Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Item 6. Selected Financial Data
Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Note 1 · Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Note 2 · Segment Financial Information
Note 3 · Electric Utility Segment
Note 4· Bank Segment (Hei Only)
Note 5 · Short-Term Borrowings
Note 6 · Long-Term Debt
Note 7 · Shareholders' Equity
Note 8· Revenues
Note 9 · Retirement Benefits
Note 10 · Share-Based Compensation
Note 11 · Income Taxes
Note 12 · Cash Flows
Note 13 · Regulatory Restrictions on Net Assets
Note 14 · Significant Group Concentrations of Credit Risk
Note 15 · Fair Value Measurements
Note 16 · Termination of Proposed Merger and Other Matters
Note 17 · Quarterly Information (Unaudited)
Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
Item 9A. Controls and Procedures
Item 9B. Other Information
Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
Item 11. Executive Compensation
Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
Item 14. Principal Accounting Fees and Services
Item 15. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules
Hawaiian Electric Industries Earnings 2018-12-31
HE 10K Annual Report
10-K 1 hei-201810k.htm 10-K Document
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D. C. 20549
[X] ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE
SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018
[ ] TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF
THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Registrant; State of Incorporation;
Address; and Telephone Number
HAWAIIAN ELECTRIC INDUSTRIES, INC., a Hawaii corporation
1001 Bishop Street, Suite 2900, Honolulu, Hawaii 96813
Telephone (808) 543-5662
HAWAIIAN ELECTRIC COMPANY, INC., a Hawaii corporation
900 Richards Street, Honolulu, Hawaii 96813
Telephone (808) 543-7771
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
Name of each exchange
on which registered
Hawaiian Electric Industries, Inc.
Common Stock, Without Par Value
New York Stock Exchange
Hawaiian Electric Company, Inc.
Guarantee with respect to 6.50% Cumulative Quarterly
Income Preferred Securities Series 2004 (QUIPSSM)
of HECO Capital Trust III
New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
Title of each class
Hawaiian Electric Industries, Inc.
Hawaiian Electric Company, Inc.
Cumulative Preferred Stock
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Hawaiian Electric Industries Inc. Yes X No
Hawaiian Electric Company, Inc. Yes No X
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
Hawaiian Electric Industries Inc. Yes No X
Hawaiian Electric Company, Inc. Yes No X
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
Hawaiian Electric Industries Inc. Yes X No
Hawaiian Electric Company, Inc. Yes X No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).
Hawaiian Electric Industries Inc. Yes X No
Hawaiian Electric Company, Inc. Yes X No
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (section 229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. [ ]
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Hawaiian Electric Industries Inc.
Large accelerated filer X
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
Hawaiian Electric Company, Inc.
Large accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer X
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Hawaiian Electric Industries Inc. Yes No
Hawaiian Electric Company, Inc. Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).
Hawaiian Electric Industries Inc. Yes No X
Hawaiian Electric Company, Inc. Yes No X
Aggregate market value
of the voting and non-
voting common equity
held by non-affiliates of
the registrants as of
Number of shares of common stock
outstanding of the registrants as of
June 30, 2018
June 30, 2018
February 13, 2019
Hawaiian Electric Industries, Inc. (HEI)
(Without par value)
(Without par value)
Hawaiian Electric Company, Inc. (Hawaiian Electric)
($6 2/3 par value)
($6 2/3 par value)
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Hawaiian Electric’s Exhibit 99.1, consisting of:
Hawaiian Electric’s Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance—Part III
Hawaiian Electric’s Executive Compensation—Part III
Hawaiian Electric’s Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters—
Hawaiian Electric’s Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence—Part III
Hawaiian Electric’s Principal Accounting Fees and Services—Part III
Selected sections of Proxy Statement of HEI for the 2019 Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be filed-Part III
This combined Form 10-K represents separate filings by Hawaiian Electric Industries, Inc. and Hawaiian Electric Company, Inc. Information contained herein relating to any individual registrant is filed by each registrant on its own behalf. Hawaiian Electric makes no representations as to any information not relating to it or its subsidiaries.
Defined below are certain terms used in this report:
Accumulated benefit obligation
Accumulated deferred income tax balances
AES Hawaii, Inc.
Allowance for funds used during construction
Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)
Adequacy of supply
Accumulated postretirement benefit obligation
Asset retirement obligations
American Savings Bank, F.S.B., a wholly-owned subsidiary of ASB Hawaii Inc.
ASB Hawaii, Inc. (formerly American Savings Holdings, Inc.), a wholly-owned subsidiary of Hawaiian Electric Industries, Inc. and the parent company of American Savings Bank, F.S.B.
Accounting Standards Codification
Accounting Standards Update
British thermal unit
Clean Air Act
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act
Chevron Products Company, which assigned their fuel oil supply contracts with the Utilities to Island Energy Services, LLC.
Contributions in aid of construction
Campbell Industrial Park 110 MW combustion turbine No. 1
Customer Information System
When used in Hawaiian Electric Industries, Inc. sections and in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, “Company” refers to Hawaiian Electric Industries, Inc. and its direct and indirect subsidiaries, including, without limitation, Hawaiian Electric Company, Inc. and its subsidiaries (listed under Hawaiian Electric); ASB Hawaii, Inc. and its subsidiary, American Savings Bank, F.S.B.; Pacific Current, LLC and its subsidiaries, Hamakua Holdings, LLC (and its subsidiary, Hamakua Energy, LLC) and Mauo Holdings, LLC (and its subsidiary, Mauo, LLC); The Old Oahu Tug Service, Inc. (formerly Hawaiian Tug & Barge Corp.) and HEI Properties, Inc. (dissolved in 2015 and wound up in 2017).
When used in Hawaiian Electric Company, Inc. sections, “Company” refers to Hawaiian Electric Company, Inc. and its direct subsidiaries.
Consolidated Financial Statements
HEI’s or Hawaiian Electric’s Consolidated Financial Statements, including notes, in Item 8 of this Form 10-K
Division of Consumer Advocacy, Department of Commerce and Consumer Affairs of the State of Hawaii
Community-based renewable energy
Decision and order from the PUC
State of Hawaii Department of Business Economic Development and Tourism
State of Hawaii Department of Budget and Finance
Distributed energy resources
Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010
State of Hawaii Department of Health
HEI Dividend Reinvestment and Stock Purchase Plan
Energy cost adjustment clause
Energy cost recovery clause
Energy Efficiency Portfolio Standards
Electrical generating unit
2010 Executive Incentive Plan, as amended
Environmental Protection Agency - federal
Earnings per share
Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act of 1991
Federal Energy Regulatory Commission
Federal Home Loan Bank
Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation
Fair Isaac Corporation
Fitch Ratings, Inc.
Federal National Mortgage Association
Federal Reserve Board
Accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America
Government National Mortgage Association
Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act of 1999
Hamakua Energy, LLC, an indirect subsidiary of Pacific Current and successor in interest to Hamakua Energy Partners, L.P., an affiliate of Arclight Capital Partners (a Boston based private equity firm focused on energy infrastructure investments) and successor in interest to Encogen Hawaii, L.P.
Hawaii Electric Light
Hawaii Electric Light Company, Inc., an electric utility subsidiary of Hawaiian Electric Company, Inc.
Hawaiian Electric Company, Inc., an electric utility subsidiary of Hawaiian Electric Industries, Inc. and parent company of Hawaii Electric Light Company, Inc., Maui Electric Company, Limited, HECO Capital Trust III (unconsolidated financing subsidiary), Renewable Hawaii, Inc. and Uluwehiokama Biofuels Corp.
Hawaiian Electric’s MD&A
Hawaiian Electric Company, Inc.’s Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations in Item 7 of this Form 10-K
Hawaiian Electric Industries, Inc., direct parent company of Hawaiian Electric Company, Inc., ASB Hawaii, Inc., Pacific Current, LLC, The Old Oahu Tug Service, Inc. (formerly Hawaiian Tug & Barge Corp.) and HEI Properties, Inc. (dissolved in 2015 and wound up in 2017)
HEI’s 2019 Proxy Statement
Selected sections of Proxy Statement for the 2019 Annual Meeting of Shareholders of Hawaiian Electric Industries, Inc. to be filed after the date of this Form 10-K and not later than 120 days after December 31, 2018, which are incorporated in this Form 10-K by reference
Hawaiian Electric Industries, Inc.’s Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations in Item 7 of this Form 10-K
HEI Properties, Inc. (dissolved in 2015 and wound up in 2017), a wholly-owned subsidiary of Hawaiian Electric Industries, Inc.
Hawaiian Electric Industries Retirement Savings Plan
Home equity line of credit
City and County of Honolulu with respect to a power purchase agreement for a refuse-fired plant
Hawaiian Tug & Barge Corp. On November 10, 1999, HTB sold substantially all of its operating assets and the stock of its subsidiary, Young Brothers, Limited, and changed its name to The Old Oahu Tug Services, Inc.
Independent power producer
Integrated resource plan
Interest rate risk
Island Energy Services, LLC (a fuel oil supplier and subsidiary of One Rock Capital Partners, L.P.), who purchased Chevron’s Hawaii assets on November 1, 2016 and was assigned Chevron’s fuel oil supply contracts with the Utilities.
Kalaeloa Partners, L.P.
Kilowatt/s (as applicable)
Kilowatthour/s (as applicable)
Liquefied natural gas
Low sulfur fuel oil
GLOSSARY OF TERMS (continued)
Long-term incentive plan
Mercury and Air Toxics Standards
Maui Electric Company, Limited, an electric utility subsidiary of Hawaiian Electric Company, Inc.
Mauo, LLC, an indirect subsidiary of Pacific Current
Million British thermal unit
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
As provided in the Merger Agreement (see below), merger of NEE Acquisition Sub II, Inc. with and into HEI, with HEI surviving, and then merger of HEI with and into NEE Acquisition Sub I, LLC, with NEE Acquisition Sub I, LLC surviving as a wholly owned subsidiary of NextEra Energy, Inc.
Agreement and Plan of Merger by and among HEI, NextEra Energy, Inc., NEE Acquisition Sub II, Inc. and NEE Acquisition Sub I, LLC, dated December 3, 2014 and terminated July 16, 2016
Moody’s Investors Service’s
Memorandum of Understanding
Major Project Interim Recovery
Medium sulfur fuel oil
Mortgage servicing right
Megawatt/s (as applicable)
Megawatthour/s (as applicable)
National Ambient Air Quality Standard
NextEra Energy, Inc.
Net energy metering
Net interest income
Net periodic benefits costs
Net periodic pension costs
Other operation and maintenance
Office of the Comptroller of the Currency
Postretirement benefits other than pensions
Office of Thrift Supervision, Department of Treasury
Pacific Current, LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of HEI and indirect parent company of Hamakua Energy and Mauo
Projected benefit obligation
Puna Geothermal Venture
Performance incentive mechanisms
Power purchase agreement
Purchased power adjustment clause
Prevention of Significant Deterioration
Power Supply Improvement Plans
Public Utilities Commission of the State of Hawaii
Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978
Qualifying Facility under the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978
Qualified Thrift Lender
Rate adjustment mechanism
Revenue balancing account
Each of Hawaiian Electric Industries, Inc. and Hawaiian Electric Company, Inc.
Renewable Energy Infrastructure Program
Request for proposals
Renewable Hawaii, Inc., a wholly-owned nonregulated subsidiary of Hawaiian Electric Company, Inc.
Return on assets
Return on average common equity
GLOSSARY OF TERMS (continued)
Return on rate base
Renewable portfolio standards
Standard & Poor’s
Securities and Exchange Commission
Means the referenced material is incorporated by reference (or means refer to the referenced section in this document or the referenced exhibit or other document)
Savings & Loan Holding Companies
1987 Stock Option and Incentive Plan, as amended. Shares of HEI common stock reserved for issuance under the SOIP were deregistered and delisted in 2015.
The previously planned distribution to HEI shareholders of all of the common stock of ASB Hawaii immediately prior to the Merger, which was terminated
Special Purpose Revenue Bonds
State of Hawaii
2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (H.R. 1, An Act to provide for reconciliation pursuant to titles II and V of the concurrent resolution on the budget for fiscal year 2018)
Troubled debt restructuring
Tesoro Hawaii Corporation dba BHP Petroleum Americas Refining Inc., a fuel oil supplier
The Old Oahu Tug Service, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Hawaiian Electric Industries, Inc.
HECO Capital Trust III
Uluwehiokama Biofuels Corp., a wholly-owned nonregulated subsidiary of Hawaiian Electric Company, Inc.
Hawaiian Electric Company, Inc., Hawaii Electric Light Company, Inc. and Maui Electric Company, Limited
This report and other presentations made by Hawaiian Electric Industries, Inc. (HEI) and Hawaiian Electric Company, Inc. (Hawaiian Electric) and their subsidiaries contain “forward-looking statements,” which include statements that are predictive in nature, depend upon or refer to future events or conditions and usually include words such as “will,” “expects,” “anticipates,” “intends,” “plans,” “believes,” “predicts,” “estimates” or similar expressions. In addition, any statements concerning future financial performance, ongoing business strategies or prospects or possible future actions are also forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements are based on current expectations and projections about future events and are subject to risks, uncertainties and the accuracy of assumptions concerning HEI and its subsidiaries (collectively, the Company), the performance of the industries in which they do business and economic, political and market factors, among other things. These forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance.
