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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
    ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
    For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
or
    TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
    For the transition period from [ ] to [ ]
logotree10.jpg
HIGHWOODS PROPERTIES, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Maryland001-1310056-1871668
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(Commission File Number)(I.R.S. Employer Identification Number)
HIGHWOODS REALTY LIMITED PARTNERSHIP
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
North Carolina000-2173156-1869557
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(Commission File Number)(I.R.S. Employer Identification Number)
150 Fayetteville Street, Suite 1400
Raleigh, NC 27601
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
919-872-4924
(Registrants’ telephone number, including area code)
___________________
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each ClassTrading Symbol(s)Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered
Common Stock, $.01 par value, of Highwoods Properties, Inc.HIWNew York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
NONE

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Highwoods Properties, Inc.  Yes      No     Highwoods Realty Limited Partnership  Yes      No

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
Highwoods Properties, Inc.  Yes      No     Highwoods Realty Limited Partnership  Yes      No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
Highwoods Properties, Inc.  Yes      No     Highwoods Realty Limited Partnership  Yes      No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).
Highwoods Properties, Inc.  Yes      No     Highwoods Realty Limited Partnership  Yes      No




Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of large accelerated filer, accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, and emerging growth company in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Highwoods Properties, Inc.
Large accelerated filer     Accelerated filer     Non-accelerated filer    Smaller reporting company    Emerging growth company
Highwoods Realty Limited Partnership
Large accelerated filer     Accelerated filer     Non-accelerated filer    Smaller reporting company    Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Highwoods Properties, Inc.          Highwoods Realty Limited Partnership   

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Highwoods Properties, Inc.      Highwoods Realty Limited Partnership    

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).
Highwoods Properties, Inc.  Yes      No     Highwoods Realty Limited Partnership  Yes      No

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.
Highwoods Properties, Inc.          Highwoods Realty Limited Partnership   

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant's executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).
Highwoods Properties, Inc.          Highwoods Realty Limited Partnership   

The aggregate market value of shares of Common Stock of Highwoods Properties, Inc. held by non-affiliates (based upon the closing sale price on the New York Stock Exchange) on June 30, 2023 was approximately $2.5 billion. As of January 26, 2024, there were 105,710,315 shares of Common Stock outstanding.

There is no public trading market for the Common Units of Highwoods Realty Limited Partnership. As a result, an aggregate market value of the Common Units of Highwoods Realty Limited Partnership cannot be determined.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the Proxy Statement of Highwoods Properties, Inc. to be filed in connection with its Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be held May 14, 2024 are incorporated by reference in Part II, Item 5 and Part III, Items 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14.




EXPLANATORY NOTE

We refer to Highwoods Properties, Inc. as the “Company,” Highwoods Realty Limited Partnership as the “Operating Partnership,” the Company’s common stock as “Common Stock” or “Common Shares,” the Company’s preferred stock as “Preferred Stock” or “Preferred Shares,” the Operating Partnership’s common partnership interests as “Common Units” and the Operating Partnership’s preferred partnership interests as “Preferred Units.” References to “we” and “our” mean the Company and the Operating Partnership, collectively, unless the context indicates otherwise.

The Company conducts its activities through the Operating Partnership and is its sole general partner. The partnership agreement provides that the Operating Partnership will assume and pay when due, or reimburse the Company for payment of, all costs and expenses relating to the ownership and operations of, or for the benefit of, the Operating Partnership. The partnership agreement further provides that all expenses of the Company are deemed to be incurred for the benefit of the Operating Partnership.

Certain information contained herein is presented as of January 26, 2024, the latest practicable date for financial information prior to the filing of this Annual Report.

Except as otherwise noted, all property-level operational information presented herein, including the information set forth in “Part I, Item 2. Properties,” includes in-service wholly owned properties and in-service properties owned by consolidated joint ventures (at 100%). Development projects are not considered in-service properties until such projects are completed and stabilized. Stabilization occurs at the beginning of the first quarter after the earlier of: (1) the projected stabilization date; or (2) the date on which a project's occupancy generally exceeds 93%.

This report combines the Annual Reports on Form 10-K for the period ended December 31, 2023 of the Company and the Operating Partnership. We believe combining the annual reports into this single report results in the following benefits:

combined reports better reflect how management and investors view the business as a single operating unit;

combined reports enhance investors’ understanding of the Company and the Operating Partnership by enabling them to view the business as a whole and in the same manner as management;

combined reports are more efficient for the Company and the Operating Partnership and result in savings in time, effort and expense; and

combined reports are more efficient for investors by reducing duplicative disclosure and providing a single document for their review.

To help investors understand the significant differences between the Company and the Operating Partnership, this report presents the following separate sections for each of the Company and the Operating Partnership:

Item 9A - Controls and Procedures;

Item 15 - Certifications of CEO and CFO Pursuant to Sections 302 and 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act;

Consolidated Financial Statements; and

the following Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements:

Note 10 - Equity; and

Note 12 - Earnings Per Share and Per Unit.



HIGHWOODS PROPERTIES, INC.
HIGHWOODS REALTY LIMITED PARTNERSHIP

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Item No.Page
PART I
1.
1A.
1B.
1C.
2.
3.
4.
X.
PART II
5.
7.
7A.
8.
9.
9A.
9B.
9C.
PART III
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
PART IV
15.

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PART I

ITEM 1. BUSINESS

General

Highwoods Properties, Inc., headquartered in Raleigh, is a publicly-traded real estate investment trust (“REIT”). The Company is a fully integrated office REIT that owns, develops, acquires, leases and manages properties primarily in the best business districts (BBDs) of Atlanta, Charlotte, Dallas, Nashville, Orlando, Raleigh, Richmond and Tampa. Our Common Stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) under the symbol “HIW.”

As of December 31, 2023, the Company owned all of the Preferred Units and 105.3 million, or 98.0%, of the Common Units in the Operating Partnership. Limited partners owned the remaining 2.2 million Common Units. Generally, the Operating Partnership is obligated to redeem each Common Unit at the request of the unitholder for cash equal to the value of one share of Common Stock based on the average of the market price for the 10 trading days immediately preceding the notice date of such redemption, provided that the Company, at its option, may elect to acquire any such Common Units presented for redemption for cash or one share of Common Stock. The Common Units owned by the Company are not redeemable.

The Company was incorporated in Maryland in 1994. The Operating Partnership was formed in North Carolina in 1994. Our executive offices are located at 150 Fayetteville Street, Suite 1400, Raleigh, NC 27601, and our telephone number is (919) 872-4924.

Our primary business is the operation, acquisition and development of office properties. There are no material inter-segment transactions. See Note 14 to our Consolidated Financial Statements for a summary of the rental and other revenues, net operating income and assets for each reportable segment.

Our website is www.highwoods.com. In addition to this Annual Report, all quarterly and current reports, proxy statements, interactive data and other information are made available, without charge, on our website as soon as reasonably practicable after they are filed or furnished with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). Information on our website is not considered part of this Annual Report.

During 2023, the Company filed unqualified Section 303A certifications with the NYSE. The Company and the Operating Partnership have also filed the CEO and CFO certifications required by Sections 302 and 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 as exhibits to this Annual Report.

Our Strategy

We are in the work-placemaking business. We believe that by creating environments and experiences where the best and brightest can achieve together what they cannot apart, we can deliver greater value to our customers, their teammates and, in turn, our stakeholders. Our simple strategy is to own and operate high-quality workplaces in the BBDs within our footprint, maintain a strong balance sheet to be opportunistic throughout economic cycles, employ a talented and dedicated team and communicate transparently with all stakeholders. We focus on owning and managing buildings in the most dynamic and vibrant BBDs. BBDs are highly-energized and amenitized workplace locations that enhance our customers’ ability to attract and retain talent. They are both urban and suburban. Providing the most talent-supportive workplace options in these environments is core to our work-placemaking strategy.

Our investment strategy is to generate attractive and sustainable returns over the long term for our stockholders by developing, acquiring and owning a portfolio of high-quality, differentiated office buildings in the BBDs of our core markets. A core component of this strategy is to continuously strengthen the financial and operational performance, resiliency and long-term growth prospects of our existing in-service portfolio and recycle out of those properties that no longer meet our criteria.

Since the beginning of 2019, we have acquired (on a wholly-owned or joint venture basis) 4.0 million square feet of trophy office assets for a total gross investment of $1.9 billion, placed in service 2.1 million square feet of highly pre-leased new office development for a total gross investment of $762.0 million and sold 7.5 million square feet of non-core assets for $1.2 billion. As of December 31, 2023, our wholly-owned and joint venture development pipeline consisted of in-process and recently completed but not yet stabilized developments with a total anticipated gross investment of $928.6 million. During this timeframe, we have completed our exit from Greensboro and Memphis, announced our plan to exit Pittsburgh and entered Charlotte and Dallas, two higher-growth markets.

