Company Quick10K Filing
Quick10K
Hawaiian Holdings
Closing Price ($) Shares Out (MM) Market Cap ($MM)
$29.91 48 $1,450
10-K 2018-12-31 Annual: 2018-12-31
10-Q 2018-09-30 Quarter: 2018-09-30
10-Q 2018-06-30 Quarter: 2018-06-30
10-Q 2018-03-31 Quarter: 2018-03-31
10-K 2017-12-31 Annual: 2017-12-31
10-Q 2017-09-30 Quarter: 2017-09-30
10-Q 2017-06-30 Quarter: 2017-06-30
10-Q 2017-03-31 Quarter: 2017-03-31
10-K 2016-12-31 Annual: 2016-12-31
10-Q 2016-09-30 Quarter: 2016-09-30
10-Q 2016-06-30 Quarter: 2016-06-30
10-Q 2016-03-31 Quarter: 2016-03-31
10-K 2015-12-31 Annual: 2015-12-31
10-Q 2015-09-30 Quarter: 2015-09-30
10-Q 2015-06-30 Quarter: 2015-06-30
10-Q 2015-03-31 Quarter: 2015-03-31
10-K 2014-12-31 Annual: 2014-12-31
10-Q 2014-09-30 Quarter: 2014-09-30
10-Q 2014-06-30 Quarter: 2014-06-30
10-Q 2014-03-31 Quarter: 2014-03-31
10-K 2013-12-31 Annual: 2013-12-31
8-K 2019-04-08 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2019-01-29 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2019-01-10 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-12-11 Regulation FD
8-K 2018-12-05 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-10-23 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-10-08 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-10-05 Enter Agreement
8-K 2018-09-05 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-07-24 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-07-18 Enter Agreement
8-K 2018-06-11 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-05-30 Shareholder Vote
8-K 2018-04-24 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-03-12 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-01-29 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-01-08 Earnings, Exhibits
AABA Altaba 42,660
CBOE CBOE 11,060
NWS News Corp 7,460
RES RPC 2,740
SWCH Switch 2,640
TEN Tenneco 2,050
IOVA Iovance Biotherapeutics 1,390
KEN Kenon Holdings 1,070
SIEN Sientra 220
NMM Navios Maritime Partners 157
HA 2018-12-31
Part I
Item 1. Business.
Item 1A. Risk Factors.
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments.
Item 2. Properties.
Item 3. Legal Proceedings.
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures.
Part II
Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.
Item 6. Selected Financial Data.
Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.
Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure.
Item 9A. Controls and Procedures.
Item 9B. Other Information.
Part III
Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance.
Item 11. Executive Compensation.
Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters.
Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence.
Item 14. Principal Accountant Fees and Services.
Part IV
Item 15. Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules.
EX-10.36 a10k2018exhibit1036.htm
EX-10.37 a10k2018exhibit1037.htm
EX-10.38 a10k2018exhibit1038.htm
EX-10.39 a10k2018exhibit1039.htm
EX-21.1 a10k2018exhibit211.htm
EX-23.1 a10k2018exhibit231.htm
EX-31.1 a10k2018exhibit311.htm
EX-31.2 a10k2018exhibit312.htm
EX-32.1 a10k2018exhibit321.htm
EX-32.2 a10k2018exhibit322.htm

Hawaiian Holdings Earnings 2018-12-31

HA 10K Annual Report

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow

10-K 1 ha-12312018x10k.htm 10-K Document


UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, DC 20549
_______________________________________
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
 
 
x
 
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018
or
o
 
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from            to            .
Commission file number 1-31443
HAWAIIAN HOLDINGS, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
71-0879698
(I.R.S. employer
identification no.)
3375 Koapaka Street, Suite G-350
Honolulu, Hawai'i
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
96819
(Zip code)
Registrant's telephone number, including area code: (808) 835-3700
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock ($0.01 par value)
 
NASDAQ Stock Market, LLC
(NASDAQ Global Select Market)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Yes x No  o
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes o    No x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes x  No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes x    No o
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer x
 
Accelerated filer  o
 
Non-accelerated filer o

 
Smaller reporting 
company o
 
Emerging growth company o

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Exchange Rule Act 12b-2). Yes o    No x

The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was approximately $1.8 billion, computed by reference to the closing sale price of the Common Stock on the NASDAQ Global Select Market, on June 29, 2018, the last business day of the registrant's most recently completed second fiscal quarter.

As of February 8, 2019, 48,421,855 shares of Common Stock of the registrant were outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant's Proxy Statement for the Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be held on May 15, 2019 will be incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K.
___________________________________________________________________________________________



TABLE OF CONTENTS


 
 
Page

1


CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 that reflect our current views with respect to certain current and future events and financial performance. Such forward-looking statements include, without limitation, statements related to our financial statements and results of operations; any expectations of operating expenses, deferred revenue, interest rates, tax rates, income taxes, deferred tax assets, valuation allowances or other financial items; expectations regarding our operating performance for the first quarter and full year of 2019; statements regarding factors that may affect our operating results; statements regarding our goals, mission and areas of focus; statements regarding our working capital, and capital expenditures; statements related to funding our aircraft orders, growth strategy and market opportunities; statements regarding the effect of fleet changes on our business, operations and cost structure; statements regarding our ability to pay taxes with working capital; estimates of fair value measurements; statements related to aircraft maintenance and repair; statements related to cash flow from operations and seasonality; statements regarding our intention to pay quarterly dividends and the amounts thereof, if any; statements regarding our ability and intention to repurchase our shares; estimates of required funding of and contributions to our defined benefit pension and disability plans; estimates of annual fuel expenses and measure of the effects of fuel prices on our business; statements regarding our wages and benefits and labor costs and agreements; statements regarding the status and effects of federal and state legislation and regulations promulgated by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and other regulatory agencies; statements related to airport rent rates and landing fees; statements related to our lease of the cargo and maintenance hangar at the Daniel K. Inouye International Airport; statements regarding a joint venture with Japan Airlines; statements regarding aircraft rent expense; statements regarding our total capacity and yields on routes; statements regarding potential dilution of our securities; statements related to our frequent flyer program; statements related to our hedging program; statements concerning accounting principles, policies, standards, estimates, and the effect of the adoption thereof; statements regarding our net operating loss carryforwards; statements regarding our credit card holdback; statements regarding our debt or lease obligations and financing arrangements; statements regarding our financing needs; statements related to risk management, credit risks, and air traffic liability; statements related to future U.S. and global economic conditions or performance; statements related to changes in our fleet plan and related cash outlays; statements related to expected delivery of new aircraft and associated costs; statements related to the effects of any litigation on our operations or business; statements related to competition on our routes; statements related to continuous investments in technology and systems; and statements as to other matters that do not relate strictly to historical facts or statements of assumptions underlying any of the foregoing. Words such as "expects," "anticipates," "projects," "intends," "plans," "believes," "estimates," "could," "may," variations of such words, and similar expressions are also intended to identify such forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements are and will be, as the case may be, subject to many risks, uncertainties, and assumptions relating to our operations and business environment, all of which may cause our actual results to be materially different from any future results, expressed or implied, in these forward-looking statements.
Factors that could affect such forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to: our ability to accurately forecast quarterly and annual results; global economic volatility; macroeconomic developments; political developments; our dependence on the tourism industry; the price and availability of fuel; foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations; competitive pressures, including the potential impact of increasing industry capacity between North America and Hawai’i; fluctuations in demand for transportation in the markets in which we operate, including due to the occurrence of natural disasters, such as hurricanes, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and tsunamis; maintenance of privacy and security of customer-related information and compliance with applicable federal and foreign privacy or data security regulations or standards; our dependence on technology and automated systems; our reliance on third-party contractors; satisfactory labor relations; our ability to attract and retain qualified personnel and key executives; successful implementation of growth strategy and cost reduction goals; adverse publicity; risks related to the airline industry; our ability to obtain and maintain adequate facilities and infrastructure; seasonal and cyclical volatility; the effect of applicable state, federal and foreign laws and regulations; increases in insurance costs or reductions in coverage; the limited number of suppliers for aircraft, aircraft engines and parts; our existing aircraft purchase agreements; delays in aircraft or engine deliveries or other loss of fleet capacity; our ability to continue to generate sufficient cash flow to support the payment of a quarterly dividend; changes in our future capital needs; fluctuations in our share price; our financial liquidity; and our ability to implement our growth strategy. The risks, uncertainties, and assumptions referred to above that could cause our results to differ materially from the results expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements also include those discussed under the heading "Risk Factors" in Item 1A in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and the risks, uncertainties and assumptions discussed from time to time in our public filings and public announcements. All forward-looking statements included in this report are based on information available to us as of the date hereof. We undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances that may arise after the date hereof.


2


PART I
ITEM 1.    BUSINESS.
Overview
Hawaiian Holdings, Inc. (the Company, Holdings, we, us, and our) is a holding company incorporated in the State of Delaware. The Company's primary asset is sole ownership of all issued and outstanding shares of common stock of Hawaiian Airlines, Inc. (Hawaiian). Hawaiian was originally incorporated in January 1929 under the laws of the Territory of Hawai'i and became our indirect wholly-owned subsidiary pursuant to a corporate restructuring that was consummated in August 2002. Hawaiian became a Delaware corporation and the Company's direct wholly-owned subsidiary concurrent with its reorganization and reacquisition by the Company in June 2005.
Our Business
We are engaged in the scheduled air transportation of passengers and cargo amongst the Hawaiian Islands (the Neighbor Island routes) and between the Hawaiian Islands and certain cities in the United States (the North America routes together with the Neighbor Island routes, the Domestic routes), and between the Hawaiian Islands and the South Pacific, Australia, New Zealand and Asia (the International routes), collectively referred to as our Scheduled Operations. We offer non-stop service to Hawai'i from more U.S. gateway cities (13) than any other airline, and also provide approximately 180 daily flights between the Hawaiian Islands. In addition, we operate various charter flights.
We are the longest serving airline, as well as the largest airline headquartered, in the State of Hawai'i, and the 10th largest domestic airline in the United States based on revenue passenger miles (RPMs) reported by the Research and Innovative Technology Administration Bureau of Transportation Services as of September 2018, the latest data available.
At December 31, 2018, our fleet consisted of 20 Boeing 717-200 aircraft for the Neighbor Island routes, four Boeing 767-300 aircraft, 24 Airbus A330-200 aircraft, and eleven Airbus A321-200 for the North America, International, and charter routes. We also own four ATR42 aircraft for the "Ohana by Hawaiian" Neighbor Island service and three ATR71 aircraft for our Neighbor Island cargo operations. During the first quarter of 2019, we expect to retire all four of our remaining Boeing 767-300 aircraft, completing the transition to our A321 aircraft, allowing for optimization of our products and increased management of capacity.
Our goal is to be the number one destination carrier serving Hawai'i. We are devoted to the travel needs of the residents of and visitors to Hawai'i and we offer a unique travel experience. We are strongly rooted in the culture and people of Hawai'i and we seek to provide quality service to our customers that exemplifies the spirit of Aloha.
Outlook
Our mission is to continue to grow a profitable airline with a passion for excellence, our customers, our people and the spirit of Hawai'i. In 2019, we will continue to focus on strengthening our competitive position in the markets that we serve primarily by continuing to mature the routes we launched over the past decade, improving our long term competitive cost structure, improving the guest experience by making travel effortless and furthering our segmentation efforts through our offering of additional value-added products and services, including the introduction of our Main Cabin Basic product in 2019.
Flight Operations
Our flight operations are based in Honolulu, Hawai'i. At December 31, 2018, we operated 246 scheduled flights with:
Daily service on our North America routes between the State of Hawai'i and Long Beach, Los Angeles, Oakland, Sacramento, San Diego, San Francisco, and San Jose, California; Las Vegas, Nevada; Phoenix, Arizona; Portland, Oregon; Seattle, Washington; and New York City, New York.
Daily service on our Neighbor Island routes among the six major islands of the State of Hawai'i.
Daily service on our International routes between the State of Hawai'i and Sydney, Australia; and Tokyo (Haneda and Narita); and Osaka, Japan; and scheduled service between the State of Hawai'i and Pago Pago, American Samoa; Papeete, Tahiti; Brisbane, Australia; Auckland, New Zealand; Sapporo, Japan; and Seoul, South Korea.
Various ad hoc charters.

3


Fuel
Our results of operations are significantly impacted by changes in the price and availability of aircraft fuel. The following table shows our aircraft fuel consumption and costs:
Year
Gallons
consumed
 
Total cost,
including taxes
 
Average cost
per gallon
 
Percent of
operating expenses
 
(in thousands)
 
 
 
 
2018
273,783

 
$
599,544

 
$
2.19

 
23.8
%
2017
259,915

 
$
440,383

 
$
1.69

 
19.9
%
2016
244,118

 
$
344,322

 
$
1.41

 
16.9
%
As illustrated by the table above, fuel costs constitute a significant portion of our operating expenses. We purchase aircraft fuel at prevailing market prices, and seek to manage economic risks associated with fluctuations in aircraft fuel prices by entering into various derivative financial instruments.
Aircraft Maintenance
Our aircraft maintenance programs consist of a series of phased or continuous checks for each aircraft type. These checks are performed at specified intervals measured by calendar months, time flown, and by the number of takeoffs and landings, or cycles operated. In addition, we perform inspections, repairs, and modifications of our aircraft in response to Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) directives. We perform checks ranging from "walk around" inspections before each flight's departure to major overhauls of the airframes which can take several weeks to complete. Aircraft engines are subject to phased maintenance programs designed to detect and remedy potential problems before they occur. The service lives of certain airframe and engine parts and components, which are time or cycle controlled, are replaced or refurbished prior to the expiration of their time or cycle limits. We have contracts with third parties to provide certain maintenance on our aircraft and aircraft engines.
Marketing and Ticket Distribution
We utilize various distribution channels including our website www.hawaiianairlines.com, primarily for our North America and Neighbor Island routes, and travel agencies and wholesale distributors for our International routes.
Our website is available in English, Japanese, Korean, and Chinese and offers our customers information on our flight schedules, information on our HawaiianMiles frequent flyer program, the ability to book reservations on our flights or connecting flights with any of our code-share partners, the status of our flights as well as the ability to purchase hotels, cars and vacation packages. We also distribute our fares through online travel agencies.
Frequent Flyer Program
The HawaiianMiles frequent flyer program was initiated in 1983 to encourage and develop customer loyalty. HawaiianMiles allows passengers to earn mileage credits by flying with us and our partner carriers. In addition, members earn mileage credits for patronage with our other program partners, including credit card issuers, hotels, car rental firms, and general merchants pursuant to our exchange partnership agreements. We also sell mileage credits to other companies participating in the program.
HawaiianMiles members have a choice of various awards based on accumulated mileage credits, with most of the awards being redeemed for free air travel on Hawaiian.
HawaiianMiles accounts with no activity (frequent flyer miles earned or redeemed) for 18 months automatically expire. The number of free travel awards used for travel on Hawaiian was approximately 685,000 in 2018. The number of free travel awards as a percentage of total revenue passengers was approximately 6% in 2018. We believe displacement of revenue passengers is minimal due to our ability to manage frequent flyer seat inventory, and the relatively low ratio of free award usage to total revenue passengers.
Code-Share and Other Alliances
Together with Japan Airlines, we filed an application with the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and Japan's Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT) seeking antitrust immunity to create a joint venture that promises significant consumer benefits and the opportunity for service expansion. We further enhanced our comprehensive partnership with Japan Airlines with the announcement of reciprocal frequent flyer benefits for HawaiianMiles and JAL Mileage Bank members in October 2018. The initial partnership launched in March 2018 with codeshare flights between Japan and Hawaii. We have not yet received approval and we do not anticipate operations commencing under the joint venture until late 2019.


