. If we were required to change our business activities or revise or eliminate services, or to implement burdensome compliance measures, our business and results of operations could be harmed. In addition, we may be subject to fines, penalties, and potential litigation if we fail to comply with applicable privacy and/or data security laws, regulations, standards, and other requirements. The costs of compliance with and other burdens imposed by privacy-related laws, regulations, and standards may limit the use and adoption of our services and products and reduce overall demand.
Furthermore, concerns regarding data privacy and/or security may cause our customers’ customers to resist providing the data and information necessary to allow our customers to use our services and products effectively. Even the perception that the privacy and/or security of personal information is not satisfactorily managed, or does not meet applicable legal, regulatory, and other requirements, could inhibit sales of our services or products, and could limit adoption of our solutions, resulting in a negative impact on our sales, reputation, and results from operations.
Privacy concerns in the EU and the U.K. are evolving and we may face fines and other penalties, as well as reputational harm, if we fail to comply with these current and evolving laws, and compliance with these laws may increase our expenses and adversely affect our business and results of operations.
On April 27, 2016, the EU adopted the General Data Protection Regulation 2016/679 (“GDPR”), that took effect on May 25, 2018. The GDPR applies to any company established in the European Economic Area (“EEA”) as well as to those outside the EEA if they carry out processing of personal data of individuals in the EEA that is related to the offering of goods or services to them or the monitoring of their behavior. The GDPR has enhanced data protection obligations for processors and controllers of personal data, including, for example, expanded disclosures about how personal data is to be used, limitations on retention of personal data, enhanced data subject rights, mandatory data breach notification requirements, and onerous new obligations on data processors. Non-compliance with the GDPR can trigger fines of up to €20 million, or 4% of total worldwide annual revenues, whichever is higher. Given the breadth and depth of changes in data protection obligations, complying with GDPR requirements has caused us to expend significant resources and such expenditures are likely to continue into the near future as we respond to new interpretations, regulatory guidance, and enforcement decisions and as we continue to negotiate data processing agreements with our customers and business partners.
In addition, the GDPR restricts transfers of personal data outside of the EEA to countries deemed to lack adequate privacy protections, including the U.S., unless an appropriate safeguard specified by the GDPR is implemented, such as the Standard Contractual Clauses (“SCCs”) approved by the European Commission and, until July 16, 2020, the Privacy Shield for EU–U.S. data transfers. On July 16, 2020, the European Court of Justice (“ECJ”) invalidated the EU-U.S. Privacy Shield, but it deemed that SCCs are valid, provided additional safeguards are in place. However, the ECJ ruled that transfers made pursuant to SCCs and other alternative transfer mechanisms need to be analyzed on a case-by-case basis to ensure EU standards of data protection are met in the jurisdiction where the data importer is based, and there continue to be concerns about whether SCCs will face additional challenges. Moreover, on September 8, 2020, the Swiss Federal Data Protection and Information Commissioner announced that it no longer considers the Swiss-U.S. Privacy Shield to provide adequate protections for transfers of Swiss personal data to the U.S., following the invalidation of the EU-U.S. Privacy Shield by the ECJ. Further, on June 4, 2021, the European Commission published revised standard contractual clauses for data transfers from the EEA. The revised clauses must be used for relevant new data transfers from September 27, 2021, while existing standard contractual clauses arrangements must be migrated to the revised clauses by December 27, 2022. We will be required to implement the revised standard contractual clauses in relation to our customer arrangements within the relevant time frames, which could increase our compliance costs and adversely affect our business. We (and many other companies) may be required to adopt additional measures to accomplish and maintain legitimate means for the transfer and receipt of personal data from the EU to the United States and other countries. As data protection authorities continue to issue further guidance and orders on personal data export mechanisms and/or continue taking enforcement action, we could suffer additional costs, complaints and/or regulatory


investigations or fines, and/or if we are otherwise unable to transfer personal data between and among countries and regions in which we operate, it could affect the manner in which we provide our services, the geographical location or segregation of our relevant systems and operations, and could adversely affect our financial results.
We may experience hesitancy, reluctance, or refusal by European or multi-national customers to continue to use our services due to the potential risk exposure to such customers as a result of such developments and the data protection obligations imposed on them by various data protection authorities. Such customers may also view any alternative approaches to the transfer of any personal data as being too costly, too burdensome, or otherwise objectionable, and therefore may decide not to do business with us.
Given our current transition to more cloud-based services and the current data protection landscape in the EU, we may be subject to greater risk of potential inquiries and/or enforcement actions from regulators. We may find it necessary to establish alternative systems to maintain EEA personal data within the EEA, which may involve substantial expense and may cause us to need to divert resources from other aspects of our business, all of which may adversely affect our results from operations. Further, any inability to adequately address privacy concerns in connection with our cloud-based services, or comply with applicable privacy or data protection laws, regulations, and policies, could result in additional cost and liability to us, including fines and harm to our reputation, and adversely affect our ability to offer cloud-based services.
Starting on January 1, 2021, as a result of Brexit, the U.K. has brought the GDPR into domestic U.K. law with the Data Protection Act 2018 (“U.K. GDPR”), which will remain in force. The U.K. GDPR mirrors the data protection obligations and fines under the GDPR, but there may be further developments about the regulation of particular issues such as U.K. data exports. The United Kingdom’s Information Commissioner’s Office has published new data transfer standard contracts for transfers from the U.K. under the U.K. GDPR. This new documentation will be mandatory for relevant data transfers from September 21, 2022; existing standard contractual clauses arrangements must be migrated to the new documentation by March 21, 2024. We will be required to implement the latest U.K. data transfer documentation for data transfers subject to the U.K. GDPR, in relation to relevant existing contracts and certain additional contracts and customer arrangements, within the relevant time frames. On June 28, 2021, the European Commission adopted an adequacy decision in favor of the U.K., enabling data transfers from EEA member states to the U.K. without additional safeguards. However, the U.K. adequacy decision will automatically expire in June 2025 unless the European Commission re-assesses and renews/extends that decision, and it remains under review by the Commission during this period. In September 2021, the U.K. government launched a consultation on its proposals for wide-ranging reform of U.K. data protection laws following Brexit. There is a risk that any material changes which are made to the U.K. data protection regime could result in the Commission reviewing the U.K. adequacy decision, and the U.K. losing its adequacy decision if the Commission deems the U.K. to no longer provide adequate protection for personal data. These changes may lead to additional costs and increase our overall risk exposure.
Anticipated further evolution of EU and U.K. regulations on data privacy and security and any related changes to the regulatory framework in these or other countries may increase substantially our risk exposure to the penalties to which we could be subject in the event of any non-compliance. We may incur substantial expense in complying with the new obligations to be imposed by new regulations and interpretations of existing regulations and we may be required to make significant changes to our software applications and expanding business operations, all of which may adversely affect our results of operations.
Assertions by third parties of infringement or other violation by us of their intellectual property rights could result in significant costs and substantially harm our business and results of operations.
The software industry is characterized by the existence of a large number of patents and frequent claims and related litigation regarding patents and other intellectual property rights. In particular, leading companies in the software industry own large numbers of patents, copyrights, trademarks, and trade secrets, which they may use to assert claims against us. From time to time, third parties holding such intellectual property rights, including leading companies, competitors, patent holding companies, and/or non-practicing entities, may assert patent, copyright, trademark, or other intellectual property claims against us, our customers and partners, and those from whom we license technology and intellectual property.
Although we believe that our services and products do not infringe upon the intellectual property rights of third parties, we cannot assure that we are not infringing or otherwise violating any third-party intellectual property rights or that third parties will not assert infringement or misappropriation claims against us with respect to current or future services or products, or that any such assertions will not require us to enter into royalty arrangements, result in costly litigation, or result in us being unable to use certain intellectual property. Infringement assertions from third parties may involve patent holding companies or other patent owners who have no relevant product revenue, and therefore our own issued and pending patents may provide little or no deterrence to these patent owners in bringing intellectual property rights claims against us.


If we are forced to defend against any infringement or misappropriation claims, whether they are with or without merit, are settled out of court or are determined in our favor, we may be required to expend significant time and financial resources on the defense of such claims. Furthermore, an adverse outcome of a dispute may require us to pay damages, potentially including treble damages and attorneys’ fees, if we are found to have willfully infringed a party’s intellectual property; cease making, licensing, or using our services or products that are alleged to infringe or misappropriate the intellectual property of others; expend additional development resources to redesign our services or products; enter into potentially unfavorable royalty or license agreements in order to obtain the right to use necessary technologies or works; and to indemnify our partners, customers, and other third parties. Any of these events could seriously harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
Failure to protect our intellectual property could substantially harm our business and results of operations.
Our success depends in part on our ability to enforce and defend our intellectual property rights. We rely upon a combination of trademark, trade secret, copyright, patent, and unfair competition laws, as well as license agreements and other contractual provisions, to do so.
We have filed, and may in the future file, patent applications related to certain of our innovations. We do not know whether those patent applications will result in the issuance of a patent or whether the examination process will require us to narrow our claims. In addition, we may not receive competitive advantages from the rights granted under our patents and other intellectual property. Our existing patents and any patents granted to us or that we otherwise acquire in the future, may be contested, circumvented, or invalidated, and we may not be able to prevent third parties from infringing these patents. Therefore, the extent of the protection afforded by these patents cannot be predicted with certainty. In addition, given the costs, effort, risks, and downside of obtaining patent protection, including the requirement to ultimately disclose the invention to the public, we may choose not to seek patent protection for certain innovations; however, such patent protection could later prove to be important to our business.
We also rely on several registered and unregistered trademarks to protect our brand. Nevertheless, competitors may adopt service names similar to ours, or purchase our trademarks and confusingly similar terms as keywords in internet search engine advertising programs, thereby impeding our ability to build brand identity and possibly leading to confusion in the marketplace. In addition, there could be potential trade name or trademark infringement claims brought by owners of other registered trademarks or trademarks that incorporate variations of our trademarks. Any claims or customer confusion related to our trademarks could damage our reputation and brand and substantially harm our business and results of operations.
We attempt to protect our intellectual property, technology, and confidential information by generally requiring our employees and consultants to enter into confidentiality agreements and assignment of inventions agreements and third parties to enter into nondisclosure agreements, all of which offer only limited protection. These agreements may not effectively prevent unauthorized use or disclosure of our confidential information, intellectual property or technology and may not provide an adequate remedy in the event of unauthorized use or disclosure of our confidential information, intellectual property, or technology. Despite our efforts to protect our confidential information, intellectual property, and technology, unauthorized third parties may gain access to our confidential proprietary information, develop and market services or products similar to ours, or use trademarks similar to ours, any of which could materially harm our business and results of operations. In addition, others may independently discover our trade secrets and confidential information, and in such cases, we could not assert any trade secret rights against such parties. Existing United States federal, state, and international intellectual property laws offer only limited protection. The laws of some foreign countries do not protect our intellectual property rights to as great an extent as the laws of the United States, and many foreign countries do not enforce these laws as diligently as governmental agencies and private parties in the United States. Moreover, policing our intellectual property rights is difficult, costly, and may not always be effective.
From time to time, legal action by us may be necessary to enforce our patents and other intellectual property rights, to protect our trade secrets, to determine the validity and scope of the intellectual property rights of others, or to defend against claims of infringement or invalidity. Such litigation could result in substantial costs and diversion of resources and could negatively affect our business, reputation, results of operations, and financial condition. If we are unable to protect our technology and to adequately maintain and protect our intellectual property rights, we may find ourselves at a competitive disadvantage to others who need not incur the additional expense, time, and effort required to create the innovative services and products that have enabled us to be successful to date.
We and our customers rely on technology and intellectual property of third parties, the loss of which could limit the functionality of our services and products and disrupt our business.
We use technology and intellectual property licensed from unaffiliated third parties in certain of our services and products, and we may license additional third-party technology and intellectual property in the future. Any errors or defects in