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Geographic Diversification. Our core portfolio consists primarily of office properties in Atlanta, Charlotte, Dallas, Nashville, Orlando, Raleigh, Richmond and Tampa. We do not believe that our operations are significantly dependent upon any particular geographic market.
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Conservative and Flexible Balance Sheet. We are committed to maintaining a conservative and flexible balance sheet with access to ample liquidity, multiple sources of debt and equity capital and sufficient availability under our revolving credit facility to fund our short and long-term liquidity requirements. Our balance sheet also allows us to proactively assure our existing and prospective customers that we are able to fund tenant improvements and maintain our properties in good condition while retaining the flexibility to capitalize on favorable development and acquisition opportunities as they arise.

Competition

Our properties compete for customers with similar properties located in our markets primarily on the basis of location, rent, services provided and the design, quality and condition of the facilities. We also compete with other domestic and foreign REITs, financial institutions, pension funds, partnerships, individual investors and others when attempting to acquire, develop and operate properties.

Environmental Resiliency

We are firmly committed to our intrinsic and societal responsibility to routinely minimize all environmental impacts resulting from the development and operation of our properties. Our plan is to continue minimizing our energy intensity, carbon emissions and water consumption and strive to mitigate pollution, ensure environmental compliance and create healthy and productive workspaces for our customers and communities. To support and advance the environmental component of our long-term resiliency initiatives, we have formed a management-level corporate resiliency team that is overseen by the investment committee of the Company’s Board of Directors. The corporate resiliency team, comprised of a diverse group of disciplines including executive leadership, is charged with refining our long-term resiliency strategy, driving performance improvements across our portfolio and establishing and tracking progress towards goals. More information regarding our sustainability strategy and progress towards reaching our target goals is available in our annual corporate resiliency report that can be found under the “Service Not Space/Resiliency” section of our website. Information on our website is not considered part of this Annual Report.

Government Regulation

We are subject to laws, rules and regulations of the United States and the states and local municipalities in which we operate, including laws and regulations relating to environmental protection and human health and safety. Compliance with these laws, rules and regulations has not had, and is not expected to have, a material effect on our capital expenditures, results of operations and competitive position as compared to prior periods. For more information about environmental laws and regulations, see “Item 1A. Risk Factors - Risks Related to our Operations - Costs of complying with governmental laws and regulations may adversely affect our results of operations.”

Human Capital Resources

We focus our real estate activities in markets where we have extensive local knowledge and own a significant amount of assets. As a result, we operate division offices in Atlanta, Nashville, Orlando, Raleigh, Richmond and Tampa, which are led by seasoned real estate professionals with significant commercial real estate experience managing across multiple economic
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cycles. Over the long-term, we plan to open division offices in Charlotte and Dallas. Shared corporate services, such as accounting, technology, development, portfolio operations, marketing, human resources, legal and tax, are primarily based in Raleigh. Our senior leadership team, led by our CEO, is based in Raleigh and oversees all of the Company’s operations.

Fully-Integrated. Unlike some other REITs, which outsource the leasing, management, maintenance and/or customer service of their properties entirely to third parties, we are a fully-integrated REIT that generally staffs the leasing, management, maintenance and customer service of our own portfolio. We believe being a fully-integrated REIT is in the best long-term interests of our stockholders for a number of reasons:

in-house services generally allow us to better anticipate and respond to the many real-time demands of our existing and potential customer base;

we are able to provide our customers with more cost-effective services such as build-to-suit construction and space modification, including tenant improvements and expansions;

the depth and breadth of our capabilities and resources provide us with market information not generally available;

operating efficiencies achieved through our fully-integrated organization provide a competitive advantage in servicing our properties, retaining existing customers and attracting new customers;

we can ensure the consistent deployment of a comprehensive preventative maintenance program;

our established detailed service request process creates chain of custody for a customer request and tracks status and response time, which enables proactive identification of any underperforming equipment and vital reconnaissance for process improvement and leverage when specifying all aspects of any new construction; and

our first-hand relationships with our customers lead to better experiences for our customers and their teammates and often result in customers seeking renewals and additional space.

Above all, being a fully-integrated REIT across these diverse functional areas gives us the benefit of engaging and responding to our customers’ needs as an owner versus a vendor. We believe this distinction, a core component of our value proposition, translates into improved customer experience and higher customer retention.

We had 349 full-time employees as of December 31, 2023, four more than we had as of December 31, 2022. Over the past three years, our average annual turnover rate was 17%, substantially lower than the average national industry turnover rate of 26% as reported by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Our turnover rate was 13% for 2023, significantly lower than the turnover rate we experienced in 2021 and 2022 largely due to the volatility in the job markets in the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic. Through our efforts in providing internship and cooperative education opportunities for future real estate professionals, we have also identified a pool of talented professionals capable of filling future hiring needs. As of December 31, 2023, the average tenure of our employees was 10 years and the average age was 49 years.

Approximately 70% of our employees work in one of our division offices, most of which are directly involved in the management and maintenance of our portfolio. These include property managers, maintenance engineers and technicians, HVAC technicians and project managers. Personnel salaries and related costs of employees directly involved in the management and maintenance of our portfolio are allocated to our portfolio and recorded as rental property and other expenses. Approximately 2% of our employees work in our corporate development department and are directly involved in our development pipeline. When applicable, personnel salaries and related costs of such development employees are capitalized as a development expenditure. Approximately 3% of our employees are leasing professionals principally responsible for leasing our portfolio. When applicable, commissions and related costs of such leasing employees are capitalized as a leasing expenditure. Generally, all other employee costs are recorded as general and administrative expenses. In 2023, the total cost of our workforce, including salaries, commissions, bonuses, equity and non-equity incentive compensation and employee benefits, was approximately $59 million.

We continually conduct risk assessments of our human capital needs. Additionally, we prioritize succession planning across various levels of our company to ensure seamless transitions as employees are promoted, retire or otherwise depart from their current positions. One of our most significant human capital risks, which has been identified by many employers in our markets and throughout the country, is an expected shortage of trade professionals in the future, as there are fewer younger trade professionals entering the workforce to replace retiring workers. Approximately 34% of our employees are highly specialized and skilled trade professionals, such as maintenance engineers and technicians and HVAC technicians. The average
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age of our trade professionals is 53 years, which is approximately five years older than the average age of the remainder of our employee base. To proactively combat the potential future shortage of skilled trade professionals, we have partnered with local trade schools in some of our markets to implement an apprenticeship program to encourage and incentivize younger workers to obtain the technical skills necessary to become a trade professional. In turn, we hope this program will create a pipeline of future maintenance engineers and technicians and HVAC technicians to join our company.

Total Rewards. We strive to provide career opportunities in an energized, inclusive and collaborative environment tailored to retain, attract and reward highly performing employees. We do so in a culture built on the foundations of collegiality, teamwork, hard work, humility, creativity, humor, respect, acceptance, expertise and dedication to each other, our stockholders and our customers.

Our total rewards program, which includes compensation and comprehensive benefits, is crafted to provide fair and competitive pay, insurance plans and other programs to facilitate an overall work-life balance. The program is designed to incentivize and reward employees and emphasize our commitment to exemplary work.

Our total rewards program is constructed to meet certain objectives, such as:

Competitiveness: Compensate with fair pay for comparable jobs within the current labor market in which we compete for talent (none of our full-time employees earns less than $15.00 per hour);

Fairness: Reward positive and successful achievements through a consistent pay-for-performance approach administered throughout our company, including fair and equitable pay for all employees;

Career: Communicate performance expectations and provide career enrichment and/or advancement opportunities to promote our long-term commitment to employees;

Respect: Support a diverse and accepting team striving to maintain balance between career and personal life; and

Culture: Create and preserve an environment where employees are acknowledged, honored and rewarded for hard work, creativity, energy, collegiality, teamwork, initiative and a measured drive to achieve, all in an honest and respectful manner.

In addition to offering competitive salaries and wages, we offer comprehensive, locally relevant and innovative benefits to all eligible employees. These include, among other benefits:

Comprehensive health insurance coverage;

Attractive paid time off, including up to 25 vacation days (depending on tenure), two personal holidays, nine company-wide holidays, one volunteer day, sick leave and parental leave for all new caregivers;

Competitive match on contributions to our 401(k) retirement savings plan, in which over 97% of our employees participate; and

15% discount on purchasing Common Stock through our employee stock purchase plan, in which nearly 29% of our employees participate.

All employees are paid a base salary. Nearly 50% of employees are eligible to receive an annual bonus, which usually ranges from 5% to 30% of the employee’s base salary. All employees are also eligible to receive a discretionary bonus from time to time to incentivize and reward excellent performance. Approximately 15% to 30% of employees typically receive a discretionary bonus each year, which usually ranges from $500 to $2,000.

Approximately 8% of our employees, including officers, are also eligible to receive long-term equity incentive compensation. Equity incentive awards provide such employees with an ownership interest in our company and a direct and demonstrable stake in our success. Equity incentive awards for non-officer employees are comprised of time-based restricted stock, which serves as a retention tool to deter participants from seeking other employment opportunities. Time-based restricted stock vests ratably on an annual basis, generally over a four-year term, and if an employee receiving such stock leaves, unvested shares are immediately forfeited except in the event of death, disability or as otherwise provided in our retirement plan.