Risks, uncertainties and other important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those described in forward-looking statements and from historical results include, but are not limited to, the following:
international, national and local economic and political conditions—including the state of the Hawaii tourism, defense and construction industries; the strength or weakness of the Hawaii and continental U.S. real estate markets (including the fair value and/or the actual performance of collateral underlying loans held by ASB, which could result in higher loan loss provisions and write-offs); decisions concerning the extent of the presence of the federal government and military in Hawaii; the implications and potential impacts of the Federal government partial shutdown, including the impact to our customers to pay their electric bills and/or bank loans and the impact on the state of Hawaii economy; the implications and potential impacts of U.S. and foreign capital and credit market conditions and federal, state and international responses to those conditions; and the potential impacts of global developments (including global economic conditions and uncertainties; unrest; conflicts or other crisis; the effects of changes that have or may occur in U.S. policy, such as with respect to immigration and trade; terrorist acts; and potential pandemics);
the effects of future actions or inaction of the U.S. government or related agencies, including those related to the U.S. debt ceiling or budget funding, monetary policy, trade policy and tariffs, and other policy and regulation changes advanced or proposed by President Trump and his administration;
weather, natural disasters (e.g., hurricanes, earthquakes, tsunamis, lightning strikes, lava flows and the potential effects of climate change, such as more severe storms, droughts, heat waves, and rising sea levels) and wildfires, including their impact on the Company’s and Utilities’ operations and the economy;
the timing, speed and extent of changes in interest rates and the shape of the yield curve;
the ability of the Company and the Utilities to access the credit and capital markets (e.g., to obtain commercial paper and other short-term and long-term debt financing, including lines of credit, and, in the case of HEI, to issue common stock) under volatile and challenging market conditions, and the cost of such financings, if available;
the risks inherent in changes in the value of the Company’s pension and other retirement plan assets and ASB’s securities available for sale;
changes in laws, regulations (including tax regulations), market conditions and other factors that result in changes in assumptions used to calculate retirement benefits costs and funding requirements;
the impact of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 (Dodd-Frank Act) and of the rules and regulations that the Dodd-Frank Act requires to be promulgated, as amended by the Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief and Consumer Protection Act;
increasing competition in the banking industry (e.g., increased price competition for deposits, or an outflow of deposits to alternative investments, which may have an adverse impact on ASB’s cost of funds);
the potential delay by the Public Utilities Commission of the State of Hawaii (PUC) in considering (and potential disapproval of actual or proposed) renewable energy proposals and related costs; reliance by the Utilities on outside parties such as the state, independent power producers (IPPs) and developers; and uncertainties surrounding technologies, solar power, wind power, biofuels, environmental assessments required to meet renewable portfolio standards (RPS) goals and the impacts of implementation of the renewable energy proposals on future costs of electricity;
the ability of the Utilities to develop, implement and recover the costs of implementing the Utilities’ action plans included in their updated Power Supply Improvement Plans (PSIPs), Demand Response Portfolio Plan, Distributed Generation Interconnection Plan, Grid Modernization Plans, and business model changes, which have been and are continuing to be developed and updated in response to the orders issued by the PUC, the PUC’s April 2014 statement of its inclinations on the future of Hawaii’s electric utilities and the vision, business strategies and regulatory policy changes required to align the Utilities’ business model with customer interests and the state’s public policy goals, and subsequent orders of the PUC;
capacity and supply constraints or difficulties, especially if generating units (utility-owned or IPP-owned) fail or measures such as demand-side management, distributed generation (DG), combined heat and power or other firm capacity supply-side resources fall short of achieving their forecasted benefits or are otherwise insufficient to reduce or meet peak demand;
fuel oil price changes, delivery of adequate fuel by suppliers and the continued availability to the electric utilities of their energy cost adjustment clauses (ECACs) and energy cost recovery clauses (ECRC);
the continued availability to the electric utilities or modifications of other cost recovery mechanisms, including the purchased power adjustment clauses (PPACs), rate adjustment mechanisms (RAMs) and pension and postretirement benefits other than pensions (OPEB) tracking mechanisms, and the continued decoupling of revenues from sales to mitigate the effects of declining kilowatthour sales;
the ability of the Utilities to achieve performance incentive goals currently in place;
the impact from the PUC’s implementation of performance-based ratemaking for the Utilities pursuant to Act 005, Session Laws 2018, including the potential addition of new performance incentive mechanisms, third party proposals adopted by the PUC in its implementation of PBR, and the implications of not achieving performance incentive goals;
the impact of fuel price levels and volatility on customer satisfaction and political and regulatory support for the Utilities;
the risks associated with increasing reliance on renewable energy, including the availability and cost of non-fossil fuel supplies for renewable energy generation and the operational impacts of adding intermittent sources of renewable energy to the electric grid;
the growing risk that energy production from renewable generating resources may be curtailed and the interconnection of additional resources will be constrained as more generating resources are added to the Utilities’ electric systems and as customers reduce their energy usage;
the ability of IPPs to deliver the firm capacity anticipated in their power purchase agreements (PPAs);
the potential that, as IPP contracts near the end of their terms, there may be less economic incentive for the IPPs to make investments in their units to ensure the availability of their units;
the ability of the Utilities to negotiate, periodically, favorable agreements for significant resources such as fuel supply contracts and collective bargaining agreements;
new technological developments that could affect the operations and prospects of the Utilities and ASB or their competitors such as the commercial development of energy storage and microgrids and banking through alternative channels;
cyber security risks and the potential for cyber incidents, including potential incidents at HEI, its third-party vendors, and its subsidiaries (including at ASB branches and electric utility plants) and incidents at data processing centers used, to the extent not prevented by intrusion detection and prevention systems, anti-virus software, firewalls and other general IT controls;
failure in addressing issues in the stabilization of the Enterprise Resource Planning/Enterprise Asset Management (ERP/EAM) (ERP/EAM) system implementation could adversely affect the Utilities’ ability to timely and accurately report financial information and make payments to vendors and employees;
failure to achieve cost savings consistent with the minimum $244 million in ERP/EAM project-related benefits (including $141 million in operation and maintenance (O&M) benefits) to be delivered to customers over its 12-year estimated useful life;
federal, state, county and international governmental and regulatory actions, such as existing, new and changes in laws, rules and regulations applicable to HEI, the Utilities and ASB (including changes in taxation, increases in capital requirements, regulatory policy changes, environmental laws and regulations (including resulting compliance costs and risks of fines and penalties and/or liabilities), the regulation of greenhouse gas emissions, governmental fees and assessments (such as Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation assessments), and potential carbon “cap and trade” legislation that may fundamentally alter costs to produce electricity and accelerate the move to renewable generation);
developments in laws, regulations and policies governing protections for historic, archaeological and cultural sites, and plant and animal species and habitats, as well as developments in the implementation and enforcement of such laws, regulations and policies;
discovery of conditions that may be attributable to historical chemical releases, including any necessary investigation and remediation, and any associated enforcement, litigation or regulatory oversight;
decisions by the PUC in rate cases and other proceedings (including the risks of delays in the timing of decisions, adverse changes in final decisions from interim decisions and the disallowance of project costs as a result of adverse regulatory audit reports or otherwise);
decisions by the PUC and by other agencies and courts on land use, environmental and other permitting issues (such as required corrective actions, restrictions and penalties that may arise, such as with respect to environmental conditions or RPS);
potential enforcement actions by the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC), the Federal Reserve Board (FRB), the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) and/or other governmental authorities (such as consent orders, required corrective actions, restrictions and penalties that may arise, for example, with respect to compliance deficiencies under existing or new banking and consumer protection laws and regulations or with respect to capital adequacy);
the ability of the Utilities to recover increasing costs and earn a reasonable return on capital investments not covered by RAMs;
the risks associated with the geographic concentration of HEI’s businesses and ASB’s loans, ASB’s concentration in a single product type (i.e., first mortgages) and ASB’s significant credit relationships (i.e., concentrations of large loans and/or credit lines with certain customers);
changes in accounting principles applicable to HEI and its subsidiaries, including the adoption of new U.S. accounting standards, the potential discontinuance of regulatory accounting, the effects of potentially required consolidation of variable interest entities (VIEs), or required capital/finance lease or on-balance-sheet operating lease accounting for PPAs with IPPs;
downgrades by securities rating agencies in their ratings of the securities of HEI and Hawaiian Electric and their impact on results of financing efforts;
faster than expected loan prepayments that can cause an acceleration of the amortization of premiums on loans and investments and the impairment of mortgage-servicing assets of ASB;
changes in ASB’s loan portfolio credit profile and asset quality and/or mix which may increase or decrease the required level of provision for loan losses, allowance for loan losses and charge-offs;
changes in ASB’s deposit cost or mix which may have an adverse impact on ASB’s cost of funds;
the final outcome of tax positions taken by HEI and its subsidiaries;
the risks of suffering losses and incurring liabilities that are uninsured (e.g., damages to the Utilities’ transmission and distribution system and losses from business interruption) or underinsured (e.g., losses not covered as a result of insurance deductibles or other exclusions or exceeding policy limits);
the ability of the Company’s non-regulated subsidiary, Pacific Current, LLC, to achieve its performance and growth objectives, which in turn could affect its ability to service its non-recourse debt;
the Company’s reliance on third parties and the risk of their non-performance; and
other risks or uncertainties described elsewhere in this report (e.g., Item 1A. Risk Factors) and in other reports previously and subsequently filed by HEI and/or Hawaiian Electric with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC).
Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of the report, presentation or filing in which they are made. Except to the extent required by the federal securities laws, HEI, Hawaiian Electric, ASB, Pacific Current and their subsidiaries undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether written or oral and whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.
HEI and subsidiaries and lines of business. HEI is a holding company with its subsidiaries principally engaged in electric utility, banking, and renewable/sustainable infrastructure investment businesses operating in the State of Hawaii. HEI was incorporated in 1981 under the laws of the State of Hawaii. HEI’s predecessor, Hawaiian Electric, was incorporated under the laws of the Kingdom of Hawaii (now the State of Hawaii) on October 13, 1891. As a result of a 1983 corporate reorganization, Hawaiian Electric became an HEI subsidiary and common shareholders of Hawaiian Electric became common shareholders of HEI. As a holding company with no significant operations of its own, HEI’s sources of funds are dividends or other distributions from its operating subsidiaries, borrowings, and sales of equity. The rights of HEI and its creditors and shareholders to participate in any distribution of the assets of any of HEI’s subsidiaries are subject to the prior claims of the creditors and preferred shareholders of such subsidiary, except to the extent that claims of HEI in its capacity as a creditor are recognized as primary. The abilities of certain of HEI’s subsidiaries to pay dividends or make other distributions to HEI are subject to contractual and regulatory restrictions (see Note 13 of the Consolidated Financial Statements). HEI is headquartered in Honolulu, Hawaii and has three reportable segments—Electric utility, Bank, and Other.
Electric Utility. Hawaiian Electric and its operating utility subsidiaries, Hawaii Electric Light Company, Inc. (Hawaii Electric Light) and Maui Electric Company, Limited (Maui Electric), are regulated electric public utilities that provide essential electric service to approximately 95% of Hawaii’s population through the operation of five separate grids that serve communities on the islands of Oahu, Hawaii, and Maui, Lanai and Molokai. Hawaiian Electric’s mission is to provide innovative energy leadership for Hawaii, to meet the needs and expectations of customers and communities, and to empower them with affordable, reliable and clean energy. The goal is to create a modern, flexible and dynamic electric grid that enables an optimal mix of distributed energy resources (such as private rooftop solar and battery storage), demand response, and grid-scale resources to achieve the statutory goal of 100% renewable energy by 2045. See also “Electric utility” section below.
Bank. HEI acquired American Savings Bank, F.S.B. (ASB) in 1988. ASB is one of the largest financial institutions in the State of Hawaii (based on total assets), with assets totaling approximately $7.0 billion as of December 31, 2018. ASB provides a wide array of banking and other financial services to consumers and businesses. See also “Bank” section below.
Other. The “Other” segment comprises HEI’s corporate-level operating, general and administrative expenses and the results of Pacific Current, LLC (Pacific Current). Pacific Current was formed in September 2017 to focus on investing in non-regulated renewable energy and sustainable infrastructure in the State of Hawaii to help reach the state’s sustainability goals. See also “Electric utility - Hawaii Electric Light firm capacity PPAs” section below and Note 2 of the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information on Pacific Current activities. The “Other” segment also includes ASB Hawaii, Inc. (ASB Hawaii) (a holding company, formerly known as American Savings Holdings, Inc.), which owns ASB, and The Old Oahu Tug Service, Inc. (TOOTS), which administers certain employee and retiree-related benefit programs and monitors matters related to its predecessor’s former maritime freight transportation operations.
Termination of proposed Merger. For information concerning the termination of HEI’s Merger Agreement with NextEra Energy, Inc., see Note 16 of the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Additional information. For additional information about HEI, see HEI’s MD&A, HEI’s “Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk” and HEI’s Consolidated Financial Statements.
The Company’s website address is www.hei.com, where annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and all amendments to those reports (last 10 years) are made available free of charge in the Investor Relations section as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC (and available at the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov). The information on the Company’s website is not incorporated by reference in this annual report on Form 10-K unless, and except to the extent, specifically incorporated herein by reference. HEI and Hawaiian Electric intend to continue to use HEI’s website as a means of disclosing additional information. Accordingly, investors should routinely monitor such portions of HEI’s website, in addition to following HEI’s, Hawaiian Electric’s and ASB’s press releases, SEC filings and public conference calls and webcasts. Investors may also wish to refer to the PUC website at dms.puc.hawaii.gov/dms in order to review documents filed with and issued by the PUC. No information at the PUC website is incorporated herein by reference.
Regulation. HEI and Hawaiian Electric are each holding companies within the meaning of the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 2005 and implementing regulations, which requires holding companies and their subsidiaries to grant the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) access to books and records relating to FERC’s jurisdictional rates. FERC
granted HEI and Hawaiian Electric a waiver from its record retention, accounting and reporting requirements, effective May 2006.
HEI is subject to an agreement entered into with the PUC (the PUC Agreement) which, among other things, requires PUC approval of any change in control of HEI. The PUC Agreement also requires HEI to provide the PUC with periodic financial information and other reports concerning intercompany transactions and other matters. It also prohibits the electric utilities from loaning funds to HEI or its nonutility subsidiaries and from redeeming common stock of the electric utility subsidiaries without PUC approval. Further, the PUC could limit the ability of the electric utility subsidiaries to pay dividends on their common stock. See also Note 13 of the Consolidated Financial Statements and “Electric utility—Regulation” below.
HEI and ASB Hawaii are subject to Federal Reserve Board (FRB) regulation, supervision and reporting requirements as savings and loan holding companies. As a result of the enactment of the Dodd-Frank Act, supervision and regulation of HEI and ASB Hawaii, as thrift holding companies, moved to the FRB, and supervision and regulation of ASB, as a federally chartered savings bank, moved to the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) in July 2011. In the event the OCC has reasonable cause to believe that any activity of HEI or ASB Hawaii constitutes a serious risk to the financial safety, soundness or stability of ASB, the OCC is authorized to impose certain restrictions on HEI, ASB Hawaii and/or any of their subsidiaries. Possible restrictions include precluding or limiting: (i) the payment of dividends by ASB; (ii) transactions between ASB, HEI or ASB Hawaii, and their subsidiaries or affiliates; and (iii) any activities of ASB that might expose ASB to the liabilities of HEI and/or ASB Hawaii and their other affiliates. See also Note 13 of the Consolidated Financial Statements.
The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act of 1999 (Gramm Act) permitted banks, insurance companies and investment firms to compete directly against each other, thereby allowing “one-stop shopping” for an array of financial services. Although the Gramm Act further restricted the creation of so-called “unitary savings and loan holding companies” (i.e., companies such as HEI whose subsidiaries include one or more savings associations and one or more nonfinancial subsidiaries), the unitary savings and loan holding company relationship among HEI, ASB Hawaii and ASB is “grandfathered” under the Gramm Act so that HEI and its subsidiaries will be able to continue to engage in their current activities so long as ASB maintains its qualified thrift lender (QTL) status test discussed under “Bank—Regulation—Qualified thrift lender test.” ASB met the QTL test at all times during 2018; however, the failure of ASB to satisfy the QTL test in the future could result in a need for HEI to divest ASB. Under the Gramm Act, any proposed sale of ASB would have to satisfy applicable statutory and regulatory requirements and potential acquirers of ASB would most likely be limited to companies that are already qualified as, or capable of qualifying as, either a traditional savings and loan association holding company or a bank holding company, or as one of the authorized financial holding companies permitted under the Gramm Act.
HEI is also affected by provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act relating to corporate governance and executive compensation, including provisions requiring shareholder “say on pay” and “say on pay frequency” votes, mandating additional disclosures concerning executive compensation and compensation consultants and advisors and further restricting proxy voting by brokers in the absence of instructions. See “Bank—Legislation and regulation” in HEI’s MD&A for a discussion of effects of the Dodd-Frank Act on HEI and ASB.
Environmental regulation. HEI and its subsidiaries are subject to federal and state statutes and governmental regulations pertaining to water quality, air quality and other environmental factors. See the “Environmental regulation” discussions in the “Electric utility” and “Bank” sections below.
Employees. The Company had full-time employees as follows:
Hawaiian Electric and its subsidiaries
The employees of HEI and its direct and indirect subsidiaries, other than the electric utilities, are not covered by any collective bargaining agreement. The International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers Local 1260 represents roughly half of the Utilities’ workforce covered by a collective bargaining agreement that expires on October 31, 2021.
Properties. HEI leases office space from nonaffiliated lessors in downtown Honolulu under leases that expire in December 2022. See “Electric Utility” and “Bank” sections for a description of properties they own and lease.
Hamakua Energy, LLC owns a total of approximately 93 acres located on the Hamakua coast on the island of Hawaii. Its power plant is situated on approximately 59 acres and the remaining 34 acres includes surrounding parcels of which 30 acres are located on the ocean front.
Hawaiian Electric and subsidiaries and service areas. Hawaiian Electric, Hawaii Electric Light and Maui Electric (Utilities) are regulated operating electric public utilities engaged in the production, purchase, transmission, distribution and sale of electricity on the islands of Oahu; Hawaii; and Maui, Lanai and Molokai, respectively. In 2018, the electric utilities’ revenues and net income amounted to approximately 89% and 71% respectively, of HEI’s consolidated revenues and net income, compared to approximately 88% and 73% in 2017 and approximately 88% and 57% (impacted by a merger termination fee and other impacts at HEI corporate) in 2016, respectively.
The islands of Oahu, Hawaii, Maui, Lanai and Molokai have a combined population estimated at 1.4 million, or approximately 95% of the total population of the State of Hawaii, and comprise a service area of 5,815 square miles. The principal communities served include Honolulu (on Oahu), Hilo and Kona (on Hawaii) and Wailuku and Kahului (on Maui). The service areas also include numerous suburban communities, resorts, U.S. Armed Forces installations and agricultural operations. The state has granted Hawaiian Electric, Hawaii Electric Light and Maui Electric nonexclusive franchises, which authorize the Utilities to construct, operate and maintain facilities over and under public streets and sidewalks. Each of these franchises will continue in effect for an indefinite period of time until forfeited, altered, amended or repealed.
Sales of electricity.
Years ended December 31
(dollars in thousands)
Electric sales revenues
Electric sales revenues
Electric sales revenues
Hawaii Electric Light
* As of December 31.
Regulatory mechanisms. Each of the three utilities’ rates is reset on a triennial cycle. The regulatory framework includes a number of mechanisms designed to provide utility financial stability during the transition toward the state’s 100% renewable energy goals. For example, under the sales decoupling mechanism, the utilities are allowed to recover from customers, target test year revenues, independent of the level of kilowatt-hour (kWh) sales, which have declined as privately-owned distributed energy resources have been added to the grid and energy efficiency measures have been put into place. A summary of these regulatory mechanisms is as follows:
Provides predictable revenue stream by fixing net revenues at the level approved in last rate case (revenues not linked to kWh sales)
Revenue adjustment mechanism (RAM)
Annually adjusts revenue to recover general inflation of operations and maintenance expenses and baseline plant additions between rate cases
Major Projects Interim Recovery adjustment mechanism (MPIR)
Reduces regulatory lag and permits recovery through the revenue balancing account (RBA) of costs (net of benefits) for major capital projects including, but not restricted to, projects to advance renewable energy
Energy cost and purchased power recovery/adjustment clauses
Allows for timely recovery of fuel and purchased power costs to reduce earnings volatility. Symmetrical fossil fuel cost risk sharing (98% customer/2% utility) mechanism established for Hawaiian Electric (Oahu) and utility upside/downside capped at $2.5 million (beginning in 2019)
Pension and post-employment benefit trackers
Allow tracking of pension and post-employment benefit costs and contributions above or below the cost included in rates in a separate regulatory asset/liability account
Renewable energy infrastructure program
Permits recovery of renewable energy infrastructure projects through a surcharge
Seasonality. kWh sales of the Utilities follow a seasonal pattern, but they do not experience extreme seasonal variations due to extreme weather variations experienced by some electric utilities on the U.S. mainland. kWh sales in Hawaii tend to increase in the warmer, more humid months as a result of increased demand for air conditioning, and with cloudy and rainy weather due to lower production by privately owned customer generated PV systems.
Significant customers. The Utilities derived approximately 11% of their operating revenues in 2018, 2017 and 2016 from the sale of electricity to various federal government agencies. Hawaiian Electric continues to work with various federal agencies to implement measures that will help them achieve their energy reduction and renewable energy objectives.