this third-party technology and intellectual property or the integration of third-party technology and intellectual property with our services and products could result in errors that could harm our brand and business. In addition, licensed technology and intellectual property may not continue to be available on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. The loss of the right to license and distribute this third-party technology could limit the functionality of our services and products and might require us to redesign our services and products.
In addition, our Guidewire Cloud offerings rely on third-party hosting and infrastructure services provided by AWS, for the continuous, reliable, and secure operation of servers, related hardware and software, and network infrastructure. A prolonged AWS service disruption or slowdown for any reason could damage our reputation with current and potential customers, expose us to liability, cause us to lose customers, or otherwise harm our business.
Some of our services and technologies may use “open source” software, which may restrict how we use or distribute our services or require that we release the source code of certain services and products subject to those licenses.
Some of our services and technologies may incorporate software licensed under so-called “open source” licenses. In addition to risks related to license requirements, usage of open source software can lead to greater risks than use of third-party commercial software, as open source licensors generally do not provide warranties or controls on origin of the software. Additionally, some open source licenses require that source code subject to the license be made available to the public and that any modifications or derivative works to open source software continue to be licensed under open source licenses. These open source licenses typically mandate that proprietary software, when combined in specific ways with open source software, become subject to the open source license. If we combine our proprietary software in such ways with open source software, we could be required to release the source code of our proprietary software.
We take steps to ensure that our proprietary software is not combined with, and does not incorporate, open source software in ways that would require our proprietary software to be subject to many of the restrictions in an open source license. However, few courts have interpreted open source licenses, and the manner in which these licenses may be interpreted and enforced is therefore subject to some uncertainty. Additionally, we rely on hundreds of software programmers to design our proprietary technologies, and although we take steps to prevent our programmers from including objectionable open source software in the technologies and software code that they design, write and modify, we do not exercise complete control over the development efforts of our programmers and we cannot be certain that our programmers have not incorporated such open source software into our proprietary services and products and technologies or that they will not do so in the future. In the event that portions of our proprietary technology are determined to be subject to an open source license, we could be required to publicly release the affected portions of our source code, re-engineer all or a portion of our technologies, or otherwise be limited in the licensing of our technologies, each of which could reduce or eliminate the value of our services and technologies and materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, and prospects.
We may be obligated to disclose our proprietary source code to our customers, which may limit our ability to protect our intellectual property and could reduce the renewals of our support services.
Our software license agreements typically contain provisions permitting the customer to become a party to, or a beneficiary of, a source code escrow agreement under which we place the proprietary source code for our applicable services and products in escrow with a third party. Under these escrow agreements, the source code to the applicable product may be released to the customer, typically for its use to maintain, modify, and enhance the product, upon the occurrence of specified events, such as our filing for bankruptcy, discontinuance of our support services, and breaching our representations, warranties, or covenants of our agreements with our customers. Additionally, in some cases, customers have the right to request access to our source code upon demand. Some of our customers have obtained the source code for certain of our services and products by exercising this right, and others may do so in the future.
Disclosing the content of our source code may limit the intellectual property protection we can obtain or maintain for that source code or the services and products containing that source code and may facilitate intellectual property infringement claims against us. It also could permit a customer to which a product’s source code is disclosed to support and maintain that software product without being required to purchase our support services. Each of these could harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
Risks Related to Legal, Regulatory, Accounting, and Tax Matters
The nature of our business requires the application of accounting guidance that requires management to make estimates and assumptions. Reported results under GAAP may vary from key metrics used to measure our business. Additionally, changes in accounting guidance may cause us to experience greater volatility in our quarterly and annual


results. If we are unsuccessful in adapting to and interpreting the requirements of new guidance, or in clearly explaining to stockholders how new guidance affects reporting of our results of operations, our stock price may decline.
We prepare our consolidated financial statements to conform to United States Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (“GAAP”). These accounting principles are subject to interpretation by the SEC, Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”), and various bodies formed to interpret and create accounting rules and regulations. Accounting standards, such as ASC 606 - Revenue from Contracts with Customers or ASC 842 - Leases, or the guidance relating to interpretation and adoption of standards could have a significant effect on our financial results and could affect our business. Additionally, the FASB and the SEC are focused on the integrity of financial reporting, and our accounting policies are subject to scrutiny by regulators and the public.
We cannot predict the impact of future changes to accounting principles or our related accounting policies on our financial statements going forward. In addition, were we to change our accounting estimates, including those related to the timing of revenue recognition and those used to allocate revenue between various performance obligations, our reported revenue and results of operations could be significantly impacted. If we are unsuccessful in adapting to the requirements of any new standard, or if changes to our go-to-market strategy create new risks, then we may experience greater volatility in our quarterly and annual results, which may cause our stock price to decline.
In addition, GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets, liabilities, equity, revenue, and expenses that are not readily apparent from other sources.
Further, revenue recognition standards require significant judgment and estimates that impact our reported revenue and results of operations. Additionally, reported revenue has and will vary from the ARR and cash flow associated with each customer agreement. For example, for some arrangements with multiple performance obligations, a portion of recurring license and support or subscription contract value is allocated to services revenue for revenue recognition purposes, but does not get allocated for purposes of calculating ARR. This revenue allocation only impacts the initial term of the contract. This means that as we increase arrangements with multiple performance obligations that include services at discounted rates, more of the total contract value will be recognized as services revenue, but our reported ARR amount will not be impacted. This potential difference and variability in the trends of reported amounts may cause volatility in our stock price.
If we fail to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting or identify a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting, our ability to report our financial condition and results of operations in a timely and accurate manner could be adversely affected, investor confidence in our company could diminish, and the value of our common stock may decline.
Preparing our consolidated financial statements involves a number of complex manual and automated processes, which are dependent upon individual data input or review and require significant management judgment. One or more of these processes may result in errors that may not be detected and could result in a material misstatement of our consolidated financial statements. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”) requires, among other things, that as a publicly-traded company we disclose whether our internal control over financial reporting and disclosure controls and procedures are effective.
A material weakness is a deficiency, or combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of our annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis.
While we continually undertake steps to improve our internal control over financial reporting as our business changes, we may not be successful in making the improvements and changes necessary to be able to identify and remediate control deficiencies or material weaknesses on a timely basis. If we are unable to successfully remediate any future material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting, the accuracy and timing of our financial reporting may be adversely affected; our liquidity, access to capital markets and perceptions of our creditworthiness may be adversely affected; we may be unable to maintain compliance with securities laws, stock exchange listing requirements and debt instruments covenants regarding the timely filing of periodic reports; we may be subject to regulatory investigations and penalties; investors may lose confidence in our financial reporting; we may suffer defaults under our debt instruments; and our stock price may decline.
If tax laws change or we experience adverse outcomes resulting from examination of our income tax returns, it could adversely affect our results of operations.
We are subject to federal, state, and local income taxes in the United States and in foreign jurisdictions. Our future effective tax rates and the value of our deferred tax assets could be adversely affected by changes in, interpretations of, and


guidance regarding tax laws, including impacts of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (the “Tax Act”), the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, Economic Security Act of 2020, and the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022.
In addition, we are subject to the examination of our income tax returns by the IRS and other tax authorities. We regularly assess the likelihood of adverse outcomes resulting from such examinations to determine the adequacy of our provision for income taxes. Significant judgment is required in determining our worldwide provision for income taxes. Although we believe we have made appropriate provisions for taxes in the jurisdictions in which we operate, changes in the tax laws or challenges from tax authorities under existing tax laws could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock
Our stock price may be volatile, which could result in securities class action litigation against us.
The market price of our common stock could be subject to wide fluctuations in response to, among other things, the risk factors described in this report, the timing and amount of any share repurchases by us, and other factors beyond our control, such as fluctuations in the valuation of companies perceived by investors to be comparable to us and research analyst coverage about our business.
Furthermore, the stock markets have experienced price and volume fluctuations that have affected and continue to affect the market prices of equity securities of many companies. These fluctuations often have been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of those companies. These broad market and industry fluctuations, as well as general economic, political, and market conditions, such as recessions, interest rate changes, inflation or deflation, armed conflict, or international currency fluctuations, have and may continue to affect the market price of our common stock.
In the past, we and many companies that have experienced volatility in the market price of their stock have been subject to securities class action litigation and we may become the target of complaints of this type of litigation in the future. Securities litigation against us could result in substantial costs and divert our management’s attention from our business, which could seriously harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
We currently do not intend to pay dividends on our common stock and, consequently, the only opportunity to achieve a return on investment is if the price of our common stock appreciates.
We currently do not plan to declare dividends on shares of our common stock in the foreseeable future. Consequently, the only opportunity to achieve a return on investment in our company will be if the market price of our common stock appreciates and shares are sold at a profit.
Certain provisions of our certificate of incorporation and bylaws and of Delaware law could prevent a takeover that stockholders consider favorable and could also reduce the market price of our stock.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws contain provisions that could delay or prevent a merger, acquisition, or other change in control that stockholders may consider favorable, including transactions in which stockholders might otherwise receive a premium for their shares. These provisions may also prevent or delay attempts by stockholders to replace or remove our current management or members of our board of directors. These provisions include:
not providing for cumulative voting in the election of directors, which limits the ability of minority stockholders to elect director candidates;
authorizing our board of directors to issue, without stockholder approval, preferred stock rights senior to those of common stock, which could be used to significantly dilute the ownership of a hostile acquirer;
prohibiting stockholder action by written consent, which forces stockholder action to be taken at an annual or special meeting of our stockholders;
limiting the persons who may call special meetings of stockholders, which could delay the ability of our stockholders to force consideration of a proposal or to take action, including the removal of directors; and
requiring advance notification of stockholder nominations and proposals, which may discourage or deter a potential acquirer from conducting a solicitation of proxies to elect the acquirer’s own slate of directors or otherwise attempting to obtain control of us.
The affirmative vote of the holders of at least a majority of our shares of capital stock entitled to vote is generally necessary to amend or repeal the above provisions that are contained in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation.


Also, absent approval of our board of directors, our amended and restated bylaws may only be amended or repealed by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 50% of our shares of capital stock entitled to vote.
In addition, we are subject to the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law. These provisions may prohibit large stockholders, in particular those owning 15% or more of our outstanding common stock, from engaging in certain business combinations without approval of substantially all of our stockholders for a certain period of time.
These and other provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, our amended and restated bylaws, and under Delaware law could discourage potential takeover attempts, reduce the price that investors might be willing to pay for shares of our common stock in the future and result in the market price of our shares being lower than it would be without these provisions.
Our amended and restated bylaws designate certain state or federal courts as the exclusive forum for certain litigation that may be initiated by our stockholders, which could limit stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us.
Our amended and restated bylaws provide that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, to the fullest extent permitted by law, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the sole and exclusive forum for any state law claim for:
any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf;
any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors, officers, or other employees to us or our stockholders;
any action asserting a claim arising pursuant to the Delaware General Corporation Law, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or our amended and restated bylaws; or
any action asserting a claim that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine (the “Delaware Forum Provision”).
The Delaware Forum Provision will not apply to any causes of action arising under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act. Further, our amended and restated bylaws provide that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the United States District Court for the Northern District of California will be the sole and exclusive forum for resolving any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act (the “Federal Forum Provision”), as we are based in the State of California. In addition, our amended and restated bylaws provide that any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in shares of our capital stock is deemed to have notice of and consented to the Delaware Forum Provision and the Federal Forum Provision; provided, however, that stockholders cannot and will not be deemed to have waived our compliance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder.
The Delaware Forum Provision and the Federal Forum Provision in our amended and restated bylaws may impose additional litigation costs on stockholders in pursuing any such claims. Additionally, these forum selection clauses may limit our stockholders’ ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that they find favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers or employees, which may discourage the filing of lawsuits against us and our directors, officers and employees, even though an action, if successful, might benefit our stockholders. In addition, while the Delaware Supreme Court ruled in March 2020 that federal forum selection provisions purporting to require claims under the Securities Act be brought in federal court are “facially valid” under Delaware law, there is uncertainty as to whether other courts will enforce our Federal Forum Provision. If the Federal Forum Provision is found to be unenforceable, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such matters. The Federal Forum Provision may also impose additional litigation costs on stockholders who assert that the provision is not enforceable or invalid. The Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware and the United States District Court for the Northern District of California may also reach different judgments or results than would other courts, including courts where a stockholder considering an action may be located or would otherwise choose to bring the action, and such judgments may be more or less favorable to us than our stockholders.
We cannot guarantee that any share repurchase program will be fully consummated or it will enhance stockholder value, and share repurchases could affect the price of our common stock.
In October 2020, our board of directors authorized and approved a share repurchase program of up to $200 million of our outstanding common stock. The share repurchase program was completed in the second quarter of fiscal year 2022. However, our board of directors may authorize a new share repurchase program in the future. If approved in the future, share repurchases may be made from time to time, in the open market, in privately negotiated transactions and otherwise, at the discretion of management and in accordance with applicable federal securities laws, including Rule 10b-18 of the Exchange Act, and other applicable legal requirements. Such repurchases may also be made in compliance with Rule 10b5-1 trading plans entered into


