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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-Q
(Mark One)
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2022
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from           to             
Commission File Number 001-32335
___________________________
HALOZYME THERAPEUTICS, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
___________________________
Delaware 88-0488686
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization) (I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
11388 Sorrento Valley Road 92121
San Diego(Zip Code)
California
(Address of principal executive offices) 
(858) 794-8889
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $0.001 par valueHALOThe Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes x    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes  x    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company”, and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.:
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer  
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No  x
The number of outstanding shares of the registrant’s common stock, par value $0.001 per share, was 137,949,680 as of May 4, 2022.




HALOZYME THERAPEUTICS, INC.
INDEX
 
  Page
Item 1.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Item 5.
Item 6.
2


Summary of Risk Factors
Our business is subject to a number of risks and uncertainties, including those described in the section labeled “Risk Factors” in “Part I, Item 2, Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” of this Quarterly Report. These risks include the following:
Risks Related To Our Business
Business interruptions resulting from the COVID-19 outbreak or similar public health crises could cause a disruption of the development of our collaboration partners’ product candidates and commercialization of approved products, impede our ability to supply bulk rHuPH20 to our partners or procure and sell Hylenex and otherwise adversely impact our business and results of operations.
If partners’ product candidates do not receive and maintain regulatory approvals, or if approvals are not obtained in a timely manner, such failure or delay would substantially impair our ability to generate revenues.
Use of Hylenex and the products and product candidates of our partners’ could be associated with side effects or adverse events.
If our contract manufacturers or vendors are unable to manufacture and supply to us bulk rHuPH20 or other raw materials, reagents or components in the quantity and quality required by us or our collaborators for use in the production of Hylenex or our partners’ products and product candidates, our Hylenex commercialization efforts or our partners’ product development and commercialization efforts could be delayed or stopped and our business results of operations and our collaborations could be harmed.
If we or any party to a key collaboration agreement fail to perform material obligations under such agreement, or if a key collaboration agreement, is terminated for any reason, our business could significantly suffer.
Hylenex and our partners’ products and product candidates rely on the rHuPH20 enzyme, and any adverse development regarding rHuPH20 could substantially impact multiple areas of our business, including current and potential collaborations, as well as any proprietary programs.
Our business strategy and our strategic focus is currently limited to only a few fields or applications of our technology which may increase the risk for potential negative impact from adverse developments. Future expansion of our strategic focus to additional applications of our technology may require the use of additional resources, result in increased expense and ultimately may not be successful.
Our collaboration product candidates may not receive regulatory approvals or their development may be delayed for a variety of reasons, including delayed or unsuccessful clinical trials, regulatory requirements or safety concerns.
Our third party collaborators are responsible for providing certain proprietary materials that are essential components of our collaboration products and product candidates, and any failure to supply these materials could delay the development and commercialization efforts for these collaboration products and product candidates and/or damage our collaborations.
If we or our collaborators fail to comply with regulatory requirements applicable to promotion, sale and manufacturing of approved products, regulatory agencies may take action against us or them, which could significantly harm our business.
Failure to complete the acquisition of Antares, or once completed, failure to successfully integrate the Antares business, could adversely impact our stock price and future business and operations.
We may need to raise additional capital in the future and there can be no assurance that we will be able to obtain such funds.
We currently have significant debt and expect to incur additional debt. Failure by us to fulfill our obligations under the applicable debt agreements may cause the repayment obligations to accelerate.
The conditional conversion feature of the Convertible Notes, if triggered, may adversely affect our financial condition and operating results.
Conversion of our Convertible Notes may dilute the ownership interest of existing stockholders or may otherwise depress the price of our common stock.
3


Our ability to license our ENHANZE technology to our collaboration partners depends on the validity of our patents and other proprietary rights.
Developing and marketing pharmaceutical products for human use involves significant product liability risks for which we currently have limited insurance coverage.
If our collaborators do not achieve projected development, clinical, or regulatory goals in the timeframes publicly announced or otherwise expected, the commercialization of our collaboration products may be delayed and, as a result, our stock price may decline, and we may face lawsuits relating to such declines.
Future acquisitions, including our planned acquisition of Antares, could disrupt our business and harm our financial condition.
Our effective tax rate may fluctuate, and we may incur obligations in tax jurisdictions in excess of accrued amounts.

Risks Related To Ownership of Our Common Stock
Our stock price is subject to significant volatility.
Future transactions where we raise capital may negatively affect our stock price.
Anti-takeover provisions in our charter documents, the Indentures and Delaware law may make an acquisition of us more difficult.
Risks Related to Our Industry
Our partners’ products must receive regulatory approval before they can be sold, and compliance with the extensive government regulations is expensive and time consuming and may result in the delay or cancellation of collaboration product sales, introductions or modifications.
We may be subject, directly or indirectly, to various broad federal and state healthcare laws. If we are unable to comply, or have not fully complied, with such laws, we could face civil, criminal and administrative penalties, damages, monetary fines, disgorgement, possible exclusion from participation in Medicare, Medicaid and other federal healthcare programs, contractual damages, reputational harm, diminished profits and future earnings and curtailment or restructuring of our operations, any of which could adversely affect our ability to operate.
We may be required to initiate or defend against legal proceedings related to intellectual property rights, which may result in substantial expense, delay and/or cessation of the development and commercialization of our products.
Patent protection for protein-based therapeutic products and other biotechnology inventions is subject to a great deal of uncertainty, and if patent laws or the interpretation of patent laws change, our competitors may be able to develop and commercialize products based on our discoveries.
If third party reimbursement and customer contracts are not available, Hylenex and our partners’ products may not be accepted in the market resulting in commercial performance below that which was expected or projected.
The rising cost of healthcare and related pharmaceutical product pricing has led to cost containment pressures from third-party payers as well as changes in federal coverage and reimbursement policies and practices that could cause us and our partners to sell our products at lower prices, and impact access to our and our partners’ products, resulting in less revenue to us.
We face intense competition and rapid technological change that could result in the development of products by others that are competitive with or superior to our proprietary and collaboration products, including those under development.

