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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
________________________________
FORM 10-K
________________________________
(Mark One)
x    ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(D) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
or
o    TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(D) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from ___________ to ___________
Commission file number 001-37794
________________________________
Hilton Grand Vacations Inc.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)
________________________________
Delaware81-2545345
(State or Other Jurisdiction of Incorporation or Organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
6355 MetroWest Boulevard, Suite 180,
Orlando, Florida
32835
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)(Zip Code)
Registrant’s Telephone Number, Including Area Code (407) 613-3100
(Former Name, Former Address, and Former Fiscal Year, if Changed Since Last Report)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
(Title of each class)Trading Symbol(Name of each exchange on which registered)
Common Stock, $0.01 par value per shareHGVNew York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
________________________________
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes o No x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirement for the past 90 days. Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company’ in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large Accelerated Filer
x
Accelerated Filero
Non-Accelerated Filer
o
Smaller Reporting Companyo
Emerging Growth Company
o
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. x
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements. o


Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). o Yes x No
As of June 30, 2023, the aggregate market value of the registrant’s common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was $4,908 million (based on the closing sale price of the common stock on that date on the New York Stock Exchange).
There were 104,483,050 shares of the registrant’s Common Stock outstanding as of February 22, 2024.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
The registrant has incorporated by reference into Part III of this report certain portions of its proxy statement for its 2024 annual meeting of stockholders, which is expected to be filed pursuant to Regulation 14A within 120 days after the end of the registrant’s fiscal year ended December 31, 2023.


HILTON GRAND VACATIONS INC.
FORM 10-K TABLE OF CONTENTS
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2023
Item 1CCybersecurity
Item 9C Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections


PART I
Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”) and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). Forward-looking statements convey management’s expectations as to the future of HGV, and are based on management’s beliefs, expectations, assumptions and such plans, estimates, projections and other information available to management at the time HGV makes such statements. Forward-looking statements include all statements that are not historical facts and may be identified by terminology such as the words “outlook,” “believe,” “expect,” “potential,” “goal,” “continues,” “may,” “will,” “should,” “could,” “would,” “seeks,” “approximately,” “projects,” “predicts,” “intends,” “plans,” “estimates,” “anticipates,” “future,” “guidance,” “target,” or the negative version of these words or other comparable words, although not all forward-looking statements may contain such words. The forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K include statements related to HGV’s revenues, earnings, taxes, cash flow and related financial and operating measures, and expectations with respect to future operating, financial and business performance, and other anticipated future events and expectations that are not historical facts, including, related to the acquisition and integration of Bluegreen Vacations Holding Corporation (“Bluegreen”).
HGV cautions you that our forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors, including those that are beyond HGV’s control, which may cause the actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from the future results. Any one or more of these risks or uncertainties, including those related to HGV's acquisition of Bluegreen, could adversely impact HGV’s operations, revenue, operating profits and margins, key business operational metrics discussed under "Operational Metrics" below, financial condition or credit rating.
For additional information regarding factors that could cause HGV’s actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied in the forward-looking statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, please see the risk factors discussed in “Part I—Item 1A. Risk Factors” and the Summary of Risk Factors in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and those described from time to time in other periodic reports that we file with the SEC. There may be other risks and uncertainties that we are unable to predict at this time or that we currently do not expect to have a material adverse effect on our business. Except for HGV’s ongoing obligations to disclose material information under the federal securities laws, we undertake no obligation to publicly update or review any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future developments, changes in management’s expectations, or otherwise.
Terms Used in this Annual Report on Form 10-K
Except where the context requires otherwise, references in this Annual Report on Form 10-K to “Hilton Grand Vacations,” “HGV,” the “Company,” “we,” “us” and “our” refer to Hilton Grand Vacations Inc., together with its consolidated subsidiaries.“Legacy-HGV” refers to our business and operations that existed both prior to and following the Diamond Acquisition (as defined below), excluding Legacy-Diamond. “Legacy-Diamond” refers to the business and operations that we acquired in the Diamond Acquisition. Except where the context requires otherwise, references to our “properties” or “resorts” refer to the timeshare properties that we manage or own. Of these resorts and units, a portion is directly owned by us or joint ventures in which we have an interest; and the remaining resorts and units are owned by our third-party owners.
“Developed” refers to VOI inventory that is sourced from projects developed by HGV.
“Fee-for-service” refers to VOI inventory that we sell and manage on behalf of third-party developers.
“Just-in-time” refers to VOI inventory that is primarily sourced in transactions that are designed to closely correlate the timing of the acquisition by us with our sale of that inventory to purchasers.
“Points-based” refers to VOI sales that are backed by physical real estate that is contributed to a trust.
“VOI” refers to vacation ownership intervals and interests.
“Collections” refers to the acquired portfolio of resort properties included in Diamond's single- and multi-use trusts.
Non-GAAP Financial Measures
This Annual Report on Form 10-K includes discussion of terms that are not recognized terms under U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (“U.S. GAAP”), and financial measures that are not calculated in accordance with U.S. GAAP, including earnings before interest expense (excluding interest expense relating to our non-recourse debt), taxes and depreciation and amortization (“EBITDA”), Adjusted EBITDA, fee-for-service commissions and brand fees, sales and marketing expense, net, sales revenue, real estate expense, and profits and profit margins for our real estate, financing, resort and club management, and rental and ancillary services.
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Operational Metrics
This Annual Report on Form 10-K also includes discussion of key business operational metrics including contract sales, tour flow and volume per guest (“VPG”).
See “Part II—Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations-Key Business and Financial Metrics” and “—Results of Operations” for a discussion of the meanings of these terms, the Company’s reasons for providing the applicable non-GAAP financial measures, and reconciliations of non-GAAP financial measures to measures calculated in accordance with U.S. GAAP as well as further discussion on the key business operational metrics.
ITEM 1.    Business
Our History
On January 3, 2017, HGV became an independent publicly traded company as a result of Hilton Worldwide Holdings Inc.'s (“Hilton”) tax-free spin-off of each of HGV and Park Hotels & Resorts Inc. (“Park”). As a result of the spin-off, HGV became an independent publicly traded company with common stock listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “HGV.” Following the spin-off, Hilton did not retain any ownership in our company. In connection with the spin-off, we entered into agreements with Hilton and other third parties, including licenses to use the Hilton Grand Vacations brand. For more information regarding these agreements, see “—Business—Key Agreements with Hilton Worldwide Holdings.
On August 2, 2021, we completed the acquisition of Dakota Holdings, Inc. (“Diamond”), the parent of Diamond Resorts International (the “Diamond Acquisition”), by exchanging 100% of the outstanding equity interests of Diamond for shares of HGV common stock. As a result of the Diamond Acquisition, certain funds controlled by Apollo Global Management Inc. (“Apollo”) and other minority shareholders, which previously owned 100% of Diamond, held approximately 28% of HGV's common stock at the time the Diamond Acquisition was completed.
On January 17, 2024 (the "Bluegreen Acquisition Date"), we completed the acquisition of Bluegreen Vacations Holding Corporation (the “Bluegreen Acquisition”) in an all-cash transaction, with total consideration of approximately $1.6 billion, inclusive of net debt. The Bluegreen Acquisition is expected to broaden HGV’s offerings, customer reach and sales locations, creating a premier vacation ownership and experiences company.
Our Business
We are a global timeshare company engaged in developing, marketing, selling, managing and operating timeshare resorts, timeshare plans and ancillary reservation services, primarily under the Hilton Grand Vacations brand. Our operations primarily consist of: selling vacation ownership intervals and vacation ownership interests (collectively, “VOIs” or “VOI”) for us and third parties; financing and servicing loans provided to consumers for their VOI purchases; operating resorts and timeshare plans; and managing our clubs and exchange programs.
As of December 31, 2023, we had over 150 properties located in the United States (“U.S.”), Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean, Canada, and Asia. A significant number of our properties and VOIs are concentrated in Florida, Europe, Hawaii, California, Arizona, Nevada and Virginia. As of December 31, 2023, we had approximately 529,000 members across our club offerings. Based on the type of Club membership, members have the flexibility to exchange their VOIs for stays at any Hilton Grand Vacations resort, any property in the Hilton system of 22 industry-leading brands across approximately 7,500 properties, or affiliated properties, as well as numerous experiential vacation options, such as cruises and guided tours, or they have the option to exchange their VOI for various other timeshare resorts throughout the world through an external exchange program, including travel services options.
Our compelling VOI product allows customers to advance purchase a lifetime of vacations. Because our VOI owners generally purchase only the vacation time they intend to use each year, they are able to efficiently split the full cost of owning and maintaining a vacation residence with other owners. Our customers also benefit from the amenities and service at our resorts. Furthermore, our points-based platform offers members tremendous flexibility, enabling us to more effectively adapt to their changing vacation needs over time. Building on the strength of that platform, we continuously seek new ways to add value to our Club memberships, including enhanced product offerings, greater geographic distribution, broader exchange networks and further technological innovation, all of which drive better, more personalized vacation experiences and guest satisfaction.
As innovators in the timeshare business, we enhance our inventory strategy by developing an inventory mix focused on developed properties as well as fee-for-service and just-in-time agreements to sell VOIs on behalf of or acquired from third-party developers.
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Bluegreen Acquisition
On January 17, 2024, we completed the Bluegreen Acquisition. Bluegreen is a leading vacation ownership company that markets and sells VOIs and manages resorts in popular leisure and urban destinations. Bluegreen’s resort network operates close to 50 Club Resorts (resorts in which owners in the Bluegreen Vacation Club (the “BG Vacation Club”) have the right to control and use most of the units in connection with their VOI ownership) and over 20 Club Associate Resorts (resorts in which owners in the BG Vacation Club have the right to use only a limited number of units in connection with their VOI ownership).
Bluegreen’s Club Resorts and Club Associate Resorts are primarily located in high-volume, “drive-to” vacation locations, including Orlando, Panama City Beach, Las Vegas, the Smoky Mountains, Myrtle Beach, Charleston, the Branson, Missouri area, Nashville and New Orleans, among others. Through Bluegreen’s points-based system, the approximately 200,000 BG Vacation Club members have the flexibility to stay at units available at any of Bluegreen’s resorts and have access to approximately 11,600 other hotels and resorts through partnerships and exchange networks.
Bluegreen’s sales and marketing platform is currently supported by marketing relationships with nationally recognized consumer brands, such as Bass Pro and Choice Hotels. Since 2000, Bluegreen has been the official vacation ownership provider for Bass Pro Shops and Cabela’s, among the nation’s leading outdoor retailers, with strong brand equity and loyal customer base. Bluegreen has a marketing presence in the majority of Bass Pro stores that are located in nearly 200 locations across North America. Additionally, the joint venture between Bluegreen and Bass Pro includes four high-end wilderness resorts under Big Cedar Lodge brand.
Our Reportable Segments
We operate our business across two segments: (1) real estate sales and financing and (2) resort operations and club management.
Our real estate sales and financing segment primarily generates revenue from:
VOI Sales—We sell our owned inventory and interests directly and, through our fee-for-service agreements, we sell VOIs on behalf of third-party developers using the Hilton Grand Vacations brand in exchange for sales, marketing and brand fees. Under these fee-for-service agreements, we earn commission fees based on a percentage of total interval sales. See “—Inventory and Development Activities” and “—Marketing and Sales Activities” below for additional information.
Financing—We provide consumer financing, which includes interest income generated from the origination of consumer loans to members to finance their purchase of VOIs owned by us. We also generate fee revenue from servicing the loans provided by third-party developers to purchasers of their VOIs. See “—Financing Activities” below for additional information regarding our consumer financing activities.
Our resort operations and club management segment primarily generates revenue from:
Resort Management—Our resort management services primarily consist of operating properties under management agreements for the benefit of homeowners’ associations (“HOAs”) of VOI owners at both our resorts and those developed by third parties. Our management agreements with HOAs provide for a cost-plus management fee, which means we generally earn a fee equal to 10% to 15% of the costs to operate the applicable resort. See “—Resort and Club Management Activities” below for additional information regarding our resort management activities.
Club Management—We operate and manage the Clubs and receive annual membership fees as well as incremental fees depending on exchanges and transactions members choose for other vacation products and services within the Club system. See “—Resort and Club Management Activities” below for additional information.
Rental of Available Inventory—We generate rental revenue from unit rentals of unsold inventory and inventory made available due to ownership exchanges through our Club programs. This allows us to utilize otherwise unoccupied inventory to generate additional revenues. We also earn fee revenue from the rental of inventory owned by third parties as well as revenue from retail, spa and other outlets at our timeshare properties. See “—Resort and Club Management Activities” below for additional information.
Other than the United States, there were no countries that individually represented more than 10% of total revenues for the year ended December 31, 2023.
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For more information regarding our segments, see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” included in Item 7, and Note 22: Business Segments in our consolidated financial statements included in Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Our VOI and Club Products
Each property provides a distinctive setting, while signature elements remain consistent, such as high-quality guest service, spacious units and extensive on-property amenities. Most resorts feature studio to three-bedroom condominium-style accommodations and amenities such as full kitchens, in-unit washers and dryers, spas and kids’ clubs. Our timeshare properties are relatively concentrated in significant tourist markets, including Florida, Europe, Hawaii, California, Arizona, Nevada and Virginia.
Our deeded VOI product that we market and sell is fee-simple, deeded in perpetuity and right to use real estate interests, developed either by us or by third parties. This ownership interest is generally equivalent to one week on an annual or biennial basis, at the timeshare resort in which the VOI is located. Purchasers of a deeded VOI also generally become members of a Club which allows the member to exchange their points for a number of vacation options. In addition to an annual membership fee, members pay incremental fees depending on exchange or services they choose.
Our trust VOI product, which we acquired in the Diamond Acquisition, that we market and sell is a beneficial interest in one of our Collections, which are represented by an annual or biennial allotment of points that can be utilized for vacations at any of the resorts in that Collection. In general, purchasers of a VOI in a Collection do not acquire a direct ownership interest in the resort properties in the Collection. Rather, for each Collection, one or more trustees hold legal title to the deeded fee simple real estate interests or the functional equivalent, or, in some cases, leasehold real estate interests for the benefit of the respective Collection’s association members in accordance with the applicable agreements. Purchasers of a trust VOI are offered the opportunity to become members of a Club through which they can exchange their points for a number of vacation options. In addition to an annual membership fee, members pay transaction fees depending upon the exchange or service options they choose.
Our club membership offering is HGV Max. For any customer who purchases a VOI, this membership provides the ability to use points across all properties within our network. The membership provides new destinations for existing club owners, broader vacation opportunities for new buyers, and discounts across the Hilton portfolio of hotels and resorts. Prior to the offering of HGV Max, purchasers of deeded and trust VOI products generally became members of Hilton Grand Vacations Club and Hilton Club exchange programs and Diamond points-based multi-resort timeshare clubs. Our club memberships, including HGV Max, are collectively referred to as “Clubs”.
As of December 31, 2023, we had approximately 529,000 members across our various club offerings.
Inventory and Development Activities
We secure VOI inventory by developing or acquiring resorts in strategic markets, building additional phases at our existing resorts, re-acquiring inventory from owners in default and in the open market and sourcing inventory from third-party developers through fee-for-service and just-in-time transactions.
Our development activities involving the acquisition of real estate are followed by construction or renovation to create individual vacation ownership units. These development activities, and the related management of construction activities, are performed either by us or third-party developers. The development and construction of the units require a large upfront investment of capital and can take several years to complete in the case of a ground-up project. Additionally, the VOIs must be legally registered prior to sale to our end customers. This investment cannot be recovered until the individual VOIs are sold to purchasers which can take several years. Traditionally, timeshare operators have funded 100% of the investment necessary to acquire land and construct timeshare properties.
We also source VOIs through fee-for-service agreements with third-party developers. These agreements enable us to generate fees from the marketing and sale of VOIs and Club memberships and from the management of the timeshare properties without requiring us to fund up-front acquisition and construction costs or incur unsold inventory maintenance costs. The capital investment we make in connection with these projects is typically limited to the cost of constructing our on-site sales centers. In just-in-time transactions, we acquire and sell inventory in transactions that are designed to closely correlate the timing of our acquisition of inventory with our sale of that inventory to purchasers. We refer to fee-for-service transactions and just-in-time sales as “capital-efficient transactions.” Over time, these capital-efficient transactions have evolved from sourcing inventory from distressed properties to sourcing from new construction projects. For the year ended December 31, 2023, sales from fee-for-service and just-in-time inventory were 28% and 19% of contract sales, respectively. The estimated contract sales value related to our inventory that is currently available for sale at open or soon-to-be open projects and inventory at new or existing projects that will become available for sale in the future upon registration, delivery or construction is approximately $11 billion at current pricing. Capital-efficient arrangements
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represent approximately 35% of that supply. Our fee-for-service sales generally improve returns on invested capital and liquidity, while sales of owned inventory, including just-in-time inventory, typically result in a greater contribution to the profitability of our real estate sales and financing segment.
Owners can generally offer their VOIs for resale on the secondary market, which can create pricing pressure on the sale of developer inventory. Given the structure of our Legacy-HGV products, purchasers of Legacy-HGV VOIs on the secondary market will generally become a Legacy-HGV Club member. Purchasers of a Legacy-Diamond VOI on the secondary market may elect to join a Legacy-Diamond Club. Once a member of the Clubs, the member will be responsible for paying annual fees. All purchasers will be responsible for paying applicable maintenance fees, property taxes and any assessments that are levied by the relevant HOA. While we do not have an obligation to repurchase intervals previously sold, most of our VOIs provide us with a right of first refusal on secondary market sales. We monitor sales that occur in the secondary market and exercise our right of first refusal in certain cases.
Marketing and Sales Activities
Our marketing and sales activities are based on targeted direct marketing and a highly personalized sales approach. We use targeted direct marketing to reach potential members who are identified as having the financial ability to pay for our products, are frequent leisure travelers and have an affinity with our brands. Tour flow quality impacts key metrics such as close rate and VPG, defined in “Key Business and Financial Metrics—Real Estate Sales Operating Metrics.” Additionally, the quality of tour flows impacts sales revenue and the collectability of our timeshare financing receivables. For the year ended December 31, 2023, 70% of our contract sales were to our existing owners, compared to 71% for the year ended December 31, 2022.
We sell our vacation ownership products through our distribution network of both in-market and off-site sales centers. Our products are currently marketed for sale throughout the United States, Mexico, Canada, Europe and Asia. We operate sales distribution centers in major markets and popular leisure destinations with year-round demand and a history of being a friendly environment for vacation ownership. We have over 60 sales distribution centers in various domestic and international locations.
Our sales tours are designed to provide potential members with an overview of our company and our products, as well as a customized presentation to explain how our products can meet their vacationing needs. Our sales centers use proprietary sales technology to deliver a highly transparent and customized sales approach. Consumers place a great deal of trust in the Hilton brand, and we believe that preserving that trust is essential. We hire our sales associates using an assessment-based, candidate screening system, which is a proprietary tool we use to uphold our selection criteria. Once hired, we emphasize training, professionalism and product knowledge, and our sales associates receive significant product and sales training before interacting with potential members. Most U.S.-based sales associates are licensed real estate agents, and a real estate broker is involved with each sales center. We manage consistency of sales presentation and team member professionalism using a variety of sales tools and technology and through a post-presentation survey of our tour guests. Our focus is on treating members and guests with the highest degree of respect.
Financing Activities
We originate loans for members purchasing our developed and acquired VOIs who qualify according to our underwriting criteria. We generate interest income from the spread between the revenue generated on loans originated less our costs to fund and service those loans. We also earn fee revenue from servicing our own portfolio and the loans provided by third-party developers of our fee-for-service projects to purchasers of their VOIs.
Our timeshare financing receivables are collateralized by the underlying VOIs and are generally structured as 10-year, fully amortizing loans that bear a fixed interest rate ranging from 2.5% to 25% per annum. The interest rate on our loans is determined by, among other factors, the amount of the down payment, the borrower’s credit profile and the loan term. As of December 31, 2023, the average loan outstanding was approximately $24,000 with a weighted average interest rate of 14.8%.
Prepayment is permitted without penalty. When a member defaults, we ultimately return their VOI to inventory for resale and that member no longer participates in our Clubs.
We have a revolving timeshare receivable credit facility (“Timeshare Facility”). We periodically securitize timeshare financing receivables we originate in connection with the sale of VOIs to monetize receivables and achieve an efficient return on capital and manage our working capital needs.
Timeshare Financing Receivables Origination
In underwriting each loan, we obtain a credit application and a minimum down payment of 10% of the purchase price on the majority of sales of VOIs. For U.S. and Canadian purchasers seeking financing, which represented
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approximately 85% of the individuals we provided financing to over the last three years, we apply the credit evaluation score methodology developed by the Fair Isaac Corporation (“FICO”) to credit files compiled and maintained by Experian and Equifax. Higher credit scores equate to lower collection risk and lower credit scores equate to higher collection risk. Over the last three years, the weighted-average FICO score for loans to U.S. and Canadian borrowers at the time of origination was 737 (out of a maximum potential score of 850). For non-North American purchasers seeking financing, consisting principally of purchasers in Japan, we generally observe that these borrowers have experienced default rates comparable to U.S. and Canadian borrowers within the 750 to 774 FICO score band.
Our underwriting standards are influenced by the changing economic and financial market conditions. We have the ability to modify our down payment requirements and credit thresholds in the face of stronger or weaker market conditions. Our underwriting standards have resulted in a strong, well-seasoned consumer loan portfolio. As of December 31, 2023, our entire portfolio consists of originated loans and loans that were acquired as part of the Diamond Acquisition and the Grand Islander Acquisition, which are referred to as acquired loans. As of December 31, 2023, the entire portfolio had a gross balance of approximately $2,861 million derived from approximately 120,000 loans. The portfolio had a weighted average length of loan of 10 years and the weighted average remaining length of loan of 8 years.
We also finance our working capital needs in part by borrowing against timeshare financing receivables. In general, we seek to use the majority of our financed VOI sales as collateral to borrow against the Timeshare Facility and subsequently transfer those loans into a term securitization after the loans have seasoned and an appropriately sized portfolio has been assembled. We target securitizations that range in size from $250 million to $350 million and we expect the timing of future securitizations will depend on our anticipated sales volume, financing propensity and capital needs. The strong performance of our outstanding loan securitizations demonstrates that loans originated by us are well regarded for their performance in the securitization market. In the future, we expect to regularly access the term securitization market, replenishing capacity on our Timeshare Facility in the process.
Loan Portfolio Servicing
We have a skilled, integrated consumer finance team. This team is responsible for payment processing and loan servicing, collections, default recovery and portfolio reporting and analytics. Accounts more than 30 days past due are deemed delinquent. We reserve for all loans based on our static pool method. When a loan associated with a product is more than 121 days past due, it is reserved at 100%. Arrangements are then made to recover the interval through various processes depending on the type of inventory and regulatory requirements which could include a deed-in-lieu of foreclosure or foreclosure.
We monitor numerous metrics including collection rates, defaults and bankruptcies. Our consumer finance team is also responsible for selecting and processing loans pledged or to be pledged in our securitizations and preparing monthly servicing reports.
Resort and Club Management Activities
Resort Management
Prior to the initiation of VOI sales at a timeshare resort owned by us or by a third party with whom we have entered into a fee-for-service agreement, we enter into a management agreement with the relevant HOA. Each of the HOAs are governed by a board of directors comprised of owner or developer representatives that are charged with ensuring that the resorts are well-maintained and financially stable. Our services include day-to-day operations of the resorts, maintenance of the resorts, preparation of books and financial records including, reports, budgets and projections, arranging for annual audits and maintenance fee billing and collections and personnel employment training and oversight. Our HOA management agreements provide for a cost-plus management fee, which means we generally earn a fee between 10% and 15% of the costs to operate the applicable resort. As a result, the fees we earn are highly predictable, unlike traditional revenue-based hotel management fees, and our management fees generally are unaffected by changes in rental rate or occupancy. Further, because maintenance fees are paid annually by owners, our management fees are recurring and less volatile than hotel management fees. We are also reimbursed for the costs incurred to perform our services, principally related to personnel providing on-site services. The original term of our management agreements is typically governed by state timeshare laws and ranges from three to five years. The agreements generally are subject to automatic renewal for one- to three-year periods unless either party provides advance notice of termination before the expiration of the term.
To fund resort operations, owners are assessed an annual maintenance fee, which includes our management fee. In 2023, HOAs collected approximately $1,092 million in maintenance fees, including our applicable management fees, which is net of our contributions to the HOAs for unsold VOIs that we own. Because these funds are generally collected early in the year, we have substantial visibility of collection. These fees represent each owner’s allocable share of the management fee and the costs of operating and maintaining the resorts, which generally includes personnel, property taxes, insurance, a capital asset reserve to fund refurbishment and other related costs. If a VOI owner defaults on payment of its
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maintenance fees and there is no lien against the mortgage note or contract, the HOA has the right to recover the defaulting owner’s VOI. As a service to HOAs at certain owned resorts, subject to our inventory needs, we have the ability to reduce the bad debt expense at the HOAs by assuming the defaulted owner’s obligations in exchange for an agreed purchase price. We are then able to resell those VOIs through our normal distribution channels.
A portion of the annual maintenance fees collected from owners each year is set aside as a capital asset reserve for property renovations. The renovations funded by these fees enable HOAs to keep properties modern, which helps our branded properties consistently receive among the highest quality assurance scores within the Hilton portfolio of brands. HOAs engage an independent consulting firm to compile a reserve study. Typically, HOAs budget the reserve study to target property renovations on a 6- and 12-year cycle. HOAs generally replace soft goods every six years and hard goods every 12 years. These reserves also benefit our members by limiting the risk of special assessments and steep increases in maintenance fees due to deferred capital expenditures.
Club Management
We also manage and operate our Clubs providing exclusive exchange, leisure travel and reservation services to our Club members. When owners purchase a VOI, they are generally enrolled in a Club which allows the member to exchange their points for a number of vacation options. In addition to an annual membership fee, Club members pay incremental fees depending on exchanges they choose within the Club system.
Rental of Available Inventory
We rent unsold VOI inventory, third-party inventory and inventory made available due to ownership exchanges through our Club programs. By using our websites, Hilton’s websites and other direct booking channels to rent available inventory, we are able to reach potential new members that may already have an affinity for and loyalty to our brands and introduce them to our products. Inventory rentals allow us to utilize otherwise unoccupied inventory to generate additional revenues and provision of ancillary services. We earn a fee from rentals of third-party inventory. Additionally, we provide ancillary offerings including food and beverage, retail and spa offerings at these timeshare properties.
Competition
The timeshare industry has historically been highly competitive and comprised of a number of national and regional companies that develop, finance and operate timeshare properties.
Our timeshare business competes with other timeshare developers for sales of VOIs based principally on location, quality of accommodations, price, service levels and amenities, financing terms, quality of service, terms of property use, reservation systems, flexibility for members to exchange into time at other timeshare properties or other travel rewards, including access to hotel loyalty programs, as well as brand name recognition and reputation. We also compete for property acquisitions and partnerships with entities that have similar investment objectives as us. We own certain other trademarks and trade names for various properties. In the competitive industry in which we operate, trademarks, service marks, trade names and logos are very important to the marketing and sales of our products. There is also significant competition for talent at all levels within the industry, in particular for sales and management. Our primary competitors in the timeshare space include Marriott Vacations Worldwide, Travel + Leisure Co., Disney Vacation Club, Holiday Inn Club Vacations, Westgate Resorts and Bluegreen Vacations, which we acquired on January 17, 2024.