by us. The timing, pricing, and sizes of repurchases will depend on a number of factors, including the market price of our common stock and general market and economic conditions. A share repurchase program does not obligate us to repurchase any dollar amount or number of shares, and the program may be suspended or discontinued at any time, which may result in a decrease in the price of our common stock. A share repurchase program could affect the price of our common stock, increase volatility, and diminish our cash reserves.
Risks Related to Our Indebtedness
Servicing our indebtedness requires a significant amount of cash. We may not have sufficient cash flow from our business to pay our substantial indebtedness, and we may not have the ability to raise the funds necessary to settle for cash conversions of the Convertible Senior Notes or to repurchase the Convertible Senior Notes upon a fundamental change, which could adversely affect our business and results of operations.
As of July 31, 2022, we had outstanding an aggregate principal amount of $400.0 million of our 1.25% Convertible Senior Notes due 2025 (the “Convertible Senior Notes”). Our indebtedness may increase our vulnerability to any generally adverse economic and industry conditions, and we and our subsidiaries may, subject to the limitations in the terms of our existing and future indebtedness, incur additional debt, secure existing or future debt, or recapitalize our debt. If we incur additional indebtedness, the risks related to our business would increase and our ability to service or repay our indebtedness may be adversely impacted.
Pursuant to their terms, holders may convert their Convertible Senior Notes at their option prior to the scheduled maturities of their Convertible Senior Notes under certain circumstances. Upon conversion of the Convertible Senior Notes, unless we elect to deliver solely shares of our common stock to settle such conversion (other than paying cash in lieu of delivering any fractional share), we will be obligated to make cash payments. In addition, holders of our Convertible Senior Notes will have the right to require us to repurchase their Convertible Senior Notes upon the occurrence of a fundamental change (as defined in the Indenture, dated as of March 13, 2018, between the Company and U.S. Bank National Association, as trustee (the “Trustee”) (the “Base Indenture”), as amended and supplemented by the First Supplemental Indenture, dated as of March 13, 2018, between the Company and the Trustee (together with the Base Indenture, the “Indenture”)) at a repurchase price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the Convertible Senior Notes to be repurchased, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to, but not including, the fundamental change purchase date. Although it is our intention and we currently expect to have the ability to settle the Convertible Senior Notes in cash, there is a risk that we may not have enough available cash or be able to obtain financing at the time we are required to make repurchases of Convertible Senior Notes surrendered therefor or Convertible Senior Notes being converted. In addition, our ability to make payments may be limited by law, by regulatory authority, or by agreements governing our future indebtedness. Our failure to repurchase Convertible Senior Notes at a time when the repurchase is required by the Indenture or to pay any cash payable on future conversions of the Convertible Senior Notes as required by such Indenture would constitute a default under such Indenture. A default under the Indenture or the fundamental change itself could also lead to a default under agreements governing our future indebtedness. If the repayment of the related indebtedness were to be accelerated after any applicable notice or grace periods, we may not have sufficient funds to repay the indebtedness and repurchase the Convertible Senior Notes or make cash payments upon conversions thereof.
Our ability to make scheduled payments of the principal and interest on our indebtedness when due or to make payments upon conversion or repurchase demands with respect to our Convertible Senior Notes, or to refinance our indebtedness as we may need or desire, depends on our future performance, which is subject to economic, financial, competitive, and other factors beyond our control. Our business may not continue to generate cash flow from operations in the future sufficient to satisfy our obligations under our existing indebtedness, and any future indebtedness we may incur, and to make necessary capital expenditures. If we are unable to generate such cash flow, we may be required to adopt one or more alternatives, such as reducing or delaying investments or capital expenditures, selling assets, refinancing, or obtaining additional equity capital on terms that may be onerous or highly dilutive. Our ability to refinance existing or future indebtedness will depend on the capital markets and our financial condition at such time. We may not be able to engage in any of these activities or engage in these activities on desirable terms, which could result in a default on our existing or future indebtedness and have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
The conditional conversion feature of the Convertible Senior Notes, if triggered, may adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
In the event the conditional conversion feature of the notes is triggered, holders of our Convertible Senior Notes will be entitled to convert the Convertible Senior Notes at any time during specified periods at their option. If one or more holders elect to convert their Convertible Senior Notes, unless we elect to satisfy our conversion obligation by delivering solely shares of our common stock (other than paying cash in lieu of delivering any fractional share), we would be required to settle a portion or all of our conversion obligation through the payment of cash, which could adversely affect our liquidity. In addition, even if


holders do not elect to convert their Convertible Senior Notes, we could be required under applicable accounting rules to reclassify all or a portion of the outstanding principal of the notes as a current rather than long-term liability, which would result in a material reduction of our net working capital.
Transactions relating to our Convertible Senior Notes may affect the value of our common stock.
The conversion of some or all of the Convertible Senior Notes would dilute the ownership interests of existing stockholders to the extent we satisfy our conversion obligation by delivering shares of our common stock upon any conversion of such Convertible Senior Notes. Our Convertible Senior Notes may become in the future convertible at the option of their holders under certain circumstances. If holders of our Convertible Senior Notes elect to convert their notes, we may settle our conversion obligation by delivering to them a significant number of shares of our common stock, which would cause dilution to our existing stockholders.
In connection with the issuance of the Convertible Senior Notes, we entered into capped call transactions with certain financial institutions (the “option counterparties”). The capped call transactions are expected generally to reduce the potential dilution to our common stock upon any conversion of the notes and/or offset any cash payments we are required to make in excess of the principal amount of converted notes, as the case may be, with such reduction and/or offset subject to a cap.
From time to time, the option counterparties or their respective affiliates may modify their hedge positions by entering into or unwinding various derivative transactions with respect to our common stock and/or purchasing or selling our common stock or other securities of ours in secondary market transactions prior to the maturity of the Convertible Senior Notes. This activity could cause a decrease in the market price of our common stock.
The accounting method for convertible debt securities that may be settled in cash, such as the Convertible Senior Notes, could have a material effect on our reported financial results.
Under FASB Accounting Standards Codification 470-20 (“ASC 470-20”), Debt with Conversion and Other Options, an entity must separately account for the liability and equity components of convertible debt instruments (such as the Convertible Senior Notes) that may be settled entirely or partially in cash upon conversion in a manner that reflects the issuer’s economic interest cost. ASC 470-20 requires the value of the conversion option of the Convertible Senior Notes, representing the equity component, to be recorded as additional paid-in capital within stockholders’ equity in our consolidated balance sheets as an original issue discount to the Convertible Senior Notes, which reduces their initial carrying value. The carrying value of the Convertible Senior Notes, net of the discount recorded, will be accreted up to the principal amount of the notes from the issuance date until maturity, which will result in non-cash charges to interest expense in our consolidated statement of operations. Accordingly, we will report lower net income or higher net loss in our financial results because ASC 470-20 requires interest to include both the current period’s accretion of the debt discount and the instrument’s coupon interest, which could adversely affect our reported or future financial results, the trading price of our common stock, and the trading price of the Convertible Senior Notes.
In addition, under certain circumstances, convertible debt instruments (such as the Convertible Senior Notes) that may be settled entirely or partly in cash are currently accounted for utilizing the treasury stock method, the effect of which is that the shares issuable upon conversion of the Convertible Senior Notes are not included in the calculation of diluted earnings per share except to the extent that the conversion value of the Convertible Senior Notes exceeds their principal amount. Under the treasury stock method, for diluted earnings per share purposes, the transaction is accounted for as if the number of shares of common stock that would be necessary to settle such excess, if we elected to settle such excess in shares, are issued.
However, recently issued accounting guidance that will be effective for us on August 1, 2022 will no longer permit the use of the treasury stock method. In August 2020, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2020-06, DebtDebt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and HedgingContracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40), which simplifies the accounting for convertible instruments. Among other things, the guidance eliminates the treasury stock method to calculate diluted earnings per share for convertible instruments and requires the use of the if-converted method. We are currently evaluating the impact of the new guidance on our consolidated financial statements, however, we believe the requirement to use the if-converted method instead of the treasury stock method of accounting for the shares issuable upon conversion of the Convertible Senior Notes will most likely adversely affect our diluted earnings per share and that we will no longer be required to accrete the debt discount which will result in lower interest expense.
We are subject to counterparty risk with respect to the capped call transactions.
The option counterparties are financial institutions, and we will be subject to the risk that any or all of them might default under the capped call transactions. Our exposure to the credit risk of the option counterparties will not be secured by any collateral. Past global economic conditions have resulted in the actual or perceived failure or financial difficulties of many


financial institutions. If an option counterparty becomes subject to insolvency proceedings, we will become an unsecured creditor in those proceedings with a claim equal to our exposure at that time under the capped call transactions with such option counterparty. Our exposure will depend on many factors but, generally, an increase in our exposure will be correlated to an increase in the market price and in the volatility of our common stock. In addition, upon a default by an option counterparty, we may suffer adverse tax consequences and more dilution than we currently anticipate with respect to our common stock. We can provide no assurances as to the financial stability or viability of the option counterparties.
General Risks
Our customers may defer or forego purchases of our services or products in the event of weakened global economic conditions, political transitions, and industry consolidation.
General worldwide economic conditions remain unstable, and prolonged economic uncertainties or downturns could harm our business, results of operations, or financial condition. In particular, pursuant to a decision by referendum in June 2016, the U.K. voted to withdraw from the EU. A trade and cooperation agreement, which addresses trade, economic arrangements, law enforcement, judicial cooperation and a governance framework including procedures for dispute resolution, among other things, was recently ratified by the European Parliament and the Council of the EU to govern the U.K.’s future relationship with the EU. Because the agreement merely sets forth a framework in many respects and will require complex additional bilateral negotiations between the U.K. and the EU as both parties continue to work on the rules for implementation, significant political and economic uncertainty remains about how the precise terms of the relationship between the parties will differ from the terms before withdrawal. Brexit has caused significant volatility in global stock markets and fluctuations in currency exchange rates. Brexit has also caused, and may continue to cause, delays in purchasing decisions by our potential and current customers affected by this transition due to the considerable political and economic uncertainty created by Brexit and uncertainty as to the nature of the U.K.’s long-term relationship with the EU. Brexit may further result in new regulatory and cost challenges to our U.K. and global operations, particularly with respect to data protection. Depending on the market and regulatory effects of Brexit, it is possible that there may be adverse practical or operational implications on our business, and prolonged economic uncertainties or downturns caused by Brexit could harm our business and results of operations.
Further, other global events such as global inflation concerns and the ongoing conflict between Russia and Ukraine, have created and may continue to create global economic uncertainty in regions in which we have significant operations. These conditions may make it difficult for our customers and us to forecast and plan future business activities accurately, and could cause our customers to reevaluate their decision to purchase our services and products, which could delay and lengthen our sales cycles or result in cancellations of planned purchases. Moreover, during challenging economic times our customers may face issues in gaining timely access to sufficient credit, which could result in an impairment of their ability to make timely payments to us. If that were to occur, we may not receive amounts owed to us and may be required to record an accounts receivable allowance, which would adversely affect our financial results. A substantial downturn in the P&C insurance industry may cause firms to react to worsening conditions by reducing their capital expenditures, reducing their spending on information technology, delaying or canceling information technology projects, or seeking to lower their costs by renegotiating vendor contracts. Negative or worsening conditions in the general economy both in the United States and abroad, including conditions resulting from financial and credit market fluctuations and inflation, could cause a decrease in corporate spending on enterprise software in general, and in the insurance industry specifically, and negatively affect the rate of growth of our business.
Furthermore, the increased pace of consolidation in the P&C insurance industry may result in reduced overall spending on our services and products. Acquisitions of customers or potential customers can delay or cancel sales cycles or result in existing arrangements not being renewed and because we cannot predict the timing or duration of such acquisitions, our results of operations could be materially impacted.
If we are unable to retain our personnel and hire and integrate additional skilled personnel, we may be unable to achieve our goals and our business will suffer.
Our future success depends upon our ability to continue to attract, train, integrate, and retain highly skilled employees, particularly our executive officers, sales and marketing personnel, professional services personnel, cloud operations personnel, and software engineers, especially as we transition to a business model focused on delivering cloud-based offerings. Additionally, our stakeholders increasingly expect us to have a culture that embraces diversity and inclusion. Our inability to attract and retain diverse and qualified personnel, or delays in hiring required personnel, may seriously harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition. If U.S. immigration policy related to skilled foreign workers were materially adjusted, such a change could hamper our efforts to hire highly skilled foreign employees, including highly specialized engineers, which would adversely impact our business.