4


We also have marketing alliances with other airlines that provide reciprocal frequent flyer mileage accrual and redemption privileges and code-shares on certain flights (one carrier placing its name and flight numbers, or code, on flights operated by the other carrier). These programs enhance our revenue opportunities by:
increasing value to our customers by providing easier access to more travel destinations and better mileage accrual/redemption opportunities;
gaining access to more connecting traffic from other airlines; and
providing members of our alliance partners' frequent flyer programs an opportunity to travel on our system while earning mileage credit in the alliance partners' programs.
Our marketing alliances with other airlines as of December 31, 2018 were as follows:
 
Hawaiian Miles
Frequent Flyer
Agreement
 
Other Airline
Frequent Flyer
Agreement
 
Code-share—Hawaiian
Flight # on Flights
Operated by Other
Airline
 
Code-share—Other
Airline Flight # on
Flights Operated by
Hawaiian
Air China
No
 
No
 
No
 
Yes
American Airlines
No
 
Yes
 
No
 
Yes
China Airlines
Yes
 
Yes
 
Yes
 
Yes
Delta Air Lines
No
 
Yes
 
No
 
Yes
JetBlue
Yes
 
Yes
 
Yes
 
Yes
Korean Air
Yes
 
Yes
 
Yes
 
Yes
Philippine Airlines
No
 
No
 
No
 
Yes
Turkish Airlines
No
 
No
 
No
 
Yes
United Airlines
No
 
Yes
 
No
 
Yes
Virgin Atlantic Airways
Yes
 
Yes
 
No
 
No
Virgin Australia
Yes
 
Yes
 
No
 
Yes
Although these programs and services increase our ability to be more competitive, they also increase our reliance on third parties.
Competition
The airline industry is highly competitive. We believe that the principal competitive factors in the airline industry are:
Fares;
Flight frequency and schedule;
Customer service;
On-time performance and reliability;
Name recognition;
Marketing affiliations;
Frequent flyer benefits;
Aircraft type;
Safety record; and
In-flight services.
Domestic—We face multiple competitors on our North America routes including major network carriers such as Alaska (AS), American Airlines (AA), United Airlines (UA), and Delta Airlines (DL). In addition, Southwest Airlines (WN) announced their intent to launch service to and from (and possibly within the islands of) Hawai'i in 2018. Various charter companies also provide non-scheduled service to Hawai'i, mostly under public charter arrangements. Our Neighbor Island competitors consist of regional carriers, which include Mokulele Airlines and a number of other "air taxi" companies.
International—Currently, we are the only provider of direct service between Honolulu and each of Sapporo, Japan; Pago Pago, American Samoa; and Papeete, Tahiti. However, we face multiple competitors from both domestic and foreign carriers on our other international routes.

5


Employees
As of December 31, 2018, we had 7,244 active employees, of whom approximately 84% were covered by labor agreements with the following organized labor groups:
Employee Group
 
Represented by
 
Number of Employees
 
Agreement amendable on (*)
Flight deck crew members
 
Air Line Pilots Association (ALPA)
 
800

 
July 1, 2022
Cabin crew members
 
Association of Flight Attendants (AFA)
 
2,101

 
January 1, 2017 (**)
Maintenance and engineering personnel
 
International Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers (IAM-M)
 
1,111

 
January 1, 2021
Clerical
 
IAM-C
 
2,031

 
January 1, 2021
Flight dispatch personnel
 
Transport Workers Union (TWU)
 
52

 
August 1, 2021
(*) Our relations with labor unions representing our airline employees are governed by the Railway Labor Act of 1926. Under the Railway Labor Act, a collective bargaining agreement between us and the labor unions does not expire, but instead becomes amendable as of a stated date if either party wishes to modify the terms of the agreement.
(**) As of December 31, 2018, contract negotiations are ongoing with the AFA.
Seasonality
Hawai'i is a popular vacation destination for travelers. For that reason, our operations and financial results are subject to substantial seasonal and cyclical volatility, primarily due to leisure and holiday travel patterns. Demand levels are typically weaker in the first quarter of the year with stronger demand periods occurring during June, July, August, and December. We may adjust our pricing or the availability of particular fares to obtain an optimal passenger load factor depending on seasonal demand differences.
Customers
Our business is not dependent upon any single customer or a few customers. The loss of any one customer would not have a material adverse effect on our business.
Regulation
Our business is subject to extensive and evolving international, federal, state and local laws and regulations. Many governmental agencies regularly examine our operations to monitor compliance with applicable laws and regulations. Governmental authorities can enforce compliance with applicable laws and regulations and obtain injunctions or impose civil or criminal penalties or modify, suspend, or revoke our operating certificates in case of violations.
Industry Regulations
We are subject to the regulatory jurisdiction of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The DOT has jurisdiction over international routes and fares for some countries (based upon treaty relations with those countries), consumer protection policies including baggage liability, denied boarding compensation, and unfair competitive practices as set forth in the Airline Deregulation Act of 1978. The FAA has regulatory jurisdiction over flight operations, including equipment, ground facilities, security systems, maintenance, and other safety matters. Pursuant to these regulations, we have established, and the FAA has approved, a maintenance program for each type of aircraft we operate that provides for the ongoing maintenance of our aircraft, ranging from frequent routine inspections to major overhauls.
Maintenance Directives
The FAA approves all airline maintenance programs, including modifications to the programs. In addition, the FAA licenses the repair stations and mechanics that perform inspections, repairs and overhauls, as well as the inspectors who monitor the work.
The FAA frequently issues airworthiness directives in response to specific incidents or reports by operators or manufacturers, requiring operators of specified equipment types to perform prescribed inspections, repairs or modifications within stated time periods or numbers of cycles. In the last several years, the FAA has issued a number of maintenance directives and other regulations relating to, among other things, wiring requirements for aging aircraft, fuel tank flammability, cargo compartment fire detection/suppression systems, collision avoidance systems, airborne windshear avoidance systems, noise abatement, and increased inspection requirements.

6


Airport Security
The Aviation and Transportation Security Act (ATSA) mandates that the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) provide screening of all passengers and property, including mail, cargo, carry-on and checked baggage, and other articles that will be carried aboard a passenger aircraft. Under the ATSA, substantially all security screeners at airports are federal employees and airline and airport security is overseen and performed by federal employees, including security managers, law enforcement officers, and Federal Air Marshals. The ATSA also provides for increased security on flight decks of aircraft (and requires Federal Air Marshals to be present on certain flights), improved airport perimeter access security, airline crew security training, enhanced security screening of passengers, baggage, cargo, mail, employees and vendors, enhanced training and qualifications of security screening personnel, provision of passenger data to U.S. Customs and Border Protection and enhanced background checks.
The TSA also has the authority to impose additional fees on air carriers, if necessary, to cover additional federal aviation security costs.
Environmental and Employee Safety and Health
We are subject to various laws and regulations concerning environmental matters and employee safety and health in the U.S. and other countries in which we do business. Many aspects of airlines' operations are subject to increasingly stringent federal, state, local, and foreign laws protecting the environment. U.S. federal laws that have a particular impact on us include the Airport Noise and Capacity Act of 1990, the Clean Air Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Clean Water Act, the Safe Drinking Water Act, and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. Certain of our operations are also subject to the oversight of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) concerning employee safety and health matters. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), OSHA, and other federal agencies have been authorized to promulgate regulations that affect our operations. In addition to these federal activities, states have been delegated certain authority under the aforementioned federal statutes. Many state and local governments have adopted environmental and employee safety and health laws and regulations, some of which are similar to or stricter than federal requirements, such as California.
The EPA is authorized to regulate aircraft emissions and has historically implemented emissions control standards previously adopted by the International Civil Aviation Organization. Our aircraft comply with the existing EPA standards as applicable by engine design date.
We seek to minimize the impact of carbon emissions from our operations through reductions in our fuel consumption and other efforts. We have reduced the fuel needs of our aircraft fleet through the retirement and replacement of certain aircraft in our fleet with newer, more fuel efficient aircraft. In addition, we have implemented fuel saving procedures in our flight and ground support operations that further reduce carbon emissions. In 2012, we earned the first-ever aviation based carbon credits through the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions with the use of an eco-friendly engine washing technology. We are also supporting initiatives to develop alternative fuels and efforts to modernize the air traffic control system in the U.S. as part of our efforts to reduce our emissions and minimize our impact on the environment.
Noise Abatement
Under the Airport Noise and Capacity Act, the DOT allows local airport authorities to implement procedures designed to abate special noise problems, provided such procedures do not unreasonably interfere with interstate and foreign commerce, or the national transportation system. Certain airports, including the major airports at Los Angeles, San Diego, San Francisco, and San Jose, California; Sydney, Australia; and Tokyo, Japan, have established airport restrictions to limit noise, including restrictions on aircraft types to be used and limits on the number of hourly or daily operations or the time of such operations. Local authorities at other airports could consider adopting similar noise restrictions. In some instances, these restrictions have caused curtailments in services or increases in operating costs, and such restrictions could limit our ability to expand our operations.
Civil Reserve Air Fleet Program
The U.S. Department of Defense regulates the Civil Reserve Air Fleet (CRAF) and government charters. We have elected to participate in the CRAF program by agreeing to make aircraft available to the federal government for use by the U.S. military under certain stages of readiness related to national emergencies. The program is a standby arrangement that allows the U.S. Department of Defense U.S. Transportation Command to call on as many as 12 contractually committed Hawaiian aircraft and crews to supplement military airlift capabilities. None of our aircraft are presently mobilized under this program.
Other Regulations
The State of Hawai'i is uniquely dependent upon air transportation. The Hawai'i state legislature has enacted legislation that reflects and attempts to address its concerns. For example, House Bill 2250 HD1, Act 1 of the 2008 Special Session, establishes

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a statutory scheme for the regulation of Hawai'i neighbor island air carriers, provided that federal legislation is enacted to permit its implementation. The U.S. Congress has yet to enact legislation that would allow this proposed legislation to go into effect.
Additionally, several aspects of airline operations are subject to regulation or oversight by federal agencies other than the FAA and the DOT. Federal antitrust laws are enforced by the U.S. Department of Justice. The U.S. Postal Service has jurisdiction over certain aspects of the transportation of mail and related services provided by our cargo services. Labor relations in the air transportation industry are generally regulated under the Railway Labor Act. We and other airlines certificated prior to October 24, 1978 are also subject to preferential hiring rights granted by the Airline Deregulation Act to certain airline employees who have been furloughed or terminated (other than for cause). The Federal Communications Commission issues licenses and regulates the use of all communications frequencies assigned to us and other airlines. There is increased focus on consumer protection both on the federal and state level. We cannot always accurately predict the cost of such requirements on our operations.
Additional laws and regulations are proposed from time to time, which could significantly increase the cost of airline operations by imposing additional requirements or restrictions. U.S. law restricts the ownership of U.S. airlines to corporations where no more than 25% of the voting stock may be held by non-U.S. citizens and the airline must be under the actual control of U.S. citizens. The President and two thirds of the Board of Directors and other managing officers must also be U.S. citizens. Regulations also have been considered from time to time that would prohibit or restrict the ownership and/or transfer of airline routes or takeoff and landing slots and authorizations. Also, the award of international routes to U.S. carriers (and their retention) is regulated by treaties and related agreements between the U.S. and foreign governments, which are amended from time to time. We cannot predict what laws and regulations will be adopted or what changes to international air transportation treaties will be adopted, if any, or how we will be affected by those changes.
Available Information
General information about us, including the charters for the committees of our Board of Directors can be found at https://www.hawaiianairlines.com. Our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, and current reports on Form 8-K, as well as any amendments and exhibits to those reports that we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) are available free of charge through our website. The SEC maintains an internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC, which can be found at http://www.sec.gov.
We also use the investor relations section of our website https://newsroom.hawaiianairlines.com/investor-relations and our website (https://www.hawaiianairlines.com), as a means of disclosing material information and for complying with our disclosure obligations under Regulation FD.
Information on our website is not incorporated into this Annual Report on Form 10-K or our other securities filings and is not a part of such filings.
ITEM 1A.    RISK FACTORS.
In addition to the risks identified elsewhere in this report, the following risk factors apply to our business, results of operations, and financial conditions.
ECONOMIC RISKS
Our business is affected by global economic volatility.
Our business and results of operations are significantly impacted by general world-wide economic conditions. Demand for discretionary purchases including air travel and vacations to Hawai'i remains unpredictable. Deterioration in demand resulting from economic uncertainty or another recession may result in a reduction in our passenger traffic and/or increased competitive pressure on fares in the markets we serve, which would negatively impact our results of operations and financial condition. We cannot assure that we would be able to offset such revenue reductions by reducing our costs.

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Our business is highly dependent on tourism to, from, and amongst the Hawaiian Islands and our financial results could suffer if there is a downturn in tourism levels.
Our principal base of operations is in Hawai'i and our revenue is linked primarily to the number of travelers (mainly tourists) to, from and amongst the Hawaiian Islands. Hawai'i tourism levels are affected by the political and economic climate in Hawai'i's main tourism markets, the availability of hotel accommodations, the popularity of Hawai'i as a tourist destination relative to other vacation destinations, and other global factors, including natural disasters, safety, and security. From time to time, various events and industry specific problems such as labor strikes have had a negative impact on tourism in Hawai'i. The occurrence of natural disasters, such as hurricanes, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and tsunamis, in Hawai'i or other parts of the world, could also have a material adverse effect on Hawai'i tourism. In addition, the potential or actual occurrence of terrorist attacks, wars, and the threat of other negative world events have had, and may in the future have, a material adverse effect on Hawai'i tourism. A decline in the level of Hawai'i passenger traffic could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
Our business is highly dependent on the price and availability of fuel.
Our results and operations are heavily impacted by the price and availability of jet fuel. While we have benefited in the past from lower fuel costs, fuel costs increased in 2017 and 2018 and we cannot assure that fuel costs will not increase further in the future. The cost and availability of jet fuel remains volatile and is subject to political, economic, and market factors that are generally outside of our control. Prices may be affected by many factors including, without limitation, the impact of political instability, crude oil production and refining capacity, unexpected changes in the availability of petroleum products due to disruptions to distribution systems or refineries, unpredicted increases in demand due to weather or the pace of global economic growth, inventory reserve levels of crude oil and other petroleum products, the relative fluctuation between the U.S. dollar and other major currencies, and the actions of speculators in commodity markets. Because of the effects of these factors on the price and availability of jet fuel, the cost and future availability of fuel cannot be predicted with any degree of certainty. Also, due to the competitive nature of the airline industry, there can be no assurance that we will be able to increase our fares or other fees to sufficiently offset any increase in fuel prices.
We enter into derivative agreements to protect against the volatility of fuel costs. There is no assurance that such agreements will protect us during unfavorable market conditions or that our counterparties will be able to perform under these hedge arrangements.
See Item 7A, Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk, for further information regarding our exposure to the price of fuel.
Our business is exposed to foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations.
Our business is expanding internationally with an increasing percentage of our passenger revenue generated from our International routes. The fluctuation of the U.S. dollar relative to foreign currencies can significantly affect our results of operations and financial condition. To manage the effects of fluctuating exchange rates, we periodically enter into foreign currency forward contracts, execute payment of expenditures in those locations in local currency, and recently entered into $86.5 million in Japanese Yen denominated debt in connection with two aircraft financing transactions. There is no assurance that such agreements will protect us against foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations during unfavorable market conditions or that our counterparties will be able to perform under these hedge arrangements.
See Item 7A, Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk, for further information regarding our exposure to the foreign currency exchange rates.
COMPETITIVE ENVIRONMENT RISKS
We operate in an extremely competitive environment.
The airline industry is characterized by low profit margins, high fixed costs, and significant price competition. We compete with other airlines on all of our Domestic and International routes. The commencement of, or increase in, service on our routes by existing or new carriers could negatively impact our operating results. Many of our competitors on our North America and International routes are much larger and have greater financial resources and brand recognition than we do. Aggressive marketing tactics or a prolonged fare war initiated by one or more of these competitors could adversely affect our financial resources and our ability to compete in these markets. Since airline markets have few natural barriers to entry, we also face the constant threat of new entrants in all of our markets.