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Other than as described below, we have no compensation policies or programs that reward employees solely on a transaction-specific basis.

We have a development cash incentive plan pursuant to which all employees, excluding executive officers, can receive a cash payout from a development incentive pool. The amount of funds available to be earned under the plan depends upon the timing and cash yields of a qualifying development project and is included in the pro forma budget for the project. Payouts under the plan have generally ranged from $1,000 to $10,000 but could be higher under certain circumstances.

We also pay our in-house leasing professionals commissions for signed leases. We believe such commissions, which are paid in cash, are comparable to what we would pay in commission fees to outside brokers.

We do not believe that we have compensation policies or practices that create risks that are reasonably likely to have a material adverse effect on our company. For example, the development cash incentive program does not create an inappropriate risk because all development projects (inclusive of any such incentive compensation) must be approved in advance by our executive officers and, in most cases, the full board or the investment committee of our board, none of whom are eligible to receive such incentives. Likewise, the payment of leasing commissions does not create an inappropriate risk because amounts payable are derived from net effective cash rents (which deducts leasing capital expenditures and operating expenses) and leases must be executed by an officer of our company, none of whom are eligible to receive such commissions. Generally, lease transactions of a particular size or that contain terms or conditions that exceed certain guidelines also must be approved in advance by our senior leadership team. Additionally, we have an internal guideline whereby customers that account for more than 3% of our annualized revenues are periodically reviewed with the board. As of December 31, 2023, only Bank of America (4.0%) and Asurion (3.5%) accounted for more than 3% of our annualized GAAP revenues.

Health and Safety. Primarily because many of our employees are involved with the management and maintenance of our own portfolio, we have robust health and safety processes and training protocols designed to mitigate workplace incidents, risks and hazards. Among other things, we routinely conduct:

regulatory-required training of affected employees regarding OSHA compliance;

training on fire and life safety systems affecting our buildings and building systems;

training on emergency response procedures affecting our people, our buildings and our customers;

simulations and table-top exercises to ensure our crisis management and business continuity plans are effective; and

training on pandemic safety affecting our people, our buildings and our customers.

Employee Well-being. We believe a resilient portfolio starts with having resilient employees. Our well-being initiatives focus on the “whole person,” as we are concerned not only for the on-the-job health and safety of our employees, but also for their ability to lead healthy and productive personal lives. To that end, we have established wellness committees in each of our locations and have a “HIW Well-being” program to promote holistic well-being. Our health benefit plans are designed to improve the overall health of our employees by decreasing costs and improving access to quality healthcare.

Employee Empowerment. While we own and operate a collection of high-quality office assets, we believe our team of dedicated real estate professionals is also critically important to our success. Since the beginning of 2018, by simplifying and streamlining our operations, we have reduced our overall headcount by nearly 100. This right-sizing of our employee base has created, and will continue to create, opportunities for individual career growth. The Company has long demonstrated a commitment to individual career growth. For example, nearly half of our current employees have had significant career advancement during their tenure with us. Through periodic career conversations that are held at least once a year with our employees, we create an environment that fosters and encourages an “ownership” mentality throughout our company and empowers our employees to continuously seek new and better ways of doing business.

In addition to supporting the career growth of our employees, we also seek to grow as an employer. We periodically solicit feedback from our employees through the use of employee engagement surveys to monitor and improve employee satisfaction in order to retain and recruit a talented workforce. During 2021, we surveyed all of our employees with respect to diversity and inclusion and many of our employees with respect to work environment satisfaction. We conducted an engagement survey in each of the last two years.

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Diversity and Inclusion. Diversity and inclusion is a core value for our company. We strive to create a diverse and inclusive environment in an authentic and meaningful way. We are an equal opportunity employer, with all qualified applicants receiving consideration for employment without regard to race, color, religion, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, national origin, disability or protected veteran status. As of December 31, 2023, 37% of our employees were female and 28% of our employees were persons of color. Of the new employees hired during 2023, 45% were female and 41% were persons of color.

We have a robust diversity and inclusion program, called the “Heart of Highwoods,” with the overall goal of creating opportunities for all people in the commercial real estate industry, in the local communities in which we operate and among our own teammates at the Company. First, like all federal government contractors, we have established goals and methods to be sure we are providing opportunities to small and minority vendors to compete for work with our company. Second, we are providing opportunities for our employees to volunteer within their communities through the recently added paid volunteer time off benefit and an additional paid holiday on Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, a national day of service. Third, we have a diversity and inclusion group, called the “DIG,” made up of employees who advocate for diversity and inclusion throughout our company. In 2023, the DIG focused its efforts on fostering Company-wide communication and inclusion, supporting our partnerships with local schools and programs that support students with limited economic resources and continuing to expand and diversify our vendor base.

ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS

An investment in our securities involves various risks. Investors should carefully consider the following risk factors in conjunction with the other information contained in this Annual Report before trading in our securities. If any of these risks actually occur, our business, results of operations, prospects and financial condition could be adversely affected.

Risks Related to our Operations

The continued social acceptance, desirability and perceived economic benefits of work-from-home arrangements could materially and negatively impact the future demand for office space over the long-term. The COVID-19 pandemic had, and another pandemic in the future could have, repercussions across regional and global economies and financial markets. Most countries, including the United States, reacted to the pandemic by restricting many business and travel activities, mandating the partial or complete closures of certain businesses and schools and taking other actions to mitigate the spread of the virus, most of which had a disruptive effect on economic activity, including the use of and demand for office space. Many private businesses, including some of our customers, continue to permit some or all of their employees to work from home some or all of the time even after the pandemic has subsided. The continued social acceptance, desirability and perceived economic benefits of work-from-home arrangements initially prompted by the pandemic could materially and negatively impact future demand for office space over the long-term.

Adverse economic conditions in our markets that negatively impact the demand for office space, such as high unemployment, may result in lower occupancy and rental rates for our portfolio, which would adversely affect our results of operations. Our operating results heavily depend on successfully leasing and operating the office space in our portfolio. Economic growth and office employment levels in our core markets are important factors, among others, in predicting our future operating results.

The key components affecting our rental and other revenues are average occupancy, rental rates, cost recovery income, new developments placed in service, acquisitions and dispositions. Average occupancy generally increases during times of improving economic growth, as our ability to lease space outpaces vacancies that occur upon the expirations of existing leases. Average occupancy generally declines during times of slower or negative economic growth when new vacancies tend to outpace our ability to lease space. In addition, the timing of changes in occupancy levels tends to lag the timing of changes in overall economic activity and employment levels. Occupancy in our office portfolio decreased from 91.0% as of December 31, 2022 to 88.8% as of December 31, 2023. Average occupancy in future periods will be lower, perhaps significantly, if potential changes in customer behavior, such as the continued social acceptance, desirability and perceived economic benefits of work-from-home arrangements, result in reduced future demand for office space over the long-term. For additional information regarding our average occupancy and rental rate trends over the past five years, see “Item 2. Properties.” Lower rental revenues that result from lower average occupancy or lower rental rates with respect to our same property portfolio will adversely affect our results of operations unless offset by the impact of any newly acquired or developed properties or lower variable operating expenses, general and administrative expenses and/or interest expense.

In addition, prolonged market uncertainty and sustained economic downturns increase the likelihood that we will have to recognize a non-cash impairment in the value of our properties. Impairment charges adversely affect our results of operations.
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We record impairments of our real estate assets classified as held for use when the carrying amount of the asset exceeds the sum of its undiscounted future operating and residual cash flows at the difference between estimated fair value of the asset and the carrying amount. With respect to assets classified as held for use, we perform an impairment analysis if our evaluation of events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable, such as a significant decline in occupancy, identification of materially adverse legal or environmental factors, change in our designation of an asset from core to non-core, which may impact the anticipated holding period, or a decline in market value to an amount less than cost. This analysis consists of determining whether the asset’s carrying amount will be recovered from its undiscounted estimated future operating and residual cash flows. These cash flows are estimated based on a number of assumptions that are subject to economic and market uncertainties including, among others, demand for space, competition for customers, changes in market rental rates, costs to operate each property and estimated hold periods. Changes in any of these inputs, such as decreases in projected cash flows, increases in estimated capitalization rates or shortened hold periods for any reason such as positive or negative shifts in the commercial real estate sales market or anticipated changes in use, would increase the likelihood of an impairment being recorded with respect to any particular asset.

We face considerable competition in the leasing market and may be unable to renew existing leases or re-let space on terms similar to the existing leases, or we may spend significant capital in our efforts to renew and re-let space, which may adversely affect our results of operations. In addition to seeking to increase our average occupancy by leasing current vacant space, we also concentrate our leasing efforts on renewing existing leases. Because we compete with a number of other developers, owners and operators of office and office-oriented, mixed-use properties, we may be unable to renew leases with our existing customers and, if our current customers do not renew their leases, we may be unable to re-let the space to new customers. To the extent that we are able to renew existing leases or re-let such space to new customers, heightened competition resulting from adverse market conditions may require us to utilize rent concessions and tenant improvements to a greater extent than we anticipate or have historically. Further, changes in space utilization by our customers due to technology, economic conditions, business culture and/or a need for less space due to the increasing prevalence of work-from-home arrangements by certain employers also affect the occupancy of our properties. As a result, customers may seek to downsize by leasing less space from us upon any renewal.