Any one of our executive officers and other key employees could terminate his or her relationship with us at any time. The loss of one or more of our executive officers or key employees, and any failure to have in place and execute an effective succession plan for key executive officers, could significantly delay or prevent us from achieving our business and/or development objectives and could disrupt or materially harm our business. Although we strive to reduce the challenges of any transition, failure to ensure effective transfer of knowledge and a smooth transition could disrupt or adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition, and prospects.
We face competition for qualified individuals from numerous software and other technology companies. Competition for qualified personnel is particularly intense in the San Francisco Bay Area, where our headquarters are located, though we also face significant competition in all of our domestic and foreign development centers. Further, significant amounts of time and resources are required to train technical, sales, services, operations, and other personnel. We may incur significant costs to attract, train, and retain such personnel, and we may lose new employees to our competitors or other technology companies before we realize the benefit of our investment after recruiting and training them.
Also, to the extent that we hire personnel from competitors, we may be subject to allegations that such personnel have been improperly solicited or have divulged proprietary or other confidential information. In addition, we have a limited number of sales people and the loss of several sales people within a short period of time could have a negative impact on our sales efforts. Additionally, the COVID-19 pandemic, current global events, and recent economic conditions have increased attrition and decreased the number of available candidates for open positions, which has increased the time to identify and hire new employees. We may be unable to attract and retain suitably qualified individuals who are capable of meeting our growing technical, operational, and managerial requirements, including managing employees and contractors remotely or in a hybrid environment, which has increased in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic and its associated workplace-related ramifications, or we may be required to pay increased compensation in order to do so.
Further, our ability to expand geographically depends, in large part, on our ability to attract, retain, and integrate managers with the appropriate skills to lead the local business and employees. Similarly, our profitability depends on our ability to effectively utilize personnel with the right mix of skills and experience to perform services for our clients, including our ability to transition employees to new assignments on a timely basis. If we are unable to effectively deploy our employees globally on a timely basis to fulfill the needs of our clients, our reputation could suffer and our ability to attract new clients may be harmed.
Because of the technical nature of our services and products and the dynamic market in which we compete, any failure to attract, integrate, and retain qualified direct sales, professional services, cloud operations, and product development personnel, as well as our contract workers, could harm our ability to generate sales, deliver consulting services, manage our customers’ cloud environments, or successfully develop new services and products and enhancements of existing services and products.
Factors outside of our control, including, but not limited to, natural catastrophes, the geopolitical landscape, and terrorism may adversely impact the P&C insurance industry, preventing us from expanding or maintaining our existing customer base and increasing our revenue. Our business is subject to the risks of earthquakes, fire, floods, and other natural catastrophic events, and to interruption by man-made problems such as computer viruses.
Our customers are P&C insurers that have experienced, and will likely experience in the future, losses from catastrophes or terrorism that may adversely impact their businesses. Catastrophes can be caused by various events, including, without limitation, hurricanes, tsunamis, floods, windstorms, earthquakes, hail, tornadoes, explosions, severe weather, epidemics, pandemics, and fires. Climate change and other environmental factors are contributing to an increase in erratic weather patterns globally and intensifying the impact of certain types of catastrophes. Moreover, acts of terrorism or armed conflict or uncertainty in the geopolitical landscape, including as a result of escalation in the ongoing conflict between Russia and Ukraine, could cause disruptions to our business or our customers’ businesses or the economy as a whole. The risks associated with natural catastrophes, the geopolitical landscape, and terrorism are inherently unpredictable, and it is difficult to forecast the timing of such events or estimate the amount of losses they will generate. Recently, for example, various parts of the United States have suffered extensive damage due to hurricanes, droughts, floods, severe heat and cold events, fires, and other natural disasters, Germany and other parts of Europe have experienced flooding, and Australia has experienced extensive damage due to fires and flooding. The combined and expected effect of those losses on P&C insurers is significant. Such losses and losses due to future events may adversely impact our current or potential customers, which may prevent us from maintaining or expanding our customer base and increasing our revenue, as such events may cause customers to postpone purchases and professional service engagements or to discontinue existing projects.
Our corporate headquarters and the majority of our operations are located in the San Francisco Bay Area, a region known for seismic activity and near an area subject to severe fire damage. A significant natural disaster, such as an earthquake,


tsunami, fire, flood, epidemic, or pandemic, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, could have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
In addition, our information technology systems are vulnerable to computer viruses, break-ins, and similar disruptions from unauthorized tampering, such as the Log4j vulnerability. To the extent that such disruptions result in delays or cancellations of customer orders or collections, or the deployment or availability of our services and products, our business, results of operations, and financial condition would be adversely affected.
Our revenue, results of operations and cash flows are subject to fluctuations due to changes in foreign currency exchange rates, particularly changes in the Australian Dollar, British Pound, Canadian Dollar, Euro, Indian Rupee, and Polish Zloty.
The volatility of exchange rates depends on many factors that we cannot forecast with reliable accuracy. Although we believe our operating activities act as a natural hedge for a substantial portion of our foreign currency exposure at the cash flow or operating income level because we typically collect revenue and incur costs in the currency of the location in which we provide our software and services, our relationships with our customers are long-term in nature so it is difficult to predict if our operating activities will provide a natural hedge in the future. In addition, because our contracts are characterized by large annual payments, significant fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates that coincide with annual payments may affect our cash flows, revenue or financial results in such quarter. Our results of operations may also be impacted by transaction gains or losses related to revaluing certain current asset and liability balances that are denominated in currencies other than the functional currency of the entity in which they are recorded. Moreover, significant and unforeseen changes in foreign currency exchange rates may cause us to fail to achieve our stated projections for revenue, ARR, and operating income, which could have an adverse effect on our stock price. While we have limited currency exchange exposure to the Russian Ruble, we expect global exchange rates for various currencies may be more volatile than normal as a result of the ongoing conflict between Russia and Ukraine and related events. We will continue to experience fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates, which, if material, may harm our revenue or results of operations.




Item 1B.Unresolved Staff Comments

Not applicable.

Item 2.Properties
Our corporate headquarters in San Mateo, California consists of approximately 189,000 square feet of space leased through December 2029. Our European headquarters in Dublin, Ireland consists of approximately 85,000 square feet of space leased through March 2032. As of July 31, 2022, we also lease facilities for our sales, services, development, operations and administrative activities in various locations in the United States and around the world, including in the Americas, Europe, and Asia-Pacific.
We believe that our facilities are suitable to meet our current needs. We are evaluating our real estate strategy as it relates to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and anticipated needs of a hybrid workforce. In the future, we may expand our facilities or add new facilities as we add employees and enter new geographic markets, and we believe that suitable additional or alternative space will be available as needed to accommodate any such growth. We expect to incur additional expenses in connection with such new or expanded facilities.

Item 3.Legal Proceedings
From time to time we are involved in legal proceedings that arise in the ordinary course of our business. Any such proceedings, whether meritorious or not, could be time consuming, costly, and result in the diversion of significant operational resources and/or management time.
Although the outcomes of legal proceedings are inherently difficult to predict, we are not currently involved in any legal proceeding in which the outcome, in our judgment based on information currently available, is likely to have a material adverse effect on our business or financial position.
As described in Note 9 “Commitments and Contingencies” to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, which are incorporated by reference herein, we are not party to any material pending legal proceedings.

Item 4.Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.



PART II
 
Item 5.Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “GWRE”.
On July 29, 2022, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the New York Stock Exchange for fiscal year 2022 was $77.72 per share. As of July 31, 2022, we had 38 holders of record of our common stock. The actual number of stockholders is greater than this number of record holders, and includes stockholders who are beneficial owners, but whose shares are held in street name by brokers and other nominees. This number of holders of record also does not include stockholders whose shares may be held in trust by other entities.
We have never declared or paid, and do not anticipate declaring or paying, any cash dividends on our common stock. Any future determination as to the declaration and payment of dividends, if any, will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on then existing conditions, including our financial condition, operating results, contractual restrictions, capital requirements, business prospects, and other factors our board of directors may deem relevant.
Performance Graph
This performance graph shall not be deemed “soliciting material” or to be “filed” with the Securities and Exchange Commission for purposes of Section 18 of the Exchange Act, or otherwise subject to the liabilities under that Section, and shall not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into any of our filings under the Securities Act of 1933 or the Exchange Act.
The following graph shows a comparison of the cumulative total return for our common stock, the NASDAQ Composite-Total Return Index and S&P Software & Services Select Industry Index for the period from July 31, 2017 through July 31, 2022. Such returns are based on historical results and are not intended to suggest future performance. Data for the NASDAQ Composite Total Return Index and S&P Software & Services Select Industry Index assume reinvestment of dividends.
gwre-20220731_g1.jpg
7/31/20177/31/20187/31/20197/31/20207/31/20217/31/2022
Guidewire Software, Inc.$100.00 $119.46 $141.46 $163.05 $159.65 $107.71 
NASDAQ Composite-Total Return Index$100.00 $122.13 $131.59 $174.72 $240.30 $204.37 
S&P Software & Services Select Industry Index$100.00 $129.31 $156.77 $185.57 $274.61 $193.87 



Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds from Registered Securities
None.



Item 6.[Reserved]

Item 7.Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and related notes thereto included in Item 8 and the Risk Factors included in Item 1A of Part I of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. All information presented herein is based on our fiscal calendar. Unless otherwise stated, references in this Annual Report on Form 10-K to particular years or quarters refer to our fiscal years ended in July and the associated quarters of those fiscal years. We assume no obligation to revise or update any forward-looking statements for any reason, except as required by law.
We have elected to omit discussion on the earliest of the three years covered by the consolidated financial statements presented. Refer to Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations located in our Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended July 31, 2021, filed on September 24, 2021, for reference to discussion of the fiscal year ended July 31, 2020, the earliest of the three fiscal years presented.
Overview
Guidewire delivers a leading platform that property and casualty (“P&C”) insurers trust to engage, innovate, and grow efficiently. Guidewire’s platform combines core operations, digital engagement, analytics, and artificial intelligence (“AI”) applications delivered as a cloud service or self-managed software. As a partner to our customers, we continually evolve to enable their success and assist them in navigating a rapidly changing insurance market.
Our core operational services and products are InsuranceSuite Cloud, InsuranceNow, and InsuranceSuite for self-managed installations. These services and products are transactional systems of record that support the entire insurance lifecycle, including insurance product definition, distribution, underwriting, policyholder services, and claims management. Our digital engagement applications enable digital sales, omni-channel service, and enhanced claims experiences for policyholders, agents, vendor partners, and field personnel. Our Analytics and AI offerings enable insurers to manage data more effectively, gain insights into their business, drive operational efficiencies, and underwrite new and evolving risks. To support P&C insurers globally, we have localized, and will continue to localize, our platform for use in a variety of international regulatory, language, and currency environments.
InsuranceSuite Cloud is a highly configurable and scalable product, delivered as a service and primarily comprised of three core applications (PolicyCenter Cloud, BillingCenter Cloud, and ClaimCenter Cloud) that can be subscribed to separately or together. These applications are built on and optimized for our Guidewire Cloud Platform (“GWCP”) architecture and leverage our in-house Guidewire cloud operations team. InsuranceSuite Cloud is designed to support multiple releases each year to ensure that cloud customers remain on the latest version and gain fast access to our innovation efforts. Additionally, InsuranceSuite Cloud embeds digital and analytics capabilities natively into our platform. Most new sales and implementations are for InsuranceSuite Cloud.
InsuranceNow is a complete, cloud-based application that offers policy, billing, and claims management functionality to insurers.
InsuranceSuite for self-managed installations is comprised of three core applications (PolicyCenter, BillingCenter, and ClaimCenter) that can be licensed separately or together and can be deployed and updated by our customers and their implementation partners.
Our customers range from some of the largest global insurance companies or their subsidiaries to predominantly national or local insurers that serve specific states and/or regions. Our customer engagement is led by our direct sales team and supported by our system integrator (“SI”) partners. We maintain and continue to grow our sales and marketing efforts globally, and maintain regional sales centers throughout the world.
Because our platform is critical to our new and existing customers’ businesses, their decision-making and product evaluation process is thorough, which often results in an extended sales cycle. These evaluation periods can extend further if a customer purchases multiple services and products or is considering a move to a cloud-based subscription for the first time. Sales to new customers also involve extensive customer due diligence and reference checks. The success of our sales efforts relies on continued improvements and enhancements to our current services and products, the introduction of new services and products, efficient operation of our cloud infrastructure, continued development of relevant local content and automated tools for updating content, and successful implementations.