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Additional capacity to Hawai'i, whether from network carriers or LCCs, could decrease our share of the markets in which we operate, could cause a decline in our yields, or both, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
The concentration of our business in Hawai'i, and between Hawai'i and the U.S. mainland, provides little diversification of our revenue.
During 2018, approximately 74% of our passenger revenue was generated from our Domestic routes. Many of our competitors, particularly major network carriers with whom we compete on our North America routes, enjoy greater geographical diversification of their revenue. A reduction in the level of demand for travel within Hawai'i, or to Hawai'i from the U.S. mainland, or an increase in the level of industry capacity on these routes, may reduce the revenue we are able to generate and adversely affect our financial results. As these routes account for a significantly higher proportion of our revenue than they do for many of our competitors, such a reduction would have a relatively greater adverse effect on our financial results.
Our business is affected by the competitive advantages held by network carriers in the North America market.
During 2018, approximately 52% of our passenger revenue was generated from our North America routes. The majority of competition on our North America routes is from network carriers such as Alaska Airlines, American Airlines, Delta Air Lines, and United Airlines, all of whom have a number of competitive advantages. Primarily, network carriers generate passenger traffic from and throughout the U.S. mainland, which enable them to attract higher customer traffic levels as compared to us. Also, there have been recent announcements by other carriers, such as Southwest Airlines, that there will be an increase in capacity to and from Hawai'i, and possibly amongst the Hawaiian Islands.
In contrast, we lack a comparable direct network to feed passengers to our North America flights and are therefore more reliant on passenger demand in the specific cities we serve. We also rely on our code-share partner agreements (e.g. with JetBlue) to provide customers access to and from North American destinations currently unserved by us. Most network carriers operate from hubs, which can provide a built-in market of passengers depending on the economic strength of the hub city and the size of the customer group that frequent the airline. Our Honolulu and Maui hubs do not originate a large proportion of North American travel, nor do they have the population or potential customer franchise of a larger city to provide us with a built-in market. Passengers in the North American market, for the most part, do not originate in Honolulu, but on the U.S. mainland, making Honolulu primarily a destination rather than an origin of passenger traffic.
Our Neighbor Island routes are affected by increased capacity provided by our competitors.
During 2018, approximately 22% of our passenger revenue was generated from our Neighbor Island routes. Although we enjoy a strong competitive position on our Neighbor Island routes, our competitors could increase capacity to Hawai'i either by introducing new routes or increasing the frequency of existing routes from North America to the Neighbor Islands or by the introduction of additional flights within the Neighbor Islands. This additional capacity could have the effect of decreasing our share of traffic on our Neighbor Island routes, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
Our International routes are affected by competition from domestic and foreign carriers.
During 2018, approximately 26% of our passenger revenue was generated from our International routes. Our competitors on these routes include both domestic and foreign carriers. Both domestic and foreign competitors have a number of competitive advantages that may enable them to attract higher customer traffic levels as compared to us.
Many of our domestic competitors have joined airline alliances, which provide customers access to each participating airline's international network, allowing for convenience and connectivity to their destinations. These alliances formed by our domestic competitors have increased in recent years. In some instances our domestic competitors have been granted antitrust exemptions to form joint venture arrangements in certain geographies, further deepening their cooperation on certain routes. To mitigate this risk, we rely on code-share agreements with partner airlines to provide customers access to international destinations currently unserved by us.
Many of our foreign competitors are network carriers that benefit from network feed to support International routes on which we compete. In contrast, we lack a comparable direct network to feed passengers to our International flights, and are therefore more reliant on passenger demand in the specific destinations that we serve. Most network carriers operate from hubs, which can provide a built-in home base market of passengers. Passengers on our International routes, for the most part, do not originate in Hawai'i, but rather internationally, in these foreign carriers' home bases. We also rely on our code-share agreements

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and our relationships with travel agencies and wholesale distributors to provide customers access to and from International destinations currently unserved by us.
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND THIRD-PARTY RISKS
If we do not maintain the privacy and security of customer-related information or fail to comply with applicable U.S. and foreign privacy or data security regulations or security standards imposed by our commercial partners, our reputation could be damaged, we could incur substantial additional costs, and we could become subject to litigation or regulatory penalties.
We receive, retain, and transmit personal information about our customers and we are subject to increasing legislative, regulatory and customer focus on privacy and data security both domestically and internationally. A number of our commercial partners, including credit card companies, have imposed data security standards that we are obligated to meet and these standards continue to evolve. We will continue our efforts to meet new and increasing privacy and security standards; however, it is possible that such new standards may prove difficult to meet, require us to expend additional resources, and result in us being unable to process credit card transactions if determined to be non-compliant. Additionally, any compromise of our technology systems could result in the loss, disclosure, misappropriation of or access to our customers’, employees’ or business partners’ information. Any such loss, disclosure, misappropriation or access could result in legal claims or proceedings, liability or regulatory penalties under laws protecting the privacy of personal information. Any significant data breach or our failure to comply with applicable U.S. and foreign privacy or data security regulations or security standards imposed by our commercial partners may adversely affect our reputation, business, results of operations and financial condition, and may require that we expend significant additional resources related to the security of information systems.
We are increasingly dependent on technology and automated systems to operate our business.
We depend heavily on technology and automated systems to effectively operate our business. These systems include flight operations systems, communications systems, airport systems, reservations systems, management and accounting systems, commercial websites, including www.hawaiianairlines.com, and other systems, all of which must be able to accommodate high traffic volumes, maintain secure information and provide accurate flight information, as well as process critical financial related transactions. Any substantial or repeated failures of these systems could negatively affect our customer service, compromise the security of customer information, result in the loss of important data, loss of revenue and increased costs, and generally harm our business. Like other companies, our systems may be vulnerable to disruptions due to events beyond our control, including natural disasters, power disruptions, software or equipment failures, terrorist attacks, cybersecurity threats, computer viruses and hackers. There can be no assurance that the measures we have taken to reduce the adverse effects of certain potential failures or disruptions are adequate to prevent or remedy disruptions of our systems. In addition, we will need to continuously make significant investments in technology to periodically upgrade and replace existing systems. If we are unable to make these investments or fail to successfully implement, upgrade or replace our systems, our business could be adversely impacted.
We are highly reliant on third-party contractors to provide certain facilities and services for our operations, and termination of our third-party agreements could have a potentially adverse effect on our financial results.
There are a limited number of qualified employees and personnel in the airline and information technology industry, especially within the Hawai'i market. Due to these limitations, we historically relied on outside vendors for a variety of services and functions critical to our business, including aircraft maintenance and parts, code-sharing, reservations, computer services including hosting and software maintenance, accounting, frequent flyer programs, passenger processing, ground facilities, baggage and cargo handling, personnel training, and the distribution and sale of airline seats. Our reliance on outside vendors may continue to increase in the future.
The failure of any of our third-party service providers to adequately perform their service obligations, or other interruptions of services may reduce our revenues, increase expenses, and/or prevent us from operating our flights and providing other services to our customers. Our business and financial performance would be materially harmed if our customers believe that our services are unreliable or unsatisfactory.
LABOR RELATIONS AND RELATED COSTS RISKS
We are dependent on satisfactory labor relations.
Labor costs are a significant component of airline expenses and can substantially impact an airline's results of operations. A significant portion of our workforce is represented by labor unions. We may make strategic and operational decisions that may

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require the consent of one or more of these labor unions, and these labor unions could demand additional wages, benefits or other consideration in return for their consent.
In addition, we have entered into collective bargaining agreements with our pilots, mechanical group employees, clerical group employees, flight attendants, and dispatchers. We cannot ensure that future agreements with our employees' labor unions will be on terms in line with our expectations or comparable to agreements entered into by our competitors, and any future agreements may increase our labor costs or otherwise adversely affect our business. We are currently in labor negotiations with our flight attendants' union, AFA, whose contract became amendable on January 1, 2017. If we are unable to reach an agreement with any unionized work group, we may be subject to future work interruptions and/or stoppages, which may hamper or halt operations. In addition, the threat of future work interruptions and/or stoppages may cause a decline in our passenger traffic, negatively impacting our results of operations and financial condition.
Our operations may be adversely affected if we are unable to attract and retain qualified personnel and key executives.
We believe that our future success is dependent on the knowledge and expertise of our key executives and highly qualified management, technical, and other personnel. Attracting and retaining such personnel in the airline industry is highly competitive. We cannot be certain that we will be able to retain our key executives or attract other qualified personnel in the future. Any inability to retain our key executives, or attract and retain additional qualified executives, could have a negative impact on our operations.
In addition, as we continue to expand our operations through the acquisition of new aircraft and introduction of service to new markets, it may be challenging to attract a sufficient number of qualified personnel including pilots, mechanics and other skilled labor. As we compete with other carriers for qualified personnel, we also face the challenge of attracting individuals who embrace our team-oriented, friendly and customer-driven corporate culture. Our inability to attract and retain qualified personnel who embrace our corporate culture could have a negative impact on our reputation and overall operations.
STRATEGY AND BRAND RISKS
Our failure to successfully implement our route and network strategy could harm our business.
Our route and network strategy (how we determine to deploy our fleet) includes initiatives to increase revenue, decrease costs, mature our network, and improve distribution of our sales channels. It is critical that we execute upon our planned strategy in order for our business to attain economies of scale and to sustain or improve our results of operations. If we are unable to utilize and fill increased capacity provided by additional aircraft entering our fleet, hire and retain skilled personnel, or secure the required equipment and facilities in a cost-effective manner, we may be unable to successfully develop and grow our new and existing markets, which may adversely affect our business and operations.
We continue to strive toward aggressive cost-containment goals which are an important part of our business strategy to offer the best value to passengers through competitive fares while maintaining acceptable profit margins and return on capital. We believe a lower cost structure will better position us to fund our strategy and take advantage of market opportunities. If we are unable to adequately contain our non-fuel unit costs, our financial results may suffer.
Our reputation and financial results could be harmed in the event of adverse publicity, including the event of an aircraft accident or incident.
Our customer base is broad and our business activities have significant prominence, particularly in Hawai'i and other destinations we serve. Consequently, negative publicity resulting from real or perceived shortcomings in our customer service, employee relations, business conduct, or other events affecting our operations could negatively affect the public image of our company and the willingness of customers to purchase services from us, which could affect our financial results.
Additionally, we are exposed to potential losses that may be incurred in the event of an aircraft accident or incident. Any such accident or incident involving our aircraft or an aircraft operated by one of our code-share partners could involve not only the repair or replacement of a damaged aircraft and its consequential temporary or permanent loss of revenue, but also significant claims of injured passengers and others. We are required by the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) to carry liability insurance, and although we currently maintain liability insurance in amounts consistent with the industry, we cannot be assured that our insurance coverage will adequately cover us from all claims and we may be forced to bear substantial losses incurred with an accident. In addition, any aircraft accident or incident could cause a public perception that we are less safe or reliable than other airlines, which would harm our business.

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AIRLINE INDUSTRY, REGULATION AND RELATED COSTS RISKS
The airline industry has substantial operating leverage and is affected by many conditions that are beyond its control, which could harm our financial condition and results of operations.
Due to the substantial fixed costs associated with operating an airline, there is a disproportionate relationship between the cost of operating each flight and the number of passengers carried. However, the revenue generated from a particular flight is directly related to the number of passengers carried and the respective average fares applied. Accordingly, a decrease in the number of passengers carried would cause a corresponding decrease in revenue (if not offset by higher fares), and it may result in a disproportionately greater decrease in profits. Therefore, any general reduction in airline passenger traffic as a result of any of the following or other factors, which are largely outside of our control, could harm our business, financial condition, and results of operations:
decline in general economic conditions;
continued threat of terrorist attacks and conflicts overseas;
actual or threatened war and political instability;
increased security measures or breaches in security;
adverse weather and natural disasters;
changes in consumer preferences, perceptions, or spending patterns;
increased costs related to security and safety measures;
increased fares as a result of increases in fuel costs;
outbreaks of contagious diseases or fear of contagion; and
congestion at airports and actual or potential disruptions in the air traffic control system.
Our results of operations may be volatile due to the conditions identified above. We cannot ensure that our financial resources will be sufficient to absorb the effects of any of these unexpected factors should they occur.
Our financial results and operations may be negatively affected by the State of Hawai'i's airport modernization plan.
The State of Hawai'i has begun to implement a modernization plan encompassing the airports we serve within the State. Our landing fees and airport rent rates have increased to fund the modernization program. Additionally, we expect the costs for our Neighbor Island operations to increase more than the costs related to our North America and International operations due to phased adjustments of the airports' funding mechanism. Therefore, costs related to the modernization program will have a greater impact on our operations as compared to our competitors, who do not have significant Neighbor Island operations. We can offer no assurance that we will be successful in offsetting these cost increases through other cost reductions or increases in our revenue and, therefore, can offer no assurance that our future financial results will not be negatively affected by them.
Our operations may be disrupted if we are unable to obtain and maintain adequate facilities and infrastructure at airports within the State of Hawai'i.
We must be able to maintain and/or obtain adequate gates, maintenance capacity, office space, operations areas, and ticketing facilities at the airports within the State of Hawai'i to be able to operate our existing and proposed flight schedules. Failure to maintain such facilities and infrastructure may adversely impact our operations and financial performance.
Our business is subject to substantial seasonal and cyclical volatility.
Our results of operations reflect the impact of seasonal volatility primarily due to passenger leisure and holiday travel patterns. As Hawai'i is a popular vacation destination, demand from North America, our largest source of visitors, is typically stronger during June, July, August and December and considerably weaker at other times of the year. Because of fluctuations in our results from seasonality, operating results for a historical period are not necessarily indicative of operating results for a future period and operating results for an interim period are not necessarily indicative of operating results for an entire year.

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Terrorist attacks or international hostilities, or the fear of terrorist attacks or hostilities, even if not made directly on the airline industry, could negatively affect us and the airline industry.
Terrorist attacks, even if not made directly on the airline industry, or the fear of such attacks, hostilities or act of war, could adversely affect the airline industry, including us, and could result in a significant decrease in demand for air travel, increased security costs, increased insurance costs covering war-related risks, and increased flight operational loss due to cancellations and delays. Any future terrorist attacks or the implementation of additional security-related fees could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations, and on the airline industry in general.
The airline industry is subject to extensive government regulation, new regulations, and taxes which could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Airlines are subject to extensive regulatory requirements that result in significant costs. New, and modifications to existing, laws, regulations, taxes and airport rates, and charges imposed by domestic and foreign governments have been proposed from time to time that could significantly increase the cost of airline operations, restrict operations or reduce revenue. The FAA from time to time issues directives and other regulations relating to the maintenance and operation of aircraft that require significant expenditures. Some FAA requirements cover, among other things, retirement of older aircraft, security measures, collision avoidance systems, airborne windshear avoidance systems, noise abatement and other environmental concerns, commuter aircraft safety and increased inspections, and maintenance procedures to be conducted on older aircraft. A failure to be in compliance, or a modification, suspension or revocation of any of our DOT/FAA authorizations or certificates, would have a material adverse impact on our operations.
We cannot predict the impact that laws or regulations may have on our operations, nor can we ensure that laws or regulations enacted in the future will not adversely affect our business. Further, we cannot guarantee that we will be able to obtain or maintain necessary governmental approvals. Once obtained, operating permits are subject to modification and revocation by the issuing agencies. Compliance with these and any future regulatory requirements could require us to incur significant capital and operating expenditures.
In addition to extensive government regulations, the airline industry is dependent on certain services provided by government agencies (DOT, FAA, CBP, TSA, etc.). Furthermore, because of significantly higher security and other costs incurred by airports since September 11, 2001, many airports have significantly increased their rates and charges to airlines, including us, and may do so again in the future.
Federal budget constraints or federally imposed furloughs due to budget negotiation deadlocks may adversely affect our industry, business, results of operations and financial position.
Many of our airline operations are regulated by governmental agencies, including the FAA, the DOT, the CBP, the TSA, and others. If the federal government operations were to experience issues in reaching budgetary consensus in the future resulting in mandatory furloughs and/or other budget constraints, our business and results of operations could be materially negatively impacted.
The airline industry is required to comply with various environmental laws and regulations, which could inhibit our ability to operate and could also have an adverse effect on our results of operations.
Many aspects of airlines' operations are subject to increasingly stringent federal, state, local, and foreign laws protecting the environment. U.S. federal laws that have a particular impact on us include the Airport Noise and Capacity Act of 1990, the Clean Air Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Clean Water Act, the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Comprehensive Environmental Response Act and the Compensation and Liability Act. Compliance with these and other environmental laws and regulations can require significant expenditures, and violations can lead to significant fines and penalties. Governments globally are increasingly focusing on the environmental impact caused by the consumption of fossil fuels and as a result have proposed or enacted legislation which may increase the cost of providing airline service or restrict its provision. We expect the focus on environmental matters to increase.
Concern about climate change and greenhouse gases may result in additional regulation of aircraft emissions in the U.S. and abroad. In addition, other legislative or regulatory action to regulate greenhouse gas emissions is possible. At this time, we cannot predict whether any such legislation or regulation would apportion costs between one or more jurisdictions in which we operate flights. We are monitoring and evaluating the potential impact of such legislative and regulatory developments.