General Risks
Our inability to attract, hire and retain key management and scientific personnel could negatively affect our business.
Our operations might be interrupted by the occurrence of a natural disaster or other catastrophic event.
Cyberattacks, security breaches or system breakdowns may disrupt our operations and harm our operating results and reputation.
4


PART I — FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Item 1.     Financial Statements
HALOZYME THERAPEUTICS, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(Unaudited)
(In thousands, except per share amounts)
March 31,
2022
December 31,
2021
ASSETS
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$117,835 $118,719 
Marketable securities, available-for-sale668,305 622,203 
Accounts receivable, net113,762 90,975 
Inventories47,761 53,908 
Prepaid expenses and other assets41,026 40,482 
Total current assets988,689 926,287 
Property and equipment, net8,513 8,794 
Prepaid expenses and other assets22,038 13,414 
Deferred tax assets, net142,508 155,434 
Restricted cash500 500 
Total assets$1,162,248 $1,104,429 
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
Current liabilities:
Accounts payable$1,266 $1,541 
Accrued expenses19,133 24,441 
Deferred revenue, current portion1,746 1,746 
Current portion of long-term debt, net89,546 89,419 
Total current liabilities111,691 117,147 
Deferred revenue, net of current portion2,031 2,530 
Long-term debt, net788,099 787,255 
Other long-term liabilities171 544 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 10)
Stockholders’ equity:
Preferred stock - $0.001 par value; 20,000 shares authorized; no shares
     issued and outstanding
  
Common stock - $0.001 par value; 300,000 shares authorized; 137,888 and 137,498 shares issued and outstanding at March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively
138 138 
Additional paid-in capital261,713 256,347 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(2,791)(620)
Accumulated income (deficit)1,196 (58,912)
Total stockholders’ equity260,256 196,953 
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity$1,162,248 $1,104,429 
See accompanying notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.
5


HALOZYME THERAPEUTICS, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF INCOME
(Unaudited)
(In thousands, except per share amounts)

Three Months Ended
 March 31,
 20222021
Revenues:
Royalties$69,605 $36,923 
Product sales, net22,140 21,766 
Revenues under collaborative agreements25,534 30,333 
Total revenues117,279 89,022 
Operating expenses:
Cost of product sales15,922 18,219 
Research and development11,853 9,009 
Selling, general and administrative13,834 11,059 
Total operating expenses41,609 38,287 
Operating income75,670 50,735 
Other income (expense):
Investment and other income, net498 276 
Inducement expense related to convertible notes (20,960)
Interest expense(1,759)(1,965)
Net income before income taxes74,409 28,086 
Income tax expense14,301 191 
Net income$60,108 $27,895 
Net income per share:
Basic$0.44 $0.20 
Diluted$0.43 $0.19 
Shares used in computing net income per share:
Basic137,658 137,952 
Diluted141,277 148,540 
See accompanying notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.
6


HALOZYME THERAPEUTICS, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
(Unaudited)
(In thousands)
Three Months Ended
 March 31,
20222021
Net income$60,108 $27,895 
Other comprehensive income:
Unrealized loss on marketable securities(2,171)(83)
Foreign currency translation adjustment 35 
Unrealized gain on foreign currency 17 
Total comprehensive income$57,937 $27,864 
See accompanying notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.
7


HALOZYME THERAPEUTICS, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(Unaudited)
(In thousands)
Three Months Ended
March 31,
 20222021
Operating activities:
Net income$60,108 $27,895 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by (used) in operating activities:
Share-based compensation4,742 4,923 
Depreciation and amortization778 738 
Amortization of debt discount971 741 
Accretion of discounts on marketable securities, net541 351 
Loss on disposal of equipment80  
Recognition of deferred revenue (499) 
Lease payments deferred(183)(203)
Induced conversion expense related to convertible notes 20,960 
Deferred income taxes (benefits from valuation allowance release)12,926  
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
Accounts receivable, net and other contract assets(22,787)9,339 
Inventories6,298 2,513 
Prepaid expenses and other assets(9,168)(2,335)
Accounts payable and accrued expenses(6,010)(6,626)
Net cash provided by operating activities47,797 58,296 
Investing activities:
Purchases of marketable securities(184,815)(120,980)
Proceeds from maturities of marketable securities136,000 76,000 
Purchases of property and equipment(490)(270)
Net cash used in investing activities(49,305)(45,250)
Financing activities:
Proceeds from issuance of long-term debt, net 784,875 
Repayment of long-term debt (369,064)
Payment of debt issuance cost (329)
Repurchase of common stock (76,179)
Proceeds from issuance of common stock under equity incentive plans, net of taxes paid related to net share settlement624 (602)
Net cash provided by financing activities624 338,701 
Net increase (decrease) in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash(884)351,747 
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at beginning of period119,219 148,203 
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at end of period$118,335 $499,950 
Supplemental disclosure of non-cash investing and financing activities:
Amounts accrued for purchases of property and equipment$309 $288 
Right-of-use assets obtained in exchange for lease obligation$ $179 
Debt issuances cost included in accounts payable$ $95 
Common stock issued for induced conversion related to convertible notes$ $7,865 
See accompanying notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.
8


HALOZYME THERAPEUTICS, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
(Unaudited) (in thousands)
Three Months Ended March 31, 2022
 Common StockAdditional
Paid-In
Capital
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive Income/(Loss)
Accumulated
Deficit
Total
Stockholders’
Equity
 SharesAmount
BALANCE AS OF DECEMBER 31, 2021137,498 $138 $256,347 $(620)$(58,912)$196,953 
Share-based compensation expense— — 4,742 — — 4,742 
Issuance of common stock pursuant to exercise of stock options and vesting of restricted stock units, net390  624 — — 624 
Other comprehensive loss— — — (2,171)— (2,171)
Net income— — — — 60,108 60,108 
BALANCE AS OF MARCH 31, 2022137,888 $138 $261,713 $(2,791)$1,196 $260,256 
Three Months Ended March 31, 2021
 Common StockAdditional
Paid-In
Capital
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive Income/(Loss)
Accumulated
Deficit
Total
Stockholders’
Equity
 SharesAmount
BALANCE AS OF DECEMBER 31, 2020135,030 $135 $625,483 $22 $(474,593)$151,047 
Adjustment to beginning accumulated deficit — — (65,535)— 12,973 (52,562)
Share-based compensation expense— — 4,923 — — 4,923 
Issuance of common stock for the induced conversion related to convertible notes9,083 9 13,095 13,104 
Issuance of common stock pursuant to exercise of stock options and vesting of restricted stock units, net563  (602)— — (602)
Repurchase of common stock(1,296)(1)(76,178)(76,179)
Other comprehensive loss— — — (31)— (31)
Net income— — — — 27,895 27,895 
BALANCE AS OF MARCH 31, 2021143,380 $143 $501,186 $(9)$(433,725)$67,595 
See accompanying notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.
9