We sell our cloud-delivered offerings through subscription services and our self-managed products through term licenses. We generally price our services and products based on the amount of DWP that will be managed by our platform. Our subscription, term license, and support fees are typically invoiced annually in advance. Subscription services are generally sold with an initial term of between three and five years with optional annual renewals commencing after the initial term. Subscription revenue is recognized on a ratable basis over the committed term, once all revenue recognition criteria are met including providing access to the service. Term licenses are primarily sold with an initial two-year committed term with optional annual renewals commencing after the initial term. We may enter into term license arrangements with our customers that have an initial term of more than two years or may renew license arrangements for longer than one year. A small portion of our revenue is derived from perpetual licenses. Term and perpetual license revenue are typically recognized when software is made available to the customer, provided that all other revenue recognition criteria have been met. Our support revenue is generally recognized ratably over the committed support term of the licensed software. Our support fees are typically priced as a fixed percentage of the associated license fees. We also offer professional services, both directly and through SI partners, to help our customers deploy, migrate, and utilize our platform, services, and products. A majority of our services revenue is billed monthly on a time and materials basis.
Over the past few years, we have primarily been entering into cloud-based subscription arrangements with our new and existing customers, and we anticipate that subscription arrangements will be a majority of annual new sales going forward. As this sales model matures, we may decide to change certain contract terms in new arrangements to remain competitive or otherwise meet market demands.
To extend our technology leadership in the global market and to drive operating efficiency, we continue to invest in product development and cloud operations to enhance and improve our current services and products, introduce new services and products, and advance our ability to securely and cost-effectively deliver our services in the cloud. Continued investment is critical as we seek to assist our customers in achieving their technology goals, maintain our competitive advantage, grow our revenue, expand internationally, and meet evolving customer demands. In certain cases, we may also acquire skills and technologies to manage our cloud infrastructure and accelerate our time to market for new products, solutions, and upgrades.
Our track record of success with customers and their implementations is central to maintaining our strong competitive position. We rely on our global services team and SI partners to ensure that teams with the right combination of product, business, and language skills are used in the most efficient way to meet our customers’ implementation and migration needs. We have extensive relationships with SI, consulting, technology, and other industry partners. Our network of partners has expanded as interest in and adoption of our platform has grown. We encourage our partners to co-market, pursue joint sales initiatives, and drive broader adoption of our technology, helping us grow our business more efficiently and enabling us to focus our resources on continued innovation and further enhancement of our solutions.
We work closely with our network of third-party SI partners to facilitate new sales and implementations of both our subscription services and self-managed products. Our partnership with leading SI partners allows us to increase efficiency and scale while reducing customer implementation and migration costs. We continue to invest time and resources to increase the number of qualified consultants employed by our SI partners, develop relationships with new partners in existing and new markets, and ensure that all SI partners are qualified to assist with implementing our services and products. We believe this model will continue to serve us well, and we intend to continue to expand our network of partners and the number of certified consultants with whom we work so we can leverage our SI partners more effectively, especially for future subscription migrations and implementations.
We face a number of risks in the execution of our strategy, including risks related to expanding to new markets, managing lengthy sales cycles, competing effectively in the global market, relying on sales to a relatively small number of large customers, developing new or acquiring existing services and products successfully, migrating our business towards a subscription model with ratable revenue recognition, increasing the overall adoption of our services and products, and cost-effectively and securely managing the infrastructure of our cloud-based customers. In response to these and other risks we might face, we continue to invest in many areas of our business, including product development, cloud operations, cybersecurity, implementation services, and sales and marketing.
COVID-19 Impact
In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared the outbreak of COVID-19 a pandemic, which has continued to spread throughout the United States and the world and has resulted in authorities implementing numerous measures to contain the virus, including travel bans and restrictions, quarantines, shelter-in-place orders, and business limitations and shutdowns. While we are unable to accurately predict the full impact that COVID-19 will have on our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity, and cash flows due to numerous uncertainties, including the duration and severity of the pandemic, and containment measures and if there are any periods of increases in the number of COVID-19 cases or future variants of the virus


in areas in which we operate, our compliance with containment measures has impacted our day-to-day operations and could continue to disrupt our business and operations, as well as that of our key customers, SI partners, vendors, and other counterparties, for an indefinite period of time. To support the health and well-being of our employees, customers, SI partners and communities, a vast majority of our employees are working remotely. In addition, many of our existing and potential customers are working remotely, which may continue to extend our sales cycle, to delay the timing of new orders, and increase the time to complete professional services engagements in the future.
Our business and financial results since the third quarter of fiscal year 2020 have been impacted due to these disruptions, which has effected our annual recurring revenue (“ARR”) growth rates, services revenue and margins, operating cash flow and expenses, potentially higher employee attrition, challenges in hiring necessary personnel, and the change in fair value of strategic investments. ARR growth rates and revenue, especially services revenue, continued to be impacted in fiscal year 2022 as a result of these challenges. Additionally, in recent quarters, inflation has reached levels that have not been seen for decades, which is impacting the global economy and magnifying the impact of these and other disruptions.
Although vaccines have made progress against the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States and certain other parts of the world where vaccinations are widely available, the economic impact of the pandemic on our business and the businesses of our customers, SI partners, and vendors may continue. We believe that new sales activities are being delayed, not cancelled, and implementation engagements are being rescheduled to later periods or being completed over a longer period of time. Certain marketing events have been cancelled or postponed, while others are being hosted both in-person and virtually, like our customer conference, Connections. Our customers may be unable to pay or may request amended payment terms for their outstanding invoices due to the economic impacts from COVID-19 and inflation, and we may need to increase our accounts receivable allowances. A decrease in orders in a given period could negatively affect our revenues and ARR in future periods, particularly if experienced on a sustained basis, because a substantial proportion of our new software subscription services orders is recognized as revenue over time. Also, the pandemic’s global economic impact could affect our customers’ DWP, which could ultimately impact our revenue as we generally price our services and products based on the amount of DWP that will be managed by our platform. Additionally, we may be required to record impairment related to our operating lease assets, investments, long-lived assets, or goodwill.
We will continue to evaluate the nature and extent of the impact of COVID-19 on our business.


Key Business Metrics
We use certain key metrics and financial measures not prepared in accordance with United States Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (“GAAP”) to evaluate and manage our business, including ARR and Free Cash Flow. For a further discussion of how we use key metrics and certain non-GAAP financial measures, see “Non-GAAP Financial Measures” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Annual Recurring Revenue (“ARR”)
We use ARR to quantify the annualized recurring value outlined in active customer contracts at the end of a reporting period. ARR includes the annualized recurring value of term licenses, subscription agreements, support contracts, and hosting agreements based on customer contracts, which may not be the same as the timing and amount of revenue recognized. All components of the licensing and other arrangements that are not expected to recur (primarily perpetual licenses and professional services) are excluded. In some arrangements with multiple performance obligations, a portion of recurring license and support or subscription contract value is allocated to services revenue for revenue recognition purposes, but does not get allocated for purposes of calculating ARR. This revenue allocation only impacts the initial term of the contract. This means that as we increase arrangements with multiple performance obligations that include services at discounted rates, more of the total contract value will be recognized as services revenue, but our reported ARR amount will not be impacted. In fiscal year 2022, the recurring license and support or subscription contract value recognized as services revenue was $28.9 million.
If a customer contract contains invoicing amounts that increase over the contract term, then ARR reflects the annualized invoicing amount outlined in the contract for the current reporting period. For example, given a contract with annual invoicing of $1.0 million at the beginning of year one, $2.0 million at the beginning of year two, and $3.0 million at the beginning of year three, and the reporting period is subsequent to year two invoicing and prior to year three invoicing, the reported ARR for that contract would be $2.0 million.
As of July 31, 2022, ARR was $664 million, or $683 million based on currency exchange rates as of July 31, 2021. In March 2022, we announced that we will stop doing business and terminated all customer contracts in Russia. The impact of this decision resulted in the removal of $3.1 million in ARR. We measure ARR on a constant currency basis during the fiscal year and revalue ARR at year end to current currency rates. ARR grew in fiscal year 2022 by 14%, or 17% on a constant currency basis.
Free Cash Flow
We monitor our free cash flow, as a key measure of our overall business performance, which enables us to analyze our financial performance without the effects of certain non-cash items such as depreciation, amortization, and stock-based compensation expenses. Additionally, free cash flow takes into account the impact of changes in deferred revenue, which reflects the receipt of cash payment for services and products before they are recognized as revenue, and unbilled accounts receivable, which reflects revenue that has been recognized that has yet to be invoiced to our customers. Our net cash provided by (used in) operating activities is significantly impacted by the timing of invoicing and collections of accounts receivable, the timing and amount of annual bonus payments, as well as payroll and tax payments. Our capital expenditures consist of purchases of property and equipment, primarily computer hardware, software, and leasehold improvements, and capitalized software development costs. Free cash flow in fiscal year 2022 was impacted by payments of $69.1 million related to our fiscal year 2021 corporate bonus and accrued vacation balances in countries in which we adopted a non-accrual vacation policy, which was $47.8 million higher than the bonus payment during fiscal year 2021. A portion of the fiscal year 2020 bonus in the amount of $9.9 million, which would have been paid in the first quarter of fiscal year 2021, was accelerated due to the COVID-19 pandemic and paid in fiscal year 2020, which correspondingly resulted in lower bonus payments in fiscal year 2021. This partial early bonus payout was approved by our board of directors in order to support our employees and, in turn, their local economies during the extraordinary situation created by the COVID-19 pandemic. The build out and furnishing of our new offices in Mississauga, Canada and Dublin, Ireland impacted free cash flow by a total of $15.6 million for the fiscal year 2021. For a further discussion of our operating cash flows, see “Liquidity and Capital Resources – Cash Flows.”
Fiscal years ended July 31,
20222021
(in thousands)
Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities$(37,940)$111,587 
Purchases of property and equipment(9,510)(19,008)
Capitalized software development costs(12,266)(9,846)
Free cash flow$(59,716)$82,733 



Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
Our consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with GAAP. Accounting policies, methods, and estimates are an integral part of the preparation of our consolidated financial statements in accordance with GAAP and, in part, are based upon management’s current judgments. Those judgments are normally based on knowledge and experience with regard to past and current events and assumptions about future events. Certain accounting policies, methods, and estimates are particularly sensitive because of their significance to our consolidated financial statements and because of the possibility that future events affecting them may differ markedly from management’s current judgments. While there are a number of significant accounting policies, methods, and estimates affecting our consolidated financial statements, which are described in Note 1 “The Company and a Summary of Significant Accounting Policies and Estimates” to our consolidated financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, our revenue recognition policies are critical to the periods presented.
Revenue Recognition
Revenue recognition requires judgment and the use of estimates, especially in identifying and evaluating the various non-standard terms and conditions in our contracts with customers as to their effect on reported revenue.
Our revenue is derived from contracts with customers. The majority of our revenue is derived from subscriptions to our cloud services, licensing arrangements for our software, and implementation and other professional services arrangements. We account for revenue in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“ASC 606”). The core principle of ASC 606 is to recognize revenue upon the transfer of services or products to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration we expect to be entitled to in exchange for those services or products. We apply a five-step framework to recognize revenue as described in our Revenue Recognition policy included in Note 1 of our consolidated financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Our customers have significant negotiating power during the sales process, which can and does result in terms and conditions that are different from our standard terms and conditions. When terms and conditions of our customer contracts are not standard, certain negotiated terms may require significant judgment in order to determine the appropriate revenue recognition in accordance with ASC 606.
The estimates and assumptions requiring significant judgment under our revenue policy in accordance with ASC 606 are as follows:
Allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract
If the contract contains a single performance obligation, the entire transaction price is allocated to the single performance obligation. Contracts that contain multiple performance obligations require an allocation of the transaction price to each performance obligation based on its standalone selling price (“SSP”) in relation to the total fair value of all performance obligations in the arrangement. Some of our performance obligations, such as support, implementation services, and training services, have observable inputs that are used to determine the SSP of those distinct performance obligations. Where SSP is not directly observable, we determine the SSP using information that may include market conditions and other observable inputs. In the circumstances when available information to determine SSP is highly variable or uncertain, such as for our term licenses, we will use the residual method.
The majority of our contracts contain multiple performance obligations, such as when licenses are sold with support, implementation services or training services. As customers enter into a subscription agreement to migrate from an existing term license agreement, customers may be under contract for self-managed licenses and support, in addition to subscription services, for a period of time, which may require an allocation of the transaction price to each performance obligation. New and migration subscription agreements also typically include implementation, configuration, and training services, which may require an allocation of the transaction price to each performance obligation.
Additionally, contract modifications for services and products that are distinct but are not priced commensurate with their SSP or are not distinct from the existing contract may affect the initial transaction price or the allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract. In such cases, revenue recognized may be adjusted.
Modernization of Regulation S-K Items 101, 103, and 105
The SEC issued Release No. 33-10825, “Modernization of Regulation S-K Items 101, 103, and 105,” effective for annual periods beginning subsequent to November 2020. This release was adopted to modernize the description of business, legal proceedings, and risk factor disclosures that registrants are required to make pursuant to Regulation S-K. Specifically, this release requires registrants to provide disclosures relating to their human capital resources and to restructure their risk factor


disclosures. Additionally, the release increases the threshold for disclosure of environmental proceedings to which the government is a party.
Management’s Discussion and Analysis, Selected Financial Data, and Supplementary Financial Information
The SEC issued Release No. 33-10890 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis, Selected Financial Data, Supplementary Financial Information” which became fully effective on August 9, 2021. This release was adopted to modernize, simplify, and enhance certain financial disclosure requirements in Regulation S-K. Specifically, the SEC eliminated the requirement for selected financial data, only requiring quarterly disclosure when there are retrospective changes affecting comprehensive income, and amending the matters required to be presented under Management’s Discussion and Analysis (“MD&A”) to, among other things, eliminate the requirement of the contractual obligations table.
With our adoption of this release, we have eliminated from this document the items discussed above that are no longer required. Information on our contractual obligations is still disclosed in narrative form within the “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in Item 7 of Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
See Note 1 “The Company and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies and Estimates” to our consolidated financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for a full description of recent accounting pronouncements adopted, including the dates of adoption, and recent accounting pronouncements not yet adopted.


Results of Operations
The following table sets forth our results of operations for the years presented. The data has been derived from the consolidated financial statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The results for any period should not be considered indicative of results for any future period.