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In addition to direct costs, such regulation may have a greater effect on the airline industry through increases in fuel costs. The impact to us and our industry from such actions is likely to be adverse and could be significant, particularly if regulators were to conclude that emissions from commercial aircraft cause significant harm to the atmosphere or have a greater impact on climate change than other industries.
Our operations may be adversely affected by our expansion into non-U.S. jurisdictions and the related laws and regulations to which we are subject.
The expansion of our operations into non-U.S. jurisdictions has expanded the scope of the laws and regulations to which we are subject, both domestically and internationally. Compliance with the laws and regulations of foreign jurisdictions and the restrictions on operations that these laws, regulations or other government actions may impose could significantly increase the cost of airline operations or reduce revenue. For example, a number of our destinations in Asia have been revising their privacy and consumer laws and regulations. Failure to comply with these evolving laws or regulations could result in significant penalties, criminal charges, costs to defend in a foreign jurisdiction, restrictions on operations and reputational damage. In addition, we operate flights on international routes regulated by treaties and related agreements between the U.S. and foreign governments, which are subject to change as they may be amended from time to time. Modifications of these arrangements could result in an inability to obtain or retain take-off or landing slots for our routes, route authorization and necessary facilities. Any limitations, additions or modifications to government treaties, agreements, regulations, laws or policies related to our international routes could have a material adverse impact on our financial position and results of operations.
We may be party to litigation or regulatory action in the normal course of business or otherwise, which could have an adverse effect on our operations and financial results.
From time to time, we are a party to or otherwise involved in legal or regulatory proceedings, claims, government inspections, investigations or other legal matters, both domestically and in foreign jurisdictions. Resolving or defending legal matters can take months or years. The duration of such matters can be unpredictable with many variables that we do not control including adverse party or government responses. Litigation and regulatory proceedings are subject to significant uncertainty and may be expensive, time-consuming and disruptive to our operations. In addition, an adverse resolution of a lawsuit, regulatory matter, investigation or other proceeding could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. We may be required to change or restrict our operations or be subject to injunctive relief, significant compensatory damages, punitive damages, penalties, fines or disgorgement of profits, none of which may be covered by insurance. We may have to pay out settlements that also may not be covered by insurance. There can be no assurance that any of these payments or actions will not be material. In addition, publicity of ongoing legal and regulatory matters may adversely affect our reputation.
Our insurance costs are susceptible to significant increases, and further increases in insurance costs or reductions in coverage could have an adverse effect on our financial results.
We carry types and amounts of insurance customary in the airline industry, including coverage for general liability, passenger liability, property damage, aircraft loss or damage, baggage and cargo liability, and workers' compensation. We are required by the DOT to carry liability insurance on each of our aircraft. We currently maintain commercial airline insurance with a major group of independent insurers that regularly participate in world aviation insurance markets, including public liability insurance and coverage for losses resulting from the physical destruction or damage to our aircraft. However, there can be no assurance that the amount of such coverage will not change or that we will not bear substantial losses from accidents or damage to, or loss of, aircraft or other property due to other factors such as natural disasters. We could incur substantial claims resulting from an accident or damage to, or loss of, aircraft or other property due to other factors such as natural disasters in excess of related insurance coverage that could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
Extended interruptions or disruptions in service could have a material adverse impact on our operations.
Our financial results may be adversely affected by factors outside our control, including, but not limited to, flight cancellations, significant delays in operations, and facility disruptions. Our principal base of operations is in Hawai'i and a significant interruption or disruption in service could have a serious impact on our business and results of operations. Natural disasters, such as hurricanes, earthquakes and tsunamis, may impact the demand for transportation in the markets in which we operate. In 2018, we faced the impacts of two hurricanes within the vicinity of the State of Hawai'i as well as increased volcanic activity on the Big Island of Hawai'i. There may be a lingering impact to demand on Hawai'i tourism and aviation transportation following weather-related events.

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FLEET AND FLEET-RELATED RISKS
We are dependent on a limited number of suppliers for aircraft, aircraft engines and parts.
We are dependent on a limited number of suppliers (e.g. Airbus, Boeing, Rolls Royce, Pratt & Whitney) for aircraft, aircraft engines, and aircraft-related items. As a result, we are vulnerable to any problems associated with the supply of those aircraft and parts and/or operational disruptions, which could result in increased parts and maintenance costs in future years.
Our agreements to purchase Airbus A321neo aircraft and Boeing 787-9 aircraft represent significant future financial commitments and operating costs.
As of December 31, 2018, we had the following firm order commitments and purchase rights for additional aircraft:
Aircraft Type
Firm
Orders
 
Purchase
Rights
 
Expected Delivery Dates
A321neo aircraft
7

 
3

 
Between 2019 and 2020
B787-9 aircraft
10

 
10

 
Between 2021 and 2025
We have made substantial pre-delivery payments for Airbus and Boeing aircraft under existing purchase agreements and are required to continue these pre-delivery payments as well as make payments for the balance of the purchase price through delivery of each aircraft. These commitments substantially increase our future capital spending requirements and may require us to increase our level of debt in future years. In 2019, we have significant obligations in order to fund our current aircraft orders and we are continuing to evaluate our options to finance these orders via our operating cash flows and debt financing. There can be no assurance that we will be able to obtain such financing on favorable terms, or at all.
Delays in scheduled aircraft deliveries or other loss of fleet capacity may adversely impact our operations and financial results.
The success of our business depends on, among other things, the ability to effectively operate a certain number and type of aircraft. As noted above, we have contractual commitments to purchase and integrate additional Airbus aircraft or Boeing aircraft into our fleet. If for any reason we are unable to secure deliveries of the Airbus aircraft or Boeing aircraft on the contractually scheduled delivery dates and successfully introduce these aircraft into our fleet, then our business, operations, and financial performance could be negatively impacted. Delays in scheduled aircraft deliveries or our failure to integrate newly purchased aircraft into our fleet as planned may require us to utilize our existing fleet longer than expected. Such extensions may require us to operate existing aircraft beyond the point at which it is economically optimal to retire them, resulting in increased maintenance costs.
We may never realize the full value of our long-lived assets, resulting in impairment and other related charges that may negatively impact our financial position and results of operations.
Economic and intrinsic triggers, which include extreme fuel price volatility, an uncertain economic and credit environment, unfavorable trends in historical or forecasted results of operations and cash flows, as well as other uncertainties, may cause us to record material impairments of our long-lived assets. We could be subject to impairment charges in the future that could have an adverse effect on our financial position and results of operations in future periods.
COMMON STOCK RISKS
Our share price is subject to fluctuations and stockholders could have difficulty trading shares.
The market price of our stock is influenced by many factors, many of which are outside of our control, and include the following:
operating results and financial condition;
changes in the competitive environment in which we operate;
fuel price volatility including the availability of fuel;

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announcements concerning our competitors including bankruptcy filings, mergers, restructurings or acquisitions by other airlines;
increases or changes in government regulation;
general and industry specific market conditions;
changes in financial estimates or recommendations by securities analysts; and
sales of our common stock or other actions by investors with significant shareholdings.
In recent years the stock market has experienced volatile price and volume fluctuations that often have been unrelated to the operating performance of individual companies. These market fluctuations, as well as general economic conditions, may affect the price of our common stock.
In the past, securities class action litigation has often been instituted against a company following periods of volatility in its stock price. This type of litigation, if filed against us, could result in substantial costs and divert our management's attention and resources. In addition, the future sale of a substantial number of shares of common stock by us or by our existing stockholders may have an adverse impact on the market price of our common stock. There can be no assurance that the trading price of our common stock will remain at or near its current level.
Certain provisions of our certificate of incorporation and bylaws may delay or prevent a change of control, which could materially adversely affect the price of our common stock.
Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws contain provisions that may make it difficult to remove our Board of Directors and management, and may discourage or delay a change of control, which could materially and adversely affect the price of our common stock. These provisions include, among others:
the ability of our Board of Directors to issue, without further action by the stockholders, series of undesignated preferred stock, or rights to acquire preferred stock, that could dilute the interest of, or impair the voting power of, holders of our common stock or could also be used as a method of discouraging, delaying or preventing a change of control;
advance notice procedures for stockholder proposals to be considered at stockholders’ meetings and for nominations of candidates for election to our Board of Directors;
the ability of our Board of Directors to fill vacancies on the board;
a prohibition against stockholders taking action by written consent;
a prohibition against stockholders calling special meetings of stockholders; and
super-majority voting requirements to modify or amend specified provisions of our certificate of incorporation.
Our certificate of incorporation includes a provision limiting voting and ownership by non-U.S. citizens and our bylaws include a provision specifying an exclusive forum for stockholder disputes.
To comply with restrictions imposed by federal law on foreign ownership of U.S. airlines, our certificate of incorporation restricts voting of shares of our common stock by non-U.S. citizens. Our certificate of incorporation provides that the failure of non-U.S. citizens to register their shares on a separate stock record, which we refer to as the “foreign stock record,” would result in a suspension of their voting rights in the event that the aggregate foreign ownership of the outstanding common stock exceeds the foreign ownership restrictions imposed by federal law.

Our certificate of incorporation further provides that no shares of our common stock will be registered on the foreign stock record if the amount so registered would exceed the foreign ownership restrictions imposed by federal law. If it is determined that the amount registered in the foreign stock record exceeds the foreign ownership restrictions imposed by federal law, shares will be removed from the foreign stock record in reverse chronological order based on the date of registration therein, until the number of shares registered therein does not exceed the foreign ownership restrictions imposed by federal law. As of December 31, 2018, we believe we were in compliance with the foreign ownership rules.


17


Our bylaws provide that, unless we consent in writing to an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware or, if such court lacks jurisdiction, any other state or federal court located in the State of Delaware will be the sole and exclusive forum for (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of us; (ii) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any of our current or former directors, officers or other employees to us or our stockholders; (iii) any action asserting a claim against us or any of our directors, officers or other employees arising pursuant to any provision of the Delaware General Corporation Law or our certificate of incorporation or bylaws (as each may be amended or restated from time to time); or (iv) any action asserting a claim against us or any of our directors, officers or other employees governed by the internal affairs doctrine. Accordingly, stockholders may be limited in the forum in which they are able to pursue legal actions against us.
We cannot guarantee that we will repurchase our common stock pursuant to our share repurchase program or continue to pay dividends on our common stock.
Our intent to continue to repurchase our shares pursuant to our stock repurchase program and to continue to pay quarterly dividends is subject to capital availability, market and economic conditions, applicable legal requirements, and other relevant factors. The stock repurchase program may be limited, suspended, or discontinued at any time without prior notice.
In 2018, we initiated the quarterly issuance of dividends to our stockholders of record. We cannot provide any assurance that we will continue to declare dividends for any fixed period, and the payment of dividends may be suspended or adjusted at any time at our discretion. We will evaluate, on a quarterly basis, the amount and timing of future dividends based on our operating results, financial condition, capital requirements, and general business conditions.
LIQUIDITY RISKS
See Item 7, Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, for further information regarding our liquidity.
Our financial liquidity could be adversely affected by credit market conditions.
Our business requires access to capital markets to finance equipment purchases, including aircraft, and to provide liquidity in seasonal or cyclical periods of weaker revenue generation. In particular, we will face specific funding requirements with respect to our obligation under purchase agreements with Airbus and Boeing to acquire new aircraft. We may finance these upcoming aircraft deliveries; however, the unpredictability of global credit market conditions may adversely affect the availability of financing or may result in unfavorable terms and conditions. We can offer no assurance that the financing we need will be available when required or that the economic terms on which it is available will not adversely affect our financial condition. If we cannot obtain financing or we cannot obtain financing on commercially reasonable terms, our business and financial condition may be adversely affected.
Our debt could adversely affect our liquidity and financial condition, and include covenants that impose restrictions on our financial and business operations.
As of December 31, 2018, we had $468 million in outstanding debt. Our debt and related covenants could:
require us to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to payments on our debt, thereby reducing the availability of our cash flow for other operational purposes;
limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and the industry in which we operate;
limit, along with the financial and other restrictive covenants in the agreements governing our debt, our ability to borrow additional funds;
place us at a competitive disadvantage compared to other less leveraged competitors and competitors with debt agreements on more favorable terms than us; and
adversely affect our ability to secure additional financing in the future on acceptable terms or at all, which would impact our ability to fund our working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions or other general purpose needs.
These agreements require us to meet certain covenants. If we breach any of these covenants we could be in a default under these facilities, which could cause our outstanding obligations under these facilities to accelerate and become due and payable immediately, and could also cause us to default under our other debt or lease obligations and lead to an acceleration of the

18


obligations related to such other debt or lease obligations. The existence of such a default could also preclude us from borrowing funds under our credit facilities.
Our ability to comply with the provisions of financing agreements can be affected by events beyond our control and a default under any such financing agreements if not cured or waived, could have a material adverse effect on us. In the event our debt is accelerated, we may not have sufficient liquidity to repay these obligations or to refinance our debt obligations, resulting in a material adverse effect on our financial condition.
We are required to maintain reserves under our credit card processing agreements which could adversely affect our financial and business operations.
Under our bank-issued credit card processing agreements, certain proceeds from advance ticket sales may be held back to serve as collateral to cover any possible chargebacks or other disputed charges that may occur. These holdbacks, which are included in restricted cash of our consolidated balance sheets, totaled $1.0 million as of December 31, 2017. As of December 31, 2018, there were no holdbacks held with our credit card processors.
In the event of a material adverse change in our business, the holdback could incrementally increase to an amount up to 100% of the applicable credit card activity for all unflown flights, which would also cause an increase in the level of restricted cash. If we are unable to obtain a waiver, or otherwise mitigate the increase in restricted cash, it could adversely affect our liquidity and also cause a covenant violation under other debt or lease obligations and have a material adverse effect on our financial condition.
ITEM 1B.    UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS.
None.
ITEM 2.    PROPERTIES.
Aircraft
The table below summarizes our total fleet as of December 31, 2017 and 2018, and anticipated fleet as of December 31, 2019 (based on existing agreements):
 
December 31, 2017
 
December 31, 2018
 
December 31, 2019
 
Seating Capacity (Per Aircraft)
 
Simple Average Age (In Years)
Aircraft Type
Leased (6)
 
Owned
 
Total
 
Leased (6)
 
Owned
 
Total
 
Leased (6)
 
Owned
 
Total
 
 
A330-200(1)
11

 
13

 
24

 
12

 
12

 
24

 
12

 
12

 
24

 
278
 
5.5
A321-200(2)

 
2

 
2

 
2

 
9

 
11

 
2

 
15

 
17

 
189
 
.5
767-300(3)
7

 
1

 
8

 
3

 
1

 
4

 

 

 

 
252 - 264
 
23.3
717-200
5

 
15

 
20

 
5

 
15

 
20

 
5

 
15

 
20

 
128
 
16.7
ATR 42-500(4)

 
3

 
3

 

 
4

 
4

 

 
4

 
4

 
48
 
15.7
ATR 72-200(5)

 
3

 
3

 

 
3

 
3

 

 
3

 
3

 
 
25.4
Total
23

 
37

 
60

 
22

 
44

 
66

 
19

 
49

 
68

 
 
 
 

(1)
In 2018, we entered into a sale leaseback transaction with an independent third party for one A330-200 aircraft under an operating lease for a term of 12 years.

(2)
In 2018, we took delivery of nine Airbus A321-200 aircraft. In 2019, we expect to take delivery of an additional six Airbus A321-200 aircraft.

(3)
The decrease in leased Boeing 767-300 from 2017 to 2018 is due to the retirement of four aircraft. In the first quarter of 2019, we retired our remaining four aircraft, thereby completing our exit from the Boeing 767-300 fleet.

(4)
The ATR 42-500 turboprop aircraft are owned by Airline Contract Maintenance & Equipment, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company. In 2018, we took delivery of one ATR 42-500 turboprop aircraft.

(5)
The ATR 72-200 turboprop aircraft are used for our cargo operations.

19



(6)
Leased aircraft include both aircraft under capital and operating leases. See Note 9 to the consolidated financial statements for further discussion regarding our aircraft leases.
At December 31, 2018, we had firm aircraft orders as detailed below:
Delivery Year
A321neo Aircraft(1)
 
B787-9 Aircraft(2)
 
Total
2019
6

 

 
6

2020
1

 

 
1

2021

 
2

 
2

2022

 
3

 
3

2023

 
1

 
1

2024

 
3

 
3

2025

 
1

 
1

 
7

 
10

 
17


(1)
In 2013, we entered into an agreement for the purchase of 16 new Airbus A321neo aircraft with purchase rights for an additional nine aircraft with scheduled for deliveries from 2017 to 2020. In 2018, we took delivery of seven firm ordered aircraft, bringing our total delivered aircraft to nine. We have seven additional A321neo deliveries scheduled in 2019 and 2020 as reflected above, bringing the total purchased A321neo aircraft to 16. The Airbus A321neo narrow-body aircraft will be used to complement Hawaiian's existing fleet of wide-body aircraft for travel to and from the West Coast on our North America routes.

(2)
In February 2018, we exercised our right to terminate our aircraft purchase agreement with Airbus for six Airbus A330-800neo aircraft and the purchase rights for an additional six A330-800neo aircraft. Refer to Note 11 to the consolidated financial statements for discussion of the contract termination charge. In July 2018, we entered into a purchase agreement for the purchase of 10 Boeing 787-9 "Dreamliner" aircraft with purchase rights for an additional 10 aircraft with scheduled deliveries from 2021 to 2025. These fuel efficient, long-range aircraft will complement our existing fleet of wide-body for long-haul Asia/Pacific and North America routes.