In addition, our timeshare business competes with other entities engaged in the leisure and vacation industry, including resorts, hotels, cruises and other accommodation alternatives, such as condominium and single-family home rentals. We also compete with home and apartment sharing services that operate websites that market available privately-owned residential properties that can be rented on a nightly, weekly or monthly basis. In certain markets, we compete with established independent timeshare operators, and it is possible that other potential competitors may develop properties near our current resort locations. In addition, we face competition from other timeshare management companies in the management of resorts on behalf of owners on the basis of quality, cost, types of services offered and relationship. We compete with other timeshare companies for off-site sales centers, through which we market our products to potential members, including in locations like high-traffic shopping centers and tourist attractions in leisure destinations.
Recent and potential future consolidation in the highly fragmented timeshare industry may increase competition. Consolidation may create competitors that enjoy significant advantages resulting from, among other things, a lower cost of, and greater access to, capital and enhanced operating efficiencies.
We generally do not face competition in our consumer financing business to finance sales of our VOIs. However, we do face competition from financial institutions providing other forms of consumer credit, which may lead to full or partial prepayment of our timeshare financing receivables.
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Seasonality and Cyclicality
We experience modest seasonality in timeshare sales at certain resorts, with stronger revenue generation during traditional vacation periods for those locations. Our business is moderately cyclical as the demand for VOIs is affected by the availability and cost of financing for purchases of VOIs, as well as general economic conditions and the relative health of the travel industry.
Government Regulation
Our business is subject to various international, national, federal, state and local laws, regulations and policies in jurisdictions in which we operate. Some laws, regulations and policies impact multiple areas of our business, such as securities, anti-discrimination, anti-fraud, data protection and security and anti-corruption and bribery laws and regulations or government economic sanctions, including applicable regulations under the U.S. Treasury’s Office of Foreign Asset Control and the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA”). The FCPA and similar anti-corruption and bribery laws in other jurisdictions outside the U.S. generally prohibit companies and their intermediaries from making improper payments to government officials for the purpose of obtaining or generating business. Other laws, regulations and policies primarily affect one of our areas of business: real estate development activities; marketing and sales activities; consumer financing, lending and related activities; and resort and club management activities. We will continue to be subject to applicable new legislation, rules and regulations that have been proposed, or may be proposed, by federal, state and local authorities relating to the origination, servicing and securitization of mortgage loans.
Real Estate Development Regulation
Our real estate development activities are regulated under a number of different timeshare, condominium and land sales disclosure statutes in many jurisdictions. We are generally subject to laws and regulations typically applicable to real estate development, subdivision and construction activities, such as laws relating to zoning, land use restrictions, environmental regulation, accessibility, title transfers, title insurance and taxation. In the United States, these include the Fair Housing Act and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, and the Accessibility Guidelines promulgated thereunder, which we refer to collectively as (the “ADA”). In addition, we are subject to laws in some jurisdictions that impose liability on property developers for construction defects discovered or repairs made by future owners of property developed by the developer.
Marketing and Sales Regulation
Our marketing and sales activities are highly regulated in the U.S. and in non-U.S. jurisdictions. In addition to regulations implementing laws enacted specifically for the timeshare industry, a wide variety of laws and regulations govern our marketing and sales activities, including regulations implementing the USA PATRIOT Act, Foreign Investment In Real Property Tax Act, the Federal Interstate Land Sales Full Disclosure Act and fair housing statutes, U.S. Federal Trade Commission (“FTC”) and state “Little FTC Acts” and other regulations governing unfair, deceptive or abusive acts or practices including unfair or deceptive trade practices and unfair competition, state attorney general regulations, anti-fraud laws, prize, gift and sweepstakes laws, real estate, title agency or insurance and other licensing or registration laws and regulations, anti-money laundering, consumer information privacy and security, breach notification, information sharing and telemarketing laws, home solicitation sales laws, tour operator laws, lodging certificate and seller of travel laws and other consumer protection laws.
We must obtain the approval of numerous governmental authorities for our marketing and sales activities. Changes in circumstances or applicable law may necessitate the application for or modification of existing approvals. In addition, many jurisdictions, including many jurisdictions in the United States, Canada and Mexico, require that we file detailed registration or offering statements with regulatory authorities disclosing information regarding our VOIs, such as information concerning the intervals being offered, the project, resort or program to which the intervals relate, applicable timeshare plans, evidence of title, details regarding our business, the purchaser’s rights and obligations with respect to such intervals, and a description of the manner in which we intend to offer and advertise such intervals.
When we sell VOIs, including in non-U.S. jurisdictions such as Mexico and Canada, local law grants the purchaser of a VOI the right to cancel a purchase contract during a specified rescission period following the later of the date the contract was signed or the date the purchaser received the last of the documents required to be provided by us.
In recent years, regulators in many jurisdictions have increased regulations and enforcement actions related to telemarketing operations, including requiring adherence to the federal Telephone Consumer Protection Act and “do not call” legislation. These measures have significantly increased the costs associated with telemarketing, in particular with respect to telemarketing to mobile numbers. While we continue to be subject to telemarketing risks and potential liability, we believe that our exposure to adverse effects from telemarketing legislation and enforcement is mitigated in some instances by the use of permission-based marketing in which we obtain permission to contact prospective purchasers in the
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future. We have also implemented procedures to comply with federal and state “do not call” regulations including subscribing to the federal do not call registry and certain state “do not call” registries as well as maintaining an internal “do not call” list.
Lending Regulation
Our lending and related activities are subject to a number of laws and regulations including those of applicable supervisory agencies such as, in the United States, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, the FTC, and the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network, and, in the case of our international operations, the Financial Conduct Authority (in the United Kingdom) and other similar or equivalent agencies in other countries and regions in which we operate. These laws and regulations, some of which contain exceptions applicable to the timeshare industry, may include, among others, the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act and Regulation X, the Truth In Lending Act and Regulation Z, the Federal Trade Commission Act, the Equal Credit Opportunity Act and Regulation B, the Fair Credit Reporting Act, the Fair Housing Act and implementing regulations, the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act, the Electronic Funds Transfer Act and Regulation E, unfair, deceptive or abusive acts or practices regulations and the Credit Practices rules, the USA PATRIOT Act, the Right to Financial Privacy Act, the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, the Service member’s Civil Relief Act and the Bank Secrecy Act. Our lending and related activities are also subject to the laws and regulations of other jurisdictions, including, among others, laws and regulations related to consumer loans, retail installment contracts, mortgage lending, fair debt collection and credit reporting practices, loan servicing, consumer debt collection practices, mortgage disclosure, lender or mortgage loan originator licensing and registration and anti-money laundering.
Resort and Club Management Regulation
Our resort management activities are subject to laws and regulations regarding community association management, public lodging, food and beverage services, liquor licensing, labor, employment, health care, health and safety, accessibility, discrimination, immigration, gaming and the environment (including climate change). In addition, many jurisdictions in which we manage our resorts have statutory provisions that limit the duration of the initial and renewal terms of our management agreements for HOAs.
Environmental Matters
We are subject to certain requirements and potential liabilities under various U.S. federal, state and local and foreign environmental, health and safety laws and regulations and incur costs in complying with such requirements. The costs of complying with these requirements are generally covered by the HOAs that operate the affected resort property and are our responsibility for assets owned by us. These laws and regulations govern actions including air emissions, the use, storage and disposal of hazardous and toxic substances, and wastewater disposal. In addition to investigation and remediation liabilities that could arise under such laws, we may also face personal injury, property damage, fines or other claims by third parties concerning environmental compliance or contamination. We use and store hazardous and toxic substances, such as cleaning materials, pool chemicals, heating oil and fuel for back-up generators at some of our facilities, and we generate certain wastes in connection with our operations. Some of our properties include, and some of our future properties may include, older buildings, and some may have, or may historically have had, dry-cleaning facilities and underground storage tanks for heating oil and back-up generators. We have, from time to time, been responsible for investigating and remediating contamination at some of our facilities, such as contamination that has been discovered when we have removed underground storage tanks, and we could be held responsible for any contamination resulting from the disposal of wastes that we generate, including at locations where such wastes have been sent for disposal. In some cases, we may be entitled to indemnification from the party that caused the contamination pursuant to our management, construction or renovation agreements, but there can be no assurance that we would be able to recover all or any costs we incur in addressing such problems. From time to time, we may also be required to manage, abate, remove or contain mold, lead, asbestos-containing materials, radon gas or other hazardous conditions found in or on our properties. We have implemented an on-going operations and maintenance plan at each of our properties that seeks to identify and remediate these conditions as appropriate. Although we have incurred, and expect that we will continue to incur, costs relating to the investigation, identification and remediation of hazardous materials known or discovered to exist at our properties, those costs have not had, and are not expected to have, a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.
Human Capital
For more than 30 years, we have created and delivered vacation experiences for guests from around the world. Our people first talent strategy is inclusive of programs and services that are designed to ensure that our employees feel engaged, appreciated and rewarded for their contributions. We focus on hiring practices that are reflective of our values and seek customer-centric individuals that embody a spirit of service towards our owners, guests and fellow team members. We believe hiring people with different backgrounds, cultures and perspectives leads to increased creativity and innovation.
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We are committed to connecting with and engaging talent from diverse backgrounds to ensure our team member population is reflective of the communities in which we live and work.
Using a multi-channel approach, we grow our HGV talent network through a variety of outreach programs that include targeted media, team member referrals and diversity outreach. As of December 31, 2023, more than 15,000 Team Members were employed at our timeshare resorts, call centers, sales centers, and corporate locations around the world.
We focus on employee retention initiatives and have designed purposeful programs to nourish every aspect of the team member experience. These programs reward and highlight milestones, recognize the exceptional service standards of our diverse team member population, and promote our values.
Additionally, we make it a priority to appreciate and recognize team member milestones throughout their journey with HGV. We offer flexible recognition programs that support leaders to create meaningful and impactful moments for their teams.
We are committed to an inclusive workforce that fully represents many different cultures, backgrounds and viewpoints. Our Team Member Resource Groups ("TMRGs"), which are voluntary, employee-led groups, play an integral part in our culture of inclusion as we strive to foster openness, integrity and respect. We currently have 12 TMRG’s: African American, Asia Pacific Islander, Hispanic Latino, LGBTQ & Friends, Military, Women’s, Disabilities, Environmental, Wisdom, Multi-Cultural, Parenting & Caregivers, and Young Professionals. Each group is sponsored by a senior executive who provides leadership and helps drive initiatives across the business. In addition, we believe that multiple perspectives generate better solutions and relatability with our diverse base of customers and consumers. We strive to ensure a common inclusion that we believe is reflected in our programs and initiatives, and we regularly seek team member feedback through our monthly pulse-checks, our annual engagement survey and ongoing discussions with our TMRG’s.
Through a variety of delivery methods, we offer over 390 training and development courses to all of our team members focused on a variety of core competencies, including: leadership, diversity and inclusion, skills training, business acumen, culture and personal growth. In 2023, team members had approximately 150,000 course completions totaling 92,000 training hours, of which over 117,000 course completions and 74,000 training hours were dedicated to compliance training.
Approximately 70% of our team members are enrolled in our health and well-being programs. We offer a suite of benefit and wellness programs to support the diverse needs of our team members, including but not limited to: medical, dental, vision, an Employee Stock Purchase Plan, 401(K), Employee Assistance Program, tuition reimbursement, spending accounts, life and disability insurance, discount programs, and a variety of voluntary benefits.
As of December 31, 2023, approximately 12% of our employees were covered by various collective bargaining agreements, generally addressing pay rates, working hours, other terms and conditions of employment, certain employee benefits and orderly settlement of labor disputes.
Key Agreements with Hilton Worldwide Holdings
On January 3, 2017, in connection with the completion of the spin-off, we entered into various agreements with Hilton. Certain of such agreements have been fully performed. However, several agreements continue to govern certain key transactions and arrangements between the parties, in particular between us and Hilton, including our license agreement. The following is a summary of the terms of such agreements.
Amended and Restated License Agreement
General
In connection with the spin-off, we entered into a long-term license agreement with Hilton granting us (i) the right to use certain trademarks, including, without limitation, “Hilton Grand Vacations,” “HGV,” and “Hilton Club” (collectively, the “Hilton Marks”), in connection with the current and future operation of a Hilton branded vacation ownership business (the “Licensed Business”), (ii) a license or right to use certain other Hilton-owned intellectual property, including promotional content and access to Hilton’s reservation system and property management software (collectively with the Hilton Marks, the “Hilton IP”), (iii) the right to use Hilton’s loyalty program data and other customer information (“Hilton Data”) to promote the Licensed Business and for other internal business purposes, and (iv) certain other rights. In exchange for these rights, we have agreed to pay Hilton license and other fees, and have agreed to certain restrictions on the operation of our business. In most cases, such rights are exclusive to us, but there are certain exceptions, many of which are described below. While the license agreement permits us to operate certain businesses that do not conflict with Hilton’s business, including non-Hilton branded vacation ownership business, we are not permitted to use any Hilton IP or Hilton Data for such non-Hilton branded portions of our businesses without Hilton’s prior consent.
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In March 2021, in connection with entering into a definitive agreement for the Diamond Acquisition, we and Hilton amended and restated the license agreement (which we refer to hereinafter, as amended, as the “License Agreement”) to account for integrating the Diamond business and properties. In April 2022, we and Hilton entered into the first amendment to the License Agreement (the “First Amendment”) to define, among other things, (a) a 5-year plan for rebranding and integrating a majority of the Diamond properties into our branded properties, along with minimum room conversion requirements, (b) converting all of the Diamond sales centers into our branded sales centers, and (c) the new licensed marks, “HGV Max” and “Hilton Vacation Club” (which new licensed marks are part of the Hilton Marks).
In November 2023, in connection with entering into a definitive agreement to complete, and in anticipation of consummating, the Bluegreen Acquisition, we and Hilton entered into the second amendment to the License Agreement (the “Second Amendment”) to provide certain terms for the integration of the properties, assets and business of Bluegreen into our business following the expected completion of the merger. In connection with the January 2024 closing of the Bluegreen Acquisition, we and Hilton entered into the third amendment to the License Agreement (the “Third Amendment”) that addresses our assumption of certain of Bluegreen’s strategic relationships, including its relationship with Choice Hotels International, Inc. (“Choice”), as more fully described below, and pursuant to which we committed to a schedule for rebranding and converting certain of Bluegreen’s properties and sales centers.
Initial Term and Renewal Terms
The initial term of the License Agreement will expire on December 31, 2116. After the initial term ends, we may continue to use the Hilton IP and Hilton Data on a non-exclusive basis for a “tail period” of 30 years in connection with our then existing licensed timeshare business and properties, provided that we continue to comply with the terms of the License Agreement, including the payment of license and other fees.
Subject to certain exceptions, Hilton is not permitted to compete or use the Hilton IP or Hilton Data in the vacation ownership business (or license others to do so), and we generally have the exclusive right to use the Hilton IP and Hilton Data for our vacation ownership business (subject to certain limited exceptions) until December 31, 2051. Such “exclusivity” and “non-competition” period may be extended for additional 10-year terms if we achieve certain revenue targets in the last year of the exclusivity term or any subsequent renewal term, as applicable, or, if we do not achieve such applicable revenue target, by making a payment equal to 5% of the difference between revenue actually achieved and the applicable revenue target to cover such shortfall. Our ability to elect to make such additional payment to cover any shortfall is subject to a maximum of five payments during the renewal terms. In addition, in connection with the Bluegreen Acquisition, we agreed to the establishment of a minimum percentage of revenue that is required to be derived from the Hilton licensed business to maintain continued exclusivity.
License Fee and Other Fees
In exchange for the license and various rights granted to us by Hilton, we pay a license fee of 5% of gross revenues to Hilton quarterly in arrears, as well as specified additional fees. Gross revenues include our gross sales for the initial sale or re-sale of interests in the Licensed Business (subject to certain limited exceptions), property operations revenue, transient rental revenue and other certain revenues earned all with respect to the Licensed Business.
To account for the integration of the Diamond business into our operations, Hilton agreed to a reduced license fee for the initial five (5) years following the closing of the Diamond Acquisition for gross revenue arising from properties and sales centers that are rebranded and become part of the Licensed Business. The reduced license fee ranges from 2% to 4% of the applicable gross revenue, increasing annually until it reaches 5% during the fifth year and beyond. This reduced license fee structure is contingent upon us achieving certain minimum rebranding milestones related to room conversions with respect to the Diamond business and properties on an annual and cumulative basis over the five-year rebranding plan. If we do not achieve such minimum milestones, we will be subject to an escalated license fee of up to an additional 1%, plus the original fee percentage, of the applicable gross revenue. The escalated license fee is subject to being readjusted to the original fee percentage if we achieve the applicable cumulative rebranding target milestone in subsequent years. If we fail to achieve the final cumulative target by September 30, 2031, Hilton has the election, by notice to us, to prohibit our future offering of HGV Max.
The License Agreement also provides for a reduced license fee, ranging from 0% to 1.5%, over the initial five (5) years following the closing of the Diamond Acquisition for certain property level revenues (such as retail, food and beverage and transient rental at properties operating under the new Hilton Vacations Club brand) related to Diamond properties that are converted into our branded properties and become part of the Licensed Business.
In connection with the integration of the Bluegreen business, pursuant to the Second Amendment, we will pay Hilton a gradual ramp up of the license fee for the initial four (4) years following the completion of the transaction with respect to sales at converted Bluegreen sales facilities sourced by or through Bluegreen’s existing lead generation sources or to those who are already members of HGV Max or a branded loyalty program, as well as various property-level
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revenues associated with the Bluegreen business (such as management fees and HOA expense reimbursements) (collectively, the "Bluegreen Related License Fees"). In connection with the Third Amendment, we have agreed to obtain certain amendments to the Choice agreements by December 31, 2024 to enable us to rebrand the Bluegreen properties and sales centers in accordance with a rebranding schedule. Further, pursuant to the Third Amendment, we have agreed to pay Hilton minimum Bluegreen Related License Fees for each of the years 2024 and 2025. In the event we are unable to obtain the amendments described above by December 31, 2024, we have agreed to continue to pay to Hilton minimum Bluegreen Related License Fees in years 2026 through 2029.
Pending the rebranding, and so long as they remain non-Hilton licensed branded properties, the Diamond properties and Bluegreen properties are required to be operated as separate operations in accordance with the License Agreement. As discussed above, we are not permitted to use any Hilton IP or Hilton Data for such non-Hilton branded properties, and, accordingly, no license fees are generally owed to Hilton in connection with revenues associated with such properties and unbranded operations, except as may be required pursuant to the Second Amendment and the Third Amendment. The License Agreement sets forth specific parameters and requirements for any separation operations, including, without limitation, requirements for separate sales centers and personnel for sales related to such non-Hilton branded properties and operating such properties in completely separate physical locations as our Hilton-branded properties, subject to certain limited exceptions.
For the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, we incurred license fee expense of $138 million, $124 million, and $80 million, respectively. None of these license fees reflect the integration of Bluegreen, which closed on January 17, 2024.
During the term of the License Agreement, we are required to participate in Hilton’s loyalty program, currently known as the Hilton Honors program. We can purchase Hilton Honors points at cost for 20 years after the date of the original license agreement, and thereafter at the market rate (with a most favored nation provision, pursuant to which such market rate is no higher than the price paid by strategic partners that purchase a comparable volume of points annually on comparable business terms). For the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, we paid Hilton $53 million, $68 million and $43 million, respectively, for Hilton Honors points.
We have entered into a separate agreement with Hilton that governs the transfer of calls from Hilton to us and other related telemarketing services. Under this agreement, Hilton is required to use its reasonable best efforts to transfer calls to us at a level consistent with past practice prior to the spin-off for the first ten years. Hilton is required to provide the call transfer services at cost for the first 30 years and at market rates thereafter. For the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, we paid Hilton $11 million, $12 million and $9 million, respectively, for such call transfers.
Brand Standards; Additional Properties or Projects
We are required to comply with the Hilton brand standards applicable to the Licensed Business (which includes any part of the Diamond business or Bluegreen business that becomes part of the Licensed Business). The conversion of any Diamond property or Bluegreen property into our branded property is subject to an approval process by Hilton. In addition, the Diamond and Bluegreen properties rebranding and conversions are subject to an additional fire and life safety review process by Hilton. Hilton also has the right to enter our vacation ownership properties at any time without notice and additional permission from us in order to verify that we are complying with the License Agreement and Hilton’s standards and guidelines.
We are required to obtain Hilton’s consent to develop or operate any additional vacation ownership properties under the Hilton Marks (including on our own undeveloped parcels).
Deflagging of Properties
Hilton has the right to “deflag” (prevent use of any Hilton IP or Hilton Data at) any property in our Licensed Business in certain circumstances, including if (i) a $10 million or more final judgment is assessed against such property or a foreclosure suit is initiated against such property and not vacated; (ii) an ongoing threat or danger to public health or safety occurs at such property; (iii) such property fails to meet certain quality assurance system performance thresholds; or (iv) such property is not operated in compliance with the License Agreement or Hilton’s other standards and agreements, and such breaches are not cured in accordance with the License Agreement.
Certain Prohibited Transactions
The License Agreement limits our ability to complete or participate in certain corporate transactions. Specifically, unless we obtain Hilton’s prior written consent, we may not be able to: (i) merge with or acquire a Hilton competitor or a vacation ownership business that has entered into an operating agreement with a Hilton competitor; (ii) merge with or acquire a vacation ownership business together with a lodging business; or (iii) be acquired or combined with any entity other than an affiliate. However, we may acquire control of a business that is not a vacation ownership business or a
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lodging business without Hilton’s consent, but we are required to operate such business as a “separate operation” that does not use the Hilton IP or Hilton Data unless Hilton consents to such use. As previously noted, under the License Agreement, we are required to operate the Diamond business and the Bluegreen business as separate operations. We have established with Hilton rebrand plans for various Diamond properties and Bluegreen properties. Any conversion of properties must be approved by Hilton. As previously disclosed, we obtained Hilton's consent under the License Agreement for the Diamond Acquisition and the Bluegreen Acquisition.
Without Hilton’s prior consent, we may not assign our rights under the License Agreement, except to one of our affiliates as part of an internal reorganization for tax or administrative purposes.
Other Restrictions
The License Agreement imposes various other restrictions and requirements that pertain to, without limitation, co-sponsoring credit cards and other payment alternatives, engaging in any lodging business, confidentiality and data security, and strict maintenance of, and compliance with, separation of operations that do not use any of Hilton IP or Hilton Data.
Termination Rights; Damages
Hilton has the right to terminate the License Agreement as a whole if, among other things: (i) we file for bankruptcy or cease business operations; (ii) 25 percent or more of our Hilton-branded vacation ownership properties fail certain performance thresholds or the overall customer satisfaction score for all our Hilton-branded vacation ownership properties falls below a certain threshold level, and we do not promptly cure such failures; (iii) we operate the Licensed Business in a way that has a material adverse effect on Hilton; (iv) we fail to pay certain amounts due to Hilton (and in certain cases, do not promptly cure such failures); (v) we contest Hilton’s ownership of the Hilton IP or the Hilton Data; (vi) we merge with, consolidate with or are acquired by a competitor of Hilton; or (vii) we assign the agreement to a non-affiliate without Hilton’s consent. In addition, if we are unable to obtain certain amendments to the Choice agreements by December 31, 2024, in addition to the minimum license fees payable from 2026 through 2029, Hilton has reserved various rights and remedies available to it under the License Agreement , including, without limitation, its right to terminate our exclusive rights to use the licensed marks in connection with a vacation ownership business and to engage in vacation ownership under any Hilton marks. See “Item 1A. Risk-Factors—Risks Related to the Integration of Bluegreen— We may not be able to integrate successfully and many of the anticipated benefits of combining us and Bluegreen may not be realized.”
Our right to use the Hilton Marks as a trade, corporate, d/b/a or similar name under the License Agreement will automatically terminate if: (i) the aggregate number of units of accommodation in our Licensed Business falls below two-thirds of the total number of units of accommodation in our entire vacation ownership business (subject to certain limited exceptions related to the integration periods for the Diamond Acquisition and Bluegreen Acquisition); (ii) we merge with or acquire control of the assets of certain Hilton competitors and we or they use their brands in any business after such acquisition; or (iii) we become an affiliate of another Hilton competitor.
If we breach our obligations under the License Agreement, Hilton may, in addition to terminating the License Agreement, be entitled to (depending on the nature of the breach): seek injunctive relief and/or monetary damages; suspend our access to and terminate our rights to use Licensed IP and/or Hilton Data (other than the Hilton Marks and certain other content); or terminate our rights to use the Licensed IP (including the Hilton Marks) and Hilton Data at specific locations that are not in compliance with performance standards.
If the License Agreement terminates due to our fault before the end of the term, we are required to cease use of the Hilton IP and Hilton Data according to a specified schedule. Hilton has the right to demand liquidated damages based upon its uncollected royalties and fees for the remainder of the term.
We are required to indemnify, defend and hold harmless Hilton from and against any claim or liability resulting from: (i) third-party claims based on (a) our breach of the License Agreement; (b) the operation of our vacation ownership properties; (c) any use of the Hilton IP or Hilton Data in violation of the License Agreement and (d) any use of any content provided to us pursuant to the License Agreement; or (ii) claims based on any security breach of our systems and/or unauthorized use or disclosure of Hilton Data. Additionally, we reaffirmed our indemnification obligations and agreed to certain expense reimbursement provisions in connection with the Third Amendment for third-party claims that may arise out of the Bluegreen Acquisition.
This summary does not purport to be complete and is qualified in its entirety by reference to the full text of the License Agreement, the First Amendment, and the Second Amendment, which are filed as Exhibits 10.2(a), 10.2(b) and 10.2(c), respectively, to this Annual Report on Form 10-K, and the Third Amendment, which is filed as Exhibit 10.2 of the Current Report on Form 8-K filed on January 17, 2024.
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Distribution Agreement
We entered into a Distribution Agreement with Hilton and Park (the “Distribution Agreement”) in connection with the spin-off. The Distribution Agreement provided for certain transfers of assets and assumptions of liabilities by each of Hilton, HGV and Park and the settlement or extinguishment of certain liabilities and other obligations among Hilton, HGV and Park. In addition, HGV, Hilton and Park agreed that losses related to certain contingent liabilities (and related costs and expenses) that generally are not specifically attributable to any of the separated real estate business, the timeshare business or the retained business of Hilton (“Shared Contingent Liabilities”) will be apportioned among the parties according to fixed percentages of 65%, 26% and 9% for Hilton, Park and HGV, respectively. Costs and expenses of, and indemnification obligations to, third party professional advisors arising out of the foregoing actions also may be subject to these provisions. Subject to certain limitations and exceptions, Hilton will generally be vested with the exclusive management and control of all matters pertaining to any such Shared Contingent Liabilities. To date, there have been no contingent liabilities subject to these provisions since the spin-off. The Distribution Agreement also provides for cross-indemnities that, except as otherwise provided in the Distribution Agreement, are principally designed to place financial responsibility for the obligations and liabilities of each business with the appropriate company.