 Fiscal years ended July 31,
 2022As a % of Total Revenue2021As a % of Total Revenue
(in thousands except percentages)
Revenue:
Subscription and support$343,708 42 %$252,358 34 %
License258,631 32 303,792 41 
Services210,275 26 187,117 25 
Total revenue812,614 100 743,267 100 
Cost of revenue:
Subscription and support213,275 26 164,983 22 
License8,754 10,569 
Services238,365 29 199,502 27 
Total cost of revenue460,394 56 375,054 50 
Gross profit:
Subscription and support130,433 16 87,375 12 
License249,877 31 293,223 39 
Services(28,090)(3)(12,385)(2)
Total gross profit352,220 44 368,213 49 
Operating expenses:
Research and development249,665 31 219,494 30 
Sales and marketing194,611 24 160,544 22 
General and administrative107,391 13 93,759 13 
Total operating expenses551,667 68 473,797 65 
Income (loss) from operations(199,447)(24)(105,584)(16)
Interest income6,277 7,395 
Interest expense(19,446)(2)(18,711)(3)
Other income (expense), net(17,099)(2)12,619 
Income (loss) before provision for (benefit from) income taxes(229,715)(27)(104,281)(16)
Provision for (benefit from) income taxes(49,284)(6)(37,774)(7)
Net income (loss)$(180,431)(21)%$(66,507)(9)%
Comparison of the Fiscal Years Ended July 31, 2022 and 2021
Revenue
We derive our revenue primarily from delivering cloud-based services, licensing our software applications, providing support, and delivering professional services.
Subscription and Support
A growing portion of our revenue consists of fees for our subscription services, which are generally priced based on the amount of DWP that is managed by our subscription services. Subscription revenue is recognized ratably over the term of the arrangement,


beginning at the point in time our provisioning process has been completed and access has been made available to the customer. The initial term of such arrangements is generally from three to five years. Subscription agreements contain optional annual renewals commencing upon the expiration of the initial contract term. A majority of our subscription customers are billed annually in advance. In some arrangements with multiple performance obligations, a portion of recurring subscription contract value may be allocated to license revenue or services revenue for revenue recognition purposes. For example, in arrangements with multiple performance obligations that include services at discounted rates, a portion of the total contract value related to subscription services will be allocated and recognized as services revenue. Additionally, agreements to migrate an existing term license customer to subscription services contain multiple performance obligations, including a provision to continue using the term license during the subscription service implementation period. Under these migration agreements, a portion of the total contract value related to subscription services could be allocated and recognized as term license and support revenue in the period renewed or delivered.
Our support revenue is generally recognized ratably over the committed support term of the licensed software. Our support fees are typically priced as a fixed percentage of the associated term license fees. We generally invoice support annually in advance.
License
A substantial majority of our license revenue consists of term license fees. Our term license revenue is primarily generated through license fees that are billed annually in advance during the term of the contract, including any renewals. Our term license fees are generally priced based on the amount of DWP that will be managed by our licensed software. Our term licenses have generally been sold under a two-year initial term with optional annual renewals after the initial term. However, we do enter into license arrangements that have an initial term of more than two years and renewal terms of more than one year. Term license revenue for the committed term of the customer agreement is generally fully recognized upon delivery of the software or at the beginning of the renewal term.
In a limited number of cases, we license our software on a perpetual basis. Perpetual license revenue is generally recognized upon delivery. We invoice our perpetual license customers either in full at contract signing or on an installment basis.
Services
Our services revenue is primarily derived from implementation and migration services performed for our customers, reimbursable travel expenses, and training fees. A majority of our services engagements are billed and revenue is recognized on a time and materials basis upon providing our services.
 Fiscal years ended July 31,  
 20222021 Change
  % of total % of total
 AmountrevenueAmountrevenue($)(%)
 (in thousands, except percentages)
Revenue:
Subscription and support:
Subscription$259,232 32 %$168,649 23 %$90,583 54 %
Support84,476 10 83,709 11 767 
License:
Term license258,441 32 303,309 41 (44,868)(15)
Perpetual license190 — 483 — (293)(61)
Services210,275 26 187,117 25 23,158 12 
Total revenue$812,614 100 %$743,267 100 %$69,347 %
Subscription and Support
We anticipate subscriptions will continue to represent a majority of new arrangements, including customers migrating from existing term license arrangements to subscription services, in future periods. Due to the ratable recognition of subscription revenue, growth in subscription revenue will lag behind the growth of subscription orders and will impact the comparative growth of our reported revenue on a year-over-year basis. If we complete a higher percentage of subscription arrangements in a given period, our short-term growth rates will be negatively impacted. Due to the seasonal nature of our business, the impact of new subscription orders in the fourth fiscal quarter, our historically largest quarter for new orders, is not fully reflected in revenues until the following fiscal year.


Subscription revenue increased by $90.6 million, compared to the prior year, primarily due to the impact of cloud transition and new subscription agreements for InsuranceSuite Cloud entered into and provisioned since July 31, 2021.
Support revenue was relatively flat compared to the prior year. Support related to subscription arrangements is included in subscription revenue, as support is not quoted or priced separately from the subscription services. As customers enter into a subscription agreement to migrate from an existing term license agreement, the timing and amount of revenue recognized will be impacted by allocations of the total contract value between the license, subscription, and support performance obligations. As a result, we expect the increase in subscription orders as a percentage of total new sales and customers migrating from term licenses to subscription services will continue to reduce the growth in, or result in lower, support revenue in the future.
License
Revenue related to new term licenses and multi-year term license renewals is generally recognized upfront and, as a result, no additional license revenue is recognized until after the committed term expires. As a customer enters into a subscription agreement to migrate from an existing term license agreement, the timing and amount of revenue recognition will be impacted by allocations of total contract value between license, subscription, and support performance obligations. License revenue growth has and will be negatively impacted as subscription sales increase as a percentage of total new sales and as customers migrate from term licenses to subscription services instead of renewing their term licenses.
Term license revenue decreased by $44.9 million, compared to the prior year, primarily due to the impact of multi-year term license renewals and new deals in the same period a year ago, and, to a lesser extent, term license customers migrating to subscription services. The impact on term license revenue from contracts with an initial term of greater than two years or a renewal term of greater than one year was $2.5 million during fiscal year 2022 compared with $24.4 million in the prior year.
Perpetual license revenue decreased by $0.3 million, compared to the prior year, and accounted for less than 1% of total revenue in fiscal year 2022. We expect perpetual license revenue to continue to represent a small percentage of our total revenue. Perpetual license revenue may potentially be volatile across periods due to the large amount of perpetual revenue that may be generated from a single customer order.
Services Revenue
Services revenue increased $23.2 million, compared to the prior year. The increase is primarily driven by an increase in the number and size of subscription implementation and migration projects, but services revenue overall continues to be impacted by contracts with lower average services billing rates and increased investments in customer implementations, including fixed fee or capped arrangements, to accelerate customer transition to the cloud. In these arrangements when a project extends longer than originally anticipated, the average billing rate we recognize may decrease, which can result in revenue adjustments and lower gross profit.
We expect some level of variability in our services revenue in future periods. As we successfully leverage our SI partners to lead more implementations, our services revenue could decrease. We expect challenges related to COVID-19, inflation, and our ability to hire additional services professionals will also continue to negatively impact services revenue. As we continue to expand into new markets and develop new services and products, we have, and may continue to, enter into contracts with lower average billing rates, make investments in customer implementation and migration engagements, and enter into fixed price contracts, which may impact services revenue and services margins.
Cost of Revenue and Gross Profit
Our cost of subscription and support revenue primarily consists of personnel costs for our cloud operations and technical support teams, cloud infrastructure costs, development of online training curriculum, amortization of intangible assets, and royalty fees paid to third parties. Our cost of license revenue primarily consists of development of online training curriculum, royalty fees paid to third parties, and amortization of intangible assets. Our cost of services revenue primarily consists of personnel costs for our professional service employees, third-party subcontractors or consultants, and travel costs. In instances where we have primary responsibility for the delivery of services, subcontractor fees are expensed as cost of services revenue. In each case, personnel costs include salaries, bonuses, benefits, and stock-based compensation.
We allocate overhead such as information technology support, information security, facilities, and other administrative costs to all functional departments based on headcount. As such, these general overhead expenses are reflected in cost of revenue and each functional operating expense.
Effective as of the beginning of fiscal year 2023, we are revising our allocation methodology to more closely reflect the way our business is managed and to be more comparable to other companies in our industry. The change will result in facilities expenses, information technology infrastructure and software expenses, and information security infrastructure and software expenses being


allocated to all functional departments based on headcount, while the remaining expenses will be recorded within general and administrative expenses. The expected impact is an increase in general and administrative expenses and a decrease in cost of revenue and other operating expense categories. Prior period amounts will be re-classified to reflect the revised methodology in our future consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes.
Cost of Revenue:
 Fiscal years ended July 31,  
 20222021Change
 Amount% of total revenueAmount% of total revenue($)(%)
 (In thousands, except percentages)
Cost of revenue:
Subscription and support$213,275 26 %$164,983 22 %$48,292 29 %
License8,754 10,569 (1,815)(17)
Services238,365 29 199,502 27 38,863 19 
Total cost of revenue$460,394 56 %$375,054 50 %$85,340 23 %
Includes stock-based compensation of:
Cost of subscription and support revenue$14,614 $11,231 $3,383 
Cost of license revenue692 770 (78)
Cost of services revenue22,951 21,809 1,142 
Total$38,257 $33,810 $4,447 

Cost of subscription and support revenue increased by $48.3 million primarily due to increases in personnel costs of $27.9 million as a result of our continued investment in our cloud operations to increase operational efficiency and scale, cloud infrastructure expense of $21.3 million for our growing cloud customer base, higher amortization of previously capitalized software development costs of $2.5 million, and higher royalties of $1.2 million. These increases were partially offset by a decrease in amortization of acquired intangible assets of $4.1 million and a decrease in professional services of $0.6 million.
Due to our continued investment in cloud-based operations, increase in new cloud-based customers, and increased usage from existing cloud-based customers, the costs to provide our subscription and support services increased. We expect our cost of subscription and support revenue to increase as we continue to invest in our cloud operations to improve efficiencies and to continuously improve and maintain secure environments, more customers migrate from term licenses to subscription services, and we incur higher cloud infrastructure costs as our cloud customer base and their usage grows. However, we believe that the cost of subscription and support revenue will grow at a slower rate than subscription and support revenue in future years as we achieve economies of scale and other efficiencies. The short-term impact of these trends along with mix within subscription and support revenue may result in a decline in subscription and support gross margin even though subscription and support gross profit increases in absolute dollars.
The $1.8 million decrease in our cost of license revenue was primarily due to a decrease in amortization of acquired intangible assets of $1.5 million due to certain acquired intangible assets being fully amortized and lower personnel costs associated with the development of online training curriculum included with the latest releases of InsuranceSuite of $0.8 million. These decreases were partially offset by an increase in royalties of $0.5 million.
We continue to anticipate lower cost of license revenue over time as our term license customers transition to cloud subscription agreements.
The $38.9 million increase in cost of services revenue was primarily due to an increase of $37.9 million in subcontractor and personnel expenses for InsuranceSuite Cloud implementations and, to a lesser extent, increases of $0.6 million in software subscriptions and $0.3 million in web hosting services.
We had 696 cloud operations and technical support employees and 755 professional service employees at July 31, 2022 compared to 600 cloud operations and technical support employees and 657 professional services employees at July 31, 2021.


Gross Profit
 Fiscal years ended July 31,  
 20222021Change
 Amountmargin %Amountmargin %($)(%)
 (In thousands, except percentages)
Gross profit:
Subscription and support$130,433 38 %$87,375 35 %$43,058 49 %
License249,877 97 293,223 97 (43,346)(15)
Services(28,090)(13)(12,385)(7)(15,705)127 
Total gross profit$352,220 43 %$368,213 50 %$(15,993)(4)%

Our gross profit decreased $16.0 million compared to the prior year. Gross profit was impacted by a decrease in term license revenue due to the impact of multi-year term license arrangements entered into in fiscal year 2022 being significantly lower than the impact of multi-year term license arrangements in the same period a year ago and, to a lesser extent, a decrease in services gross profit due to the investments that we are making in our customers' transition to subscription services. These decreases were partially offset by an increase in subscription and support gross profit due to the increase in subscription revenue, which has a lower gross margin compared to license revenue.
Our gross margin decreased to 43% in fiscal year 2022, as compared to 50% in fiscal year 2021. Gross margin was primarily impacted by the increase as a percentage of total revenue of subscription and support revenue, which has a lower gross margin compared to license revenue.
We expect subscription and support gross margins will fluctuate as our subscription revenue increases and we continue to invest in our cloud operations. However, as we gain efficiencies and increase the number of cloud customers, we expect subscription gross margins to improve over the next several years. In addition, the impact of our investment in customer migrations and implementations, challenges related to COVID-19, and inflation may continue to negatively impact services gross margin going forward. We expect license gross margin will fluctuate based on changes in revenue due to the timing of delivery of new multi-year term licenses and the execution of multi-year term license renewals, as cost of license revenue is expected to be relatively consistent from period to period in the future. Overall, we expect gross margins to decline in the short-term primarily due to the mix between license revenue and subscription and support revenue.