See Note 9 to the consolidated financial statements for additional information regarding our aircraft lease agreements.
Ground Facilities
Our principal terminal facilities, cargo facilities and hangar and maintenance facilities are located at the Daniel K. Inouye International Airport (HNL). The majority of the facilities at HNL are leased on a month-to-month basis. We are also charged for the use of terminal facilities at other Neighbor Island airports owned by the State of Hawai'i. Some terminal facilities, including gates and holding rooms, are considered by the State of Hawai'i to be common areas and thus are not exclusively controlled by us. We also utilize other State of Hawai'i facilities, including station managers' offices, Premier Club lounges, and operations support space.    

20


The table below sets forth the airport locations we utilize pursuant to various agreements as of December 31, 2018:
Name of Airport
Location
Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport
 
Phoenix
 
Arizona
Long Beach Airport
 
Long Beach
 
California
Los Angeles International Airport
 
Los Angeles
 
California
Oakland International Airport
 
Oakland
 
California
Sacramento International Airport
 
Sacramento
 
California
San Diego International Airport
 
San Diego
 
California
San Francisco International Airport
 
San Francisco
 
California
Norman Y. Mineta San Jose International Airport
 
San Jose
 
California
Hilo International Airport
 
Hilo
 
Hawai'i
Daniel K. Inouye International Airport
 
Honolulu
 
Hawai'i
Kahului Airport
 
Kahului
 
Hawai'i
Kapalua Airport
 
Lahaina
 
Hawai'i
Ellison Onizuka Kona International Airport
 
Kailua-Kona
 
Hawai'i
Lana'i Airport
 
Lana'i
 
Hawai'i
Lihu'e Airport
 
Lihu'e
 
Hawai'i
Moloka'i Airport
 
Moloka'i
 
Hawai'i
McCarran International Airport
 
Las Vegas
 
Nevada
John F. Kennedy International Airport
 
New York
 
New York
Portland International Airport
 
Portland
 
Oregon
Seattle-Tacoma International Airport
 
Seattle
 
Washington
Pago Pago International Airport
 
Pago Pago
 
American Samoa
Brisbane International Airport
 
Brisbane
 
Australia
Sydney International Airport
 
Sydney
 
Australia
Haneda International Airport
 
Tokyo
 
Japan
Kansai International Airport
 
Osaka
 
Japan
Narita International Airport
 
Tokyo
 
Japan
New Chitose International Airport
 
Sapporo
 
Japan
Auckland Airport
 
Auckland
 
New Zealand
Incheon International Airport
 
Seoul
 
South Korea
Faa'a International Airport
 
Papeete
 
Tahiti
Our corporate headquarters are located in leased premises adjacent to the Daniel K. Inouye International Airport.
ITEM 3.    LEGAL PROCEEDINGS.
We are subject to legal proceedings arising in the normal course of our operations. We do not anticipate that the disposition of any currently pending proceeding will have a material effect on our operations, business or financial condition.
ITEM 4.    MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES.
Not applicable.

21


PART II
ITEM 5.    MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES.
Our common stock is traded on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol "HA."
Holders
There were 749 stockholders of record of our common stock as of February 8, 2019, which does not reflect those shares held beneficially or those shares held in "street" name.
Dividends and Other Restrictions
We paid dividends of $24.2 million to shareholders of record during 2018 and $6.3 million during 2017. In February 2019, our Board of Directors declared a quarterly cash dividend of $0.12 per share payable on February 22, 2019 to stockholders of record as of February 8, 2019.
Our dividend payments may change from time to time. We cannot provide assurance that we will continue to declare dividends for any fixed period and payment of dividends may be suspended at any time at our discretion.
United States law prohibits non-U.S. citizens from owning more than 25% of the voting interest of a U.S. air carrier or controlling a U.S. air carrier. Our certificate of incorporation prohibits the ownership or control of more than 25% (to be increased or decreased from time to time, as permitted under the laws of the U.S.) of our issued and outstanding voting capital stock by persons who are not "citizens of the U.S." As of December 31, 2018, we believe we are in compliance with the law as it relates to voting stock held by non-U.S. citizens.
Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers
The following table displays information with respect to our repurchases of shares of our common stock during the three months ended December 31, 2018:
Period
 
Total number of shares purchased (i)
 
Average price paid per share (ii)
 
Total number of shares purchased as part of publicly announced plans or programs (i)
 
Approximate dollar value of shares that may yet be purchased under the plans or programs (in millions) (i)
October 1, 2018 - October 31, 2018
 
1,083,195

 
$
34.68

 
1,083,195

 
 
November 1, 2018 - November 30, 2018
 
179,738

 
35.26

 
179,738

 
 
December 1, 2018 - December 31, 2018
 
158,595

 
29.65

 
158,595

 
 
Total
 
1,421,528

 
 
 
1,421,528

 
$
97.5


(i)
In November 2017, our Board of Directors approved the repurchase of up to $100.0 million of our outstanding common stock over a two-year period through December 2019 via the open market, established plans or privately negotiated transactions in accordance with all applicable securities laws, rules and regulations, which stock repurchase program was completed in December 2018. In November 2018, our Board of Directors approved the repurchase of up to an additional $100 million of our outstanding common stock through December 2020. The new stock repurchase program is subject to modification or termination at any time.

(ii)
Weighted average price paid per share is calculated on a settlement basis and excludes commission.

Stockholder Return Performance Graph
The following graph compares cumulative total stockholder return on our common stock, the S&P 500 Index and the AMEX Airline Index from December 31, 2013 to December 31, 2018. The comparison assumes $100 was invested on December 31, 2013 in our common stock and each of the foregoing indices and assumes reinvestment of dividends before consideration of income taxes.

22


chart-4cf6342a868f5a8381b.jpg
The stock performance depicted in the graph above is not to be relied upon as indicative of future performance. The stock performance graph shall not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into any of our filings under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act, except to the extent that we specifically incorporate the same by reference, nor shall it be deemed to be "soliciting material" or to be "filed" with the SEC or subject to Regulations 14A or 14C or to the liabilities of Section 18 of the Exchange Act.

23


ITEM 6.    SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA.
The Selected Financial Data should be read in conjunction with our accompanying audited consolidated financial statements and the notes related thereto and "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" below.
Hawaiian Holdings, Inc.
Selected Financial Data
 
Year ended December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
(in thousands, except per share data)
Summary of Operations:(a)
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Operating revenue
$
2,837,411

 
$
2,675,145

 
$
2,432,413

 
$
2,317,467

 
$
2,314,879

Operating expenses
2,523,043

 
2,211,107

 
2,034,926

 
1,868,837

 
2,060,922

Operating income
314,368

 
464,038

 
397,487

 
448,630

 
253,957

Net Income
233,200

 
330,610

 
224,120

 
182,646

 
68,926

Net Income Per Common Stock Share:
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Basic
$
4.63

 
$
6.23

(c) 
$
4.19

 
$
3.38

 
$
1.29

Diluted
4.62

 
6.19

 
4.15

 
2.98

 
1.10

Cash dividends declared per common share
0.48

 
0.12

 
0.00

 
0.00

 
0.00

Balance Sheet Items as of December 31:
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Total assets
$
3,196,646

 
$
2,873,821

 
$
2,720,346

 
$
2,489,922

 
$
2,554,112

Long-term debt, less discount, and capital lease obligations, excluding current maturities(b)
608,684

 
511,201

 
497,908

 
677,915

 
870,946



(a)
We adopted Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (ASC 606), and restated the consolidated financial results as of and for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016. Results from periods prior to 2016 have not been restated for the adoption of this standard. See Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements for additional information.
(b)
In 2018, we entered into two Japanese Yen denominated debt agreements for a total value of $86.5 million to finance a portion of the purchase price of two Airbus A321neo aircraft. Additionally, we took delivery of two A321neo aircraft accounted for as a capital lease. In 2016, we extinguished $140.5 million of existing debt under three secured financing agreements, which were originally scheduled to mature in 2022 and 2023. In 2015, we extinguished $123.9 million of existing debt under four secured financing agreements, which were originally scheduled to mature in 2018, 2023, and 2024. We also repurchased $70.8 million in principal of our convertible notes. In 2014, we received proceeds of $368.4 million in connection with the EETC financing for the purchase of five Airbus A330-200 aircraft. See further discussion at Note 8 to the consolidated financial statements.
(c)
We recognized a one-time benefit of $83.0 million, or $1.55 per common stock share, during the year ended December 31, 2017 as a result of the Tax Reform Act enacted in December 2017. During the year ended December 31, 2018, we completed our accounting for the effects of the Tax Act and recorded an additional tax benefit of $9.3 million.


24


ITEM 7.    MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS.
Overview
The following Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (MD&A) is intended to help the reader understand the Company and its operations. This discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. We have based these forward-looking statements on our current expectations and projections of future events. However, our actual results could differ materially from those discussed herein as a result of the risks that we face, including but not limited to those risks stated in the "Risk Factors" section of this report. See "Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements" above. In addition, the following discussion should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and the related notes thereto included elsewhere in this report.
Year in Review
2018 Financial Highlights
Operating income of $314 million compared to $464 million in the prior-year period.

Pre-tax income of $301 million compared to $391 million in the prior-year period.

GAAP net income of $233 million or $4.62 per diluted share compared to $331 million or $6.19 per diluted share in the prior year period.

Adjusted net income of $275 million or $5.44 per diluted share compared to $289 million or $5.41 per share in the prior year period.

Unrestricted cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments of $501 million compared to $460 million in the prior year period.
See "Non-GAAP Financial Measures" below for our reconciliation of non-GAAP measures.
Outlook
Looking ahead, capacity increases in North America and parts of our International network are expected to increase in the first half of 2019. We expect our capacity to grow between 1.5% to 3.0% in the first quarter of 2019 as compared to the first quarter of 2018. For the first quarter of 2019, we expect the aforementioned increases in capacity will result in operating revenue per available seat mile to decrease between 3.0% to 6.0% as compared to the first quarter of 2018. We also expect that our operating costs per available seat mile will decrease by 3.8% to 7.1% during the first quarter of 2019, while our operating costs per available seat mile excluding fuel will increase by 1.0% to 4.0%.
For 2019, we expect the corporate federal tax rate will result in an all-in book tax rate for us of 25% to 27%.



25


Selected Consolidated Statistical Data
Below are the operating statistics we use to measure our operating performance.
 
Year ended December 31,
 
2018
 
2017 (a)
 
2016 (a)
 
(in thousands, except as otherwise indicated)
Scheduled Operations (b) :
 

 
 

 
 

Revenue passengers flown
11,830

 
11,498

 
11,044

Revenue passenger miles (RPM)
17,198,985

 
16,307,344

 
15,484,369

Available seat miles (ASM)
20,158,139

 
18,991,566

 
18,371,544

Passenger revenue per RPM (Yield)

15.13
¢
 

15.25
¢
 

14.67
¢
Passenger load factor (RPM/ASM)
85.3
%
 
85.9
%
 
84.3
%
Passenger revenue per ASM (PRASM)

12.91
¢
 

13.09
¢
 

12.37
¢
Total Operations (b) :
 

 
 

 
 

Revenue passengers flown
11,840

 
11,505

 
11,051

RPM
17,206,703

 
16,316,739

 
15,492,509

ASM
20,171,911

 
19,006,682

 
18,384,637

Operating revenue per ASM (RASM)

14.07
¢
 

14.07
¢
 

13.23
¢
Operating cost per ASM (CASM)

12.51
¢
 

11.63
¢
 

11.07
¢
CASM excluding aircraft fuel, loss on sale of aircraft, contract terminations expense, and special items (c)

9.36
¢
 

9.19
¢
 

8.60
¢
Aircraft fuel expense per ASM (d)

2.97
¢
 

2.32
¢
 

1.87
¢
Revenue block hours operated
208,809

 
189,881

 
179,254

Gallons of jet fuel consumed
273,783

 
259,915

 
244,118

Average cost per gallon of jet fuel (actual) (d)
$
2.19

 
$
1.69

 
$
1.41

(a)
Amounts adjusted due to the adoption of ASC 606. See Note 1 to consolidated financial statements for additional information.
(b)
Includes the operations of our contract carrier under a capacity purchase agreement. Total Operations includes both scheduled and chartered operations.
(c)
Represents adjusted unit costs, a non-GAAP measure. We believe this is a useful measure because it better reflects our controllable costs. See "Non-GAAP Financial Measures" below for our reconciliation of non-GAAP measures.
(d)
Includes applicable taxes and fees.
Operating Revenue
Our revenue is derived primarily from transporting passengers on our aircraft. We record passenger revenue when the transportation is provided or upon scheduled flight for tickets expected to expire unused. We measure capacity in terms of available seat miles, which represent the number of seats available for passengers multiplied by the number of miles the seats are flown. Yield, or the average amount one passenger pays to fly one mile, is calculated by dividing passenger revenue by RPMs. We strive to increase passenger revenue primarily by increasing our yield per flight or by filling a higher proportion of available seats, which produces higher operating revenue per available seat mile. Other revenue primarily consists of cargo revenue, incidental services revenue, marketing component related to the sale of frequent flyer miles, contract services and charter services revenue.
Operating revenue was $2.84 billion, $2.68 billion and $2.43 billion for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively. The increase in operating revenue in 2018 from 2017 was driven primarily by an increase in passenger revenue and is discussed below:

26


2018 vs. 2017
Passenger Revenue
Passenger revenue was $2.60 billion and $2.49 billion for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively. Details of these changes are described in the table below:
 
Year Ended December 31, 2018 as compared to Year Ended December 31, 2017
 
Change in scheduled passenger revenue
 
Change in
Yield
 
Change in
RPM
 
Change in
ASM
 
(in millions)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Domestic
$
58.9

 
(2.8
)%
 
6.1
%
 
8.4
%
International
57.0

 
5.1

 
4.1

 
1.9

Total scheduled
$
115.9

 
(0.8
)%
 
5.5
%
 
6.1
%
Domestic revenue increased by $58.9 million driven by a 2.7% increase in passengers flown on our domestic routes, partially offset by a 1.2% decline in average fares. Unit revenue declines primarily resulted from capacity growth in the region, specifically between Hawai'i and North America, combined with a reduction in travel attributed to weather-related events impacting the State of Hawai'i.
International revenue increased by $57.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 as compared to the prior year period driven by a combination of increased passenger counts and average fares, which outpaced capacity growth. In 2017, we completed the upgrade of our first class cabin and extra comfort seating products on our A330 aircraft, which are driving improvements in profitability and unit revenue growth.
During the year we expanded our operations and now have direct routes between Maui, Hawai'i and Portland, Oregon (January 2018), Kona, Hawai'i and Los Angeles, California (March 2018), Lihue, Hawai'i and Los Angeles, California (May 2018), Honolulu, Hawai'i and Long Beach, California (May 2018), Maui, Hawai'i and San Diego, California (June 2018), and Lihue, Hawai'i and Oakland, California (July 2018 - expansion to daily service). In October 2018, we suspended our thrice-weekly nonstop service between Honolulu, Hawai'i and Beijing, China. In September 2018, we announced our new direct route between Honolulu, Hawai'i and Boston, Massachusetts, which will commence in April 2019. During the first quarter of 2019, we will have retired our last Boeing 767-300 aircraft, completing the transition to our A321 aircraft, allowing for optimization of our products and better capacity management.
Other Operating Revenue
Other operating revenue increased by $46.3 million, or 24.6%, in 2018, as compared to 2017, primarily due to an increase in loyalty program revenue of $31.8 million related to brand usage associated with our co-brand credit card partnership with Barclays, which was amended in the first quarter of 2018. Refer to Note 1 in the consolidated financial statements for additional information. Cargo revenue was up $9.0 million as a result of increased freight volumes and the introduction of our inter-island cargo freighter operation in the fourth quarter of 2018.
Operating Expenses
During the year ended December 31, 2018, total operating expense increased $311.9 million or 14.1% to $2.5 billion as compared to the same period in 2017. The largest components of our operating expenses are wages and benefits provided to our

27


employees and aircraft fuel (including taxes and delivery). Increases (decreases) in operating expenses are detailed below.
 