Selected consolidated electric utility operating statistics.
Years ended December 31
kWh sales (millions)
Large light and power
kWh net generated and purchased (millions)
Losses and system uses (%)
Energy supply (December 31)
Net generating capability—MW
Firm and other purchased capability—MW1
Net peak demand—MW2
Btu per net kWh generated
Average fuel oil cost per MBtu (cents)
Customer accounts (December 31)
Large light and power
Electric revenues (thousands)
Large light and power
Average revenue per kWh sold (cents)
Large light and power
Average annual use per customer account (kWh)
Average annual revenue per customer account
Average number of customer accounts
Since May 2018, PGV has been offline due to lava flow on Hawaii Island; therefore, PGV’s capability has not been incorporated into the utility’s firm contract power capability as of December 31, 2018.
Sum of the net peak demands on all islands served, noncoincident and nonintegrated.
Generation statistics. The following table contains certain generation statistics as of and for the year ended December 31, 2018. The net generating and firm purchased capability available for operation at any given time may be more or less than shown because of capability restrictions or temporary outages for inspection, maintenance, repairs or unforeseen circumstances.
Hawaii Electric Light
Island of Oahu
Island of Hawaii
Island of Maui
Island of Lanai
Island of Molokai
Net generating and firm purchased capability (MW) as of December 31, 20181
Conventional oil-fired steam units
Combustion turbines (peaking units)
Other combustion turbines
Firm contract power2
Net peak demand (MW)3
Annual load factor
kWh net generated and purchased (millions)
Hawaiian Electric units at normal ratings; Hawaii Electric Light and Maui Electric units at reserve ratings.
Nonutility generators - Hawaiian Electric: 208 MW (Kalaeloa Partners, L.P., oil-fired), 180 MW (AES Hawaii, Inc., coal-fired) and 68.5 MW (HPOWER, refuse-fired); Hawaii Electric Light: 60 MW (Hamakua Energy, LLC, oil-fired). Hawaii Electric Light also has a firm capacity PPA with PGV for 34.6 MW. However, since May 2018, PGV has been offline due to lava flow on Hawaii Island; therefore, PGV’s capability has not been incorporated into the utility’s firm contract power capability as of December 31, 2018.
Noncoincident and nonintegrated.
Generating reliability and reserve margin. Hawaiian Electric serves the island of Oahu and Hawaii Electric Light serves the island of Hawaii. Maui Electric has three separate electrical systems—one each on the islands of Maui, Molokai and Lanai. Hawaiian Electric, Hawaii Electric Light and Maui Electric have isolated electrical systems that are not currently interconnected to each other or to any other electrical grid and, thus, each maintains a higher level of reserve generation and cost structure than is typically carried by interconnected mainland U.S. utilities, which are able to share reserve capacity. These higher levels of reserve margins are required to meet peak electric demands, to provide for scheduled maintenance of generating units (including the units operated by IPPs relied upon for firm capacity) and to allow for the forced outage of the largest generating unit in the system.
Nonutility generation. The Utilities have supported state and federal energy policies which encourage the development of renewable energy sources that reduce the use of fuel oil as well as the development of qualifying facilities. The Utilities’ renewable energy sources and potential sources range from wind, solar, photovoltaic, geothermal, wave and hydroelectric power to energy produced by the municipal waste and other biofuels.
The rate schedules of the electric utilities contain ECACs (replaced with the ECRCs for Hawaiian Electric and Hawaii Electric Light in 2019) and PPACs that allow them to recover costs of fuel and purchase power expenses.
In addition to the firm capacity PPAs described below, the electric utilities also purchase energy on an as-available basis directly from nonutility generators and through its Feed-In Tariff programs. The electric utilities also receive renewable energy from customers under its Net Energy Metering and Customer Grid Supply programs.
The PUC has allowed rate recovery for the firm capacity and purchased energy costs for the electric utilities’ approved firm capacity and as-available energy PPAs.
Hawaiian Electric firm capacity PPAs. Hawaiian Electric currently has three major PPAs that provide a total of 456.5 MW of firm capacity, representing 26% of Hawaiian Electric’s total net generating and firm purchased capacity on the Island of Oahu as of December 31, 2018.
In March 1988, Hawaiian Electric entered into a PPA with AES Hawaii, Inc. (AES Hawaii), a Hawaii-based, indirect subsidiary of The AES Corporation. The agreement with AES Hawaii, as amended (through Amendment No. 2), provides that, for a period of 30 years beginning September 1992, Hawaiian Electric will purchase 180 megawatts (MW) of firm capacity. The AES Hawaii coal-fired cogeneration plant utilizes a “clean coal” technology and is designed to sell sufficient steam to be a “Qualifying Facility” (QF) under the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA). See “Commitments and contingencies–Power purchase agreements–AES Hawaii, Inc.” in Note 3 of the Consolidated Financial Statements for an update regarding this PPA.
Under a 1988 PPA, as amended, Hawaiian Electric is committed to purchase 208 MW of firm capacity from Kalaeloa Partners, L.P. (Kalaeloa). The Kalaeloa facility, which is a QF, is a combined-cycle operation, consisting of two oil-fired combustion turbines burning low sulfur fuel oil (LSFO) and a steam turbine that utilizes waste heat from the combustion turbines. Hawaiian Electric and Kalaeloa are currently in negotiations to address the PPA term that ended on May 23, 2016. The PPA automatically extends on a month-to-month basis as long as the parties are still negotiating in good faith, but would end 60 days after either party notifies the other in writing that negotiations have terminated. Hawaiian Electric and Kalaeloa have agreed that neither party will terminate the PPA prior to October 31, 2019. This agreement contemplates continued negotiations between the parties and accounts for time needed for PUC approval of a negotiated resolution.
Hawaiian Electric also entered into a PPA in March 1986 and a firm capacity amendment in April 1991 with the City and County of Honolulu with respect to a refuse-fired plant (HPOWER). Under the PPA, as amended and restated, Hawaiian Electric is committed to purchase 68.5 MW of firm capacity annually through April 2033.
Hawaii Electric Light firm capacity PPAs. Hawaii Electric Light has two major PPAs that provide a total of 94.6 MW of firm capacity, representing 34% of Hawaii Electric Light’s total net generating and firm purchased capacity on the Island of Hawaii as of December 31, 2018.
Hawaii Electric Light has a 35-year PPA, as amended, with Puna Geothermal Venture (PGV) for 34.6 MW of firm capacity from its geothermal steam facility, which will expire on December 31, 2027. Since May 2018, PGV facility has been offline due to lava flow on Hawaii Island. PGV is committed to restoring their facility to commercial operation and is currently in discussion with Hawaii Electric Light to rebuild the Pohoiki substation and transmission lines affected by the lava flow.
In October 1997, Hawaii Electric Light entered into an agreement with Encogen, which was succeeded by Hamakua Energy Partners, L. P. (HEP). The agreement requires Hawaii Electric Light to purchase up to 60 MW (net) of firm capacity for a period of 30 years, expiring on December 31, 2030. The dual-train combined-cycle (DTCC) facility, which primarily burns naphtha (a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons), consists of two oil-fired combustion turbines and a steam turbine that utilizes waste heat from the combustion turbines. In November 2017, Hamakua Energy, LLC, an indirect subsidiary of HEI, purchased the plant from HEP.
In May 2012, Hawaii Electric Light signed a PPA with Hu Honua Bioenergy, LLC (Hu Honua) for 21.5 MW of renewable, dispatchable firm capacity fueled by locally grown biomass on the island of Hawaii. This PPA was approved by the PUC in December 2013. See “Commitments and contingencies–Power purchase agreements–Hu Honua Bioenergy, LLC” in Note 3 of the Consolidated Financial Statements for an update regarding this PPA.
Maui Electric firm capacity PPAs. Maui Electric has no firm capacity PPAs.
Fuel oil usage and supply. The rate schedules of the Utilities include ECACs (replaced with ECRCs for Hawaiian Electric and Hawaii Electric Light in 2019) under which electric rates (and consequently the revenues of the electric utility subsidiaries generally) are adjusted for changes in the weighted-average price paid for fuel oil and certain components of purchased power, and the relative amounts of company-generated power and purchased power. See discussion of rates and issues relating to the ECAC below under “Rates,” and “Electric utility—Material estimates and critical accounting policies–Revenues” in HEI’s MD&A.
Hawaiian Electric’s steam generating units consume low sulfur fuel oil (LSFO) and Hawaiian Electric’s combustion turbine peaking units consume diesel, including Hawaiian Electric’s Campbell Industrial Park generating facility which recently converted from B99 grade biodiesel to diesel.
Hawaii Electric Light’s and Maui Electric’s steam generating units burn industrial fuel oil (IFO) and Hawaii Electric Light’s and Maui Electric’s Maui combustion turbine generating units burn diesel. Hawaii Electric Light’s and Maui Electric’s Maui, Molokai, and Lanai diesel engine generating units burn ultra-low-sulfur diesel.
See the fuel oil commitments information set forth in the “Fuel contracts” section in Note 3 of the Consolidated Financial Statements.
The following table sets forth the average cost of fuel oil used by Hawaiian Electric, Hawaii Electric Light and Maui Electric to generate electricity in 2018, 2017 and 2016:
Hawaii Electric Light
The average per-unit cost of fuel oil consumed to generate electricity for Hawaiian Electric, Hawaii Electric Light and Maui Electric reflects a different volume mix of fuel types and grades as follows:
Hawaii Electric Light
The prices that Hawaiian Electric, Hawaii Electric Light and Maui Electric pay for purchased energy from certain older nonutility generators are generally linked to the price of oil. The AES Hawaii energy prices vary primarily with an inflation index. The energy prices for Kalaeloa, which purchases LSFO from Par Hawaii Refining, LLC (PAR), vary primarily with the price of Asian crude oil. A portion of PGV energy prices are based on the electric utilities’ respective short-run avoided energy cost rates (which vary with their composite fuel costs), subject to minimum floor rates specified in their approved PPA. Hamakua Energy energy prices vary primarily with the cost of naphtha.
The Utilities estimate that 66% of the net energy they generate will come from fossil fuel oil in 2019 compared to 68% in 2018. Hawaiian Electric generally maintains an average system fuel inventory level equivalent to 47 days of forward consumption. Hawaii Electric Light and Maui Electric generally maintain an average system fuel inventory level equivalent to approximately one month’s supply of both IFO and diesel. The PPAs with AES Hawaii and Hamakua Energy require that they maintain certain minimum fuel inventory levels.
Since the Hawaii Clean Energy initiative was launched in 2008, liquid fuel consumption has continued to steadily decline. The liquid fuel consumption in 2018 was about 2.1 million barrels less than that consumed in 2008.
Rates. Hawaiian Electric, Hawaii Electric Light and Maui Electric are subject to the regulatory jurisdiction of the PUC with respect to rates, issuance of securities, accounting and certain other matters. See “Regulation” below.
General rate increases require the prior approval of the PUC after public and contested case hearings. Rates for Hawaiian Electric and its subsidiaries include ECACs (replaced with the ECRCs for Hawaiian Electric and Hawaii Electric Light in 2019), and PPACs. Under current law and practices, specific and separate PUC approval is not required for each rate change pursuant to automatic rate adjustment clauses previously approved by the PUC. PURPA requires the PUC to periodically review the adjustment clauses related to energy cost of electric and gas utilities in the state, and such clauses, as well as the rates charged by the utilities generally, are subject to change. PUC approval is also required for all surcharges and adjustments before they are reflected in rates.
See “Electric utility–Most recent rate proceedings,” and “Electric utility–Material estimates and critical accounting policies–Revenues” in HEI’s MD&A and “Interim increases” and “Utility projects” under “Commitments and contingencies” in Note 3 of the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Competition. See “Electric utility–Competition” in HEI’s MD&A.
Regulation. The PUC regulates the rates, issuance of securities, accounting and certain other aspects of the operations of Hawaiian Electric and its electric utility subsidiaries. See the previous discussion under “Rates” and the discussions under “Electric utility–Results of operations–Most recent rate proceedings.”
On September 15, 2014, the State of Hawaii and the U.S. Department of Energy executed a MOU recognizing that Hawaii is embarking on the next phase of its clean energy future. The MOU provides the framework for a comprehensive, sustained effort to better realize its vast renewable energy potential and allow Hawaii to push forward in three main areas: the power sector, transportation and energy efficiency. This next phase is focused on stimulating deployment of clean energy infrastructure as a catalyst for economic growth, energy system innovation and test bed investments.
Energy efficiency. The PUC issued an order on January 3, 2012 approving a framework for Energy Efficiency Portfolio Standards (EEPS) that set 2008 as the initial base year for evaluation and linearly allocated the 2030 goal to interim incremental reduction goals of 1,375 GWH by 2015 and 975 GWH by each of the years 2020, 2025 and 2030. Pursuant to the PUC’s EEPS framework, the PUC has contracted with a public benefits fee administrator to operate and manage energy efficiency programs, and any incentive and/or penalty mechanisms related to the achievement of the goals are at the discretion of the PUC.
The Division of Consumer Advocacy’s 2018 Compliance Resolution Fund Report states that Hawaii continues to progress towards its 2020 Renewable Portfolio Standards and EEPS goals. The EEPS has contributed to lower kWh sales; however, the implementation of sales decoupling has delinked sales and revenues. See “Regulatory mechanisms” above.
Electrification of Transportation. In June 2018, the PUC initiated a proceeding to review the Utilities’ Electrification of Transportation (EoT) Strategic Roadmap, which provided an economic analysis for light duty electric vehicles on the island of Oahu, Maui and Hawaii. In December 2018, the Utilities filed proposed tariffs for: (1) a commercial electric bus charging facility service pilot program; and (2) the assumed ownership and operation of certain fast charging stations on the island of Maui.
Renewable Portfolio Standards. In 2015, Hawaii’s RPS law was amended to require electric utilities to meet an RPS of 15%, 30%, 40%, 70% and 100% by December 31, 2015, 2020, 2030, 2040 and 2045, respectively. Energy savings resulting from energy efficiency programs do not count toward the RPS since 2014 (only electrical generation using renewable energy as a source counts).
Affiliate transactions. Certain transactions between HEI’s electric public utility subsidiaries (Hawaiian Electric, Hawaii Electric Light and Maui Electric) and HEI and affiliated interests (as defined by statute) are subject to regulation by the PUC.
In December 1996, the PUC issued an order in a docket to review the relationship between HEI and Hawaiian Electric and the effects of that relationship on the operations of Hawaiian Electric. The order required Hawaiian Electric to continue to provide the PUC with periodic status reports on its compliance with the PUC Agreement (pursuant to which HEI became the holding company of Hawaiian Electric). Hawaiian Electric files such status reports annually. In the order, the PUC also required the Utilities to present a comprehensive analysis of the impact that the holding company structure and investments in nonutility subsidiaries have on a case-by-case basis on the cost of capital to each utility in future rate cases and remove any such effects from the cost of capital. The Utilities have made presentations in their subsequent rate cases to support their positions that there was no evidence that would modify the PUC’s finding that Hawaiian Electric’s access to capital did not suffer as a result of HEI’s involvement in nonutility activities and that HEI’s diversification did not permanently raise or lower the cost of capital incorporated into the rates paid by Hawaiian Electric’s utility customers.
In December 2018, the PUC established a set of requirements governing transactions and sharing of information between the Utilities and its affiliates (Affiliate Transaction Requirements, ATRs), which was subsequently modified and clarified in January 2019 following the Utilities’ motion for reconsideration. The PUC stated the intent of the ATRs is to establish safeguards to avoid potential market power benefits, cross-subsidization between regulated and unregulated activities. The requirements include rules on interactions with affiliates, information handling, business development, political activities, promotional activities, sales of products and services, and employee sharing restrictions. The ATRs include implementing an internal code of conduct, a compliance plan including policies and procedures to comply with the requirements, and having an audit conducted every three years that examines the compliance with the requirements. Penalties for non-compliance depend on the severity of the violation, and can range from daily fines to divestiture of the Utilities by the holding company.
Other regulations. The Utilities are not subject to regulation by the FERC under the Federal Power Act, except under Sections 210 through 212 (added by Title II of PURPA and amended by the Energy Policy Act of 1992), which permit the FERC to order electric utilities to interconnect with qualifying cogenerators and small power producers, and to wheel power to other electric utilities. Title I of PURPA, which relates to retail regulatory policies for electric utilities, and Title VII of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, which addresses transmission access, also apply to the Utilities. The Utilities are also required to file various operational reports with the FERC.
Because they are located in the State of Hawaii, Hawaiian Electric and its subsidiaries are exempt by statute from limitations set forth in the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978 on the use of petroleum as a primary energy source.
See also “HEI–Regulation” above.
Environmental regulation. Hawaiian Electric, Hawaii Electric Light and Maui Electric, like other utilities, are subject to periodic inspections by federal, state and, in some cases, local environmental regulatory agencies, including agencies responsible for the regulation of water quality, air quality, hazardous and other waste and hazardous materials. These
inspections may result in the identification of items needing corrective or other action. Except as otherwise disclosed in this report (see “Risk Factors” in Item 1A and Note 3 of the Consolidated Financial Statements, which are incorporated herein by reference), the Company believes that each subsidiary has appropriately responded to environmental conditions requiring action and that, as a result of such actions, such environmental conditions will not have a material adverse effect on the Company or Hawaiian Electric.