Operating Expenses
Our operating expenses consist of research and development, sales and marketing, and general and administrative expenses. The largest components of our operating expenses are personnel costs for our employees and, to a lesser extent, professional services. In each case, personnel costs include salaries, bonuses, commissions, benefits, and stock-based compensation.
We allocate overhead such as information technology support, information security, facilities, and other administrative costs to all functional departments based on headcount. As a result, general overhead expenses are reflected in cost of revenue and each functional operating expense.
Effective as of the beginning of fiscal year 2023, we are revising our allocation methodology to more closely reflect the way our business is managed and to be more comparable to other companies in our industry. The change will result in facilities expenses, information technology infrastructure and software expenses, and information security infrastructure and software expenses being allocated to all functional departments based on headcount, while the remaining expenses will be recorded within general and administrative expenses. The expected impact is an increase general and administrative expenses and a decrease in cost of revenue and other operating expense categories. Prior period amounts will be re-classified to reflect the revised methodology in our future consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes.
 Fiscal years ended July 31,  
 20222021 Change
  % of total % of total
 AmountrevenueAmountrevenue($)(%)
 (In thousands, except percentages)
Operating expenses:
Research and development$249,665 31 %$219,494 30 %$30,171 14 %
Sales and marketing194,611 24 160,544 22 34,067 21 
General and administrative107,391 13 93,759 13 13,632 15 
Total operating expenses$551,667 68 %$473,797 65 %$77,870 16 %
Includes stock-based compensation of:
Research and development$36,134 $29,524 $6,610 
Sales and marketing32,960 25,820 7,140 
General and administrative29,660 25,855 3,805 
Total$98,754 $81,199 $17,555 

Research and Development
Our research and development expenses primarily consist of personnel costs for our technical staff and consultants providing professional services.
The $30.2 million increase in research and development expenses was primarily due to increases of $21.7 million in personnel costs associated with higher headcount, $4.3 million in cloud infrastructure costs for our development environments, $3.1 million in acquisition consideration holdback costs recognized over a service period relating to the HazardHub acquisition, and $1.2 million in software subscription costs.
Our research and development headcount was 972 as of July 31, 2022 compared with 853 as of July 31, 2021.
We expect our research and development expenses to increase in absolute dollars as we continue to hire and dedicate internal resources to develop, improve, and expand the functionality of our solutions and migrate our solutions to the cloud. Research and development expenses may also increase if we pursue additional acquisitions.
Sales and Marketing
Our sales and marketing expenses primarily consist of personnel costs for our sales and marketing employees. Included in our personnel costs are commissions, which are considered contract acquisition costs and are capitalized when earned and expensed over the anticipated period of time that goods and services are expected to be provided to a customer, which we estimate to be


approximately five years. Sales and marketing expenses also include travel expenses, professional services for marketing activities, and amortization of certain acquired intangibles.
The $34.1 million increase in sales and marketing expenses was primarily due to increases of $26.9 million in personnel costs due to higher headcount to sell and market our services and products; $5.3 million in travel expenses as in-person prospect and client interactions have resumed; $1.6 million in marketing and advertising expense associated with Connections Reimagined, our annual sales conference which was a hybrid event held in November 2021, compared to two fully virtual events in fiscal year 2021; $0.3 million in professional services; and $0.2 million in web hosting costs. These increases were partially offset by a decrease of $0.4 million due to certain acquired intangible assets being fully amortized.
Our sales and marketing headcount was 475 as of July 31, 2022 compared with 426 as of July 31, 2021.
We expect our sales and marketing expenses to continue to increase in absolute dollars as we continue to invest in sales and marketing activities and resume business travel to support our growth and objectives.
General and Administrative
Our general and administrative expenses include executive, finance, human resources, legal, and corporate development and strategy functions, and primarily consist of personnel costs, as well as professional services.
The $13.6 million increase in our general and administrative expenses was primarily due to increases of $9.6 million in personnel costs due to higher headcount, $4.8 million in software subscription and web hosting costs, and $3.0 million of bad debt expense related to a contract termination as a result of United States government sanctions on Russia. These increases were partially offset by a decrease of $3.7 million in professional services.
Our general and administrative headcount was 478 as of July 31, 2022 compared with 406 as of July 31, 2021. General and administrative headcount includes personnel in information technology, information security, facilities, and recruiting whose expenses are allocated across all functional departments.
In addition to the impact of revising our allocation methodology mentioned above, we expect that our general and administrative expenses will increase in absolute dollars as we continue to invest in personnel, corporate infrastructure, and systems required to support our strategic initiatives, grow our business, and meet our compliance and reporting obligations.
Other Income (Expense)
 Fiscal years ended July 31,  
 20222021Change
 AmountAmount($)(%)
 (In thousands, except percentages)
Interest income$6,277 $7,395 $(1,118)(15)%
Interest expense$(19,446)$(18,711)$(735)%
Other income (expense), net$(17,099)$12,619 $(29,718)(236)%
Interest Income
Interest income represents interest earned on our cash, cash equivalents, and investments.

Interest income decreased by $1.1 million in fiscal year 2022, primarily due to lower yields on invested funds and lower funds available for investment. This decrease was partially offset by imputed interest income realized upon the conversion of a strategic investment from convertible debt to preferred equity.
Interest Expense
Interest expense includes both stated interest and the amortization of debt discount and issuance costs associated with our Convertible Senior Notes. The amortization of debt discount and issuance costs are recognized on an effective interest basis. Stated interest expense is consistent in the comparative periods as the outstanding principal and stated interest rate have not changed.
Interest expense for fiscal years 2022 and 2021 consist of non-cash interest expense related to the amortization of debt discount and issuance costs of $14.4 million and $13.6 million, respectively, and stated interest of $5.0 million in both periods.
Effective at the beginning of fiscal year 2023, we are adopting the FASB ASU No. 2020-06 (see Note 1 “The Company and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies and Estimates” to our consolidated financial statements included in this Annual Report


on Form 10-K) which will eliminate the equity component of our Convertible Senior Notes. This will lower interest expense in future periods due to the elimination of the amortization of debt discount.
Other Income (Expense), Net
Other income (expense), net includes foreign exchange gains and losses resulting from fluctuations in foreign exchange rates on monetary asset and monetary liability balances that are denominated in currencies other than the functional currency of the entity in which they are recorded. Our monetary assets and liabilities denominated in currencies other than the functional currency of the entity in which they are recorded consist primarily of trade accounts receivable, unbilled accounts receivable, trade accounts payable, and intercompany receivables and payables. We currently are entering into transactions in the following currencies: the Argentine Peso, Australian Dollar, Brazilian Real, British Pound, Canadian Dollar, Chinese Yuan, Danish Krone, Euro, Hong Kong Dollar, Indian Rupee, Japanese Yen, Malaysian Ringgit, Mexican Peso, New Zealand Dollar, Polish Zloty, Russian Ruble, South African Rand, and Swiss Franc.
Other income (expense), net in fiscal year 2022 was expense of $17.1 million, compared to income of $12.6 million in fiscal year 2021, primarily due to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates in those periods, partially offset by a realized gain upon the sale of a strategic equity investment.
Provision for (benefit from) Income Taxes
We are subject to taxes in the United States as well as other tax jurisdictions and countries in which we conduct business. Earnings from our non-U.S. activities are subject to local country income tax and may also be subject to U.S. income tax.
 Fiscal years ended July 31,  
 20222021Change
 AmountAmount($)(%)
 (In thousands, except percentages)
Provision for (benefit from) income taxes$(49,284)$(37,774)$(11,510)30 %
Effective tax rate21 %36 %

We recognized an income tax benefit of $49.3 million for fiscal year 2022 compared to an income tax benefit of $37.8 million for fiscal year 2021. The increase in our income tax benefit for fiscal year 2022 was primarily due to an increase in pre-tax net loss, an increase in research and development credits, and a decrease in valuation allowance, partially offset by decreases in tax benefits such as tax deductions from stock-based compensation, the tax impact from the tax status change of certain foreign subsidiaries from prior year, and the release of uncertain tax positions from the prior year.
As of July 31, 2022, we had unrecognized tax benefits of $11.8 million that, if recognized, would affect our effective tax rate, as certain unrecognized tax benefits have a valuation allowance.
The effective tax rate could differ from the statutory U.S. Federal income tax rate of 21% mainly due to state taxes, tax deficiencies related to stock-based compensation, research and development credits, foreign earnings taxed in the U.S., change in valuation allowance and certain non-deductible expenses, including, but not limited to, executive compensation limitation.
Comparison of the Fiscal Years Ended July 31, 2021 and 2020
Refer to Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations located in our 10-K for the fiscal year ended July 31, 2021, filed on September 24, 2021, for the discussion of the comparison of the fiscal year ended July 31, 2021 to the fiscal year ended July 31, 2020, the earliest of the three fiscal years presented in the consolidated financial statements.






Non-GAAP Financial Measures
In addition to the key business metrics presented above, we believe that the following non-GAAP financial measures provide useful information to management and investors regarding certain financial and business trends relating to our financial condition and results of operations. Management uses these non-GAAP measures to compare our performance to that of prior periods for trend analysis, for purposes of determining executive and senior management incentive compensation, and for budgeting and planning purposes. We believe that the use of these non-GAAP financial measures provides an additional tool for investors to use in evaluating ongoing operating results and trends and in comparing our financial results with other software companies because it provides consistency and comparability with past financial performance and assists in comparisons with other companies, many of which present similar non-GAAP financial measures to investors. However, our management does not consider these non-GAAP measures in isolation or as an alternative to financial measures determined in accordance with GAAP.
The non-GAAP financial information is presented for supplemental informational purposes only, should not be considered a substitute for financial information presented in accordance with GAAP, and may be different from similarly-titled non-GAAP measures used by other companies. The principal limitation of these non-GAAP financial measures is that they exclude significant expenses and income that are required by GAAP to be recorded in our financial statements. In addition, they are subject to inherent limitations as they reflect the exercise of judgment by management about which expenses and income are excluded or included in determining these non-GAAP financial measures. We urge investors to review the reconciliation of non-GAAP financial measures to the comparable GAAP financial measures included herein and not to rely on any single financial measure to evaluate the Company’s business.
The following table reconciles the specific items excluded from GAAP in the calculation of non-GAAP financial measures for the periods indicated below (in thousands, except share and per share data):
Fiscal years ended July 31,
20222021
Gross profit reconciliation:
GAAP gross profit$352,220 $368,213 
Non-GAAP adjustments:
Stock-based compensation38,257 33,810 
Amortization of intangibles7,659 13,175 
COVID-19 Canada Emergency Wage Subsidy benefit(1)
— (1,975)
Non-GAAP gross profit$398,136 $413,223 
Income (loss) from operations reconciliation:
GAAP income (loss) from operations$(199,447)$(105,584)
Non-GAAP adjustments:
Stock-based compensation137,011 115,009 
Amortization of intangibles14,081 19,965 
   COVID-19 Canada Emergency Wage Subsidy benefit(1)
— (3,396)
Acquisition consideration holdback (2)
$3,067 — 
Non-GAAP income (loss) from operations$(45,288)$25,994 
Net income (loss) reconciliation:
GAAP net income (loss)$(180,431)$(66,507)
Non-GAAP adjustments:
Stock-based compensation137,011 115,009 
Amortization of intangibles14,081 19,965 
COVID-19 Canada Emergency Wage Subsidy benefit(1)
— (3,396)
Acquisition consideration holdback(2)
3,067 — 
Amortization of debt discount and issuance costs14,391 13,617 
Changes in fair value of strategic investments(1,538)— 
Tax impact of non-GAAP adjustments(29,105)(37,379)
Non-GAAP net income (loss)$(42,524)$41,309 
Tax provision (benefit) reconciliation:
GAAP tax provision (benefit)$(49,284)$(37,774)
Non-GAAP adjustments:


Stock-based compensation37,826 (20,979)
Amortization of intangibles3,936 (4,220)
COVID-19 Canada Emergency Wage Subsidy benefit(1)
— (135)
Acquisition consideration holdback (2)
847 — 
Amortization of debt discount and issuance costs4,049 (2,555)
Changes in fair value of strategic investments(471)— 
Tax impact of non-GAAP adjustments(17,082)65,268 
Non-GAAP tax provision (benefit)$(20,179)$(395)
Net income (loss) per share reconciliation:
GAAP net income (loss) per share – diluted
$(2.16)$(0.79)
Non-GAAP adjustments:
Stock-based compensation1.63 1.39 
Amortization of intangibles0.16 0.25 
COVID-19 Canada Emergency Wage Subsidy benefit(1)
— (0.04)
Acquisition consideration holdback (2)
0.03 — 
Amortization of debt discount and issuance costs0.17 0.16 
Changes in fair value of strategic investments0.01 — 
Tax impact of non-GAAP adjustments(0.35)(0.45)
Non-GAAP dilutive shares excluded from GAAP net income (loss) per share calculation— (0.03)
Non-GAAP net income (loss) per share – diluted $(0.51)$0.49 
Shares used in computing Non-GAAP income (loss) per share amounts:
GAAP weighted average shares – diluted
83,569,517 83,577,375 
Non-GAAP dilutive shares excluded from GAAP income (loss) per share calculation— 805,747 
Pro forma weighted average shares – diluted
83,569,517 84,383,122 
(1) Effective the second quarter of fiscal year 2021, the COVID-19 Canada Emergency Wage Subsidy benefit has been included as a non-GAAP adjustment. Prior to the second quarter of fiscal year 2021, this program was unavailable. Beginning with the first quarter of fiscal year 2022, we have not and do not expect to receive a subsidy under the COVID-19 Canada Emergency Wage Subsidy.
(2) Effective the first quarter of fiscal year 2022, acquisition consideration holdback that is earned and recognized as expense over a post-acquisition service period has been included as a non-GAAP adjustment. Prior to the first quarter of fiscal year 2022, there was no acquisition consideration holdback in any periods presented.