The foregoing summary does not purport to be complete and is qualified in its entirety by reference to the full text of the Distribution Agreement, which is filed as Exhibit 2.1 to this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Tax Matters Agreement
We have entered into a Tax Matters Agreement with Hilton and Park (the “Tax Matters Agreement”) that governs the respective rights, responsibilities and obligations of Hilton, Park and us after the spin-off with respect to tax liabilities and benefits, tax attributes, tax contests and other tax sharing regarding U.S. federal, state, local and foreign income taxes, other tax matters and related tax returns. Although binding between the parties, the Tax Matters Agreement is not binding on the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”). We and Park each will continue to have several liabilities with Hilton to the IRS for the consolidated U.S. federal income taxes of the Hilton consolidated group relating to the taxable periods in which we and Park were part of that group. The Tax Matters Agreement specifies the portion, if any, of this tax liability for which we and Park will bear responsibility, and each party has agreed to indemnify the other two parties against any amounts for which they are not responsible. The Tax Matters Agreement also provides special rules for allocating tax liabilities in the event that the spin-off is not tax-free. In general, under the Tax Matters Agreement, each party is responsible for any taxes imposed on Hilton that arise from the failure of the spin-off and certain related transactions to qualify as a tax-free transaction for U.S. federal income tax purposes under Sections 355 and 368(a)(1)(D) of the Code, as applicable, and certain other relevant provisions of the Code, to the extent that the failure to qualify is attributable to actions taken by such party (or with respect to such party’s stock). The parties share responsibility, in accordance with sharing percentages applicable to Shared Contingent Liabilities, for any such taxes imposed on Hilton that are not attributable to actions taken by a party. In addition, to the extent that any taxes that may be imposed on the Hilton consolidated group for the taxable periods prior to the spin-offs relates to our timeshare business, we would be liable for the full amount under the Tax Matters Agreement.
The foregoing summary does not purport to be complete and is qualified in its entirety by reference to the full text of the Tax Matters Agreement, which is filed as Exhibit 10.1 to this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Stockholders Agreement with Apollo
In connection with the Diamond Acquisition, the Company, certain funds affiliated with Apollo, and, for certain limited purposes, Hilton entered into a stockholders agreement on August 2, 2021. For purposes of this section, the term “Apollo Investors” includes any affiliates of Apollo to whom the Apollo Closing Shares (defined below) may be transferred.
Board and Governance Rights
Under the stockholders agreement, the Apollo Investors have the right to designate two individuals (the “Apollo Designees”) to serve on the Company’s board of directors, out of a total of nine directors. If our Board increases its size, for every three additional directors added, the Apollo Investors have the right to appoint the third such director so long as the Apollo Investors (or their affiliates who have executed a joinder agreement to become party to the stockholders agreement) retain 23,935,707 of the aggregate number of shares of our common stock that the Apollo Investors received in the Diamond Acquisition (such shares, the “Apollo Closing Shares”).
The Apollo Investors’ right to designate members of the board of directors will step down as their ownership decreases, as follows: (a) ownership below 17,951,780 of the Apollo Closing Shares, one Apollo Designee will be required to resign; and (b) ownership below 11,967,853 of the Apollo Closing Shares, the second Apollo Designee will be required to resign, and the Apollo Investors will no longer be entitled to any representation on our Board. The Apollo Investors are
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not permitted to “buy back” into the right to designate any Apollo Designees to our Board by acquiring shares of our common stock in the future.
Transfer Restrictions
The Apollo Investors were subject to a 160-day lock-up period that expired on January 9, 2022. Currently, the Apollo Investors may freely transfer their shares so long as such transfers (i) comply with the volume and manner of sale restrictions in Rule 144, (ii) (a) involve the transfer of less than 5% of our total outstanding stock to any person or group, and (b) are not to certain competitors of HGV or Hilton, known holders of 5% or more of our common stock or known activists, or (iii) are pursuant to an underwritten offering or a broker-facilitated block trade.
Standstill Obligations
The Apollo Investors are subject to certain standstill obligations so long as they (i) own a number of shares equal to 5% of the total outstanding shares of our common stock or (ii) have the right to designate at least one director (later of these two dates, the “Standstill Removal Date”). Such standstill obligations include customary prohibitions on certain actions, including acquiring additional stock of the Company, seeking to control or influence our board of directors or our management, and publicly offering to acquire HGV.
Voting Matters
So long as the Apollo Investors own at least 5,983,927 of the Apollo Closing Shares, they are obligated to vote all of their shares as recommended by our board of directors with respect to routine matters put to a vote of our stockholders. So long as the Apollo Investors hold at least 11,967,853 of the Apollo Closing Shares, the consent of the Apollo Investors is required to (i) amend our certificate of incorporation or bylaws in a manner that would require stockholder approval and would materially, disproportionately and adversely affect the rights of the Apollo Investors, or (ii) increase the size of our board of directors to exceed twelve directors; provided, that the Apollo Investors have no such consent right for amendments to our certificate of incorporation or bylaws to adopt a “poison pill” approved by our board of directors.
Registration Rights
The Apollo Investors have certain customary registration rights pursuant to which they may request that we register the Apollo Closing Shares on a registration statement under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, subject to standard carve-outs. In addition, the Apollo Investors have certain “piggyback” rights allowing them to participate in registered public offerings by the Company. The Apollo Investors are responsible for paying all expenses for the registration of their shares.
Pre-emptive Rights
The Apollo Investors have limited preemptive rights on certain future equity issuances by us, subject to customary carve-outs and limitations, so long as the Apollo Investors own at least 11,967,853 shares of the Apollo Closing Shares.
Termination
The stockholder's agreement will terminate when the Apollo Investors no longer own at least 5,983,927 of the Apollo Closing Shares; provided, that certain provisions have different termination dates.
The foregoing summary does not purport to be complete and is qualified in its entirety by reference to the full text of the stockholder's agreement, which was filed as Exhibit 10.1 to HGV’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on August 3, 2021.
Where You Can Find More Information
Our website address is www.hgv.com. Information on our website is not incorporated by reference herein. We file reports with the SEC, including annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, proxy statements on Schedule 14A (both preliminary and final, as applicable), and certain amendments to these reports. Copies of these reports are available free of charge on our website as soon as reasonably practicable after we file the reports with the SEC.

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ITEM 1A.    Risk Factors
Risk Factor Summary
Our business is subject to a number of risks of which you should be aware before making an investment decision. These risks include, but are not limited to, the following:
Macroeconomic and other factors beyond our control;
Contraction in the global economy or low levels of economic growth;
Risks inherent to the timeshare and hospitality industry, including reliance on tourism and travel, and competition within the industry;
Pandemics, epidemics and related events, including the various measures implemented or adopted to respond to such events;
Material harm to our business if we breach our license agreement with Hilton and Hilton exercises any of its remedies thereunder, which may include the loss of certain rights (such as exclusivity in the timeshare business) that we have or the termination of the license agreement;
Our ability to use the Hilton brands and trademarks and rebrand the acquired Diamond and Bluegreen business and properties, and any potential consequences under the license agreement if we fail to do so;
The quality and reputation of the Hilton brands and affiliation with the Hilton Honors loyalty program;
The ability of our critical marketing programs and activities to generate tour flow and contract sales and increase our revenues;
Financial and operational risks related to acquisitions and business ventures, including partnerships or joint ventures;
Our dependence on development activities and risks related to our real estate investments;
The geographic concentration of properties we manage;
Our current operations and future expansion outside of the United States;
Our ability to hire, retain and motivate key personnel and our reliance on the services of our management team and employees;
Third-party reservation channels affecting our bookings for room rental revenue;
Impairment losses that could adversely affect our results of operations;
Our insurance policies not covering all potential losses;
Our ability to remediate an identified material weakness and maintain effective internal controls over financial reporting and disclosure controls and procedures;
A decline in developed or acquired VOI inventory or failure to enter into and maintain fee-for service agreements or inability to source VOI inventory or finance sales if we or third-party developers are unable to access capital;
The sales of VOIs in the secondary market;
Our limited underwriting standards and a possible decline in the default rates or other credit metrics underlying our timeshare financing receivables;
The expiration, termination or renegotiation of our management agreements;
Disagreements with VOI owners or HOAs or the failure of HOA boards to collect sufficient fees or increases in maintenance fees at our resorts;
Failure to keep pace with developments in technology;
Lack of awareness or understanding of and failure to effectively manage our social media;
Cyber-attacks or our failure to maintain the security and integrity of company, employee, customer or third-party data;
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Our ability to comply with a wide variety of laws, regulations and policies, including those applicable to our international operations;
Changes in privacy laws, environmental laws, tax laws or accounting rules or regulations;
Failure to comply with laws and regulations applicable to our international operations;
Our substantial indebtedness and other contractual obligations, restrictions imposed on us by certain of our debt agreements and instruments and our variable rate indebtedness which subjects us to interest rate risk;
Failure to comply with agreements relating to our outstanding indebtedness;
Our ability, or the ability of our subsidiaries, to generate sufficient cash to meet our needs and service our indebtedness;
Potential liabilities related to our spin-off from Hilton, including U.S. federal income tax liabilities, liabilities arising out of state and federal fraudulent conveyance laws and the possible assumption of responsibilities for obligations allocated to Hilton or Park;
The sufficiency of any indemnity Hilton or Park is required to provide us and the amount of any indemnity we may be required to provide Hilton or Park related to the period prior to the spin-off;
The ability of our board of directors to change corporate policies without stockholder approval;
Anti-takeover provisions in our organizational documents and Delaware law and consent requirements in our license agreement with Hilton that may deter a potential business combination transaction;
Fluctuation in the market price and trading volume of our common stock;
Our ability to repurchase our common stock pursuant to our share repurchase program or that our share repurchase program will enhance long-term shareholder value. Share repurchases could also increase the volatility of the price of our common stock and diminish our cash reserves;
Our ability to integrate the Diamond and the Bluegreen businesses successfully or realize the anticipated cost savings, synergies and growth in operating results with each such acquisition, as well as integrate strategic partnerships assumed in the Bluegreen Acquisition; and
Our ability to effectively manage our expanded operations resulting from both the Diamond Acquisition and the Bluegreen Acquisition, including the respective trust systems associated with such businesses.
The foregoing is only a summary of our risks. These and other risks are discussed more fully in the section entitled “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

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Risk Factors
We are subject to various risks that could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, liquidity and stock price. You should carefully consider the risk factors discussed below, in addition to the other information in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Further, other risks and uncertainties not presently known to management or that management currently deems less significant also may result in material and adverse effects on our business, financial condition, results of operations, liquidity and stock price. The risks below also include forward-looking statements; and actual results and events may differ substantially from those discussed or highlighted in these forward-looking statements. See “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”
Risks Related to Our Industry
Macroeconomic and other factors beyond our control can adversely affect and reduce demand for our products and services.
Macroeconomic and other factors beyond our control can reduce demand for our products and services, including demand for timeshare products. These factors include, but are not limited to:
changes in general economic conditions, including low consumer confidence, high unemployment levels and depressed real estate prices resulting from the severity and duration of any downturn in the U.S. or global economy;
war, political conditions or civil unrest, violence or terrorist activities or threats and heightened travel security measures instituted in response to these events;
the financial and general business condition of the travel industry;
statements, actions or interventions by governmental officials related to travel and the resulting negative public perception of such travel;
conditions that negatively shape public perception of travel, including travel-related accidents and outbreaks of pandemic or contagious diseases, such as COVID-19, Ebola, avian flu, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), H1N1 (swine flu) and the Zika virus;
cyber-attacks;
price and availability of natural resources and supplies;
natural or manmade disasters, such as earthquakes, windstorms, tornadoes, hurricanes, typhoons, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, floods, drought, fires, oil spills and nuclear incidents, and the effects of climate change increasing the frequency and severity of extreme weather events; and
organized labor activities, which could cause a diversion of business from resorts involved in labor negotiations and loss of business generally for the resorts we manage as a result of certain labor tactics.
Any one or more of these factors can adversely affect, and from time to time have adversely affected, individual resorts, particular regions and our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Contraction in the global economy or low levels of economic growth could adversely affect our revenues and profitability as well as limit or slow our future growth.
Consumer demand for products and services provided by the timeshare industry is closely linked to the performance of the general economy and is sensitive to business and personal discretionary spending levels. Decreased global or regional demand for products and services provided by the timeshare industry can be especially pronounced during periods of economic contraction or low levels of economic growth, and the recovery period in our industry may lag overall economic improvement. Declines in demand for our products and services due to general economic conditions could negatively affect our business by decreasing the revenues we are able to generate from our VOI sales, financing activities and Club and resort operations. In addition, many of the expenses associated with our business, including personnel costs, interest, rent, property taxes, insurance and utilities, are relatively fixed. During a period of overall economic weakness, if we are unable to meaningfully decrease these costs as demand for our products and services decreases, our business operations and financial performance may be adversely affected.
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We are subject to business, financial and operating risks inherent to the timeshare and hospitality industry, any of which could reduce our revenues and limit opportunities for growth.
Our business is subject to a number of business, financial and operating risks inherent to the timeshare industry, including:
changes in the supply and demand for our products and services;
our ability to securitize the receivables that we originate in connection with VOI sales;
delays in or cancellations of planned or future development or refurbishment projects;
the financial condition of third-party developers with whom we do business;
relationships with third-party developers, our Club members and HOAs;
changes in desirability of geographic regions of our resorts and affiliated resorts, geographic concentration of our operations and shortages of desirable locations for development;
changes in operating costs, including energy, food, employee compensation and benefits and insurance;
increases in costs due to inflation or otherwise, including increases in our operating costs, that may not be fully offset by price and fee increases in our business;
changes in taxes and/or governmental regulations that influence or set wages, prices, interest rates or construction and maintenance procedures and costs;
significant increases in cost of health care coverage for employees, and various government regulation with respect to health care coverage;
shortages of labor or labor disruptions;
the availability and cost of capital necessary for us, and third-party developers with whom we do business, to fund investments, capital expenditures and service debt obligations;
significant competition from other timeshare businesses and hospitality providers in the markets in which we operate;
market and/or consumer perception and reputation of timeshare companies and the industry in general;
the economic environment for and trends in the tourism and hospitality industry, which may impact the vacationing and purchasing decisions of consumers;
the influence of social media on consumers’ lodging decisions;
increases in the use of third-party and competitor internet services to book hotel reservations, secure short-term lodging accommodations and market vacation rental properties;
legal, business or regulatory issues unique to the geographic locations of our resorts and affiliated resorts, which could increase the cost of or result in delays in entering into or expanding in those locations.
limited underwriting standards due to the real-time nature of industry sales practices;
private resales of VOIs and the sale of VOIs in the secondary market; and
the impact on the industry of unlawful or deceptive third-party VOI resale or vacation package sales schemes.
Any of these factors could increase our costs or limit or reduce the prices we are able to charge for our products and services or otherwise affect our ability to maintain existing properties or products, develop new properties, products and services or source VOI supply from third parties. As a result, any of these factors can reduce our revenues and limit opportunities for growth.
We operate in a highly competitive industry.
The timeshare industry is highly competitive. The Hilton brands we use compete with the timeshare brands affiliated with major hotel chains in national and international venues, and we compete generally with the vacation rental options generally offered by the lodging and travel industry (e.g., hotels, resorts, home and apartment sharing services, and condominium rentals) and other options such as cruises.
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We also compete with other timeshare developers for sales of VOIs based principally on location, quality of accommodations, price, service levels and amenities, financing terms, quality of service, terms of property use, reservation systems, flexibility for VOI owners to exchange into time at other timeshare properties, or other travel rewards, including access to hotel loyalty programs, as well as brand name recognition and reputation. A number of our competitors are significantly larger than we are and have potentially greater access to capital resources and broader marketing, sales and distribution capabilities. We also compete with numerous other smaller owners and operators of timeshare resorts, as well as home and apartment sharing services that market available privately owned residential properties that can be rented on a nightly, weekly or monthly basis. In addition, we are in competition with national and independent timeshare resale companies and members reselling existing VOIs on the secondary market, which could reduce demand or prices for sales of new VOIs. We also compete with other timeshare management companies in the management of resorts on behalf of owners on the basis of quality, cost, types of services offered and relationship. We compete with other timeshare companies for off-site sales centers, through which we market our products to potential members, including in locations like high-traffic shopping centers and tourist attractions in leisure destinations.
We compete for property acquisitions and partnerships with entities that have similar investment objectives as we do. This competition could limit the number of, or negatively affect the cost of, suitable investment opportunities available to us.
Recent and potential future consolidation in the highly fragmented timeshare industry may increase competition. Consolidation may create competitors that enjoy significant advantages resulting from, among other things, a lower cost of, and greater access to, capital and enhanced operating efficiencies.
Our ability to remain competitive and to attract and retain members depends on our success in distinguishing the quality and value of our products and services from those offered by others. If we cannot compete successfully in these areas or if our marketing and sales efforts are not successful and we are unable to convert customers to a sufficient number of sales, this could negatively affect our operating profits and margins and our ability to recover the expense of our marketing programs and grow our business, diminish our market share and reduce our earnings.
Any pandemic, epidemic and related events may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
During the COVID-19 pandemic, governments and other authorities in the United States and around the world took and implemented unprecedented measures, and businesses, organizations and individuals, including HGV, implemented a variety of measures in response that were required or were believed to be advisable, including, without limitation, temporarily closing businesses. The pandemic, as well as such measures, had a significant adverse impact on domestic and international travel, consumer demand for travel, commercial activities across the travel, lodging and hospitality industries, businesses generally, and consequently, on our business and operations. Any future variant of COVID-19 and/or new pandemic or epidemic that leads to similar measures, restrictions or responses could again materially and adversely impact our business, financial condition and operating results.
Risks Related to the Operation of Our Business
We do not own the Hilton brands and our business will be materially harmed if we breach our license agreement with Hilton or it is terminated.
Following the spin-off, Hilton retained ownership of the Hilton-branded trademarks, tradenames and certain related intellectual property used in the operation of our business. We entered into a license agreement with Hilton granting us the right to use the Hilton-branded trademarks, trade names and related intellectual property in our business for the term of the agreement. The license agreement was amended and restated in connection with the Diamond Acquisition and the Bluegreen Acquisition to facilitate our integration of the Diamond and Bluegreen businesses and create a license fee structure related to the integrations. If we breach our obligations under the license agreement, Hilton may be entitled to terminate the license agreement or terminate our rights to use the Hilton brands and other Hilton intellectual property at properties that do not meet applicable standards and policies, or to exercise other remedies. Pursuant to the license agreement, Hilton would be the sole owner of certain licensed marks related to any new brands associated with the Diamond portfolio that we developed or may develop. If the license agreement is terminated, we could lose the right to use one or more of such new brands.
The termination of the license agreement or exercise of other remedies would materially harm our business and results of operations and impair our ability to market and sell our products and maintain our competitive position. For example, if we are not able to rely on the strength of the Hilton brands to attract prospective members and guests in the marketplace, our revenue and profits would decline, and our marketing and sales expenses would increase. If we are not able to use Hilton’s marketing databases and corporate-level advertising channels to reach potential members and guests, including Hilton’s internet address as a channel through which to market available inventory, our member growth would be
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adversely affected and our revenue would materially decline, and it is unlikely that we would be able to replace the revenue associated with those channels.
Even if the license agreement remains in effect, the termination or restriction of our rights to use any branded trademarks, trade names and related intellectual property licensed to us by Hilton at properties that fail to meet applicable standards and policies, or any deterioration of quality or reputation of the Hilton brands (even deterioration not leading to termination of our rights under the license agreement or not caused by us), could also harm our reputation and impair our ability to market and sell our products, which could materially harm our business.
In addition, if license agreement terms relating to the Hilton Honors loyalty program terminate, we would not be able to offer Hilton Honors points to our members and guests. This would adversely affect our ability to sell our products, offer the flexibility associated with our Club membership and sustain our collection performance on our timeshare financing receivables portfolio.
Finally, the license agreement imposes a number of restrictions or prohibitions on our business and operations, and our ability to engage in a number of transactions, including, without limitations, acquiring or being acquired by another entity, and engaging in any lodging business or otherwise competing with Hilton, in each case without Hilton’s consent. Any noncompliance with any of these provisions may result in the termination of the license agreement, either automatically or at Hilton’s election. In addition, while we are permitted under the license agreement to engage in certain other businesses, including owning and operating vacation ownership business and properties that are not Hilton-branded, in such instances, we are not permitted to use any of the rights and assets provided by Hilton under the license agreement in connection with such business and operation. In fact, we are required to comply with various requirements to operate such business and properties as separate operations. However, if any such non-Hilton branded vacation ownership properties and related units and revenues exceed certain thresholds, we may lose certain rights, including the right related to our use of Hilton-branded trademarks, including our “Hilton Grand Vacations” corporate name. In addition, any non-compliance with the separate operations provision may give rise to Hilton’s ability to terminate the license agreement. Any of the foregoing and other factors that lead to Hilton’s termination of the license agreement will have a material and irreparable adverse impact on our business. See “Item 1. Business—Key Agreements with Hilton Worldwide Holdings.
We will rely on Hilton to consent to our use of its trademarks at new properties we manage in the future.
Under the terms of our license agreement with Hilton, we are required to obtain Hilton’s consent to use its trademarks in circumstances specified in the license agreement. Hilton may reject a proposed project in certain circumstances. Any requirements to obtain Hilton’s consent to our expansion plans, including the ongoing rebranding of the acquired Diamond resorts and planned rebranding of the acquired Bluegreen resorts to Hilton branded properties, or the need to identify and secure alternative expansion opportunities because Hilton does not allow us to use its trademarks with proposed new projects, may delay implementation of our expansion plans, cause us to incur additional expense or reduce the financial viability of our projects. Further, if Hilton does not permit us to use its trademarks in connection with our expansion plans, our ability to expand our Hilton-branded timeshare business would cease and our ability to remain competitive may be materially adversely affected. See “Risks Related to the Integration of Diamond—Our ability to integrate the acquired Diamond business could be harmed if Hilton does not consent to the use of its trademarks in connection with the rebranding of Diamond resorts,” “Risks Related to the Integration of Bluegreen—Our ability to integrate the acquired Bluegreen business could be harmed if Hilton does not consent to the use of its trademarks in connection with the rebranding of Bluegreen resorts” and “Item 1. Business—Key Agreements with Hilton Worldwide Holdings.
Our business depends on the quality and reputation of the Hilton brands and affiliation with the Hilton Honors loyalty program.
Currently, our Legacy HGV products and services are offered under the Hilton brand names and affiliated with the Hilton Honors loyalty program, and we intend to continue to develop and offer products and services under the Hilton brands and affiliated with the Hilton Honors loyalty program in the future, including the products acquired in the Diamond Acquisition and the Bluegreen Acquisition. In addition, the license agreement contains significant prohibitions on our ability to own or operate properties that are not Hilton brand names. The concentration of our products and services under these brands and program may expose us to risks of brand or program deterioration, or reputational decline, that are greater than if our portfolio were more diverse. Furthermore, as we are not the owner of the Hilton brands or the Hilton Honors loyalty program, changes to these brands and program or our access to them, including our ability to buy points to offer to our members and potential members, could negatively affect our business. Any failure by Hilton to protect the trademarks, trade names and intellectual property that we license from it could reduce the value of the Hilton brands and also harm our business. If these brands or program deteriorate or materially change in an adverse manner, or the reputation of these brands or program declines, our market share, reputation, business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
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We rely on several critical marketing programs and activities to generate tour flow and contract sales and increase our revenues.
We rely on several critical marketing activities to engage with potential VOI purchasers for generating tour flow, contract sales and financing fees, resort management and other revenues. These include targeted direct marketing, transfers of calls by Hilton of its customers to us pursuant to an agreement, and the successful implementation of our digital and technology-based marketing strategy. Any significant changes to one or more factors that adversely affect such marketing activities, such as changes in consumer behavior and preference for vacations or a decrease in the number of calls being transferred from Hilton due to increasing consumer reliance on digital tools, will adversely impact our revenue.
We may experience financial and operational risks in connection with acquisitions and other opportunistic business ventures.
We will consider strategic acquisitions to expand our inventory options and distribution capabilities; however, we may be unable to identify attractive acquisition candidates or complete transactions on favorable terms. Future acquisitions could result in potentially dilutive issuances of equity securities and/or the assumption of contingent liabilities. These acquisitions may also be structured in such a way that we will be assuming unknown or undisclosed liabilities or obligations. Moreover, we may be unable to efficiently integrate acquisitions, management attention and other resources may be diverted away from other potentially more profitable areas of our business and in some cases these acquisitions may turn out to be less compatible with our growth and operational strategy than originally anticipated. The occurrence of any of these events could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
As part of our business strategy, we also intend to continue collaborating with Hilton on timeshare development opportunities at new and existing hotel properties and explore growth opportunities along the Hilton brand spectrum, as well as expand our marketing partnerships and travel exchange partners. However, we may be unable to successfully enter into these arrangements on favorable terms or launch related products and services, or such products and services may not gain acceptance among our members or be profitable. The failure to develop and execute any such initiatives on a cost-effective basis could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Partnership or joint venture investments could be adversely affected by our lack of sole decision-making authority, our reliance on partners’ or co-venturers’ financial condition, disputes between us and our partners or co-venturers and our obligation to guaranty certain obligations beyond the amount of our investments.
We have co-invested with third parties and we may in the future co-invest with other third parties through partnerships, joint ventures or other entities, acquiring non-controlling interests in, or sharing responsibility for managing the affairs, of a timeshare property, partnership, joint venture or other entity. These include our Elara joint venture with
Blackstone and the Bluegreen-Bass Pro joint venture that we assumed as part of the Bluegreen Acquisition. Consequently, with respect to any such third-party arrangements, we would not be in a position to exercise sole decision-making authority regarding the property, partnership, joint venture or other entity, and may, under certain circumstances, be exposed to risks not present if a third party were not involved, including the possibility that partners or co-venturers might become bankrupt or fail to fund their share of required capital contribution. In addition, we may be forced to make contributions to maintain the value of the property. Such investments may also have the potential risk of impasses on decisions, such as a sale, because neither we nor the partner or co-venturer may have full control over the partnership or joint venture. We and our respective partners or co-venturers may each have the right to trigger a buy-sell right or forced sale arrangement, which could cause us to sell our interest, or acquire our partners’ or co-venturers’ interest, or to sell the underlying asset, either on unfavorable terms or at a time when we otherwise would not have initiated such a transaction. In addition, a sale or transfer by us to a third party of our interests in the partnership or joint venture may be subject to consent rights or rights of first refusal in favor of our partners or co-venturers, which would in each case restrict our ability to dispose of our interest in the partnership or joint venture. Any or all of these factors could adversely affect the value of our investment, our ability to exit, sell or dispose of our investment at times that are beneficial to us, or our financial commitment to maintaining our interest in the joint ventures.
Our joint ventures may be subject to debt and the refinancing of such debt, and we may be required to provide certain guarantees or be responsible for the full amount of the debt, beyond the amount of our equity investment, in certain circumstances in the event of a default. Our joint venture partners may take actions that are inconsistent with the interests of the partnership or joint venture, or in violation of the financing arrangements and trigger our guaranty, which may expose us to substantial financial obligation and commitment that are beyond our ability to fund. In addition, partners or co-venturers may have economic or other business interests or goals that are inconsistent with our business interests or goals and may be in a position to take action or withhold consent contrary to our policies or objectives. In some instances, partners or co-venturers may have competing interests in our markets that could create conflict of interest issues. Disputes between us and partners or co-venturers may result in litigation or arbitration that would increase our expenses and prevent our officers from focusing their time and effort on our business. Consequently, actions by or disputes with partners or co-
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venturers might result in subjecting assets owned by the partnership or joint venture, and to the extent of any guarantee our assets, to additional risk. In addition, we may, in certain circumstances, be liable for the actions of our third-party partners or co-venturers.
Our dependence on development activities exposes us to project cost and completion risks.
We secure VOI inventory in part by developing new timeshare properties and new phases of existing timeshare properties. We have continued our construction activities as a critical source of developing new inventories that we sell and will continue to sell. Our ongoing involvement in the development of inventory presents a number of risks, including:
weakness in the capital markets limiting our ability to raise capital for completion of projects or for development of future properties or products;
construction costs and the costs of materials and supplies, to the extent they escalate faster than the pace at which we can increase the price of VOIs, adversely affecting our profits and margins;
construction delays, supply chain delays, labor shortages, zoning and other local, state or federal governmental approvals, particularly in new geographic areas with which we are unfamiliar, cost overruns, lender financial defaults, or natural or man-made disasters, such as earthquakes, tsunamis, hurricanes, floods, fires, volcanic eruptions and oil spills, increasing overall project costs, affecting timing of project completion or resulting in project cancellations;
any liability or alleged liability or resultant delays associated with latent defects in design or construction of projects we have developed or that we construct in the future adversely affecting our business, financial condition and reputation;
failure by third-party contractors to perform for any reason, exposing us to operational, reputational and financial harm; and
the existence of any title defects in properties we acquire.
We also source inventory from third-party developers that are exposed to such risks, and the occurrence of any of these risks with respect to those third parties could have a material adverse effect on our access to the inventory sourced from these developers. In addition, developing new VOIs to market and sell requires us to register such VOIs in applicable states, which necessitates the incurrence of additional time and cost, and in many jurisdictions, the exact date of any such registration approvals cannot be accurately predicted. Any significant delays in timeshare project registration approvals will materially adversely impact our sales activities and thereby negatively impact our revenue. See “—Our business is regulated under a wide variety of laws, regulations and policies, and failure to comply with these regulations could adversely affect our business.”
Our real estate investments subject us to numerous risks.
We are subject to the risks that generally relate to investments in and the development of real property. A variety of factors affect income from properties and real estate values, including laws and regulations, insurance, interest rate levels and the availability of financing. Our license agreement or other agreements with Hilton may require us to incur unexpected costs required to cause our properties to comply with applicable standards and policies. Our financial results have been positively impacted by a lower interest rate environment. However, when interest rates increase the cost of acquiring, developing, expanding or renovating real property increases, and real property values may decrease as the number of potential buyers decrease. Similarly, as financing becomes less available, it becomes more difficult both to acquire and develop real property. Many costs of real estate investments, such as real estate taxes, insurance premiums, maintenance costs and certain operating costs, are generally more fixed than variable, and as a result are not reduced even when a property is not fully sold or occupied. If any of these risks were realized, they could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations or financial condition.
We manage a concentration of properties in particular geographic areas, which exposes our business to the effects of regional events and occurrences.
Our properties are concentrated in certain geographic areas including Florida, Europe, Hawaii, California, Arizona, Nevada, and Virginia and are, therefore, particularly susceptible to adverse developments in those areas. These economic developments include regional economic downturns, significant increases in the number of our competitors’ products in these markets, and potentially higher labor, real estate, tax or other costs in the geographic markets in which we are concentrated. In addition, our properties are subject to the effects of adverse acts of natural or man-made disasters, including earthquakes, windstorms, tornadoes, hurricanes, typhoons, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, floods, drought, climate changes, fires, oil spills and nuclear incidents. Extreme weather events and adverse weather conditions, including hurricanes, flooding and forest fires, that impact the areas in which our properties are concentrated may increase in
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frequency and severity as a result of climate change. Depending on the severity of these disasters, the damage could require closure of all or substantially all of these properties in one or more markets for a period of time while the necessary repairs and renovations, as applicable, are undertaken. In addition, we cannot guarantee that the amount of insurance maintained for these properties from time to time would entirely cover damages caused by any such event. Further, actual or threatened war, political conditions or civil unrest, violence or terrorist activities or threats and heightened travel security measures instituted in response to these events, could also interrupt or deter vacation plans to our key markets. As a result of this geographic concentration of properties, we face a greater risk of a negative effect on our revenues in the event these areas are more severely and more frequently affected by adverse economic and competitive conditions, extreme weather, man-made disasters, and political and civil unrest.
Our current operations and future expansion outside of the United States make us susceptible to the risks of doing business internationally, which could lower our revenues, increase our costs, reduce our profits or disrupt our business.
We currently have timeshare properties located in the United States, Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean, Canada and Asia. We also market our products and services in the Asia Pacific region, primarily in Japan and South Korea. In addition, as part of our business strategy, we intend to continue the expansion of our operations in Japan, including by developing property there and selling VOIs at properties located in Japan, as well as explore further expansion opportunities in other countries located in the Asia Pacific region, Mexico, Europe and the Caribbean. Such activities may not be limited only to marketing efforts for existing international and U.S. properties and products in other countries, but may also include acquiring, developing, managing, marketing, offering and/or financing timeshare properties and VOI related products and services in such countries. Current and future international operations expose us to a number of additional challenges and risks that may not be inherent in operating solely in the U.S., including, for example, the following:
rapid changes in governmental, economic, legislative or political policy;
political or civil unrest, acts of terrorism or the threat of international boycotts or U.S. anti-boycott legislation;
negative impact on governmental relationships between those countries in which we currently operate or have future expansion plans, on one hand, and the U.S., on the other hand, which may result in undesirable trade, travel or similar regulations, thereby negatively affecting the tourism industry generally, and the timeshare and leisure industry specifically;
increases in anti-American sentiment and the identification of the Hilton brands as American brands;
recessionary trends or economic instability in international markets;
changes in foreign currency exchange rates or currency restructurings and hyperinflation or deflation in the countries in which we operate;
the effect of disruptions caused by severe weather, natural disasters, outbreaks of disease or other events that make travel to a particular region less attractive or more difficult;
the presence and acceptance of varying levels of business corruption in international markets and the effect of various anti-corruption and other laws;
the imposition of restrictions on currency conversion or the transfer of funds;
the ability to comply with or effect of complying with complex and changing laws, regulations and policies of foreign governments that may affect investments or operations, including foreign ownership restrictions, import and export controls, tariffs, embargoes, increases in taxes paid and other changes in applicable tax laws;
uncertain, unfamiliar and/or unpredictable regulatory environment that may adversely affect the acquisition, development, management, marketing, sales, financings, and related activities that affect the lodging, real estate, and travel industries, and, more specifically, to the timeshare industry, such as zoning laws, real estate development regulations, and consumer privacy;
exposure to litigation in foreign jurisdictions, including the expense and time necessary to litigate and the potential of adverse outcomes;
uncertainties as to local laws regarding, and enforcement of, contract and intellectual property rights;
forced nationalization of resort properties by local, state or national governments;
different social or cultural norms and practices that are not customary in the U.S.; and
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the difficulties involved in managing an organization doing business in different countries.
These and other factors may materially adversely affect our business generally, future expansion plans, revenues from international operations, and costs and profits, as well as our financial condition. Our acquisition of Diamond has expanded our operations to a number of jurisdictions in which we had not previously operated and subjected us to a number of additional legal considerations. Expansion of our international operations into other countries and territories may result in greater inefficiencies in navigating the risks of operating internationally and could result in greater effects on our business than would be experienced by a company with greater international experience.
Similarly, we market our U.S. and international properties in Japan, have begun developing products and services in Japan, and intend to continue the expansion of our operations in Japan. The Japanese economy has in recent years experienced periods of fiscal and economic volatility, and we may be unable to properly predict the effect of such volatility, including the actions that may be taken by the Japanese government, in a way that fully mitigates the impact of such volatility on our marketing activities and businesses in Japan.
In Mexico, the developer of certain acquired Diamond resorts has agreed to requirements that would consider themselves Mexican nationals with respect to certain properties. The developer also agreed to not invoke the protection of the government in matters relating to the property. Generally, rules in Mexico limit ownership of land near Mexico’s borders and beaches to Mexican citizens and companies, unless granted the right by the Mexican government. If the developer of the resorts in Mexico fails to comply with the agreement with the Mexican government, it would forfeit the land back to Mexico.
We rely on highly skilled personnel and, if we are unable to retain or motivate key personnel, hire qualified personnel, or maintain our corporate culture, we may not be able to grow effectively.
Our performance largely depends on the talents and efforts of highly skilled individuals. Our future success depends on our continuing ability to identify, hire, develop, motivate, and retain highly skilled personnel for all areas of our organization. Competition in our industry for qualified employees is intense, and certain of our competitors have directly targeted our employees. Our compensation arrangements may not always be successful in attracting new employees and retaining and motivating our existing employees, and we may need to increase compensation in order to maintain our workforce.
The loss of any members of our management team could adversely affect our strategic, member and guest relationships and impede our ability to execute our business strategies. If we cannot recruit, train, develop or retain sufficient numbers of talented employees, we could experience increased employee turnover, decreased member and guest satisfaction, low morale, inefficiency or internal control failures, which could materially reduce our profits. In addition, insufficient numbers of skilled employees at our properties could constrain our ability to maintain our current levels of business or successfully expand our business.
We believe that our corporate culture fosters innovation, creativity, and teamwork. As our organization grows, and we are required to implement more complex organizational management structures, we may find it increasingly difficult to maintain the beneficial aspects of our corporate culture and attract and retain employees. This could negatively affect our future success.
Third-party reservation channels may negatively affect our bookings for room rental revenues.
Some stays at the properties we manage are booked through third-party internet travel intermediaries, such as expedia.com, orbitz.com and booking.com, as well as lesser-known and/or newly emerging online travel service providers. As the percentage of internet bookings increases, these intermediaries may be able to obtain higher commissions, reduced room rates or other significant contract concessions from us. Moreover, some of these internet travel intermediaries are attempting to commoditize lodging, by increasing the importance of price and general indicators of quality (such as “three-star property”) at the expense of brand identification. These intermediaries also generally employ aggressive marketing strategies, including expending significant resources for online and television advertising campaigns to drive consumers to their websites. Additionally, consumers can book stays at the properties we manage through other distribution channels, including travel agents, travel membership associations and meeting procurement firms. Over time, consumers may develop loyalties to these third-party reservation systems rather than to our booking channels. Although we expect to derive most of our business from traditional channels and our websites (and those of Hilton), our business and profitability could be adversely affected if customer loyalties change significantly, diverting bookings away from our distribution channels.
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Changes to estimates or projections used to assess the fair value of our assets, or operating results that are lower than our current estimates at certain locations, may cause us to incur impairment losses that could adversely affect our results of operations.
Our total assets include intangible assets with finite useful lives and long-lived assets, principally property and equipment and VOI inventory. We evaluate our intangible assets with finite useful lives and long-lived assets for impairment when circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable. Our evaluation of impairment requires us to make certain estimates and assumptions including projections of future results. After performing our evaluation for impairment, including an analysis to determine the recoverability of long-lived assets, we will record an impairment loss when the carrying value of the underlying asset, asset group or reporting unit exceeds its fair value. We carry our VOI inventory at the lower of cost or estimated fair value, less costs to sell. If the estimates or assumptions used in our evaluation of impairment or fair value change, we may be required to record impairment losses on certain of these assets. If these impairment losses are significant, our results of operations would be adversely affected.
Our insurance policies may not cover all potential losses.
We maintain insurance coverage for liability, property, business interruption, cyber liability and other risks with respect to business operations. While we have comprehensive property and liability insurance policies with coverage features and insured limits that we believe are customary, market forces beyond our control may limit the scope of the insurance coverage we can obtain or our ability to obtain coverage at reasonable rates. The cost of our insurance may increase, and our coverage levels may decrease, which may affect our ability to maintain customary insurance coverage and deductibles at acceptable costs. There is a limit as well as various sub-limits on the amount of insurance proceeds we will receive in excess of applicable deductibles. If an insurable event occurs that affects more than one of our properties, the claims from each affected property may be considered together to determine whether the per occurrence limit, annual aggregate limit or sub-limits, depending on the type of claim, have been reached. If the limits or sub-limits are exceeded, each affected property may only receive a proportional share of the amount of insurance proceeds provided for under the policy. Further, certain types of losses, generally of a catastrophic nature, such as earthquakes, hurricanes and floods, war, terrorist acts, such as biological or chemical terrorism, political risks, some environmental hazards and/or natural or man-made disasters, may be outside the general coverage limits of our policy, subject to large deductibles, deemed uninsurable or too cost-prohibitive to justify insuring against. In addition, in the event of a substantial loss, the insurance coverage we carry may not be sufficient to pay the full market value or replacement cost of the affected resort or in some cases may not provide a recovery for any part of a loss. As a result, we could lose some or all the capital we have invested in a property, as well as the anticipated future marketing, sales or revenue opportunities from the property. Further, we could remain obligated under guarantees or other financial obligations related to the property despite the loss of product inventory, and our members could be required to contribute toward deductibles to help cover losses.
We have identified a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting. If we are unable to remediate this material weakness, experience additional material weaknesses, or otherwise fail to maintain an effective system of internal control over financial reporting, we may not be able to accurately or timely report our financial results, in which case our business may be harmed, our stock price could be adversely affected, and we may otherwise experience other adverse consequences.
As previously disclosed, in connection with our year-end assessment of internal control over financial reporting, our management determined that, as of December 31, 2022, we had not maintained effective internal control over financial reporting due to a material weakness in internal control over financial reporting related to Diamond, which we acquired in August 2021. A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in our internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of the Company’s annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis.
While such material weakness has been fully remediated, as discussed in Part II, Item 9A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, in connection with our 2023 year-end assessment of internal control over financial reporting, our management determined that, as of December 31, 2023, we did not maintain effective internal control over financial reporting due to a material weakness in internal control over financial reporting arising out of ineffectively designed general information technology controls over user access for an IT application used to initiate revenue and inventory transactions. As a result, process-level automated controls and manual controls that are dependent on the completeness and accuracy of information derived from the affected IT application were also ineffective.
We have commenced taking, and will continue to take, steps to enhance the risk assessment process and design and implementation of internal controls over financial reporting with respect to the user access matter, including enhancing and revising the design of our existing financial reporting and information technology controls and procedures, and incorporating additional controls and processes. However, the material weakness will not be considered remediated until the applicable controls operate for a sufficient period of time and management has concluded, through testing, that these
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controls are operating effectively. There can be no assurances that such remediation steps will be complete in our anticipated timeframe or if they will successfully remediate the material weakness identified on a timely basis. As a result, we may not be successful in making the improvements necessary to remediate such material weakness, be able to do so in a timely manner, or be able to identify and remediate additional control deficiencies, including material weaknesses, in the future. Furthermore, information technology and other controls and procedures can be extensive and numerous, and there can be no assurance that our management may not uncover other deficiencies in the future that could lead to additional material weaknesses. Any one or more of these outcomes could cause us to fail to meet our financial reporting obligations or result in material misstatements in our financial statements, which could adversely affect our business generally and lead to other adverse consequences, including, without limitation, the loss of investor confidence in us, reduction of our stock price, and exposure to litigation or government investigations and/or sanctions. In addition, remediation plans can be costly and divert critical attention of our internal personnel and resources, which could increase our general and administrative expenses and decrease our net operating results.
Our business could be adversely impacted if we have deficiencies in our disclosure controls and procedures, including as a result of the material weakness identified by management.
The design and effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures are closely tied to and interdependent with our internal control over financial reporting. Our disclosure controls and procedures, as may be updated to include additional enhancements to the design of existing financial reporting and information technology controls and procedures, as well as adding additional controls and processes, as previously discussed, are designed to ensure that information we are required to disclose in the reports that we file or submit under the Exchange Act and applicable rules and regulations is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in such rules and forms, and that such required information is accumulated and communicated to our management in a timely manner. Nonetheless, our disclosure controls and procedures may not prevent all omissions, errors, or misstatements due to a number of factors, including, without limitation, resource constraints, benefits of the controls and procedures relative to their costs, human error and judgment, or intentional circumvention by individual acts, any of which may cause omissions, errors, or misstatements. While management will continue to review the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures, including our internal controls over financial reporting, there can be no guarantee that our disclosure controls and procedures and internal controls will prevent all omissions, errors and misstatements, intentional or otherwise, any occurrence of which may result in material omissions or misstatements in our filings with the SEC, which could materially adversely affect our financial results, investor confidence, our stock price, and our business generally.
Risks Related to the Sale of VOIs
A decline in developed or acquired VOI inventory or our failure to enter into and maintain fee-for-service agreements may have an adverse effect on our business or results of operations.
In addition to VOI supply that we develop or acquire, we source VOIs through fee-for-service agreements with third-party developers. If we fail to develop timeshare properties, acquire inventory or are unsuccessful in entering into new agreements with third-party developers, we may experience a decline in VOI supply, which could result in a decrease in our revenues. Approximately 47% of our contract sales were from capital-efficient sources for the year ended December 31, 2023. As part of our strategy to optimize our sales mix of capital-efficient inventory, we will continue to acquire inventory and enter into additional fee-for-service agreements to source inventory. These arrangements may expose us to additional risk as we will not control development activities or timing of development completion. If third parties with whom we enter into agreements are not able to fulfill their obligations to us, the inventory we expect to acquire or market and sell on their behalf may not be available on time or at all, or may not otherwise be within agreed-upon specifications, including the specifications that we must meet in order to use Hilton’s trademarks at such properties. If our counterparties do not perform as expected and we do not have access to the expected inventory or obtain access to inventory from alternative sources on a timely basis, our ability to achieve sales goals may be adversely affected.
In addition, a decline in VOI supply could result in a decrease of financing revenues that are generated by VOI purchases and fee and rental revenues that are generated by our resort and Club management services.
Our ability to source VOI inventory and finance VOI sales may be impaired if we or the third-party developers with whom we do business are unable to access capital when necessary.
The availability of funds for new investments, primarily developing, acquiring or repurchasing VOI inventory, depends in part on liquidity factors and capital markets over which we can exert little, if any, control. Instability in the financial markets and any resulting contraction of available liquidity and leverage could constrain the capital markets for investments in timeshare products. In addition, we intend to access the securitization markets to securitize our timeshare financing receivables. Any future deterioration in the financial markets could preclude, limit, delay or increase the cost to us of future securitizations. Instability in the financial markets could also affect the timing and volume of any
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securitizations we undertake, as well as the financial terms of such securitizations. Any indebtedness we incur, including indebtedness under these facilities, may adversely affect our ability to obtain any additional financing necessary to develop or acquire additional VOI inventory, to make other investments in our business, or to repurchase VOIs on the secondary market. Furthermore, volatility in the financial markets, due to tightening of underwriting standards by lenders and credit rating agencies, among other things, could result in less availability of credit and increased costs for what is available. As a result, we may not be able to obtain financing on attractive terms or at all. If our overall cost of borrowing increases, the increased costs would likely reduce future cash flow available for distribution, affecting our growth and development plans.
We also require the issuance of surety bonds in connection with our real estate development and VOI sales activity. The availability, terms and conditions and pricing of our bonding capacity is dependent on, among other things, continued financial strength and stability of the insurance company affiliates providing the bonding capacity, general availability of such capacity, and our corporate credit rating. If bonding capacity is unavailable, or alternatively, if the terms and conditions and pricing of such bonding capacity are unacceptable to us, our business could be negatively affected.
We have and will continue to enter into fee-for-service agreements with third-party developers to source inventory. These agreements enable us to generate fees from the marketing and sales services we provide, Club memberships and from the management of the timeshare properties without requiring us to fund acquisition and construction costs. If these developers are not able to obtain or maintain financing necessary for their operations, we may not be able to enter into these arrangements, which would limit opportunities for growth and reduce our revenues.
The sale of VOIs in the secondary market by existing members could cause our sales revenues and profits to decline.
Existing members have offered, and are expected to continue to offer, their VOIs for sale on the secondary market. The sale of VOIs has been made easier by recent development of virtual marketplaces assisting members with the sale of their VOIs. The prices at which these intervals are sold are typically less than the prices at which we would sell the intervals. As a result, these sales create additional pricing pressure on our sale of VOIs, which could cause our sales revenues and profits to decline. In addition, if the secondary market for VOIs becomes more organized or financing for such resales becomes more available, our ability to sell VOIs could be adversely affected and/or the resulting availability of VOIs (particularly where the VOIs are available for sale at lower prices than the prices at which we would sell them) could adversely affect our sales revenues. Further, unlawful, fraudulent or deceptive third-party VOI resale or vacation package sales schemes could damage the reputation of the industry, our reputation and brand value, or affect our ability to collect management fees, which may adversely affect our revenues and results of operations.
Development of a strong secondary market may also cause a decline in the volume of VOI inventory that we are able to repurchase, which could adversely affect our development margin, as we utilize this low-cost inventory source to supplement our inventory needs and help manage our cost of vacation ownership products.
We have limited underwriting standards due to the real-time nature of industry sales practices, and do not include traditional ability-to-pay factors such as income verification which may affect loan default rates. If purchasers' default on the loans that we provide to finance their VOI purchases, our revenues, cash flows and profits could be reduced.
We originate loans for purchasers of our VOIs who qualify according to our credit criteria. Our underwriting standards generally employ FICO® score-based standards, down payment ratios, and borrowing history, but due to the real-time nature of industry sales practices, do not include certain traditional ability-to-pay factors, such as income verification.
Providing secured financing to some purchasers of VOIs subjects us to the risk of purchaser default. As of December 31, 2023, our consumer loan portfolio had a balance of approximately $2.9 billion and experienced default rates of 8.56%, 7.92% and 8.93% for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively. If a purchaser defaults under the financing that we provide, we could be forced to write off the loan and reclaim ownership of the VOI. We may be unable to resell the property in a timely manner or at a price sufficient to allow us to recover written-off loan balances, or at all. Also, if a purchaser of a VOI defaults on the related loan during the early part of the amortization period, we may not have recovered the marketing, selling and general and administrative costs associated with the sale of that VOI. If we are unable to recover any of the principal amount of the loan from a defaulting purchaser, or if the allowances for losses from such defaults are inadequate, our revenues and profits could be reduced.
If default rates increase beyond current projections and result in higher-than-expected foreclosure activity, our results of operations could be adversely affected. In addition, the transactions in which we have securitized timeshare financing receivables in the capital markets contain certain portfolio performance requirements related to default, delinquency and recovery rates, which, if not met, would result in loss or disruption of cash flow until portfolio performance sufficiently improves to satisfy the requirements.
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If the default rates or other credit metrics underlying our timeshare financing receivables deteriorate, our timeshare financing receivable securitization program could be adversely affected.
Our timeshare financing receivable securitization program could be adversely affected if any pool of timeshare financing receivables fails to meet certain performance ratios, which could occur if the default rate or other credit metrics of the underlying timeshare financing receivables deteriorate. In addition, if we offer timeshare financings to our customers with terms longer than those generally offered in the industry, we may not be able to securitize those timeshare financing receivables. Our ability to sell securities backed by our timeshare financing receivables depends on the continued ability and willingness of capital market participants to invest in such securities. Asset-backed securities issued in our timeshare financing receivable securitization program could be downgraded by credit agencies in the future. If a downgrade occurs, our ability to complete other securitization transactions on acceptable terms or at all could be jeopardized, and we could be forced to rely on other potentially more expensive and less attractive funding sources, to the extent available. Similarly, if other operators of vacation ownership products were to experience significant financial difficulties, or if the timeshare industry as a whole were to contract, we could experience difficulty in securing funding on acceptable terms. The occurrence of any of the foregoing would decrease our profitability and might require us to adjust our business operations, including by reducing or suspending our provision of financing to purchasers of VOIs. Sales of VOIs may decline if we reduce or suspend the provision of financing to purchasers, which may adversely affect our cash flows, revenues and profits.
The expiration, termination or renegotiation of our management agreements could adversely affect our cash flows, revenues and profits.
We enter into management agreements with the HOAs for the timeshare resorts developed/acquired by us or by third parties with whom we have entered into fee-for-service agreements. Our management agreements generally provide for a cost-plus management fee equal to 10% to 15% of the costs to operate the applicable resort. We also receive revenues that represent reimbursement for the costs incurred to perform our services, principally related to personnel providing on-site services. The original term of our management agreements is typically governed by state timeshare laws, and ranges from three to five years, and many of these agreements renew automatically for one- to three-year periods, unless either party provides advance notice of termination before the expiration of the term. Any of these agreements may expire at the end of its then-current term (following notice by a party of non-renewal) or be terminated, or the contract terms may be renegotiated in a manner adverse to us. If a management agreement is terminated or not renewed on favorable terms, our cash flows, revenues and profits could be adversely affected.
Increased activity by third-party exit companies' owners may adversely impact our business.
The acquired Diamond business has been significantly targeted by organized activities of third parties that actively pursue timeshare owners claiming to provide timeshare interest transfers and/or “exit” services. Any increases in the level of participation by timeshare owners in response to such overtures and/or delinquencies or defaults with respect to the timeshare loans owed by such owners may disrupt our business and affect cash flow from collections on the timeshare loans. In addition, exit companies may target HGV’s owners (including Bluegreen’s and Diamond’s owners) to a greater extent than they already do in light of the larger, combined company following the Diamond Acquisition and Bluegreen Acquisition.
Disagreements with VOI owners, HOAs and other third parties may result in litigation and/or loss of management contracts.
The nature of our responsibilities in managing timeshare properties may from time to time give rise to disagreements with VOI owners and HOAs. To develop and maintain positive relations with current and potential VOI owners and HOAs, we seek to resolve any disagreements, but may not always be able to do so. Failure to resolve such disagreements may result in litigation. Further, disagreements with HOAs could also result in the loss of management contracts, a significant loss of which could negatively affect our profits or limit our ability to operate our business, and our ongoing ability to generate sales from our existing member base may be adversely affected.
In the normal course of our business, we are involved in various legal proceedings and in the future we could become the subject of claims by current or former members, VOI owners, HOAs, persons to whom we market our products, third-party developers, guests who use our properties, our employees or contractors, our investors or regulators. The outcome of these proceedings cannot be predicted. If any such litigation results in a significant adverse judgment, settlement, or court order, we could suffer significant losses, our profits could be reduced, our reputation could be harmed and our future ability to operate our business could be constrained.
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Failure of HOA boards to levy sufficient fees, or the failure of members to pay those fees, could lead to inadequate funds to maintain or improve the properties we manage.
Owners of our VOIs and those we sell on behalf of third-party developers must pay maintenance fees levied by HOA boards, which include reserve amounts for capital replacements and refurbishments. These maintenance fees are used to maintain and refurbish the timeshare properties and to keep the properties in compliance with applicable Hilton standards and policies. If HOA boards do not levy sufficient maintenance fees, including capital reserves required by applicable law, or fail to manage their reserves appropriately, or if members do not pay their maintenance fees, the timeshare properties could fall into disrepair and fail to comply with applicable standards and policies, and/or state regulators could impose requirements, obligations and penalties. A decline in the quality or standards of the resorts we manage would negatively affect our ability to attract new members and maintain member satisfaction. In addition, if a resort fails to comply with applicable standards and policies because maintenance fees are not paid or otherwise, Hilton could terminate our rights under the license agreement to use its trademarks at the non-compliant resort, which could result in the loss of management fees, and could decrease member satisfaction and impair our ability to market and sell our products at the non-compliant locations.
If maintenance fees at our resorts are required to be increased, our product could become less attractive, and our business could be harmed.
The maintenance fees that are levied by HOA boards on VOI owners may increase as the costs to maintain and refurbish the timeshare properties and to keep the properties in compliance with Hilton brand standards increase. Increased maintenance fees could make our products less desirable and less affordable, which could have a negative effect on VOI sales and HOA and loan default rates. Further, if our maintenance fees increase substantially year over year or are not competitive with other VOI providers, we may not be able to attract new members or retain existing members.
Risks Related to Technology and Cybersecurity
A failure to keep pace with developments in technology could impair our operations, competitive position or reputation.
Our business model and competitive conditions in the timeshare industry demand the use of sophisticated technology and systems, including those used for our marketing, sales, reservation, inventory management and property management systems, and technologies we make available to our members and more generally to support our business. In particular, an increasing number of potential customers select products based on the providers’ technology and ease of interfacing with the provider. We must refine, update and/or replace these technologies and systems with more advanced systems on a regular basis. If we cannot do so as quickly as our competitors or within budgeted costs and time frames, our business could suffer. We also may not achieve the benefits that we anticipate from any new technology or system, and a failure to do so could result in higher than anticipated costs or could harm our operating results.
Social media influences how consumers search for vacation information and make decisions to purchase vacation-related products and services. Lack of awareness or understanding of and the failure to effectively manage, and the costs associated with our management of social media content regarding our products and services could have a material adverse effect on VOI sales, revenues and our operating results.
Social media has become an increasingly influential aspect of tourism, changing the way consumers search, evaluate, rank and purchase vacation products and services. In particular, social media plays a role in the pre-vacation phase, when consumers employ social media in the planning, information search, and the decision-making stages. Providers are no longer the primary spokesperson regarding the quality of their brands and products. Online reviews about vacation resorts play an increasing role in helping today’s consumers evaluate and make vacation decisions by providing positive and negative reviews and indirect customer-to-customer communication. Consumers may find traveler-generated content more trustworthy than information on provider websites and advertising. Vacation decisions are influenced by both negative customer reviews, and by the lack of positive reviews.
The proliferation and global reach of social media continue to expand rapidly and could cause us to suffer reputational harm. The continuing evolution of social media presents new challenges and requires us to keep pace with new developments, technology and trends. Negative posts or comments about us, sales practices, the properties we manage, the Hilton brands, or the timeshare industry generally, on any social networking or user-generated review website, including travel and/or vacation property websites, could affect consumer opinions of us and our products; and we cannot guarantee that we will timely or adequately redress such instances. The failure to appreciate the importance of content on social media or failing to take action that generates positive content, minimizes negative content, and addresses areas of nonexistent content, could have a material adverse effect on VOI sales, revenues and our operating results. In addition, we may be required to devote significant resources to social media management programs, which could result in increased costs to us.
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Our increasing reliance on information technology and other systems subjects us to risks associated with cybersecurity. Cyber-attacks or our failure to maintain the security and integrity of company, employee, associate, customer or third-party data could have a disruptive effect on our business and adversely affect our reputation and financial performance.
We rely heavily on computer, internet-based and mobile information and communications systems operated by us or our service providers to collect, process, transmit and retain large volumes of customer data, including credit card numbers and other personally identifiable information, reservation information and mailing lists, as well as personally identifiable information of our employees. There has been an increase in the number and sophistication of criminal cybersecurity attacks against companies where customer and other sensitive information has been compromised. Our information systems and records, including those we maintain with our service providers, have been, and likely will continue to be, subject to such cyber-attacks, which include efforts to hack or breach security measures in order to obtain or misuse information, phishing attempts, viruses or other malicious codes, “ransomware” or other malware. In addition, increasingly complex systems and software are subject to failure, operator error or malfeasance, or inadvertent releases of data that may materially impact our information systems and records. For instance, security breaches could result in the dissemination of member and guest credit card information, which could lead to affected members and guests experiencing fraudulent charges. To date, we have seen no material impact on our business or operations from these attacks or events. However, the ever-evolving threats mean we and our third-party service providers and vendors must continually evaluate and adapt our respective systems and processes and overall security environment, as well as those of any companies we may acquire. There is no guarantee that these measures will be adequate to safeguard against all data security breaches, system compromises or misuses of data.
The integrity and protection of customer and employee data is critical to us. We could make faulty decisions if that data is inaccurate or incomplete. Customers and employees also have a high expectation that we and our service providers will adequately protect their personal information. A significant theft, loss, loss of access to, or fraudulent use of customer, employee, or company data could adversely impact our reputation, and could result in significant remedial and other expenses, fines, and/or litigation. Breaches in the security of our information systems or those of our service providers or other disruptions in data services could lead to an interruption in the operation of our systems or require us to consider changes to our customer data or payment systems, resulting in operational inefficiencies, additional expense and a loss of profits.
Our collection and use of customer information are governed by extensive and evolving privacy laws and regulations that are constantly evolving and may differ significantly depending on jurisdiction. Compliance with these laws and regulations involves significant costs, which may increase in the future and which may negatively impact our ability to provide services to our customers, and a failure by us or our service providers to comply with privacy regulations may subject us to significant remedial and other expenses, fines, or litigation, as well as restrictions on our use or transfer of data.
Many jurisdictions have enacted or are enacting laws requiring companies to notify regulators or individuals of data security incidents involving certain types of personal data. These mandatory disclosures regarding security incidents often lead to widespread negative publicity, and the risk of reputational harm may be magnified and/or distorted through the rapid dissemination of information over the internet, including through news articles, blogs, chat rooms, and social media sites. Any security incident, whether actual or perceived, could harm our reputation, erode customer confidence in the effectiveness of our data security measures, negatively impact our ability to attract or retain customers, or subject us to third-party lawsuits, regulatory fines or other action or liability, which could materially and adversely affect our business and operating results. Further, the SEC has recently enacted rules requiring public companies to disclose material cybersecurity incidents that they experience on a Current Report on Form 8-K within four business days of determining that a material cybersecurity incident has occurred and to disclose on an annual basis material information regarding their cybersecurity risk management, strategy and governance. These new reporting requirements were effective for us as of December 18, 2023. If we fail to comply with these new requirements we could incur regulatory fines in addition to other adverse consequences to our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our business could be subject to stricter obligations and, greater fines and private causes of action under the enactment of data privacy laws, including but not limited to, the European Union General Data Protection Regulation and the California Consumer Privacy Act. Our systems and the systems operated by our service providers may be unable to satisfy changing regulatory requirements and customer and employee expectations and/or may require significant additional investments or time to do so.
The steps we take to deter and mitigate risks related to cybersecurity may not provide the intended level of protection. In particular, it may be difficult to anticipate or immediately detect such incidents and the damage caused thereby. We may be required to expend significant additional resources in the future to modify and enhance our protective measures. Although we carry cyber/privacy liability insurance that is designed to protect us against certain losses related to
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cybersecurity risks, such insurance coverage may be insufficient to cover all losses or all types of claims that may arise in connection with cyber-attacks, security breaches, and other related breaches. In addition, the third party service providers and partners on which we rely (including those that may be in possession of our sensitive information) face cybersecurity risks, some of which may be different than the risks we face, and we do not directly control any of such service providers’ information security operations, including the efforts that they may take to mitigate risks or the level of cyber/privacy liability insurance that they may carry. See Part I, Item 1C. “Cybersecurity.”
Risks Related to Legal and Regulatory Requirements
Our business is regulated under a wide variety of laws, regulations and policies in the United States and abroad, and failure to comply with these regulations could adversely affect our business.
Our business is subject to extensive regulation, as more fully described in “Business—Government Regulation, and any failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations could have a material adverse effect on our business. Our real estate development activities, for example, are subject to laws and regulations typically applicable to real estate development, subdivision and construction activities, such as laws relating to zoning, entitlement, permitting, land use restrictions, environmental regulation, title transfers, title insurance, taxation and eminent domain. Failure to comply with the laws could result in legal liability or result in substantial costs related to environmental or other remediation. Laws in some jurisdictions also impose liability on property developers for construction defects discovered or repairs made by future owners of property developed by the developer. In addition, the sales of VOIs must be registered with governmental authorities in most jurisdictions in which we do business. The preparation of VOI registrations requires time and cost, and in many jurisdictions the exact date of registration approval cannot be accurately predicted.
A number of laws govern our marketing and sales activities, such as timeshare and land sales acts, fair housing statutes, anti-fraud laws, sweepstakes laws, real estate licensing laws, telemarketing laws, home solicitation sales laws, tour operator laws, seller of travel laws, securities laws, consumer privacy laws and consumer protection laws. In addition, laws in many jurisdictions in which we sell VOIs grant the purchaser of a VOI the right to cancel a purchase contract during a specified rescission period.
Because telemarketing practices are highly regulated, we have implemented procedures to reduce the possibility of violating such laws, however, such procedures may not be effective in ensuring regulatory compliance in every instance. In addition, because we are now an independent company from Hilton, it may be more difficult for us to utilize customer information we obtain from Hilton in the future for marketing purposes.
Under the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 and the Accessibility Guidelines promulgated thereunder (collectively, the “ADA”), all public accommodations must meet various federal requirements related to access and use by disabled persons. Compliance with ADA’s requirements could require removal of access barriers, and non-compliance could result in the U.S. government imposing fines or in private litigants winning damages. Our properties also are subject to various federal, state and local regulatory requirements, such as state and local fire and life safety requirements. Furthermore, various laws govern our resort management activities, including laws and regulations regarding community association management, public lodging, food and beverage services, liquor licensing, labor, employment, health care, health and safety, accessibility, discrimination, immigration, gaming and the environment.
Our lending and related activities are also subject to a number of laws and regulations, including laws and regulations related to consumer loans, retail installment contracts, mortgage lending, fair debt collection and credit reporting practices, consumer collection practices, contacting debtors by telephone, mortgage disclosure, lender licenses and money laundering.
Finally, our resort management activities subject us to a number of laws and regulations, including those that relate to public lodging, food and beverage services, liquor licenses and labor and employment, among others.
We may not be successful in maintaining compliance with all laws, regulations and policies to which we are currently subject, and such compliance is expensive and time consuming. We do not know whether existing requirements will change or whether compliance with future requirements, including regulatory requirements in new geographic areas into which we expand would require significant unanticipated expenditures that would affect our cash flow and results of operations. Failure to comply with current or future applicable laws, regulations and policies could have a material adverse effect on our business. For example, if we do not comply with applicable laws, regulations and policies, governmental authorities in the jurisdictions where the violations occurred may revoke or refuse to renew licenses or registrations necessary to operate our business. Failure to comply with applicable laws, regulations and policies could also render sales contracts for our products void or voidable, subject us to fines or other sanctions, and increase our exposure to litigation.
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Changes in privacy law could adversely affect our ability to market our products effectively.
We rely on a variety of direct marketing techniques, including telemarketing, email and social media marketing and postal mailings, and we are subject to various laws and regulations in the United States and internationally that govern marketing and advertising practices. Adoption of new state or federal laws regulating marketing and solicitation, or international data protection laws that govern these activities, or changes to existing laws, such as the Telemarketing Sales Rule, the Telephone Consumer Protection Act, and the CAN-SPAM Act of 2003, could adversely affect current or planned marketing activities and cause us to change our marketing strategy. If this occurs, we may not be able to develop adequate alternative marketing strategies, which could affect the amount and timing of our VOI sales. We also obtain access to potential members and guests from travel service providers or other companies, including Hilton; and we market to some individuals on these lists directly or through other companies’ marketing materials. If access to these lists were prohibited or otherwise restricted, including access to Hilton Honors loyalty program member information, our ability to access potential members and guests and introduce them to our products could be significantly impaired. Additionally, because our relationship with Hilton has changed, it may be more difficult for us to utilize customer information we obtain from Hilton in the future.
United States or foreign environmental laws and regulations may cause us to incur substantial costs or subject us to potential liabilities.
We are subject to certain compliance costs and potential liabilities under various U.S. federal, state and local and foreign environmental, health and safety laws and regulations. These laws and regulations govern actions including air emissions, the use, storage and disposal of hazardous and toxic substances, and wastewater disposal. Our failure to comply with such laws, including any required permits or licenses, could result in substantial fines, penalties, litigation or possible revocation of our authority to conduct some of our operations. We could also be liable under such laws for the costs of investigation, removal or remediation of hazardous or toxic substances at our currently or formerly owned real property or at third-party locations in connection with our waste disposal operations, regardless of whether or not we knew of, or caused, the presence or release of such substances. From time to time, we may be required to remediate such substances or remove, abate or manage asbestos, mold, radon gas, lead or other hazardous conditions at our properties. The presence or release of such toxic or hazardous substances could result in third-party claims for personal injury, property or natural resource damages, business interruption or other losses. Such claims and the need to investigate, remediate or otherwise address hazardous, toxic or unsafe conditions could adversely affect our operations, the value of any affected real property, or our ability to sell, lease or assign our rights in any such property, or could otherwise harm our business or reputation. Environmental, health and safety requirements have also become increasingly stringent, and our costs may increase as a result.
Some U.S. states and various countries are considering or have undertaken actions to regulate and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. New or revised laws and regulations, or new interpretations of existing laws and regulations, such as those related to climate change, could affect the operation of the properties we manage or result in significant additional expense and operating restrictions on us. The cost of such legislation, regulation or new interpretations would depend upon the specific requirements enacted and cannot be determined at this time. In addition, failure or perception of failure to achieve our goals with respect to reducing our impact on the environment or perception of a failure to act responsibly with respect to the environment or to effectively respond to regulatory requirements concerning climate change could lead to adverse publicity, resulting in an adverse effect on our business or damage to our reputation.
Changes in U.S. federal, state and local or foreign tax law, interpretations of existing tax law, or adverse determinations by tax authorities, could increase our tax burden or otherwise adversely affect our financial condition or results of operations.
We are subject to taxation at the federal, state and local levels in the United States and various other countries and jurisdictions. Our future effective tax rate could be affected by changes in the composition of earnings in jurisdictions with differing tax rates, changes in statutory rates and other legislative changes, changes in the valuation of our deferred tax assets and liabilities, or changes in determinations regarding the jurisdictions in which we are subject to tax. From time to time, the U.S. federal, state and local and foreign governments make substantive changes to tax rules and their application, which could result in materially higher corporate taxes than would be incurred under existing tax law and could adversely affect our financial condition or results of operations. Changes in the non-income tax rates to which we are subject could also have an adverse effect on the maintenance fees charged to our members, which could result in materially lower sales and higher operating costs.
There can be no assurance that changes in tax laws or regulations, both within the U.S. and the other jurisdictions in which we operate, will not materially and adversely affect our effective tax rate, tax payments, financial condition and results of operations. Similarly, changes in tax laws and regulations that impact our customers and counterparties, or the economy generally may also impact our financial condition and results of operations.
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Tax laws and regulations are complex and subject to varying interpretations and any significant failure to comply with applicable tax laws and regulations in all relevant jurisdictions could give rise to substantial penalties and liabilities. Any changes in enacted tax laws, rules or regulatory or judicial interpretations or any change in the pronouncements relating to accounting for income taxes could materially and adversely impact our effective tax rate, tax payments, financial condition and results of operations.
In addition, we are subject to ongoing and periodic tax audits and disputes in U.S. federal and various state, local and foreign jurisdictions. An unfavorable outcome from any tax audit could result in higher tax costs, penalties and interest, and could materially and adversely affect our financial condition or results of operations.
Failure to comply with laws and regulations applicable to our international operations may increase costs, reduce profits, limit growth or subject us to broader liability.
Our business operations in countries outside the United States are subject to a number of laws and regulations, including restrictions imposed by the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA”), as well as trade sanctions administered by the Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”). The FCPA is intended to prohibit bribery of foreign officials and requires us to keep books and records that accurately and fairly reflect our transactions. OFAC administers and enforces economic and trade sanctions based on U.S. foreign policy and national security goals against targeted foreign states, organizations and individuals. Although we have policies in place designed to comply with applicable sanctions, rules and regulations, it is possible that the timeshare properties we own or manage in the countries and territories in which we operate may provide services to or receive funds from persons subject to sanctions. In addition, some of our operations may be subject to the laws and regulations of non-U.S. jurisdictions, including the U.K.’s Bribery Act of 2010, which contains significant prohibitions on bribery and other corrupt business activities, and other local anti-corruption laws in the countries and territories in which we conduct operations.
If we fail to comply with these laws and regulations, we could be exposed to claims for damages, financial penalties, reputational harm and incarceration of employees or restrictions on our operation or ownership of timeshare and other properties, products or services, including the termination of ownership and management rights. In addition, in certain circumstances, the actions of parties affiliated with us (including Hilton, third-party developers, and our and their respective employees and agents) may expose us to liability under the FCPA, U.S. sanctions or other laws. These restrictions could increase costs of operations, reduce profits or cause us to forgo development opportunities that would otherwise support growth.
Under the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012 (“ITRSHRA”), we are required to report whether we or any of our “affiliates” knowingly engaged in certain specified activities during a period covered by one of our Annual Reports on Form 10-K or Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q. We may engage in specified dealings or transactions involving Iran or other individuals and entities targeted by certain OFAC sanctions that would require disclosure pursuant to Section 219 of ITRSHRA. In addition, because the SEC defines the term “affiliate” broadly, it includes any entity controlled by us as well as any person or entity that controls us or is under common control with us. Disclosure of such activities, even if such activities are permissible under applicable law, and any sanctions imposed on us or our affiliates as a result of these activities could harm our reputation and the Hilton brands we use and have a negative effect on our results of operations.
The European Union (“EU”) General Data Protection Regulation (the “GDPR”) imposes significant obligations to businesses that sell products or services to EU customers or otherwise control or process personal data of EU residents. Complying with the GDPR could increase our compliance cost, or adversely impact the marketing of our products and services to customers in the EU and our overall business. In addition, the GDPR imposes fines and penalties for noncompliance, including fines of up to 4% of annual worldwide revenue. If we fail to comply with the requirements of the GDPR, we could face significant administrative and monetary sanctions, which could materially adversely impact our results of operations and financial condition.
Risks Related to Our Indebtedness
Our substantial indebtedness and other contractual obligations could adversely affect our financial condition, our ability to raise additional capital to fund our operations, our ability to operate our business, our ability to react to changes in the economy or our industry and our ability to pay our debts, and could divert our cash flow from operations for debt payments.
As of December 31, 2023, our total indebtedness was approximately $4.5 billion, of which approximately $1.5 billion was non-recourse debt. We significantly increased our level of indebtedness in connection with financing the Diamond Acquisition and the Bluegreen Acquisition. We issued $850 million in aggregate principal amount of 5.000% senior notes due 2029 and $500 million in aggregate principal amount of 4.875% senior notes due 2031, and we borrowed term loans in an initial aggregate principal amount of $1.3 billion under a new senior secured term loan credit facility due
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2028. to repay certain indebtedness of HGV and Diamond, as part of the Diamond Acquisition. Similarly, in connection with the Bluegreen Acquisition, we issued $900 million in aggregate principal amount of 6.625% senior notes due 2032 and borrowed term loans in an initial aggregate principal amount of $900 million due 2031. The new term loans are subject to an interest rate of SOFR plus 2.75%. Finally, we assumed several of Diamond’s and Bluegreen’s revolving facilities that are secured by timeshare loan receivables. Our substantial debt and other contractual obligations could have important consequences, including:
requiring a substantial portion of cash flow from operations to be dedicated to the payment of principal and interest on our indebtedness, thereby reducing our ability to use our cash flow to fund our operations, capital expenditures, dividends to stockholders and to pursue future business opportunities;
increasing our vulnerability to adverse economic, industry or competitive developments;
exposing us to increased interest expense, as our degree of leverage may cause the interest rates of any future indebtedness (whether fixed or floating rate interest) to be higher than they would be otherwise;
exposing us to the risk of increased interest rates because certain of our indebtedness is at variable rates of interest;
making it more difficult for us to satisfy our obligations with respect to our indebtedness, and any failure to comply with the obligations of any of our debt instruments, including restrictive covenants, could result in an event of default that accelerates our obligation to repay indebtedness;
restricting us from making strategic acquisitions or causing us to make non-strategic divestitures;
limiting our ability to obtain additional financing for working capital, capital expenditures, product development, satisfaction of debt service requirements, acquisitions and general corporate or other purposes; and
limiting our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business or market conditions and placing us at a competitive disadvantage compared to our competitors who may be better positioned to take advantage of opportunities that our leverage prevents us from exploiting.
In addition, our credit ratings will impact the cost and availability of future borrowings and, accordingly, our cost of capital. Our ratings will reflect each rating organization’s opinion of our financial strength, operating performance and ability to meet our debt obligations on a combined basis with Diamond and Bluegreen. Downgrades in our ratings could adversely affect our businesses, cash flows, financial condition, operating results and share and debt prices, as well as our obligations with respect to our capital-efficient inventory acquisitions.
For additional discussion on our indebtedness, see “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Financing Activities,” and Note 15: Debt & Non-recourse Debt in our audited consolidated financial statements included in Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Certain of our debt agreements and instruments impose significant operating and financial restrictions on us, our restricted subsidiaries and the guarantors of our indebtedness, which may prevent us from capitalizing on business opportunities.
The debt agreements and instruments that govern our outstanding indebtedness impose significant operating and financial restrictions on us, certain of our subsidiaries and guarantors of our indebtedness. These restrictions limit our ability and/or the ability of our restricted subsidiaries to, among other things:
incur or guarantee additional debt or issue disqualified stock or preferred stock;
pay dividends (including to us) and make other distributions on, or redeem or repurchase, capital stock;
make certain investments;
incur certain liens;
enter into transactions with affiliates;
merge or consolidate;
enter into agreements that restrict the ability of restricted subsidiaries to make dividends or other payments to us;
designate restricted subsidiaries as unrestricted subsidiaries; and
transfer or sell assets.
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In addition, our credit agreement related to our senior secured credit facilities contains affirmative covenants that will require us to be in compliance with certain leverage and financial ratios.
As a result of these restrictions, we are limited as to how we conduct our business, and we may be unable to raise additional debt or equity financing to compete effectively or to take advantage of new business opportunities. The terms of any other future indebtedness we may incur could include more restrictive covenants. We may not be able to maintain compliance with these covenants in the future and, if we fail to do so, we may not be able to obtain waivers from the lenders and/or amend the covenants.
Our failure to comply with the restrictive covenants described above, as well as other terms of our other indebtedness and/or the terms of any future indebtedness from time to time, could result in an event of default, which, if not cured or waived, could result in our being required to repay these borrowings before their due date. If we are forced to refinance these borrowings on less favorable terms or are unable to refinance these borrowings, our financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
Our variable rate indebtedness subjects us to interest rate risk, which could cause our indebtedness service obligations to increase.
Interest rates may increase in the future. As a result, interest rates on our revolving credit facility or other variable rate debt offerings could be higher than current levels. As of December 31, 2023, we had approximately $2.2 billion of notional variable rate debt, representing 49% of our total indebtedness. If interest rates increase, our debt service obligations on the variable rate indebtedness would increase, even though the amount borrowed remained the same, and our net income and cash flows, including cash available for servicing our indebtedness, would correspondingly decrease. We primarily use interest rate swaps as part of our interest rate risk management strategy for our variable-rate debt. For more information on derivatives refer to Note 15: Debt & Non-recourse Debt of the financial statements.
Servicing our indebtedness requires a significant amount of cash. Our ability to generate sufficient cash depends on many factors, some of which are not within our control.
Our ability to make payments on our indebtedness will depend on our ability to generate cash in the future. Our ability to generate cash depends on our financial and operating performance, which is subject to general economic, financial, competitive, legislative, regulatory and other factors that are beyond our control. In particular, compliance with state and local laws applicable to our business, including those relating to deeds, title transfers and certain other regulations applicable to sales of VOIs, may at times delay or hinder our ability to access cash flows generated by our VOI sales. If we are unable to generate and access sufficient cash flow to service our debt and meet our other commitments, we may need to restructure or refinance all or a portion of our debt, sell material assets or operations or raise additional debt or equity capital. We may not be able to affect any of these actions on a timely basis, on commercially reasonable terms or at all, and these actions may not be sufficient to meet our capital requirements. In addition, the terms of our existing or future debt arrangements may restrict us from effecting any of these alternatives.
Our failure to comply with the agreements relating to our outstanding indebtedness could result in an event of default that could materially and adversely affect our results of operations and our financial condition.
If there were an event of default under any of the agreements relating to our outstanding indebtedness, the holders of the defaulted debt could cause all amounts outstanding with respect to that debt to be due and payable immediately. We cannot assure you that our assets or cash flows would be sufficient to fully repay borrowings under our outstanding debt instruments if accelerated upon an event of default. Further, if we are unable to repay, refinance or restructure our indebtedness under our secured debt, the holders of such debt could proceed against the collateral securing that indebtedness. In addition, any event of default or declaration of acceleration under one debt instrument could also result in an event of default under one or more of our other debt instruments. Any such default could materially and adversely affect our results of operations and our financial condition.
Repayment of our debt is dependent on cash flow generated by our subsidiaries, which may be subject to limitations beyond our control.
Our subsidiaries own a substantial portion of our assets and conduct a substantial portion of our operations. Accordingly, repayment of our indebtedness is dependent, to a significant extent, on the generation of cash flow by our subsidiaries and their ability to make such cash available to us, by dividend, debt repayment or otherwise.
Our subsidiaries generally do not have any obligation to pay amounts due on our indebtedness or to make funds available to us for that purpose. Our subsidiaries may not be able to, or may not be permitted to, make distributions to enable us to make payments in respect of our indebtedness. Each subsidiary is a distinct legal entity, and, under certain circumstances, legal and contractual restrictions may limit our ability to obtain cash from our subsidiaries. While limitations on our subsidiaries restrict their ability to pay dividends or make other intercompany payments to us, these
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limitations are subject to certain qualifications and exceptions. In addition, certain of our subsidiaries are party to debt agreements that contain restrictions on their ability to pay dividends or make other intercompany payments to us and may in the future enter into agreements that include additional contractual restrictions on their ability to make any such payments to us.
In the event that we are unable to receive distributions from subsidiaries, we may be unable to make required principal and interest payments on our indebtedness.
Despite our current level of indebtedness, we may be able to incur substantially more debt and enter into other transactions, which could further exacerbate the risks to our financial condition described above.
We may be able to incur significant additional indebtedness, including secured debt, in the future. Although the agreements that govern substantially all of our indebtedness contain restrictions on the incurrence of additional indebtedness and entering into certain types of other transactions, these restrictions are subject to a number of qualifications and exceptions. Additional indebtedness incurred in compliance with these restrictions could be substantial. These restrictions also do not prevent us from incurring obligations, such as trade payables, that do not constitute indebtedness as defined under our debt instruments. To the extent new debt is added to our current debt levels, the substantial leverage risks described in the preceding six risk factors would increase.
Risks Related to the Integration of Diamond
We may not be able to integrate the acquired Diamond business successfully.
We continue to integrate the Diamond business from the August 2021 closing of the Diamond Acquisition. Despite our efforts, it is possible that the integration process could take longer than anticipated and/or could be more difficult than anticipated due to a number of reasons, including the lack of complementary products and resort offerings, delays or other challenges in converting the Diamond resorts into resorts that are suitable for HGV as part of our overall strategy and our rebranding plan, loss of valuable employees, disruption of each company’s ongoing businesses, processes and systems, inconsistencies in standards, controls, procedures, practices, policies and compensation arrangements between the two businesses, and differences in corporate cultures and philosophies, and other challenges that are inherent in such a complex integration of businesses. There also may be issues attributable to Diamond’s operations that were inherent to the business or are based on events or actions that occurred prior to the closing of the Diamond Acquisition that may make the integration even more challenging. In addition, uncertainty about the effect of the Diamond Acquisition on relationships with our suppliers, vendors, existing owners, and potential owners may hinder the integration. Although we are taking steps designed to reduce or mitigate any adverse effects, these uncertainties may cause suppliers, vendors, existing and potential owners, and others that deal with us to seek to change, not renew or discontinue existing business relationships with us.
Integrating the Diamond business and properties into our operations may place a significant burden on management and internal resources and divert management’s attention away from day-to-day business concerns. Further, our ability to attract, retain and motivate key personnel and employees may be impacted if employees or prospective employees have uncertainty about their future roles with us during the integration of the Diamond Acquisition and beyond. Despite our retention and recruiting efforts, key employees may be unwilling to continue their employment with us, and we may be unable to timely find suitable replacements.
Ultimately, the integration process is subject to a number of uncertainties, and no assurance can be given that our integration efforts will be successful. Any one or more of the foregoing factors may adversely affect or hinder any successful integration of the Diamond acquisition and may materially adversely impact the execution of our strategy post-acquisition, business, operations, and, ultimately, our results of operations.
Our ability to successfully integrate the Diamond business depends on our compliance with the license agreement and ability to meet certain targets under the rebrand plan.
We and Hilton have agreed to a plan to rebrand the majority of the Diamond properties, rooms and sales facilities into HGV-branded properties, rooms and sales facilities over a five-year period that includes annual and cumulative target room conversions. The License Agreement Amendment provides for the offer and sale by HGV of its “HGV Max” branded
product that provides access across legacy HGV and both converted and unconverted Diamond properties, subject to certain conditions. If we do not achieve the applicable annual rebranding target milestones, we will be subject to an escalated royalty fee, and if we fail to achieve cumulative targets by September 2031, Hilton may prohibit our future offering and sales of HGV Max. In addition, the license agreement requires Hilton’s approval in connection with our anticipated rebranding of the Diamond properties into our branded HGV Max properties and/or another new brand of properties. Hilton also has the right to review our sales, reservation and marketing activities related to HGV Max and review and approve our rebranded sales centers.
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We have agreed with Hilton to operate the Diamond properties and business as a separate operation, pending the rebranding and rebranding plan, after which we expect to continue to operate certain Diamond properties that are not rebranded as a separate operation. If we fail to comply with the separate operation requirements in connection with such part of our business, we may be subject to potential violation of the license agreement. In addition, if we cannot come to an agreement with Hilton on how to brand and operate Diamond properties that are not approved for rebranding by Hilton, our
ability to successfully integrate Diamond may be materially adversely affected. We may conclude that it is necessary to enter into future amendments and/or modifications to the license agreement that may be necessary in connection with the integration and rebranding plans. If we and Hilton are unable to reach agreements on any such amendments and/or modifications, our integration and rebranding plans may be delayed and/or may not comport to the current terms and conditions of the license agreement, which will adversely affect our business and operations. For additional information see “Item 1. Business—Key Agreements with Hilton Worldwide Holdings.
Anticipated cost savings, synergies, growth in operating results and related benefits of the Diamond Acquisition may not be realized. In addition, we may incur substantial costs and expenses related to the Diamond Acquisition and the integration beyond what we have anticipated, which may include unknown liabilities at the time of the closing. Any of these factors could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We completed the Diamond Acquisition with the expectation that it will result in various benefits and synergies, including, among other things, operating efficiencies, and opportunities to potentially increase our revenue, sales, EBITDA, owners, and cost savings. Achieving such anticipated benefits and synergies of the Diamond Acquisition within the expected timeframe, or at all, is subject to a number of uncertainties, including whether the businesses of HGV and Diamond can be integrated in an efficient and effective manner. It is possible that any one or more of such benefits and synergies may not be realized, thereby significantly reducing the anticipated benefits associated with the Diamond Acquisition, and may result in higher than anticipated costs, and lower than anticipated revenue, and/or decreases in the amount of expected net income, all of which would adversely affect our future business, financial condition, and operating results.
Further, we incurred a number of fees, costs and expenses prior to completing the Diamond Acquisition and expect to continue to incur additional fees, costs and expenses associated with combining and integrating the operations of the two companies and achieving the desired benefits. These fees, costs and expenses, which are both recurring and non-recurring, have been, and will continue to be, substantial. Although we believe that achieving cost synergies, benefits, and other efficiencies of the Diamond Acquisition should offset such costs, fees and expenses over time, such net benefit may not be achieved in the near term, or at all. Moreover, there may be significant potential liabilities associated with the Legacy-Diamond business that may have been unknown to us at or prior to the closing of the Diamond Acquisition, we may uncover after the closing during the integration period, or may be more significant than we believed at such time. For example, an appeal for judgment was rendered in favor of the plaintiffs in November 2023 (with the California Supreme Court rejecting further appeals in February 2024) related to a personal injury lawsuit, O’Malley et al. v. Diamond Resorts Management, Inc., filed against Diamond in 2015 for which we have accrued liabilities of approximately $102 million as of December 31, 2023. While we believe existing insurance policies will cover a significant, if not substantially all, of any such liability, and we accrued liabilities related to this lawsuit (together with related insurance coverage), our insurance policies may still not cover a significant portion of the total amount. In addition, there is no assurance that our insurance policies will, in fact, cover most of this liability or that we won’t be exposed to similar or other liabilities from the Legacy-Diamond business prior to our acquisition. Any similarly significant but individually immaterial liabilities in the aggregate, and/or any material liability that was unknown or not estimable by us at the time of the acquisition, may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and operating results. See Part II Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data — Note 23: Commitments and Contingencies to our consolidated financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Our results will suffer if we do not effectively manage our expanded operations resulting from the Diamond Acquisition.
The size of our business increased significantly as a result of the Diamond Acquisition. Our future success depends, in part, upon our ability to manage this expanded business, including in non-US jurisdictions where we did not have operations prior to the Diamond Acquisition, including challenges related to the management and monitoring of expanded operations and associated increased costs and complexity. We may also need to obtain approvals of developers or HOAs in various instances to include additional resorts in the multi-resort trusts marketed, sold and managed by the acquired Diamond business (the “Diamond Collections”) or increase maintenance fees or impose additional requirements in order to meet our brand and operating standards. There can be no assurances that we will be successful or that we will realize the expected operating efficiencies, cost savings and other benefits currently anticipated from the transaction. In addition, there will be increased compliance and regulatory risk as a result of the expanded size of our business.
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We may be subject to complaints, litigation or reputational harm due to dissatisfaction with, or concerns related to, the Diamond Acquisition from our and former Diamond owners.
Our and former Diamond VOI owners prior to the completion of the Diamond Acquisition may be concerned about the actual or perceived impact of the Diamond Acquisition and the integration on their VOIs, including the potential reduction in quality of resorts and product offerings due to the increased size of the business and addition of new owners, the potential adverse effect on the availability of access to these resorts and other disruptions during the integration period, or the potential increase or change in HOA or other fees. The VOI owners of the acquired Diamond business may have similar concerns related to a decline in the quality of product offerings or increase in fees as a result of the Diamond Acquisition and increase in size of the business. Complaints or litigation brought by existing owners following the completion of the Diamond Acquisition could harm our reputation, discourage potential new owners and adversely impact our results of operations.
Interests in the acquired Diamond resorts are offered through a trust system, which is subject to a number of regulatory and other requirements.
The Diamond Collections located in the United States are alternatives to traditional deeded timeshare ownership, as they create a network of available resort accommodations at multiple locations. For those US-based Diamond Collections, title to the units available through the Diamond Collections is held in a trust or similar arrangement that is administered by an independent trustee (the “Collection Trustee”). A purchaser of a timeshare interest in a Collection does not receive a deeded interest in any specific resort or resort accommodation but acquires a membership in the timeshare plan which is denominated by an annual or biennial allotment of points. Owners of Diamond’s timeshare interests are allowed to use their allocated points to reserve accommodations at the various component site(s)/participating resort(s) within the Diamond Collections, thereby giving the members greater flexibility to plan their vacations. Owners may also elect to reserve accommodations at resorts that are not part of their Collection through Diamond’s exchange programs.
The Diamond Collections are registered pursuant to, exempted from, or otherwise in compliance with, the applicable statutory requirements for the sale of timeshare plans in a growing number of jurisdictions. Such registrations and formal exemption determinations for the Diamond Collections confirm the substantial compliance with the filing and disclosure requirements of the respective timeshare statutes by the developer of the applicable Diamond Collection. It does not constitute the endorsement of the creation, sale, promotion or operation of the Diamond Collections by any regulatory body nor relieve the developer of a Diamond Collection or any affiliates of such developer of any duty or responsibility under other statutes or any other applicable laws. Registration under a respective timeshare act (or other applicable law) is not a guarantee or assurance of compliance with applicable law nor an assurance or guarantee of how any judicial body may interpret the Diamond Collections’ compliance therewith. A determination that specific provisions or operations of the Collections do not comply with relevant timeshare acts or applicable law may have a material adverse effect on the developer, the Collection Trustee and the related non-profit members association for each of the Diamond Collections. If we are unable to successfully integrate and manage the trust system our results of operations or reputation may suffer.

Risks Related to the Integration of Bluegreen
We may be unable to realize anticipated cost savings, and we expect to incur substantial expenses related to the Bluegreen Acquisition, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
While we anticipate certain cost savings from the consummation of the Bluegreen Acquisition, our ability to achieve such estimated cost savings in the timeframe described, or at all, is subject to various assumptions by our management, which may or may not be realized, as well as the incurrence of other costs in our operations that offset all or a portion of such cost savings. As a consequence, we may not be able to realize cost savings within the timeframe expected or at all. In addition, we may incur additional and/or unexpected costs in order to realize these cost savings. These may include increased licensing fees, as we convert the existing Bluegreen properties and sales centers to branded properties and sales centers using the Hilton marks. Failure to achieve the expected cost savings could significantly reduce the expected benefits associated with the Bluegreen Acquisition and adversely affect us.
In addition, we have incurred, and will continue to incur, substantial expenses in connection with the Bluegreen Acquisition. We expect to continue to incur non-recurring costs associated with combining the operations of the two companies and achieving the desired cost savings. These fees and costs have been, and will continue to be, substantial. The substantial majority of non-recurring expenses have consisted of transaction costs related to the Bluegreen Acquisition and include, among others, fees paid to financial, legal and accounting advisors, employee benefit costs and filing fees. These costs described above, as well as other unanticipated costs and expenses, could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and operating results following the consummation of the Bluegreen Acquisition.
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We may not be able to integrate successfully and many of the anticipated benefits of combining us and Bluegreen may not be realized.
We completed the Bluegreen Acquisition with the expectation that it will result in various benefits, including, among other things, operating efficiencies, potential revenue synergies, cost savings, and certain key strategic and marketing partnerships and alliances. We may not realize the anticipated benefits on a timely basis, or at all. Achieving the anticipated benefits of the Bluegreen Acquisition is subject to a number of risks and uncertainties, including whether our and Bluegreen’s businesses can be integrated in an efficient and effective manner, and whether such integration and achievement of cost savings could come at the expense of other aspects of our operations, including degradation of products and services. Similarly, increased license fees and related costs associated with the integration of the two brands and any necessary modifications to the license agreement may result in increased costs and could hinder such integration.
It is possible that the integration process could take longer than anticipated and could result in the loss of valuable employees, the disruption of our ongoing business, processes and systems or inconsistencies in standards, controls, procedures, practices, policies and compensation arrangements, any of which could adversely affect our ability to achieve the anticipated benefits of the Bluegreen Acquisition.
We also may not successfully fully realize the expected benefits related to various key strategic and marketing partnerships and alliances of Bluegreen or may otherwise be constrained by existing strategic and marketing partnerships. In particular, Bluegreen historically generated a significant portion of its new sales prospects and leads through marketing arrangements with various third parties, including Bass Pro Shops and Choice. We have inherited and extended the exclusive marketing agreement with Bass Pro for a period of ten years to provide us with the right to market and sell vacation packages at kiosks in each of Bass Pro’s retail locations and through other means. VOI sales to prospects and leads generated by Bluegreen marketing arrangement with Bass Pro accounted for approximately 16%, 17% and 19% of Bluegreen’s VOI sales volume during the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively. Bluegreen also had an exclusive strategic relationship with Choice, which we assumed, that involves several areas of its business, including a sales and marketing alliance that enabled Bluegreen to leverage Choice’ brands, customer relationships and marketing channels to sell vacation packages. We anticipate continuing Bluegreen’s strategic relationship with Choice; however, we have also agreed with Hilton that we would obtain certain amendments to the current agreements with Choice as part of our integration plan. If we are not able to satisfy the license agreement requirement to rebrand the Bluegreen properties and its sales centers, it may materially affect our integration plans and Hilton may exercise certain rights that could be detrimental to us and our business. See “We do not own the Hilton brands and our business will be materially harmed if we breach our license agreement with Hilton or it is terminated” and “Our ability to integrate the Bluegreen business depends on our ability to obtain certain concessions from a third party to allow us to rebrand the Bluegreen properties and sales centers.”
If we are unable to realize the benefits from Bluegreen’s marketing arrangements, including because Bluegreen’s significant marketing arrangements do not generate a sufficient number of prospects and leads, are terminated or not renewed, or are limited or changed in a manner adversely affecting our combined operations, we may not be able to market and sell our products and services to new owners at anticipated sales levels or at levels required in order to offset the costs associated with such marketing efforts.
Our results of operations could also be adversely affected by any issues attributable to Bluegreen’s operations that arise or are based on events or actions that occurred before the closing of the Bluegreen Acquisition. We may have difficulty addressing possible differences in corporate cultures and management philosophies. The integration process is subject to a number of uncertainties, and no assurance can be given that the anticipated benefits will be realized or, if realized, the timing of their realization. Failure to achieve these and other anticipated benefits (including operating efficiencies) could result in increased costs or decreases in the amount of expected net income and could adversely affect our future business, financial condition, operating results and prospects.
Our ability to integrate the Bluegreen business depends on our ability to obtain certain concessions from a third party to allow us to rebrand the Bluegreen properties and sales centers.
In connection with the closing of the Bluegreen Acquisition, we agreed with Hilton that we would obtain certain amendments to the Choice agreements by December 31, 2024 to allow us to rebrand most of the Bluegreen properties and all of its sales centers in accordance with a rebranding schedule that we have agreed to with Hilton, and we agreed to pay Hilton certain minimum license fees related to the Bluegreen properties and sales of VOIs for years 2024 and 2025. After 2025, assuming we have obtained the amendments referenced above, the license fees related to the Bluegreen properties and sales would revert back to a gradual ramp up that we had agreed to with Hilton. See Item 1. “Business—Key Agreements with Hilton Worldwide Holdings—Amended and Restated License Agreement.” If we are not able to obtain such amendments within the specified timeframe, we would be obligated to pay certain minimum license fees for years 2026 to 2029. In addition, Hilton could exercise certain rights under the license agreement that are detrimental to us,
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including, without limitation, revoking our exclusive rights to use the licensed marks and to engage in vacation ownership under any Hilton marks. Any of these consequences and/or other consequences related to the Hilton license agreement described below under “Our ability to integrate the Bluegreen business depends on our compliance with the Hilton license agreement, including the separate operations provisions and certain prohibitions on doing business with competitors” could adversely affect our operating results and our business generally.
Our ability to integrate the Bluegreen business depends on our compliance with the Hilton license agreement, including the separate operations provisions and certain prohibitions on doing business with competitors.
We license substantially all of the trademarks, brand names and intellectual property used in our business from Hilton under the Hilton license agreement. We intend to offer vacation ownership products consisting of rebranded Bluegreen properties under our existing or new HGV brand. Under the terms of the Hilton license agreement, we must obtain Hilton’s approval to use the Hilton brand names and trademarks in connection with the rebranding of the Bluegreen properties to branded properties using the Hilton marks, as well as for the branding of timeshare properties that we acquire or develop in the future. We have agreed with Hilton to operate the Bluegreen business as a separate operation, subject to a rebranding schedule that we have agreed to with Hilton, which schedule may be modified from time to time. In addition, we have agreed with Hilton that we would obtain certain amendment to the Choice agreements to allow us to implement the rebranding plan. In addition, we may require additional amendments to the license agreement with Hilton to further modify various provisions of the Hilton license agreement to provide for any related approvals or relief from certain restrictions in connection with the integration of Bluegreen so as to allow us to achieve greater operating efficiency and synergy than currently provided for, and any failure to do so could adversely impact such operating efficiency and synergy.
In addition, any failure to obtain Hilton’s approval with respect to the rebranding of the Bluegreen properties and its sales centers will significantly harm our ability to integrate the Bluegreen business and its properties. If we cannot come to an agreement with Hilton on how to brand and operate Bluegreen properties that do not currently or will not in the future meet the Hilton brand standards, then we will be required to continue to operate them as separate operations.
The Hilton license agreement provides for the automatic termination of our rights to certain Hilton brand names and trademarks should the aggregate number of units of accommodation in “Licensed Vacation Ownership Business” fall below two-thirds of the total number of units of accommodation in our entire “Vacation Ownership Business” at any time after the two-year period from the date of the closing of the Bluegreen Acquisition. If, within this time period, we cannot successfully integrate Bluegreen into our business and obtain Hilton’s approval to use the Hilton brand names and trademarks for a sufficient number of Bluegreen accommodations, our license to use such Hilton brand names and trademarks may be automatically terminated, which could materially adversely impact our business. In addition, our revenues from Hilton branded business must equal or exceed 67% of our total revenues; otherwise, Hilton can terminate the noncompetition term contained in the license agreement. Further, the Second Amendment to the Hilton license agreement established a minimum percentage of our total revenue in any calendar year that is required to be derived from the Hilton licensed business to maintain our continued exclusivity under the Hilton license agreement. If we fail to meet such minimum percentage of revenue requirement, then Hilton would have the option to terminate our exclusivity under the Hilton license agreement, which would permit Hilton to license to other parties the trademarks, other intellectual property and certain other rights that are currently exclusively licensed to us under the Hilton license agreement.
In addition, the Hilton license agreement contains a number of prohibitions on us entering into certain agreements and arrangements, including certain enterprise-wide marketing arrangements and/or arrangements with competitors of Hilton. If we assume or enter into such agreements or arrangements without the approval of Hilton, we may breach the Hilton license agreement. The Hilton license agreement is critical to our business and the modification or amendment the Hilton license agreement or any exercise by Hilton of its termination or other rights under the Hilton license agreement, including the loss of exclusivity under the Hilton license agreement, could materially adversely impact our business.
We incurred substantial transaction costs in connection with the Bluegreen Acquisition.
We incurred, and expect that we will continue to incur, a number of significant, non-recurring expenses in connection with the Bluegreen Acquisition and the integration, including, without limitation, fees for third party legal, investment banking, consulting and advisory services, notes offering costs and expenses, amounts related to the repayment, termination, amendment and/or extension of Bluegreen’s indebtedness at the time of the closing, and obtaining necessary consents and approvals and combining the operations of the two companies. These fees and costs have been, and will continue to be for some time, substantial. Additional unanticipated costs may be incurred in our integration of Bluegreen. Although it is expected that the elimination of certain duplicative costs, as well as the realization of other efficiencies related to the integration of the two businesses, will offset the incremental transaction related costs over time, this net benefit may not be achieved in the near term, may be delayed, or not achieved at all for a number of reasons.
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We and Bluegreen may be subject to complaints, litigation or reputational harm due to dissatisfaction with, or concerns related to, the acquisition from our current owners.
Our current owners may be concerned about the actual or perceived impact of the merger on their VOIs, including related to a reduced quality of resorts and product offerings due to the increased size of the business and addition of new owners, or increase or change in homeowners' association or other fees. Bluegreen’s legacy owners may have similar concerns related to a decline in the quality of product offerings or increase in fees as a result of the merger and increase in size of the business. Complaints or litigation brought by existing owners could harm our reputation, discourage potential new owners and adversely impact our results of operations.
Our future results will suffer if we do not effectively manage our expanded operations and integrate Bluegreen.
Following the completion of the Bluegreen Acquisition, the size of our business has increased significantly beyond the size of either our or Bluegreen’s operations prior to the acquisition. Our future success depends, in part, upon our ability to manage this expanded business, which will pose significant challenges for management, including challenges related to the managing and monitoring of new operations, increased costs and complexity, and increased compliance and regulatory requirements. We may also need to obtain approvals of developers or HOAs in various instances to include additional resorts in the multi-resort trust marketed, sold and managed by Bluegreen or increase maintenance fees or impose additional requirements in order to meet our brand and operating standards. There can be no assurances that we will be successful in implementing and/or managing any of these or other steps.
We may not be able to retain our and/or Bluegreen personnel successfully.
The success of the Bluegreen Acquisition and related integration will depend in part on our ability to retain the talents and dedication of key employees currently employed by us (including those employees whom we retained from the Diamond acquisition) and Bluegreen. It is possible that these employees may decide not to remain with us or Bluegreen, as applicable. If key employees terminate their employment, if an insufficient number of employees are retained, or if key employees’ performance standards materially decrease, our business may be adversely affected and management’s attention may be diverted from successfully integrating Bluegreen to hiring suitable replacements, all of which may cause our business to suffer. In addition, we may not be able to locate suitable replacements for any key employees who leave, or offer employment to potential replacements on reasonable terms.
Bluegreen may have liabilities that exceed our estimates, and any such liabilities could adversely affect our financial results and condition.
Upon consummation of the Bluegreen Acquisition, we assumed all of Bluegreen’s liabilities, whether known or not. Bluegreen may have various potential liabilities relating to the conduct of its business prior to the Bluegreen Acquisition, including, but not limited to, existing and potential legal claims pertaining to various areas of the Bluegreen business, tax audits, regulatory violations (including environmental violations and claims), and other liabilities that are greater than we had anticipated, were not known to us, and/or were not disclosed to us. It is possible that these liabilities, whether currently known or unknown to us, may result in substantial losses, thereby adversely affecting our operating results and financial condition.
Interests in Bluegreen’s resorts are offered through a trust system, which is subject to a number of regulatory and other requirements.
Bluegreen’s resorts are alternatives to traditional deeded timeshare ownership, inasmuch as they create a network of available resort accommodations at multiple locations (“the Bluegreen Club”). Title to the units available through the Bluegreen Club is held in a trust or similar arrangement that is administered by an independent trustee (the “Independent Trustee”). A purchaser of a timeshare interest in the Bluegreen Club generally does not receive a deeded interest in any specific resort or resort accommodation, but acquires a membership in the timeshare plan which is denominated by an annual or biennial allotment of points. Owners of Bluegreen’s timeshare interests are allowed to use their allocated points to reserve accommodations at the various component site(s)/participating resort(s) within the Bluegreen Club, thereby giving the members greater flexibility to plan their vacations. Administering such trust structure can be complicated and requires compliance with various timeshare laws (including those laws applicable to component sites).
For example, the Bluegreen Club is required to be registered pursuant to, exempted from, or otherwise in compliance with, the applicable statutory requirements for the sale of timeshare plans in a growing number of jurisdictions. While such registrations and formal or informal exemption determinations for the Bluegreen Club may confirm the substantial compliance with the filing and disclosure requirements of the respective timeshare statutes, it does not constitute the endorsement of the creation, sale, promotion or operation of the Bluegreen Club by any regulatory body nor relieve Bluegreen (or any developer) of any duty or responsibility under other statutes or any other applicable laws. Registration under a respective timeshare act (or other applicable law) is not a guarantee or assurance of compliance with applicable law nor an assurance or guarantee of how any judicial body may interpret Bluegreen’s compliance therewith. In
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addition, various disclosures are required in connection with marketing and sale of timeshare interests or plans, which are required to be continually updated and current. A determination that specific provisions or operations of the Bluegreen Club do not comply with relevant timeshare acts or applicable law may have a material adverse effect on the developer, the Independent Trustee and the related non-profit members association for each of the Bluegreen component sites or resorts. Furthermore, any material omissions, inaccuracies or misstatements in disclosure documents may result in adverse consequences, including fines, penalties, rescission or similar rights for the purchasers, or other liabilities.
Risks Related to the Spin-Off
We may be responsible for U.S. federal income tax liabilities that relate to the spin-off.
The completion of the spin-off was conditioned upon the absence of any withdrawal, invalidation or modification of the ruling (“IRS Ruling”) Hilton received from the IRS regarding certain U.S. federal income tax aspects of the spin-off in an adverse manner prior to the effective time of the spin-off. Although the IRS Ruling generally is binding on the IRS, the continued validity of the IRS Ruling is based upon and subject to the accuracy of factual statements and representations made to the IRS by Hilton.
In addition, the spin-off was conditioned on the receipt of an opinion of counsel to the effect that the distributions of our and Park common stock would qualify as tax-free distributions under Section 355 of the Code. An opinion of counsel is not binding on the IRS. Accordingly, the IRS may reach conclusions with respect to the spin-off that are different from the conclusions reached in the opinion.
If all or a portion of the spin-off does not qualify as a tax-free transaction for any reason, Hilton may recognize a substantial gain attributable to the timeshare business for U.S. federal income tax purposes. In such case, under U.S. Treasury regulations, each member of the Hilton consolidated group at the time of the spin-off (including us and our subsidiaries) would be jointly and severally liable for the resulting entire amount of any U.S. federal income tax liability. Additionally, if the distribution of our common stock and/or the distribution of Park common stock do not qualify as tax-free under Section 355 of the Code, Hilton stockholders will be treated as having received a taxable dividend to the extent of Hilton’s current and accumulated earnings and profits, would have a tax-free basis recovery up to the amount of their tax basis in their shares, and would have taxable gain from the sale or exchange of the shares to the extent of any excess.
The spin-off and related transactions may expose us to potential liabilities arising out of state and federal fraudulent conveyance laws and legal distribution requirements.