If our competitors offer space at rental rates below current market rates or below the rental rates we currently charge our customers, we may lose existing and potential customers, and we may be pressured to reduce our rental rates below those we currently charge in order to retain customers upon expiration of their existing leases. Even if our customers renew their leases or we are able to re-let the space, the terms and other costs of renewal or re-letting, including the cost of required renovations, increased tenant improvement allowances, leasing commissions, reduced rental rates and other potential concessions, may be less favorable than the terms of our current leases and could require significant capital expenditures. From time to time, we may also agree to modify the terms of existing leases to incentivize customers to renew their leases. If we are unable to renew leases or re-let space in a reasonable time, or if our rental rates decline or our tenant improvement costs, leasing commissions or other costs increase, our financial condition and results of operations would be adversely affected.

Difficulties or delays in renewing leases with large customers or re-leasing space vacated by large customers could materially impact our results of operations. Our 20 largest customers account for a meaningful portion of our revenues. See “Item 2. Properties - Customers” and “Item 2. Properties - Lease Expirations.” There are no assurances that these customers, or any of our other large customers, will renew all or any of their space upon expiration of their current leases.

Some of our leases provide customers with the right to terminate their leases early, which could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. Certain of our leases permit our customers to terminate their leases as to all or a portion of the leased premises prior to their stated lease expiration dates under certain circumstances, such as providing notice by a certain date and, in many cases, paying a termination fee. To the extent that our customers exercise early termination rights, our results of operations will be adversely affected, and we can provide no assurances that we will be able to generate an equivalent amount of net effective rent by leasing the vacated space to others.

Our results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected by financial difficulties experienced by a major customer, or by a number of smaller customers, including bankruptcies, insolvencies or general downturns in business. Our operations depend on the financial stability of our customers. A default by a significant customer on its lease payments would cause us to lose the revenue and any other amounts due under such lease. In the event of a customer default or bankruptcy, we may experience delays in enforcing our rights as landlord and may incur substantial costs re-leasing the property. We cannot evict a customer solely because of its bankruptcy. On the other hand, a court might authorize the customer to reject and terminate its lease. In such case, our claim against the bankrupt customer for unpaid, future rent would be subject to a statutory cap that might be substantially less than the remaining rent actually owed under the lease. As a result, our claim for unpaid rent would likely not be paid in full and we may be required to write-off deferred leasing costs and recognize credit
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losses on accrued straight-line rents receivable. These events could adversely impact our financial condition and results of operations.

An oversupply of space in our markets often causes rental rates and occupancies to decline, making it more difficult for us to lease space at attractive rental rates, if at all. Undeveloped land in many of the markets in which we operate is generally more readily available and less expensive than in higher barrier-to-entry markets. As a result, even during times of positive economic growth, we and/or our competitors could construct new buildings that would compete with our existing properties. Any such oversupply could result in lower occupancy and rental rates in our portfolio, which would have a negative impact on our results of operations.

In order to maintain and/or increase the quality of our properties and successfully compete against other properties, we regularly must spend money to maintain, repair, renovate and improve our properties, which could negatively impact our financial condition and results of operations. If our properties are not as attractive to customers as properties owned by our competitors due to physical condition, lack of suitable nearby amenities or other similar factors, we could lose customers or suffer lower rental rates. As a result, we may from time to time make significant capital expenditures to maintain or enhance the competitiveness of our properties. There can be no assurances that any such expenditures would result in higher occupancy or higher rental rates or deter existing customers from relocating to properties owned by our competitors.

Costs of complying with governmental laws and regulations may adversely affect our results of operations. All real property and the operations conducted on real property are subject to federal, state and local laws and regulations relating to environmental protection and human health and safety. Some of these laws and regulations may impose joint and several liability on customers, owners or operators for the costs to investigate or remediate contaminated properties, regardless of fault or whether the acts causing the contamination were legal. In addition, the presence of hazardous substances, or the failure to properly remediate these substances, may hinder our ability to sell, rent or pledge such property as collateral for future borrowings.

Compliance with new laws or regulations or stricter interpretation of existing laws may require us to incur significant expenditures. Future laws or regulations may impose significant environmental liability. Additionally, our customers’ operations, operations in the vicinity of our properties such as the presence of underground storage tanks, or activities of unrelated third parties may affect our properties. In addition, there are various local, state and federal fire, health, life-safety and similar regulations with which we may be required to comply and that may subject us to liability in the form of fines or damages for noncompliance. Any expenditures, fines or damages we must pay would adversely affect our results of operations.

Discovery of previously undetected environmentally hazardous conditions may adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. Under various federal, state and local environmental laws and regulations, a current or previous property owner or operator may be liable for the cost to remove or remediate hazardous or toxic substances on such property. These costs could be significant. Such laws often impose liability whether or not the owner or operator knew of, or was responsible for, the presence of such hazardous or toxic substances. Environmental laws also may impose restrictions on the manner in which property may be used or businesses may be operated, and these restrictions may require significant expenditures or prevent us from entering into leases with prospective customers that may be impacted by such laws. Environmental laws provide for sanctions for noncompliance and may be enforced by governmental agencies or private parties. Certain environmental laws and common law principles could be used to impose liability for release of and exposure to hazardous substances, including asbestos-containing materials. Third parties may seek recovery from real property owners or operators for personal injury or property damage associated with exposure to released hazardous substances. The cost of defending against claims of liability, of complying with environmental regulatory requirements, of remediating any contaminated property, or of paying personal injury claims could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

Our same property results of operations would suffer if costs of operating our properties, such as real estate taxes, utilities, insurance, maintenance and other costs, rise faster than our ability to increase rental revenues and/or cost recovery income. While we receive additional rent from our customers that is based on recovering a portion of operating expenses, increased operating expenses will negatively impact our results of operations. Our revenues, including cost recovery income, are subject to longer-term leases and may not be quickly increased enough to recover an increase in operating costs and expenses. Furthermore, the costs associated with owning and operating a property are not necessarily reduced when circumstances such as market factors and competition cause a reduction in rental revenues from the property. Increases in same property operating expenses would adversely affect our results of operations unless offset by higher rental rates, higher cost recovery income, the impact of any newly acquired or developed properties, lower general and administrative expenses and/or lower interest expense.

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Natural disasters and climate change could have an adverse impact on our cash flow and operating results. Climate change may add to the unpredictability and frequency of natural disasters and severe weather conditions and create additional uncertainty as to future trends and exposures. Many of our buildings are located in areas that are subject to natural disasters and severe weather conditions such as hurricanes, earthquakes, droughts, snow storms, floods and fires. The impact of climate change or the occurrence of natural disasters can delay new development projects, increase investment costs to repair or replace damaged properties, increase operating costs, necessitate additional investment costs to make improvements to existing properties to comply with climate change regulations or otherwise reduce the carbon footprint of our portfolio, increase future property insurance costs and negatively impact the demand for office space.

Our insurance coverage on our properties may be inadequate. We carry insurance on all of our properties, including insurance for liability, fire, windstorms, floods, earthquakes, environmental concerns and business interruption. Insurance companies, however, limit or exclude coverage against certain types of losses, such as losses due to terrorist acts, named windstorms, earthquakes and toxic mold. Thus, we may not have insurance coverage, or sufficient insurance coverage, against certain types of losses and/or there may be decreases in the insurance coverage available. Should an uninsured loss or a loss in excess of our insured limits occur, we could lose all or a portion of the capital we have invested in a property or properties, as well as the anticipated future operating income from the property or properties. If any of our properties were to experience a catastrophic loss, it could disrupt our operations, delay revenue, result in large expenses to repair or rebuild the property and/or damage our reputation among our customers and investors generally. Further, if any of our insurance carriers were to become insolvent, we would be forced to replace the existing insurance coverage with another suitable carrier, and any outstanding claims would be at risk for collection. In such an event, we cannot be certain that we would be able to replace the coverage at similar or otherwise favorable terms. Such events could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

We have obtained title insurance policies for each of our properties, typically in an amount equal to its original purchase price. However, these policies may be for amounts less than the current or future value of our properties, particularly for land parcels on which we subsequently construct a building. In such event, if there is a title defect relating to any of our properties, we could lose some of the capital invested in and anticipated profits from such properties.

Failure to comply with Federal government contractor requirements could result in substantial costs and loss of substantial revenue. We are subject to compliance with a wide variety of complex legal requirements because we are a Federal government contractor. These laws regulate how we conduct business, require us to administer various compliance programs and require us to impose compliance responsibilities on some of our contractors. Our failure to comply with these laws could subject us to fines and penalties, cause us to be in default of our leases and other contracts with the Federal government and bar us from entering into future leases and other contracts with the Federal government.