HALOZYME THERAPEUTICS, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(Unaudited)
1. Organization and Business
Halozyme Therapeutics, Inc. is a biopharma technology platform company that provides innovative and disruptive solutions with the goal of improving patient experience and outcomes. Our proprietary enzyme, rHuPH20, is used to facilitate the delivery of injected drugs and fluids. We license our technology to biopharmaceutical companies to collaboratively develop products that combine our ENHANZE® drug delivery technology with the collaborators’ proprietary compounds.
Our approved product and our collaborators’ approved products and product candidates are based on rHuPH20, our patented recombinant human hyaluronidase enzyme. rHuPH20 is the active ingredient in our first commercially approved product, Hylenex® recombinant, (“Hylenex”), and it works by breaking down hyaluronan (or “HA”), a naturally occurring carbohydrate that is a major component of the extracellular matrix in tissues throughout the body such as skin and cartilage. This temporarily increases dispersion and absorption allowing for improved subcutaneous delivery of injectable biologics, such as monoclonal antibodies and other large therapeutic molecules, as well as small molecules and fluids. We refer to the application of rHuPH20 to facilitate the delivery of other drugs or fluids as our ENHANZE® drug delivery technology (“ENHANZE”). We license the ENHANZE technology to form collaborations with biopharmaceutical companies that develop or market drugs requiring or benefiting from injection via the subcutaneous route of administration. In the development of proprietary intravenous (IV) drugs combined with our ENHANZE technology, data have been generated supporting the potential for ENHANZE to reduce treatment burden, as a result of shorter duration of subcutaneous (SC) administration. ENHANZE may enable fixed-dose SC dosing compared to weight-based dosing required for IV administration, and potentially allow for lower rates of infusion related reactions. ENHANZE may enable more flexible treatment options such as home administration by a healthcare professional or potentially the patient. Lastly, certain proprietary drugs co-formulated with ENHANZE have been granted additional exclusivity, extending the patent life of the product beyond the one of the proprietary IV drug.
We currently have ENHANZE collaborations with F. Hoffmann-La Roche, Ltd. and Hoffmann-La Roche, Inc. (“Roche”), Baxalta US Inc. and Baxalta GmbH (members of the Takeda group of companies) (“Baxalta”), Pfizer Inc. (“Pfizer”), Janssen Biotech, Inc. (“Janssen”), AbbVie, Inc. (“AbbVie”), Eli Lilly and Company (“Lilly”), Bristol-Myers Squibb Company (“BMS”), Alexion Pharma International Operations Unlimited Company (an indirect wholly owned subsidiary of AstraZeneca PLC (“Alexion”), argenx BVBA (“argenx”), Horizon Therapeutics plc. (“Horizon”), ViiV Healthcare (the global specialist HIV Company majority owned by GlaxoSmithKline) (“ViiV”) and Chugai Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd (Chugai). We receive royalties from three of these collaborations, including royalties from sales of one product from the Baxalta collaboration, three products from the Roche collaboration and one product from the Janssen collaboration. Future potential revenues from royalties and fees from ENHANZE collaborations and the sales and/or royalties of our approved products will depend on the ability of Halozyme and our collaborators to develop, manufacture, secure and maintain regulatory approvals for approved products and product candidates and commercialize product candidates.
Except where specifically noted or the context otherwise requires, references to “Halozyme,” “the Company,” “we,” “our,” and “us” in these notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements refer to Halozyme Therapeutics, Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiary, Halozyme, Inc., and Halozyme, Inc.’s wholly owned subsidiaries, Halozyme Switzerland GmbH and Halozyme Switzerland Holdings GmbH.
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2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying interim unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with United States generally accepted accounting principles (“U.S. GAAP”) and with the rules and regulations of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) related to a quarterly report on Form 10-Q. Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and disclosures required by U.S. GAAP for a complete set of financial statements. These interim unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and notes thereto should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021, filed with the SEC on February 22, 2022. The unaudited financial information for the interim periods presented herein reflects all adjustments which, in the opinion of management, are necessary for a fair presentation of the financial condition and results of operations for the periods presented, with such adjustments consisting only of normal recurring adjustments. Operating results for interim periods are not necessarily indicative of the operating results for an entire fiscal year.
The accompanying interim unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Halozyme Therapeutics, Inc. and our wholly owned subsidiary, Halozyme, Inc., and Halozyme, Inc.’s wholly owned subsidiaries, Halozyme Switzerland GmbH and Halozyme Switzerland Holdings GmbH. All intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of interim unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“U.S. GAAP”) requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in our interim unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. On an ongoing basis, we evaluate our estimates and judgments, which are based on historical and anticipated results and trends and on various other assumptions that management believes to be reasonable under the circumstances. By their nature, estimates are subject to an inherent degree of uncertainty and, as such, actual results may differ from management’s estimates.
Cash Equivalents and Marketable Securities
Cash equivalents consist of highly liquid investments, readily convertible to cash, that mature within ninety days or less from the date of purchase. As of March 31, 2022, our cash equivalents consisted of money market funds and treasury bills.
Marketable securities are investments with original maturities of more than ninety days from the date of purchase that are specifically identified to fund current operations. Marketable securities are considered available-for-sale. These investments are classified as current assets, even though the stated maturity date may be one year or more beyond the current balance sheet date which reflects management’s intention to use the proceeds from the sale of these investments to fund our operations, as necessary. Such available-for-sale investments are carried at fair value with unrealized gains and losses recorded in other comprehensive income (loss) and included as a separate component of stockholders’ equity. The cost of marketable securities is adjusted for amortization of premiums or accretion of discounts to maturity, and such amortization or accretion is included in investment and other income, net in the interim unaudited condensed consolidated statements of operations. We use the specific identification method for calculating realized gains and losses on marketable securities sold. None of the realized gains and losses and declines in value judged to be as a result of credit loss on marketable securities, if any, are included in investment and other income, net in the interim unaudited condensed consolidated statements of operations.
Restricted Cash
Under the terms of the leases of our facilities, we are required to maintain letters of credit as security deposits during the terms of such leases. At March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, restricted cash of $0.5 million was pledged as collateral for the letters of credit.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The authoritative guidance for fair value measurements establishes a three-tier fair value hierarchy, which prioritizes the inputs used in measuring fair value. These tiers include: Level 1, defined as observable inputs such as quoted prices in active markets; Level 2, defined as inputs other than quoted prices in active markets that are either directly or indirectly observable; and Level 3, defined as unobservable inputs in which little or no market data exists, therefore requiring an entity to develop its own assumptions.
11