Changes for the year ended December 31, 2018 as compared to year ended December 31, 2017
 
$
 
%
 
(in thousands)
 
 
Operating expense:
 

 
 

Aircraft fuel, including taxes and delivery
$
159,161

 
36.1
 %
Wages and benefits
51,722

 
8.2

Aircraft rent
(11,803
)
 
(8.6
)
Maintenance materials and repairs
20,206

 
9.2

Aircraft and passenger servicing
12,943

 
8.9

Commissions and other selling
2,565

 
2.0

Depreciation and amortization
26,589

 
23.5

Other rentals and landing fees
10,140

 
8.7

Purchased services
20,864

 
18.8

Contract terminations expense
35,322

 
NM

Special items
(23,450
)
 
NM

Other
7,677

 
5.3

Total
$
311,936

 
14.1
 %
Aircraft fuel
The price and availability of aircraft fuel is volatile due to global economic and geopolitical factors that we can neither control nor accurately predict. The increases in aircraft fuel expense are illustrated in the following table:
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
% Change
 
(in thousands, except per-gallon amounts)
 
 
Aircraft fuel expense, including taxes and delivery
$
599,544

 
$
440,383

 
36.1
%
Fuel gallons consumed
273,783

 
259,915

 
5.3
%
Average fuel price per gallon, including taxes and delivery
$
2.19

 
$
1.69

 
29.6
%
The increase in fuel expense from 2017 to 2018 is due to an increase in average fuel price per gallon and increased fuel consumption driven by capacity growth.
We believe economic fuel expense is the best measure of the effect of fuel prices on our business as it most closely approximates the net cash outflow associated with the purchase of fuel for our operations and is consistent with how management manages our business and assesses our operating performance. We define economic fuel expense as GAAP fuel expense plus (gains)/losses realized through actual cash (receipts)/payments received from or paid to hedge counterparties for fuel hedge derivative contracts settled in the period inclusive of costs related to hedging premiums.
Economic fuel expense is calculated as follows:
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
% Change
 
(in thousands, except per-gallon amounts)
 
 
Aircraft fuel expense, including taxes and delivery
$
599,544

 
$
440,383

 
36.1
 %
Realized losses (gains) on settlement of fuel derivative contracts
(25,563
)
 
534

 
(4,887.1
)%
Economic fuel expense
$
573,981

 
$
440,917

 
30.2
 %
Fuel gallons consumed
273,783

 
259,915

 
5.3
 %
Economic fuel costs per gallon
$
2.10

 
$
1.70

 
23.5
 %

28


See Item 7A, Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk, for additional discussion of our jet fuel costs and related derivative program.
Wages and benefits
Wages and benefits expense increased by $51.7 million, or 8.2%, in 2018, as compared to 2017, primarily driven by increased overall headcount (up 8.8% in 2018). The higher wages and benefits expenses also reflected an increase in cost incurred for training to prepare for the induction of our A321neo fleet which entered service during 2018.
Maintenance materials and repairs
Maintenance materials and repairs increased $20.2 million, or 9.2%, in 2018, as compared to 2017. On a per ASM basis, maintenance, materials, and repairs expense increased 2.9% as compared to the prior year, primarily due to an increase in the number of airframe and engine maintenance events, higher cost of materials for aging aircraft, and an increase in rates on our power by hour contract.
Aircraft and passenger servicing
Aircraft and passenger servicing expenses increased $12.9 million, or 8.9%, in 2018, as compared to 2017, resulting from higher food and beverage expenses attributed to increased passenger counts (up 2.9% in 2018) and an increase in ground handling services reflective of increased operations in domestic and international markets.
Depreciation and amortization
Depreciation and amortization increased $26.6 million, or 23.5%, in 2018, as compared to 2017 primarily due to additions of new aircraft, aircraft improvements and increases in information technology infrastructure and development projects.
Purchased services
Purchased services expense increased by $20.9 million, or 18.8%, in 2018, as compared to 2017. The increase was primarily attributed to an increase in third party expenses including, outsourced web and IT fees and services associated with our increased cargo operations.
Contract terminations expense
During the year ended December 31, 2018, we terminated two contracts which incurred a total of $35.3 million in expense. The transactions are described below:

In January 2018, we entered into a transaction with a lessor to early terminate three Boeing 767-300 aircraft leases and concurrently entered into a forward sale agreement for the same three Boeing 767-300 aircraft, including two Pratt & Whitney 4060 engines for each aircraft. These aircraft were previously accounted for as operating leases. In order to exit the lease and purchase the aircraft, we agreed to pay a total of $67.1 million (net of all deposits) of which a portion was expensed immediately and recognized as a contract termination fee. The expensed amount represents the total purchase price amount over fair value of the aircraft purchased as of the date of the transaction.

In February 2018, we exercised our right to terminate the aircraft purchase agreement with Airbus for six Airbus A330-800neo aircraft and the purchase rights for an additional six Airbus A330-800neo aircraft. To terminate the purchase agreement, we were obligated to repay Airbus for concessions received relating to a prior firm order, training credits, as well as forfeit the pre-delivery progress payments made towards the flight equipment. We recorded a contract terminations expense to reflect the termination penalty within our consolidated statements of operations.
Nonoperating expense, net
Net nonoperating expense decreased by $60.0 million in 2018, as compared to 2017, primarily as a result of a $35.2 million loss on plan termination and a $10.4 million partial settlement and curtailment loss, which were recorded in Other nonoperating special items in 2017. Additionally, Other components of net periodic benefit costs decreased by approximately $15.9 million during the year ended December 31, 2018, as compared to the same period in 2017, primarily as a result of strategic initiatives and favorable market trends.
Income taxes
Our effective tax rate was 22.6% for 2018, compared with 15.4% for 2017. In December 2017, Congress enacted the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (Tax Act), which resulted in a reduction of the federal corporate tax rate from 35% to 21% and the re-measurement of our deferred tax assets and liabilities as of December 31, 2017. We recorded a tax benefit of $83.0 million

29


during 2017 to record the impact of the Tax Act. During the year ended December 31, 2018, we completed our accounting for the effects of the Tax Act and recorded an additional tax benefit of $9.3 million, the majority of which related to pension contributions made in 2018 for the 2017 plan year deductible at the higher 2017 tax rate. Refer to Note 10 in the consolidated financial statements for additional discussion.
2017 vs. 2016
Passenger Revenue
Passenger revenue was $2.49 billion and $2.27 billion for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively. Details of these changes are described in the table below:
 
 
Year Ended December 31, 2017 as compared to Year Ended December 31, 2016
 
 
Change in scheduled passenger revenue
 
Change in
Yield
 
Change in
RPM
 
Change in
ASM
 
 
(in millions)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Domestic
 
$
86.1

 
5.3
%
 
(0.5
)%
 
(2.3
)%
International
 
129.0

 
6.3

 
19.2

 
15.6

Total scheduled
 
$
215.1

 
4.0
%
 
5.3
 %
 
3.4
 %
Domestic revenue increased $86.1 million on yield improvement of 5.3%. North America routes drove the yield improvement as a result of strong demand and the relatively steady industry capacity environment in 2017, which resulted in higher unit prices.
International revenue increased $129.0 million in 2017, as compared to 2016. A 19.2% increase in RPM along with yield improvement of 6.3% drove the strong revenue performance. The increase in RPM flown is attributed to the expansion of Hawai'i to Japan service in 2016, which was fully realized in 2017 and includes; the expansion of service between Honolulu and Tokyo/Narita (July 2016 start), Kona and Tokyo/Haneda (December 2016 start), and expansion of existing Honolulu and Tokyo/Haneda, Japan service (December 2016 start).
Other Operating Revenue
Other operating revenue increased by $27.6 million, or 17.2%, in 2017, as compared to 2016, due to an increase in cargo revenue of $19.7 million, or 26.7%, attributable to increased freight volumes. The increase was also due to a $2.7 million increase in contract services revenue (e.g. ground handling). Other components within our Other operating revenue line include, but are not limited to, loyalty brand and marketing revenue, and other miscellaneous items.

30


Operating Expenses
During the year ended December 31, 2017, total operating expense increased $176.2 million or 8.7% to $2.2 billion as compared to the same period in 2016. The largest components of our operating expenses are wages and benefits provided to our employees and aircraft fuel (including taxes and delivery). Increases (decreases) in operating expenses are detailed below.
 
Changes for the year ended December 31, 2017 as compared to year ended December 31, 2016
 
$
 
%
 
(in thousands)
 
 
Operating expense:
 

 
 

Aircraft fuel, including taxes and delivery
$
96,061

 
27.9
 %
Wages and benefits
97,733

 
18.3

Aircraft rent
13,199

 
10.6

Maintenance materials and repairs
(9,491
)
 
(4.1
)
Aircraft and passenger servicing
14,954

 
11.5

Commissions and other selling
3,963

 
3.2

Depreciation and amortization
5,149

 
4.8

Other rentals and landing fees
8,676

 
8.0

Purchased services
14,588

 
15.2

Special items
(85,692
)
 
(78.5
)
Other
17,041

 
13.4

Total
$
176,181

 
8.7
 %
The price and availability of aircraft fuel is volatile due to global economic and geopolitical factors that we can neither control nor accurately predict. The increases in aircraft fuel expense are illustrated in the following table:
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
 
 
 
2017
 
2016
 
% Change
 
 
(in thousands, except per-gallon amounts)
 
 
Aircraft fuel expense, including taxes and delivery
 
$
440,383

 
$
344,322

 
27.9
%
Fuel gallons consumed
 
259,915

 
244,118

 
6.5
%
Average fuel price per gallon, including taxes and delivery
 
$
1.69

 
$
1.41

 
19.9
%
The increase in fuel expense from 2016 to 2017 is due to an increase in average fuel price per gallon and increased fuel consumption due to added capacity.
Economic fuel expense is calculated as follows:
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
 
 
 
2017
 
2016
 
% Change
 
 
(in thousands, except per-gallon amounts)
 
 
Aircraft fuel expense, including taxes and delivery
 
$
440,383

 
$
344,322

 
27.9
 %
Realized losses (gains) on settlement of fuel derivative contracts
 
534

 
27,572

 
(98.1
)%
Economic fuel expense
 
$
440,917

 
$
371,894

 
18.6
 %
Fuel gallons consumed
 
259,915

 
244,118

 
6.5
 %
Economic fuel costs per gallon
 
$
1.70

 
$
1.52

 
11.8
 %
Wages and benefits
Wages and benefits expense increased by $97.7 million, or 18.3%, in 2017, as compared to 2016, of which approximately $43.4 million was due to the Air Line Pilots Association (ALPA) contract amendment effective April 1, 2017.  In addition, employee benefits expenses (including health insurance) increased by $18.4 million for the year. The higher wages and benefits expenses also reflected an increase in the number of flight crew and training to prepare for the induction of our A321neo fleet, in addition

31


to an overall increase in employee headcount by approximately 7.4% as compared to December 31, 2016, which includes flight attendants, machinists, and non-contract employees.
Aircraft rent
Aircraft rent increased by $13.2 million, or 10.6%, in 2017, as compared to 2016, due to a sale leaseback transaction for three Boeing 767-300 aircraft in April 2017 and the addition of two leased Boeing 717-200 aircraft in November 2016.
Aircraft and passenger servicing
Aircraft and passenger servicing expenses increased $15.0 million, or 11.5%, in 2017, as compared to 2016, resulting directly from higher passenger counts, specifically a 21.5% increase in international passengers flown which generally have a higher associated food and handling cost per passenger. This increase resulted in an overall increase of $5.4 million in food and beverage costs and $5.6 million in ground handling costs.
Purchased services
Purchased services expense increased by $14.6 million, or 15.2%, in 2017, as compared to 2016, due to an increase of $8.6 million in various third party expenses including: outsourced web and IT fees and outsourced labor resources associated with the maintenance hangar project.
Special items
Special items expense decreased by $85.7 million, or 78.5%, in 2017, as compared to 2016. See Note 11 to the consolidated financial statements for further discussion surrounding both 2017 and 2016 Special items.
Other expenses
Other expenses increased by $17.0 million, or 13.4%, in 2017, as compared to 2016, due to an increase of $3.8 million in hotel and personnel related expenses for our crew members (e.g. meals and entertainment), as well as a $4.1 million increase in other supplies expenses. Other components of our Other expense line item include, but are not limited to, communication costs, professional and technical fees, insurance costs, legal fees, and other miscellaneous expenses.
Nonoperating expense, net
Net nonoperating expense increased by $36.9 million in 2017, as compared to 2016, due to a $35.2 million loss on plan termination and a $10.4 million partial settlement and curtailment loss, which were recorded in Other nonoperating special items in 2017. These expenses were partially offset by an $11.7 million fluctuation in fuel hedge gains during the same period.
In 2016, the Hawaiian Airlines, Inc. Pension Plan for Salaried Employees (the Salaried Plan) was consolidated into the Hawaiian Airlines, Inc. Pension Plan for Employees Represented by the International Association of Machinists (IAM), which established the Hawaiian Airlines, Inc. Salaried & IAM Merged Pension Plan (the Merged Plan). At that time, the net liabilities of the Salaried Plan were transferred to the Merged Plan. In August 2017, we completed the termination of the Merged Plan by transferring the assets and liabilities to a third-party insurance company. The Merged Plan was fully funded and we recognized a one-time Other nonoperating special item expense of $35.2 million as an Other nonoperating special item in our Consolidated Statement of Operations.
In 2017, we recognized a one-time Other nonoperating special item expense of $10.4 million related to the settlement of a portion of our pilots' other post-retirement medical plan liability, pursuant to which the parties agreed to eliminate the post-65 post-retirement medical benefit for all active pilots and to replace the benefit with a health retirement account (HRA) managed by ALPA. This transaction represented a curtailment and partial settlement of the pilots' other post-retirement benefit plan. In August 2017, we made a one-time cash payment of approximately $101.9 million to fund the HRA and settle the post-65 post-retirement medical plan obligation. The cash contributed was distributed to the trust funding the individual health retirement notional accounts of the participants.
Income Tax Expense
Our effective tax rate was 15.4% percent for 2017, compared with 38.0% for 2016. The decrease in rate was driven by a $83.0 million reduction in provision for income taxes related to the Tax Act enacted in December 31, 2017, which resulted in re-measurement of our deferred tax assets and liabilities at the new federal corporate tax rate of 21.0%.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Our primary sources of liquidity are:

32


Our existing cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments of $500.8 million, and our expected cash from operations;
Our 21 unencumbered aircraft in our aircraft fleet as of December 31, 2018, that could be financed, if necessary; and
Our $235.0 million revolving credit facility with no outstanding borrowing. Information about this facility can be found in Note 8 to the consolidated financial statements.
At December 31, 2018, we had $709.8 million of debt and capital lease obligations, including $101.1 million classified as a current liability in the Consolidated Balance Sheets. As of December 31, 2018, our current liabilities exceeded our current assets by approximately $301.0 million. However, approximately $603.7 million of our current liabilities are related to our advanced ticket sales and frequent flyer deferred revenue, both of which largely represent revenue to be recognized for travel within the next 12 months and not actual cash outlays. The deficit in working capital does not have an adverse impact to our cash flows, liquidity, or operations.
Cash Flows
Net cash provided by operating activities was $508.5 million, $331.1 million, and $437.0 million in 2018, 2017, and 2016, respectively. Operating cash flows are primarily derived from providing air transportation to customers. The vast majority of tickets are purchased in advance of when travel is provided, and in some cases, several months before the anticipated travel date. Operating cash outflows are related to the recurring expenses of the airline operations. The operating cash flows for 2018, 2017, and 2016 were impacted primarily by our results of operations, adjusted for non-cash items as well as changes in the Air traffic liability, Accounts receivables and Other asset and liabilities, net. Net cash provided by operating activities is primarily used to finance capital expenditures, including pre-delivery payments for future aircraft deliveries, repayment of debt and capital lease obligations, fund stock repurchases, pay dividends, and provide working capital.
Cash used in investing activities was $316.5 million, $294.7 million, and $154.1 million for 2018, 2017, and 2016, respectively. Investing activities in 2018, 2017, and 2016 included Capital expenditures, primarily related to aircraft and other equipment, and the purchases and sales of short-term investments. During 2018, Capital expenditures were $486.8 million, the majority of which were payments for new A321 aircraft delivered to us. This compared with $341.5 million and $178.8 million in Capital expenditures during 2017 and 2016, respectively. We currently estimate our 2019 capital expenditures will range between approximately $380 million to $430 million. During 2018, our purchases and sales of short-term investments resulted in net cash inflow of $36.6 million. During 2017 and 2016, purchases and sales of short-term investments resulted in net cash outflows of $12.9 million and $7.1 million, respectively. During 2018, we received proceeds of $46.7 million as a result of the sale of three Boeing 767-300 aircraft and $87.0 million as a result of the completion of the sale and subsequent leaseback of an A330-200 aircraft accounted for as an operating lease.
Net cash used in financing activities was $115.4 million, $175.5 million, and $238.5 million for 2018 and 2017, and 2016, respectively. During 2018, we repaid $68.2 million in debt and capital lease obligations, compared with $61.5 million and $214.0 million during 2017 and 2016, respectively. During 2018, we entered into two Japanese Yen denominated notes, totaling $86.5 million, collateralized by the aircraft financed. See Note 8 to the consolidated financial statements for further information. We repurchased $102.5 million of our outstanding common stock through authorized share repurchases during 2018, compared with repurchases of $100.0 million and $13.8 million in 2017 and 2016, respectively. We also paid $24.2 million in dividends to Shareholders during 2018, compared with $6.3 million in 2017. Although we currently intend to continue paying dividends on a quarterly basis for the foreseeable future, our Board of Directors may change the timing, amount, and payment of dividends on the basis of the results of operations, financial condition, cash requirements, future prospects, and other factors deemed relevant by our Board of Directors.
Credit Card Holdbacks
Under our bank-issued credit card processing agreements, certain proceeds from advance ticket sales may be held back to serve as collateral to cover any possible chargebacks or other disputed charges that may occur. These holdbacks, are reported as restricted cash in our Consolidated Balance Sheets. As of December 31, 2018, there were no holdbacks held with our credit card processors.
In the event of a material adverse change in our business, the holdback could increase to an amount up to 100% of the applicable credit card activity for all unflown tickets, which would also result in an increase in the required level of restricted cash. If we are unable to obtain a waiver of, or otherwise mitigate the increase in the restriction of cash, it could have a material adverse impact on our operations.
Pension and Other Postretirement Benefit Plan Funding