We face risks associated with security breaches through cyber attacks, cyber intrusions, ransomware or otherwise, as well as other significant disruptions of our information technology (“IT”) networks and related systems. We face risks associated with security breaches through cyber attacks or cyber intrusions over the Internet, malware, ransomware, computer viruses, attachments to e-mails, persons inside our organization or persons with access to systems inside our organization, and other significant disruptions of IT networks and related systems owned or used by us. The risk of a security breach or disruption, particularly through cyber attack or cyber intrusion, including by computer hackers, foreign governments and cyber terrorists, has generally increased as the number, intensity and sophistication of attempted attacks and intrusions from around the world have increased. Our IT networks and related systems are essential to the operation of our business and our ability to perform day-to-day operations (including managing our building systems) and, in some cases, may be critical to the operations of certain customers of ours. Although we make efforts to maintain the security and integrity of these types of IT networks and related systems and have implemented various measures to manage the risk of a cybersecurity incident, there can be no assurance that our security efforts and measures will be effective or that attempted security breaches or disruptions would not be successful or damaging. Even the most well protected information, networks, systems and facilities remain potentially vulnerable because the techniques used in such attempted security breaches evolve and are not generally recognized until launched against a target, and in some cases are designed not to be detected and, in fact, may not be detected. Accordingly, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or implement adequate security barriers or other preventative measures, and thus it is impossible for us to entirely mitigate cybersecurity risks.

A cybersecurity incident involving IT networks and related systems owned or used by us could:

disrupt the proper functioning of our networks and systems and therefore our operations and/or our customers' operations;

result in misstated financial reports, violations of loan covenants, missed reporting deadlines and/or missed permitting deadlines;
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result in our inability to properly monitor our compliance with the rules and regulations regarding our qualification as a REIT;

result in the unauthorized access to, and destruction, loss, theft, misappropriation or release of, proprietary, confidential, sensitive or otherwise valuable information of ours or others, which others could use to compete against us or expose us to damage claims by third-parties for disruptive, destructive or otherwise harmful purposes and outcomes;

result in our inability to maintain the building systems relied upon by our customers for the efficient use of their leased space;

require significant management attention and resources to remedy any damages that result;

subject us to claims for breach of contract, damages, credits, penalties or termination of leases or other agreements; or

damage our reputation among our customers and investors generally.

Any or all of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.

Risks Related to our Investment Activities

Recent and future acquisitions and development properties may fail to perform in accordance with our expectations and may require renovation and development costs exceeding our estimates. In the normal course of business, we typically evaluate potential acquisitions, enter into non-binding letters of intent, and may, at any time, enter into contracts to acquire additional properties. Acquired properties may fail to perform in accordance with our expectations due to lease-up risk, renovation cost risks and other factors. In addition, the renovation and improvement costs we incur in bringing an acquired property up to our standards may exceed our original estimates. We may not have the financial resources to make suitable acquisitions or renovations on favorable terms or at all.

Further, we face significant competition for attractive investment opportunities from an indeterminate number of other real estate investors, including investors with significantly greater capital resources and access to capital than we have, such as domestic and foreign corporations and financial institutions, publicly-traded and privately-held REITs, private institutional investment funds, investment banking firms, life insurance companies and pension funds. Moreover, owners of office properties may be reluctant to sell, resulting in fewer acquisition opportunities. As a result of such increased competition and limited opportunities, we may be unable to acquire additional properties or the purchase price of such properties may be significantly elevated, which would reduce our expected return from making any such acquisitions.

In addition to acquisitions, we periodically consider developing or re-developing properties. Risks associated with development and re-development activities include:

the unavailability of favorable financing;

construction costs exceeding original estimates;

construction and lease-up delays resulting in increased debt service expense and construction costs; and

lower than anticipated occupancy rates and rents causing a property to be unprofitable or less profitable than originally estimated.

Development and re-development activities are also subject to risks relating to our ability to obtain, or delays in obtaining, any necessary zoning, land-use, building, occupancy and other required governmental and utility company authorizations. Further, we hold and expect to continue to acquire non-income producing land for future development. See “Item 2. Properties - Land Held for Development.” No assurances can be provided as to when, if ever, we will commence development projects on such land or if any such development projects would be on favorable terms. The fixed costs of acquiring and owning development land, such as the ongoing payment of property taxes, adversely affects our results of operations until such land is either placed in service or sold.

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Illiquidity of real estate investments and the tax effect of dispositions could significantly impede our ability to sell assets or respond to favorable or adverse changes in the performance of our properties. Because real estate investments are relatively illiquid, our ability to promptly sell one or more properties in our portfolio in response to changing economic, financial and investment conditions is limited. We intend to continue to sell some of our properties in the future as part of our investment strategy and activities. However, we cannot predict whether we will be able to sell any property for the price or on the terms set by us, or whether the price or other terms offered by a prospective purchaser would be acceptable to us. We also cannot predict the length of time needed to find a willing purchaser and close the sale of a property.

Certain of our properties have low tax bases relative to their estimated current market values, and accordingly, the sale of such assets would generate significant taxable gains unless we sold such properties in a tax-deferred exchange under Section 1031 of the Internal Revenue Code or another tax-free or tax-deferred transaction. For an exchange to qualify for tax-deferred treatment under Section 1031, the net proceeds from the sale of a property must be held by an escrow agent until applied toward the purchase of real estate qualifying for gain deferral. Given the competition for properties meeting our investment criteria, there could be a delay in reinvesting such proceeds or we may be unable to reinvest such proceeds at all. Any delay or limitation in using the reinvestment proceeds to acquire additional income producing assets could adversely affect our near-term results of operations. Additionally, in connection with tax-deferred 1031 transactions, our restricted cash balances may be commingled with other funds being held by any such escrow agent, which subjects our balance to the credit risk of the institution. If we sell properties outright in taxable transactions, we may elect to distribute some or all of the taxable gain to our stockholders under the requirements of the Internal Revenue Code for REITs, which in turn could negatively affect our future results of operations and may increase our leverage. If a transaction’s gain that is intended to qualify as a Section 1031 deferral is later determined to be taxable, we may face adverse consequences, and if the laws applicable to such transactions are amended or repealed, we may not be able to dispose of properties on a tax-deferred basis.

Our use of joint ventures may limit our control over and flexibility with jointly owned investments. From time to time, we own, develop and acquire properties in joint ventures with other persons or entities when circumstances warrant the use of these structures. Types of joint venture investments include noncontrolling ownership interests in entities such as partnerships and limited liability companies and tenant-in-common interests in which we own less than 100% of the undivided interests in a real estate asset. In some cases, we rely on our joint venture partners to manage and lease the properties. Our participation in joint ventures is subject to the risks that:

we could become engaged in a dispute with any of our joint venture partners that might affect our ability to develop or operate a property;

some of our joint ventures are subject to debt and the refinancing of such debt may require equity capital calls;

our joint venture partners may default on their obligations necessitating that we fulfill their obligation ourselves;

our joint ventures may be unable to repay any amounts that we may loan to them;

we may need our joint venture partner’s approval to take certain actions and, therefore, we may be unable to cause a joint venture to implement decisions that we consider advisable;

our joint venture partners may have different objectives than we have regarding the appropriate timing and terms of any renovation, sale or refinancing of properties;

with respect to certain joint ventures, our joint venture partner has a right to sell its interest to us under certain circumstances for fair market value (less estimated costs to sell) at various dates in the future;

with respect to certain joint ventures, our joint venture partner has a right to receive additional consideration from us or the joint venture under certain circumstances if and to the extent the internal rate of return on the applicable development project exceeds certain thresholds;

our joint venture partners may be structured differently than us for tax purposes, which could create conflicts of interest; and

we or our joint venture partners may have competing interests in our markets that could create conflicts of interest.

We face risks associated with the development of mixed-use commercial properties. We operate, are currently developing and may in the future develop properties either alone or through joint ventures with other persons that are known as
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“mixed-use” developments. This means that in addition to the development of office space, the project may also include space for residential, retail, hotel or other commercial purposes. We have less experience in developing and managing non-office real estate than we do with office real estate. As a result, if a development project includes a non-office use, we may seek to develop that component ourselves, sell the rights to that component to a third-party developer with experience in that use or we may seek to partner with such a developer. If we do not sell the rights or partner with such a developer, or if we choose to develop the other component ourselves, we would be exposed not only to those risks typically associated with the development of commercial real estate generally, but also to specific risks associated with the development and ownership of non-office real estate. In addition, even if we sell the rights to develop the other component or elect to participate in the development through a joint venture, we may be exposed to the risks associated with the failure of the other party to complete the development as expected. These include the risk that the other party would default on its obligations necessitating that we complete the other component ourselves (including providing any necessary financing).

We own certain properties subject to ground leases that limit our uses of the properties, restrict our ability to sell or otherwise transfer the properties and expose us to the loss of the properties if such agreements are breached by us, terminated or not renewed. As of December 31, 2023, we owned 2.8 million square feet of office space located on various land parcels that we lease on a long-term basis. Many of these ground leases impose significant limitations on our uses of the subject property, restrict our ability to sell or otherwise transfer our interests in the property or restrict our leasing of the property. These restrictions may limit our ability to timely sell or exchange the properties, impair the properties’ value or negatively impact our ability to find suitable customers for the properties. In addition, if we default under the terms of any particular ground lease, we may lose the ownership rights to the property subject to the ground lease. Upon expiration of a ground lease, we may not be able to renegotiate a new ground lease on favorable terms, if at all. The loss of the ownership rights to these properties or an increase of rental expense could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.