Water quality controls. The generating stations, substations and other utility facilities operate under federal and state water quality regulations and permits, including, but not limited to, the Clean Water Act National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (governing point source discharges, including wastewater and storm water discharges) and the Safe Drinking Water Act Underground Injection Control (regulating disposal of wastewater into the subsurface). On February 1, 2018, the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that under certain circumstances, discharges from underground injection control wells may require National Pollution Discharge Elimination System permits. This case is currently pending before the U.S. Supreme Court.
Oil pollution controls. The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA) establishes programs that govern actual or threatened oil releases and imposes strict liability on responsible parties for clean-up costs and damages to natural resources and property. The federal Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations under OPA require certain facilities that use or store oil to prepare and implement Spill Prevention, Control and Countermeasures (SPCC) Plans in order to prevent releases of oil to navigable waters of the U.S. Certain facilities are also required to prepare and implement Facility Response Plans (FRPs) to ensure prompt and proper response to releases of oil. The utility facilities that are subject to SPCC Plan and FRP requirements have prepared and implemented SPCC Plans and FRPs.
Air quality controls. The Clean Air Act (CAA) establishes permitting programs to reduce air pollution. The CAA amendments of 1990, established the federal Title V Operating Permit Program (in Hawaii known as the Covered Source Permit program) to ensure compliance with all applicable federal and state air pollution control requirements. The 1977 CAA Amendments established the New Source Review (NSR) permitting program, which affect new or modified generating units by requiring a permit to construct under the CAA and the controls necessary to meet the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS).
Title V operating permits have been issued for all of the Utilities’ affected generating units.
Hazardous waste and toxic substances controls. The operations of the electric utility are subject to EPA regulations that implement provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA, also known as Superfund), the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA).
RCRA underground storage tank (UST) regulations require all facilities that use USTs for storing petroleum products to comply with established leak detection, spill prevention, standards for tank design and retrofits, financial assurance, operator training, and tank decommissioning and closure requirements. All of the Utilities’ USTs currently meet the applicable requirements.
The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act under SARA Title III requires the Utilities to report potentially hazardous chemicals present in their facilities in order to provide the public with information so that emergency procedures can be established to protect the public in the event of hazardous chemical releases. Since January 1, 1998, the steam electric industry category has been subject to Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) reporting requirements.
The TSCA regulations specify procedures for the handling and disposal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a compound found in some transformer and capacitor dielectric fluids. The TSCA regulations also apply to responses to releases of PCBs to the environment. The Utilities have instituted procedures to monitor compliance with these regulations and have implemented a program to identify and replace PCB transformers and capacitors in their systems. In April 2010, the EPA issued an Advance Notice of Proposed Rule Making announcing its intent to reassess PCB regulations. The EPA has ceased activity on the PCB reassessment.
Hawaii’s Environmental Response Law (ERL), as amended, governs releases of hazardous substances, including oil, to the environment in areas within the state’s jurisdiction. Responsible parties under the ERL are jointly, severally, and strictly liable for a release of a hazardous substance. Responsible parties include owners or operators of a facility where a hazardous substance is located and any person who at the time of disposal of the hazardous substance owned or operated any facility at which such hazardous substance was disposed.
The Utilities periodically discover leaking oil-containing equipment such as USTs, piping, and transformers. Each subsidiary reports releases from such equipment when and as required by applicable law and addresses the releases in compliance with applicable regulatory requirements.
Additional information. For additional information about Hawaiian Electric, see Hawaiian Electric’s MD&A, Hawaiian Electric’s “Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk” and Hawaiian Electric’s Consolidated Financial Statements, including the Notes thereto.
Properties. As of December 31, 2018, the Utilities’ ownership in generating assets was as follows:
Principal Fuel Type
Generating Capacity (MW)
LSFO / Diesel
Campbell Industrial Park (CIP)1
Honolulu Power Plant1
Deactivated in 2014
Schofield Generating Station2
Biodiesel / Ultra low sulfur diesel
West Loch PV Project3
Hawaii Electric Light4:
Retired in 2015
Ultra low sulfur diesel
Diesel / Ultra low sulfur diesel
MSFO / Diesel
MSFO / Ultra low sulfur diesel
Distributed generators at substation sites
Ultra low sulfur diesel
Ultra low sulfur diesel
Ultra low sulfur diesel
1 The four plants are situated on Hawaiian Electric-owned land having a combined area of 542 acres and three parcels of land totaling 5.7 acres under leases expiring between December 31, 2018 and June 30, 2021, with options to extend to June 30, 2026.
2 Hawaiian Electric has a 35-year lease on 8.13 acres, effective September 1, 2016 (with an option to extend an additional 10 years), with the Department of the Army.
Hawaiian Electric has a 37-year lease, effective July 1, 2017, with the Secretary of the Navy to install, operate and maintain a 20 MW renewable generation site on 102 acres.
4 The plants (including a baseyard on the same parcel as the Hilo plant) are situated on Hawaii Electric Light-owned land having a combined area of approximately 44 acres. The distributed generators are located within Hawaii Electric Light-owned substation sites having a combined area of approximately four acres.
The four plants are situated on Maui Electric-owned land having a combined area of 60.7 acres.
As of December 31, 2018, the Utilities ownership in fuel storage facilities was as follows:
Capacity (barrels in thousands)
Barbers Point Tank Farm
Low sulfur fuel oil
Generation sites - various (in aggregate)
Low sulfur fuel oil
Generation sites - various (in aggregate)
Generation sites - various (in aggregate)
Hawaii Electric Light1:
Generation sites - various (in aggregate)
Medium sulfur fuel oil
Generation sites - various (in aggregate)
Generation sites - various (in aggregate)
Medium sulfur fuel oil
Generation sites - various (in aggregate)
1 There are an additional 19,200 barrels of diesel and 22,770 barrels of MSFO storage capacity for Hawaii Electric Light-owned fuel off-site at Island Energy Services, LLC (Island Energy)-owned terminalling facilities (previously Chevron-owned).
There are an additional 56,358 barrels of diesel oil storage capacity off-site at Aloha Petroleum, Ltd. (Aloha Petroleum)-owned terminalling facilities.
Other properties. The Utilities own overhead transmission and distribution lines, underground cables, pole (some jointly) and metal high voltage towers. Electric lines are located over or under public and nonpublic properties.
Hawaiian Electric owns a total of 132 acres of land on which substations, transformer vaults, distribution baseyards and the Kalaeloa cogeneration facility are located. Hawaiian Electric also owns buildings and approximately 11.6 acres of land located in Honolulu which house its operating and engineering departments. It also leases an office building and certain office spaces in Honolulu, and a warehousing center in Kapolei.
Hawaii Electric Light owns 6 acres of land in Kona, which is used for a baseyard, and one acre of land in Hilo, which houses its accounting, customer services and administrative offices. Hawaii Electric Light also leases 3.7 acres of land for its baseyard in Hilo under a lease expiring in 2030. In addition, Hawaii Electric Light owns a total of approximately 100 acres of land, and leases a total of approximately 8.5 acres of land, on which hydro facilities, substations and switching stations, microwave facilities and transmission lines are located. The deeds to the sites located in Hilo contain certain restrictions, but the restrictions do not materially interfere with the use of the sites for public utility purposes.
Maui Electric’s administrative offices, as well as its engineering and distribution departments, are situated on 9.1 acres of Maui Electric-owned land in Kahului. Maui Electric also owns approximately 18 acres of land which house some of its substations, leases approximately 3,600 square feet of land for its telecommunication and microwave facilities, leases approximately 6,000 square feet of land at Kahului Harbor for pipeline purposes, and leases 17,958 square feet of land at Puunene for the Puunene Substation. Maui Electric also owns approximately 89 acres of undeveloped land at Waena, Palaau, and Kahului. Fuel storage facilities are located on Maui Electric-owned properties at Kahului Baseyard, Kahului Power Plant, Maalaea Power Plant, Miki Basin, Palaau, and Hana. Two, 1-MW stand-by diesel generators are located within the Maui Electric-owned land at Hana Substation.
See “Hawaiian Electric and subsidiaries and service areas” above for a discussion of the nonexclusive franchises of Hawaiian Electric and subsidiaries.
See “Generation statistics” above and “Limited insurance” in HEI’s MD&A for a further discussion of some of the electric utility properties.
General. ASB is one of the largest financial institutions headquartered in the State of Hawaii with assets of $7.0 billion and deposits of $6.2 billion, as of December 31, 2018. ASB is a full-service community bank serving both consumer and commercial customers and operates 49 branches on the islands of Oahu (34), Maui (6), Hawaii (5), Kauai (3), and Molokai (1). ASB was acquired by HEI in 1988, and prior to its acquisition, ASB was granted a federal savings bank charter in January 1987. Prior to that time, ASB had operated since 1925 as the Hawaii division of American Savings & Loan Association of Salt Lake City, Utah.
In 2018, ASB’s revenues and net income amounted to approximately 11% and 41% of HEI’s consolidated revenues and net income, respectively, compared to approximately 12% and 41% in 2017 and approximately 12% and 23% in 2016 (impacted by the merger termination fee).
At the time of HEI’s acquisition of ASB, HEI agreed with the Office of Thrift Supervision, Department of Treasury’s (OTS) predecessor regulatory agency that ASB’s regulatory capital would be maintained at a level of at least 6% of ASB’s total liabilities, or at such greater amount as may be required from time to time by regulation. Under the agreement, HEI’s obligation to contribute additional capital to ensure that ASB would have the capital level required by the OTS was limited to a maximum aggregate amount of approximately $65.1 million. As of December 31, 2018, as a result of certain HEI contributions of capital to ASB over the years, HEI’s maximum obligation under the agreement to contribute additional capital has been reduced to approximately $28.3 million. ASB is subject to OCC regulations on dividends and other distributions and ASB must receive a letter from the FRB communicating the OCC’s and FRB’s non-objection to the payment of any dividend ASB proposes to declare and pay to ASB Hawaii and HEI.
The following table sets forth selected data for ASB (average balances calculated using the average daily balances):
Years ended December 31
Equity to assets ratio
Average equity divided by average total assets
Return on assets
Net income divided by average total assets
Return on equity
Net income divided by average equity
Lending activities. See Note 4 of the Consolidated Financial Statements for the composition of ASB’s loan portfolio.
Origination, purchase and sale of loans. Generally, residential and commercial real estate loans originated by ASB are collateralized by real estate located in Hawaii. For additional information, including information concerning the geographic distribution of ASB’s mortgage-backed securities portfolio and the geographic concentration of credit risk, see Note 14 of the Consolidated Financial Statements. The demand for loans is primarily dependent on the Hawaii real estate market, business conditions, interest rates and loan refinancing activity.
Residential mortgage lending. ASB originates fixed rate and adjustable rate loans secured by single family residential property, including investor-owned properties, with maturities of up to 30 years. ASB’s general policy is to require private mortgage insurance when the loan-to-value ratio of the property exceeds 80% of the lower of the appraised value or purchase price at origination. For non-owner-occupied residential properties, the loan-to-value ratio may not exceed 80% of the lower of the appraised value or purchase price at origination.
Construction and development lending. ASB provides fixed rate loans for the construction of one-to-four unit residential and commercial properties. Construction loan projects are typically short term in nature. Construction and development financing generally involves a higher degree of credit risk than long-term financing on improved, occupied real estate. Accordingly, construction and development loans are generally priced higher than loans collateralized by completed structures. ASB’s underwriting, monitoring and disbursement practices with respect to construction and development financing are designed to ensure sufficient funds are available to complete construction projects. See “Bank—Loan portfolio risk elements” in HEI’s MD&A and “Multifamily residential and commercial real estate lending” below.
Multifamily residential and commercial real estate lending. ASB provides permanent financing and construction and development financing collateralized by multifamily residential properties (including apartment buildings) and collateralized by commercial and industrial properties (including office buildings, shopping centers and warehouses) for its own portfolio as well as for participation with other lenders. Commercial real estate lending typically involves long lead times to originate and fund. As a result, production results can vary significantly from period to period.
Consumer lending. ASB offers a variety of secured and unsecured consumer loans. Loans collateralized by deposits are limited to 90% of the available account balance. ASB offers home equity lines of credit, clean energy loans, secured and unsecured VISA cards (through a third party issuer), checking account overdraft protection and other general purpose consumer loans.
Commercial lending. ASB provides both secured and unsecured commercial loans to business entities. This lending activity is designed to diversify ASB’s asset structure, shorten maturities, improve rate sensitivity of the loan portfolio and attract commercial checking deposits. ASB offers commercial loans with terms up to ten years.
Loan origination fee and servicing income. In addition to interest earned on residential mortgage loans, ASB receives income from servicing loans, for late payments and from other related services. Servicing fees are received on loans originated and subsequently sold by ASB where ASB acts as collection agent on behalf of third-party purchasers.
ASB charges the borrower at loan settlement a loan origination fee. See “Loans” in Note 1 of the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Deposits and sources of funds. Deposits continue to be the largest source of funds for ASB for use in lending, meeting liquidity requirements and making investments, and are affected by market interest rates, competition and management’s responses to these factors. Deposit retention and growth will remain challenging in the current environment due to competition for deposits and the low level of short-term interest rates. ASB borrows on a short-term basis to compensate for seasonal or other reductions in deposit flows. ASB may borrow on a longer-term basis to support expanded lending or investment activities. Advances from the FHLB of Des Moines and securities sold under agreements to repurchase continue to be additional sources of funds, but they are a higher cost source than deposits.
Competition. The banking industry in Hawaii is highly competitive. At December 31, 2018, there were 8 financial institutions insured by the FDIC headquartered in the State of Hawaii. While ASB is one of the largest financial institutions in Hawaii, based on total assets, ASB faces vigorous competition for deposits and loans from two larger banking institutions based in Hawaii and from smaller institutions that heavily promote their services in niche areas, such as providing financial services to small and medium-sized businesses, as well as national financial services organizations. Competition for loans and deposits comes primarily from other savings institutions, commercial banks, credit unions, securities brokerage firms, money market and mutual funds and other investment alternatives. ASB faces additional competition in seeking deposit funds from various types of corporate and government borrowers, including insurance companies. Competition for origination of mortgage loans comes primarily from mortgage banking and brokerage firms, commercial banks, other savings institutions, insurance companies and real estate investment trusts. See also “Bank—Executive overview and strategy” in HEI’s MD&A.
To remain competitive and continue building core franchise value, ASB continues to develop and introduce new products and services to meet the needs of its consumer and commercial customers. Additionally, the banking industry is constantly changing and ASB is making the investment in its people and technology necessary to adapt and remain competitive.
The primary factors in ASB’s competition for mortgage and other loans are the competitive interest rates and loan origination fees it charges, the wide variety of loan programs it offers and the quality and efficiency of the services it provides to borrowers and the business community. ASB believes that it is able to compete for such loans primarily through the competitive interest rates and loan fees it charges, the type of mortgage loan programs it offers and the efficiency and quality of the services it provides to individual borrowers and the business community.
The primary factors in competing for deposits are interest rates, the quality and range of services offered, marketing, convenience of locations, hours of operation, other non-branch channels such as online and mobile banking and perceptions of the institution’s financial soundness and safety. To meet competition, ASB offers a variety of savings and checking accounts at competitive rates, convenient business hours, convenient branch locations with interbranch deposit and withdrawal privileges at each branch, convenient automated teller machines and an upgrade of the ASB’s electronic banking platform. ASB also conducts advertising and promotional campaigns.
ASB has been diversifying its loan portfolio from single-family home mortgages to higher-spread, shorter-duration consumer, commercial and commercial real estate loans. The origination of consumer, commercial and commercial real estate loans involves risks and other considerations different from those associated with originating residential real estate loans. For example, the sources and level of competition may be different and credit risk is generally higher than for residential mortgage loans. These different risk factors are considered in the underwriting and pricing standards and in the allowance for loan losses established by ASB for its consumer, commercial and commercial real estate loans.
Regulation. ASB, a federally chartered saving bank, is subject to examination and comprehensive regulation by the Department of Treasury, OCC and the FDIC, and is subject to reserve requirements established by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. Regulation by these agencies focuses in large measure on the adequacy of ASB’s capital and the results of periodic “safety and soundness” examinations conducted by the OCC. In addition, ASB’s holding companies are subject to the regulatory supervision of the FRB. See “HEI Consolidated–Regulation” above.
Capital requirements. The OCC, ASB’s principal regulator, administers two sets of capital standards — minimum regulatory capital requirements and prompt corrective action requirements. The FDIC also has prompt corrective action capital requirements. As of December 31, 2018, ASB was in compliance with OCC minimum regulatory capital requirements and was “well-capitalized” within the meaning of OCC prompt corrective action regulations and FDIC capital regulations, as follows:
ASB met applicable minimum regulatory capital requirements (noted in parentheses) as of December 31, 2018 with a Tier 1 leverage ratio of 8.7% (4.0%), a common equity Tier 1 capital ratio of 12.8% (4.5%), a Tier 1 capital ratio of 12.8% (6.0%) and a total capital ratio of 13.9% (8.0%).
ASB met the capital requirements to be generally considered “well-capitalized” (noted in parentheses) as of December 31, 2018 with a Tier 1 leverage ratio of 8.7% (5.0%), a common equity Tier 1 capital ratio of 12.8% (6.5%), a Tier 1 capital ratio of 12.8% (8.0%) and a total capital ratio of 13.9% (10.0%).