The spin-off could be challenged under various state and federal fraudulent conveyance laws. An unpaid creditor or an entity vested with the power of such creditor (such as a trustee or debtor-in-possession in a bankruptcy) could claim that Hilton did not receive fair consideration or reasonably equivalent value in the spin-off, and that the spin-off left Hilton insolvent or with unreasonably small capital or that Hilton intended or believed it would incur debts beyond its ability to pay such debts as they mature. If a court were to agree with such a plaintiff, then such court could void the spin-off as a fraudulent transfer and could impose a number of different remedies, including without limitation, returning our assets or your shares in our company to Hilton or providing Hilton with a claim for money damages against us in an amount equal to the difference between the consideration received by Hilton and the fair market value of our company at the time of the spin-off.
The measure of insolvency for purposes of the fraudulent conveyance laws may vary depending on which jurisdiction’s law is applied. Generally, however, an entity would be considered insolvent if the fair salable value of its assets is less than the amount of its liabilities (including the probable amount of contingent liabilities), and such entity would be considered to have unreasonably small capital if it lacked adequate capital to conduct its business in the ordinary course and pay its liabilities as they become due. No assurance can be given as to what standard a court would apply to determine insolvency or that a court would determine that Hilton were solvent at the time of or after giving effect to the spin-off, including the distribution of our common stock.
We could be required to assume responsibility for obligations allocated to Hilton or Park under the Distribution Agreement.
We entered into the Distribution Agreement with Hilton and Park prior to the distribution of our shares of common stock to Hilton stockholders. Under the Distribution Agreement and related ancillary agreements, each of us, Hilton and Park are generally responsible for the debts, liabilities and other obligations related to the business or businesses that they own and operate following the spin-off. Although we do not expect to be liable for any obligations that were not allocated to us under the Distribution Agreement, a court could disregard the allocation agreed to among the parties, and require that we assume responsibility for obligations allocated to Hilton or Park (for example, tax and/or environmental liabilities), particularly if Hilton or Park were to refuse or were unable to pay or perform the allocated obligations.
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In addition, losses in respect of certain Shared Contingent Liabilities, which generally are not specifically attributable to any of the timeshare business, the Park business or the retained business of Hilton, were determined on or prior to the date on which the Distribution Agreement was entered. The percentage of Shared Contingent Liabilities for which we are responsible has been fixed in a manner that is intended to approximate our estimated enterprise value on the distribution date relative to the estimated enterprise values of Park and Hilton. Subject to certain limitations and exceptions, Hilton is generally vested with the exclusive management and control of all matters pertaining to any such Shared Contingent Liabilities, including the prosecution of any claim and the conduct of any defense.
In connection with the spin-offs, we may be required to indemnify Hilton and Park, and the indemnities of Hilton and Park of us may not be sufficient to insure us against the full amount of the liabilities assumed by Hilton and Park, and Hilton and Park may be unable to satisfy their indemnification obligations to us in the future.
Pursuant to the Distribution Agreement entered into in connection with the spin-offs and certain other agreements among Hilton and Park and us, we agreed to indemnify each of Hilton and Park from certain liabilities. Indemnities that we may be required to provide Hilton and/or Park may be significant and could negatively affect our business.
In addition, each of Hilton and Park agreed to indemnify us with respect to such parties assumed or retained liabilities pursuant to the Distribution Agreement and breaches of the Distribution Agreement or other agreements related to the spin-offs. There can be no assurance that the indemnities from each of Hilton and Park will be sufficient to protect us against the full amount of these and other liabilities. Third parties also could seek to hold us responsible for any of the liabilities that Hilton and Park have agreed to assume. Even if we ultimately succeed in recovering from Hilton or Park any amounts for which we are held liable, we may be temporarily required to bear those losses ourselves. Each of these risks could negatively affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Pursuant to the Distribution Agreement and certain other agreements, including the Tax Matters Agreement, entered into in connection with the spin-offs among Hilton and Park and us, we agreed to indemnify each of Hilton and Park from certain liabilities (including tax liabilities). In addition to the Shared Contingent Liabilities pursuant to the Distribution Agreement, the Tax Matters Agreement governs the respective obligations of Hilton, Park and us after the spin-off with respect to tax liabilities and benefits, tax attributes, tax contests, liability resulting from tax audits and other tax sharing regarding U.S. federal, state, local and foreign income taxes, other tax matters and related tax returns. Under the Tax Matters Agreement, we have agreed to indemnify Hilton and Park against certain tax liabilities. The Tax Matters Agreement also provides special rules for allocating tax liabilities in the event that the spin-off is not tax-free. In general, under the Tax Matters Agreement, each party is responsible for any taxes imposed on Hilton that arise from the failure of the spin-off and certain related transactions to qualify as a tax-free transaction for U.S. federal income tax purposes under Sections 355 and 368(a)(1)(D) of the Code, as applicable, and certain other relevant provisions of the Code, to the extent that the failure to qualify is attributable to actions taken by such party (or with respect to such party’s stock). In addition, the parties share responsibility, in accordance with sharing percentages of 65% for Hilton, 26% for Park, and 9% for us, for any such taxes imposed on Hilton that are not attributable to actions taken by a party. Finally, pursuant to the Tax Matters Agreement, to the extent that any taxes that may be imposed on the Hilton consolidated group for the taxable periods prior to the spin-offs relates to the timeshare business, we would in most cases be liable for the full amount attributable to the timeshare business. Indemnities that we may be required to provide Hilton and/or Park, or any liabilities for which we may be responsible proportionately or wholly, pursuant to these agreements may be significant and could negatively affect our business.
Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock
Our board of directors may change significant corporate policies without stockholder approval.
Our financing, borrowing and dividend policies and our policies with respect to all other activities, including growth, debt, capitalization and operations, will be determined by our board of directors. These policies may be amended or revised at any time and from time to time at the discretion of our board of directors without a vote of our stockholders. In addition, our board of directors may change our policies with respect to conflicts of interest provided that such changes are consistent with applicable legal requirements. A change in these policies could have an adverse effect on our financial condition, our results of operations, our cash flow, the per share trading price of our common stock and our ability to satisfy our debt service obligations and to pay dividends to our stockholders.
The interests of certain of our stockholders may conflict with ours or yours in the future.
We have entered into a stockholder's agreement with Apollo that, among other things, provides Apollo the right, under certain circumstances, to designate a certain number of directors to our board of directors. Pursuant to the stockholder's agreement, two members of our board of directors are Apollo designees, and for so long as Apollo and its affiliates continue to own specified percentages of our common stock, Apollo will be able to maintain representation on our board of directors. Accordingly, during that period of time, Apollo may have influence with respect to our management,
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business plans and policies, including the appointment and removal of our officers. For example, for so long as Apollo continues to own a significant percentage of our stock, Apollo may be able to influence whether or not a change of control of our company or a change in the composition of our board of directors occurs. The concentration of ownership by Apollo could deprive our stockholders of an opportunity to receive a premium for their shares of common stock as part of a sale of the Company and could affect the market price of our common stock.
Apollo and its affiliates engage in a broad spectrum of activities, including investments in real estate generally and in the hospitality industry in particular. In the ordinary course of Apollo’s business activities, Apollo and its affiliates may engage in activities where their interests' conflict with our interests or those of our stockholders. For example, Apollo and its affiliates may pursue ventures that compete directly or indirectly with us, or affiliates of Apollo may directly and indirectly own interests in timeshare property developers or others with whom we may engage in the future, may compete with us for investment opportunities, and may enter into other transactions with us that could result in their having interests that could conflict with ours. Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides no director who is not employed by us (including any nonemployee director who serves as one of our officers in both his or her director and officer capacities) or his or her affiliates will have any duty to refrain from engaging, directly or indirectly, in the same business activities or similar business activities or lines of business in which we operate. Apollo also may pursue acquisition opportunities that may be complementary to our business, and, as a result, those acquisition opportunities may be unavailable to us. In addition, Apollo may have an interest in pursuing acquisitions, divestitures and other transactions that, in its judgment, could enhance its investments, even though such transactions might involve risks to you.
Anti-takeover provisions in our organizational documents and Delaware law might discourage or delay acquisition attempts for us that you might consider favorable.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and bylaws contain provisions that may make the merger or acquisition of our company more difficult without the approval of our board of directors. Among other things:
these provisions allow us to authorize the issuance of undesignated preferred stock in connection with a stockholder rights plan or otherwise, the terms of which may be established and the shares of which may be issued without stockholder approval, and which may include super voting, special approval, dividend, or other rights or preferences superior to the rights of the holders of common stock;
these provisions prohibit stockholder action by written consent unless such action is recommended by all directors then in office;
these provisions provide that our board of directors is expressly authorized to make, alter or repeal our bylaws and that our stockholders may only amend our bylaws with the approval of 80% or more of all the outstanding shares of our capital stock entitled to vote; and
these provisions establish advance notice requirements for nominations for elections to our board or for proposing matters that can be acted upon by stockholders at stockholder meetings.
In addition, as a Delaware corporation, we are also subject to provisions of Delaware law, which may impair a takeover attempt that our stockholders may find beneficial. These anti-takeover and other applicable Delaware law provisions and measures could discourage, delay or prevent a transaction involving a change in control of our company, including actions that our stockholders may deem advantageous, or negatively affect the trading price of our common stock. These provisions and measures could also discourage proxy contests and make it more difficult for you and other stockholders to elect directors of your choosing and to cause us to take other corporate actions you desire.
Consent requirements in our license agreement with Hilton and other requirements in certain of our other material agreements may have the effect of deterring a potential takeover transaction that otherwise could be in the best interests of our stockholders.
Our license agreement with Hilton requires us to obtain Hilton’s consent prior to taking certain significant corporate actions, including engaging in a takeover transaction. There can be no assurance that any consent from Hilton to a change of control of our company could be obtained on a basis satisfactory to us or any potential acquirer. In addition, certain of our other material agreements, such as our debt agreements, contain consent, notice, prepayment or other provisions that we are obligated to comply with prior to engaging in certain transactions. Failure to obtain required consents and comply with other provisions in these agreements could discourage, materially delay or prevent a transaction that otherwise may be in the best interests of our stockholders.
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The market price and trading volume of our common stock may fluctuate widely.
For many reasons, the market price of our common stock has been volatile in the past and may be influenced in the future by a number of factors, including the risks identified in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. These factors may result in short-term or long-term negative pressure on the value of our common stock.
The market price of our common stock may fluctuate significantly, depending upon many factors, some of which may be beyond our control, including, but not limited to:
shifts in our investor base;
our quarterly and annual earnings, or those of comparable companies;
actual or anticipated fluctuations in our operating results;
our ability to obtain financing as needed;
changes in laws and regulations affecting our business;
changes in accounting standards, policies, guidance, interpretations or principles;
announcements by us or our competitors of significant investments, acquisitions or dispositions;
the failure of securities analysts to cover our common stock;
changes in earnings estimates by securities analysts or our ability to meet those estimates;
the operating performance and stock price of comparable companies;
overall market fluctuations;
a decline in the real estate markets; and
general economic conditions and other external factors.
Future issuances of common stock by us may cause the market price of our common stock to decline.
None of the shares outstanding upon consummation of the spin-off were “restricted securities” within the meaning of Rule 144 under the Securities Act, and substantially all of the outstanding shares of our common stock are freely tradable and available for resale in the public market, subject to certain restrictions in the case of control shares held by persons deemed to be our affiliates. Accordingly, the market price of our common stock could drop significantly if holders of a substantial number of shares of our common stock sell them in the public market, or if the market perceives that such sales could occur.
We adopted an Omnibus Incentive Plan under which an aggregate of 10,000,000 shares of HGV common stock are issuable. As of December 31, 2023, an aggregate of 4,339,887 shares have been issued, and an additional 4,122,738 shares were underlying outstanding awards pursuant to the Omnibus Incentive Plan. We also adopted a Non-Employee Director Stock Plan under which 325,000 shares of our common stock are issuable, and an Employee Stock Purchase Plan under which 2,500,000 shares of our common stock are available for issuance. Under the Non-Employee Director Stock Plan, 157,530 shares had been issued, and there were an additional 26,052 shares underlying outstanding awards granted as of December 31, 2023. Under the Employee Stock Purchase Plan, a total of 566,972 shares were issued as of December 31, 2023. Any further issuances could result in the dilution of our current stockholders causing the market price of shares of our common stock to decline.
We cannot guarantee that we will repurchase our common stock pursuant to our share repurchase program or that our share repurchase program will enhance long-term shareholder value. Share repurchases could also increase the volatility of the price of our common stock and diminish our cash reserves.
Our Board of Directors has authorized a share repurchase program (the “Repurchase Program”) pursuant to which we may repurchase our common stock through any combination of open market repurchases, accelerated share repurchases or privately negotiated transactions. The timing and amount of repurchases of shares of our common stock, if any, will depend upon several factors, such as the market price of our common stock, general market and economic conditions, our working capital requirements and corporate strategy, the terms of our financing arrangements and applicable legal requirements. We are not obligated to repurchase any specific number or amount of shares of common stock pursuant to the Repurchase Program, and we may modify, suspend or terminate the Repurchase Program at any time without prior notice. Repurchases of our common stock pursuant to the Repurchase Program could impact our stock price and increase its volatility. The existence of the Repurchase Program could cause our stock price to be higher than it would be in the absence of such a program. Additionally, the Repurchase Program could diminish our cash reserves, which may impact our
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ability to finance future growth and to pursue possible future strategic opportunities. There can be no assurance that any share repurchases will enhance long-term stockholder value, and the market price of our common stock may decline below the levels at which we repurchased shares of stock.
We have no current plans to pay cash dividends on our common stock, and our indebtedness could limit our ability to pay dividends in the future.
Although we may return capital to stockholders through dividends or otherwise in the future, we have no current plans to pay any cash dividends. The declaration, amount and payment of any future dividends on shares of common stock will be at the sole discretion of our board of directors. Our board of directors may take into account general and economic conditions, our financial condition and results of operations, our available cash, current and anticipated cash needs, capital requirements, contractual, legal, tax and regulatory restrictions on the payment of dividends by us to our stockholders or by our subsidiaries to us, and such other factors as our board of directors may deem relevant. In addition, our ability to pay dividends is limited by our credit agreement related to our senior secured credit facilities. Our ability to pay dividends may also be limited by covenants of other indebtedness that we or our subsidiaries incur in the future.
ITEM 1B.    Unresolved Staff Comments
None.
ITEM 1C.    Cybersecurity
Risk Management and Strategy
We recognize the importance of maintaining an integrated cybersecurity risk management system and view our responsibility for cybersecurity management as an enterprise risk, where we have adopted proactive and defensive safeguards. We maintain layered processes that place responsibility for management and mitigation of cybersecurity risks at both the management and Board level, which is modeled after the National Institute of Standards and Technology’s cybersecurity framework, as more fully described below.
We have not previously experienced a cybersecurity incident that has materially affected HGV, including our business strategy, results of operations, or financial condition. However, we cannot be certain that we will not experience such an incident in the future. For information on risks we face from cybersecurity threats, see “Our increasing reliance on information technology and other systems subjects us to risks associated with cybersecurity. Cyber-attacks or our failure to maintain the security and integrity of company, employee, associate, customer, or third-party data could have a disruptive effect on our business and adversely affect our reputation and financial performance” in Item 1A. Risk Factors.
Cybersecurity Governance
Management Level Governance
Our cybersecurity efforts are led by the Chief Technology Officer (“CTO”) and Chief Information Security Officer (“CISO”). The CISO has primary management-level responsibility for assessing and managing our cybersecurity program. The CISO reports to the CTO, who provides regular feedback to other members of the management team on managing material risks from cybersecurity threats.
Our CISO has over 25 years of experience in the field of cybersecurity. His background includes extensive experience as a technology consultant. His in-depth knowledge and experience are instrumental in developing and executing our cybersecurity strategies.
Our CTO has extensive experience designing, developing, and utilizing technology products for security operation center services. His technical responsibilities spanned product security, privacy controls, data protection, and identity management. He has also overseen security operations, incident response, threat hunting, security intelligence, analytics, and technical fraud functions and worked with legal response teams at numerous companies, including serving as a Managing Director of a cybersecurity firm. He has advised chief information officers and consulted for boards of directors on cybersecurity related issues and attacks.
Our CISO oversees our governance programs, tests our compliance with standards, remediates known risks, and leads our employee training program on information security. He is also responsible for keeping HGV apprised of the latest developments in cybersecurity, including potential threats and innovative risk management techniques. We believe this ongoing knowledge acquisition is crucial for the effective prevention, detection, mitigation, and remediation of cybersecurity incidents. The CISO implements and oversees processes for the regular monitoring of our information systems. This includes the deployment of advanced security measures and regular system audits to identify potential vulnerabilities. In the event of a cybersecurity incident, the CISO is equipped with a well-defined incident response plan.
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This plan includes immediate actions designed to mitigate the impact and long-term strategies for remediation and prevention of future incidents.
Board Level Governance
The Audit Committee has primary Board-level responsibility for oversight of our cybersecurity and data protection risks. and serves as a liaison between management and the full Board. The Audit Committee receives regular reports from our CTO and CISO regarding the primary cybersecurity risks facing HGV, and the steps management is taking to mitigate such risks. The CISO and the CTO provide comprehensive briefings to the Audit Committee on a regular basis, generally at least once per quarter. These briefings include:
Current cybersecurity landscape and emerging threats;
Status of ongoing cybersecurity initiatives and strategies;
Incident reports and learnings from any cybersecurity incidents, if applicable; and
Compliance with regulatory requirements and industry standards.
The Audit Committee also reviews our cybersecurity management strategy and initiatives on a regular basis with our CTO and CISO. Both the Audit Committee and Board will promptly be made aware of any significant cybersecurity incident, as specified in our cybersecurity incident response plan.
Third-Party Engagement
Recognizing the complexity and evolving nature of cybersecurity threats, we engage with a range of external experts, including cybersecurity assessors, consultants, and auditors, to periodically evaluate and test our risk management systems. These partnerships enable us to leverage specialized knowledge and insights, with the intention of keeping our cybersecurity strategies and processes at the forefront of industry best practices. Our collaboration with these third parties includes regular audits, threat assessments, and consultation on security enhancements. The cybersecurity program also involves performance of tabletop exercises to test our incident response plan.
Third-Party Oversight
We maintain processes in place to oversee, identify, and mitigate risks from cybersecurity threats related to third-party service providers, including conducting thorough security assessments of third-party service providers before onboarding. We also maintain ongoing compliance monitoring to oversee evolving cybersecurity risks. We generally include minimum information security requirements in our agreements with third-party service providers to address cybersecurity risks.
ITEM 2.    Properties
Timeshare Properties
As of December 31, 2023, we had over 150 properties open and operating, including properties not yet fully developed but in which VOIs were being sold. Most of our properties and units are located in vacation destinations such as Florida, Europe, Hawaii, California, Arizona, Nevada, and Virginia. These units and properties include those developed by us or by third-party developers with whom we have entered into fee-for-service arrangements. As of December 31, 2023, we owned approximately 64% of all unsold intervals including 100% of all unsold points-based intervals. We also own, manage, and lease fitness, spa and sports facilities, and/or manage the HOAs of undeveloped and partially developed land and other common area assets at some of our resorts, including resort lobbies and food and beverage outlets.
Sales and Marketing Locations
As of December 31, 2023, we had sales distribution centers in major markets and popular leisure destinations with year-round demand and a history of being a friendly environment for vacation ownership. Our products are for sale throughout the United States, Mexico, Canada, Europe and Asia. We have over 60 sales distribution centers in various domestic and international locations. Our distribution centers and sales galleries are operated through leased and owned properties.
Additionally, we have 6 call centers that are leased. Our call centers are located in Orlando, Las Vegas, Virginia Beach and the United Kingdom.
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Corporate Headquarters
Our main corporate headquarters are located at 6355 MetroWest Boulevard, Suite 180, Orlando, Florida 32835. The lease for this property expires in 2026 with two additional five-year renewal periods. We also have additional corporate headquarters that are located at 5323 and 5337 Millenia Lakes Boulevard, Orlando, Florida, 32839. The lease for these properties expires in 2034.
We believe that our existing office properties are in good condition and are sufficient and suitable for the conduct of our business.
ITEM 3.    Legal Proceedings
Currently, and from time to time, we are subject to claims in legal proceedings arising in the normal course of business, including, among others, legal proceedings for which we accrue liabilities as discussed in Note 23: Commitments and Contingencies to our consolidated financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Related to the Legacy-Diamond business, an appeal for judgment was rendered in favor of the plaintiffs in November 2023 (with the California Supreme Court rejecting further appeals in February 2024) related to a personal injury lawsuit, O’Malley et al. v. Diamond Resorts Management, Inc., which was filed against Diamond in 2015 and for which we have accrued liabilities of approximately $102 million as of December 31, 2023. In November 2023 we initiated litigation against the various insurers disputing all or parts of coverage for this matter seeking to obtain full coverage. We believe that through this litigation, these existing insurance policies will cover a significant portion, if not substantially all, of this liability. However, it’s possible our insurance policies may still not cover a significant portion of the total amount and we will need to make a payment of approximately $50 million towards the judgment while litigation with the insurers over further coverage proceeds.
While we presently believe that the ultimate outcome of any currently known proceedings (including the Legacy-Diamond lawsuit discussed above), individually and in the aggregate, will not materially harm our financial position, cash flows, or overall trends in results of operations, legal proceedings are inherently uncertain, and unfavorable rulings could, individually or in the aggregate, have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, or operating results.
ITEM 4.    Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.
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PART II
ITEM 5.    Market For Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Market Information
Our common stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) under the symbol “HGV.”
Performance Graph
The following graph compares cumulative total stockholder return of our common stock with the S&P MidCap 400 (“MidCap 400”)* Index and the Dow Jones US Travel & Leisure Total Return Index GICS Level 2 (“DJUSGCT”) over a five-year period ended on December 31, 2023. The graph assumes that the value of the investment in our common stock and each index was $100 on December 31, 2018, and that all dividends and other distributions were reinvested. The comparisons in the graph below are based on historical data and are not indicative of, or intended to forecast, future performance of our common stock.
Indices Graph FY23.jpg
* As of March 2023, our company has been included in the S&P MidCap 400.
Holders of Record
The number of stockholders of record of our common stock as of February 22, 2024, was 366.
Dividends
Although we may return capital to stockholders through dividends or otherwise in the future, we have no current plans to pay dividends on our common stock. Any decision to declare and pay dividends in the future will be made at the sole discretion of our board of directors and will depend on, among other things, general and economic conditions, our results of operations, available cash, current and anticipated cash requirements, financial condition, contractual, legal, tax and regulatory restrictions on the payment of dividends by us to our stockholders or by our subsidiaries to us, and other factors that our board of directors may deem relevant. In addition, our senior secured credit facilities and certain of our non-recourse debt include provisions limiting our ability to make restricted payments, including dividends.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
On May 4, 2022, our Board of Directors approved a share repurchase program authorizing the Company to repurchase up to an aggregate of $500 million of its outstanding shares of common stock over a two-year period (the "2022 Repurchase Plan"). On May 3, 2023, our Board of Directors approved a new share repurchase program authorizing the Company to repurchase up to an aggregate of $500 million of its outstanding shares of common stock over a two-year period (the "2023 Repurchase Plan") which is in addition to the 2022 Repurchase Plan. The repurchases can be made through any combination of open market purchases, accelerated share repurchases or privately negotiated transactions. The timing and actual number of shares repurchased will depend on a variety of factors, including the stock price, corporate and
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regulatory requirements and other market and economic conditions. The shares are retired upon repurchase. The stock repurchase programs may be suspended or discontinued at any time and will automatically expire at the end of the respective plan terms.
During the three-month period ended December 31, 2023, we repurchased the following shares:
PeriodTotal Number of Shares PurchasedAverage Price Paid Per ShareTotal Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or ProgramsApproximate Dollar Value of Shares that May Yet Be Purchased Under Plan
October 1 – October 31, 2023
727,931 $37.44 727,931 $431,374,901 
November 1 – November 30, 2023
939,687 35.43 939,687 398,078,432 
December 1 – December 31, 2023
985,449 38.81 985,449 359,828,593 
Total2,653,067 $37.24 2,653,067 
From January 1, 2024, through February 23, 2024, we repurchased approximately 1.7 million shares for $71 million. As of February 23, 2024, we had $289 million of remaining availability under the 2023 Repurchase Plan.
ITEM 6.    [Reserved]
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ITEM 7.    Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and related notes that appear elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Forward-Looking Statements
This disclosure includes forward-looking statements; and actual results and events may differ substantially from those discussed or highlighted in these forward-looking statements. See “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”
Overview
Our Business
We are a global timeshare company engaged in developing, marketing, selling, managing and operating timeshare resorts, timeshare plans and ancillary reservation services, primarily under the Hilton Grand Vacations brand. During 2021, we acquired Diamond Resorts and are in the process of rebranding Diamond properties and sales centers to the Hilton Grand Vacations brand and Hilton standards. On January 17, 2024 (the "Bluegreen Acquisition Date"), we completed the Bluegreen Acquisition. Our operations primarily consist of selling vacation ownership intervals and vacation ownership interests (collectively, “VOIs” or “VOI”) for us and third parties; financing and servicing loans provided to consumers for their timeshare purchases; operating resorts and timeshare plans; and managing our clubs and exchange programs.
As of December 31, 2023, we had over 150 properties located in the United States (“U.S.”), Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean, Canada and Asia. A significant number of our properties and VOIs are concentrated in Florida, Europe, Hawaii, California, Arizona, Nevada and Virginia and feature spacious, condominium-style accommodations with superior amenities and quality service. As of December 31, 2023, we had approximately 529,000 members across our club offerings. Based on the type of Club membership, members have the flexibility to exchange their VOIs for stays at any Hilton Grand Vacations resort, any property in the Hilton system of 22 industry-leading brands across approximately 7,500 properties, or affiliated properties, as well as numerous experiential vacation options, such as cruises and guided tours, or they have the option to exchange their VOI for various other timeshare resorts throughout the world through an external exchange program.
We operate our business across two segments: (1) real estate sales and financing; and (2) resort operations and club management.
Real Estate Sales and Financing
Our primary deeded product includes the marketing and selling of fee-simple VOIs deeded in perpetuity and right to use real estate interests, developed either by us or by third parties. This ownership interest is an interest in real estate generally equivalent to one week on an annual or biennial basis, at the timeshare resort in which the VOI is located. Traditionally, timeshare operators have funded 100% of the investment necessary to acquire land and construct timeshare properties. We source VOIs through developed properties and fee-for-service and just-in-time agreements with third-party developers and have focused our inventory strategy on developing an optimal inventory mix. The fee-for-service agreements enable us to generate fees from the sales and marketing of the VOIs and Club memberships and from the management of the timeshare properties without requiring us to fund acquisition and construction costs. The just-in-time agreements enable us to source VOI inventory in a manner that allows us to correlate the timing of acquisition of the inventory with the sale to purchasers. Sales of owned, including just-in-time, inventory generally result in greater Adjusted EBITDA contributions, while fee-for-service sales require less initial investment and allow us to accelerate our sales growth. Both sales of owned inventory and fee-for-service sales generate long-term, predictable fee streams, by adding to the Club membership base and properties under management, that generate strong returns on invested capital.
Our primary trust VOI product, which we acquired in the Diamond Acquisition, includes the marketing and selling of beneficial interests in one of our Collections, which are represented by an annual or biennial allotment of points that can be utilized for vacations at any of the resorts in that Collection. In general, purchasers of a VOI in a collection do not acquire a direct ownership interest in the resort properties in the Collection. Rather, for each Collection, one or more trustees hold legal title to the deeded fee simple real estate interests, or the functional equivalent, or, in some cases, leasehold real estate interests for the benefit of the respective Collection’s association members in accordance with the applicable agreements.
For the year ended December 31, 2023, sales from fee-for-service and just-in-time inventory were 28% and 19% of contract sales, respectively. See “Key Business and Financial Metrics—Real Estate Sales Operating Metrics” for
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additional discussion of contract sales. The estimated contract sales value related to our inventory that is currently available for sale at open or soon-to-be open projects and inventory at new or existing projects that will become available for sale in the future upon registration, delivery or construction is approximately $11.3 billion at current pricing. Capital-efficient arrangements, comprised of our fee-for-service and just-in-time inventory, represented approximately 35% of that supply. We believe that the visibility into our long-term supply allows us to efficiently manage inventory to meet predicted sales, reduce capital investments, minimize our exposure to the cyclicality of the real estate market and mitigate the risks of entering into new markets.
We sell our vacation ownership products primarily through our distribution network of both-in-market and off-site sales centers. Our products are currently marketed for sale throughout the United States, Mexico, Canada, Europe and Asia. We operate sales distribution centers in major markets and popular leisure destinations with year-round demand and a history of being a friendly environment for vacation ownership. We have over 60 sales distribution centers in various domestic and international locations. A phased rebranding of sales centers that were acquired as part of the Diamond Acquisition began in late 2021. Our marketing and sales activities are based on targeted direct marketing and a highly personalized sales approach. We use targeted direct marketing to reach potential members who are identified as having the financial ability to pay for our products, are frequent leisure travelers, and have an affinity with our brands. Tour flow quality impacts key metrics such as close rate and VPG, defined in “Key Business and Financial Metrics—Real Estate Sales Operating Metrics.” Additionally, the quality of tour flow impacts sales revenue and the collectability of our timeshare financing receivables. For the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, 70%, 71% and 70% of our contract sales were to our existing owners, respectively.
We provide financing for members purchasing our developed and acquired inventory and generate interest income on the loans. Our timeshare financing receivables are collateralized by the underlying VOIs and are generally structured as 10-year, fully amortizing loans that bear a fixed interest rate typically ranging from 2.5% to 25% per annum. Financing propensity was 63% and 62% for the years ended December 31, 2023, and 2022, respectively. We calculate financing propensity as contract sales volume of financed contracts originated in the period divided by contract sales volume of all contracts originated in the period.
The interest rate on our loans is determined by, among other factors, the amount of the down payment, the borrower’s credit profile and the loan term. The weighted-average FICO score for loans to U.S. and Canadian borrowers at the time of origination were as follows:
Year Ended December 31,
202320222021
Weighted-average FICO score737 735 734 
Prepayment is permitted without penalty. When a member defaults, we ultimately return their VOI to inventory for resale and that member no longer participates in our Clubs. Historical default rates, which represent annual defaults as a percentage of each year’s beginning gross timeshare financing receivables balance, were as follows:
Year Ended December 31,
202320222021
Historical default rates(1)
8.56 %7.92 %8.93 %
(1)A loan is considered to be in default if it is equal to or greater than 121 days past due as of the prior month end.
Some of our timeshare financing receivables have been pledged as collateral in our securitization transactions, which have in the past and may in the future provide funding for our business activities. In these securitization transactions, special purpose entities are established to issue various classes of debt securities which are generally collateralized by a single pool of assets, consisting of timeshare financing receivables that we service and related cash deposits. For additional information see Note 7: Timeshare Financing Receivables in our consolidated financial statements included in Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
In addition, we earn fees from servicing our securitized timeshare financing receivables and the loans provided by third-party developers of our fee-for-service projects to purchasers of their VOIs.
Resort Operations and Club Management
We enter into management agreements with the HOAs of the timeshare resorts developed by us or a third party. Each of the HOAs is governed by a board of directors comprised of owner and developer representatives that are charged with ensuring the resorts are well-maintained and financially stable. Our services include day-to-day operations of the resorts, maintenance of the resorts, preparation of books and financial records including reports, budgets and projections, arranging for annual audits and maintenance fee billing and collections and employment training and personnel oversight.
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Our HOA management agreements provide for a cost-plus management fee, which means we generally earn a fee equal to 10% to 15% of the costs to operate the applicable resort. As a result, the fees we earn are highly predictable due to the relatively fixed nature of resort operating expenses and our management fees are unaffected by changes in rental rate or occupancy. We are also reimbursed for the costs incurred to perform our services, principally related to personnel providing on-site services. The original terms of our management agreements typically range from three to five years and the agreements are subject to periodic renewal for one- to three-year periods. Many of these agreements renew automatically unless either party provides advance notice of termination before the expiration of the term.
We also manage and operate the Clubs and exchange programs. When owners purchase a VOI, they are generally enrolled in a Club which allows the member to exchange their points for a number of vacation options. In addition to an annual membership fee, Club members pay incremental fees depending on exchanges they choose within the Club system.
We rent unsold VOI inventory, third-party inventory and inventory made available due to ownership exchanges through our Club programs. We earn a fee from rentals of third-party inventory. Additionally, we provide ancillary offerings including food and beverage, retail and spa offerings at these timeshare properties.
Principal Components and Factors Affecting Our Results of Operations
Principal Components of Revenues
Sales of VOIs, net represents revenue recognized from the sale of owned VOIs, net of amounts considered uncollectible and sales incentives.
Sales, marketing, brand and other fees represents sales commissions, brand fees and other fees earned on the sales of VOIs through fee-for-service agreements with third-party developers. All sales commissions and brand fees are based on the total sales price of the VOIs. Also included in Sales, marketing, brand and other fees are revenues from marketing and incentive programs, except for redemption of prepaid vacation packages and Club bonus points for stays at HGV properties, which are included in Rental and ancillary services.
Financing represents revenue from the financing of sales of our owned intervals, which includes interest income and fees from servicing loans. We also earn fees from servicing the loans provided by third-party developers to purchasers of their VOIs.
Resort and club management represents revenues from Club activation fees, annual dues and transaction fees from member exchanges. Resort and club management also includes recurring management fees under our agreements with HOAs for day-to-day-management services, including housekeeping services, maintenance, and certain accounting and administrative services for HOAs, generally based on a percentage of costs to operate the resorts.
Rental and ancillary services represents revenues from transient rentals of unoccupied vacation ownership units and revenues recognized from the utilization of Club points and vacation packages when points and packages are redeemed for rental stays at one of our resorts. We also earn fees from the rental of inventory owned by third parties. Ancillary revenues include food and beverage, retail, spa offerings and other guest services provided to resort guests.
Cost reimbursements include costs that HOAs and developers reimburse to us. These costs primarily consist of payroll and payroll-related costs for management of the HOAs and other services we provide where we are the employer and insurance. The corresponding expenses are presented as Cost reimbursements expense in our consolidated statements of operations resulting in no effect on net income.
Factors Affecting Revenues
Relationships with developers. We have entered into fee-for-service and just-in-time agreements to sell VOIs on behalf of or acquire VOIs from third-party developers. The success and sustainability of our capital-efficient business model depends on our ability to maintain good relationships with third-party developers. Our relationships with these third parties also generate new relationships with developers and opportunities for property development that can support our growth. We believe that we have strong relationships with our third-party developers, and we are committed to the continued growth and development of these relationships. These relationships exist with a diverse group of developers and are not significantly concentrated with any particular third party.
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Construction activities. We have entered into agreements with third parties to acquire both completed VOIs and property. At the same time, we have increased our own development activities to construct new properties that we will own and from which we are selling, and will continue to sell, units and VOIs. These activities, and in particular the development of real property into inventory, are subject to construction risks including, construction delays, zoning and other local, state or governmental approvals and failure by third-party contractors to perform. The realization of these factors could result in the inability to source inventory and ultimately lead to sales declines.
Registration activities. The registration of VOIs for sale requires time and cost, and in many jurisdictions the exact date of registration approval cannot be predicted accurately. The inability to register our products in a timely, cost-effective fashion could result in the inability to sell our products and ultimately lead to sales declines.
Relationship with Hilton. We are party to a license agreement with Hilton granting us the right to use the Hilton-branded trademarks, trade names and related intellectual property in our business for the term of the agreement. The termination of the license agreement or exercise of other remedies would materially harm our business and results of operations and impair our ability to market and sell our products and maintain our competitive position. For example, if we are not able to rely on the strength of the Hilton brands to attract prospective members and guest tours in the marketplace, our revenue would decline, and our marketing and sales expenses would increase.
Consumer demand and global economic conditions. Consumer demand for our products and services may be affected by the performance of the general economy, including the ability to generate high quality tours, and is sensitive to business and personal discretionary spending levels. Declines in consumer demand due to adverse general economic conditions, risks affecting or reducing travel patterns, lower consumer confidence and adverse political conditions can subject and have subjected our revenues to significant volatility.
Marketing. We rely on call transfers from Hilton, execution of a successful digital marketing strategy, vacation traffic at key locations, and other critical marketing elements to increase tour flow, VPG, and VOI sales, thereby increasing our revenue. Any significant changes to one or more factors that adversely affect our marketing activities, such as changes in consumer behavior and preference for vacations, decreases in call transfers from Hilton due to increasing consumer reliance on digital tools, and declining quality and/or volume of tour flow may adversely and materially impact our revenue.
Interest rates. We generate interest income from consumer loans we originate and declines in interest rates may cause us to lower our interest rates on our originated loans, which would adversely affect our income generated on future loans. Conversely, if interest rates increase significantly, it would increase the cost of purchasing VOIs for any purchaser who is financing their acquisition and may deter potential purchasers from buying a VOI, which could result in sales declines.
Competition. We compete with other hotel and resort timeshare operators for sales of VOIs based principally on location, quality of accommodations, price, service levels and amenities, financing terms, quality of service, terms of property use, reservation systems and flexibility for VOI owners to exchange into time at other timeshare properties or other travel rewards. In addition, we compete based on brand name recognition and reputation. Our primary branded competitors in the timeshare space include Marriott Vacations Worldwide, Travel + Leisure Co., Disney Vacation Club, Holiday Inn Club Vacations, Westgate Resorts, and Bluegreen Vacations, which we acquired on January 17, 2024.
Principal Components of Expenses
Cost of VOI sales represents the costs attributable to the sales of owned VOIs recognized, as well as charges incurred related to granting credit to customers for their existing ownership when upgrading into fee-for-service projects.
Sales and marketing represents costs incurred to sell and market VOIs, including costs incurred relating to marketing and incentive programs, costs for tours, rental expense and wages and sales commissions.
Financing represents consumer financing interest expense related to our debt securitized by gross timeshare financing receivables (“Securitized Debt”) and Timeshare Facility, amortization of the related deferred loan costs and other expenses incurred in providing consumer financing and servicing loans.
Resort and club management represents costs incurred to manage resorts and the Clubs, including payroll and related costs and other administrative costs.
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Rental and ancillary services include payroll and related costs, costs incurred from participating in the Hilton Honors loyalty program, retail, food and beverage costs and maintenance fees on unsold inventory.
General and administrative consists primarily of compensation expense for our corporate staff and personnel supporting our business segments, professional fees (including consulting, audit and legal fees), administrative and related expenses. General and administrative also includes costs for services provided to us by Hilton.
Depreciation and amortization are non-cash expenses that primarily consist of depreciation of fixed assets such as buildings and leasehold improvements and furniture and equipment at our sales centers, corporate offices, and assets purchased for future conversion to inventory, as well as amortization of our trade names, management agreement contracts, club member relationship intangibles and capitalized software.
License fee expense represents the royalty fee paid to Hilton under a license agreement for the exclusive right to use the Hilton Grand Vacations mark, which is generally based on a percentage of gross sales volume of certain revenue streams.
Acquisition and integration-related expense represents direct expenses for the Diamond Acquisition and the Bluegreen Acquisition, including integration costs, legal and other professional fees. Integration costs include technology-related costs, fees paid to management consultants and employee-related costs such as severance and transition.
Cost reimbursements include costs that HOAs and developers reimburse to us. These costs primarily consist of payroll and payroll-related costs for management of the HOAs and other services we provide where we are the employer and insurance. The corresponding revenues are presented as Cost reimbursements revenue in our consolidated statements of operations resulting in no effect on net income.
Factors Affecting Expenses
Costs of VOI sales. In periods where there is increased demand for VOIs, we may incur increased costs to acquire inventory in the short-term, which can have an adverse effect on our cash flows, margins and profits. In addition, the registration of inventory for sale requires time and cost, and in many jurisdictions the exact date of registration approval cannot be predicted accurately. As we encourage owners to upgrade into other products, we incur expenses when owners upgrade from an interval in a project we developed into fee-for-service projects, on which we earn fees. In periods where more upgrades are occurring and we are not generating increased sales volume on unsold supply, we could see an adverse effect on our cash flows, margins and profits.
Furthermore, construction delays, zoning and other local, state or federal governmental approvals, particularly in new geographic areas with which we are unfamiliar, cost overruns, lender financial defaults, or natural or man-made disasters, as well as failure by third-party contractors to perform for any reason, could lead to an adverse effect on our cash flows, margins and profits.
Sales and marketing expense. A significant portion of our costs relates to selling and marketing of our VOIs. In periods of decreased demand for VOIs, we may be unable to reduce our sales and marketing expenses quickly enough to prevent a deterioration of our profits and margins on our real estate operations.
Rental and ancillary services expense. These expenses include personnel costs, rent, property taxes, insurance and utilities. We pay a portion of these costs through maintenance fees of unsold intervals and by subsidizing the costs of HOAs not covered by maintenance fees collected. If we are unable to decrease these costs significantly or rapidly when demand for our unit rentals decreases, the resulting decline in our revenues could have an adverse effect on our net cash flow, margins and profits.
General and administrative. Increases in general and administrative expenses associated with operating as a publicly traded company in a competitive and dynamic timeshare industry, regulatory filings and professional fees may affect our net cash flows, margins and profits.
Interest rates. Increases in interest rates would increase the consumer financing interest expense we pay on the Timeshare Facility and could adversely affect our financing operations in future securitization or other debt transactions, affecting net cash flow, margins and profits.
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Key Business and Financial Metrics
Real Estate Sales Operating Metrics
We measure our performance using the following key operating metrics:
Contract sales represents the total amount of VOI products (fee-for-service, just-in-time, developed, and points-based) under purchase agreements signed during the period where we have received a down payment of at least 10% of the contract price. Contract sales differ from revenues from the Sales of VOIs, net that we report in our consolidated statements of operations due to the requirements for revenue recognition, as well as adjustments for incentives. While we do not record the purchase price of sales of VOI products developed by fee-for-service partners as revenue in our consolidated financial statements, rather recording the commission earned as revenue in accordance with U.S. GAAP, we believe contract sales to be an important operational metric, reflective of the overall volume and pace of sales in our business and believe it provides meaningful comparability of our results to the results of our competitors which may source their VOI products differently.
We believe that the presentation of contract sales on a combined basis (fee-for-service, just-in-time, developed and points-based) is most appropriate for the purpose of the operating metric, additional information regarding the split of contract sales, is included in “—Real Estate” below. See Note 2: Summary of Significant Accounting Policies in our consolidated financial statements included in Item 8 in this Annual Report on form 10-K, for additional information on Sales of VOIs, net.
Tour flow represents the number of sales presentations given at our sales centers during the period.
Volume per guest (“VPG”) represents the sales attributable to tours at our sales locations and is calculated by dividing contract sales, excluding telesales, by tour flow. We consider VPG to be an important operating measure because it measures the effectiveness of our sales process, combining the average transaction price with the closing rate.
EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA
EBITDA, presented herein, is a financial measure that is not recognized under U.S. GAAP that reflects net income, before interest expense (excluding non-recourse debt), a provision for income taxes and depreciation and amortization.
Adjusted EBITDA, presented herein, is calculated as EBITDA, as previously defined, further adjusted to exclude certain items, including, but not limited to, gains, losses and expenses in connection with: (i) other gains, including asset dispositions and foreign currency transactions; (ii) debt restructurings/retirements; (iii) non-cash impairment losses; (iv) share-based and other compensation expenses; and (v) other items, including but not limited to costs associated with acquisitions, restructuring, amortization of premiums and discounts resulting from purchase accounting, and other non-cash and one-time charges.
EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA are not recognized terms under U.S. GAAP and should not be considered as alternatives to net income or other measures of financial performance or liquidity derived in accordance with U.S. GAAP. In addition, our definitions of EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA may not be comparable to similarly titled measures of other companies.
We believe that EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA provide useful information to investors about us and our financial condition and results of operations for the following reasons: (i) EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA are among the measures used by our management team to evaluate our operating performance and make day-to-day operating decisions; and (ii) EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA are frequently used by securities analysts, investors and other interested parties as a common performance measure to compare results or estimate valuations across companies in our industry.
EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA have limitations as analytical tools and should not be considered either in isolation or as a substitute for net income, cash flow or other methods of analyzing our results as reported under U.S. GAAP. Some of these limitations are:
EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA do not reflect changes in, or cash requirements for, our working capital needs;
EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA do not reflect our interest expense (excluding interest expense on non-recourse debt), or the cash requirements necessary to service interest or principal payments on our indebtedness;
EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA do not reflect our tax expense or the cash requirements to pay our taxes;
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EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA do not reflect historical cash expenditures or future requirements for capital expenditures or contractual commitments;
EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA do not reflect the effect on earnings or changes resulting from matters that we consider not to be indicative of our future operations;
EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA do not reflect any cash requirements for future replacements of assets that are being depreciated and amortized; and
EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA may be calculated differently from other companies in our industry limiting their usefulness as comparative measures.
Because of these limitations, EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA should not be considered as discretionary cash available to us to reinvest in the growth of our business or as measures of cash that will be available to us to meet our obligations.
See below under “Segment Results” for reconciliation of our EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA to net income, our most comparable U.S. GAAP financial measure.
Non-GAAP Measures within Our Segments
Within each of our two reportable segments, we present additional profit and profit margin information for certain key activities—real estate, financing, resort and club management, and rental and ancillary services. These non-GAAP measures are used by our management team to evaluate the operating performance of each of our key activities, and to make day-to-day operating decisions. We believe these additional measures are also important in helping investors understand the performance and efficiency with which we are able to convert revenues for each of these primary activities into operating profit, both in dollars and as margins, and are frequently used by securities analysts, investors and other interested parties as one of common performance measures to compare results or estimate valuations across companies in our industry. Specifically—
Sales revenue represents sales of VOIs, net, and Fee-for-service commissions and brand fees earned from the sale of fee-for-service VOIs. Fee-for-service commissions and brand fees represents sales, marketing, brand and other fees, which corresponds to the applicable line item from our consolidated statements of operations, adjusted by marketing revenue and other fees earned primarily from discounted marketing related packages which encompass a sales tour to prospective owners. Real estate expense represents Costs of VOI sales and Sales and marketing expense, net. Sales and marketing expense, net represents sales and marketing expense, which corresponds to the applicable line item from our consolidated statements of operations, adjusted by marketing revenue and other fees earned primarily from discounted marketing related packages which encompass a sales tour to prospective owners. Both fee-for-service commissions and brand fees and sales and marketing expense, net, represent non-GAAP measures. We present these items net because it provides a meaningful measure of our underlying real estate profit related to our primary real estate activities which focus on the sales and costs associated with our VOIs.
Real estate profit represents sales revenue less real estate expense. Real estate margin is calculated as a percentage by dividing real estate profit by sales revenue. We consider real estate profit margin to be an important non-GAAP operating measure because it measures the efficiency of our sales and marketing spending, management of inventory costs, and initiatives intended to improve profitability.
Financing profit represents financing revenue, net of financing expense, both of which correspond to the applicable line items from our consolidated statements of operations. Financing profit margin is calculated as a percentage by dividing financing profit by financing revenue. We consider this to be an important non-GAAP operating measure because it measures the efficiency and profitability of our financing business in connection with our VOI sales.
Resort and club management profit represents resort and club management revenue, net of resort and club management expense, both of which correspond to the applicable line items from our consolidated statements of operations. Resort and club management profit margin is calculated as a percentage by dividing resort and club management profit by resort and club management revenue. We consider this to be an important non-GAAP operating measure because it measures the efficiency and profitability of our resort and club management business that support our VOI sales business.
Rental and ancillary services profit represents rental and ancillary services revenues, net of rental and ancillary services expenses, both of which correspond to the applicable line items from our consolidated statements of operations. Rental and ancillary services profit margin is calculated as a percentage by
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dividing rental and ancillary services profit by rental and ancillary services revenue. We consider this to be an important non-GAAP operating measure because it measures our ability to convert available inventory and unoccupied rooms into revenue and profit by transient rentals, as well as profitability of other services, such as food and beverage, retail, spa offerings and other guest services.
Each of the foregoing four profit measures is not a recognized term under U.S. GAAP and should not be considered as an alternative to net income or other measures of financial performance or liquidity derived in accordance with U.S. GAAP. In addition, our calculation of such measures may not be comparable to similarly titled measures of other companies. Furthermore, these measures have limitations as analytical tools and should not be considered either in isolation or as a substitute for net income or other methods of analyzing our results as reported under U.S. GAAP. Such limitations include the fact that these measures only include those revenues and expenses related to one of the four specified operating activities as opposed to on a consolidated basis, and other limitations that are similar to those discussed above under “EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA.” See below under “Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Profit Measures to GAAP Measure” for reconciliation of these four profit measures to net income, our most comparable U.S. GAAP financial measure.

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Results of Operations
Year Ended December 31, 2023 Compared with Year Ended December 31, 2022
The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations is for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared with the year ended December 31, 2022. Discussions of our financial condition and results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2022 compared to December 31, 2021 that have been omitted under this item can be found in Part II, Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022, which was filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on March 1, 2023.
Segment Results
The following tables present our revenues by segment for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to the years ended December 31, 2022, and 2021. We do not include equity in earnings from unconsolidated affiliates in our measures of segment revenues.
Year Ended December 31,
2023 vs 2022
($ in millions)202320222021$%
Revenues:
Real estate sales and financing$2,357 $2,378 $1,451 $(21)(0.9)
Resort operations and club management1,291 1,197 700 94 7.9 
Total segment revenues3,648 3,575 2,151 73 2.0 
Cost reimbursements386 297 202 89 30.0 
Intersegment eliminations(1)
(56)(37)(18)(19)51.4 
Total revenues$3,978 $3,835 $2,335 $143 3.7 
(1)Refer to Note 22: Business Segments in our consolidated financial statements included in Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for details on the intersegment eliminations.
We evaluate our business segment operating performance using segment Adjusted EBITDA, as described in Note 22: Business Segments in our consolidated financial statements included in Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. For a discussion of our definition of EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA, how management uses them to manage our business and material limitations on their usefulness, refer to “—Key Business and Financial Metrics—EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA.” The following table reconciles net income, our most comparable U.S. GAAP financial measure, to EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA:
Year Ended December 31,
2023 vs 2022(1)
($ in millions)202320222021$%
Net income
$313 $352 $176 $(39)(11.1)
Interest expense178 142 105 36 25.4 
Income tax expense
136 129 93 5.4 
Depreciation and amortization213 244 126 (31)(12.7)
Interest expense, depreciation and amortization included in equity in earnings from unconsolidated affiliates— — 
EBITDA842 869 501 (27)(3.1)
Other (gain) loss, net
(2)26 (3)NM
Share-based compensation expense40 46 48 (6)(13.0)
Impairment expense17 (14)(82.4)
Acquisition and integration-related expense68 67 106 1.5 
Other adjustment items(2)
54 65 33 (11)(16.9)
Adjusted EBITDA$1,005 $1,065 $716 $(60)(5.6)
(1)NM - fluctuation in terms of percentage change is not meaningful.
(2)For the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, this amount includes costs associated with restructuring, one-time charges, other non-cash items, and amortization of fair value premiums and discounts resulting from purchase accounting.
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The following table reconciles our segment Adjusted EBITDA to Adjusted EBITDA.
Year Ended December 31,
2023 vs 2022
($ in millions)202320222021$%
Adjusted EBITDA:
Real estate sales and financing(1)
$754 $865 $537 $(111)(12.8)
Resort operations and club management(1)
504 463 353 41 8.9 
Adjustments:
Adjusted EBITDA from unconsolidated affiliates14 15 11 (1)(6.7)
License fee expense(138)(124)(80)(14)11.3 
General and administrative(2)
(129)(154)(105)25 (16.2)
Adjusted EBITDA$1,005 $1,065 $716 $(60)(5.6)
(1)Includes intersegment transactions, share-based compensation, depreciation and other adjustments attributable to the segments.
(2)Adjusts for segment related share-based compensation, depreciation and other adjustment items.
Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Profit Measures to GAAP Measure
The following table reconciles net income, our most comparable U.S. GAAP financial measure, to EBITDA and the total of our real estate, financing, resort and club management, and rental and ancillary services profit measures.
Year Ended December 31,
2023 vs 2022(1)
($ in millions)202320222021$%
Net income
$313 $352 $176 $(39)(11.1)
Interest expense178 142 105 36 25.4 
Income tax expense
136 129 93 5.4 
Depreciation and amortization213 244 126 (31)(12.7)
Interest expense, depreciation and amortization included in equity in earnings from unconsolidated affiliates— — 
EBITDA842 869 501 (27)(3.1)
Other (gain) loss, net
(2)26 (3)NM
Equity in earnings from unconsolidated affiliates(2)
(14)(15)(11)(6.7)
Impairment expense17 (14)(82.4)
License fee expense138 124 80 14 11.3 
Acquisition and integration-related expense68 67 106 1.5 
General and administrative194 212 151 (18)(8.5)
Profit
$1,229 $1,275 $855 $(46)(3.6)
Real estate profit575 691 402 (116)(16.8)
Financing profit208 164 118 44 26.8 
Resort and club management profit392 373 260 19 5.1 
Rental and ancillary services profit54 47 75 14.9 
Profit$1,229 $1,275 $855 $(46)(3.6)
(1) NM - fluctuation in terms of percentage change is not meaningful.
(2) Excludes impact of interest expense, depreciation and amortization included in equity in earnings from unconsolidated affiliates of $2 million, $2 million and $1 million for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively.
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Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Real Estate Measures to GAAP Measures
The following table reconciles our Sales, marketing, brand and other fees revenue, our most comparable U.S. GAAP financial measure, to Fee-for-service commissions and brand fees, and Sales and marketing expense, our most comparable U.S. GAAP financial measure, to Sales and marketing expense, net. Fee-for-service commissions and brand fees and Sales and marketing, net, are used in calculating our real estate profit and real estate profit margin. See “Real Estate Sales and Financing Segment—Real Estate” below.
Year Ended December 31,
2023 vs 2022
($ in millions)202320222021$%
Sales, marketing, brand and other fees$634 $620 $385 $14 2.3 
Less: Marketing revenue and other fees(1)
(241)(208)(149)(33)15.9 
Fee-for-service commissions and brand fees$393 $412