Risks Related to our Financing Activities

Our use of debt could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. We are subject to risks associated with debt financing, such as the sufficiency of cash flow to meet required payment obligations, ability to comply with financial ratios and other covenants and the availability of capital to refinance existing indebtedness or fund important business initiatives. If we breach covenants in our debt agreements, the lenders can declare a default and, if the debt is secured, can take possession of the property securing the defaulted loan. In addition, certain of our unsecured debt agreements contain cross-default provisions giving the unsecured lenders the right to declare a default if we are in default under more than $35.0 million with respect to other loans in some circumstances. Unwaived defaults under our debt agreements could materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

Further, we obtain credit ratings from Moody’s Investors Service and Standard and Poor’s Rating Services based on their evaluation of our creditworthiness. These agencies’ ratings are based on a number of factors, some of which are not within our control. In addition to factors specific to our financial strength and performance, the rating agencies also consider conditions affecting REITs generally. We cannot assure you that our credit ratings will not be downgraded. If our credit ratings are downgraded or other negative action is taken, we could be required, among other things, to pay additional interest and fees on outstanding borrowings under our revolving credit facility and bank term loans.

We generally do not intend to reserve funds to retire existing debt upon maturity. We may not be able to repay, refinance or extend any or all of our debt at maturity or upon any acceleration. If any refinancing is done at higher interest rates, the increased interest expense would adversely affect our cash flow and ability to pay distributions. Any such refinancing could also impose tighter financial ratios and other covenants that restrict our ability to take actions that could otherwise be in our best interest, such as funding new development activity, making opportunistic acquisitions, repurchasing our securities or paying distributions. If we do not meet our mortgage financing obligations, any properties securing such indebtedness could be foreclosed on.

We depend on our revolving credit facility for working capital purposes and for the short-term funding of our development and acquisition activity and, in certain instances, the repayment of other debt upon maturity. Our ability to borrow under the revolving credit facility also allows us to quickly capitalize on opportunities at short-term interest rates. If our lenders default under their obligations under the revolving credit facility or we become unable to borrow additional funds under the facility for any reason, we would be required to seek alternative equity or debt capital, which could be more costly and adversely impact our financial condition. If such alternative capital were unavailable, we may not be able to make new investments and could have difficulty repaying other debt.

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Increases in interest rates would increase our interest expense. As of December 31, 2023, we had $370.0 million of variable rate debt outstanding not protected by interest rate hedge contracts. We may incur additional variable rate debt in the future. If interest rates increase, then so would the interest expense on our unhedged variable rate debt, which would adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. From time to time, we manage our exposure to interest rate risk with interest rate hedge contracts that effectively fix or cap a portion of our variable rate debt. In addition, we utilize fixed rate debt at market rates. If interest rates decrease, the fair market value of any existing interest rate hedge contracts on outstanding fixed-rate debt would decline.

Our efforts to manage these exposures may not be successful. Our use of interest rate hedge contracts to manage risk associated with interest rate volatility may expose us to additional risks, including the risk that a counterparty to a hedge contract may fail to honor its obligations. Developing an effective interest rate risk strategy is complex and no strategy can completely insulate us from risks associated with interest rate fluctuations. There can be no assurance that our hedging activities will have the desired beneficial impact on our results of operations or financial condition. Termination of interest rate hedge contracts typically involves costs, such as transaction fees or breakage costs.

We face the risk that third parties will not be able to service or repay loans we make to them. From time to time, we have loaned, and in the future may loan, funds to a buyer to facilitate the sale of an asset or in connection with the formation of a joint venture to acquire and/or develop a property. Making these loans subjects us to the following risks, each of which could have a material adverse effect on our cash flow, results of operations and/or financial condition:

the third party may be unable to make full and timely payments of interest and principal on the loan when due;

if a buyer to whom we provide seller financing does not manage the property well, or the property otherwise fails to meet financial projections, performs poorly or declines in value, then the buyer may not have the funds or ability to raise new debt with which to make required payments of interest and principal to us and, if the seller financing is non-recourse, our only remedy in the event of a default would be to foreclose on the asset;

if we loan funds to a joint venture, and the joint venture is unable to make required payments of interest or principal, or both, or there are disagreements with respect to the repayment of the loan or other matters, then we could have a resulting dispute with our partner, and such a dispute could harm our relationship with our partner and cause delays in developing or selling the property or the failure to properly manage the property; and

if we loan funds to a joint venture and the joint venture is unable to make required payments of interest and principal, or both, then we may exercise remedies available to us in the joint venture agreement that could allow us to increase our ownership interest or our control over major decisions, or both, which could result in an unconsolidated joint venture becoming consolidated with our financial statements; doing so could require us to reallocate the purchase price among the various asset and liability components and this could result in material changes to our reported results of operations and financial condition.

Risks Related to our Status as a REIT

The Company may be subject to taxation as a regular corporation if it fails to maintain its REIT status, which could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s stockholders and on the Operating Partnership. We may be subject to adverse consequences if the Company fails to continue to qualify as a REIT for federal income tax purposes. While we intend to operate in a manner that will allow the Company to continue to qualify as a REIT, we cannot provide any assurances that the Company will remain qualified as such in the future, which could have particularly adverse consequences to the Company’s stockholders. Many of the requirements for taxation as a REIT are highly technical and complex and depend upon various factual matters and circumstances that may not be entirely within our control. The fact that the Company holds its assets through the Operating Partnership and its subsidiaries further complicates the application of the REIT requirements. Even a technical or inadvertent mistake could jeopardize our REIT status. Furthermore, Congress and the Internal Revenue Service might change the tax laws and regulations and the courts might issue new rulings that make it more difficult, or impossible, for the Company to remain qualified as a REIT. If the Company fails to qualify as a REIT, it would (a) not be allowed a deduction for dividends paid to stockholders in computing its taxable income, (b) be subject to federal income tax at regular corporate rates (and state and local taxes) and (c) unless entitled to relief under the tax laws, not be able to re-elect REIT status until the fifth calendar year after it failed to qualify as a REIT. Additionally, the Company would no longer be required to make distributions. As a result of these factors, the Company’s failure to qualify as a REIT could impair our ability to expand our business and adversely affect the price of our Common Stock.

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Even if we remain qualified as a REIT, we may face other tax liabilities that adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. Even if we remain qualified for taxation as a REIT, we may be subject to certain federal, state and local taxes on our income and assets, including taxes on any undistributed income, tax on income from some activities conducted as a result of a foreclosure, and state or local income, property and transfer taxes. In addition, our taxable REIT subsidiary is subject to regular corporate federal, state and local taxes. Any of these taxes would adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

Complying with REIT requirements may cause us to forego otherwise attractive opportunities or liquidate otherwise attractive investments. To remain qualified as a REIT for federal income tax purposes, we must continually satisfy tests concerning, among other things, the sources of our income, the nature and diversification of our assets, the amounts we distribute to our stockholders and the ownership of our capital stock. In order to meet these tests, we may be required to forego investments we might otherwise make. Compliance with the REIT requirements may limit our growth prospects.

In particular, we must ensure that at the end of each calendar quarter, at least 75% of the value of our assets consists of cash, cash items, government securities and qualified real estate assets. The remainder of our investment in securities (other than government securities, securities of taxable REIT subsidiaries and qualified real estate assets) generally cannot include more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of any one issuer or more than 10% of the total value of the outstanding securities of any one issuer. In addition, in general, no more than 5% of the value of our assets (other than government securities, securities of taxable REIT subsidiaries and qualified real estate assets) can consist of the securities of any one issuer, and no more than 25% of the value of our total assets can be represented by the securities of one or more taxable REIT subsidiaries. If we fail to comply with these requirements at the end of any calendar quarter, we must correct the failure within 30 days after the end of the calendar quarter or qualify for certain statutory relief provisions to avoid losing our REIT qualification and suffering adverse tax consequences. As a result, we may be required to liquidate otherwise attractive investments, which could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

The prohibited transactions tax may limit our ability to sell properties. A REIT’s net income from prohibited transactions is subject to a 100% tax. In general, prohibited transactions are sales or other dispositions of property held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business. We may be subject to the prohibited transaction tax equal to 100% of net gain upon a disposition of real property. Although a safe harbor to the characterization of the sale of real property by a REIT as a prohibited transaction is available, we cannot assure you that we can in all cases comply with the safe harbor or that we will avoid owning property that may be characterized as held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business. Consequently, we may choose not to engage in certain sales of our properties or may conduct such sales through our taxable REIT subsidiary, which would be subject to federal and state income taxation.

Dividends payable by REITs do not qualify for the reduced tax rates available for some dividends. Dividends payable by REITs to U.S. stockholders are taxed at a maximum individual rate of 33.4% (including the 3.8% net investment income tax and after factoring in a 20% deduction for pass-through income). The more favorable rates applicable to regular corporate qualified dividends could cause investors who are taxed at individual rates to perceive investments in REITs to be relatively less attractive than investments in the stocks of non-REIT corporations that pay dividends, which could adversely affect the value of the shares of REITs, including our stock.