The purpose of the prompt corrective action capital requirements is to establish thresholds for varying degrees of oversight and intervention by regulators. Declines in levels of capital, depending on their severity, will result in increasingly stringent mandatory and discretionary regulatory consequences. Capital levels may decline for any number of reasons, including reductions that would result if there were losses from operations, deterioration in collateral values or the inability to dispose of real estate owned (typically acquired by foreclosure). The regulators have substantial discretion in the corrective actions they might direct and could include restrictions on dividends and other distributions that ASB may make to HEI (through ASB Hawaii) and the requirement that ASB develop and implement a plan to restore its capital. Under an agreement with regulators entered into by HEI when it acquired ASB, HEI currently could be required to contribute to ASB up to an additional $28.3 million of capital, if necessary, to maintain ASB’s capital position.
In order to avoid restrictions on capital distributions and discretionary bonus payments to executive officers, a financial institution must hold a buffer of common equity tier 1 capital above its minimum capital requirements in an amount greater than 2.5% of total risk-weighted assets (capital conservation buffer) which is phased-in through 2019. As of December 31, 2018, ASB met the applicable capital requirements, including the fully phased-in capital conservation buffer.
See “Bank-Legislation and regulation” in HEI’s MD&A for the final capital rules under the Basel III regulatory capital framework.
Examinations. ASB is subject to periodic “safety and soundness” examinations and other examinations by the OCC. In conducting its examinations, the OCC utilizes the Uniform Financial Institutions Rating System adopted by the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council, which system utilizes the “CAMELS” criteria for rating financial institutions. The six components in the rating system are: Capital adequacy, Asset quality, Management, Earnings, Liquidity and Sensitivity to market risk. The OCC examines and rates each CAMELS component. An overall CAMELS rating is also given, after taking into account all of the component ratings. A financial institution may be subject to formal regulatory or administrative direction or supervision such as a “memorandum of understanding” or a “cease and desist” order following an examination if its CAMELS rating is not satisfactory. An institution is prohibited from disclosing the OCC’s report of its safety and soundness examination or the component and overall CAMELS rating to any person or organization not officially connected with the institution as an officer, director, employee, attorney or auditor, except as provided by regulation. The OCC also regularly examines ASB’s information technology practices and its performance under Community Reinvestment Act measurement criteria.
The Federal Deposit Insurance Act, as amended, addresses the safety and soundness of the deposit insurance system, supervision of depository institutions and improvement of accounting standards. Pursuant to this Act, federal banking agencies have promulgated regulations that affect the operations of ASB and its holding companies (e.g., standards for safety and soundness, real estate lending, accounting and reporting, transactions with affiliates and loans to insiders). FDIC regulations restrict the ability of financial institutions that fail to meet relevant capital measures to engage in certain activities, such as offering interest rates on deposits that are significantly higher than the rates offered by competing institutions. As of December 31, 2018, ASB was “well-capitalized” and thus not subject to these restrictions.
Deposit insurance coverage. The Federal Deposit Insurance Act, as amended, and regulations promulgated by the FDIC, govern insurance coverage of deposit accounts. In July 2010, the Dodd-Frank Act permanently raised the current standard maximum deposit insurance amount to $250,000. Generally, the amount of all deposits held by a depositor in the same capacity (even if held in separate accounts) is aggregated for purposes of applying the insurance limit.
See “Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation assessment” in Note 4 of the Consolidated Financial Statements for a discussion of FDIC deposit insurance assessment rates. Financing Corporation will continue to impose an assessment on average total assets minus average tangible equity to service the interest on Financing Corporation bond obligations. As of December 31, 2018, ASB’s annual Financing Corporation assessment was 0.31 cents per $100 of average total assets minus average tangible equity.
Recent legislation and issuances. See “Bank–Legislation and regulation” in HEI’s MD&A.
Affiliate transactions. Significant restrictions apply to certain transactions between ASB and its affiliates, including HEI and its direct and indirect subsidiaries. For example, ASB is prohibited from making any loan or other extension of credit to an
entity affiliated with ASB unless the affiliate is engaged exclusively in activities which the FRB has determined to be permissible for bank holding companies. There are also various other restrictions which apply to certain transactions between ASB and certain executive officers, directors and insiders of ASB. ASB is also barred from making a purchase of or any investment in securities issued by an affiliate, other than with respect to shares of a subsidiary of ASB.
Financial derivatives and interest rate risk. ASB is subject to OCC rules relating to derivatives activities, such as interest rate swaps, interest rate lock commitments and forward commitments. See “Derivative financial instruments” in Note 4 of the Consolidated Financial Statements for a description of interest rate lock commitments and forward commitments used by ASB. Currently ASB does not use interest rate swaps to manage interest rate risk (IRR), but may do so in the future. Generally speaking, the OCC rules permit financial institutions to engage in transactions involving financial derivatives to the extent these transactions are otherwise authorized under applicable law and are safe and sound. The rules require ASB to have certain internal procedures for handling financial derivative transactions, including involvement of the ASB Board of Directors.
With the transfer of the regulatory jurisdiction from the OTS to the OCC, ASB has adopted terminology and IRR assessment, measurement and management practices consistent with OCC guidelines. Management believes ASB’s IRR processes are aligned with the Interagency Advisory on Interest Rate Risk Management and appropriate with earnings and capital levels, balance sheet complexity, business model and risk tolerance.
Liquidity. OCC regulations require ASB to maintain sufficient liquidity to ensure safe and sound operations. ASB’s principal sources of liquidity are customer deposits, borrowings, the maturity and repayment of portfolio loans and securities and the sale of loans into secondary market channels. ASB’s principal sources of borrowings are advances from the FHLB of Des Moines and securities sold under agreements to repurchase from broker/dealers. ASB is approved by the FHLB of Des Moines to borrow an amount of up to 35% of assets to the extent it provides qualifying collateral and holds sufficient FHLB of Des Moines stock. As of December 31, 2018, ASB’s unused FHLB of Des Moines borrowing capacity was approximately $2.0 billion. ASB utilizes growth in deposits, advances from the FHLB of Des Moines and securities sold under agreements to repurchase to fund maturing and withdrawable deposits, repay maturing borrowings, fund existing and future loans and make investments. As of December 31, 2018, ASB had loan commitments, undisbursed loan funds and unused lines and letters of credit of $1.9 billion. Management believes ASB’s current sources of funds will enable it to meet these obligations while maintaining liquidity at satisfactory levels.
Supervision. The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act of 1991 (the FDICIA) establishes a statutory framework that is triggered by the capital level of a financial institution and subjects it to progressively more stringent restrictions and supervision as capital levels decline. The OCC rules implement the system of prompt corrective action. In particular, the rules define the relevant capital measures for the categories of “well capitalized,” “adequately capitalized,” “undercapitalized,” “significantly undercapitalized” and “critically undercapitalized.” As of December 31, 2018, ASB was “well-capitalized.”
Interest rates. FDIC regulations restrict the ability of financial institutions that are undercapitalized to offer interest rates on deposits that are significantly higher than the rates offered by competing institutions. As of December 31, 2018, ASB was “well capitalized” and thus not subject to these interest rate restrictions.
Qualified thrift lender test. ASB is a “qualified thrift lender” (QTL) under its federal thrift charter and, in order to maintain this status, ASB is required to maintain at least 65% of its assets in “qualified thrift investments,” measured on a monthly average basis in 9 out of the previous 12 months, which include housing-related loans (including mortgage-backed securities) as well as certain small business loans, education loans, loans made through credit card accounts and a basket (not exceeding 20% of total assets) of other consumer loans and other assets. Institutions that fail to maintain QTL status are subject to various penalties, including limitations on their activities. In ASB’s case, the activities of HEI, ASB Hawaii and HEI’s other subsidiaries would also be subject to restrictions if ASB failed to maintain its QTL status, and a failure or inability to comply with those restrictions could effectively result in the required divestiture of ASB. As of December 31, 2018, and at all times during 2018, ASB was a qualified thrift lender.
Federal Home Loan Bank System. ASB is a member of the FHLB System, which consists of 11 regional FHLBs, and ASB’s regional bank is the FHLB of Des Moines. The FHLB System provides a central credit facility for member institutions. Historically, the FHLBs have served as the central liquidity facilities for savings associations and sources of long-term funds for financing housing. At such time as an advance is made to ASB or renewed, it must be collateralized by collateral from one of the following categories: (1) fully disbursed, whole first mortgages on improved residential property, or securities representing a whole interest in such mortgages; (2) securities issued, insured or guaranteed by the U.S. Government or any agency thereof; (3) FHLB deposits; and (4) other real estate-related collateral that has a readily ascertainable value and with respect to which a security interest can be perfected. The aggregate amount of outstanding advances collateralized by such other real estate-related collateral may not exceed 300% of ASB’s capital.
ASB’s required holding in the stock of the FHLB is both membership and activity-based. Membership is based on a percentage of total assets (0.12%) while the portion related to activity is based on a percentage of outstanding activity, mainly advances (4%). As of December 31, 2018, ASB was required and owned capital stock in the FHLB of Des Moines in the amount of $10 million.
Community Reinvestment. The Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) requires financial institutions to help meet the credit needs of their communities, including low- and moderate-income areas, consistent with safe and sound lending practices. The OCC will consider ASB’s CRA record in evaluating an application for a new deposit facility, including the establishment of a branch, the relocation of a branch or office, or the acquisition of an interest in another bank. ASB currently holds an “outstanding” CRA rating.
Other laws. ASB is subject to federal and state consumer protection laws which affect deposit and lending activities, such as the Truth in Lending Act (TILA), the Truth in Savings Act, the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (RESPA), the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act and several federal and state financial privacy acts intended to protect consumers’ personal information and prevent identity theft, such as the Gramm Act and the Fair and Accurate Transactions Act. ASB is also subject to federal laws regulating certain of its lending practices, such as the Flood Disaster Protection Act, and laws requiring reports to regulators of certain customer transactions, such as the Currency and Foreign Transactions Reporting Act and the International Money Laundering Abatement and Anti-Terrorist Financing Act. ASB’s relationship with Cetera Investment Services LLC and Cetera Investment Advisers LLC is also governed by regulations adopted by the FRB under the Gramm Act, which regulate “networking” relationships under which a financial institution refers customers to a broker-dealer for securities services and employees of the financial institution are permitted to receive a nominal fee for the referrals. These laws may provide for substantial penalties in the event of noncompliance.
Proposed legislation. See the discussion of proposed legislation in “Bank–Legislation and regulation” in HEI’s MD&A.
Environmental regulation. ASB may be subject to the provisions of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), Hawaii Environmental Response Law (ERL) and regulations promulgated thereunder, which impose liability for environmental cleanup costs on certain categories of responsible parties. CERCLA and ERL exempt persons whose ownership in a facility is held primarily to protect a security interest, provided that they do not participate in the management of the facility.
Additional information. For additional information about ASB, see the sections under “Bank” in HEI’s MD&A, HEI’s “Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk” and HEI’s Consolidated Financial Statements, including Note 4 thereto.
Properties. ASB owns or leases several office buildings in downtown Honolulu, owns land and an operations center in the Mililani Technology Park on the island of Oahu and owns land on which a number of its branches are located.
The following table sets forth the number of bank branches owned and leased by ASB by island:
Number of branches
December 31, 2018
As of December 31, 2018, the net book value (NBV) of branches and office facilities was $190 million ($184 million NBV of the land and improvements for the branches and office facilities owned by ASB and $6 million represents the NBV of ASB’s leasehold improvements). The increase as of December 31, 2018 is primarily due to the construction costs of the new headquarters. As of December 31, 2017, the NBV of branches and office facilities of $75 million ($68 million NBV of the land and improvements for the branches and office facilities owned by ASB and $7 million represents the NBV of ASB’s leasehold improvements). The leases expire on various dates through December 2040, but many of the leases have extension provisions.
As of December 31, 2018, ASB owned 113 automated teller machines.
Construction of New Headquarters. In the first quarter of 2017, ASB began construction of its new headquarters in downtown Honolulu. The project will cost an estimated $115 million and ASB expects to move into the facility in the first half of 2019. The headquarters will have approximately 370,000 square feet of space on eleven floors and consolidate five separate
offices into one building where approximately 600 employees will work. In January 2019, ASB signed an agreement with a real estate broker to list two office facilities for sale as a result of the consolidation of employees into the new headquarters.
The businesses of HEI and its subsidiaries involve numerous risks which, if realized, could have a material and adverse effect on the Company’s financial statements. For additional information for certain risk factors enumerated below and other risks of the Company and its operations, see “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” above and HEI’s MD&A, HEI’s “Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk,” the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements, Hawaiian Electric’s MD&A and Hawaiian Electric’s “Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.”
Holding company and company-wide risks.
HEI is a holding company that derives its income from its operating subsidiaries and depends on the ability of those subsidiaries to pay dividends or make other distributions to HEI and on its own ability to raise capital. HEI is a legal entity separate and distinct from its various subsidiaries. As a holding company with no significant operations of its own, HEI’s cash flows and consequent ability to service its obligations and pay dividends on its common stock is dependent upon its receipt of dividends or other distributions from its operating subsidiaries and its ability to issue common stock or other equity securities and to incur additional debt. The ability of HEI’s subsidiaries to pay dividends or make other distributions to HEI, in turn, is subject to the risks associated with their operations and to contractual and regulatory restrictions, including:
the provisions of an HEI agreement with the PUC, which could limit the ability of HEI’s principal electric public utility subsidiary, Hawaiian Electric, to pay dividends to HEI in the event that the consolidated common stock equity of the Utilities falls below 35% of total capitalization of the electric utilities;
the provisions of an HEI agreement entered into with federal bank regulators in connection with its acquisition of its bank subsidiary, ASB, which require HEI to contribute additional capital to ASB (up to a maximum amount of additional capital of $28.3 million as of December 31, 2018 under the Regulatory Capital Maintenance/Dividend Agreement dated May 26, 1988, between HEI, HEIDI and the Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation) upon request of the regulators in order to maintain ASB’s regulatory capital at the level required by regulation;
the minimum capital and capital distribution regulations of the OCC that are applicable to ASB and capital regulations that become applicable to HEI and ASB Hawaii;
the receipt of a letter from the FRB communicating the OCC’s and FRB’s non-objection to the payment of any dividend ASB proposes to declare and pay to ASB Hawaii and HEI; and
the provisions of preferred stock resolutions and debt instruments of HEI and its subsidiaries.
The Company, and its credit rating, is subject to risks associated with the Hawaii economy (in the aggregate and on an individual island basis), volatile U.S. capital markets and changes in the interest rate and credit market environment that have or could result in higher retirement benefit plan funding requirements, declines in ASB’s interest rate margins and investment values, higher delinquencies and charge-offs in ASB’s loan portfolio and restrictions on the ability of HEI or its subsidiaries to borrow money or issue securities. The two largest components of Hawaii’s economy are tourism and the federal government (including the military). Because the core businesses of HEI’s subsidiaries are providing local public electric utility services (through Hawaiian Electric and its subsidiaries) and banking services (through ASB) in Hawaii, the Company’s operating results are significantly influenced by Hawaii’s economy, which in turn is influenced by economic conditions in the mainland U.S. (particularly California) and Asia (particularly Japan) as a result of the impact of those conditions on tourism, by the impact of interest rates on the construction and real estate industries and by the impact of federal government spending in Hawaii, which can be affected by world conditions and, from time to time, the expiration of federal government appropriations bills.
HEI’s and Hawaiian Electric’s securities ratings only reflect the view, at the time the ratings are issued, of the applicable rating agency. There is no assurance that any such credit rating will remain in effect for any given period of time or that such rating will not be lowered, suspended or withdrawn entirely by the applicable rating agency if, in such rating agency’s judgment, circumstances, such as current, past or future effects or events so warrant. Any such lowering, suspension or withdrawal of any rating may have an adverse effect on the availability of capital to the Company or the market price or marketability of HEI’s and/or Hawaiian Electric’s securities, which could increase the cost of capital of HEI and Hawaiian Electric, and such increased costs, including interest charges, under HEI’s and/or Hawaiian Electric’s debt securities and credit facilities, would result in reductions in HEI’s consolidated net income in future periods. Further, if HEI’s or Hawaiian Electric’s commercial paper ratings were to be downgraded, HEI and Hawaiian Electric might not be able to sell commercial paper and might be required to draw on more expensive bank lines of credit or to defer capital or other expenditures. Neither HEI nor Hawaiian Electric management can predict future rating agency actions or their effects on the future cost of capital of HEI or Hawaiian Electric.
Changes in the U.S. capital markets can also have significant effects on the Company. For example, pension funding requirements are affected by the market performance of the assets in the master pension trust maintained for pension plans, and by the discount rate used to estimate the service and interest cost components of net periodic pension cost and value obligations. The Utilities’ pension tracking mechanisms help moderate pension expense; however, the significant decline in 2008 in the value of the Company’s defined benefit pension plan assets resulted in a substantial gap between the projected benefit obligations under the plans and the value of plan assets, resulting in increases in funding requirements. The increases have moderated in recent years as investment performance has improved.
Because the earnings of ASB depend primarily on net interest income, interest rate risk is a significant risk of ASB’s operations. HEI and the Utilities are also exposed to interest rate risk primarily due to their periodic borrowing requirements, the discount rate used to determine pension funding requirements and the possible effect of interest rates on the electric utilities’ rates of return. Interest rates are sensitive to many factors, including general economic conditions and the policies of government and regulatory authorities. HEI cannot predict future changes in interest rates, nor be certain that interest rate risk management strategies it or its subsidiaries have implemented will be successful in managing interest rate risk.
Interest rate risk also represents a market risk factor affecting the fair value of ASB’s investment securities. Increases and decreases in prevailing interest rates generally translate into decreases and increases in the fair values of those instruments, respectively. Disruptions in the credit markets, a liquidity crisis in the banking industry or increased levels of residential mortgage delinquencies and defaults may result in decreases in the fair value of ASB’s investment securities and an impairment that is other-than-temporary, requiring ASB to write down its investment securities. As of December 31, 2018, ASB’s investment in U.S. Treasury, federal agency obligations, and mortgage-backed securities have an implicit guarantee from the U.S. government.
HEI and Hawaiian Electric and their subsidiaries may incur higher retirement benefits expenses and have and will likely continue to recognize substantial liabilities for retirement benefits. Retirement benefits expenses and cash funding requirements could increase in future years depending on numerous factors, including, but not limited to, the performance of the U.S. equity markets, trends in interest rates and health care costs, plan amendments, mortality improvements, new laws relating to pension funding and changes in accounting principles. For the Utilities, however, retirement benefits expenses, as adjusted by the pension and postretirement benefits other than pensions (OPEB) tracking mechanisms, have been an allowable expense for rate-making purposes.
The Company is subject to the risks associated with the geographic concentration of its businesses and current lack of interconnections that could result in service interruptions at the Utilities or higher default rates on loans held by ASB. The business of the Utilities is concentrated on the individual islands they serve in the State of Hawaii. Their operations are more vulnerable to service interruptions than are many U.S. mainland utilities because none of the systems of the Utilities are interconnected with the systems on the other islands they serve. Because of this lack of interconnections, it is necessary to maintain higher generation reserve margins than are typical for U.S. mainland utilities to help ensure reliable service. Service interruptions, including in particular extended interruptions that could result from a natural disaster or terrorist activity, could adversely impact the revenues and costs of some or all of the Utilities.
Substantially all of ASB’s consumer loan customers are Hawaii residents. A significant portion of the commercial loan customers are located in Hawaii. While a majority of customers are on Oahu, ASB also has customers on the neighbor islands (whose economies have been weaker than Oahu during the last economic downturn). Substantially all of the real estate underlying ASB’s residential and commercial real estate loans are located in Hawaii. These assets may be subject to a greater risk of default than other comparable assets held by financial institutions with other geographic concentrations in the event of adverse economic, political or business developments or natural disasters affecting Hawaii and the ability of ASB’s customers to make payments of principal and interest on their loans.
Increasing competition and technological advances could cause HEI’s businesses to lose customers or render their operations obsolete. The banking industry in Hawaii, and certain aspects of the electric utility industry, are competitive. The success of HEI’s subsidiaries in meeting competition and responding to technological advances will continue to have a direct impact on HEI’s consolidated financial performance. For example:
ASB, one of the largest financial institutions in the state, is in direct competition for deposits and loans not only with two larger institutions that have substantial capital, technology and marketing resources, but also with smaller Hawaii institutions and other U.S. institutions, including credit unions, mutual funds, mortgage brokers, finance companies and investment banking firms. Larger financial institutions may have greater access to capital at lower costs, which could impair ASB’s ability to compete effectively. New or significant advances in technology (e.g., significant advances in internet banking) could render the operations of ASB less competitive or obsolete.
The Utilities face competition from IPPs; customer self-generation, with or without cogeneration; customer energy storage; and the potential formation of community-based, cooperative ownership or municipality structures for
electrical service on all islands it serves. With the exception of certain identified projects, the Utilities are required to use competitive bidding to acquire a future generation resource unless the PUC finds competitive bidding to be unsuitable. The PUC set policies for distributed generation (DG) interconnection agreements and standby rates. The results of competitive bidding, competition from IPPs, customer self-generation, and potential cooperative ownership or municipality structures for electric utility service, and the rate at which technological developments facilitating nonutility generation of electricity, combined heat and power technology, off-grid microgrids, and customer energy storage may render the operations of the Utilities less competitive or outdated and adversely affect the Utilities and the results of their operations.
The Company may be subject to information technology and operational system failures, network disruptions, cyber attacks and breaches in data security that could adversely affect its businesses and reputation. The Company and its subsidiaries rely on information technology systems, some of which are managed or hosted by third party service providers, to manage its business data, communications, and other business processes. Such information technology systems may be vulnerable to cyberattacks or other security incidents, which could result in unauthorized access to confidential data or disruptions to operations. If the Company is unable to prevent or adequately respond to and resolve an incident, it may have a material impact on the Company’s operations or business reputation.
Utilities. The Utilities rely on evolving and increasingly complex operational and information systems, networks and other technologies, which are interconnected with the systems and network infrastructure owned by third parties to support a variety of business processes and activities, including procurement and supply chain, invoicing and collection of payments, customer relationship management, human resource management, the acquisition, generation and delivery of electrical service to customers, and to process financial information and results of operations for internal reporting purposes and to comply with regulatory financial reporting and legal and tax requirements. The Utilities use their systems and infrastructure to create, collect, store, and process sensitive information, including personal information regarding customers, employees and their dependents, retirees, and other individuals. Despite the Utilities security measures, all of their systems are vulnerable to disability, failures or unauthorized access caused by natural disasters, cybersecurity incidents, security breaches, user error, unintentional defects created by system changes, military or terrorist actions, power or communication failures or similar events. Any such failure could have a material adverse impact on the Utilities ability to process transactions and provide service, as well the Utilities’ financial condition and results of operations. Further, a data breach involving theft, improper disclosure, or other unauthorized access to or acquisition of confidential information could subject the Utilities to penalties for violation of applicable privacy laws, claims by third parties, and enforcement actions by government agencies. It could also reduce the value of proprietary information, and harm the reputation of the Utilities.
As noted by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, the utility industry is continuing to experience an increase in the frequency and sophistication of cybersecurity incidents. The Utilities’ systems have been, and will likely continue to be, a target of attacks. Further, the Utilities’ operational networks may be subject to new cybersecurity risks due to modernizing and interconnecting existing infrastructure with new technologies and control systems, including those owned by third parties. Although the Utilities have not experienced a material cybersecurity breach to date, such incidents may occur and may have a material adverse effect on the Utilities in the future. In order to address cybersecurity risks to their information systems, the Utilities maintain security measures designed to protect their information technology systems, network infrastructure and other assets. The Utilities actively monitor developments in the area of cybersecurity and are involved in various related government and industry groups, and brief the Board quarterly on relevant cybersecurity issues. Although the Utilities continue to make investments in their cybersecurity program, including personnel, technologies, cyber insurance and training of Utilities personnel, there can be no assurance that these systems or their expected functionality will be implemented, maintained, or expanded effectively; nor can security measures completely eliminate the possibility of a cybersecurity breach. The Utility maintains cyber liability insurance that covers certain damages caused by cyber incidents. However, there is no guarantee that adequate insurance will continue to be available at rates the Utility believes are reasonable or that the costs of responding to and recovering from a cyber incident will be covered by insurance or recoverable in rates. If the Utilities’ cybersecurity measures were to be breached, the Utilities could suffer financial loss, business disruptions, liability to customers, regulatory intervention or damage to their reputation.
Due to the size, scope and complexity of the Utilities’ business, the development and maintenance of information technology systems to process and track information is critical and challenging. The Utilities often rely on third-party vendors to host, maintain, modify, and update its systems and these third-party vendors could cease to exist, fail to establish adequate processes to protect the Utilities systems and information, or experience internal or external security incidents. In addition, the Utilities are pursuing complex business transformation initiatives, which include establishing common processes across Hawaiian Electric, Hawaii Electric Light and Maui Electric and the upgrade or replacement of existing systems. Significant system changes increase the risk of system interruptions. Although the Utilities maintain change control processes to mitigate this risk, system interruptions may occur. Further, delay or failure to complete the integration of information systems and
processes may result in delays in regulatory cost recovery, increased service interruptions of aging legacy systems, or the failure to realize the cost savings anticipated to be derived from these initiatives.
In the fourth quarter of 2018, the Utilities’ new ERP/EAM system was placed into service. Any failure in addressing issues in the stabilization of the ERP/EAM system implementation could adversely affect the Utilities’ ability to timely and accurately report financial information and make payments to vendors and employees. Additionally, one of the conditions imposed by the PUC’s approval of the system is the requirement that the Utilities achieve cost savings consistent with a minimum of $244 million in ERP/EAM project-related benefits to be delivered to customers over the system’s 12-year service life. If the Utilities are not able to achieve such minimum savings, the PUC could impose financial penalties, such as a reduction of revenue requirements that could adversely impact the Utilities’ results of operations and financial condition.
The Utilities have disaster recovery plans in place to protect their businesses from information technology service interruptions. The disaster recovery plans, however, may not be successful in preventing the loss of customer data, service interruptions and disruptions to operations or damage to important facilities. If any of these systems fail to operate properly or becomes disabled and the Utilities’ disaster recovery plans do not effectively resolve the issues in a timely manner, the Utilities could suffer financial loss, business disruptions, liability to customers, regulatory intervention or damage to their reputations.
ASB. ASB is highly dependent on its ability to process, on a daily basis, a large number of transactions and relies heavily on communication and information systems, including those of third party vendors and other service providers. Communication and information system failures can result from a variety of risks including, but not limited to, events that are wholly or partially out of ASB’s control, such as communication line integrity, weather, terrorist acts, natural disasters, accidental disasters, unauthorized breaches of security systems, energy delivery systems, cyberattacks and other events.
ASB is under continuous threat of loss due to cyberattacks, especially as ASB continues to expand customer capabilities to utilize the Internet and other remote channels to transact business. Two of the most significant cyberattack risks that ASB faces are e-fraud and loss of sensitive customer data. Loss from e-fraud occurs when cybercriminals extract funds directly from customers’ or ASB’s accounts using fraudulent schemes that may include Internet-based funds transfers. ASB has been subject to e-fraud incidents historically. Loss of sensitive customer data are attempts to steal sensitive customer data, such as account numbers and social security numbers, through unauthorized access to computer systems, including computer hacking. Such attacks are less frequent, but could present significant reputational, legal and regulatory costs if successful. Intrusion detection and prevention systems, anti-virus software, firewalls and other general information technology controls have been put in place to detect and prevent cyberattacks or information system breaches. A disaster recovery plan has been developed in the event of a natural disaster, security breach, military or terrorist action, power or communication failure or similar event. The disaster recovery plan, however, may not be successful in preventing the loss of customer data, service interruptions, disruptions to operations or damage to important facilities. Although ASB devotes significant resources to maintain and regularly upgrade its systems and processes that are designed to protect the security of ASB’s computer systems, software, networks and other technology assets and the confidentiality, integrity and availability of information belonging to ASB and its customers, there can be no assurance that such failures, interruptions or security breaches will not occur or, if they do occur, that they will be adequately corrected by ASB or its vendors.
If any of these systems fail to operate properly or become disabled even for a brief period of time, ASB could suffer financial loss, business disruptions, liability to customers, regulatory intervention or damage to its reputation, any of which could have a material adverse effect on ASB’s financial condition and results of operations.
HEI’s businesses could suffer losses that are uninsured due to a lack of affordable insurance coverage, unavailability of insurance coverage or limitations on the insurance coverage the Company does have. In the ordinary course of business, HEI and its subsidiaries purchase insurance coverages (e.g., property and liability coverages) to protect against loss of, or damage to, their properties and against claims made by third parties and employees for property damage or personal injuries. However, the protection provided by such insurance is limited in significant respects and, in some instances, there is no coverage. Certain of the insurance has substantial deductibles or has limits on the maximum amounts that may be recovered. For example, the Utilities’ overhead and underground transmission and distribution systems (with the exception of substation buildings and contents) have a replacement value roughly estimated at $7 billion and are largely not insured against loss or damage because the amount of transmission and distribution system insurance available is limited and the premiums are cost prohibitive. Similarly, the Utilities have no business interruption insurance as the premiums for such insurance would be cost prohibitive, particularly since the Utilities are not interconnected to other systems. If a hurricane or other uninsured catastrophic natural disaster were to occur, and if the PUC were not to allow the affected Utilities to recover from ratepayers restoration costs and revenues lost from business interruption, the lost revenues and repair expenses could result in a significant decrease in HEI’s consolidated net income or in significant net losses for the affected periods.
ASB generally does not obtain credit enhancements, such as mortgagor bankruptcy insurance, but does require standard hazard and hurricane insurance and may require flood insurance for certain properties. ASB is subject to the risks of borrower
defaults and bankruptcies, special hazard losses not covered by the required insurance and the insurance company’s inability to pay claims on existing policies.
Increased federal and state environmental regulation will require an increasing commitment of resources and funds and could result in construction delays or penalties and fines for non-compliance. HEI and its subsidiaries are subject to federal, state and local environmental laws and regulations relating to air quality, water quality, hazardous substances, waste management, natural resources and health and safety, which regulate, among other matters, the operation of existing facilities, the construction and operation of new facilities and the proper cleanup and disposal of hazardous and toxic wastes and substances. These laws and regulations could result in increased capital, operating, and other costs. HEI or its subsidiaries are currently involved in investigatory or remedial actions at current, former or third-party sites and there is no assurance that the Company will not incur material costs relating to these sites. In addition, compliance with these legal requirements requires the Utilities to commit significant resources and funds toward, among other things, environmental monitoring, installation of pollution control equipment and payment of emission fees. These laws and regulations, among other things, require that certain environmental permits be obtained in order to construct or operate certain facilities, and obtaining such permits can entail significant expense and cause substantial construction delays. Also, these laws and regulations may be amended from time to time, including amendments that increase the burden and cost of compliance. For example, emission and/or discharge limits may be tightened, more extensive permitting requirements may be imposed and additional substances may become regulated. In addition, significant regulatory uncertainty exists regarding the impact of federal or state greenhouse gas (GHG) emission limits and reductions.
If HEI or its subsidiaries fail to comply with environmental laws and regulations, even if caused by factors beyond their control, that failure may result in civil or criminal penalties and fines or the cessation of operations.
Adverse tax rulings or developments could result in significant increases in tax payments and/or expense. Governmental taxing authorities could challenge a tax return position taken by HEI or its subsidiaries and, if the taxing authorities prevail, HEI’s consolidated tax payments and/or expense, including applicable penalties and interest, could increase significantly.
The Company could be subject to the risk of uninsured losses in excess of its accruals for litigation matters. HEI and its subsidiaries are involved in routine litigation in the ordinary course of their businesses, most of which is covered by insurance (subject to policy limits and deductibles). However, other litigation may arise that is not routine or involves claims that may not be covered by insurance. Because of the uncertainties associated with litigation, there is a risk that litigation against HEI or its subsidiaries, even if vigorously defended, could result in costs of defense and judgment or settlement amounts not covered by insurance and in excess of reserves established in HEI’s consolidated financial statements.
Changes in accounting principles and estimates could affect the reported amounts of the Company’s assets and liabilities or revenues and expenses. HEI’s consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the U.S. Changes in accounting principles (including the possible adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards or new U.S. accounting standards), or changes in the Company’s application of existing accounting principles, could materially affect the financial statement presentation of HEI’s or the Utilities’ consolidated results of operations and/or financial condition. Further, in preparing the consolidated financial statements, management is required to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses. Actual results could differ significantly from those estimates. Material estimates that are particularly susceptible to significant change include the amounts reported for electric utility revenues; allowance for loan losses; income taxes; investment securities, property, plant and equipment; regulatory assets and liabilities; derivatives; goodwill; pension and other postretirement benefit obligations; and contingencies and litigation.
The Utilities’ financial statements reflect assets and costs based on cost-based rate-making regulations. Continued accounting in this manner requires that certain criteria relating to the recoverability of such costs through rates be met. If events or circumstances should change such that the criteria are no longer satisfied, the Utilities’ expect that their regulatory assets (amounting to $833 million as of December 31, 2018), net of regulatory liabilities (amounting to $950 million as of December 31, 2018), would be charged to the statement of income in the period of discontinuance. As a result of the 2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (Tax Act), the Utilities were required to adjust their deferred tax assets and liabilities for the lower federal income tax rate, resulting in excess accumulated deferred income tax balances (ADIT). To the extent the ADIT was related to items included in regulatory rate base or ratemaking, the related net excess ADIT was reclassified to a regulatory liability that will be returned to customers through rates.
Changes in accounting principles can also impact HEI’s consolidated financial statements. For example, if management determines that a PPA requires the consolidation of the IPP in the financial statements, the consolidation could have a material effect on Hawaiian Electric’s and HEI’s consolidated financial statements, including the recognition of a significant amount of assets and liabilities and, if such a consolidated IPP were operating at a loss and had insufficient equity, the potential recognition of such losses. Also, the adoption of ASU No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842), as amended, on January 1, 2019, had a
significant impact on HEI’s consolidated balance sheet, resulting in the recognition of $257 million in lease liabilities ($215 million related to the Utilities’ PPAs) and $257 million in right-of-use assets.
Changes in the accounting principles for expected credit losses were issued by the FASB to replace existing impairment models, including replacing an “incurred loss” model for loans with a “current expected credit loss” model based on historical experience, current conditions and reasonable and supportable forecasts. The changes also require enhanced disclosures to help financial statement users better understand significant estimates and judgments used in estimating credit losses, as well as the credit quality and underwriting standards of an organization’s portfolio. The Company plans to adopt the accounting principle changes in the first quarter of 2020 and has not yet determined the impact of the adoption. The new impairment model could have a material adverse impact on ASB’s results of operations.
Electric utility risks.
Actions of the PUC are outside the control of the Utilities and could result in inadequate or untimely rate increases, in rate reductions or refunds or in unanticipated delays, expenses or writedowns in connection with the construction of new projects. The rates the Utilities are allowed to charge for their services and the timeliness of permitted rate increases are among the most important items influencing the Utilities’ results of operations, financial condition and liquidity. The PUC has broad discretion over the rates that the Utilities charge their customers. As part of the decoupling mechanism that the Utilities have implemented, each of the Utilities will file a rate case once every three years. Any adverse decision by the PUC concerning the level or method of determining electric utility rates, the items and amounts that may be included in rate base, the returns on equity or rate base found to be reasonable, the potential consequences of exceeding or not meeting such returns, or any prolonged delay in rendering a decision in a rate or other proceeding could have a material adverse effect on Hawaiian Electric’s consolidated results of operations, financial condition and liquidity.
To improve the timing and certainty of the recovery of their costs, the Utilities have proposed and/or received approval of various cost recovery mechanisms including an ECAC (replaced with the ECRCs for Hawaiian Electric and Hawaii Electric Light in 2019), a PPAC, and pension and OPEB tracking mechanisms, as well as a decoupling mechanism, a major project interim recovery (MPIR) adjustment mechanism, and a renewable energy infrastructure program (REIP) surcharge. A change in, or the elimination of, any of these cost recovery mechanisms, could have a material adverse effect on the Utilities.
On April 18, 2018, the PUC issued an order, instituting a proceeding to investigate performance-based regulation (PBR). The PUC’s implementation of performance-based ratemaking for the Utilities pursuant to Act 005, Session Laws 2018, could include, but is not limited to, the potential addition of new performance incentive mechanisms, the adoption of third party proposals by the PUC in its implementation of PBR, and penalties for not achieving performance incentive goals. The impacts of the implementation of PBR cannot be predicted and these impacts could have a material adverse effect on the Utilities.
The Utilities could be required to refund to their customers, with interest, revenues that have been or may be received under interim rate orders in their rate case proceedings and other proceedings, if and to the extent they exceed the amounts allowed in final orders.
Many public utility projects require PUC approval and various permits (e.g., environmental and land use permits) from other governmental agencies. Difficulties in obtaining, or the inability to obtain, the necessary approvals or permits, or any adverse decision or policy made or adopted, or any prolonged delay in rendering a decision, by an agency with respect to such approvals and permits, can result in significantly increased project costs or even cancellation of projects. In the event a project does not proceed, or if the PUC disallows cost recovery for all or part of a project, or if project costs exceed caps imposed by the PUC in its approval of the project, project costs may need to be written off in amounts that could result in significant reductions in Hawaiian Electric’s consolidated net income.
Energy cost adjustment/recovery clauses. The rate schedules of each of the Utilities include ECACs (ECRCs for Hawaiian Electric and Hawaii Electric Light in 2019—see below) under which electric rates charged to customers are automatically adjusted for changes in the weighted-average price paid for fuel oil and certain components of purchased power, and the relative amounts of company-generated power and purchased power.
ECAC/ECRCs are subject to periodic review by the PUC. In recent rate cases, the PUC has approved an additional trigger that would allow a re-establishment of fuel usage efficiency targets under certain conditions and annual automatic adjustments of fuel usage efficiency targets for all Utilities. In the most recent Hawaiian Electric rate case, the PUC ordered an ECRC for Hawaiian Electric, which recovers all fuel and purchased energy expenses, a portion of which had previously been recovered through base rates. The PUC also ordered a scaled down version of a fossil fuel risk sharing mechanism proposed by Blue Planet, which provides for a 98/2% risk-sharing split between ratepayers and Hawaiian Electric, of fossil fuel prices above or below a baseline price and the fuel usage efficiency pass-through within a range, with an annual maximum exposure cap of $2.5 million in either direction and which became effective January 1, 2019. The PUC also approved an expansion of the range of
fuel efficiencies for low sulfur fuel oil and a full pass through to customers the costs of diesel fuel and biodiesel fuel that represent the balance of the generation fuel usage subject to the risk sharing split.
In Hawaii Electric Light’s 2016 test year rate case, the PUC approved an expansion of the range of diesel fuel usage efficiencies under which fuel cost would be fully passed through to customers that became effective October 1, 2018. In February 2019, Hawaii Electric Light replaced the ECAC with an ECRC, which recovers all fuel and purchased energy expenses, a portion which was previously recovered in base rates.
In the interim decision and order in the Maui Electric 2018 test year rate case, the PUC approved the settlements between Maui Electric and the Consumer Advocate on the ECAC, which included retaining the existing range of fuel usage efficiencies at all three islands. The PUC will continue to examine Blue Planet’s proposed fossil fuel cost risk sharing mechanism, similar to what it proposed in the Hawaiian Electric 2017 test year rate case. A final decision and order in the Maui Electric 2018 test year rate case is pending. See “Most recent rate proceedings” in Note 3 of the Consolidated Financial Statements.
A change in, or the elimination of, the ECAC/ECRC could have a material adverse effect on the Utilities.
Electric utility operations are significantly influenced by weather conditions. The Utilities’ results of operations can be affected by the weather and natural disasters. Weather conditions, particularly temperature and humidity, directly influence the demand for electricity. In addition, severe weather and natural disasters, such as hurricanes, earthquakes, tsunamis, lava flows and lightning storms, some of which may become more severe or frequent as a result of global climate changes, can cause outages and property damage and require the Utilities to incur significant additional expenses that may not be recoverable.
Electric utility operations may be significantly influenced by climate change. While the timing, extent and ultimate effects of climate change cannot be determined with any certainty, climate change is predicted to result in sea level rise, which could potentially impact coastal and other low-lying areas (where much of the Utilities’ electric infrastructure is sited), and could cause erosion of beaches, saltwater intrusion into aquifers and surface ecosystems, higher water tables and increased flooding and storm damage due to heavy rainfall. The effects of climate change on the weather (for example, floods, hurricanes, heat waves or drought conditions, the latter of which could increase wildfire risk), sea levels, and water availability and quality, all have the potential to materially adversely affect the results of operations, financial condition and liquidity of the Utilities. For example, severe weather and its related impacts could cause significant harm to the Utilities’ physical facilities.
Electric utility operations depend heavily on third-party suppliers of fuel and purchased power. The Utilities rely on fuel suppliers and shippers, and IPPs to deliver fuel and power, respectively, in accordance with contractual agreements. Approximately 70% of the net energy generated or purchased by the Utilities in 2018 was generated from the burning of fossil fuel oil, and purchases of power by the Utilities provided about 45% of their total net energy generated and purchased for the same period. Failure or delay by fuel suppliers and shippers to provide fuel pursuant to existing contracts, or failure by a major IPP to deliver the firm capacity anticipated in its PPA, could disrupt the ability of the Utilities to deliver electricity and require the Utilities to incur additional expenses to meet the needs of their customers that may not be recoverable. In addition, as the IPP contracts near the end of their terms, there may be less economic incentive for the IPPs to make investments in their units to ensure the availability of their units. Also, as these contractual agreements end, the Utilities may not be able to purchase fuel and power on terms equivalent to the current contractual agreements.
The capacity provided by the Utilities’ generating resources and third-party purchased power may not be sufficient to meet customers’ energy requirements . The Utilities rely upon their generating resources and purchased power from third parties to meet their customers’ energy requirements. The Utilities update their generation capacity evaluation each year to determine the Utilities’ ability to meet reasonably expected demands for service and provide reasonable reserves for emergencies. These evaluations are impacted by a variety of factors, including customer energy demand, energy conservation and efficiency initiatives, economic conditions, and weather patterns. If the capacity provided by the Utilities’ generating resources and third-party purchased power is not adequate relative to customer demand, the Utilities may have to contract to buy more power from third parties, invest in additional generating facilities over the long-term, or extend the operating life of existing utility units. Any failure to meet customer energy requirements could negatively impact the satisfaction of the Utilities’ customers, which could have an adverse impact on the Utilities’ business and results of operations.
Electric utility generating facilities are subject to operational risks that could result in unscheduled plant outages, unanticipated and/or increased operation and maintenance expenses and increased power purchase costs. Operation of electric generating facilities involves certain risks which can adversely affect energy output and efficiency levels. Included among these risks are facility shutdowns or power interruptions due to insufficient generation or a breakdown or failure of equipment or processes. In addition, operations could be negatively impacted by interruptions in fuel supply, inability to negotiate satisfactory collective bargaining agreements when existing agreements expire or other labor disputes, inability to comply with regulatory or permit requirements, disruptions in delivery of electricity, operator error and catastrophic events such
as earthquakes, tsunamis, hurricanes, fires, explosions, floods or other similar occurrences affecting the Utilities’ generating facilities or transmission and distribution systems.
The Utilities may be adversely affected by new legislation or administrative actions. Congress, the Hawaii legislature and governmental agencies periodically consider legislation and other initiatives that could have uncertain or negative effects on the Utilities and their customers. Congress, the Hawaii legislature and governmental agencies have adopted, or are considering adopting, a number of measures that will significantly affect the Utilities, as described below.
Renewable Portfolio Standards law. In 2015, Hawaii’s RPS law was amended to require electric utilities to meet an RPS of 15%, 30%, 40%, 70% and 100% by December 31, 2015, 2020, 2030, 2040 and 2045 respectively. Energy savings resulting from energy efficiency programs do not count toward the RPS after 2014. The Utilities are committed to achieving these goals and met the 2015 RPS; however, due to the exclusion of energy savings in calculating RPS after 2014 and risks such as potential delays in IPPs being able to deliver contracted renewable energy, it is possible the Utilities may not attain the required renewable percentages in the future, and management cannot predict the future consequences of failure to do so (including potential penalties to be assessed by the PUC). On December 19, 2008, the PUC approved a penalty of $20 for every MWh that an electric utility is deficient under Hawaii’s RPS law. The PUC noted, however, that this penalty may be reduced, in the PUC’s discretion, due to events or circumstances that are outside an electric utility’s reasonable control, to the extent the event or circumstance could not be reasonably foreseen and ameliorated, as described in the RPS law and in an RPS framework adopted by the PUC. In addition, the PUC ordered that the Utilities will be prohibited from recovering any RPS penalty costs through rates.
Renewable energy. In 2007, a measure was passed by the Hawaii legislature stating that the PUC may consider the need for increased renewable energy in rendering decisions on utility matters. Due to this measure, it is possible that, if energy from a renewable source is more expensive than energy from fossil fuel, the PUC may still approve the purchase of energy from the renewable source, resulting in higher costs.
Global climate change and greenhouse gas emissions reduction. National and international concern about climate change and the contribution of GHG emissions (including carbon dioxide emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels) to climate change have led to federal legislative and regulatory proposals and action by the state of Hawaii to reduce GHG emissions.
In July 2007, the State Legislature passed Act 234, which requires a statewide reduction of GHG emissions by January 1, 2020 to levels at or below the statewide GHG emission levels in 1990. On June 20, 2014, the Governor signed the final rules required to implement Act 234 and these rules went into effect on June 30, 2014. In general, Act 234 and the GHG rule require affected sources that have the potential to emit GHGs in excess of established thresholds to reduce their GHG emissions by 16% below 2010 emission levels by 2020. In accordance with State requirements, the Utilities submitted an Emissions Reduction Plan (EmRP) to the DOH on June 30, 2015. The Utilities submitted a revised EmRP on October 15, 2018, to reflect the partnership established between the Utilities and several IPPs. In this plan, the partnership has committed to a 16% reduction in GHG emissions in accordance with the rule.
The Utilities have taken, and continue to identify opportunities to take, direct action to reduce GHG emissions from their operations, including, but not limited to, supporting demand-side management programs that foster energy efficiency, using renewable resources for energy production and purchasing power from IPPs generated by renewable resources, and burning renewable biodiesel at selected Hawaiian Electric and Maui Electric generating units.
On April 24, 2018, Act 005, Session Laws 2018 was signed into law, which establishes performance metrics that the PUC shall consider while establishing performance incentives and penalty mechanisms under a performance-based ratemaking model. The law requires that the PUC establish these performance-based ratemaking mechanisms on or before January 1, 2020. The PUC opened a proceeding on April 18, 2018.
The foregoing legislation or legislation that now is, or may in the future be, proposed present risks and uncertainties for the Utilities.
The Utilities may be subject to increased operational challenges and their results of operations, financial condition and liquidity may be adversely impacted in meeting the commitments and objectives of clean energy initiatives and Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS). The far-reaching nature of the Utilities’ renewable energy commitments and the RPS goals present risks to the Company. Among such risks are: (1) the dependence on third-party suppliers of renewable purchased energy, which if the Utilities are unsuccessful in negotiating purchased power agreements with such IPPs or if a major IPP fails to deliver the anticipated capacity and/or energy in its purchased power agreement, could impact the Utilities’ achievement of their commitments to RPS goals and/or the Utilities’ ability to deliver reliable service; (2) delays in acquiring or unavailability of non-fossil fuel supplies for renewable generation; (3) the impact of intermittent power to the electrical grid and reliability of service if appropriate supporting infrastructure is not installed or does not operate effectively; (4) the likelihood that the Utilities
may need to make substantial investments in related infrastructure, which could result in increased borrowings and, therefore, materially impact the financial condition and liquidity of the Utilities; and (5) the commitment to support a variety of initiatives, which, if approved by the PUC, may have a material impact on the results of operations and financial condition of the Utilities depending on their design and implementation. These initiatives include, but are not limited to, programs to enable more customer-sited generation (but studying distributed generation interconnections on a per-circuit basis). The implementation of these or other programs may adversely impact the results of operations, financial condition and liquidity of the Utilities.
Fluctuations in interest rates could result in lower net interest income, impair ASB’s ability to originate new loans or impair the ability of ASB’s adjustable-rate borrowers to make increased payments or cause such borrowers to repay their adjustable-rate loans. Interest rate risk is a significant risk of ASB’s operations. ASB’s net interest income consists primarily of interest income received on fixed-rate and adjustable-rate loans, mortgage-backed securities and investments, less interest expense consisting primarily of interest paid on deposits and other borrowings. Interest rate risk arises when earning assets mature or when their interest rates change in a time frame different from that of the costing liabilities. Changes in market interest rates, including changes in the relationship between short-term and long-term market interest rates or between different interest rate indices, can impact ASB’s net interest margin. See “Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk.”
Although ASB pursues an asset-liability management strategy designed to mitigate its risk from changes in market interest rates, unfavorable movements in interest rates could result in lower net interest income. Residential 1-4 family fixed-rate mortgage loans comprised about 41% of ASB’s loan portfolio as of December 31, 2018 and do not re-price with movements in interest rates. ASB continues to face a challenging interest rate environment. The Federal Open Market Committee increased the federal funds rate in 2016, 2017 and 2018, which has caused the yield curve to flatten. Increases in market interest rates could have an adverse impact on ASB’s cost of funds. Higher market interest rates could lead to higher interest rates paid on deposits and other borrowings. Significant increases in market interest rates, or the perception that an increase may occur, could adversely affect ASB’s ability to originate new loans and grow. An increase in market interest rates, especially a sudden increase, could also adversely affect the ability of ASB’s adjustable-rate borrowers to meet their higher payment obligations. If this occurred, it could cause an increase in nonperforming assets and charge-offs. Conversely, a decrease in interest rates or a mismatching of maturities of interest sensitive financial instruments could result in an acceleration in the prepayment of loans and mortgage-backed securities and impact ASB’s ability to reinvest its liquidity in similar yielding assets.
Changes in the method for determining London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR) and the potential replacement of LIBOR may affect our loan portfolio and interest income on loans. On July 27, 2017, the United Kingdom’s Financial Conduct Authority, which regulates LIBOR, announced that it intends to phase out LIBOR by the end of 2021. It is unclear whether or not LIBOR will cease to exist at that time or if new methods of calculating LIBOR will be established such that it continues to exist after 2021. The U.S. Federal Reserve, in conjunction with the Alternative Reference Rates Committee, a steering committee composed of large U.S. financial institutions, announced replacement of U.S. dollar LIBOR with a new index calculated by short-term repurchase agreements, backed by U.S. Treasury securities called the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (SOFR). The potential effect of the elimination of LIBOR on ASB’s LIBOR-indexed loan portfolio and interest income on loans cannot yet be determined.
ASB’s operations are affected by factors that are beyond its control, that could result in lower revenues, higher expenses or decreased demand for its products and services. ASB’s results of operations depend primarily on the income generated by the supply of and demand for its products and services, which primarily consist of loans and deposit services. ASB’s revenues and expenses may be adversely affected by various factors, including:
local, regional, national and other economic and political conditions that could result in declines in employment and real estate values, which in turn could adversely affect the ability of borrowers to make loan payments and the ability of ASB to recover the full amounts owing to it under defaulted loans;
the ability of borrowers to obtain insurance and the ability of ASB to place insurance where borrowers fail to do so, particularly in the event of catastrophic damage to collateral securing loans made by ASB;
faster than expected loan prepayments that can cause an acceleration of the amortization of premiums on loans and investments and the impairment of mortgage servicing assets of ASB;
changes in ASB’s loan portfolio credit profiles and asset quality, which may increase or decrease the required level of allowance for loan losses;
technological disruptions affecting ASB’s operations or financial or operational difficulties experienced by any outside vendor on whom ASB relies to provide key components of its business operations, such as business processing, network access or internet connections;
events of default and foreclosure of loans whereby ASB becomes the owner of a mortgage properties that presents environmental risk or potential clean up liability;
the impact of legislative and regulatory changes, including changes affecting capital requirements, increasing oversight of and reporting by banks, or affecting the lending programs or other business activities of ASB;
additional legislative changes regulating the assessment of overdraft, interchange and credit card fees, which can have a negative impact on noninterest income;
public opinion about ASB and financial institutions in general, which, if negative, could impact the public’s trust and confidence in ASB and adversely affect ASB’s ability to attract and retain customers and expose ASB to adverse legal and regulatory consequences;
increases in operating costs (including employee compensation expense and benefits and regulatory compliance costs), inflation and other factors, that exceed increases in ASB’s net interest, fee and other income; and
the ability of ASB to maintain or increase the level of deposits, ASB’s lowest costing funds.
Banking and related regulations could result in significant restrictions being imposed on ASB’s business or in a requirement that HEI divest ASB. ASB is subject to examination and comprehensive regulation by the Department of Treasury, the OCC and the FDIC, and is subject to reserve requirements established by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. In addition, the FRB is responsible for regulating ASB’s holding companies, HEI and ASB Hawaii. The regulatory authorities have extensive discretion in connection with their supervisory and enforcement activities and examination policies to address not only ASB’s compliance with applicable banking laws and regulations, but also capital adequacy, asset quality, management ability and performance, earnings, liquidity and various other factors.
Under certain circumstances, including any determination that ASB’s relationship with HEI results in an unsafe and unsound banking practice, these regulatory authorities have the authority to restrict the ability of ASB to transfer assets and to make distributions to its shareholders (including payment of dividends to HEI), or they could seek to require HEI to sever its relationship with or divest its ownership of ASB. Payment by ASB of dividends to HEI may also be restricted by the OCC and FRB under its prompt corrective action regulations or its capital distribution regulations if ASB’s capital position deteriorates. In order to maintain its status as a QTL, ASB is required to maintain at least 65% of its assets in “qualified thrift investments.” Institutions that fail to maintain QTL status are subject to various penalties, including limitations on their activities. In ASB’s case, the activities of HEI and HEI’s other subsidiaries would also be subject to restrictions, and a failure or inability to comply with those restrictions could effectively result in the required divestiture of ASB. Federal legislation has also been proposed in the past that could operate to eliminate the thrift charter or the grandfathered status of HEI as a unitary thrift holding company, which in turn would result in a required divestiture of ASB. In the event of a required divestiture, federal law substantially limits the types of entities that could potentially acquire ASB.
Recent legislative and regulatory initiatives could have an adverse effect on ASB’s business. The Dodd-Frank Act, which became law in July 2010, has had a substantial impact on the financial services industry. The Dodd-Frank Act establishes a framework through which regulatory reform will be written and changes to statutes, regulations or regulatory policies could affect HEI and ASB in substantial and unpredictable ways. A major component of the Dodd-Frank Act is the creation of the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau that has the responsibility for setting and enforcing clear, consistent rules relating to consumer financial products and services and has the authority to prohibit practices it finds to be unfair, deceptive or abusive. Compliance with any such directives could have adverse effects on ASB’s revenues or operating costs. Failure to comply with laws, regulations or policies could result in sanctions by regulatory agencies, civil money penalties and/or reputation damage, which could have a material adverse effect on ASB’s business, results of operations, financial condition and liquidity.
A large percentage of ASB’s loans and securities are collateralized by real estate, and adverse changes in the real estate market and/or general economic or other conditions may result in loan losses and adversely affect the Company’s profitability. As of December 31, 2018 approximately 82% of ASB’s loan portfolio was comprised of loans primarily collateralized by real estate, most of which was concentrated in the State of Hawaii. During 2018, ASB’s HELOC and residential 1-4 family portfolios grew by 7% and 1%, respectively, and now comprise 78% of total real estate loans. ASB’s financial results may be adversely affected by changes in prevailing economic conditions, either nationally or in the state of Hawaii, including decreases in real estate values, adverse employment conditions, the monetary and fiscal policies of the federal and state government and other significant external events. Adverse changes in the economy may have a negative effect on the ability of borrowers to make timely repayments of their loans. A deterioration of the economic environment in Hawaii, including a material decline in the real estate market, further declines in home resales, a material external shock, or any environmental clean-up obligation, may also significantly impair the value of ASB’s collateral and ASB’s ability to sell the collateral upon foreclosure. In the event of a default, amounts received upon sale of the collateral may be insufficient to recover outstanding principal and interest. In addition, if poor economic conditions result in decreased demand for real estate loans, ASB’s profits may decrease if its alternative investments earn less income than real estate loans.
Expanding commercial, commercial real estate and consumer lending activities may result in higher costs and greater credit risk than residential lending activities due to the unique characteristics of these markets. ASB had been aggressively pursuing a strategy that included expanding its commercial, commercial real estate and consumer lines of business. If ASB
elects to pursue commercial and commercial real estate loans in the future, such loans have a higher risk profile than residential loans. Though both commercial and commercial real estate loans have shorter terms and earn higher spreads than residential mortgage loans, these loan types generally entail higher underwriting and other service costs and present greater credit risks than traditional residential mortgages. Commercial loans are secured by the assets of the business and, upon default, any collateral repossessed may not be sufficient to repay the outstanding loan balance. In addition, loan collections are dependent on the borrower’s continuing financial stability and, thus, are more likely to be affected by current economic conditions and adverse business developments. Commercial real estate properties tend to be unique and are more difficult to value than residential real estate properties. Commercial real estate loans may not be fully amortizing, meaning that they have a significant principal balance or “balloon” payment due at maturity. In addition, commercial real estate properties, particularly industrial and warehouse properties, are generally subject to relatively greater environmental risks than noncommercial properties and to the corresponding burdens and costs of compliance with environmental laws and regulations. Also, there may be costs and delays involved in enforcing rights of a property owner against tenants in default under terms of leases with respect to commercial properties. For example, a tenant may seek protection under bankruptcy laws, which could result in termination of the tenant’s lease.
ASB also has a national syndicated lending portfolio where ASB is a participant in credit facilities agented by established and reputable national lenders. Management selectively chooses each deal based on conservative credit criteria to ensure a high-quality, well diversified portfolio. In the event the borrower encounters financial difficulties and ASB is unable to sell its participation interest in the loan in the secondary market, the bank is typically reliant on the originating lender for managing any loan workout or foreclosure proceedings that may become necessary. Accordingly, ASB has less control over such proceedings than loans it originates and may be required to accommodate the interests of other participating lenders in resolving delinquencies or defaults on participated loans, which could result in outcomes that are not fully consistent with ASB’s preferred strategies. In addition, a significant proportion of ASB’s syndicated loans are originated in states other than Hawaii and are subject to the local regional and regulatory risks specific to those states.
Similar to the national syndicated lending portfolio, ASB does not service commercial loans in which it has participation interests rather than being the lead or agent lender and is subject to the policies and practices of the agent lender, who is the loan servicer, in resolving delinquencies or defaults on participated loans.
The consumer loan portfolio primarily consists of personal unsecured loans with risk-based pricing. Repayment is based on the borrower’s financial stability as these loans have no collateral and there is less assurance that ASB will be able to collect all payments due under these loans or have sufficient collateral to cover all outstanding loan balances.
ASB’s allowance for loan losses may not cover actual loan losses. ASB’s allowance for loan losses is the bank’s estimate of probable losses inherent in its loan portfolio and is based on a continuing assessment of:
•existing risks in the loan portfolio;
•historical loss experience with ASB’s loans;
•changes in collateral value; and
•current conditions (for example, economic conditions, real estate market conditions and interest rate environment).
If ASB’s actual loan losses exceed its allowance for loan losses, it may incur losses, its financial condition may be materially and adversely affected, and additional capital may be required to enhance its capital position. In addition, various regulatory agencies, as an integral part of their examination process, regularly review the adequacy of ASB’s allowance. These agencies may require ASB to establish additional allowances based on their judgment of the information available at the time of their examinations. No assurance can be given that ASB will not sustain loan losses in excess of present or future levels of its allowance for loan losses.
The Tax Act may impact the financial services industry with respect to the marketability of residential loans and home equity indebtedness. The Tax Act limits the deduction available for mortgage interest by reducing the amount of debt that can be treated as acquisition indebtedness from the current level of $1 million to $750,000. The Tax Act also suspends the deduction for interest on home equity indebtedness. The impact of these tax law changes on residential mortgage and home equity line of credit loan production cannot yet be determined.
UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
Hawaiian Electric: Not applicable.
HEI and Hawaiian Electric: See the “Properties” sections under “HEI,” “Electric utility” and “Bank” in Item 1. Business above.
HEI and Hawaiian Electric: HEI and Hawaiian Electric (including their direct and indirect subsidiaries) may be involved in ordinary routine PUC proceedings, environmental proceedings and/or litigation incidental to their respective businesses. See the descriptions of legal proceedings (including judicial proceedings and proceedings before the PUC and environmental and other administrative agencies) in “Item 1. Business,” in HEI’s MD&A and in the Notes 3 and 4 of the Consolidated Financial Statements. The outcomes of litigation and administrative proceedings are necessarily uncertain and there is a risk that the outcome of such matters could have a material adverse effect on the financial position, results of operations or liquidity of HEI or one or more of its subsidiaries for a particular period in the future.
MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
HEI and Hawaiian Electric: Not applicable.
EXECUTIVE OFFICERS OF THE REGISTRANT (HEI)
The executive officers of HEI are listed below. Messrs. Oshima and Wacker are officers of HEI subsidiaries rather than of HEI, but are deemed to be executive officers of HEI under SEC Rule 3b-7 promulgated under the 1934 Exchange Act. HEI executive officers serve from the date of their initial appointment and are reappointed annually by the HEI Board (or annually by the applicable HEI subsidiary board), and thereafter are appointed for one-year terms or until their successors have been duly appointed and qualified or until their earlier resignation or removal. HEI executive officers may also hold offices with HEI subsidiaries and affiliates in addition to their current positions listed below.
Business experience for last 5 years and prior positions with the Company
Constance H. Lau
HEI President and Chief Executive Officer since 5/06 HEI Director, 6/01 to 12/04 and since 5/06 Hawaiian Electric Chairman of the Board since 5/06
ASB Hawaii Director since 5/06
ASB Chairman of the Board since 5/06, Risk Committee member since 2012 and Director since 1999
· ASB Chief Executive Officer, 6/01 to 11/10, and President, 6/01 to 1/08
· ASB Senior Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer and Director, 12/99 to 5/01
· HEI Power Corp. Financial Vice President and Treasurer, 5/97 to 8/99
· HEI Treasurer, 4/89 to 10/99, and HEI Assistant Treasurer, 12/87 to 4/89
· Hawaiian Electric Treasurer 12/87 to 4/89 and Assistant Corporate Counsel, 9/84 to 12/87
Gregory C. Hazelton
HEI Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer since 3/18
HEI Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer, 4/17 to 3/18
HEI Senior Vice President, Finance, 10/16 to 4/17
· Prior to rejoining the Company in 2016: Northwest Natural Gas Company, Senior Vice President, Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer, 2/16 to 9/16, and Northwest Natural Gas Company, Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer, 6/15 to 2/16
· HEI Vice President, Finance, Treasurer and Controller, 8/13 to 6/15
· Prior to joining the Company in 2013: UBS Investment Bank, Managing Director, Global Power & Utilities Group 3/11 to 5/13
Alan M. Oshima
Hawaiian Electric President and Chief Executive Officer since 10/14 Hawaiian Electric Director, 2008 to 10/11 and since 10/14
HEI Charitable Foundation President since 10/11
· Hawaiian Electric Senior Executive Officer on loan from HEI, 5/14 to 9/14
· HEI Executive Vice President, Corporate and Community Advancement, 10/11 to 5/14
Richard F. Wacker
ASB President and Chief Executive Officer since 11/10
ASB Director since 11/10
Family relationships; executive arrangements
There are no family relationships between any HEI executive officer and any other HEI executive officer or any HEI director or director nominee. There are no arrangements or understandings between any HEI executive officer and any other person pursuant to which such executive officer was selected.
MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Certain of the information required by this item is incorporated herein by reference to Note 13, “Regulatory restrictions on net assets” and Note 17, “Quarterly information (unaudited)” of the Consolidated Financial Statements and “Item 6. Selected Financial Data” and “Equity compensation plan information” under “Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters” of this Form 10-K.
HEI’s common stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol “HE.” The total number of holders of record of HEI common stock (i.e., registered holders) as of February 13, 2019, was 5,840. On February 14, 2019, the HEI Board of Directors approved a 1 cent increase in the quarterly dividend from $0.31 per share to $0.32 per share, starting with the dividend in the first quarter of 2019.
Purchases of HEI common shares were made during the fourth quarter to satisfy the requirements of certain plans as follows:
ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
of Shares Purchased **
per Share **
Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or Programs
Maximum Number (or Approximate Dollar Value) of Shares that May Yet Be Purchased Under the Plans or Programs
October 1 to 31, 2018
November 1 to 30, 2018
December 1 to 31, 2018
NA Not applicable.
* Trades (total number of shares purchased) are reflected in the month in which the order is placed.
** The purchases were made to satisfy the requirements of the DRIP, the HEIRSP and the ASB 401(k) Plan for shares purchased for cash or by the reinvestment of dividends by participants under those plans and none of the purchases were made under publicly announced repurchase plans or programs. Average prices per share are calculated exclusive of any commissions payable to the brokers making the purchases for the DRIP, the HEIRSP and the ASB 401(k) Plan. Of the “Total number of shares purchased,” 198,345 of the 230,745 shares were purchased for the DRIP; 27,000 of the 230,745 shares were purchased for the HEIRSP; and 5,400 of the 230,745 shares were purchased for the ASB 401(k) Plan. The repurchased shares were issued for the accounts of the participants under registration statements registering the shares issued under these plans.
Since a corporate restructuring on July 1, 1983, all the common stock of Hawaiian Electric has been held solely by its parent, HEI, and is not publicly traded. Accordingly, information required with respect to “Market information” and “holders” is not applicable to Hawaiian Electric.
The dividends declared and paid on Hawaiian Electric’s common stock for the quarters of 2018 and 2017 were as follows:
Also, see “Liquidity and capital resources” in HEI’s MD&A.
See the discussion of regulatory and other restrictions on dividends or other distributions in Note 13 of the Consolidated Financial Statements.
SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
Selected Financial Data
Hawaiian Electric Industries, Inc. and Subsidiaries
Years ended December 31
(dollars in thousands, except per share amounts)
Results of operations
Net income for common stock
Basic earnings per common share
Diluted earnings per common share
Return on average common equity
Financial position *
Other bank borrowings
Long-term debt, net—other than bank
Preferred stock of subsidiaries – not subject to mandatory redemption
Common stock equity
Common equity ratio
Book value per common share *
Dividends declared per common share
Dividend payout ratio
Market price to book value per common share *
Price earnings ratio **
Common shares outstanding (thousands) *
At December 31.
Calculated using December 31 market price per common share divided by basic earnings per common share.
At December 31. Represents registered shareholders plus participants in the HEI Dividend Reinvestment and Stock Purchase Plan (DRIP) who are not registered shareholders. As of February 13, 2019, HEI had 5,840 registered shareholders (i.e., holders of record of HEI common stock), 22,601 DRIP participants and total shareholders of 25,318.
2018 results include the impact of the lower federal corporate tax rate as a result of the Tax Act, as well as certain tax return adjustments, such as an increased pension deduction made in conjunction with the filing of the Company’s 2017 tax returns, which resulted in a net income tax benefit of $5 million that lowered the effective tax rate due to the additional tax benefits realized that were associated with the rate differential. The lower tax rate was partially offset by other Tax Act changes, including the non-deductibility of excess executive compensation and various fringe benefit costs. 2017 results include a $14 million adjustment, primarily to reduce deferred tax net asset balances (not accounted for under Utility regulatory ratemaking) to reflect the lower rates enacted by the Tax Act (see Note 11 of the Consolidated Financial Statements) and $20 million ($11 million, net of tax impacts) lower in RAM revenues than the prior year due to expiration of a 2013 settlement agreement that allowed the accrual of RAM revenues on January 1 (vs. June 1) for years 2014 to 2016 at Hawaiian Electric. Results for 2016, 2015 and 2014 include merger- and spin-off-related income/(expenses), net of tax impacts, of $60 million, ($16 million), and ($5 million), respectively (see Note 16 of the Consolidated Financial Statements).
In 2018, the Company reclassified “Contributions in aid of construction” to “Property, plant and equipment, net,” which affects “Total assets” in the above table. Financial data for all prior periods have been updated to reflect the reclassification.
For 2014, under the two-class method of computing basic earnings per share, distributed earnings was $1.24 per share and undistributed earnings (loss) was $0.41 per share, for both unvested restricted stock awards and unrestricted common stock. For 2014, under the two-class method of computing diluted earnings per share, distributed earnings was $1.24 per share and undistributed earnings (loss) was $0.40 per share, respectively, for both unvested restricted stock awards and unrestricted common stock. There were no restricted stock awards outstanding during 2018, 2017, 2016 and 2015.