33


As of December 31, 2018, the excess of the projected benefit obligations over the fair value of plan assets was approximately $186.3 million. We voluntarily contributed $50.0 million, $30.2 million, and $57.8 million to our defined benefit pension plans (excluding one-time settlement payments) and disability plan during 2018, 2017, and 2016, respectively. Future funding requirements for our defined benefit and other postretirement plans are dependent upon many factors such as interest rates, funded status, applicable regulatory requirements, and the level and timing of asset returns. We have made significant contributions (above the minimum required) to our defined benefit pension and disability plans in the past few years. In 2019, our minimum required contribution has been estimated to be approximately $7.8 million.
Stock Repurchase Program and Dividends
During the year ended December 31, 2018, we used $102.5 million to repurchase 2.8 million shares of our common stock, completing our November 2017 repurchase authorization. In November 2018, our Board of Directors approved a new stock repurchase program pursuant to which we may repurchase up to $100 million of our outstanding common stock over a two-year period through December 2020. The stock repurchase program is subject to further modification or termination at any time.
The following table displays information with respect to our stock repurchase programs as of December 31, 2018:
(in thousands, except repurchase price)
 
Share Repurchase Authorization
(in '000s)
 
Weighted Average Repurchase Price
 
Planned Completion Date
 
Authorization Remaining
April 2015 Program
 
$
100,000

 
$
25.75

 
April 2017
 
Completed April 2017
April 2017 Program
 
100,000

 
39.85

 
May 2019
 
Completed December 2017
November 2017 Program
 
100,000

 
36.71

 
December 2019
 
Completed December 2018
November 2018 Program
 
100,000

 
27.11

 
December 2020
 
$97,500

During 2018, we declared and paid cash dividends of $24.2 million. In February 2019, our Board of Directors declared a $0.12 per share payable on February 22, 2019 to stockholders of record as of February 8, 2019.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
An off-balance sheet arrangement is any transaction, agreement or other contractual arrangement involving an unconsolidated entity under which a company has (i) made guarantees, (ii) retained a contingent interest in transferred assets, (iii) an obligation under derivative instruments classified as equity or (iv) any obligation arising out of a material variable interest in an unconsolidated entity that provides financing, liquidity, market risk or credit risk support to the company, or that engages in leasing, hedging or research and development arrangements with the company. We have no arrangements of the types described in the first three categories that we believe may have a current or future material effect on our financial condition, liquidity or results of operations. We do have obligations arising out of variable interests in unconsolidated entities related to certain aircraft leases. To the extent our leases and related guarantees are with a separate legal entity other than a governmental entity, we are not the primary beneficiary because the lease terms are consistent with market terms at the inception of the lease, and the lease does not include a residual value guarantee, fixed price purchase option, or similar feature.
Contractual Obligations
Our estimated contractual obligations as of December 31, 2018 are summarized in the following table:
Contractual Obligations
Total
 
Less than 1 Year
 
1-3 Years
 
3-5 Years
 
More than 5 Years
 
(in thousands)
Debt and capital lease obligations, including principal and interest(1)
$
882,998

 
$
130,744

 
$
172,412

 
$
168,115

 
$
411,727

Operating leases—aircraft and related equipment(2)
558,584

 
106,448

 
164,732

 
128,133

 
159,271

Operating leases—non-aircraft
118,888

 
5,730

 
11,554

 
11,905

 
89,699

Purchase commitments—capital(3)
1,941,180

 
330,089

 
465,454

 
667,849

 
477,788

Other commitments(4)
487,155

 
74,621

 
135,833

 
111,856

 
164,845

Projected employee benefit contributions(5)
44,355

 
3,755

 
10,800

 
17,800

 
12,000

Total contractual obligations
$
4,033,160

 
$
651,387

 
$
960,785

 
$
1,105,658

 
$
1,315,330


34


(1)
Amounts reflect capital lease obligations for one Airbus A330-200 aircraft, two Airbus A321-200 aircraft, two Boeing 717-200 aircraft, one Airbus A330 flight simulator, aircraft and IT related equipment, and the building component of the cargo and maintenance hangar (within the capital commitments section).

(2)
Amounts reflect leases for eleven Airbus A330-200 aircraft, three Boeing 767-300 aircraft which end during the first quarter of 2019, and three Boeing 717-200 aircraft as of December 31, 2018.

(3)
Amounts include our firm commitments for aircraft and aircraft related equipment. See Note 14 to the consolidated financial statements for a discussion of our purchase commitments.

(4)
Amounts include commitments for services provided by third-parties for aircraft maintenance for our fleet, capacity purchases, IT, and reservations. Total contractual obligations do not include long-term contracts where the commitment is variable in nature (with no minimum guarantee), such as aircraft maintenance deposits due under operating leases and fees due under certain other agreements such as aircraft maintenance power-by-the-hour, computer reservation systems and credit card processing agreements, or when the agreements contain short-term cancellation provisions.

(5)
Amounts include our estimated contributions to our pension plans (based on actuarially determined estimates) and our pilots' disability plan. Amounts are subject to change based on numerous factors, including interest rate levels, the amount and timing of asset returns and the impact of future legislation. We are currently unable to estimate the projected contributions beyond 2025. See "Critical Accounting Policies" below for a discussion of our current year assumption regarding our employee benefit plans.
Capital Commitments
As of December 31, 2018, we had the following capital commitments consisting of firm aircraft and engine orders and purchase rights:
Aircraft Type
Firm
Orders
 
Purchase
Rights
 
Expected Delivery Dates
A321neo aircraft
7

 
3

 
Between 2019 and 2020
B787-9 aircraft
10

 
10

 
Between 2021 and 2025
Pratt & Whitney spare engines:
 
 
 
 
 
A321neo spare engines
1

 
2

 
In 2019
General Electric GEnx spare engines:
 

 
 

 
 
B787-9 spare engines
2

 
2

 
Between 2021 and 2025
Committed expenditures for these aircraft, engines, and related flight equipment are approximately $330 million in 2019, $162 million in 2020, $303 million in 2021, $431 million in 2022, $237 million in 2023, and $478 million thereafter.
In order to complete the purchase of these aircraft and fund related costs, we may need to secure acceptable financing. We have backstop financing available from aircraft and engine manufacturers, subject to certain customary conditions. Financing may be necessary to satisfy our capital commitments for firm order aircraft and other related capital expenditures. We can provide no assurance that any financing not already in place for aircraft and spare engine deliveries will be available to us on acceptable terms when necessary or at all.
Non-GAAP Financial Measures
We believe the disclosure of non-GAAP financial measures is useful information to readers of our financial statements because:
We believe it is the basis by which we are evaluated by industry analysts and investors;
These measures are often used in management and board of directors' decision making analysis;
It improves a reader's ability to compare our results to those of other airlines; and
It is consistent with how we present information in our quarterly earnings press releases.
See table below for reconciliation between GAAP consolidated net income to adjusted consolidated net income, including per share amounts (in thousands unless otherwise indicated). The adjustments are described below:
As a result of the Tax Act, we recognized a one-time benefit of $83.0 million in the fourth quarter of 2017 from the estimated impact of the revaluation of deferred tax assets and liabilities. This tax benefit is being excluded from our

35


results as a Special item. We excluded the Tax Act effect (on the financial statements) in order to allow investors to better analyze our core results and allow the information to be presented on a comparative basis to the prior year.
Changes in fair value of derivative contracts, net of tax, are based on market prices for open contracts as of the end of the reporting period. This adjustment includes the unrealized gains and losses on fuel and interest rate derivatives (not designated as hedges) that will settle in future periods and the reversal of prior period unrealized amounts. Excluding the impact of these derivative adjustments allows investors to analyze our core operational performance and compare our results to other airlines in the periods presented below.
Unrealized loss (gain) on foreign debt is based on fluctuations in foreign exchanges rates related to foreign-denominated debt agreements we executed in 2018. We believe that excluding the impact of these amounts helps investors analyze our operational performance and compare our results to other airlines in the periods presented below.
Loss on extinguishment of debt, net of tax, is excluded to allow investors to analyze our core operational performance and compare our results to other airlines in the periods presented below.
Loss (gain) on sale of aircraft is the result of adjustments to the final purchase price for three of our Boeing 767-300 aircraft included in a forward sale agreement we entered into in January 2018 and described below. During the twelve months ended December 31, 2018, we recorded a loss of $0.3 million.
2016 Special Items
An impairment analysis and ultimate charge was triggered by the decision in the fourth quarter of 2016 to exit our Boeing 767-300 fleet in 2018. We estimated the fair value of the owned Boeing 767-300 fleet assets using third party pricing information and quotes from potential buyers, which resulted in a $49.4 million impairment charge.
In 2016, we accrued $34.0 million associated with the tentative agreement with ALPA related to past service (prior to January 1, 2017) and also elected to pay a $4.8 million profit sharing bonus payment to other labor groups related to prior period service.
In connection with the decision to exit the Boeing 767-300 fleet, we negotiated a termination of our Boeing 767-300 maintenance agreement and recorded a $21.0 million charge related to the amount paid to terminate the contract.
2017 Special Items
In August 2017, we terminated the Hawaiian Airlines, Inc. Salaried & IAM Merged Pension Plan (the Merged Plan) and settled a portion of our pilots' other post-retirement medical plan liability. In connection with the reduction of these liabilities we recorded one-time Other nonoperating special charges of $35.2 million related to the Merged Plan termination and $10.4 million related to the other post-retirement (OPEB) medical plan partial settlement.

In April 2017, we executed a sale leaseback transaction with an independent third party for three Boeing 767-300 aircraft. The lease terms for the three aircraft commenced in April 2017 and end between November 2018 and January 2019. During the twelve months ended December 31, 2017, we recorded a loss on sale of aircraft of $4.8 million.

In February 2017, we reached a tentative agreement with ALPA, covering our pilots. In March 2017, we received notice from ALPA that the agreement was ratified by ALPA's members.  The agreement became effective April 1, 2017 and has a term of 63 months.  The agreement includes, among other various benefits, a pay adjustment and ratification bonus computed based on previous service. During the twelve months ended December 31, 2017, we expensed $18.7 million primarily related to a one-time payment to reduce our future 401K employer contribution for certain pilot groups, which is not recoverable once paid.

2018 Contract Terminations Expense
During the twelve months ended December 31, 2018, we terminated two contracts which incurred a total of $35.3 million in contract terminations expense. The transactions are described below:

In February 2018, we exercised our right to terminate our aircraft purchase agreement with Airbus for six Airbus A330-800neo aircraft and the purchase rights for an additional six Airbus A330-800neo aircraft. To terminate the purchase agreement, we were obligated to repay Airbus for concessions received relating to a prior firm order, training credits, as well as forfeit the pre-delivery progress payments made towards the flight equipment. We recorded a contract terminations expense to reflect the termination penalty in our consolidated statements of operations.

36


In January 2018, we entered into a transaction with our lessor to early terminate and purchase three Boeing 767-300 aircraft leases and concurrently entered into a forward sale agreement for the same three Boeing 767-300 aircraft, including two Pratt & Whitney 4060 engines for each aircraft. These aircraft were previously accounted for as operating leases. In order to exit the lease and purchase the aircraft, we agreed to pay a total of $67.1 million (net of all deposits) of which a portion was expensed immediately and recognized as a contract termination fee. The expensed amount represents the total purchase price amount over fair value of the aircraft purchased as of the date of the transaction.

We believe that excluding such special items helps investors analyze our operational performance and compare our results to other airlines in the periods presented below.
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
Total
 
Diluted Per Share
 
Total
 
Diluted Per Share
 
Total
 
Diluted Per Share
 
(in thousands, except for per share data)
GAAP net income, as reported
$
233,200

 
$
4.62

 
$
330,610

 
$
6.19

 
$
224,120

 
$
4.15

Add: impact of tax reform

 

 
(82,978
)
 
(1.55
)
 

 

Add: changes in fair value of derivative contracts
19,973

 
0.39

 
(3,845
)
 
(0.07
)
 
(47,678
)
 
(0.88
)
Add: unrealized loss on foreign debt
380

 
0.01

 

 

 

 

Add: loss on extinguishment of debt

 

 

 

 
10,473

 
0.19

Add: loss on sale of aircraft
309

 
0.01

 

 

 

 

Add: contract terminations expense
35,322

 
0.70

 

 

 

 

Add: special items
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Loss on sale of aircraft

 

 
4,771

 
0.09

 

 

Collective bargaining charge

 

 
18,679

 
0.35

 
38,781

 
0.72

Impairment charge

 

 

 

 
49,361

 
0.92

Termination charge

 

 

 

 
21,000

 
0.39

Nonoperating
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Partial settlement and curtailment loss

 

 
10,384

 
0.19

 

 

Loss on plan termination

 

 
35,201

 
0.66

 

 

Tax effect of adjustments
(14,365
)
 
(0.29
)
 
(23,886
)
 
(0.45
)
 
(27,307
)
 
(0.51
)
Adjusted net income
$
274,819

 
$
5.44

 
$
288,936

 
$
5.41

 
$
268,750

 
$
4.98

Operating Costs per Available Seat Mile (CASM)
We have separately listed in the table below our fuel costs per ASM and non-GAAP unit costs, excluding fuel and special items. These amounts are included in CASM, but for internal purposes we consistently use cost metrics that exclude fuel and special items (if applicable) to measure and monitor its costs.

37


CASM and CASM, excluding fuel, loss on sale of aircraft, contract terminations expense, and special items, are summarized in the table below:
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
(in thousands, except for CASM figures)
GAAP operating expenses
$
2,523,043

 
$
2,211,107

 
$
2,034,926

Less: aircraft fuel, including taxes and delivery
(599,544
)
 
(440,383
)
 
(344,322
)
Less: contract terminations expense
(35,322
)
 

 

Less: loss on sale of aircraft
(309
)
 

 

 Less: special items
 
 
 
 
 
Loss on sale of aircraft

 
(4,771
)
 

Collective bargaining charge

 
(18,679
)
 
(38,781
)
Impairment charge

 

 
(49,361
)
Termination of Boeing 767-300 engine maintenance contract

 

 
(21,000
)
Adjusted operating expenses—excluding aircraft fuel, loss on sale of aircraft, contract terminations expense, and special items
$
1,887,868

 
$
1,747,274

 
$
1,581,462

Available Seat Miles
20,171,911

 
19,006,682

 
18,384,637

CASM—GAAP

12.51
¢
 

11.63
¢
 

11.07
¢
Less: aircraft fuel, including taxes and delivery
(2.97
)
 
(2.32
)
 
(1.87
)
Less: contract terminations expense
(0.18
)
 

 

Less: loss on sale of aircraft
0.00

 

 

Less: special items
 
 
 
 
 
Loss on sale of aircraft

 
(0.02
)
 

Collective bargaining charge

 
(0.10
)
 
(0.21
)
Impairment charge

 

 
(0.28
)
Termination of Boeing 767-300 engine maintenance contract

 

 
(0.11
)
CASM—excluding aircraft fuel, loss on sale of aircraft, contract terminations expense, and special items

9.36
¢
 

9.19
¢
 

8.60
¢
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
The discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations are based upon financial statements that have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles. The preparation of these financial statements requires management to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amount of assets and liabilities, revenue and expenses, and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities as of the date of the financial statements. Actual results could differ from those estimates. 
Critical accounting policies and estimates are defined as those accounting policies and accounting estimates that are reflective of significant judgments and uncertainties, and that potentially result in materially different results under different assumptions and conditions. Our most critical accounting policies and estimates are described below. See the summary of significant accounting policies included in Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements for additional discussion of the application of these estimates and other accounting policies.
Revenue Recognition
We adopted the new revenue standard (ASC 606) as of January 1, 2018, utilizing the full retrospective option. The adoption of the standard has had a significant impact on our financial statements and our critical accounting policies. See Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements for additional information including quantification of the overall impact of adoption.