Our financial instruments include cash equivalents, available-for-sale marketable securities, accounts receivable, prepaid expenses and other assets, accounts payable, accrued expenses and long-term debt. Fair value estimates of these instruments are made at a specific point in time, based on relevant market information. These estimates may be subjective in nature and involve uncertainties and matters of significant judgment and therefore cannot be determined with precision. The carrying amount of cash equivalents, accounts receivable, prepaid expenses and other assets, accounts payable and accrued expenses are generally considered to be representative of their respective fair values because of the short-term nature of those instruments.
Available-for-sale marketable securities consist of asset-backed securities, corporate debt securities, U.S. Treasury securities and commercial paper, and are measured at fair value using Level 1 and Level 2 inputs. Level 2 financial instruments are valued using market prices on less active markets and proprietary pricing valuation models with observable inputs, including interest rates, yield curves, maturity dates, issue dates, settlement dates, reported trades, broker-dealer quotes, issue spreads, benchmark securities or other market related data. We obtain the fair value of Level 2 investments from our investment manager, who obtains these fair values from a third-party pricing source. We validate the fair values of Level 2 financial instruments provided by our investment manager by comparing these fair values to a third-party pricing source.
Inventories
Inventories are stated at lower of cost or net realizable value. Cost is determined on a first-in, first-out basis. Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less reasonably predictable costs of completion, disposal, and transportation. Inventories are reviewed periodically for potential excess, dated or obsolete status. We evaluate the carrying value of inventories on a regular basis, taking into account such factors as historical and anticipated future sales compared to quantities on hand, the price we expect to obtain for products in their respective markets compared with historical cost and the remaining shelf life of goods on hand.
As of March 31, 2022, and December 31, 2021, inventories consisted of $2.4 million and $1.6 million, respectively, of Hylenex inventory, net and $45.4 million and $52.3 million, respectively, of bulk rHuPH20.
Leases
The Company has entered into operating leases primarily for real estate and automobiles. These leases have terms which range from 3 years to 8 years. We determine if an arrangement contains a lease at inception. Right of use (“ROU”) assets and liabilities resulting from operating leases are included in property and equipment, accrued expenses and other long-term liabilities on our condensed consolidated balance sheets. Operating lease ROU assets and liabilities are recognized based on the present value of the future minimum lease payments over the lease term at commencement date. As most of our leases do not provide an implicit rate, we use our incremental borrowing rate based on the information available at commencement date in determining the discount rate to calculate the present value of future payments. The operating lease ROU asset also includes any lease payments made and excludes lease incentives and initial direct costs incurred. Our leases often include options to extend or terminate the lease. These options are included in the lease term when it is reasonably certain that we will exercise that option. Short-term leases with an initial term of 12 months or less are not recorded on the balance sheet. Lease expense for minimum lease payments is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
We have lease agreements with lease and non-lease components, which are generally accounted for separately. For certain equipment leases, such as automobiles, we account for the lease and non-lease components as a single lease component.
In March 2022, we entered into an agreement for assignment and assumption of lease with Seismic Software, Inc. pursuant to which effective January 1, 2023, we will assume Seismic’s office lease, as amended with Kilroy Realty L.P. for approximately 72,534 square feet of space in office and research facilities which is expected to commence on January 1, 2023. The premises are intended to serve as our new headquarters.
Revenue Recognition
We generate revenues from payments received under collaborative agreements and product sales. We recognize revenue when we transfer promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which we expect to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. To determine revenue recognition for contracts with customers we perform the following five steps: (i) identify the promised goods or services in the contract; (ii) identify the performance obligations in the contract, including whether they are distinct in the context of the contract; (iii) determine the transaction price, including the constraint on variable consideration; (iv) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and (v) recognize revenue when (or as) we satisfy the performance obligations.
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Revenues under Collaborative Agreements
Under these agreements, we grant the collaboration partner a worldwide license to develop and commercialize products using our ENHANZE technology to combine our patented rHuPH20 enzyme with their proprietary biologics directed at up to a specified number of targets. Targets are usually licensed on an exclusive, global basis. Targets selected subsequent to inception of the arrangement require payment of an additional license fee. The collaboration partner is responsible for all development, manufacturing, clinical, regulatory, sales and marketing costs for any products developed under the agreement. We are responsible for supply of bulk rHuPH20 based on the collaboration partner’s purchase orders and may also be separately engaged to perform research and development services. While these collaboration agreements are similar in that they originate from the same framework, each one is the result of an arms-length negotiation and thus may vary from one to the other.
We collect an upfront license payment from collaboration partners and are also entitled to receive event-based payments subject to collaboration partners’ achievement of specified development, regulatory and sales-based milestones. In several agreements, collaboration partners pay us annual fees to maintain their exclusive license rights if they are unable to advance product development to specified stages. We earn separate fees for bulk rHuPH20 supplies and research and development services. In addition, collaboration partners will pay us royalties at an on average mid-single digit percent rate of their sales if products under the collaboration are commercialized. All amounts owed to us are noncancelable after the underlying triggering event occurs, and nonrefundable once paid. Unless terminated earlier in accordance with its terms, collaborations generally continue in effect until the last to expire royalty payment term, as determined on a product by product and on a country by country basis, with each royalty term starting on the first commercial sale of that product and ending the later of: (i) a specified period or term set forth in the agreement or (ii) expiration of the last to expire of the valid claims of our patents covering rHuPH20 or other specified patents developed under the collaboration which valid claim covers a product developed under the collaboration. When there are no valid claims during the applicable royalty term in a given country, the royalty rate is reduced for those sales. Collaboration partners may terminate the agreement prior to expiration for any reason in its entirety or on a target-by-target basis generally upon 90 days prior written notice to us. Upon any such termination, the license granted to collaboration partners (in total or with respect to the terminated target, as applicable) will terminate provided, however, that in the event of expiration of the agreement (as opposed to a termination), the on-going licenses granted will become perpetual, non-exclusive and fully paid.
Although these agreements are in form identified as collaborative agreements, we concluded for accounting purposes they represent contracts with customers and are not subject to accounting literature on collaborative arrangements. This is because we grant to collaboration partners licenses to our intellectual property and provide supply of bulk rHuPH20 and research and development services which are all outputs of our ongoing activities, in exchange for consideration. Under these collaborative agreements, we do not develop assets jointly with collaboration partners, and do not share in significant risks of their development or commercialization activities. Accordingly, we concluded our collaborative agreements are appropriately accounted for pursuant to ASC Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers.
Under all of our collaborative agreements, we have identified licenses to use functional intellectual property as the only performance obligation. The intellectual property underlying the license is our proprietary ENHANZE technology which represents application of rHuPH20 to facilitate delivery of drugs or fluids. Each of the licenses grants the collaboration partners rights to use our intellectual property as it exists and is identified on the effective date of the license, because there is no ongoing development of the ENHANZE technology required. Therefore, we recognize revenue from licenses at the point when the license becomes effective and the collaboration partner has received access to our intellectual property, usually at the inception of the agreement.
When collaboration partners can select additional targets to add to the licenses granted, we consider these rights to be options. We evaluate whether such options contain material rights, i.e. have exercise prices that are discounted compared to what we would charge for a similar license to a new collaboration partner. The exercise price of these options includes a combination of the target selection fees, event-based milestone payments and royalties. When these amounts in aggregate are not offered at a discount that exceeds discounts available to other customers, we conclude the option does not contain a material right, and we consider grants of additional licensing rights upon option exercises to be separate contracts (target selection contracts).
We provide customary indemnification and protection of licensed intellectual property for our customers. These provisions are part of assurance that the licenses meet the agreements’ representations and are not obligations to provide goods or services.
We also fulfill purchase orders for supply of bulk rHuPH20 and perform research and development services pursuant to projects authorization forms for our collaboration partners, which represent separate contracts. Additionally, we price our supply of bulk rHuPH20 and research and development services at our regular selling prices, called standalone selling price or (“SSP”). Therefore, our collaboration partners do not have material rights to order these items at prices not reflective of SSP. Refer to the discussion below regarding recognition of revenue for these separate contracts.
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Transaction price for a contract represents the amount to which we are entitled in exchange for providing goods and services to the customer. Transaction price does not include amounts subject to uncertainties unless it is probable that there will be no significant reversal of revenue when the uncertainty is resolved. Apart from the upfront license payment (or target selection fees in the target selection contracts), all other fees we may earn under our collaborative agreements are subject to significant uncertainties of product development. Achievement of many of the event-based development and regulatory milestones may not be probable until such milestones are actually achieved. This generally relates to milestones such as obtaining marketing authorization approvals. With respect to other development milestones, e.g. dosing of a first patient in a clinical trial, achievement could be considered probable prior to its actual occurrence, based on the progress towards commencement of the trial. In order to evaluate progress towards commencement of a trial, we assess the status of activities leading up to our collaboration partner’s initiation of a trial such as feedback received from the applicable regulatory authorities, completion of IND or equivalent filings, readiness and availability of drug, readiness of study sites and our collaboration partner’s commitment of resources to the program. We do not include any amounts subject to uncertainties into the transaction price until it is probable that the amount will not result in a significant reversal of revenue in the future. At the end of each reporting period, we re-evaluate the probability of achievement of such milestones and any related constraint, and if necessary, adjust our estimate of the overall transaction price.