We face possible tax audits. Because we are organized and qualify as a REIT, we are generally not subject to federal income taxes. We are, however, subject to federal, state and local taxes in certain instances. In the normal course of business, certain entities through which we own real estate have undergone tax audits. While tax deficiency notices from the jurisdictions conducting previous audits have not been material, there can be no assurance that future audits will not occur with increased frequency or that the ultimate result of such audits will not have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.

Risks Related to an Investment in our Securities

The price of our Common Stock is volatile and may decline. A number of factors may adversely influence the public market price of our Common Stock. These factors include:

the level of institutional interest in us;

the perceived attractiveness of investment in us, in comparison to other REITs;

the attractiveness of securities of REITs, and office REITs in particular, in comparison to other asset classes;

our financial condition and performance;
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the market’s perception of our business and growth prospects and potential future cash dividends;

government action or regulation, including changes in tax laws;

increases in market interest rates, which may lead investors to expect a higher annual yield from our distributions in relation to the price of our Common Stock;

changes in our credit ratings;

the issuance of additional shares of Common Stock, or the perception that such issuances might occur, including under our equity distribution agreements; and

any negative change in the level or stability of our dividend.

Tax elections regarding distributions may impact the future liquidity of the Company or our stockholders. Under certain circumstances, we may consider making a tax election to treat future distributions to stockholders as distributions in the current year. This election, which is provided for in the Internal Revenue Code, may allow us to avoid increasing our dividends or paying additional income taxes in the current year. However, this could result in a constraint on our ability to decrease our dividends in future years without creating risk of either violating the REIT distribution requirements or generating additional income tax liability.

Tax legislative or regulatory action could adversely affect us or our stockholders. In recent years, numerous legislative, judicial and administrative changes have been made to the U.S. federal income tax laws applicable to investments similar to an investment in our Common Stock. Additional changes to tax laws are likely to continue in the future, and we cannot assure you that any such changes will not adversely affect the taxation of us or our stockholders. Any such changes could have an adverse effect on an investment in our Common Stock, on the market value of our properties or the attractiveness of securities of REITs generally in comparison to other asset classes.

We cannot assure you that we will continue to pay dividends at historical rates. We generally expect to use cash flows from operating activities to fund dividends. For information regarding our dividend payment history as well as a discussion of the factors that influence the decisions of the Company’s Board of Directors regarding dividends and distributions, see “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Liquidity and Capital Resources - Dividends and Distributions.” Changes in our future dividend payout level could have a material effect on the market price of our Common Stock.

Cash distributions reduce the amount of cash that would otherwise be available for other business purposes, including paying off debt, reinvesting in our existing portfolio or funding future growth initiatives. For the Company to maintain its qualification as a REIT, it must annually distribute to its stockholders at least 90% of REIT taxable income, excluding net capital gains. In addition, although capital gains are not required to be distributed to maintain REIT status, taxable capital gains, if any, that are generated as part of our investment activities are subject to federal and state income tax unless such gains are distributed to our stockholders. Cash distributions made to stockholders to maintain REIT status or to distribute otherwise taxable capital gains limit our ability to accumulate capital for other business purposes, including paying off debt, reinvesting in our existing portfolio or funding future growth initiatives.

Further issuances of equity securities may adversely affect the market price of our Common Stock and may be dilutive to current stockholders. The sales of a substantial number of Common Shares, or the perception that such sales could occur, could adversely affect the market price of our Common Stock. We have filed a registration statement with the SEC allowing us to offer, from time to time, an indeterminate amount of equity securities (including Common Stock and Preferred Stock) on an as-needed basis and subject to our ability to effect offerings on satisfactory terms based on prevailing conditions. In addition, the Company’s Board of Directors has, from time to time, authorized the Company to issue shares of Common Stock pursuant to the Company’s equity sales agreements. The interests of our existing stockholders could be diluted if additional equity securities are issued to finance future developments and acquisitions or repay indebtedness. Our ability to execute our business strategy depends on our access to an appropriate blend of: non-core asset sales; debt financing, including unsecured lines of credit and other forms of secured and unsecured debt; and equity financing, including common equity.

We may change our policies without obtaining the approval of our stockholders. Our operating and financial policies, including our policies with respect to acquisitions of real estate, growth, operations, indebtedness, capitalization and dividends, are exclusively determined by the Company’s Board of Directors. Accordingly, our stockholders do not control these policies.
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Limits on changes in control may discourage takeover attempts beneficial to stockholders. Provisions in the Company’s charter and bylaws as well as Maryland general corporation law may have anti-takeover effects that delay, defer or prevent a takeover attempt. For example, these provisions may defer or prevent tender offers for our Common Stock or purchases of large blocks of our Common Stock, thus limiting the opportunities for the Company’s stockholders to receive a premium for their shares of Common Stock over then-prevailing market prices. These provisions include the following:

Ownership limit. The Company’s charter prohibits direct, indirect or constructive ownership by any person or entity of more than 9.8% of the Company’s outstanding capital stock. Any attempt to own or transfer shares of capital stock in excess of the ownership limit without the consent of the Company’s Board of Directors will be void.

Preferred Stock. The Company’s charter authorizes the Board of Directors to issue preferred stock in one or more classes and establish the preferences and rights of any class of preferred stock issued. These actions can be taken without stockholder approval. The issuance of preferred stock could have the effect of delaying or preventing someone from taking control of the Company, even if a change in control were in our best interest.

Business combinations. Pursuant to the Company’s charter and Maryland law, the Company cannot merge into or consolidate with another corporation or enter into a statutory share exchange transaction in which the Company is not the surviving entity or sell all or substantially all of its assets unless the Company’s Board of Directors adopts a resolution declaring the proposed transaction advisable and a majority of the stockholders voting together as a single class approve the transaction. Maryland law prohibits stockholders from taking action by written consent unless all stockholders consent in writing. The practical effect of this limitation is that any action required or permitted to be taken by the Company’s stockholders may only be taken if it is properly brought before an annual or special meeting of stockholders. The Company’s bylaws further provide that in order for a stockholder to properly bring any matter before a meeting, the stockholder must comply with requirements regarding advance notice. The foregoing provisions could have the effect of delaying until the next annual meeting stockholder actions that the holders of a majority of the Company’s outstanding voting securities favor. These provisions may also discourage another person from making a tender offer for the Company’s common stock, because such person or entity, even if it acquired a majority of the Company’s outstanding voting securities, would likely be able to take action as a stockholder, such as electing new directors or approving a merger, only at a duly called stockholders meeting. Maryland law also establishes special requirements with respect to business combinations between Maryland corporations and interested stockholders unless exemptions apply. Among other things, the law prohibits for five years a merger and other similar transactions between a corporation and an interested stockholder and requires a supermajority vote for such transactions after the end of the five-year period. The Company’s charter contains a provision exempting the Company from the Maryland business combination statute. However, we cannot assure you that this charter provision will not be amended or repealed at any point in the future.

Control share acquisitions. Maryland general corporation law also provides that control shares of a Maryland corporation acquired in a control share acquisition have no voting rights except to the extent approved by a vote of two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter, excluding shares owned by the acquirer or by officers or employee directors. The control share acquisition statute does not apply to shares acquired in a merger, consolidation or share exchange if the corporation is a party to the transaction, or to acquisitions approved or exempted by the corporation’s charter or bylaws. The Company’s bylaws contain a provision exempting from the control share acquisition statute any stock acquired by any person. However, we cannot assure you that this bylaw provision will not be amended or repealed at any point in the future.

Maryland unsolicited takeover statute. Under Maryland law, the Company’s Board of Directors could adopt various anti-takeover provisions without the consent of stockholders. The adoption of such measures could discourage offers for the Company or make an acquisition of the Company more difficult, even when an acquisition would be in the best interest of the Company’s stockholders.

Anti‑takeover protections of operating partnership agreement. Upon a change in control of the Company, the partnership agreement of the Operating Partnership requires certain acquirers to maintain an umbrella partnership real estate investment trust structure with terms at least as favorable to the limited partners as are currently in place. For instance, the acquirer would be required to preserve the limited partner’s right to continue to hold tax-deferred partnership interests that are redeemable for capital stock of the acquirer. Exceptions would require the approval of two-thirds of the limited partners of our Operating Partnership (other than the Company). These provisions may make a change of control transaction involving the Company more complicated and therefore might decrease the likelihood of such a transaction occurring, even if such a transaction would be in the best interest of the Company’s stockholders.
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ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.
ITEM 1C. CYBERSECURITY

We face risks associated with security breaches through cyber attacks, cyber intrusions or otherwise, and other significant disruptions of information technology networks and related systems. See also “Item 1A. Risk Factors – Risks Related to our Operations – We face risks associated with security breaches through cyber attacks, cyber intrusions, ransomware or otherwise, as well as other significant disruptions of our information technology (“IT”) networks and related systems.” We have never experienced any cybersecurity incidents that have materially affected or are reasonably likely to materially affect us, including our business strategy, results of operations or financial condition. With the assistance of a third party technology consulting firm, we have adopted and implemented an approach to identify and mitigate cybersecurity risks. For example, we are in the process of adopting and implementing many of the voluntary practices recommended under the National Institute of Standards and Technology cybersecurity framework, which we believe is a best practice for U.S.-based real estate companies.