38



Passenger revenue. We record passenger ticket sales and tickets sold by other airlines for use on Hawaiian as passenger revenue when the transportation is provided or upon scheduled flight for tickets expected to expire unused. The value of unused passenger tickets is included in current liabilities as Air Traffic Liability. Non-refundable tickets generally expire 13 months from the date of flight. We record an estimate of breakage revenue on the scheduled flight date for tickets that will expire unused. These estimates are based on the evaluation of actual historical results and forecasted trends. Ticket change fees are recorded in air traffic liability and recognized when the related transportation is provided.
Frequent flyer revenue. HawaiianMiles, Hawaiian's frequent flyer travel award program, provides a variety of awards to program members based on accumulated mileage. ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, and created Accounting Standards Codification (ASC 606) requires us to account for miles earned by passengers in the HawaiianMiles program through flight activity as a component of the passenger revenue ticket transaction at the estimated selling price of the miles. Ticket consideration received is allocated between the performance obligations, primarily travel and miles earned by passengers. The allocated value of the miles is deferred until the free travel or other award is used by the passenger, at which time it is included in passenger revenue. The value of the ticket used in the determination of the estimated selling price is based on the historical value of equivalent flights to those provided for loyalty awards and the related miles redeemed to obtain that award adjusted for breakage or fulfillment. The equivalent ticket value (ETV) includes a fulfillment discount (breakage) to reflect the value of the award ticket over the number of miles that, based on historical experience, will be needed to obtain the award. On a quarterly basis, we calculate the ETV by analyzing the fares of similar tickets for the prior 12 months, considering cabin class and geographic region.

We also sell mileage credits to companies participating in our frequent flyer program. These contracts generally include multiple performance obligations, including the transportation that will ultimately be provided when the mileage credits are redeemed and marketing and brand related activities.

During the first quarter of 2018, we amended our partnership with Barclaycard US, Hawaiian's co-branded credit card partner. Management determined that the amendment should be accounted for as a termination of the existing contract and the creation of a new contract under ASC 606 and the relative selling price was determined for each performance obligation of the new agreement. The new agreement continues through 2024 and includes improved economics and enhanced product offerings for our Barclay's co-branded cardholders. The amended agreement did not change, and includes the following performance obligations; (i) transportation that will ultimately be provided when mileage credits are redeemed (transportation), (ii) the Hawaiian Airlines brand and access to its members lists (collectively, brand performance), (iii) marketing, and (iv) airline benefits to cardholders, including discounts and anniversary travel benefits, baggage waivers and inflight purchase credits. We determined the relative fair value of each performance obligation by estimating the selling prices of the deliverables by considering discounted cash flows using multiple inputs and assumptions, including: (1) the expected number of miles to be awarded and redeemed; (2) the estimated weighted average equivalent ticket value, adjusted by a fulfillment discount; (3) the estimated total annual cardholder spend; (4) an estimated royalty rate for the Hawaiian portfolio; and (5) the expected use of each of the airline benefits. The overall consideration received is allocated to the performance obligations based on their relative selling prices.

The transportation performance obligation is deferred and recognized as passenger revenue when the transportation is provided. The value to the financial institution is provided each time a new cardholder chooses the Hawaiian branded credit card and each time a cardholder chooses to use the co-branded credit card. Therefore, we recognize revenue for the brand performance obligation as members use their co-brand credit card and the resulting mileage credits are issued to them, which best correlates with our performance toward satisfying the obligation.

Accounting for frequent flyer revenue involves the use of various techniques to estimate revenue. To determine the total estimated transaction price, we forecast future credit card activity based on historical data. The relative selling price is determined using management’s estimated standalone selling price of each performance obligation. The objective of using the estimated selling price based methodology is to determine the price at which we would transact a sale if the product or service were sold on a standalone basis. Accordingly, we determine our best estimate of selling price by considering multiple inputs and methods including, but not limited to, discounted cash flows, brand value, number of miles awarded and number of miles redeemed. We estimate the selling price of miles using an ETV adjusted for a fulfillment discount as described above.

Miles expire after 18 months of member account inactivity. We review our breakage estimates annually based upon the latest available information regarding redemption and expiration patterns (e.g., credit card and non-credit card holders). Our estimate of the expected expiration of miles requires significant management judgment. Current and future changes to expiration assumptions or to the expiration policy, or to program rules and program could affect the estimated value of a mile.

39


Pension and Other Postretirement and Postemployment Benefits
The calculation of pension and other postretirement and postemployment benefit expenses and its corresponding liabilities require the use of significant assumptions, including the assumed discount rate, the expected long-term rate of return on plan assets, expected mortality rates of the plan participants, and the expected health care cost trend rate. Changes in these assumptions will impact the expense and liability amounts, and future actual experience may differ from these assumptions.
The significant assumptions as of December 31, 2018 are as follows:
Pension:
 

 
 
Discount rate to determine projected benefit obligation
4.35
%
 
 
Expected return on plan assets
7.33
%
 
^
Postretirement:
 

 
 
Discount rate to determine projected benefit obligation
4.36
%
 
 
Expected return on plan assets
N/A

 
 
Expected health care cost trend rate:
 

 
 
Initial
6.75
%
 
 
Ultimate
4.75
%
 
 
Years to reach ultimate trend rate
4

 
 
Disability:
 

 
 
Discount rate to determine projected benefit obligation
4.39
%
 
 
Expected return on plan assets
4.90
%
 
^
N/A      Not Applicable
^
Expected return on plan assets used to determine the net periodic benefit expense for 2019 is 6.91% for the pension plans and 4.90% for the disability plan.
The expected long-term rate of return assumption is developed by evaluating input from the trustee managing the plans' assets, including the trustee's review of asset class return expectations by several consultants and economists, as well as long-term inflation assumptions. Our expected long-term rate of return on plan assets is based on a target allocation of assets, which is based on our goal of earning the highest rate of return while maintaining risk at acceptable levels. The Retirement Plan for Pilots of Hawaiian Airlines, Inc. and the Pilot's Voluntary Employee Beneficiary Association Disability and Survivor's Benefit Plan strive to have assets sufficiently diversified so that adverse or unexpected results from any one security class will not have an unduly detrimental impact on the entire portfolio. We believe that our long-term asset allocation on average will approximate the targeted allocation. We periodically review our actual asset allocation and rebalance the pension plan's investments to our targeted allocation when considered appropriate. Pension expense increases as the expected rate of return on plan assets decreases. Lowering the expected long-term rate of return by 100 basis points will have the following effects on our estimated 2019 pension and disability benefit expense recorded in wages and benefits and nonoperating expense:
 
100 Basis Point Decrease
 
(in millions)
Increase in estimated 2019 pension expense
$
3.0

Increase in estimated 2019 disability benefit expense
0.3

We determine the appropriate discount rate for each of our plans based on current rates on high quality corporate bonds that would generate the cash flow necessary to pay plan benefits when due. The pension and other postretirement benefit liabilities and future expense both increase as the discount rate is reduced. Lowering the discount rate by 100 basis points would have the following effects:

40


 
100 Basis Point Decrease
 
(in millions)
Increase in pension obligation as of December 31, 2018
$
46.8

Increase in other postretirement benefit obligation as of December 31, 2018
15.0

Decrease in estimated 2019 pension expense (operating and nonoperating)
(0.3
)
Increase in estimated 2019 other postretirement benefit expense (operating and nonoperating)
1.2

The health care cost trend rate is based upon an evaluation of our historical trends and experience taking into account current and expected market conditions. Changes in the assumed current health care cost trend rate by year by 100 basis points would have the following annual effects:
 
100 Basis Point Increase
 
(in millions)
Increase in other postretirement benefit obligation as of December 31, 2018
$
8.0

Increase in estimated 2019 other postretirement benefit expense (operating and nonoperating)
1.0

 
100 Basis Point Decrease
 
(in millions)
Decrease in other postretirement benefit obligation as of December 31, 2018
$
(6.9
)
Increase in estimated 2019 other postretirement benefit expense (operating and nonoperating)
1.2


In 2017, we recognized a one-time Other nonoperating special item expense of $10.4 million related to the settlement of a portion of our pilots' other post-retirement medical plan liability, pursuant to which the parties agreed to eliminate the post-65 post-retirement medical benefit for all active pilots and to replace the benefit with a health retirement account (HRA) managed by ALPA. We evaluated the accounting for the transaction in accordance with ASC 715-60 Compensation-Retirement Benefits - Defined Benefit Plans-Other Postretirement, and determined that it represented a curtailment and partial settlement of the pilots' other post-retirement benefit plan.
Long-Lived Assets
Long-lived assets used in operations, consisting principally of property and equipment. Depreciable life is determined through economic analysis, such as reviewing existing fleet plans, obtaining appraisals and comparing estimated lives to other airlines that operate similar fleets. Residual values are estimated based on historical experience and are based on when the aircraft are acquired and typically reflect asset values that have not reached the end of their physical life.
When testing for impairment management considers market trends, the expected useful lives of the assets, changes in economic conditions, recent transactions involving sales of similar assets and, if necessary, estimates of future undiscounted cash flows. To determine whether impairment exists for aircraft used in operations, assets are grouped at the fleet-type level (the lowest level for which there are identifiable cash flows) and future cash flows are estimated based on projections of capacity, passenger mile yield, fuel costs, labor costs and other relevant factors. If, at any time, management determines the net carrying value of an asset is not recoverable, the amount is reduced to its fair value during the period in which such determination is made. Any changes in the estimated useful lives of these assets will be accounted for prospectively.
The impairment analysis and ultimate charge in 2016 was triggered by the decision in the fourth quarter of 2016 to exit the Boeing 767-300 fleet in 2018. The early exit of the Boeing 767-300 fleet was made possible by our decision to acquire one Airbus A330 (delivered in 2017), lease two additional Airbus A321s (to be delivered in 2018 in addition to our existing aircraft orders), and our ability to early terminate our long-term power-by-the-hour maintenance contract for the Boeing 767-300 fleet. This fleet change allows us to streamline our fleet, simplify our operations, and reduce our cost structure in the future. In order to assess whether there was an impairment of the Boeing 767-300 asset group, we compared the projected undiscounted cash flows of the fleet to the book value of the assets and determined the book value was in excess of the undiscounted cash flows. We estimated the fair value of our owned Boeing 767-300 fleet assets using third party pricing information and quotes from potential buyers of our owned aircraft, which resulted in a $49.4 million impairment charge. Our determination of fair value considered attributes specific to our Boeing 767-300 fleet and aircraft condition (e.g. age, maintenance requirements, cycles, etc.). The Boeing 767-300 asset group consisted of both owned and leased (at the time of the assessment) aircraft.

Income Taxes

41


The Tax Act, enacted in December 2017, significantly changed existing U.S. tax law and reduces the U.S. federal corporate tax from 35% to 21%. We recognized a one-time benefit of $83.0 million during the year ended December 31, 2017 from the impact of the revaluation of deferred tax assets and liabilities. During the year ended December 31, 2018, we completed our accounting for the effects of the Tax Act and recorded an additional tax benefit of $9.3 million, primarily related to deductions for additional pension contributions made in 2018 for the 2017 Plan year.
 

42


ITEM 7A.    QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK.
We are subject to certain market risks, including commodity price risk (i.e. jet fuel prices) and foreign currency risk. We have market-sensitive instruments in the form of financial derivatives used to offset Hawaiian's exposure to jet fuel price increases, and financial hedge instruments used to hedge Hawaiian's exposure to foreign currency exchange risk. The adverse effects of potential changes in these market risks are discussed below.
The sensitivity analyses presented do not consider the effects that such adverse changes may have on overall economic activity nor do they consider additional actions we might undertake to mitigate our exposure to such changes. Actual results may differ.
Aircraft Fuel
Aircraft fuel costs constitute a significant portion of our operating expense. Fuel costs represented 24% of our operating expenses for the year ended December 31, 2018. Approximately 71% of our fuel is based on Singapore jet fuel prices, 26% is based on U.S. West Coast jet fuel prices, and 3% on other jet fuel prices. We periodically enter into derivative financial instruments to manage our exposure to changes in the price of jet fuel. As of December 31, 2018, we hedged approximately 34% of our projected fuel requirements for 2019. As of December 31, 2018, the fair value of these fuel derivative agreements reflected a net asset of $1.6 million that is recorded as prepaid assets in the Consolidated Balance Sheets. Based on gallons expected to be consumed in 2019, for every one cent increase in the cost of a gallon of jet fuel, our annual fuel expense would increase by approximately $2.7 million.
We expect to continue our program of offsetting some of our exposure to future changes in the price of jet fuel with a combination of fixed forward pricing contracts, swaps, puts and other option-based structures.
We continue to believe that our fuel derivative program is an important part of our strategy to reduce our exposure to volatile fuel prices. We expect to continue to enter into these types of contracts prospectively, although significant changes in market conditions could affect our decisions. For more discussion, see Note 6 to our consolidated financial statements.
Interest Rates
We have exposure to market risk associated with changes in interest rates related to our pre-tax earnings and cash flows associated with our interest-bearing cash equivalent accounts and short-term investments. Based on the balances of our cash and cash equivalents, and short-term investments as of December 31, 2018, a change in interest rates is unlikely to have a material impact on our results of operations.
Our variable-rate debt agreements include the Revolving Credit Facility and secured loan agreements, the terms of which are discussed in Note 8 to our consolidated financial statements. At December 31, 2018, we had $720.3 million of fixed-rate debt including capital lease obligations, facility agreements for aircraft purchases, and the outstanding notes related to the aircraft purchase financing. As of December 31, 2018, we have no variable-rate debt. An increase of 100 basis points in average annual interest rates would have decreased the estimated fair value of our fixed-rate long-term debt by $6.9 million at December 31, 2018.
Foreign Currency
We have exposure to market risk associated with changes in foreign currency exchange rates because we generate sales, incur expenses, and have debt denominated and paid in foreign currencies, predominantly in Japanese Yen and to a lesser extent, the Australian Dollar.
To mitigate the exchange rate risk, we transact our international sales and expenditures in the same foreign currency, to the extent practical. Additionally, our Yen denominated debt serves as a natural hedge against the volatility of exchange rates against cash inflows. We also have an established foreign currency derivative program, where we periodically enter into foreign currency forward contracts. At December 31, 2018, the fair value of our foreign currency forwards reflected a net asset of $3.2 million ($2.9 million and $0.3 million recorded in Prepaid expenses and other (short-term) and Long-term prepayments and other (long-term), respectively) in the consolidated balance sheet.
Based on forecasted transactions in foreign currency, a 10% depreciation in the U.S. dollar, relative to the Japanese Yen and Australian Dollar, would result in a decrease in annual net income, net of the impact of foreign currency hedges, of approximately $21.9 million.

43


ITEM 8.    FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA.
INDEX TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

44


REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
To the Shareholders and the Board of Directors of Hawaiian Holdings, Inc.

Opinion on the Financial Statements

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Hawaiian Holdings, Inc. (the Company) as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, and the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive income, shareholders' equity, and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2018, and the related notes and financial statement schedules listed in the Index at Item 15(a) (collectively referred to as the “financial statements”). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the consolidated financial position of the Company at December 31, 2018 and 2017, and the consolidated results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2018, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.

We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB, the Company's internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2018, based on criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (2013 framework) and our report dated February 13, 2019 expressed an unqualified opinion thereon.

Adoption of ASU No. 2014-09

As discussed in Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company retrospectively changed its method of accounting for recognizing revenue as a result of the adoption of Accounting Standards Update (ASU) No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606), and the amendments in ASUs 2015-14, 2016-08, 2016-10 and 2016-12 effective January 1, 2016.

Basis for Opinion

These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
 
/s/ ERNST & YOUNG LLP
 
 

We have served as the Company's auditor since 1999.
Honolulu, Hawai‘i
February 13, 2019

45



Hawaiian Holdings, Inc.
Consolidated Statements of Operations
For the Years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016
 
2018
 
2017 (a)
 
2016 (a)
 
(in thousands, except per share data)
Operating Revenue:
 

 
 

 
 

Passenger
$
2,602,793

 
$
2,486,827