When target exchange rights are held by collaboration partners, and the amounts attributed to these rights are not refundable, they are included in the transaction price. However, they are recorded as deferred revenues because we have a potential performance obligation to provide a new target upon an exchange right being exercised. These amounts are recognized in revenue when the right of exchange expires or is exercised.
Because our agreements have one type of performance obligation (licenses) which are typically all transferred at the same time at agreement inception, allocation of transaction price often is not required. However, allocation is required when licenses for some of the individual targets are subject to rights of exchange, because revenue associated with these targets cannot be recognized. When allocation is needed, we perform an allocation of the upfront amount based on relative SSP of licenses for individual targets. We determine license SSP using income-based valuation approach utilizing risk-adjusted discounted cash flow projections of the estimated return a licensor would receive. When amounts subject to uncertainties, such as milestones and royalties, are included in the transaction price, we attribute them to the specific individual target licenses which generate such milestone or royalty amounts.
We also estimate SSP of bulk rHuPH20 and research and development services, to determine that our collaboration partners do not have material rights to order them at discounted prices. For supplies of bulk rHuPH20, because we effectively act as a contract manufacturer to our collaboration partners, we estimate and charge SSP based on the typical contract manufacturer margins consistently with all of our collaborative partners. We determine SSP of research and development services based on a fully-burdened labor rate. Our rates are comparable to those we observe in other collaborative agreements. We also have a history of charging similar rates to all of our collaboration partners.
Upfront amounts allocated to licenses to individual targets are recognized as revenue when the license is transferred to the collaboration partner, as discussed above, if the license is not subject to exchange rights, or when the exchange right expires or is exercised. Development milestones and other fees are recognized in revenue when they are included in the transaction price, because by that time we have already transferred the related license to the collaboration partner.
Sales-based milestones and royalties cannot be recognized until the underlying sales occur. We do not receive final royalty reports from our collaboration partners until after we complete our financial statements for a prior quarter. Therefore, we recognize revenue based on estimates of the royalty earned, which are based on internal estimates and available preliminary reports provided by our collaboration partners. We will record a true-up in the following quarter if necessary, when final royalty reports are received. To date, we have not recorded any material true-ups.
In contracts to provide research and development services, such services represent the only performance obligation. The fees are charged based on hours worked by our employees and the fixed contractual rate per hour, plus third-party pass-through costs, on a monthly basis. We recognize revenues as the related services are performed based on the amounts billed, as the collaboration partner consumes the benefit of research and development work simultaneously as we perform these services, and the amounts billed reflect the value of these services to the customer.
Refer to Note 4 Revenue, for further discussion on our collaborative arrangements.
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Product Sales, Net
Hylenex Recombinant
We sell Hylenex recombinant in the U.S. to wholesale pharmaceutical distributors, who sell the product to hospitals and other end-user customers. Sales to wholesalers are made pursuant to purchase orders subject to the terms of a master agreement, and delivery of individual packages of Hylenex recombinant represent performance obligations under each purchase order. We use a contract manufacturer to produce Hylenex recombinant and a third-party logistics (3PL) vendor to process and fulfill orders. We concluded we are the principal in the sales to wholesalers because we control access to services rendered by both vendors and direct their activities. We have no significant obligations to wholesalers to generate pull-through sales.
Selling prices initially billed to wholesalers are subject to discounts for prompt payment and subsequent chargebacks when wholesalers sell Hylenex recombinant at negotiated discounted prices to members of certain group purchasing organizations (“GPOs”) and government programs. We also pay quarterly distribution fees to certain wholesalers for inventory reporting and chargeback processing, and to GPOs as administrative fees for services and for access to GPO members. We concluded the benefits received in exchange for these fees are not distinct from our sales of Hylenex recombinant, and accordingly we apply these amounts to reduce revenues. Wholesalers also have rights to return unsold product nearing or past the expiration date. Because of the shelf life of Hylenex recombinant and our lengthy return period, there may be a significant period of time between when the product is shipped and when we issue credits on returned product.
We estimate the transaction price when we receive each purchase order taking into account the expected reductions of the selling price initially billed to the wholesaler arising from all of the above factors. We have compiled historical experience and data to estimate future returns and chargebacks of Hylenex recombinant and the impact of the other discounts and fees we pay. When estimating these adjustments to the transaction price, we reduce it sufficiently to be able to assert that it is probable that there will be no significant reversal of revenue when the ultimate adjustment amounts are known.
Each purchase order contains only one type of product, and is usually shipped to the wholesaler in a single shipment. Therefore, allocation of the transaction price to individual packages is not required.
We recognize revenue from Hylenex recombinant product sales and related cost of sales upon product delivery to the wholesaler location. At that time, the wholesalers take control of the product as they take title, bear the risk of loss of ownership, and have an enforceable obligation to pay us. They also have the ability to direct sales of product to their customers on terms and at prices they negotiate. Although wholesalers have product return rights, we do not believe they have a significant incentive to return the product to us.
Upon recognition of revenue from product sales of Hylenex recombinant, the estimated amounts of credit for product returns, chargebacks, distribution fees, prompt payment discounts, and GPO fees are included in sales reserves, accrued liabilities and net of accounts receivable. We monitor actual product returns, chargebacks, discounts and fees subsequent to the sale. If these amounts differ from our estimates, we make adjustments to these allowances, which are applied to increase or reduce product sales revenue and earnings in the period of adjustment.
In connection with the orders placed by wholesalers, we incur costs such as commissions to our sales representatives. However, as revenue from product sales is recognized upon delivery to the wholesaler, which occurs shortly after we receive a purchase order, we do not capitalize these commissions and other costs, based on application of the practical expedient allowed within the applicable guidance.
Bulk rHuPH20
We sell bulk rHuPH20 to collaboration partners for use in research and development; subsequent to receiving marketing approval, we sell it for use in collaboration commercial products. Sales are made pursuant to purchase orders subject to the terms of the collaborative agreement, and delivery of units of bulk rHuPH20 represent performance obligations under each purchase order. We provide a standard warranty that the product conforms to specifications. We use contract manufacturers to produce bulk rHuPH20 and have concluded we are the principal in the sales to collaboration partners. The transaction price for each purchase order of bulk rHuPH20 is fixed based on the cost of production plus a contractual markup, and is not subject to adjustments. Allocation of the transaction price to individual quantities of the product is usually not required because each order contains only one type of product.
We recognize revenue from the sale of bulk rHuPH20 as product sales and related cost of sales upon transfer of title to our partners. At that time, the partners take control of the product, bear the risk of loss of ownership, and have an enforceable obligation to pay us.
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Revenue Presentation
In our statements of income, we report as revenues under collaborative agreements the upfront payments, event-based development and regulatory milestones and sales milestones. We also include in this category revenues from separate research and development contracts pursuant to project authorization forms. We report royalties received from collaboration partners as a separate line in our statements of income.
Revenues from sales of Hylenex recombinant, bulk rHuPH20 and ENHANZE drug product are included in product sales, net.
In the footnotes to our condensed consolidated financial statements, we provide disaggregated revenue information by type of arrangement (product sales, net, collaborative agreements and research and development services), and additionally, by type of payment stream received under collaborative agreements (upfront license fees, event-based development and regulatory milestones and other fees, sales milestones and royalties).
Cost of Product Sales
Cost of product sales consists primarily of raw materials, third-party manufacturing costs, fill and finish costs, freight costs, internal costs and manufacturing overhead associated with the production of Hylenex recombinant and bulk rHuPH20 and ENHANZE drug product. Cost of product sales also consists of the write-down of excess, dated and obsolete inventories and the write-off of inventories that do not meet certain product specifications, if any.
Research and Development Expenses
Research and development expenses include salaries and benefits, facilities and other overhead expenses, research related manufacturing services, contract services and other outside expenses. Research and development expenses are charged to operating expenses as incurred when these expenditures relate to our research and development efforts and have no alternative future uses.
We are obligated to make upfront payments upon execution of certain research and development agreements. Advance payments, including nonrefundable amounts, for goods or services that will be used or rendered for future research and development activities are deferred. Such amounts are recognized as expense as the related goods are delivered or the related services are performed or such time when we do not expect the goods to be delivered or services to be performed.
Share-Based Compensation
We record compensation expense associated with stock options, restricted stock awards (“RSAs”), restricted stock units (“RSUs”), performance stock units (“PSUs”) and shares issued under our employee stock purchase plan (“ESPP”) in accordance with the authoritative guidance for stock-based compensation. The cost of employee services received in exchange for an award of an equity instrument is measured at the grant date, based on the estimated fair value of the award, and is recognized as expense on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period of the award. Share-based compensation expense for an award with a performance condition is recognized when the achievement of such performance condition is determined to be probable. If the outcome of such performance condition is not determined to be probable or is not met, no compensation expense is recognized and any previously recognized compensation expense is reversed. Forfeitures are recognized as a reduction of share-based compensation expense as they occur.
Income Taxes
We provide for income taxes using the liability method. Under this method, deferred income tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases at each reporting period. We measure deferred tax assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. Significant judgment is required by management to determine our provision for income taxes, our deferred tax assets and liabilities, and any associated valuation allowances recorded against our net deferred tax assets, which are based on complex and evolving tax regulations. Deferred tax assets (“DTA”) and other tax benefits are recorded when they are more likely than not to be realized. On a quarterly basis, we assess the need for valuation allowance on our DTAs, weighing all positive and negative evidence, to assess if it is more-likely-than-not that some or all of our DTAs will be realized. In the first quarter of 2022, we recorded a provision for income taxes of $14.3 million using an effective tax rate of 19.2% the three months ended March 31, 2022. The difference between our effective tax rate and the U.S. federal statutory rate of 21% is primarily due to tax benefits on Foreign Derived Intangible Income Deduction (FDII), and tax detriments on 162(m) and other share based compensation.

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Segment Information
We operate our business in one segment, which includes all activities related to the research, development and commercialization of our proprietary enzymes. This segment also includes revenues and expenses related to (i) research and development and bulk rHuPH20 manufacturing activities conducted under our collaborative agreements with third parties and (ii) product sales of Hylenex recombinant. The chief operating decision-maker reviews the operating results on an aggregate basis and manages the operations as a single operating segment.

Adoption and Pending Adoption of Recent Accounting Pronouncements
There are no relevant recently issued accounting pronouncements that would materially impact our condensed consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
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3. Fair Value Measurement
Available-for-sale marketable securities consisted of the following (in thousands):
March 31, 2022
Amortized CostGross Unrealized GainsGross Unrealized LossesEstimated Fair Value
Asset-backed securities$18,108 $ $(74)$18,034 
Corporate debt securities90,103 11 (337)89,777 
U.S. Treasury securities343,361 1 (2,328)341,034 
Non-US Government securities12,183  (37)12,146 
Commercial paper207,314   207,314 
$671,069 $12 $(2,776)$668,305 
December 31, 2021
Amortized CostGross Unrealized GainsGross Unrealized LossesEstimated Fair Value
Asset-backed securities$32,745 $ $(53)$32,692 
Corporate debt securities58,885  (86)58,799 
U.S. Treasury securities231,230  (469)230,761 
Non- U.S Government securities17,232  (12)17,220 
Commercial paper282,731   282,731 
$622,823 $ $(620)$622,203 
As of March 31, 2022, 41 available-for-sale marketable securities with a fair market value of $442.0 million were in a gross unrealized loss position of $2.8 million. Based on our review of these marketable securities, we believe none of the unrealized loss is as a result of a credit loss as of March 31, 2022, because we do not intend to sell these securities and it is not more-likely-than-not that we will be required to sell these securities before the recovery of their amortized cost basis.
The estimated fair value of our contractual maturities of available-for-sale debt securities are as follows (in thousands):
March 31, 2022December 31, 2021
Due within one year$594,944 $500,965 
After one but within five years73,361 121,238 
$668,305 $622,203 
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The following table summarizes, by major security type, our cash equivalents and available-for-sale marketable securities that are measured at fair value on a recurring basis and are categorized using the fair value hierarchy (in thousands):
March 31, 2022December 31, 2021
Level 1Level 2Total estimated fair valueLevel 1Level 2Total estimated fair value
Cash equivalents:
Money market funds$117,818 $ $117,818 $118,707 $ $118,707 
Commercial paper       
Available-for-sale marketable
   securities:
Asset-backed securities 18,034 18,034  32,692 32,692 
Corporate debt securities 89,777 89,777  58,799 58,799 
U.S. Treasury securities341,034  341,034 230,761  230,761 
Non-US Government securities 12,146 12,146  17,220 17,220 
Commercial paper 207,314 207,314  282,731 282,731 
$458,852 $327,271 $786,123 $349,468 $391,442 $740,910 
We had no instruments that were classified within Level 3 as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021.
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4. Revenue
Our disaggregated revenues were as follows (in thousands):
Three Months Ended
 March 31,
20222021
Royalties$69,605 $36,923 
Product sales, net
  Sales of bulk rHuPH20$16,448 $16,770 
  Sales of Hylenex5,692 4,996 
Total product sales, net$22,140 $21,766 
Revenues under collaborative agreements:
  Upfront license and target nomination fees$25,000 $ 
  Event-based development and regulatory milestones and other fees 30,000 
  Reimbursement for research and development services534 333 
Total revenues under collaborative agreements$25,534 $30,333 
Total revenue$117,279 $89,022 
During the three months ended March 31, 2022 we recognized revenue related to licenses granted to collaboration partners in prior periods in the amount of $69.6 million. This amount represents royalties earned in the current period. We also recognized revenue of $0.5 million during the three months ended March 31, 2022 that had been included in deferred revenues at December 31, 2021. We did not recognize any adjustments to reduce sales reserves and allowances liability related to Hylenex recombinant sales in prior periods.
Accounts receivable, net, and deferred revenues (contract liabilities) from contracts with customers, including collaboration partners, consisted of the following (in thousands):
March 31, 2022December 31, 2021
Accounts receivable, net$113,762 $90,975 
Deferred revenues3,777 4,276 
As of March 31, 2022, the amounts included in the transaction price of our contracts with customers, including collaboration partners, and allocated to goods and services not yet provided were $77.3 million, of which $73.5 million relates to unfulfilled purchase commitments and $3.8 million has been collected and is reported as deferred revenues. The unfulfilled purchase commitments are estimated to be delivered by the end of 2023. Of the total deferred revenues of $3.8 million, $1.7 million is expected to be used by our customers within the next 12 months.
There were no contract assets related to collaborative agreements at March 31, 2022. While we may become entitled to receive additional event-based development and regulatory milestones and other fees under our collaborative agreements, which relate to development milestones deemed probable of receipt for intellectual property licenses granted to collaboration partners in prior periods, no amounts were deemed probable.
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5. Certain Balance Sheet Items
Accounts receivable, net consisted of the following (in thousands):
March 31,
2022
December 31,
2021
Accounts receivable from product sales to collaborators$15,840 $18,504 
Accounts receivable from revenues under collaborative agreements25,619 5,422 
Accounts receivable from royalty payments68,169 63,555 
Accounts receivable from other product sales5,372 4,634 
     Subtotal115,000 92,115 
Allowance for distribution fees and discounts(1,238)(1,140)
     Total accounts receivable, net$113,762 $90,975 
Inventories consisted of the following (in thousands):
March 31,
2022
December 31,
2021
Raw materials$10,267 $10,672 
Work-in-process6,332 17,451 
Finished goods31,162 25,785 
     Total inventories$47,761 $53,908 
Prepaid expenses and other assets consisted of the following (in thousands):
March 31,
2022
December 31,
2021
Prepaid manufacturing expenses$57,905 $47,991 
Other prepaid expenses3,091 3,809 
Other assets2,068 2,096 
     Total prepaid expenses and other assets63,064 53,896 
Less long-term portion(22,038)(13,414)
     Total prepaid expenses and other assets, current$41,026 $40,482 
Prepaid manufacturing expenses include raw materials, slot reservation fees and other amounts paid to contract manufacturing organizations. Such amounts are reclassified to work-in-process inventory as materials are used or the contract manufacturing organization services are complete.
Property and equipment, net consisted of the following (in thousands):
March 31,
2022
December 31,
2021
Research equipment$6,725 $7,174 
Manufacturing equipment5,718 5,719 
Computer and office equipment5,743 5,370 
Leasehold improvements1,748 1,628 
     Subtotal19,934 19,891 
Accumulated depreciation and amortization(12,991)(13,100)
     Subtotal6,943 6,791 
Right of use of assets1,570 2,003 
     Property and equipment, net$8,513 $8,794 
Depreciation and amortization expense was approximately $0.8 million and $0.7 million, inclusive of ROU asset amortization of $0.4 million and $0.4 million for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021 respectively.
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Accrued expenses consisted of the following (in thousands):
March 31,
2022
December 31,
2021
Accrued compensation and payroll taxes$4,194 $9,858 
Accrued outsourced manufacturing expenses3,674 6,514 
Other accrued expenses9,232 5,793 
Lease liability2,204 2,820 
     Total accrued expenses19,304 24,985 
Less long-term portion(171)(544)
     Total accrued expenses, current$19,133 $24,441 
Expense associated with the accretion of the lease liabilities was approximately $0.1 million and $0.1 million for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021 respectively. Total lease expense for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021 was $0.5 million and $0.5 million respectively.
Cash paid for amounts related to leases for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021 was $0.7 million and $0.7 million, respectively.


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6. Long-Term Debt, Net
0.25% Convertible Notes due 2027
In March 2021, we completed the sale of $805.0 million in aggregate principal amount of 0.25% Convertible Senior Notes due 2027 (the “2027 Convertible Notes” and collectively with the 2024 Convertible Notes the “Convertible Notes”). The net proceeds in connection with the issuance of the 2027 Convertible Notes, after deducting the initial purchasers’ fee of $20.1 million, was approximately $784.9 million. We also incurred additional debt issuance costs totaling $0.4 million. Debt issuance costs and the initial purchasers’ fee are presented as a debt discount.
The 2027 Convertible Notes pay interest semi-annually in arrears on March 1st and September 1st of each year at an annual rate of 0.25%. The 2027 Convertible Notes are general unsecured obligations and will rank senior in right of payment to all indebtedness that is expressly subordinated in right of payment to the 2027 Convertible Notes, will rank equally in right of payment with all existing and future liabilities that are not so subordinated, will be effectively junior to any secured indebtedness to the extent of the value of the assets securing such indebtedness and will be structurally subordinated to all indebtedness and other liabilities (including trade payables) of our current or future subsidiaries. The 2027 Convertible Notes have a maturity date of March 1, 2027.
Holders may convert their 2027 Convertible Notes at their option only in the following circumstances: (1) during any calendar quarter commencing after the calendar quarter ending on June 30, 2021, if the last reported sale price per share of common stock exceeds 130% of the conversion price for each of at least 20 trading days during the 30 consecutive trading days ending on, and including, the last trading day of the immediately preceding calendar quarter; (2) during the five consecutive business days immediately after any five consecutive trading day period (such five consecutive trading day period, the “measurement period”) in which the trading price per $1,000 principal amount of notes for each trading day of the measurement period was less than 98% of the product of the last reported sale price per share of our common stock on such trading day and the conversion rate on such trading day; (3) upon the occurrence of certain corporate events or distributions on our common stock, as described in the offering memorandum for the 2027 Convertible Notes; (4) if we call such notes for redemption; and (5) at any time from, and including, September 1, 2026 until the close of business on the scheduled trading day immediately before the maturity date. The Notes will be convertible, regardless of the foregoing circumstances, at any time from, and including, September 1, 2026 until the close of business on the scheduled trading day immediately preceding the maturity date. As of March 31, 2022, the 2027 Convertible Notes are not convertible.
Upon conversion, we will pay cash for the settlement of principal and for the premium, if applicable, we will pay cash, deliver shares of common stock or a combination of cash and shares of common stock, at our election. The initial conversion rate for the 2027 Convertible Notes will be 12.9576 shares of common stock per $1,000 in principal amount of 2027 Convertible Notes, equivalent to a conversion price of approximately $77.17 per share of our common stock. The conversion rate is subject to adjustment.
As of March 31, 2022, we were in compliance with all covenants and there was no material adverse change in our business, operations or financial condition.
1.25% Convertible Notes due 2024
In November 2019, we completed the sale of $460.0 million in aggregate principal amount of 1.25% Convertible Senior Notes due 2024 (“2024 Convertible Notes”). The net proceeds in connection with the 2024 Convertible Notes, after deducting the initial purchasers’ fee of $12.7 million, was approximately $447.3 million. We also incurred debt issuance cost totaling $0.3 million. Debt issuance costs and the initial purchasers’ fee are presented as a debt discount.
The 2024 Convertible Notes pay interest semi-annually in arrears on June 1st and December 1st of each year, beginning on June 1, 2020, at an annual rate of 1.25%. The 2024 Convertible Notes are general unsecured obligations and will rank senior in right of payment to all indebtedness that is expressly subordinated in right of payment to the 2024 Convertible Notes, will rank equally in right of payment with all existing and future liabilities that are not so subordinated, will be effectively junior to any secured indebtedness to the extent of the value of the assets securing such indebtedness and will be structurally subordinated to all indebtedness and other liabilities (including trade payables) of the our current or future subsidiaries. The 2024 Convertible Notes have a maturity date of December 1, 2024.
Holders may convert their 2024 Convertible Notes at their option only in the following circumstances: (1) during any calendar quarter commencing after the calendar quarter ending on March 31, 2020, if the last reported sale price per share of common stock exceeds 130% of the conversion price for each of at least 20 trading days during the 30 consecutive trading days ending on, and including, the last trading day of the immediately preceding calendar quarter; (2) during the five consecutive business days immediately after any five consecutive trading day period (such five consecutive trading day period, the “measurement period”) in which the trading price per $1,000 principal amount of notes for each trading day of the measurement period was less than 98% of the product of the last reported sale price per share of our common stock on such trading day and
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the conversion rate on such trading day; (3) upon the occurrence of certain corporate events or distributions on our common stock, as described in the offering memorandum for the 2024 Convertible Notes; (4) if we call such notes for redemption; and (5) at any time from, and including, June 1, 2024 until the close of business on the scheduled trading day immediately before the maturity date. As of March 31, 2022, the 2024 Convertible Notes are convertible and are classified as a current liability.
In January 2021 we notified the note holders of our irrevocable election to settle the principal of the 2024 Convertible Notes in cash and for the premium, if applicable, to deliver shares of common stock. The conversion rate for the 2024 Convertible Notes will be 41.9208 shares of common stock per $1,000 in principal amount of 2024 Convertible Notes, equivalent to a conversion price of approximately $23.85 per share of our common stock. The conversion rate is subject to adjustment.
In March 2021, we completed a privately negotiated induced conversion of $369.1 million principal amount of the 2024 Convertible Notes (“Note Repurchases” or the “Induced Conversion”). In connection with the Induced Conversion, we paid approximately $370.2 million in cash, which includes principal and accrued interest, and issued approximately 9.08 million shares of our common stock representing the intrinsic value based on the contractual conversion rate and incremental shares as an inducement for conversion. As a result of the Induced Conversion, we recorded $21.0 million in induced conversion expense which is included in Other income (expense) of the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Income in 2021. The induced conversion expense represents the fair value of the common stock issued upon conversion in excess of the common stock issuable under the original terms of the 2024 Convertible Notes.
As of March 31, 2022, we were in compliance with all covenants and there was no material adverse change in our business, operations or financial condition.
Net Carrying Amounts of the Convertible Notes
The carrying amount and fair value of our Convertible Notes were as follows as of the dates indicated (in thousands).
March 31,
2022
December 31,
2021
Principal amount:
2024 Convertible Notes$90,936 $90,936 
2027 Convertible Notes805,000 805,000 
Total Principal Amount$895,936 $895,936 
Unamortized debt discount:
2024 Convertible Notes$(1,390)$(1,517)
2027 Convertible Notes(16,901)(17,745)
Total unamortized debt discount$(18,291)$(19,262)
Carrying amount:
2024 Convertible Notes$89,546 $89,419 
2027 Convertible Notes788,099 787,255 
Total carrying amount$877,645 $876,674 
Fair value based on trading levels (Level 2):
2024 Convertible Notes$158,552 $159,678 
2027 Convertible Notes708,770 718,889 
Total fair value of outstanding notes$867,322 $878,567 
Remaining amortization per period of debt discount (in years):
2024 Convertible Notes2.72.9
2027 Convertible Notes4.95.2



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The following table summarizes the components of interest expense and the effective interest rates for each of our Convertible Notes for the periods shown (in thousands).
Three Months Ended
 March 31,
20222021
Coupon Interest:
2024 Convertible Notes$284 $1,053 
2027 Convertible Notes$503 $168 
Total Coupon Interest$787 $1,221 
Amortization of debt discount:
2024 Convertible Notes$127 $461 
2027 Convertible Notes$844 $280 
Total amortization of debt discount$971 $741 
Interest expense:
2024 Convertible Notes$411 $1,514 
2027 Convertible Notes$1,347 $448 
Total interest expense$1,758 $1,962 
Effective interest rates:
2024 Convertible Notes1.8 %1.8 %
2027 Convertible Notes0.7 %0.7 %
Revolving Credit Facility
In December 2021, we entered into a credit agreement with Bank of America and the other lenders party thereto (the “Credit Agreement”) evidencing a revolving credit facility (the “Facility”) that provides for secured revolving loans and letters of credit in an aggregate amount of up to $75.0 million. The Credit Agreement contains an expansion feature, which allows us, subject to certain conditions, to increase the aggregate principal amount of the Facility to $250.0 million, provided we remain in compliance with underlying financial covenants on a pro forma basis including the consolidated interest coverage ratio and the consolidated net leverage ratio covenants set forth in the Credit Agreement. The facility matures on December 23, 2024.
Borrowings under the Facility bear interest, at our option, at a rate equal to an applicable margin plus: (a) the applicable Bloomberg Short-Term Bank Yield Index rate (or the “BSBY Rate,” as defined in the Credit Agreement), or (b) a base rate determined by reference to the highest of (1) the federal funds effective rate plus 0.50%, (2) the Bank of America prime rate, (3) the BSBY Rate plus 1.00%, and (4) 1.00%. The margin for the Facility ranges, based on our consolidated total net leverage ratio, from % to 0.75% in the case of base rate loans and from 1.00% to 1.75% in the case of BSBY Rate loans. In addition to paying interest on any outstanding principal under the Facility, we will pay (i) a commitment fee in respect of the unutilized commitments thereunder and (ii) customary letter of credit fees and agency fees. The commitment fees range from 0.15% to 0.30% per annum based on the our consolidated net leverage ratio. As of March 31, 2022, the revolving credit facility was undrawn.

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7. Share-based Compensation
Total share-based compensation expense related to share-based awards was comprised of the following (in thousands):
Three Months Ended
 March 31,
 20222021
Research and development$2,017 $1,648 
Selling, general and administrative2,725 3,275 
Share-based compensation expense$4,742 $4,923 
Share-based compensation expense by type of share-based award (in thousands):
Three Months Ended
 March 31,
 20222021
Stock options$2,620 $2,482 
RSAs, RSUs, PSUs and ESPP2,122 2,441 
$