Liquidity and Capital Resources
Our principal sources of liquidity are as follows (in thousands):
July 31, 2022July 31, 2021
Cash, cash equivalents, and investments$1,163,675 $1,346,591 
Working capital$915,185 $1,054,971 
Cash, Cash Equivalents, and Investments
Our cash and cash equivalents are comprised of cash and liquid investments with remaining maturities of 90 days or less from the date of purchase, primarily commercial paper and money market funds. Our investments primarily consist of corporate debt securities, U.S. government and agency debt securities, commercial paper, asset-backed securities, and non-U.S. government securities, which include state, municipal and foreign government securities.
As of July 31, 2022, approximately $44.9 million of our cash and cash equivalents were domiciled in foreign jurisdictions. We may repatriate foreign earnings to the United States in the future to the extent that the repatriation is not restricted by local laws or there are no substantial incremental costs associated with such repatriation.
Share Repurchase Program
In October 2020, our board of directors authorized and approved a share repurchase program of up to $200.0 million of our outstanding common stock. The share repurchase program was completed in the second quarter of fiscal year 2022. During the fiscal year ended July 31, 2022, we repurchased 322,545 shares of common stock at an average price of $116.11 per share for an aggregate


purchase price of $37.5 million. During the fiscal year ended July 31, 2021, we repurchased 1,488,991 shares of common stock at an average price of $109.17 per share for an aggregate purchase price of $162.5 million.
Cash Flows
Our cash flows from operations are significantly impacted by timing of invoicing and collections of accounts receivable, annual bonus payments, as well as payments of payroll, commissions, payroll taxes, and other taxes. We expect that we will generate positive cash flows from operations on an annual basis in the future, although this may fluctuate significantly on a quarterly basis. In particular, we typically use more cash during the first fiscal quarter, which ends October 31, as we generally pay cash bonuses to our employees for the prior fiscal year and seasonally higher sales commissions from increased customer orders booked in our fourth fiscal quarter of the prior year. Additionally, our capital expenditures may fluctuate depending on future office build outs and development activities subject to capitalization.
We believe that our existing cash and cash equivalents and sources of liquidity will be sufficient to fund our operations for at least the next 12 months. Our future cash requirements will depend on many factors, including our rate of revenue growth, the expansion of our sales and marketing activities, the timing and extent of our spending to support our research and development efforts, investments in cloud infrastructure, cybersecurity, and operating costs, and expansion into other markets. We also may invest in or acquire complementary businesses, applications or technologies, or may execute on a board-authorized share repurchase program, which may require the use of significant cash resources and/or additional financing.
The following summary of cash flows for the periods indicated has been derived from our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K (in thousands):
 Fiscal years ended July 31,
 20222021
Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities$(37,940)$111,587 
Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities$312,212 $64,191 
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities$(37,335)$(159,387)
Cash Flows from Operating Activities
Net cash used in operating activities increased by $149.5 million in fiscal year 2022 as compared to fiscal year 2021. The increase in operating cash used was primarily attributable to a $110.9 million increase in net loss after excluding the impact of non-cash charges such as deferred taxes, stock-based compensation expense, depreciation and amortization expense, and other non-cash items along with an increase of $38.6 million in cash used by working capital activities. Changes in working capital include payments of $69.1 million related to our fiscal year 2021 corporate bonus and accrued vacation balances in countries in which we adopted a non-accrual vacation policy in the first quarter of fiscal year 2022, which was $47.8 million higher than the bonus payment during the same period a year ago. A portion of the fiscal year 2020 bonus, which would have been paid in the first quarter of fiscal year 2021, was accelerated due to the COVID-19 pandemic and paid in fiscal year 2020.
Cash Flows from Investing Activities
Net cash provided by investing activities increased by $248.0 million in fiscal year 2022 as compared to fiscal year 2021. The increase in cash provided by investing activities was primarily due to decreased net purchases of available-for-sale securities of $293.9 million and lower capital expenditures and capitalized software development costs of $7.1 million. These were offset by $43.8 million paid as purchase consideration for the acquisition of HazardHub and a $9.2 million net increase in amounts paid for strategic investments.
Cash Flows from Financing Activities
Net cash used in financing activities decreased by $122.1 million in fiscal year 2022 as compared to fiscal year 2021. The decrease in cash used was primarily because our authorized share repurchase program was completed in the second quarter of fiscal year 2022, which resulted in our repurchase of $123.9 million less of our common stock during fiscal year 2022 compared to the same period a year ago, and a decrease in proceeds from option exercises of $1.8 million.


Commitments and Contractual Obligations
Our estimated future obligations consist of leases, royalties, purchase obligations, debt, and taxes as of July 31, 2022. Refer to Note 9 “Commitments and Contingencies” and Note 11 “Income Taxes” to our consolidated financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for more information.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
Through July 31, 2022, we did not have any relationships with unconsolidated entities or financial partnerships, such as entities often referred to as structured finance or special purpose entities, which would have been established for the purpose of facilitating off-balance sheet arrangements or other contractually narrow or limited purposes.
Item 7A.    Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk
We are exposed to market risks in the ordinary course of our business. Market risk represents the risk of loss that may impact our financial position due to adverse changes in financial market prices and rates. Our market risk exposure is primarily a result of fluctuations in interest rates and foreign currency exchange rates. We do not hold or issue financial instruments for trading purposes.
Interest Rate Sensitivity
Our exposure to market risk for changes in interest rates relates primarily to our cash, cash equivalents, and investments. Our cash, cash equivalents, and investments as of July 31, 2022 and 2021 were $1,163.7 million and $1,346.6 million, respectively, primarily consisting of cash, money market funds, corporate debt securities, U.S. government and agency debt securities, commercial paper, asset-backed securities and non-U.S. government securities, which include state, municipal, and foreign government securities. Changes in interest rates, primarily in the United States, affect the interest earned on our cash, cash equivalents, and investments, and their market value. A hypothetical 100 basis point increase in interest rates is estimated to result in a decrease of $3.6 million and $5.2 million in the market value of our available-for-sale securities as of July 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. Any realized gains or losses resulting from such interest rate changes would only occur if we sold the investments prior to maturity.
Foreign Currency Exchange Risk
Our results of operations and cash flows are subject to fluctuations due to changes in foreign currency exchange rates, particularly changes in the Australian Dollar, British Pound, Canadian Dollar, Euro, Indian Rupee, and Polish Zloty, the currency of the locations within which we have significant operations. The volatility of exchange rates depends on many factors that we cannot forecast with reliable accuracy. We believe our operating activities act as a natural hedge for a substantial portion of our foreign currency exposure because we typically collect revenue and incur costs in the currency of the location in which we provide our services. However, our relationships with our customers are long-term in nature so it is difficult to predict if our operating activities will provide a natural hedge in the future. Additionally, changes in foreign currency exchange rates can affect our financial results due to transaction gains or losses related to revaluing certain monetary asset and monetary liability balances that are denominated in currencies other than the functional currency of the entity in which they are recorded. Our monetary assets and liabilities denominated in currencies other than the functional currency of the entity in which they are recorded consist primarily of trade accounts receivable, unbilled accounts receivable, trade accounts payable, and intercompany receivables and payables. For the periods ended July 31, 2022 and 2021, we recorded a foreign currency loss of $17.2 million and a foreign currency gain of $9.0 million, respectively, in other income (expense) in our consolidated statements of operations. We will continue to experience fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates. If a hypothetical ten percent change in foreign exchange rates were to occur in the future, the resulting transaction gain or loss is estimated to be approximately $27.4 million. As our international operations grow, we will continue to assess our approach to managing our risk relating to fluctuations in currency rates.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
We do not have material exposure to market risk with respect to investments in financial instruments, as our investments primarily consist of high quality liquid investments purchased with a remaining maturity of three years or less. We do not use derivative financial instruments for speculative or trading purposes. However, this current position does not preclude our adoption of specific hedging strategies in the future.
Our strategic investments in privately held securities are in various classes of equity and convertible debt. The particular securities we hold, and their rights and preferences relative to those of other securities within the capital structure, may impact the magnitude by which our investment value moves in relation to movements in the total enterprise value of the company in


which we are invested. As a result, our investment in a specific company may move by more or less than any change in value of that overall company. In addition, the financial success of our investment in any company is typically dependent on a liquidity event, such as a public offering, acquisition, or other favorable market event reflecting appreciation to the value of our investment. All of our investments, particularly those in privately held companies, are therefore subject to a risk of partial or total loss of invested capital.


Item 8.Financial Statements and Supplemental Data

GUIDEWIRE SOFTWARE, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
 




Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
To the Stockholders and Board of Directors
Guidewire Software, Inc.:

Opinions on the Consolidated Financial Statements and Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Guidewire Software, Inc. and subsidiaries (the Company) as of July 31, 2022 and 2021, the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive income (loss), stockholders’ equity, and cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended July 31, 2022, and the related notes (collectively, the consolidated financial statements). We also have audited the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of July 31, 2022, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission.
In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of July 31, 2022 and 2021, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended July 31, 2022, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles. Also in our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of July 31, 2022 based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission.
Basis for Opinions
The Company’s management is responsible for these consolidated financial statements, for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting, and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in the accompanying Management’s Annual Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s consolidated financial statements and an opinion on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB) and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud, and whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects.
Our audits of the consolidated financial statements included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. Our audit of internal control over financial reporting included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our audits also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinions.
Definition and Limitations of Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.


Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
Critical Audit Matter
The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current period audit of the consolidated financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that: (1) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the consolidated financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of a critical audit matter does not alter in any way our opinion on the consolidated financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.
Evaluation of revenue related to software licensing arrangements and subscriptions to cloud services with non-standard terms
As discussed in Notes 1 and 2 to the consolidated financial statements, revenue was derived principally from software licensing arrangements, subscriptions to cloud services, and implementation and other professional services. The Company recognized total revenue of $812.6 million for the year ended July 31, 2022. The Company’s software licensing arrangements generally have a two-year initial term and subscriptions to cloud services generally have a three- to five-year term, with a customer option to renew on an annual basis after the initial term. Consideration for software licensing arrangements and subscriptions to cloud services is typically billed in advance on an annual basis over the term.
We identified the evaluation of revenue from software licensing arrangements and subscriptions to cloud services with non-standard terms and conditions as a critical audit matter. Significant auditor judgment was required to evaluate the Company’s assessment of the impact on revenue recognition of non-standard terms and conditions, including, the identification and evaluation of the accounting impact of contract modifications related to software licensing term extensions, and arrangements that provide a customer with the ability to transition from a software licensing arrangement to a subscription to cloud services during the contractual term.
The following are the primary procedures we performed to address this critical audit matter. We evaluated the design and tested the operating effectiveness of an internal control related to the critical audit matter. This control is related to the identification and evaluation of software licensing arrangements and subscriptions to cloud services with non-standard terms and conditions. We tested certain software licensing arrangements and subscriptions to cloud services by reading the underlying customer agreements and evaluating the Company’s assessment of the contractual terms and conditions in accordance with revenue recognition requirements. Specifically, this included an evaluation of the Company’s identification and assessment of non-standard terms and conditions that could give rise to special accounting consideration.


/s/ KPMG LLP
We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2006.
Santa Clara, California
September 26, 2022








GUIDEWIRE SOFTWARE, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(in thousands, except for share data)
 
July 31,
2022
July 31,
2021
ASSETS
CURRENT ASSETS: