10-K 1 hbnc-20231231.htm 10-K hbnc-20231231
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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
Commission file number 0000-10792
Horizon Bancorp, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Indiana35-1562417
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
515 Franklin Street, Michigan City, Indiana 46360
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: 219-879-0211
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common stock, no par valueHBNCThe NASDAQ Stock Market, LLC
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well–known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act Yes No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒ No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S–T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☒ No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non–accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b–2 of the Exchange Act.
Large Accelerated FilerAccelerated Filer
Non-Accelerated FilerSmaller Reporting Company
Emerging Growth Company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes–Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant's executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes No
The aggregate market value of the registrant’s common stock held by non–affiliates of the registrant, based on the last sale price of such stock as of June 30, 2023, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, was approximately $441.4 million.
As of March 14, 2024, the registrant had 44,111,174 shares of common stock outstanding.
Documents Incorporated by Reference
DocumentPart of Form 10–K into which portion of document is incorporated
Portions of the Registrant’s Proxy Statement to be filed for
its May 2, 2024 annual meeting of shareholders
Part III


HORIZON BANCORP, INC.
2023 Annual Report on Form 10–K

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Item 1C
Item 9C

2

HORIZON BANCORP, INC.
2023 Annual Report on Form 10–K
FORWARD–LOOKING STATEMENTS
A cautionary note about forward-looking statements: In addition to historical information, information included and incorporated by reference in this Annual Report on Form 10–K contains certain “forward–looking statements” within the meaning of the federal securities laws. Horizon Bancorp, Inc. (“Horizon”) intends such forward–looking statements to be covered by the safe harbor provisions for forward–looking statements contained in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 and is including this statement for purposes of invoking those safe–harbor provisions. Forward–looking statements can include statements about estimated cost savings, plans and objectives for future operations and expectations about Horizon’s financial and business performance as well as economic and market conditions. They often can be identified by the use of words such as “expect,” “may,” “likely,” “could,” “should,” “will,” “intend,” “project,” “estimate,” “believe,” “anticipate,” “seek,” “plan,” “goals,” “strategy,” “future” and variations of such words and similar expressions.
Horizon may include forward-looking statements in filings it makes with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”), such as this Form 10–K, in other written materials, and in oral statements made by senior management to analysts, investors, representatives of the media and others. Horizon intends that these forward–looking statements speak only as of the date they are made, and Horizon undertakes no obligation to update any forward–looking statement to reflect events or circumstances after the date on which the forward–looking statement is made or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events.
Although management believes that the expectations reflected in forward–looking statements are reasonable, actual results may differ materially, whether adversely or positively, from the expectations of Horizon that are expressed or implied by any forward–looking statement. Risks, uncertainties, and factors that could cause Horizon’s actual results to vary materially from those expressed or implied by any forward–looking statement include but are not limited to the following:
current financial conditions within the banking industry, including the effects of failures of other financial institutions, liquidity levels, and responses by the Federal Reserve, Department of the Treasury, and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation to address these issues;
any regulatory examination scrutiny or new regulatory requirements arising from the recent events in the banking industry;
changes in the level and volatility of interest rates, spreads on earning assets and interest bearing liabilities, and interest rate sensitivity;
the ability of the Company to remediate its material weaknesses in its internal control over financial reporting;
continuing increases in inflation;
loss of key Horizon personnel;
economic conditions and their impact on Horizon and its customers, including local and global economic recovery from the pandemic;
the increasing use of Bitcoin and other crypto currencies and/or stable coin and the possible impact these alternative currencies may have on deposit disintermediation and income derived from payment systems;
the effect of interest rates on net interest rate margin and their impact on mortgage loan volumes and the outflow of deposits;
increases in disintermediation, as new technologies allow consumers to complete financial transactions without the assistance of banks, which may have been accelerated by the COVID–19 pandemic;
potential loss of fee income, including interchange fees, as new and emerging alternative payment platforms (e.g., Apple Pay or Bitcoin) take a greater market share of the payment systems;
estimates of fair value of certain of Horizon’s assets and liabilities;
volatility and disruption in financial markets;
3

HORIZON BANCORP, INC.
2023 Annual Report on Form 10–K
prepayment speeds, loan originations, credit losses and market values, collateral securing loans and other assets;
sources of liquidity;
potential risk of environmental liability related to lending and acquisition activities;
changes in the competitive environment in Horizon’s market areas and among other financial service providers;
legislation and/or regulation affecting the financial services industry as a whole, and Horizon and its subsidiaries in particular;
changes in regulatory supervision and oversight, including monetary policy and capital requirements;
changes in accounting policies or procedures as may be adopted and required by regulatory agencies;
litigation, regulatory enforcement, tax, and legal compliance risk and costs, as applicable generally and specifically to the financial and fiduciary (generally and as an ESOP fiduciary) environment, especially if materially different from the amount we expect to incur or have accrued for, and any disruptions caused by the same;
the effects and costs of governmental investigations or related actions by third parties;
rapid technological developments and changes;
the risks presented by cyber terrorism and data security breaches;
the rising costs of effective cybersecurity;
containing costs and expenses;
the ability of the U.S. federal government to manage federal debt limits;
the potential influence on the U.S. financial markets and economy from the effects of climate change and social justice initiatives;
the potential influence on the U.S. financial markets and economy from material changes outside the U.S. or in overseas relations, including changes in U.S. trade relations related to imposition of tariffs, Brexit, and the phase out of the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) according to regulatory guidance;
the risks of expansion through mergers and acquisitions, including unexpected credit quality problems with acquired loans, difficulty integrating acquired operations and material differences in the actual financial results of such transactions compared with Horizon’s initial expectations, including the full realization of anticipated cost savings; and
acts of terrorism, war and global conflicts, such as the ongoing conflicts between Russia and Ukraine and Israel and Hamas, and the potential impact they may have on supply chains, the availability of commodities, commodity prices, inflationary pressure and the overall U.S. and global financial markets.
You are cautioned that actual results may differ materially from those contained in the forward–looking statements. The “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in Item 7 of this Form 10–K lists some of the factors that could cause Horizon’s actual results to vary materially from those expressed in or implied by any forward–looking statements. We direct your attention to this discussion.
Other risks and uncertainties that could affect Horizon’s future performance are set forth below in Item 1A, “Risk Factors.”
4

HORIZON BANCORP, INC.
2023 Annual Report on Form 10–K
PART I
ITEM1. BUSINESS
The disclosures in this Item 1 are qualified by the disclosures below in Item 1A, “Risk Factors,” and Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” and in other cautionary statements set forth elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10–K.
General
Horizon Bancorp, Inc. (“Horizon” or the “Company”) is a registered bank holding company incorporated in Indiana and headquartered in Michigan City, Indiana. Horizon provides a broad range of banking services in northern and central Indiana and southern and central Michigan through its bank subsidiary, Horizon Bank (“Horizon Bank” or the “Bank”) and other affiliated entities. Horizon operates as a single segment, which is commercial banking. Horizon’s common stock is traded on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol HBNC. Horizon Bank (formerly known as “Horizon Bank, N.A.”) was founded in 1873 as a national association, and it remained a national association until its conversion to an Indiana commercial bank effective June 23, 2017. The Bank is a full–service commercial bank offering commercial and retail banking services, corporate and individual trust and agency services and other services incident to banking.
Over the last 20 years, Horizon has expanded its geographic reach and experienced financial growth through a combination of both organic expansion and mergers and acquisitions. Horizon’s initial operations focused on northwest Indiana, but since then, the Company has developed a presence in new markets in southern and central Michigan and northeastern and central Indiana. The most recent material expansions through acquisitions are described below.
On September 17, 2021, Horizon Bank completed the purchase and assumption of certain assets and liabilities of 14 former TCF National Bank (“TCF”) branches in 11 Michigan counties. Net cash of $618.2 million was received in the transaction, representing the deposit balances assumed at closing, net of amounts paid for loans of $212.0 million, fixed assets of $6.9 million, cash of $4.0 million and a 1.75% premium on deposits. Customer deposit balances were recorded at $846.4 million and a core deposit intangible of $1.6 million was recorded in the transaction, which will be amortized over 10 years on a straight line basis. Goodwill of $4.0 million was generated in the transaction.
The Bank maintains 71 full service offices. At December 31, 2023, the Bank had total assets of $7.9 billion and total deposits of $5.7 billion. The Bank has wholly–owned direct and indirect subsidiaries: Horizon Investments, Inc. (“Horizon Investments”), Horizon Properties, Inc. (“Horizon Properties”), Horizon Insurance Services, Inc. (“Horizon Insurance”), Horizon Grantor Trust and Wolverine Commercial Holdings, LLC. Horizon Investments manages the investment portfolio of the Bank. Horizon Properties manages the real estate investment trust. Horizon Insurance is used by the Company’s Wealth Management to sell certain life insurance products through a third party. Horizon Grantor Trust holds title to certain company owned life insurance policies. Wolverine Commercial Holdings, LLC currently holds one piece of property but does not otherwise engage in significant business activities.
Horizon formed Horizon Bancorp Capital Trust II in 2004 (“Trust II”) and Horizon Bancorp Capital Trust III in 2006 (“Trust III”) for the purpose of participating in pooled trust preferred securities offerings. The Company assumed additional debentures as the result of the acquisition of Alliance Financial Corporation in 2005, which formed Alliance Financial Statutory Trust I (“Alliance Trust”). The Company also assumed additional debentures as the result of the acquisition of American Trust & Savings Bank (“American”) in 2010, which formed Am Tru Statutory Trust I (“Am Tru Trust”). The Company also assumed additional debentures as the result of the Heartland transaction, which formed Heartland (IN) Statutory Trust II (“Heartland Trust”). In 2016, the Company also assumed additional debentures as the result of the LaPorte Bancorp transaction. LaPorte Bancorp acquired City Savings Financial Corporation in 2007. City Savings Financial Corporation issued the debentures and formed City Savings Statutory Trust I (“City Savings”) in 2003. The Company also assumed additional debentures as the result of the Salin transaction, which formed Salin Statutory Trust I (“Salin Trust”) in 2003. See Note 13 of the Consolidated Financial Statements included at Item 8 for further discussion regarding these previously consolidated entities that are now reported separately.
5

HORIZON BANCORP, INC.
2023 Annual Report on Form 10–K
The business of Horizon is not seasonal to any material degree. No material part of Horizon’s business is dependent upon a single or small group of customers, the loss of any one or more of which would have a materially adverse effect on the business of Horizon. In 2023, revenues from loans accounted for 75.4% of the total consolidated revenue, and revenues from investment securities accounted for 19.4% of total consolidated revenue.
Available Information
The Company’s Internet address is www.horizonbank.com. Information on or accessible through our website is not deemed to be incorporated into this Annual Report on Form 10–K. Website references in this Annual Report are merely textual references. The Company makes available, free of charge through the “About Us – Investor Relations – Documents – SEC Filings” section of its Internet website, copies of the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10–K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10–Q, Current Reports on Form 8–K and any amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), as soon as reasonably practicable after those reports are filed with or furnished to the SEC. The contents of our website are not incorporated by reference into this Annual Report on Form 10–K or in any other report or document we file with the SEC, and any references to our website are intended to be inactive textual references only.
Employees and Human Capital Resources
We believe that the foundation of our success in the banking business lies with the quality of our employees, the development of our employees' skills and career goals, and our ability to provide a comprehensive rewarding experience and work environment. We encourage and support the development of our employees and, wherever possible, strive to fill positions from within the organization. As of December 31, 2023, the Company employed 818 full–time and 58 part–time employees across all locations.
Competition
Horizon faces a high degree of competition in all of its primary markets. The Bank’s primary market consists of areas throughout the northern and central regions of the state of Indiana along with the southern and central regions of the state of Michigan. The Bank’s primary market is further defined by the Indiana and Michigan counties identified below. The Bank competes with other commercial banks, savings and loan associations, consumer finance companies, credit unions and other non–bank and digital financial service providers. In addition, Financial Technology, or FinTech, start–ups are emerging in key banking areas. To a more moderate extent, the Bank competes with Chicago money center banks, mortgage banking companies, insurance companies, brokerage houses, other institutions engaged in money market financial services and certain government agencies. Many non–financial institution competitors face fewer regulatory restrictions.
6

HORIZON BANCORP, INC.
2023 Annual Report on Form 10–K
The following table estimates the number of financial institution competitors in Horizon’s primary market areas, along with Horizon’s competitive position in these areas, based on the June 30, 2023 Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) Deposit Market Share Report (available at www.fdic.gov ):
INDIANAMICHIGAN
CountyNumber of
Institutions
Horizon
Market
Share
CountyNumber of
Institutions
Horizon
Market
Share
Allen201.69 %Arenac429.36 %
Bartholomew95.84 %Berrien812.15 %
Carroll630.01 %Charlevoix43.15 %
Cass615.80 %Crawford223.29 %
DeKalb1111.52 %Ingham181.34 %
Elkhart160.69 %Kalamazoo142.12 %
Fountain49.71 %Kent240.49 %
Grant78.01 %Mecosta811.76 %
Hamilton270.28 %Midland718.90 %
Howard84.37 %Missaukee250.58 %
Johnson2110.61 %Newaygo66.65 %
Kosciusko104.56 %Oakland290.20 %
LaGrange43.42 %Otsego517.34 %
Lake161.78 %Ottawa150.90 %
LaPorte858.56 %Roscommon412.78 %
Marion250.77 %Shiawassee615.40 %
Noble64.95 %St. Joseph94.68 %
Porter118.55 %Wexford524.04 %
St. Joseph140.36 %
Tippecanoe166.55 %
Whitley76.38 %
At the time of the FDIC Deposit Market Share Report, Horizon was the largest of the eight bank and thrift institutions in LaPorte County, the largest of the six institutions in Carroll County, the third largest of the 21 institutions in Johnson County, the fourth largest of the 11 institutions in DeKalb County, the third largest of the six institutions in Cass County, the fifth largest of the 16 institutions in Tippecanoe County, and the fifth largest of the 11 institutions in Porter County.
In Michigan, Horizon was the second largest of the seven bank and thrift institutions in Midland County and the fourth largest of the eight bank and thrift institutions in Berrien County.
Regulation and Supervision
General
As a bank holding company and a financial holding company, the Company is subject to extensive regulation, supervision and examination by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (the “Federal Reserve Board” or “Federal Reserve”) as its primary federal regulator under the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended (“BHC Act”). The Company is required to file annual reports with the Federal Reserve and provide other information that the Federal Reserve may require. The Federal Reserve may also make examinations and inspections of the Company.

7

HORIZON BANCORP, INC.
2023 Annual Report on Form 10–K
The Bank, as an Indiana–state chartered bank, is subject to extensive regulation, supervision and examination by the Indiana Department of Financial Institutions (“DFI”) as its primary state regulator. Also, as to certain matters, the Bank is under the supervision of, and subject to examination by, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) because the FDIC provides deposit insurance to the Bank and is the Bank’s primary federal regulator.
The supervision, regulation and examination of Horizon and the Bank by the bank regulatory agencies are intended primarily for the protection of depositors rather than for the benefit of Horizon’s shareholders.
Horizon is also subject to the disclosure and regulatory requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the Exchange Act, as administered by the SEC. Horizon’s common stock is listed on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the trading symbol “HBNC,” and Horizon is subject to the NASDAQ rules applicable to listed companies.
Included below is a brief summary of significant aspects of the laws, regulations and policies applicable to Horizon and the Bank. This summary is qualified in its entirety by reference to the full text of the statutes, regulations and policies that are referenced and is not intended to be an exhaustive description of the statutes, regulations and policies applicable to the business of Horizon and the Bank. Also, such statutes, regulations and policies are continually under review by Congress and state legislatures and by federal and state regulatory agencies. A change in statutes, regulations or regulatory policies applicable to Horizon and the Bank could have a material effect on Horizon’s business, financial condition and results of operations.
Bank Holding Company Regulation
The Bank Holding Company (“BHC”) Act generally limits the business in which a bank holding company and its subsidiaries may engage to banking or managing or controlling banks and those activities that the Federal Reserve Board has determined to be so closely related to banking as to be a proper incident thereto. Those closely related activities currently can include such activities as consumer finance, mortgage banking and securities brokerage. Certain well–managed and well–capitalized bank holding companies may elect to be treated as a “financial holding company” and, as a result, will be permitted to engage in a broader range of activities that are financial in nature and in activities that are determined to be incidental or complementary to activities that are financial in nature. Horizon has both qualified as, and elected to be, a financial holding company. Activities that are considered financial in nature include securities underwriting and dealing, insurance underwriting and making merchant banking investments.
To commence any new activity permitted by the BHC Act or to acquire a company engaged in any new activity permitted by the BHC Act, each insured depository institution subsidiary of the financial holding company must have received a rating of at least “satisfactory” in its most recent examination under the Community Reinvestment Act. The Federal Reserve Board has the power to order any bank holding company or its subsidiaries to terminate any activity or to terminate its ownership or control of any subsidiary when the Federal Reserve Board has reasonable grounds to believe that continuation of such activity or such ownership or control constitutes a serious risk to the financial soundness, safety or stability of any bank subsidiary of the bank holding company.
Federal Reserve Board policy has historically required bank holding companies to act as a source of financial and managerial strength for their subsidiary banks. The Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd–Frank Act”), which was signed into law on July 21, 2010, codified this policy. Under this requirement, Horizon is required to act as a source of financial strength to the Bank and to commit resources to support the Bank in circumstances in which Horizon might not otherwise do so. For this purpose, “source of financial strength” means Horizon’s ability to provide financial assistance to the Bank in the event of the Bank’s financial distress.
The BHC Act, the Bank Merger Act (which is the popular name for Section 18(c) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act) and other federal and state statutes regulate acquisitions of banks and bank holding companies. The BHC Act requires the prior approval of the Federal Reserve before a bank holding company may acquire more than a 5% voting interest or substantially all the assets of any bank or bank holding company. Banks must also seek prior approval from their primary state and federal regulators for any such acquisitions. In reviewing applications seeking approval for mergers and other acquisition transactions, the bank regulatory authorities will consider, among other things, the competitive effect and public benefits of the transactions, the capital position of the combined organization, the risks to the stability of the U.S. banking or financial system, the applicant’s performance record
8

HORIZON BANCORP, INC.
2023 Annual Report on Form 10–K
under the Community Reinvestment Act and the effectiveness of the subject organizations in combating money laundering activities.
Under the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act of 1991 (“FDICIA”), a bank holding company is required to guarantee the compliance of any insured depository institution subsidiary that may become “undercapitalized” (as defined in FDICIA), with the terms of any capital restoration plan filed by such subsidiary with its appropriate federal bank regulatory agency.
Bank holding companies, such as Horizon, and their insured depository institutions, such as the Bank, are subject to various regulatory capital requirements administered by the federal and state regulators. The guidelines establish a systematic analytical framework that makes regulatory capital requirements more sensitive to differences in risk profiles among banking organizations. Risk–based capital ratios are determined by allocating assets and specified off–balance sheet commitments to four risk weighted categories, with higher levels of capital being required for the categories perceived as representing greater risk. In 2019, the Federal bank regulatory agencies, working jointly, adopted final regulations designed to simplify capital requirements for community banks, allowing qualifying community banks to adopt a simple community bank leverage ratio. For an additional discussion of the Company’s regulatory capital ratios and regulatory requirements as of December 31, 2023, please refer to the subsection titled “Capital Regulation” in this “Regulation and Supervision” section.
Branching and Acquisitions
Indiana law, the BHC Act and the Bank Merger Act restrict certain types of expansion by the Company and the Bank. The Company and the Bank may be required to apply for prior approval from (or give prior notice and an opportunity for review to) the Federal Reserve, the DFI and the FDIC, and or other regulatory agencies as a condition to the acquisition or establishment of new offices, or the acquisition by merger, purchase or otherwise of the stock, business or assets of other banks or companies.
Under current law, Indiana chartered banks may establish branches throughout the state and in other states, subject to certain limitations. Indiana law also authorizes an Indiana bank to establish one or more branches in states other than Indiana through interstate merger transactions and to establish one or more interstate branches through de novo branching or the acquisition of a branch. The Dodd–Frank Act permits the establishment of de novo branches in states where such branches could be opened by a state bank chartered by that state. The consent of the state in which the new branch will be opened is no longer required.
Deposit Insurance and Assessments
The Bank’s deposits are insured to applicable limits by the Deposit Insurance Fund (“DIF”) of the FDIC. Generally, deposits are insured up to the statutory limit of $250,000 per separately insured depositor. Banks are subject to deposit insurance premiums and assessments to maintain the DIF. The FDIC has authority to raise or lower assessment rates on insured banks in order to achieve statutorily required reserve ratios in the DIF and to impose special additional assessments.
The Dodd–Frank Act resulted in significant changes to the FDIC’s deposit insurance system. Under the Dodd–Frank Act, the FDIC is authorized to set the reserve ratio for the DIF at no less than 1.35%. The FDIC must offset the effect of the increase in the minimum designated reserve ratio from 1.15% to 1.35% on insured depository institutions of less than $10 billion and may declare dividends to depository institutions when the reserve ratio at the end of a calendar quarter is at least 1.50%, although the FDIC has the authority to suspend or limit such permitted dividend declarations. The FDIC has set the long term goal for the designated reserve ratio of the deposit insurance fund at 2% of estimated insured deposits. The FDIC adopted a plan to restore the DIF to the 1.35% ratio by September 30, 2028.
Also under the Dodd–Frank Act, the assessment base for deposit insurance premiums is the institution's average consolidated total assets minus average tangible equity. Tangible equity for this purpose means Tier 1 capital. The initial base assessment rates ranged from 5 to 35 basis points. For small Risk Category I banks, such as Horizon Bank, the rates ranged from 5 to 9 basis points. Adjustments are made to the initial assessment rates based on long–term unsecured debt, depository institution debt, and brokered deposits.
9

HORIZON BANCORP, INC.
2023 Annual Report on Form 10–K
Assessment rates (inclusive of possible adjustments) currently range from 2.5 to 32 basis points of an institution's total assets minus average tangible equity. Assessment rates for all established smaller banks will be determined using financial measures and supervisory ratings derived from a statistical model estimating the probability of failure over three years. The FDIC may increase or decrease the assessment rate scale uniformly, except that no adjustment can deviate more than two basis points from the base rate without notice and comment rulemaking.
The FDIC may terminate the deposit insurance of any insured depository institution if the FDIC determines, after a hearing, that the institution has engaged or is engaging in unsafe or unsound practices, is in an unsafe and unsound condition to continue operations or has violated any applicable law, regulation, order or any condition imposed in writing by, or written agreement with, the FDIC. The FDIC may also suspend deposit insurance temporarily during the hearing process for a permanent termination of insurance if the institution has no tangible capital.
Transactions with Affiliates and Insiders
Horizon and the Bank are subject to the Federal Reserve Act, which restricts financial transactions between banks, affiliated companies and their executive officers, including limits on credit transactions between these parties. The statute prescribes terms and conditions in order for bank affiliate transactions to be deemed to be consistent with safe and sound banking practices, and it also restricts the types of collateral security permitted in connection with a bank’s extension of credit to an affiliate. In general, extensions of credit (i) must be made on substantially the same terms, including interest rates and collateral, and subject to credit underwriting procedures that are at least as stringent as those prevailing at the time for comparable transactions with non–affiliates, and (ii) must not involve more than the normal risk of repayment or present other unfavorable features.
Capital Regulation
The federal bank regulatory authorities have adopted risk–based capital guidelines for banks and bank holding companies that are designed to make regulatory capital requirements more sensitive to differences in risk profiles among banks and bank holding companies and account for off–balance sheet items. Generally, to satisfy the capital requirements, the Company must maintain capital sufficient to meet both risk–based asset ratio tests and a leverage ratio test on a consolidated basis. Risk–based capital ratios are determined by allocating assets and specified off–balance sheet commitments into various risk–weighted categories, with higher weighting assigned to categories perceived as representing greater risk. A risk–based ratio represents the applicable measure of capital divided by total risk–weighted assets. The leverage ratio is a measure of the Company’s core capital divided by total assets adjusted as specified in the guidelines.
Federal regulations require FDIC insured depository institutions to meet several minimum capital standards; (i) a common equity Tier 1 capital to risk–based assets ratio of 4.5%; (ii) a Tier 1 capital to risk–based assets ratio of 6.0%; (iii) a total capital to risk–based assets ratio of 8%; and (iv) a 4% Tier 1 capital to total assets leverage ratio.

Common equity Tier 1 capital is generally defined as common shareholders’ equity and retained earnings. Tier 1 capital is generally defined as common equity Tier 1 and Additional Tier 1 capital. Additional Tier 1 capital generally includes certain noncumulative perpetual preferred stock and related surplus and minority interests in equity accounts of consolidated subsidiaries. Total capital includes Tier 1 capital (common equity Tier 1 capital plus Additional Tier 1 capital) and Tier 2 capital. Tier 2 capital is comprised of capital instruments and related surplus meeting specified requirements, and may include cumulative preferred stock and long-term perpetual preferred stock, mandatory convertible securities, intermediate preferred stock, and subordinated debt. Also included in Tier 2 capital is the allowance for loan and lease losses limited to a maximum of 1.25% of risk-weighted assets and, for institutions that have exercised an opt-out election regarding the treatment of Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (“AOCI”), up to 45% of net unrealized gains on available-for-sale equity securities with readily determinable fair market values. Institutions that have not exercised the AOCI opt-out have AOCI incorporated into common equity Tier 1 capital (including unrealized gains and losses on available-for-sale-securities). Calculation of all types of regulatory capital is subject to deductions and adjustments specified in the regulations.

In determining the amount of risk-weighted assets for purposes of calculating risk-based capital ratios, assets, including certain off-balance sheet assets (e.g., recourse obligations, direct credit substitutes, and residual interests) are multiplied by a risk weight factor assigned by the regulations based on the risks believed inherent in the type of asset. Higher levels of capital are required for asset categories believed to present greater risk. For example, a risk
10

HORIZON BANCORP, INC.
2023 Annual Report on Form 10–K
weight of 0% is assigned to cash and U.S. government securities, a risk weight of 50% is generally assigned to prudently underwritten first lien one to four-family residential mortgages, a risk weight of 100% is assigned to commercial and consumer loans, a risk weight of 150% is assigned to certain past due loans and a risk weight of between 0% to 600% is assigned to permissible equity interests, depending on certain specified factors.

In addition to establishing the minimum regulatory capital requirements, the regulations limit capital distributions by the institution and certain discretionary bonus payments to management if an institution does not hold a “capital conservation buffer” consisting of 2.5% of common equity Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets above the amount necessary to meet its minimum risk-based capital requirements.

The Federal Reserve and FDIC have authority to establish individual minimum capital requirements in appropriate cases upon a determination that an institution’s capital level is or may become inadequate in light of the particular risks or circumstances. As of December 31, 2023, Horizon Bank met all applicable capital adequacy requirements.

Bank holding companies are generally subject to consolidated capital requirements established by the Federal Reserve. The Dodd-Frank Act required the Federal Reserve to set minimum capital levels for bank holding companies that are as stringent as those required for insured depository subsidiaries.

Section 201 of the Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief and Consumer Protection Act of 2018 (the “Economic Growth Act”) directed federal banking agencies to draft regulations establishing a new optional Community Bank Leverage Ratio (“CBLR”). The Economic Growth Act provides that the CBLR will apply to a “qualifying community bank” which the Economic Growth Act defines as a bank with consolidated assets of less than $10 billion and satisfying additional criteria designed to disqualify institutions with a higher risk profile. Under the Economic Growth Act, qualifying community banks that meet or exceed the CBLR and elect to follow the alternative regulatory capital structure will be deemed to have satisfied all generally applicable leverage capital and risk-based capital requirements and will be considered “well capitalized” under the FDIC prompt corrective action provisions. The Economic Growth Act directed the FRB, the FDIC, and the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (“OCC”) to jointly determine a community bank leverage ratio percentage, not less than 8% nor more than 10%, that must be maintained to be deemed to have satisfied all generally applicable leverage capital and risk-based capital requirements and be considered well capitalized. The Economic Growth Act also directed agencies to establish procedures for dealing with a qualifying bank that subsequently falls below the new ratio.

The final regulation implementing Section 201 became effective on January 1, 2021 (the “Final Rule”). Under the Final Rule, to be eligible to use the CBLR framework, a banking organization must not be an advanced approaches organization and must have (i) a leverage ratio of greater than 9%; (ii) total consolidated assets of less than $10 billion; (iii) total off-balance sheet exposures of 25% or less of total consolidated assets; and (iv) total trading assets plus trading liabilities of 5% or less of total consolidated assets. A qualifying institution may opt in and out of the CBLR framework on its quarterly call report. An institution that ceases to meet any qualifying criteria is provided with a two-quarter grace period to either comply with the CBLR requirements or comply with the general capital regulations, including the risk-based capital requirements.
Horizon’s management believes that, as of December 31, 2023, Horizon and the Bank met all applicable regulatory capital requirements currently in effect.
11

HORIZON BANCORP, INC.
2023 Annual Report on Form 10–K
The following is a summary of Horizon’s and the Bank’s regulatory capital and capital requirements at December 31, 2023.
Actual
Required for Capital
Adequacy Purposes(1)
Required For Capital
Adequacy Purposes
with Capital Buffer(1)
Well Capitalized
Under Prompt
Corrective Action
Provisions(1)
AmountRatioAmountRatioAmountRatioAmountRatio
Total capital (to risk-weighted assets)(1)
Consolidated$786,436 14.11 %$446,000 8.00 %$585,374 10.50 %N/AN/A
Bank714,402 12.87 %444,147 8.00 %582,943 10.50 %$555,184 10.00 %
Tier 1 capital (to risk-weighted assets)(1)
Consolidated735,792 13.20 %334,500 6.00 %473,874 8.50 %N/AN/A
Bank663,758 11.96 %333,111 6.00 %471,907 8.50 %444,147 8.00 %
Common equity tier 1 capital (to risk-weighted assets)(1)
Consolidated619,153 11.11 %250,875 4.50 %390,250 7.00 %N/AN/A
Bank663,758 11.96 %249,833 4.50 %388,629 7.00 %360,870 6.50 %
Tier 1 capital (to average assets)(1)
Consolidated735,792 9.36 %314,306 4.00 %314,306 4.00 %N/AN/A
Bank663,758 8.41 %315,550 4.00 %315,550 4.00 %394,438 5.00 %
(1) As defined by regulatory agencies
Dividends
Horizon is a legal entity separate and distinct from the Bank. The primary source of Horizon’s cash flow, including cash flow to pay dividends on its common stock, is the payment of dividends to Horizon by the Bank. Under Indiana law, the Bank may pay dividends of so much of its undivided profits (generally, earnings less losses, bad debts, taxes and other operating expenses) as is considered appropriate by the Bank’s Board of Directors. However, the Bank must obtain the approval of the DFI for the payment of a dividend if the total of all dividends declared by the Bank during the current year, including the proposed dividend, would exceed the sum of retained net income for the year to date plus its retained net income for the previous two years. For this purpose, “retained net income” means net income as calculated for call report purposes, less all dividends declared for the applicable period. The Bank is generally exempt from this DFI pre–approval process for dividends if (i) the Bank has been assigned a composite uniform financial institutions rating of 1 or 2 as a result of the most recent federal or state examination; (ii) the proposed dividend will not result in a Tier 1 leverage ratio below 7.5%; and (iii) the Bank is not subject to any corrective action, supervisory order, supervisory agreement or board approved operating agreement.
The FDIC has the authority to prohibit the Bank from paying dividends if, in its opinion, the payment of dividends would constitute an unsafe or unsound practice in light of the financial condition of the Bank.
In addition, under Federal Reserve supervisory policy, a bank holding company generally should not maintain its existing rate of cash dividends on common shares unless (i) the organization’s net income available to common shareholders over the past year has been sufficient to fully fund the dividends and (ii) the prospective rate of earnings retention appears consistent with the organization’s capital needs, assets, quality and overall financial condition. The Federal Reserve issued a letter dated February 24, 2009, to bank holding companies informing them that it expects bank holding companies to consult with it in advance of declaring dividends that could raise safety and soundness concerns (i.e., such as when the dividend is not supported by earnings or involves a material increase in the dividend rate) and in advance of repurchasing shares of common stock or preferred stock. Although the effect of this letter was revised in December 2015 to become inapplicable to certain large U.S. bank holding companies (generally, those with at least $50 billion in average total consolidated assets), the guidance remains effective for bank holding companies like Horizon.
12

HORIZON BANCORP, INC.
2023 Annual Report on Form 10–K
Prompt Corrective Regulatory Action
Under FDICIA, federal banking regulatory authorities are required to take regulatory enforcement actions known as “prompt corrective action” with respect to depository institutions that do not meet minimum capital requirements. The extent of the regulators’ powers depends on whether the institution in question is categorized as “well capitalized,” “adequately capitalized,” “undercapitalized,” “significantly undercapitalized,” or “critically undercapitalized,” as defined by regulation.

An institution is deemed to be “well capitalized” if it has a total risk-based capital ratio of 10.0% or greater, a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of 8.0% or greater, a leverage ratio of 5.0% or greater, and a common equity Tier 1 ratio of 6.5% or greater. An institution is “adequately capitalized” if it has a total risk-based capital ratio of 8.0% or greater, a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of 6.0% or greater, a leverage ratio of 4.0% or greater, and a common equity Tier 1 ratio of 4.5% or greater. An institution is “undercapitalized” if it has a total risk-based capital ratio of less than 8.0%, a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of less than 6.0%, a leverage ratio of less than 4.0%, or a common equity Tier 1 ratio of less than 4.5%. An institution is deemed to be “significantly undercapitalized” if it has a total risk-based capital ratio of less than 6.0%, a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of less than 4.0%, a leverage ratio of less than 3.0%, or a common equity Tier 1 ratio of less than 3.0%. An institution is considered to be “critically undercapitalized” if it has a ratio of tangible equity (as defined in the regulations) to total assets that is equal to or less than 2.0%.
Depending upon the capital category to which an institution is assigned, the regulators’ corrective powers include: (i) requiring the submission of a capital restoration plan; (ii) placing limits on asset growth and restrictions on activities; (iii) requiring the institution to issue additional capital stock (including additional voting stock) or to be acquired; (iv) restricting transactions with affiliates; (v) restricting the interest rate the institution may pay on deposits; (vi) ordering a new election of directors of the institution; (vii) requiring that senior executive officers or directors be dismissed; (viii) prohibiting the institution from accepting deposits from correspondent banks; (ix) requiring the institution to divest certain subsidiaries; (x) prohibiting the payment of principal or interest on subordinated debt; and (xi) ultimately, for critically undercapitalized institutions, appointing a receiver for the institution.
At December 31, 2023, the Bank was categorized as “well capitalized,” meaning that the Bank’s total risk–based capital ratio exceeded 10%, the Bank’s Tier 1 risk–based capital ratio exceeded 8%, the Bank’s common equity Tier 1 risk–based capital ratio exceeded 6.5%, the Bank’s leverage ratio exceeded 5%, and the Bank was not subject to a regulatory order, agreement or directive to meet and maintain a specific capital level for any capital measure.
Banking regulators may change these capital requirements from time to time, depending on the economic outlook generally and the outlook for the banking industry. The Company is unable to predict whether and when any such further capital requirements would be imposed and, if so, to what levels and on what schedule.
Anti–Money Laundering — The USA Patriot Act and the Bank Secrecy Act
Horizon is subject to the provisions of the USA PATRIOT Act of 2001, which contains anti–money laundering and financial transparency laws and requires financial institutions to implement additional policies and procedures to address money laundering, suspicious activities and currency transaction reporting, and currency crimes. The regulations promulgated under the USA PATRIOT Act of 2001 require financial institutions such as the Bank to adopt controls to detect, prevent and report money laundering and terrorist financing and to verify the identities of their customers.
The Bank Secrecy Act of 1970, which was amended to incorporate certain provisions of the USA PATRIOT Act of 2001, also focuses on combating money laundering and terrorist financing and requires financial institutions to develop policies, procedures and practices to prevent, detect and deter these activities, including customer identification programs and procedures for filing suspicious activity reports.
Failure to maintain and implement adequate programs to combat money laundering and terrorist financing, or to comply with all of the relevant laws or regulations relating thereto, could have serious legal and reputational consequences for Horizon and the Bank.

13

HORIZON BANCORP, INC.
2023 Annual Report on Form 10–K
Federal Securities Law and NASDAQ
The shares of common stock of Horizon have been registered with the SEC under the Exchange Act. Horizon is subject to the information, proxy solicitation, insider trading restrictions and other requirements of the Exchange Act and the rules of the SEC promulgated thereunder.
Shares of common stock held by persons who are affiliates of Horizon may not be resold without registration unless sold in accordance with the resale restrictions of Rule 144 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended. If Horizon meets the current public information requirements under Rule 144, each affiliate of Horizon who complies with the other conditions of Rule 144 (including those that require the affiliate’s sale to be aggregated with those of certain other persons) would be able to sell in the public market, without registration, a number of shares not to exceed, in any three-month period, the greater of (i) 1% of the outstanding shares of Horizon or (ii) the average weekly volume of trading in such shares during the preceding four calendar weeks.
Under the Dodd–Frank Act, Horizon is required to provide its shareholders an opportunity to vote on the executive compensation payable to its named executive officers and on golden parachute payments in connection with mergers and acquisitions. These votes are non-binding and advisory. At least once every six years, Horizon must also permit shareholders to determine, on an advisory basis, whether such votes on executive compensation (called “say on pay” votes) should be held every one, two, or three years. In both 2012 and 2018, Horizon’s shareholders voted in favor of presenting the executive compensation “say on pay” question every year.
Shares of common stock of Horizon are listed on The NASDAQ Global Select Market under the trading symbol “HBNC,” and Horizon is subject to the rules of NASDAQ for listed companies.
Sarbanes–Oxley Act of 2002
Horizon is subject to the Sarbanes–Oxley Act of 2002 (the “Sarbanes–Oxley Act”), which revised the laws affecting corporate governance, accounting obligations and corporate reporting. The Sarbanes–Oxley Act applies to all companies with equity or debt securities registered under the 1934 Act. In particular, the Sarbanes–Oxley Act established: (i) new requirements for audit committees, including independence, expertise and responsibilities; (i) additional responsibilities regarding financial statements for the Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer of the reporting company; (ii) new standards for auditors and regulation of audits; (iv) increased disclosure and reporting obligations for the reporting company and its directors and executive officers; and (v) new and increased civil and criminal penalties for violation of the securities laws.
Pursuant to the final rules adopted by the SEC to implement Section 404 of the Sarbanes–Oxley Act, Horizon is required to include in each Form 10–K it files a report of management on Horizon’s internal control over financial reporting. The internal control report must include a statement of management’s responsibility for establishing and maintaining adequate control over financial reporting of Horizon, identify the framework used by management to evaluate the effectiveness of Horizon’s internal control over financial reporting and provide management’s assessment of the effectiveness of Horizon’s internal control over financial reporting. This Annual Report on Form 10–K also includes an attestation report issued by Horizon’s registered public accounting firm on Horizon’s internal control over financial reporting.
Financial System Reform — The Dodd–Frank Act, the CFPB and the 2018 Regulatory Relief Act
The Dodd–Frank Act, which was signed into law in 2010, significantly changed the regulation of financial institutions and the financial services industry. The Dodd–Frank Act includes provisions affecting large and small financial institutions alike, including several provisions that have profoundly affected how community banks, thrifts, and small bank and thrift holding companies are regulated. Among other things, these provisions eliminated the Office of Thrift Supervision and transferred its functions to the other federal banking agencies, relaxed rules regarding interstate branching, allowed financial institutions to pay interest on business checking accounts, changed the scope of federal deposit insurance coverage and imposed new capital requirements on bank and thrift holding companies.
The Dodd–Frank Act created the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (“CFPB”) as an independent bureau within the Federal Reserve System with broad rulemaking, supervisory and enforcement powers under various federal consumer financial protection laws, including the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, Truth in Lending Act, Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act, Fair Credit Reporting Act, Fair Debt Collection Practices Act, the Consumer Financial
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Privacy provisions of the Gramm–Leach–Bliley Act and certain other statutes. In July 2011, many of the consumer financial protection functions formerly assigned to the federal banking and other designated agencies were transferred to the CFBP. The CFBP has a large budget and staff, and has the authority to implement regulations under federal consumer protection laws and enforce those laws against financial institutions. The CFPB has examination and primary enforcement authority over depository institutions with $10 billion or more in assets. Smaller institutions (like Horizon) are subject to rules promulgated by the CFPB but continue to be examined and supervised by the federal banking regulators for consumer compliance purposes. The CFPB also has authority to prevent unfair, deceptive or abusive practices in connection with offering consumer financial products. Additionally, the CFPB is authorized to collect fines and provide consumer restitution in the event of violations, engage in consumer financial education, track consumer complaints, request data, and promote the availability of financial services to underserved consumers and communities.
The CFPB has indicated that mortgage lending is an area of supervisory focus. The CFPB has published several final regulations impacting the mortgage industry, including rules related to ability–to–repay, mortgage servicing, escrow accounts, and mortgage loan originator compensation. The ability–to–repay rule makes lenders liable if they fail to assess a borrower’s ability to repay under a prescribed test, but also creates a safe harbor for so called “qualified mortgages.” Failure to comply with the ability–to–repay rule may result in possible CFPB enforcement action and special statutory damages plus actual, class action, and attorneys’ fees damages, all of which a borrower may claim in defense of a foreclosure action at any time.
The CFPB also amended Regulation C to implement amendments to the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act made by the Dodd–Frank Act. The amendment added a significant number of new information collecting and reporting requirements for financial institutions, most of which became effective as of January 1, 2018.
The Dodd–Frank Act contains numerous other provisions affecting financial institutions of all types, many of which may have an impact on the operating environment of Horizon in substantial and unpredictable ways. Horizon has incurred higher operating costs in complying with the Dodd–Frank Act, and expects these higher costs to continue for the foreseeable future.
Rules promulgated in 2019 pursuant to the Regulatory Relief Act have simplified the regulatory capital calculation and have established a “Community Bank Leverage Ratio” to replace the leverage and risk–based regulatory capital ratios for those banks choosing to adopt it. In addition, the Regulatory Relief Act includes regulatory relief for community banks regarding regulatory examination cycles, call reports, the Volcker Rule (proprietary trading prohibitions), mortgage disclosures and risk weights for certain high–risk commercial real estate loans.
Horizon’s management will continue to review the status of the rules and regulations adopted pursuant to the Dodd–Frank Act and the Regulatory Relief Act, particularly the Community Bank Leverage Ratio framework, and to assess their probable impact on the business, financial condition and results of operations of Horizon. At this point, Horizon Bank has not elected to opt into the Community Bank Leverage Ratio framework.
Federal Home Loan Bank (“FHLB”) System
The Bank is a member of the FHLB of Indianapolis, which is one of twelve regional FHLBs. Each FHLB serves as a reserve or central bank for its members within its assigned region. The FHLB is funded primarily from funds deposited by banks and savings associations and proceeds derived from the sale of consolidated obligations of the FHLB system. It makes loans to members (i.e., advances) in accordance with policies and procedures established by the Board of Directors of the FHLB. All FHLB advances must be fully secured by sufficient collateral as determined by the FHLB. The Federal Housing Finance Board (“FHFB”), an independent agency, controls the FHLB System, including the FHLB of Indianapolis.
The FHLB imposes various limitations on advances such as limiting the amount of certain types of real estate related collateral to 30% of a member’s capital and limiting total advances to a member. Interest rates charged for advances vary depending upon maturity, the cost of funds to the FHLB of Indianapolis and the purpose of the borrowing.
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The FHLBs are required to provide funds for the resolution of troubled savings associations and to contribute to affordable housing programs through direct loans or interest subsidies on advances targeted for community investment and low and moderate income housing projects.
As a member of the FHLB, the Bank is required to purchase and maintain stock in the FHLB of Indianapolis in an amount equal to at least 1% of its aggregate unpaid residential mortgage loans, home purchase contracts, or similar obligations at the beginning of each year. At December 31, 2023, the Bank’s investment in stock of the FHLB of Indianapolis was $34.5 million which exceeds the required stock purchase minimum for Horizon. For the year ended December 31, 2023, dividends paid by the FHLB of Indianapolis to the Bank on the FHLB stock totaled approximately $2.3 million, for an annualized rate paid in dividends of 6.5%.
Limitations on Rates Paid for Deposits; Restrictions on Brokered Deposits
FDIC regulations restrict the interest rates that less than well–capitalized insured depository institutions may pay on deposits and also restrict the ability of such institutions to accept brokered deposits. These regulations permit a “well capitalized” depository institution to accept, renew or roll over brokered deposits without restriction, and an “adequately capitalized” depository institution to accept, renew or roll over brokered deposits with a waiver from the FDIC (subject to certain restrictions on payments of rates). The regulations prohibit an “undercapitalized” depository institution from accepting, renewing or rolling over brokered deposits. These regulations contemplate that the definitions of “well capitalized,” “adequately capitalized” and “undercapitalized” will be the same as the definitions adopted by the agencies to implement the prompt corrective action provisions of FDICIA. The Bank is a well–capitalized institution, and management does not believe that these regulations have a materially adverse effect on the Bank’s current operations.
Community Reinvestment Act
Under the Community Reinvestment Act (“CRA”), the Bank has a continuing and affirmative obligation consistent with its safe and sound operation to help meet the credit needs of its entire community, including low and moderate income neighborhoods. The CRA does not establish specific lending requirements or programs for financial institutions nor does it limit an institution’s discretion to develop the types of products and services that it believes are best suited to its particular community, consistent with the CRA. The CRA requires the FDIC in connection with its examination of the Bank, to assess its record of meeting the credit needs of its community and to take that record into account in its evaluation of certain applications by the Bank. For example, the regulations specify that a bank’s CRA performance will be considered in its expansion proposals (e.g., branching and acquisitions of other financial institutions) and may be the basis for approving, denying or conditioning the approval of an application. As of the date of its most recent regulatory examination, the Bank was rated “satisfactory” with respect to its CRA compliance.
Gramm–Leach–Bliley Act, Financial Privacy
The Gramm–Leach–Bliley Act adopted in 1999 (“Gramm–Leach”) was intended to modernize the banking industry by removing barriers to affiliation among banks, insurance companies, the securities industry and other financial service providers. Gramm–Leach was responsible for establishing a distinct type of bank holding company, known as a financial holding company, which is allowed to engage in an expanded range of financial services, including banking, securities underwriting, insurance (both agency and underwriting) and merchant banking. As previously discussed, Horizon has qualified as, and elected to become, a financial holding company under the Gramm–Leach amendments to the BHC Act.
Under Gramm–Leach, federal banking regulators adopted rules limiting the ability of banks and other financial institutions to disclose non–public information about consumers to non–affiliated third parties. The rules require disclosure of privacy policies to consumers and, in some circumstances, allow consumers to prevent disclosure of certain personal information to non–affiliated third parties. The privacy provisions of Gramm–Leach affect how consumer information is transmitted through diversified financial services companies and conveyed to outside vendors.

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As a financial institution, the Bank handles a significant amount of sensitive data, including personal information. The Company does not disclose any non–public information about any current or former customers to anyone except as permitted by law and subject to contractual confidentiality provisions which restrict the release and use of such information.
We are also subject to guidance from the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council (“FFIEC”), an interagency body for five federal banking regulators, with respect to such matters as data privacy, disaster recovery and cybersecurity.
Horizon continues to monitor existing and new privacy and data security laws for their impact on Horizon’s business operations and its customers, including the applicability and effect of laws such as the European Union’s comprehensive 2018 General Data Privacy Regulation and the California Consumer Privacy Act that went into effect on January 1, 2020.
Interchange Fees for Debit Cards
Under the Dodd–Frank Act, interchange fees for bank card transactions must be reasonable and proportional to the issuer’s incremental cost incurred with respect to the transaction plus certain fraud related costs. Interchange fees are transaction fees between banks for each bank card transaction, designed to reimburse the card-issuing bank for the costs of handling and credit risk inherent in a bank credit or debit card transaction. Although institutions with total assets of less than $10 billion, like the Bank, are exempt from this requirement, regulatory pressures may, over time, require smaller depository institutions to reduce fees with respect to these bank card transactions.
Other Regulation
In addition to the matters discussed above, the Bank is subject to additional regulation of its activities, including a variety of consumer protection regulations affecting its lending, deposit and debt collection activities and regulations affecting secondary mortgage market activities. Both federal and state law extensively regulate various aspects of the banking business, such as reserve requirements, truth-in-lending and truth-in-savings disclosures, equal credit opportunity, fair credit reporting, trading in securities and other aspects of banking operations.
Effect of Governmental Monetary Policies
The Bank’s earnings are affected by domestic economic conditions and the monetary and fiscal policies of the United States government and its agencies. The Federal Reserve’s monetary policies have had, and are likely to continue to have, an important impact on the operating results of commercial banks through its power to implement national monetary policy in order, among other things, to curb inflation or combat a recession. The monetary policies of the Federal Reserve have major effects upon the levels of bank loans, investments and deposits through its open market operations in United States government securities and through its regulation of the discount rate on borrowings of member banks and the reserve requirements against member bank deposits. It is not possible to predict the nature or impact of future changes in monetary and fiscal policies.
Legislative Initiatives
Additional legislative and administrative actions affecting the banking industry may be considered by the United States Congress, state legislatures and various regulatory agencies. Horizon cannot predict with certainty whether such legislative or administrative action will be enacted or the extent to which the banking industry in general or Horizon and its affiliates in particular will be affected.
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
An investment in Horizon’s securities is subject to numerous risks and uncertainties related to our business. The material risks and uncertainties that management believes currently affect Horizon are described below, categorized as risks related to our business, risks related to the banking industry generally, and risks related to our common stock. Additional risks and uncertainties that management is not aware of or that management currently deems immaterial may also impair Horizon's business operations and its financial results. This report is qualified in its entirety by these risk factors. If any of the following risks actually occur, our business, financial condition and results
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of operations could be materially and adversely affected. If this were to happen, the value of our securities could decline significantly, and you could lose all or part of your investment. As a result, before making an investment decision, you should carefully consider these risks as well as information we include or incorporate by reference in this report and other filings we make with the SEC.
Some statements in the following risk factors constitute forward–looking statements. Please refer to "Forward–Looking Statements" beginning on page 3 of this Annual Report on Form 10–K.
Risks Related to Our Business
As a financial institution, we are subject to a number of risks relating to our daily business. Although we undertake a variety of efforts to manage and control those risks, many of the risks are outside of our control. Among the risks we face are the following:
Credit Risk – the risk that loan customers or other parties will be unable to perform their contractual obligations;
Market Risk – the risk that changes in market rates and prices will adversely affect our financial condition or results of operation;
Liquidity Risk – the risk that Horizon or the Bank will have insufficient cash or access to cash to meet its operating needs;
Operational Risk – the risk of financial and reputational loss resulting from fraud, inadequate or failed internal processes, cyber–security breaches, people and systems, or external events;
Economic Risk – the risk that the economy in our markets could decline resulting in increased unemployment, decreased real estate values and increased loan charge–offs;
Compliance Risk – the risk of additional action by our regulators or additional regulation that could hinder our ability to do business profitably;
Legal/Regulatory Risk – the risk presented by the need to comply with all laws, rules and regulations from multiple regulatory agencies, including but not limited to the FDIC, CFPB, Indiana Department of Financial Institutions, Federal Reserve Bank and the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve, and the Department of Labor; and
Fiduciary Risk – the risk of failing to act in our fiduciary capacity in the best interests of the grantors and beneficiaries of trust accounts and benefit plans.

Credit Risk

Our commercial, residential mortgage and consumer loans expose us to increased credit risks.

We have a large percentage of commercial, residential mortgage and consumer loans. Commercial loans generally have greater credit risk than residential mortgage and consumer loans because repayment of these loans often depends on the successful business operations of the borrowers. Commercial real estate loans generally have greater risk because repayment of these loans is often dependent upon income being generated in amounts sufficient to cover operating costs and debt service. Both types of commercial loans also typically have much larger loan balances than residential mortgage and consumer loans. Consumer loans generally involve greater risk than residential mortgage loans because they are unsecured or secured by assets that depreciate in value. Although we undertake a variety of underwriting, monitoring and reserving protections with respect to these types of loans, there can be no guarantee that we will not suffer unexpected losses. Residential mortgage loans and consumer loans are at risk due to the continuing volatility of unemployment rates and increasing interest rates, which may adversely affect the underlying real estate and other collateral values and the ability of our borrowers to repay their loans on scheduled terms.


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Our holdings of construction, land and home equity loans may pose more credit risk than other types of mortgage loans.

Construction loans, loans secured by commercial real estate and home equity loans generally entail more risk than other types of mortgage loans. When real estate values decrease, the developers to whom we lend are likely to become non–performing as developers are unable to build and sell homes in volumes large enough for orderly repayment of loans and as other owners of such real estate (including homeowners) are unable to keep up with their payments. We strive to establish what we believe are adequate reserves on our financial statements to cover the credit risk of these loan portfolios. However, there can be no assurance that losses will not exceed our reserves, and ultimately result in a material level of charge–offs, which would adversely impact our results of operations, liquidity and capital.

The allowance for credit losses on loans may prove inadequate or be negatively affected by credit risk exposures.

Our business depends on the creditworthiness of our customers. We periodically review the allowance for credit losses for adequacy considering economic conditions and trends, collateral values, and credit quality indicators, including past charge–off experience and levels of past due loans and non–performing assets. There is no certainty that the allowance for credit losses will be adequate over time to cover credit losses in the portfolio because of unanticipated adverse changes in the economy, market conditions or events adversely affecting specific customers, industries or markets. If the credit quality of our customer base materially decreases, if the risk profile of a market, industry or group of customers changes materially, or if the allowance for credit losses is not adequate, our business, financial conditions, liquidity, capital, and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.

Market Risk

Changes in interest rates could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

Our financial condition and results of operations are significantly affected by changes in interest rates. We can neither predict with certainty nor control changes in interest rates. These changes can occur at any time and are affected by many factors, including international, national, regional and local economic conditions, competitive and inflationary pressures and monetary policies of the Federal Reserve.

Our results of operations depend substantially on our net interest income, which is the difference between the interest income that we earn on our interest earning assets and the interest expense that we pay on our interest bearing liabilities. Our profitability depends on our ability to manage our assets and liabilities during periods of changing interest rates. If rates increase rapidly, we may have to increase the rates paid on our deposits and borrowed funds more quickly than loans and investments re–price, resulting in a negative impact on interest spreads and net interest income. The impact of rising rates could be compounded if deposit customers funds away from us into direct investments, such as U.S. Government bonds, corporate securities and other investments, including mutual funds, which, because of the absence of federal deposit insurance premiums and reserve requirements, generally pay higher rates of return than those offered by financial institutions.

We also expect that we will periodically experience “gaps” in the interest rate sensitivities of our assets and liabilities, meaning that either our interest bearing liabilities will be more sensitive to changes in market interest rates than our interest earning assets, or vice versa. In either event, if market interest rates should move contrary to our position, this “gap” will negatively impact our earnings. The impact on earnings is more adverse when the slope of the yield curve flattens, that is, when short–term interest rates increase more than long–term interest rates or when long–term interest rates decrease more than short–term interest rates.

Changes in interest rates also could affect loan volume. For instance, an increase in interest rates could cause a decrease in the demand for mortgage loans (and other loans), which could result in a significant decline in our revenues. In addition, as market interest rates rise, the value of the Company's investment securities, particularly those that have fixed rates or longer maturities, could decrease. Increasing rates
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2023 Annual Report on Form 10–K
would also increase debt service requirements for some of the Bank's borrowers and may adversely affect those borrowers' ability to pay as contractually obligated and could result in additional delinquencies or charge–offs.

Conversely, should market interest rates fall below current levels, our net interest margin could also be negatively affected, as competitive pressures could keep us from further reducing rates on our deposits, and prepayments on loans may continue. Such movements may cause a decrease in our interest rate spread and net interest margin, and therefore, decrease our profitability.

We also are subject to reinvestment risk associated with changes in interest rates. Changes in interest rates may affect the average life of loans and mortgage–related securities. Increases in interest rates may decrease loan demand and/or may make it more difficult for borrowers to repay adjustable rate loans, which increases the potential for default. An increase in interest rates that adversely affects the ability of borrowers to pay the principal or interest on may also lead to an increase in non–performing assets and a reduction of income recognized, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and cash flows. Further, when we place a loan on non–accrual status, we reverse any accrued but unpaid interest receivable, which decreases interest income. At the same time, we continue to have a cost to fund the loan, which is reflected as interest expense, without any interest income to offset the associated funding expense.

Decreases in interest rates often result in increased prepayments of loans and mortgage–related securities, as borrowers refinance their loans to reduce borrowing costs. Under these circumstances, we are subject to reinvestment risk to the extent that we are unable to reinvest the cash received from such prepayments in loans or other investments that have interest rates that are comparable to the interest rates on existing loans and securities.

We are exposed to intangible asset risk in that our goodwill may become impaired.

As of December 31, 2023, we had $168.8 million of goodwill and other intangible assets. A significant and sustained decline in our stock price and market capitalization, a significant decline in our expected future cash flows, a significant adverse change in the business climate, or slower growth rates could result in impairment of goodwill. If we were to conclude that a future write-down of our goodwill is necessary, then we would record the appropriate charge, which could be materially adverse to our operating results and financial position. For further discussion, see Notes 1 and 8, “Nature of Operations and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” and “Goodwill and Intangible Assets,” to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 of our Annual Report on Form 10–K for the year ended December 31, 2023.

Our mortgage lending profitability could be significantly reduced as changes in interest rates could affect mortgage origination volume and pricing for selling mortgages on the secondary market.

Currently, we sell a substantial portion of the mortgage loans we originate. The profitability of our mortgage banking operations depends in large part upon our ability to originate and sell mortgages to the secondary market at a gain. A higher interest rate environment can negatively affect the volume of loan originations and refinanced loans reducing the dollar amount of loans available to be sold to the secondary market. Higher interest rates can also negatively affect the premium received on loans sold to the secondary market as competitive pressures to originate loans can reduce pricing.

Our ability to sell mortgage loans readily is dependent upon the availability of an active secondary market for single–family mortgage loans, which in turn depends in part upon the continuation of programs currently offered by Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac and Ginnie Mae (the “Agencies”) and other institutional and non–institutional investors. These entities account for a substantial portion of the secondary market in residential mortgage loans. Some of the largest participants in the secondary market, including the Agencies, are government–sponsored enterprises whose activities are governed by federal law. Any future changes in laws that significantly affect the activity of such government–sponsored enterprises could, in turn, adversely affect our operations.

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HORIZON BANCORP, INC.
2023 Annual Report on Form 10–K
Any significant impairment of our eligibility with any of the Agencies could materially and adversely affect our operations. Further, the criteria for loans to be accepted under such programs may be changed from time–to–time by the sponsoring entity which could result in a lower volume of corresponding loan originations. The profitability of participating in specific programs may vary depending on a number of factors, including our administrative costs of originating and purchasing qualifying loans and our costs of meeting such criteria.

The price of our common stock may fluctuate significantly, and this may make it difficult for you to resell our common stock at times or at prices you find attractive.

Although our common stock is listed on the NASDAQ Global Select Market, our stock price constantly changes, and we expect our stock price to continue to fluctuate in the future. Our stock price is impacted by a variety of factors, some of which are beyond our control.

These factors include:
variations in our operating results or the quality of our assets;
operating results that vary from the expectations of management, securities analysts and investors;
increases in loan losses, non–performing loans and other real estate owned;
changes in the U.S. corporate tax rates;
changes in expectations as to our future financial performance;
announcements of new products, strategic developments, new technology, acquisitions and other material events by us or our competitors;
ability to fund Horizon's assets through core deposits and/or wholesale funding;
the operating and securities prices performance of other companies that investors believe are comparable to us;
our inclusion on the Russell 2000 or other indices;
actual or anticipated sales of our equity or equity–related securities;
our past and future dividend practice;
our creditworthiness;
interest rates;
the credit, mortgage and housing markets, and the markets for securities relating to mortgage or housing;
developments with respect to financial institutions generally; and
economic, financial, geopolitical, regulatory, congressional or judicial events that affect us or the financial markets.

In addition, the stock market in general has experienced price and volume fluctuations. The volatility has had a significant effect on the market price of securities issued by many companies and particularly those in the financial services and banking sector, including for reasons unrelated to their operating performance. These broad market fluctuations may adversely affect our stock price, notwithstanding our operating results.

Because our stock is moderately traded, it may be more difficult for you to sell your shares or buy additional shares when you desire to do so and the price may be volatile.

Although our common stock has been listed on the NASDAQ stock market since December 2001, our common stock is moderately traded. The prices of moderately traded stocks, such as ours, can be more volatile than stocks traded in a large, active public market and can be more easily impacted by sales or purchases of large blocks of stock. Moderately traded stocks are also less liquid, and because of the low volume of trades, you may be unable to sell your shares when you desire to do so.


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Liquidity Risk

We are subject to liquidity risk in our operations, which could adversely affect the ability to fund various obligations.

Liquidity risk is the possibility of being unable to meet obligations as they come due, pay deposits when withdrawn, capitalized on growth opportunities as they arise, or pay dividends because of an inability to liquidate assets or obtain adequate funding on a timely basis, at a reasonable cost and within acceptable risk tolerances. Liquidity is derived primarily from retail deposit growth and retention, principal and interest payments on loans and investment securities, net cash provided from operations, and access to other funding sources. Liquidity is essential to our business. We must maintain sufficient funds to respond to the needs of depositors and borrowers. An inability to raise funds through deposits, borrowings, the sale or pledging as collateral of loans and other assets could have a material adverse effect on our liquidity.

Our access to funding sources in amounts adequate to finance our activities could be impaired by factors that affect us specifically or the financial services industry in general. Factors that could detrimentally impact our access to liquidity sources include a decrease in the level of our business activity due to a market downturn, failures of other financial institutions which reduces overall market confidence in the banking and financial services industry, or regulatory action that limits or eliminates our access to alternate funding sources. Our ability to borrow could also be impaired by factors that are nonspecific to us, such as severe disruption of the financial markets or negative expectations about the prospects for the financial services industry as a whole, as evidenced by the recent failures of certain depository institutions and the resulting market turmoil and volatility stemming from such failures.

Unrealized losses in our investment portfolio could adversely affect liquidity.

As market interest rates increased during 2022 and 2023, we have experienced increased unrealized losses within our investment portfolio. Our investment portfolio consists of obligations of the U.S. Treasury and federal agencies, obligations of state and local municipalities, federal agency mortgage obligations, private labeled mortgage–backed pools and corporate notes. Many of these instruments are particularly sensitive to interest rate fluctuations, especially long–term fixed–income securities. The unrealized losses for available for sale investments is reflected in Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (“AOCI”) on our balance sheet and reduces our book capital and tangible common equity ratio. However, unrealized losses do not affect our regulatory capital ratios.

Management continues to actively monitor the investment portfolio and does not currently anticipate the need to realize material losses from the investment portfolio, and we believe it is unlikely we would be required to sell the securities before recovery of their amortized cost bases, which may be at maturity. However, our access to liquidity sources could be affected by unrealized losses if securities within the investment portfolio must be sold at a loss or tangible capital ratios decline from an increase in unrealized losses or realized credit losses.

We may need to raise additional capital in the future, and such capital may not be available when needed or at all.

We may need to raise additional capital in the future to fund acquisitions and to provide us with sufficient capital resources and liquidity to meet our commitments, regulatory capital requirements and business needs, particularly if our asset quality or earnings were to deteriorate significantly. Although we are currently, and have historically been, “well capitalized” for regulatory purposes, in the past we have been required to maintain increased levels of capital in connection with certain acquisitions. Additionally, we periodically explore acquisition opportunities with other financial institutions, some of which are in distressed financial condition. Any future acquisition, particularly the acquisition of a significantly troubled institution or an institution of comparable size to us, may require us to raise additional capital in order to obtain regulatory approval and/or to remain well capitalized.


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Our ability to raise additional capital, if needed, will depend on, among other things, conditions in the capital markets at that time, which are outside of our control, and our financial performance. Economic conditions and the loss of confidence in financial institutions may increase our cost of funding and limit access to certain customary sources of capital, including inter–bank borrowings, repurchase agreements and borrowings from the discount window of the Federal Reserve.

We cannot guarantee that such capital will be available on acceptable terms or at all. Any occurrence that may limit our access to the capital markets, such as a decline in the confidence of debt purchasers, our depositors or counterparties participating in the capital markets, may adversely affect our capital costs and our ability to raise capital and, in turn, our liquidity. Moreover, if we need to raise capital in the future, we may have to do so when many other financial institutions are also seeking to raise capital and would have to compete with those institutions for investors. An inability to raise additional capital on acceptable terms when needed could have a materially adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations and may restrict our ability to grow.

Operational Risk

Our internal controls may be ineffective, circumvented, or fail.Our internal controls may be ineffective, circumvented, or fail

Management regularly reviews and updates our internal controls, disclosure controls and procedures, and corporate governance policies and procedures. Any system of controls, however well designed and operated, is based in part on certain assumptions and can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurances that the objectives of the system are met. Any failure or circumvention of our controls and procedures, failure to implement any necessary improvement of controls and procedures, or failure to comply with regulations related to controls and procedures could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial condition.Management regularly reviews and updates our internal controls, disclosure controls and procedures, and corporate governance policies and procedures. Any system of controls, however well designed and operated, is based in part on certain assumptions and can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurances that the objectives of the system are met. Any failure or circumvention of our controls and procedures, failure to implement any necessary improvement of controls and procedures, or failure to comply with regulations related to controls and procedures could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

Our information systems may experience cyber–attacks or an interruption or breach in security. Our cybersecurity systems could be inadequate or fail.

We rely heavily on internal and outsourced technologies, communications, and information systems to conduct our business. Additionally, in the normal course of business, we collect, process and retain sensitive and confidential information regarding our customers. As our reliance on technology has increased, so have the potential risks of a technology–related operational interruption (such as disruptions in our customer relationship management, general ledger, deposit, loan, or other systems) or the occurrence of cyber–attacks (such as unauthorized access to our systems, computer viruses, ransom ware, or other malicious code). These risks have increased for all financial institutions as new technologies, advancement consumer applications and the increase adoption of mobile devices, have become commonly used to conduct financial and other business transactions, during a time of increased technological sophistication of organized crime, perpetrators of fraud, hackers, terrorists and others. In addition to cyber–attacks or other security breaches involving the theft of sensitive and confidential information, hackers recently have engaged in attacks against large financial institutions, particularly denial of service attacks, which are designed to disrupt key business services, such as customer–facing web sites. Although we have programs in place related to business continuity, disaster recovery and information security to maintain the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of our systems, business applications and customer information, we are not able to anticipate or implement effective preventive measures against all cyber–security threats, especially because the techniques used change frequently and because attacks can originate from a wide variety of sources, both domestic and foreign.

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We also face risks related to cyber–attacks and other security breaches in connection with credit card and debit card transactions that typically involve the transmission of sensitive information regarding our customers through various third parties, including merchant acquiring banks, payment processors, payment card networks and our processors. Some of these parties have in the past been the target of security breaches and cyber–attacks, and because the transactions involve third parties and environments such as the point of sale that we do not control or secure, future security breaches or cyber–attacks affecting any of these third parties could impact us through no fault of our own, and in some cases, we may have exposure and suffer losses for breaches or attacks relating to them. Further cyber–attacks or other breaches in the future, whether affecting us or others, could intensify consumer concern and regulatory focus and result in reduced use of payment cards and increased costs, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business.

To the extent we are involved in any future cyber–attacks or other breaches, we may be required to expend significant additional resources to modify our protective measures or to investigate and remediate vulnerabilities or other exposures, and we may be subject to litigation and financial losses that are either not insured against or not fully covered through any insurance we maintain. We could also suffer significant damage to our reputation. Although we are insured against many of these risks, including privacy breach response costs, notification expenses, breach support and credit monitoring expenses, cyber extortion and cyber terrorism, there can be no assurances that such insurance will be sufficient to cover all costs arising from a data or information technology breach and our exposure may exceed our coverage.

Acts of terrorism or war, as well as the threat of terrorism or war, may adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity.

Any act of terror, sustained military campaign, or war (threat of any of the foregoing) may cause general economic decline and instability, volatility and/or weakness of U.S. and global financial markets. Historically, U.S. and global markets have been adversely impacted by political and civil unrest occurring in the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Russia, Venezuela and Asia. The current Russia and Ukraine conflict has raised similar economic and financial market concerns causing uncertainty and disruption in financial markets globally and further straining an already struggling global supply chain. Furthermore, such events have the potential to adversely impact the availability of commodities, commodity prices, and create global inflationary pressures.

As a result of any such events, the demand for our products and services may be significantly impacted and could influence the recognition of credit losses in our loan portfolio and increase our allowance for credit losses as both businesses and consumers are negatively impacted by such events and the economic uncertainty and volatility related thereto. They may also cause significant decreases in value in our investment portfolio, cause us to have to raise capital, or take other unforeseen actions to offset such effects.

The extent to which such actions may impact our business, results of operations, and financial condition, as well as our regulatory capital and liquidity ratios, will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain, including the scope and duration of such conflicts and actions taken by governmental authorities and other third parties in response thereto. Even after such conflicts subside, the U.S. and global economies often require some time to recover, the length of which is unknown.

Any continued or further negative impact on economic conditions and global markets from these developments could adversely affect our business, financial condition and liquidity.

Pandemics, other global or regional health crises or disease outbreaks, natural disasters, global climate change, acts of terrorism and global conflicts may have a negative impact on our business.

Pandemics, such as the COVID–19 pandemic, other global or regional health crises or disease outbreaks, natural disasters, global climate change, acts of terrorism, global conflicts or other similar events have in the past, and may in the future have, a negative impact on our business and operations. These events impact us negatively to the extent that they result in reduced capital markets activity, lower asset price levels, or disruptions in general economic activity in the United States or abroad, or in financial market settlement
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functions. In addition, these or similar events may impact economic growth negatively, which could have an adverse effect on our business and operations and may have other adverse effects on us in ways that we are unable to predict.

The preparation of our financial statements requires the use of estimates that may vary from actual results.

The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States requires management to make significant estimates that affect the financial statements. One of our most critical estimates is the level of the allowance for credit losses. Due to the inherent nature of these estimates, we cannot provide absolute assurance that we will not have to increase the allowance for loan losses and/or sustain loan losses that are significantly higher than the provided allowance.

Our mortgage warehouse and indirect lending operations are subject to a higher fraud risk than our other lending operations.

We provide credit facilities for loans originated by mortgage bankers and originate auto loans through automobile dealers. Because we must rely on the mortgage bankers and automobile dealers in making and documenting these loans, there is an increased risk of fraud to us on the part of the third–party originators and the underlying borrowers. In order to guard against this increased risk, we perform investigations on the mortgage companies and other third parties who originate loans we purchase, and we review the loan files and loan documents we purchase to attempt to detect any irregularities or legal noncompliance. However, there is no guarantee that our procedures will detect all cases of fraud or legal noncompliance.

We rely on other companies to provide key components of our business infrastructure.

Third–party vendors provide key components of our business infrastructure, including Internet connections, mobile and internet banking, statement processing, loan document preparation, network access and transaction and other processing services. Although we have selected these third–party vendors carefully, we do not control their actions. Any problems caused by these third parties, including as a result of inadequate or interrupted service or breach of customer information, could adversely affect our ability to deliver products and services to our customers and otherwise to conduct our business. In addition, any breach in customer information could affect our reputation and cause legal liability and a loss of business. Replacing these third–party vendors also could result in significant delay and expense.

The loss of key members of our senior management team and our lending teams could affect our ability to operate effectively.

We depend heavily on the services of our existing senior management team to carry out our business and investment strategies. As we continue to grow and expand our business and our locations, products and services, we will increasingly need to rely on our senior management team's experience, judgment and expertise. We also depend heavily on our experienced and effective lending teams and their respective special market insights, including, for example, our agricultural lending specialists. In addition to the importance of retaining our lending team, we will also need to continue to attract and retain qualified banking personnel at all levels. Competition for such personnel is intense in our geographic market areas. If we are unable to attract and retain an effective lending team and other talented people, our business could suffer. The loss of the services of any senior management personnel or the inability to recruit and retain qualified lending and other personnel in the future, could have a material adverse effect on our consolidated results of operations, financial condition and prospects.

Our inability to continue to process large volumes of transactions accurately could adversely impact our business and financial results.

We process large volumes of transactions on a daily basis and are exposed to numerous types of operational risk. Operational risk resulting from inadequate or failed internal processes, people and systems includes the risk of fraud by persons inside or outside Horizon, the execution of unauthorized transactions
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by employees, errors relating to transaction processing and systems, and breaches of the internal control system and compliance requirements. This risk of loss also includes the potential legal actions that could arise as a result of the operational deficiency or as a result of noncompliance with applicable regulatory standards. Accordingly, if systems of internal control should fail to work as expected, if systems are used in an unauthorized manner, or if employees subvert the system of internal controls, significant losses could result.

We establish and maintain systems of internal operational controls that are designed to provide us with timely and accurate information about our level of operational risk. While not foolproof, these systems have been designed to manage operational risk at appropriate, cost–effective levels. Procedures also exist that are designed to ensure that policies relating to conduct, ethics and business practices are followed. If these systems fail, significant losses could result.

While we continually monitor and improve the system of internal controls, data processing systems and corporate–wide processes and procedures, there can be no assurance that future losses will not occur.

Potential acquisitions may disrupt our business and dilute stockholder value.

We periodically evaluate merger and acquisition opportunities and conduct due diligence activities related to possible transactions with other financial institutions and financial service companies. We generally seek merger or acquisition partners that are culturally similar and possess either significant market presence or have potential for improved profitability through financial management, economies of scale or expanded services. Acquiring other banks, businesses, or branch involves various risks commonly associated with acquisitions, including, among other things:
potential exposures to unknown or contingent liabilities of the target company;
exposure to potential asset quality issues of the target company;
potential disruption to our business;
potential diversion of our management's time and attention away from day–to–day operations;
the possible loss of key employees, business and customers of the target company;
difficulty in estimating the value of the target company; and
potential problems in integrating the target company's data processing and ancillary systems, customers and employees with ours.

As a result, merger or acquisition discussions and, in some cases, negotiations may take place and future mergers or acquisitions involving the payment of cash or the issuance of our debt or equity securities may occur at any time. Acquisitions typically involve the payment of a premium over book and market values, and, therefore, some dilution of our tangible book value and net income per common share may occur in connection with any future transaction. To the extent we were to issue additional shares of common stock in any such transaction, our current shareholders would be diluted and such an issuance may have the effect of decreasing our stock price, perhaps significantly. Furthermore, failure to realize the expected revenue increases, cost savings, increases in geographic or product presence, and/or other projected benefits from an acquisition could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

In addition, merger and acquisition costs incurred by Horizon may temporarily increase operating expenses.

Economic Risk

An economic slowdown in our primary market areas could affect our business.

Our primary market area for deposit and loans consists of northern and central Indiana and southern and central Michigan. An economic slowdown could hurt our business and the possible consequences of such a downturn could include the following:
increases in loan delinquencies and foreclosures;
declines in the value of real estate and other collateral securing loans;
an increase in loans charged off;
an increase in expense to fund loan loss reserves;
an increase in collection costs;
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a decline in the demand for our products and services; and
an increase in non–accrual loans and other real estate owned.

Recent negative developments affecting the banking industry, and resulting media coverage, have eroded customer confidence in the banking system and could have a material effect on our operations and/or stock price.

High–profile 2023 bank failures including Silicon Valley Bank, Signature Bank and First Republic Bank have generated significant market volatility among publicly traded bank holding companies and, in particular, regional banks. These market developments have negatively impacted customer confidence in the safety and soundness of financial institutions, as well as have caused significant disruption, volatility and reduced valuations of equity and other securities of banks in the capital markets. These events occurred during a period of rapidly rising interest rates which, among other things, has resulted in unrealized losses in longer duration securities and loans held by banks, more competition for bank deposits and may increase the risk of a potential recession. These market developments have caused general uncertainty and concern regarding the liquidity adequacy of the banking industry and in particular, regional banks like Horizon. As a result, customers may choose to maintain deposits with larger financial institutions or invest in higher yielding short–term fixed income securities, all of which could materially adversely impact our liquidity, loan funding capacity, net interest margin, capital and results of operations. In connection with high–profile bank failures, uncertainty and concern has been, and may be in the future, compounded by advances in technology that increase the speed at which deposits can be moved, as well as the speed and reach of media attention, including social media, and its ability to disseminate concerns or rumors, in each case potentially exacerbating liquidity concerns. While the Department of the Treasury, the Federal Reserve, and the FDIC have made statements ensuring that depositors of these recently failed banks would have access to their deposits, including previously uninsured deposit accounts, there is no guarantee that such actions will be successful in restoring customer confidence in regional banks and the banking system more broadly.

The soundness of other financial institutions could adversely affect us.

Financial services institutions are interrelated as a result of trading, clearing, counterparty, or other relationships. We have exposure to many different industries and counterparties, and we routinely execute transactions with counterparties in the financial services industry, including brokers and dealers, commercial banks, investment banks, mutual and hedge funds, and other institutional clients. Many of these transactions expose us to credit risk in the event of default by our counterparty or client. In addition, our credit risk may be exacerbated when the collateral held by us cannot be realized or is liquidated at prices not sufficient to recover the full amount of the loan or derivative exposure due us. There is no assurance that any such losses would not materially and adversely affect our results of operations or earnings.

Instability in global economic conditions and geopolitical matters, as well as volatility in financial markets, could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.

Instability in global economic conditions and geopolitical matters, as well as volatility in financial markets, could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition. The macroeconomic environment in the United States is susceptible to global events and volatility in financial markets. For example, global demand for products continues to exceed supply during the economic recovery from the COVID–19 pandemic, creating significant inflationary pressures which, in turn, may adversely impact consumer and business confidence and regional and global economic conditions, as well as our financial condition and results of operations. In addition, trade negotiations between the U.S. and other nations remain uncertain and could adversely impact economic and market conditions for Horizon and its clients and counterparties.


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2023 Annual Report on Form 10–K
Legal/Regulatory/Compliance Risk

As a public company, we face the risk of shareholder lawsuits and other related or unrelated litigation, particularly if we experience declines in the price of our common stock. We have been named as a party to purported class action and derivative lawsuits, and we may be named in additional litigation, all of which could require significant management time and attention and result in significant legal expenses.

As described in detail below in “Item 3 - Legal Proceedings,” on April 20, 2023, a putative class action was filed against the Company and two of its officers in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of New York, which asserts claims under §§ 10(b) and 20(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 alleging, among other things, the Company made materially false and misleading statements and failed to disclose material adverse facts which allegedly resulted in harm to a putative class of purchasers of our securities from March 9, 2022 and March 10, 2023. Derivative lawsuits have also been filed against the Company, as nominal defendant, and two of our officers and ten of our directors arising from the same events, alleging, among other things, breach of the officers and directors' fiduciary duties. Regardless of the merits, the expense of defending such litigation may have a substantial impact if our insurance carriers fail to cover the full cost of the litigation, and the time required to defend the actions could divert management’s attention from the day-to-day operations of our business, which could adversely affect our business, results of operations and cash flows. An unfavorable outcome in such litigation could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. The derivative lawsuits have been consolidated and stayed pending resolution of any motion to dismiss in the putative class action. Based on our initial review of these actions, management believes that the Company has strong defenses to the claims and intends to vigorously defend against them.

Any regulatory examination scrutiny or new regulatory requirements arising from the recent events in the banking industry could increase the Company's expenses and affect the Company's operations.

The Company also anticipates increased regulatory scrutiny – in the course of routine examinations and otherwise – and new regulations directed towards banks of similar size to the Bank, designed to address the recent negative developments in the banking industry, all of which may increase the Company's costs of doing business and reduce its profitability. As primarily a commercial bank, the Bank has a higher percentage of uninsured deposits compared to primarily retail focused banks. As a result, the Bank could face increased scrutiny or be viewed as higher risk by regulators and the investor community.

We may be exposed to risk of environmental liabilities with respect to real property to which we take title.

In the course of our business, we may own or foreclose and take title to real estate, and could be subject to environmental liabilities with respect to these properties (including liabilities for property damage, personal injury, investigation and clean-up costs incurred by these parties in connection with environmental contamination), or may be required to investigate or clean up hazardous or toxic substances, or chemical releases at a property.

We are subject to extensive regulation and changes in laws and regulatory policies could adversely affect our business.

Our operations are subject to extensive regulation by federal and state agencies. See “Regulation and Supervision” in the description of our Business in Item 1 of Part I of this report for detailed information on the laws and regulations to which we are subject. Many of these regulations are intended to protect depositors, the public or the FDIC insurance funds, not shareholders. Regulatory requirements affect our lending practices, capital structure, investment practices, dividend policy and many other aspects of our business. Changes in applicable laws, regulations or regulator policies can materially affect our business. The likelihood of any major changes in the future and their effects are impossible to predict. As an example, the Bank could experience higher credit losses because of federal or state legislation or by regulatory or bankruptcy court action that reduces the amount the Bank's borrowers are otherwise contractually required
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to pay under existing loan contracts. Also, the Bank could experience higher credit losses because of federal or state legislation or regulatory action that limits its ability to foreclose on property or other collateral or makes foreclosure less economically feasible.

We face other risks from recent actions of the U.S. Treasury and the Internal Revenue Service. In November 2016, these agencies issued a Notice making captive insurance company activities “transactions of interest” due to the potential for tax avoidance or evasion. We have a captive insurance company and it is not certain at this point how the Notice may impact us on our operation of the captive insurance company as a risk management tool.

Legislation enacted in recent years, together with additional actions announced by the U.S. Treasury and other regulatory agencies, continue to develop. It is not clear at this time what impact legislation and liquidity and funding initiatives of the U.S. Treasury and other bank regulatory agencies, and additional programs that may be initiated in the future, will have on the financial markets and the financial services industry.

We may also face compliance risks arising from the new and growing body of privacy and data security laws enacted by foreign governments, such as the European Union's comprehensive 2018 General Data Privacy Regulation, and by U.S. state governments, such as the California Consumer Privacy Act that went into effect on January 1, 2020.

Provisions in our articles of incorporation, our by–laws, and Indiana law may delay or prevent an acquisition of us by a third party.

Our articles of incorporation and by–laws and Indiana law contain provisions that have certain anti–takeover effects. While the purpose of these provisions is to strengthen the negotiating position of the board of directors in the event of a hostile takeover attempt, the overall effects of these provisions may be to render more difficult or discourage a merger, tender offer or proxy contest, the assumption of control by a holder of a large block of our shares, and the removal of incumbent directors and key management.

Our articles of incorporation provide for a staggered board, which means that only one–third of our board can be replaced by shareholders at any annual meeting. Our articles also provide that our directors may only be removed without cause by shareholders owning 70% or more of our outstanding common stock.

Our articles also preempt Indiana law with respect to business combinations with a person who acquires 10% or more of our common stock and provide that such transactions are subject to independent and super–majority shareholder approval requirements unless certain pricing and board pre–approval requirements are satisfied.

Our by–laws do not permit cumulative voting of shareholders in the election of directors, allowing the holders of a majority of our outstanding shares to control the election of all our directors, and our directors are elected by plurality voting; although, under our newly adopted Director Resignation Policy, directors not receiving a majority of the votes cast in an uncontested election are required to submit a resignation, which our Board has the discretion to accept or reject. Our by–laws also establish detailed procedures that shareholders must follow if they desire to nominate directors for election or otherwise present issues for consideration at a shareholders’ meeting.

These and other provisions of our governing documents and Indiana law are intended to provide the board of directors with the negotiating leverage to achieve a more favorable outcome for our shareholders in the event of an offer for the Company. However, there is no assurance that these same anti–takeover provisions could not have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a transaction or a change in control that shareholders might believe to be in their best interests.


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Fiduciary Risk

Our prior role as a trustee for employee stock ownership plans (“ESOPs”) may expose us to increased risk of litigation due to heightened scrutiny of this role by the U.S. Department of Labor and the plaintiffs' bar.

Prior to September 30, 2021, we acted as an independent trustee for corporate ESOP plans throughout the U.S. Over the last several years, the U.S. Department of Labor and the plaintiffs’ bar have been aggressively targeting ESOP trustees and transactions on a variety of fronts, including valuations and the amount that ESOP trustees pay to buy back stock from selling shareholders, as well as the indemnity agreements commonly used by ESOP companies to protect ESOP trustees from undue risk and liability exposure. In December 2021, Horizon reached a mediation settlement with the U.S. Department of Labor concerning ESOP valuations and sale transactions relating to ESOPs for which we acted as trustee. On September 30, 2021, we sold our ESOP trustee business to a third party. Despite exiting this line of business and our settlement with the U.S. Department of Labor with respect to many of our prior engagement, we may still be exposed to an increased risk of litigation from the U.S. Department of Labor and the plaintiffs’ bar for these historical activities.

General Risks

We continually encounter technological changes.

The financial services industry is continually undergoing rapid technological change with frequent introductions of new technology–driven products and services. The effective use of technology increases efficiency and enables financial institutions to better serve customers and to reduce costs. Our future success depends, in part, upon our ability to address the needs of our customers by using technology to provide products and services that will satisfy customer demands, as well as to create additional efficiencies in our operations. Many of our competitors have substantially greater resources to invest in technological improvements, and we may not be able to effectively implement new technology–driven products and services at the same speed at which our competitors do (or not at all) or be successful in marketing these products and services to our customers. Failure to successfully keep pace with technological change affecting the financial services industry could have a material adverse impact on our business and, in turn, our financial condition and results of operations.

We face intense competition in all phases of our business from other banks, financial institutions and non–banks.
The banking and financial services business in most of our markets is highly competitive. Our competitors include large banks, local community banks, savings and loan associations, securities and brokerage companies, mortgage companies, insurance companies, finance companies, money market mutual funds, credit unions, neo–banks (a digital or mobile–only bank that exists without any physical bank branches), and other non–bank financial and digital service providers, many of which have greater financial, marketing and technological resources than we do. Many of these competitors are not subject to the same regulatory restrictions that we are and may be able to compete more effectively as a result.

Also, technology and other changes have lowered barriers to entry and made it possible for customers to complete financial transactions using neo–banks, non–banks and financial technology (“FinTech”) companies that historically have involved banks at one or both ends of the transaction. These entities now offer products and services traditionally provided by banks and often at lower costs. The wide acceptance of Internet–based commerce has resulted in a number of alternative payment processing systems, and deposit and lending platforms in which banks play only minor roles. For example, consumers can maintain funds that would have historically been held as bank deposits in brokerage accounts or mutual funds. Consumers can also complete transactions such as paying bills and/or transferring funds directly without the assistance of banks. Use of emerging alternative payment platforms, such as Apple Pay, Google Pay, and PayPal can alter consumer credit card behavior and consequently impact our interchange fee income.


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2023 Annual Report on Form 10–K
The continuing process of eliminating banks as intermediaries, known as “disintermediation,” will likely result in the loss of additional fee income, as well as the loss of customer deposits and the related income generated from those deposits. The effects of disintermediation are also likely to continue to negatively impact the lending activities of traditional banks because of the fast growing number of FinTech companies that use software and technology to deliver mortgage lending and other financial services with fewer employees. A related risk is the migration of bank personnel away from the traditional bank environments into neo–banks, FinTech companies and other non–banks.

Increased competition in our markets may result in a decrease in the amounts of our loans and deposits, reduced spreads between loan rates and deposit rates or loan terms that are more favorable to the borrower. Any of these results could have a material adverse effect on our ability to maintain our earnings record, grow our loan portfolios and obtain low–cost funds. If increased competition causes us to significantly discount the interest rates we offer on loans or increase the amount we pay on deposits, our net interest income could be adversely impacted. If increased competition causes us to change our underwriting standards, we could be exposed to higher losses from lending activities. Additionally, many of our competitors are larger in total assets and capitalization and have greater access to capital markets.

Horizon is also experiencing an increase in competition to acquire other banks, due to the overall strength of financial institutions and their high capital levels. In addition, credit unions, private equity groups, and FinTech companies are now actively pursuing small bank acquisitions. Increased competition for bank acquisitions may slow Horizon’s ability to grow earning assets at comparable historical growth rates.
ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
Not applicable.
ITEM 1C. CYBERSECURITY
The Board established the Cyber Security Committee of the Board in December 2022 to augment the Board's oversight with cybersecurity focus and expertise and to complement the risk framework activities of the Enterprise Risk Management and Credit Policy Committee. The Cyber Security Committee considers risks associated with Horizon's overall cyber security and information technology programs; information technology audits; the security risk insurance that Horizon maintains for information technology, cyber security and privacy risks; Horizon's information security training programs; and compliance with all rules and regulations and risk control policies and procedures relating to information technology and cyber security.

Pursuant to the Cyber Security Committee Charter, the Cyber Security Committee is required to meet at least three times per year and report to the Board annually. The Cyber Security Committee met three times in 2023. In addition, the Cyber Security Committee Charter provides that a majority of the Cyber Security Committee's voting members must qualify as independent directors under SEC rules and NASDAQ listing standards. During 2023, 80% of the Cyber Security Committee's members qualified as independent.

Horizon's senior management briefs the Cyber Security Committee at each Cyber Security Committee meeting (see below for detailed discussion). In 2023, Horizon's information technology/cyber security program was audited by Horizon's internal and external auditors. The Cyber Security Committee Charter is posted on Horizon's website at www.horizonbank.com in the section headed “About Us – Investor Relations – Corporate Information” under the caption “Corporate Governance.”

Through Horizon's enterprise risk management framework and reporting functions, the Board, its Committees and Management assess and manage cybersecurity risks created by cybersecurity threats. Horizon's Vice President, Information Security and Audit Information Security officer (“Information Security Officer”) provides an annual Information Security Program report to the Board and as needed when cybersecurity risk is elevated. Horizon's Senior Vice President, Senior Technology Officer is a member of the Cyber Security Committee and reports on cyber security risks at each meeting a minimum of three times a year. The Senior Vice President, Senior Technology Officer reports to the Executive Vice President, Senior Operations Officer, who also is a member of the Cyber Security Committee. For independence, the Information Security Officer reports to Horizon's Senior Vice President,
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Senior Auditor and Compliance Officer. Horizon's risk escalation framework requires progressive escalation of cyber security risks to Management and its Committees, then to Board Committees and, ultimately, to the Board.

Management's Operations Committee meets monthly and provides oversight and governance of the technology and cyber security programs. The Senior Vice President, Senior Technology Officer and Information Security Officer are members of this committee and report monthly on the technology and cyber security programs. The Senior Vice President, Senior Technology Officer also is a member of Management's Enterprise Risk & Disclosure Committee, which meets a minimum of four times a year, to report on the technology and cyber security programs.
Horizon engages in regular assessments of its infrastructure, software systems, and network architecture, using internal cybersecurity experts and third–party specialists. It also maintains a third–party risk management program designed to identify, assess, and manage risk, including cybersecurity risks, associated with external service providers and our supply chain.

The Executive Vice President, Senior Operations Officer has 34 years of experience in operations and technology with an educational background in Business Administration. In the role of Senior Bank Operations Officer and Executive for the past 23 years, she oversees and works closely with Horizon's technology and security teams to develop and implement robust security measures to protect the Bank's systems, networks, and customer data. The Senior Bank Operations Officer stays current on the latest industry trends and emerging cyber threats through publications, webinars, seminars and banking association training around cyber security. She also collaborates with external agencies, such as law enforcement and regulatory bodies, to address cyber threats and ensure compliance with industry best practices.

The Senior Vice President, Senior Technology Officer has 27 years of experience in information technology, with the last 12 as the information technology leader for the Bank. He holds a Bachelor's Degree in Computer Science. He is an active member of FS–ISAC's Mergers an Acquisition Working Group, and a named author of their 2023 “Cybersecurity Best Practices in Mergers, Acquisitions and Divestiture Deals” publication. He also serves as an advisory member of the Indiana Governor's Executive Council on Cybersecurity. He attends numerous industry training sessions including those put on by the SANS Institute, PaloAlto, Cisco, Microsoft, the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA), and FS–ISAC.

The Vice President, Information Security and Audit Information Security Officer has 27 years as an IT Professional, with the last 8 as the cybersecurity leader for Horizon Bank with an education background in Technology. He has achieved numerous certifications throughout his career including the Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer (MCSE) and Certified Novell Engineering (CNE 5/6), and has demonstrated a continued commitment to excellence and has attained certification as a Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP) issued by ISC2 in 2022. Through continuous learning and professional development, the Information Security Officer has honed his expertise in cybersecurity frameworks, threat detection, incident response, and risk management. He also serves as a member of the Indiana Bankers Association (IBA) Cyber Security Committee and attends numerous industry training sessions including those put on by Microsoft, FS–ISAC, SANS Institute.

Notwithstanding our defensive measures and processes, the threat posed by cyber–attacks is severe. Our internal systems, processes, and controls are designed to mitigate loss from cyberattacks and, while we have experienced cybersecurity incidents in the past, to date, risks from cybersecurity threats have not materially affected our Company. See Item 1A. Risk Factors for further discussion of risks related to cyber security in Horizon's 2023 Annual Report on Form 10–K filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission.


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ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
The main office and full service branch of Horizon and the Bank is located at 515 Franklin Street, Michigan City, Indiana. The building located across the street from the main office of Horizon and the Bank, at 502 Franklin Street, houses the credit administration, operations, purchasing, and information technology departments of the Bank. In addition to these principal facilities, the Bank has 70 sales offices located in various cities and towns in northern and central Indiana and southern and central Michigan. Horizon maintains such branches and offices as it believes are necessary for the convenience of its customers and the community, and Horizon frequently assesses the suitability of all its business locations.
Horizon owns all of its facilities except for a leased office in Grand Rapids, Michigan.

ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

As of April 20, 2023, a putative class action lawsuit entitled Chad Key, et al. v. Horizon Bancorp, Inc., et al., Case No. 1:23-cv-02961 (”Securities Action”) was filed against the Company and two of its officers in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of New York. The Securities Action asserts claims under §§ 10(b) and 20(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 alleging, among other things, the Company made materially false and misleading statements and failed to disclose material adverse facts which allegedly resulted in harm to a putative class of purchasers of our securities from March 9, 2022 and March 10, 2023.

As of (1) August 28, 2023, a lawsuit related to the Securities Action was filed by Sally Hundley, derivatively on behalf of the Company, against the Company, as nominal defendant, and 2 of the Company's officers and 10 of its directors and (2) August 31, 2023, a lawsuit also related to the Securities Action was filed by Aziz Chowdhury, derivatively on behalf of the Company, against the Company, as nominal defendant, and 2 of the Company's officers and 10 of its directors (the “Derivatives Actions”) in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of New York. The Derivative Actions allege, among other things, breach of the officers and directors' fiduciary duties. The Derivative Actions have been consolidated and stayed pending resolution of any motion to dismiss in the Securities Action.

Based on our initial review of these actions, management believes that the Company has strong defenses to the claims and intends to vigorously defend against them. As of December 31, 2023, no liabilities related to the above matters were recorded because we have concluded such liabilities are not probable and the amounts of such liabilities are not reasonably estimable.

In addition to the matters described above, from time to time, Horizon and its subsidiaries are involved in various legal proceedings incidental to the conduct of their business. Management does not expect that the outcome of any such proceedings will have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial position or results of operations.
ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.
33

SPECIAL ITEM: INFORMATION ABOUT OUR EXECUTIVE OFFICERS
Thomas M. Prame54President of Horizon and the Bank since August 15, 2022; Executive Vice President at First Midwest Bancorp from May 2012 to March 2022. As previously disclosed, on January 17, 2023, the Board approved the appointment of Thomas M. Prame to serve as the Chief Executive Officer of both Horizon and the Bank, effective as of June 1, 2023.
Mark E. Secor57Executive Vice President of Horizon since January 2014; Chief Financial Officer and Executive Vice President of Horizon and the Bank since January 2009; Vice President, Chief Investment and Asset Liability Manager from June 2007 to January 2009; Chief Financial Officer of St. Joseph Capital Corp., Mishawaka, Indiana from 2004 to 2007. On November 7, 2023, Horizon announced a succession plan for its Chief Financial Officer. Horizon and Mark E. Secor have agreed that he will transition from his role as Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer (“CFO”) of Horizon and the Bank. Mr. Secor will continue in the role of Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer until a successor is appointed and support the transition process through April 30, 2024. Horizon has initiated a search process to identify Horizon's next CFO.
Kathie A. DeRuiter62Executive Vice President of Horizon and Senior Bank Operations Officer since January 2014; Senior Vice President, Senior Bank Operations Officer from January 2003 to January 2014; Vice President, Senior Bank Operations Officer from January 2000 to January 2003.
Todd A. Etzler57Executive Vice President and General Counsel since January 2021; Senior Vice President and General Counsel from July 2018 to December 2020; Vice President and General Counsel from March 2017 to July 2018; Corporate Secretary since January 2018. General Counsel of Family Express Corporation from July 2011 to March 2017.
Lynn M. Kerber55Executive Vice President and Senior Commercial Credit Officer since January 2021; Senior Vice President and Senior Commercial Credit Officer from May 2018 to December 2020; Executive Vice President and Chief Risk Officer, Chemical Financial Corporation June 2015 to August 2017; President of the Chemical Bank Foundation 2013 to 2017.
All officers are appointed annually by the Board of Directors of Horizon and the Bank, as applicable.
34

HORIZON BANCORP, INC.
PART II
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Common Stock and Related Stockholder Matters
Horizon common stock is traded on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol “HBNC.”
The approximate number of holders of record of Horizon’s outstanding common stock as of March 14, 2024 was 1,383.
The Equity Compensation Plan Information table appears under the caption “Equity Compensation Plan Information” in Item 12 below and is incorporated herein by reference.
Repurchases of Securities
There were no purchases by the Company of its common stock during the fourth quarter of 2023.
Performance Graph
The SEC requires Horizon to include a line graph comparing Horizon’s cumulative five–year total shareholder returns on the common shares with market and industry returns over the past five years. S&P Global Market Intelligence prepared the following graph. The return represented in the graph assumes the investment of $100 on December 31, 2018, and further assumes reinvestment of all dividends. The Company’s common stock began trading on the NASDAQ Global Market on February 1, 2007, and on the NASDAQ Global Select Market on January 2, 2014. Prior to that date, the common stock was traded on the NASDAQ Capital Market.
1274
December 31December 31December 31December 31December 31December 31
Index201820192020202120222023
Horizon Bancorp, Inc.100.00 123.69 107.78 145.97 109.09 109.56 
Russell 2000 Index100.00 125.53 150.58 172.90 137.56 160.85 
S&P U.S. SmallCap Banks Index100.00 125.46 113.94 158.62 139.85 140.55 
Source: S&P Global Market Intelligence
© 2023
35

HORIZON BANCORP, INC.
The following chart compares the change in market price of Horizon’s common stock since December 31, 2018 to that of publicly traded banks in Indiana and Michigan with assets greater than $500 million, excluding the reinvestment of dividends.
1551
December 31December 31December 31December 31December 31December 31
Index201820192020202120222023
Horizon Bancorp, Inc.100.00 120.41 100.51 132.13 95.56 90.68 
Indiana Banks (1)
100.00 114.06 104.26 130.42 116.22 111.53 
Michigan Banks (1)
100.00 112.31 107.02 143.18 120.22 117.48 
(1) Excludes merger targets
Source: S&P Global Market Intelligence
© 2023

ITEM 6.  RESERVED


36

HORIZON BANCORP, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of
Financial Condition and Results of Operations
(Table dollars in thousands except per share data)
ITEM 7.   MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Overview
Horizon is a registered bank holding company incorporated in Indiana and headquartered in Michigan City, Indiana. Horizon provides a broad range of banking services in northern and central Indiana and southern and central Michigan through its bank subsidiary, Horizon Bank. Horizon operates as a single segment, which is commercial banking. Horizon’s common stock is traded on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol HBNC. The Bank was founded in 1873 as a national association, and it remained a national association until its conversion to an Indiana commercial bank effective June 23, 2017. The Bank is a full–service commercial bank offering commercial and retail banking services, corporate and individual trust and agency services, and other services incident to banking.
Fourth Quarter and Full Year 2023 Highlights
Commercial loan growth totaled $85.7 million, increasing by 13.1% annualized during the quarter and 8.4% since December 31, 2022. Total loans were $4.42 billion at period end, increasing by 5.2% annualized during the quarter and 6.1% since December 31, 2022.
Deposits remained resilient, totaling $5.7 billion at period end, compared to $5.7 billion on September 30, 2023 and decreased 3.3% since December 31, 2022.

Net interest margin increased to 2.43% compared to 2.41% in the linked quarter. Interest income was $42.3 million compared to $42.1 million in the linked quarter.

Cash totaled $526.5 million at period end, providing significant flexibility to drive future net interest margin growth through deployment into higher yielding assets throughout 2024.

Excellent asset quality with net charge–offs representing 0.05% of average loans for the year, delinquent loans representing 0.38% of total loans at period end and non–performing loans representing 0.44% of total loans at period end, with the increase in provision during the year primarily attributable to loan growth.

In December, the Company announced a balance sheet repositioning that included the sale of $382.7 million in lower-yielding securities and the surrender of $113.9 million of bank owned life insurance (“BOLI”) policies. For the quarter, the Company recorded a net loss of $25.2 million, or $0.58 per diluted share. Excluding the $38.7 million after-tax impact of the balance sheet repositioning and approximately $705,000 in extraordinary expenses associated with previously disclosed staffing changes, the launch of Horizon Equipment Finance and the expansion of the Bank's treasury management capabilities, adjusted net income was $14.1 million, or $0.33 per diluted share, in the quarter. (See the “Non–GAAP Reconciliation of Net Income” table below.) This compared to third quarter 2023 net income of $16.2 million, or $0.37 per diluted share.

Horizon continues to maintain cash at the holding company level representing approximately eight quarters of dividend payments and fixed costs.
Critical Accounting Policies
The Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10–K for 2023 contain a summary of the Company’s significant accounting policies. Certain of these policies are important to the portrayal of the Company’s financial condition, since they require management to make difficult, complex or subjective judgments, some of which may relate to matters that are inherently uncertain. Management has identified the allowance for credit losses, goodwill and intangible assets, mortgage servicing rights, derivative instruments and valuation measurements as critical accounting policies.

37

HORIZON BANCORP, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of
Financial Condition and Results of Operations
(Table dollars in thousands except per share data)
Allowance for Credit Losses
The allowance for credit losses on loans and leases (“ACL”) replaces the allowance for loan and lease losses as a credit accounting estimate, as of January 1, 2020 with the adoption of ASU 2016–13, Financial Instruments–Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments.
The allowance for credit losses represents management’s best estimate of current expected credit losses over the life of the portfolio of loans and leases. Estimating credit losses requires judgment in determining loan specific attributes impacting the borrower’s ability to repay contractual obligations. Other factors such as economic forecasts used to determine a reasonable and supportable forecast, prepayment assumptions, the value of underlying collateral, and changes in size composition and risks within the portfolio are also considered.

The allowance for credit losses is assessed at each balance sheet date and adjustments are recorded in the provision for credit losses. The allowance is estimated based on loan level characteristics using historical loss rates, a reasonable and supportable economic forecast. Loan losses are estimated using the fair value of collateral for collateral–dependent loans, or when the borrower is experiencing financial difficulty such that repayment of the loan is expected to be made through the operation or sale of the collateral. Loan balances considered uncollectible are charged–off against the ACL. Assets purchased with credit deterioration (“PCD”) represent assets that are acquired with evidence of more than insignificant credit quality deterioration since origination at the acquisition date. At acquisition, the allowance for credit losses on PCD assets is booked directly to the ACL. Any subsequent changes in the ACL on PCD assets is recorded through the provision for credit losses. Management believes that the ACL is adequate to absorb the expected life of loan credit losses on the portfolio of loans and leases as of the balance sheet date. Actual losses incurred may differ materially from our estimates.
Allowance for Credit Losses on Off–Balance Sheet Credit Exposures
The Company estimates expected credit losses over the contractual period in which the Company is exposed to credit risk via a contractual obligation to extend credit, unless that obligation is unconditionally cancellable by the Company. The Company determines the estimated amount of expected credit extensions based on historical usage to calculate the amount of exposure for a loss estimate and has recorded an allowance.
Allowance for Credit Losses on Available for Sale Securities
For available for sale debt securities in an unrealized loss position, the Company first assesses whether it intends to sell, or it is more likely than not that it will be required to sell, the security before recovery of its amortized cost basis. If either of the criteria regarding intent or requirement to sell is met, the security's amortized cost basis is written down to fair value through income. For debt securities available for sale that do not meet the aforementioned criteria, the Company evaluates whether the decline in fair value has resulted from credit losses or other factors. In making this assessment, management considers the extent to which fair value is less than amortized cost, any changes to the rating of the security by a rating agency, and adverse conditions specifically related to the security, among other factors. If this assessment indicates that a credit loss exists, the present value of cash flows expected to be collected from the security are compared to the amortized cost basis of the security. If the present value of cash flows expected to be collected is less than the amortized cost basis, a credit loss exists and an ACL is recorded for the credit loss, limited by the amount that the fair value is less than the amortized cost basis. Any impairment that has not been recorded through an ACL is recorded in other comprehensive income.
Changes in the ACL are recorded as provision for, or reversal of, credit loss expense. Losses are charged against the allowance when management believes the available for sale security is confirmed to be uncollectible or when either of the criteria regarding intent or requirement to sell is met.

38

HORIZON BANCORP, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of
Financial Condition and Results of Operations
(Table dollars in thousands except per share data)
Allowance for Credit Losses on Held to Maturity Securities
For held to maturity securities, the Company conducts an assessment of its held to maturity securities at the time of purchase and on at least an annual basis to ensure such investment securities remain within appropriate levels of risk and continue to perform satisfactorily in fulfilling its obligations. The Company considers, among other factors, the nature of the securities and credit ratings or financial condition of the issuer. If available, the Company obtains a credit rating for issuers from the Nationally Recognized Statistical Rating Organization (“NRSRO”) for consideration. If this assessment indicates that a material credit loss exists, the present value of cash flows expected to be collected from the security are compared to the amortized cost basis of the security. If the present value of cash flows expected to be collected is less than the amortized cost basis, a credit loss exists and an ACL is recorded for the credit loss.
Goodwill and Intangible Assets
Management believes that the accounting for goodwill and other intangible assets also involves a higher degree of judgment than most other significant accounting policies. FASB ASC 350–10 establishes standards for the amortization of acquired intangible assets and impairment assessment of goodwill. At December 31, 2023, Horizon had core deposit intangibles of $13.6 million subject to amortization and $155.2 million of goodwill, which is not subject to amortization. Goodwill arising from business combinations represents the value attributable to unidentifiable intangible assets in the business acquired. Horizon’s goodwill relates to the value inherent in the banking industry and that value is dependent upon the ability of Horizon to provide quality, cost effective banking services in a competitive marketplace. The goodwill value is supported by revenue that is in part driven by the volume of business transacted. A decrease in earnings resulting from a decline in the customer base or the inability to deliver cost effective services over sustained periods can lead to impairment of goodwill that could adversely affect earnings in future periods. FASB ASC 350–10 requires an annual evaluation of goodwill for impairment.

At each reporting date between annual goodwill impairment tests, Horizon considers potential indicators of impairment. Impairment indicators considered comprised the condition of the economy and banking industry; government intervention and regulatory updates; the impact of recent events to financial performance and cost factors of the reporting unit; performance of the Company's stock and other relevant events. Horizon further considered the amount by which fair value exceeded book value in the most recent quantitative analysis and stress testing performed. At the conclusion of the assessment, the Company determined that as of December 31, 2023, it was more likely than not that the fair value exceeded its carrying value. Horizon will continue to monitor overall economic conditions and any other triggering events or circumstances that may indicate an impairment of goodwill in the future.
Mortgage Servicing Rights
Servicing assets are recognized as separate assets when rights are acquired through purchase or through the sale of financial assets on a servicing–retained basis. Capitalized servicing rights are amortized into non–interest income in proportion to, and over the period of, the estimated future net servicing income of the underlying financial assets. Servicing assets are evaluated regularly for impairment based upon the fair value of the rights as compared to amortized cost. Impairment is determined by stratifying servicing rights by predominant characteristics, such as interest rates, original loan terms and whether the loans are fixed or adjustable rate mortgages. Fair value is determined using prices for similar assets with similar characteristics, when available, or based upon discounted cash flows using market–based assumptions. When the book value of an individual stratum exceeds its fair value, an impairment reserve is recognized so that each individual stratum is carried at the lower of its amortized book value or fair value. In periods of falling market interest rates, accelerated loan prepayment can adversely affect the fair value of these mortgage–servicing rights relative to their book value. In the event that the fair value of these assets was to increase in the future, Horizon can recognize the increased fair value to the extent of the impairment allowance but cannot recognize an asset in excess of its amortized book value. Future changes in management’s assessment of the impairment of these servicing assets, as a result of changes in observable market data relating to market interest rates, loan prepayment speeds, and other factors, could impact Horizon’s financial condition and results of operations either positively or negatively.
39

HORIZON BANCORP, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of
Financial Condition and Results of Operations
(Table dollars in thousands except per share data)
Generally, when market interest rates decline and other factors favorable to prepayments occur, there is a corresponding increase in prepayments as customers refinance existing mortgages under more favorable interest rate terms. When a mortgage loan is prepaid, the anticipated cash flows associated with servicing that loan are terminated, resulting in a reduction of the fair value of the capitalized mortgage servicing rights. To the extent that actual borrower prepayments do not react as anticipated by the prepayment model (i.e., the historical data observed in the model does not correspond to actual market activity), it is possible that the prepayment model could fail to accurately predict mortgage prepayments and could result in significant earnings volatility. To estimate prepayment speeds, Horizon utilizes a third–party prepayment model, which is based upon statistically derived data linked to certain key principal indicators involving historical borrower prepayment activity associated with mortgage loans in the secondary market, current market interest rates and other factors, including Horizon’s own historical prepayment experience. For purposes of model valuation, estimates are made for each product type within the mortgage servicing rights portfolio on a monthly basis. In addition, on a quarterly basis Horizon engages a third party to independently test the value of its servicing asset.
Derivative Instruments
As part of the Company’s asset/liability management program, Horizon utilizes, from time–to–time, interest rate floors, caps or swaps to reduce the Company’s sensitivity to interest rate fluctuations. These are derivative instruments, which are recorded as assets or liabilities in the consolidated balance sheets at fair value. Changes in the fair values of derivatives are reported in the consolidated income statements or other comprehensive income (“OCI”) depending on the use of the derivative and whether the instrument qualifies for hedge accounting. The key criterion for the hedge accounting is that the hedged relationship must be highly effective in achieving offsetting changes in those cash flows that are attributable to the hedged risk, both at inception of the hedge and on an ongoing basis.
Horizon’s accounting policies related to derivatives reflect the guidance in FASB ASC 815–10. Derivatives that qualify for the hedge accounting treatment are designated as either: a hedge of the fair value of the recognized asset or liability or of an unrecognized firm commitment (a fair value hedge) or a hedge of a forecasted transaction or the variability of cash flows to be received or paid related to a recognized asset or liability (a cash flow hedge). For fair value hedges, the cumulative change in fair value of both the hedge instruments and the underlying loans is recorded in non–interest income. For cash flow hedges, changes in the fair values of the derivative instruments are reported in OCI to the extent the hedge is effective. The gains and losses on derivative instruments that are reported in OCI are reflected in the consolidated income statement in the periods in which the results of operations are impacted by the variability of the cash flows of the hedged item. Generally, net interest income is increased or decreased by amounts receivable or payable with respect to the derivatives, which qualify for hedge accounting. At inception of the hedge, Horizon establishes the method it uses for assessing the effectiveness of the hedging derivative and the measurement approach for determining the ineffective aspect of the hedge. The ineffective portion of the hedge, if any, is recognized currently in the consolidated statements of income. Horizon excludes the time value expiration of the hedge when measuring ineffectiveness.
Valuation Measurements
Valuation methodologies often involve a significant degree of judgment, particularly when there are no observable active markets for the items being valued. Investment securities and derivatives are carried at fair value, as defined in FASB ASC 820, which requires key judgments affecting how fair value for such assets and liabilities is determined. In addition, the outcomes of valuations have a direct bearing on the carrying amounts of goodwill, mortgage servicing rights, and pension and other post–retirement benefit obligations. To determine the values of these assets and liabilities, as well as the extent to which related assets may be impaired, management makes assumptions and estimates related to discount rates, asset returns, prepayment speeds and other factors. The use of different discount rates or other valuation assumptions could produce significantly different results, which could affect Horizon’s results of operations.


40

HORIZON BANCORP, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of
Financial Condition and Results of Operations
(Table dollars in thousands except per share data)
Analysis of Financial Condition
Horizon’s total assets were $7.9 billion as of December 31, 2023, an increase of $68.0 million from December 31, 2022. The increase was primarily in cash and due from banks of $403.0 million and in net loans of $260.1 million, offset by decreases in investment securities of $527.4 million and cash value of life insurance of $110.0 million.
Investment Securities
Investment securities carrying values totaled $2.5 billion at December 31, 2023, and consisted of Treasury and federal agency securities of $351.6 million (14.1%); state and municipal securities of $1.4 billion (55.8%); federal agency mortgage–backed pools of $460.9 million and federal agency collateralized mortgage obligations of $54.9 million (20.7%); private labeled mortgage–backed pools of $32.3 million (1.3%); and corporate securities of $200.7 million (8.1%).
As indicated above, 20.7% of the investment portfolio consists of mortgage–backed securities and collateralized mortgage obligations. These instruments are secured by residential mortgages of varying maturities. Principal and interest payments are received monthly as the underlying mortgages are repaid. These payments also include prepayments of mortgage balances as borrowers either sell their homes or refinance their mortgages. Therefore, mortgage–backed securities and collateralized mortgage obligations have maturities that are stated in terms of average life. The average life is the average amount of time that each dollar of principal is expected to be outstanding. As of December 31, 2023, the mortgage–backed securities and collateralized mortgage obligations in the investment portfolio had an average duration of just under 7 years. Securities that have interest rates above current market rates are purchased at a premium.
Available for sale municipal securities are priced by a third party using a pricing grid which estimates prices based on recent sales of similar securities. All municipal securities are investment grade or local non–rated issues. A credit review is performed annually on the municipal securities portfolio.
At December 31, 2023 and 2022, 22.0% and 33.0%, respectively, of investment securities were classified as available for sale. Securities classified as available for sale are carried at their fair value, with both unrealized gains and losses recorded, net of tax, directly to stockholders’ equity. Net depreciation on these securities totaled $87.4 million, which resulted in a balance of $69.0 million, net of tax, included in stockholders’ equity at December 31, 2023. This compared to net depreciation on securities which totaled $110.7 million, net of tax, included in stockholders’ equity at December 31, 2022.
Fair value is defined as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. A fair value hierarchy is also established which requires an entity to maximize the use of observable and minimize the use of unobservable inputs. There are three levels of inputs that may be used to measure fair value:
Level 1    Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2    Observable inputs other than Level 1 prices, such as quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities; quoted prices in markets that are not active; or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities.
Level 3    Unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity and that are significant to the fair value of the assets or liabilities.
When quoted market prices are available in an active market, securities are classified within Level 1 of the valuation hierarchy. There are no Level 1 securities. If quoted market prices are not available, then fair values are estimated by using pricing models, quoted prices of securities with similar characteristics or discounted cash flows. Level 2 securities include U.S. Treasury and Federal agency securities, State and municipal securities, Federal agency collateralized mortgage obligations, Federal agency mortgage-backed pools and corporate notes. For Level 2 securities, Horizon uses a third party service to determine fair value. In performing the valuations, the pricing service relies on models that consider security–specific details as well as relevant industry and economic factors. The most significant of these inputs are quoted market prices, interest rate spreads on relevant benchmark securities and
41

HORIZON BANCORP, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of
Financial Condition and Results of Operations
(Table dollars in thousands except per share data)
certain prepayment assumptions. To verify the reasonableness of the fair value determination by the service, Horizon has a portion of the Level 2 securities priced by an independent securities broker–dealer.
Unrealized gains and losses on available for sale securities, deemed temporary, are recorded, net of income tax, in a separate component of accumulated other comprehensive income on the balance sheet.
The following is a schedule of maturities of each categories of available for sale and held to maturity debt securities and the related weighted–average yield of such securities as of December 31, 2023:
One Year
or Less
After One Year
Through Five Years
After Five Years
Through Ten Years
After Ten Years
(dollars in thousands)AmountYieldAmountYieldAmountYieldAmountYield
Available for sale
U.S. Treasury and federal agencies(1)
$3,764 0.82 %$38,921 1.44 %$19,983 2.17 %$1,709 1.81 %
State and municipal195 0.51 %32,334 1.90 %104,704 2.30 %166,797 3.10 %
Federal agency collateralized mortgage obligations(2)
— — %921 3.04 %— — %2,659 3.61 %
Federal agency mortgage-backed pools(2)
— — %11,661 3.38 %5,825 2.61 %119,811 2.05 %
Private labeled mortgage-backed pools(2)
— — %— — %— — %— — %
Corporate notes1,448 3.45 %18,396 2.69 %16,516 4.29 %1,607 — %
Total available for sale5,407 1.52 %102,233 2.05 %147,028 2.52 %292,583 2.65 %
Held to maturity
U.S. Treasury and federal agencies(1)
8,054 2.10 %95,481 1.68 %84,004 2.45 %58,421 2.93 %
State and municipal25,115 3.01 %116,905 3.40 %86,835 3.37 %710,506 3.04 %
Federal agency collateralized mortgage obligations(2)
— — %— — %— — %43,479 2.40 %
Federal agency mortgage-backed pools(2)
— — %3,886 2.80 %124,040 2.36 %147,102 2.20 %
Private labeled mortgage-backed pools(2)
— — %— — %— — %27,734 2.91 %
Corporate notes— — %3,969 3.15 %133,227 4.45 %— — %
Total held to maturity33,169 2.79 %220,241 2.64 %428,106 3.23 %987,242 2.88 %
Total investment securities$38,576 2.61 %$322,474 2.45 %$575,134 3.05 %$1,279,825 2.82 %
(1) Fair value is based on contractual maturity or call date where a call option exists
(2) Maturity based upon final maturity date
The weighted–average interest rates are based on coupon rates for securities purchased at par value an on effective interest rates considering amortization or accretion if the securities were purchased at a premium or discount. Yields are not presented on a tax–equivalent basis.
As a member of the Federal Home Loan Bank system, Horizon is required to maintain an investment in the common stock of the Federal Home Loan Bank. The investment in common stock is based on a predetermined formula. At December 31, 2023 and 2022, Horizon had investments in the common stock of the Federal Home Loan Bank totaling $34.5 million and $26.7 million, respectively.
At December 31, 2023, Horizon did not maintain a trading account.
42

HORIZON BANCORP, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of
Financial Condition and Results of Operations
(Table dollars in thousands except per share data)
For more information about securities, see Note 3 – Securities to the Consolidated Financial Statements at Item 8.
Total Loans
Total loans, net of deferred fees/costs, the principal earning asset of the Bank, were $4.4 billion at December 31, 2023. The current level of total loans increased 6.3% from the December 31, 2022, level of $4.1 billion primarily due to an increase in commercial, consumer and residential mortgage loans, offset by a decrease in residential construction and mortgage warehouse loans during the year. The table below provides comparative detail on the loan categories.
December 31,December 31,DollarPercent
20232022ChangeChange
Commercial
Owner occupied real estate$640,731 $594,562 $46,169 7.8 %
Non–owner occupied real estate1,273,838 1,187,077 86,761 7.3 %
Residential spec homes13,489 10,838 2,651 24.5 %
Development & spec land34,039 27,358 6,681 24.4 %
Commercial and industrial712,863 647,587 65,276 10.1 %
Total commercial2,674,960 2,467,422 207,538 8.4 %
Real estate
Residential mortgage654,295 612,551 41,744 6.8 %
Residential construction26,841 40,741 (13,900)(34.1)%
Mortgage warehouse45,078 69,529 (24,451)(35.2)%
Total real estate726,214 722,821 3,393 0.5 %
Consumer
Direct installment52,366 56,614 (4,248)(7.5)%
Indirect installment399,946 500,549 (100,603)(20.1)%
Home equity564,144 410,592 153,552 37.4 %
Total consumer1,016,456 967,755 48,701 5.0 %
Total loans4,417,630 4,157,998 259,632 6.2 %
Allowance for loan losses(50,029)(50,464)435 (0.9)%
Loans, net$4,367,601 $4,107,534 $260,067 6.3 %
The acceptance and management of credit risk is an integral part of the Bank’s business as a financial intermediary. The Bank has established underwriting standards including a policy that monitors the lending function through strict administrative and reporting requirements as well as an internal loan review of commercial, residential real estate and consumer loans. The Bank also uses an independent third–party loan review function that regularly reviews asset quality.

43

HORIZON BANCORP, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of
Financial Condition and Results of Operations
(Table dollars in thousands except per share data)
Changes in the mix of the loan portfolio averages are shown in the following table.
December 31,December 31,December 31,
202320222021
Commercial$2,498,453 $2,280,553 $2,155,018 
Real estate675,520 621,163 591,395 
Mortgage warehouse54,798 89,409 206,932 
Consumer1,011,166 850,667 679,712 
Total average loans$4,239,937 $3,841,792 $3,633,057 
Maturities and Sensitivities of Loans to Changes in Interest Rates
The following table presents the maturity distribution of our loan portfolio as December 31, 2023. The table also presents the portion of loans that have fixed interest rates or variable interest rates that fluctuate over the life of the loans in accordance with changes in an interest rate index.
Due in
One Year
or Less
After One,
but Within
Five Years
After Five,
but Within
Fifteen Years
After
Fifteen Years
Total
Commercial$403,193 $1,108,871 $1,039,478 $123,418 $2,674,960 
Real estate1,252 10,979 53,770 615,135 681,136 
Mortgage warehouse45,078 — — — 45,078 
Consumer13,191 300,139 219,307 483,819 1,016,456 
Total$462,714 $1,419,989 $1,312,555 $1,222,372 $4,417,630 
Loans with fixed interest rates:
Commercial$140,081 $740,362 $365,557 $56,826 $1,302,826 
Real estate1,235 10,356 31,516 358,388 401,495 
Mortgage warehouse— — — — — 
Consumer9,324 281,406 204,320 22,228 517,278 
Total$150,640 $1,032,124 $601,393 $437,442 $2,221,599 
Loans with variable interest rates:
Commercial$263,112 $368,509 $673,921 $66,592 $1,372,134 
Real estate17 623 22,254 256,747 279,641 
Mortgage warehouse45,078 — — — 45,078