Management’s information technology steering committee, which is led by the chief information officer and includes all of our executive officers, is responsible for assessing and managing material risks from cybersecurity threats from our own information technology networks and systems we use that are owned by third party service providers. Ryan Hunt has served as our chief information officer since June 2021. Mr. Hunt joined us in 1997 and quickly transitioned his focus to technology. He began his technology career on the IT help desk, served in various other roles within the technology department and most recently served in the role of senior director of application development. Mr. Hunt earned his Bachelor of Science degree in Management Information Systems from North Carolina State University.

Under the direction of our chief information officer with oversight from management’s steering committee, the Company has implemented a cybersecurity incident response plan that sets forth a process for detecting and responding to cybersecurity incidents, determining their scope and risk, developing an appropriate response to mitigate and remediate the incident, communicating effectively to all stakeholders and participants and reducing the likelihood of similar future incidents. In the event of a real or perceived cybersecurity incident, the chief information officer would, as soon as practicable, inform management’s steering committee, the members of which would then collaborate with the chief information officer to manage material risks.

As part of our overall enterprise risk management processes and to better evaluate our cybersecurity risks, we have conducted a business impact analysis by leveraging our annual company-wide enterprise risk management assessment to understand the relationship between our critical business operations and our information technology systems. We partner with a third party service provider to assist us on a real-time basis with detecting advanced threats, streamline and collaborate on investigations and recommend actions to further strengthen our systems and, if and when necessary, respond to incidents. In addition, we regularly engage independent third parties to test our cybersecurity processes and systems through consulting, independent audits and penetration testing. We also have a cyber risk insurance policy designed to help us mitigate risk exposure by offsetting costs involved with recovery and remediation after a cybersecurity breach or similar event.

We regularly conduct cybersecurity training to ensure all employees are aware of cybersecurity risks and to enable them to take steps to mitigate such risks. For example, all employees are required to successfully complete a cybersecurity risk module and assessment on a quarterly basis. As part of this program, we also take reasonable steps to ensure any employee who may come into possession of confidential financial or health information has received appropriate cybersecurity awareness training and, if applicable, payment card industry (PCI) training.

The audit committee of the Company’s Board of Directors is responsible for overseeing management’s information technology steering committee as well as management’s risk assessment and risk management processes designed to monitor and control cybersecurity threats. Management’s steering committee, led by the Company’s chief information officer, regularly briefs the audit committee on cybersecurity matters. These briefings generally occur on a quarterly basis. In the event we experience a cybersecurity incident that could materially affect us, including our business strategy, results of operations or financial condition, the Company’s chief information officer and other members of management’s steering committee (which include executive officers who are also part of our disclosure committee) would review the incident with the audit committee to consider whether and to what extent disclosure is required under Item 1.05 of Form 8-K.
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ITEM 2. PROPERTIES

Properties

The following table sets forth information about our portfolio by geographic location as of December 31, 2023:

MarketRentable
Square Feet
OccupancyPercentage of Annualized GAAP Rental Revenue (1)
Raleigh6,197,000 90.2 %22.2 %
Nashville5,099,000 89.9 20.7 
Atlanta4,931,000 86.2 16.5 
Tampa3,224,000 87.4 12.3 
Charlotte1,973,000 95.6 10.8 
Orlando1,790,000 93.5 6.5 
Richmond1,843,000 81.7 4.2 
Other2,155,000 86.1 6.8 
Total27,212,000 88.8 %100.0 %
__________
(1)Annualized GAAP Rental Revenue is GAAP rental revenue (base rent plus cost recovery income, including straight-line rent) from our office properties for the month of December 2023 multiplied by 12.

The following table sets forth the net changes in rentable square footage of our portfolio:

Year Ended December 31,
202320222021
(in thousands)
Acquisitions— 367 2,266 
Developments Placed In-Service— 263 897 
Remeasurements/Other(11)(3)
Dispositions(383)(437)(1,661)
Net Change in Rentable Square Footage(378)182 1,499 

The following table sets forth operating information about our portfolio:

Average
Occupancy
Annualized GAAP Rent
Per Square
Foot (1)
Annualized Cash Rent
Per Square
Foot (2)
201991.4 %$26.46 $25.06 
202090.7 %$29.23 $28.21 
202190.0 %$30.75 $29.63 
202290.8 %$31.89 $30.51 
202389.2 %$32.79 $32.18 
__________
(1)Annualized GAAP Rent Per Square Foot is rental revenue (base rent plus cost recovery income, including straight-line rent) for the month of December of the respective year multiplied by 12, divided by total occupied rentable square footage.
(2)Annualized Cash Rent Per Square Foot is cash rental revenue (base rent plus cost recovery income, excluding straight-line rent) for the month of December of the respective year multiplied by 12, divided by total occupied rentable square footage.

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Customers

The following table sets forth information concerning the 20 largest customers in our portfolio as of December 31, 2023:

CustomerRentable Square
Feet
Annualized
GAAP Rental
Revenue (1)
Percent of
Total
Annualized
GAAP Rental
Revenue (1)
Weighted
Average
Remaining
Lease Term in
Years
(in thousands)
Bank of America648,440 $31,544 3.98 %10.0 
Asurion543,794 27,473 3.47 12.8 
Federal Government784,598 22,177 2.80 4.7 
Metropolitan Life Insurance667,228 20,280 2.56 7.2 
Bridgestone Americas506,128 19,934 2.52 13.7 
PPG Industries370,927 10,732 1.35 7.5 
Mars Petcare223,700 9,820 1.24 7.4 
Vanderbilt University294,389 9,109 1.15 2.4 
EQT317,052 7,905 1.00 0.8 
Bass, Berry & Sims213,951 7,649 0.97 1.1 
Albemarle Corporation162,368 7,270 0.92 10.1 
Deloitte & Touche158,914 6,630 0.84 6.1 
J.P. Morgan Chase & Co.183,864 6,492 0.82 4.4 
Novelis168,949 5,863 0.74 0.7 
Lifepoint Corporate Services202,991 5,759 0.73 5.2 
State of Georgia288,443 5,622 0.71 1.3 
Regus169,833 5,498 0.69 4.8 
CapFinancial Group120,847 5,447 0.69 9.6 
Delta Community Credit Union128,589 5,250 0.66 8.8 
The Cigna Group180,728 5,080 0.64 4.0 
Total6,335,733 $225,534 28.48 %7.6 
__________
(1)Annualized GAAP Rental Revenue is GAAP rental revenue (base rent plus cost recovery income, including straight-line rent) for the month of December 2023 multiplied by 12.

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Lease Expirations

The following table sets forth scheduled lease expirations for existing leases in our portfolio as of December 31, 2023:

Lease Expiring (1)
Number of Leases ExpiringRentable
Square Feet
Subject to
Expiring
Leases
Percentage of
Leased Square
Footage
Represented
by Expiring
Leases
Annualized
GAAP Rental
Revenue
Under Expiring
Leases (2)
Average
Annual GAAP
Rental Rate
Per Square
Foot for
Expirations
Percent of
Annualized
GAAP Rental
Revenue
Represented
by Expiring
Leases (2)
(in thousands)
2024 (3)
446 2,381,298 9.9 %$71,281 $29.93 9.0 %
2025432 3,390,298 14.0 100,995 29.79 12.7 
2026327 2,439,609 10.1 74,552 30.56 9.4 
2027278 2,416,406 10.0 74,053 30.65 9.3 
2028228 2,469,053 10.2 79,941 32.38 10.1 
2029158 1,671,077 6.9 50,873 30.44 6.4 
2030161 1,939,855 8.0 60,274 31.07 7.6 
203181 2,415,349 10.0 79,928 33.09 10.1 
203256 868,526 3.6 32,537 37.46 4.1 
203348 1,108,657 4.6 40,423 36.46 5.1 
Thereafter100 3,061,210 12.7 127,349 41.60 16.2 
2,315 24,161,338 100.0 %$792,206 $32.79 100.0 %
__________
(1)Expirations that have been renewed are reflected above based on the renewal expiration date. Expirations include leases related to completed not stabilized development properties but exclude leases related to developments in-process.
(2)Annualized GAAP Rental Revenue is GAAP rental revenue (base rent plus cost recovery income, including straight-line rent) for the month of December 2023 multiplied by 12.
(3)Includes 59,000 rentable square feet of leases that are on a month-to-month basis, which represent 0.2% of total annualized GAAP rental revenue.

In-Process Development

The following table summarizes our in-process office development activity as of December 31, 2023:

PropertyMarketOwn %Consolidated (Y/N)Rentable Square Feet
Anticipated Total Investment (1)
Investment as of December 31, 2023Pre Leased %Estimated CompletionEstimated Stabilization
($ in thousands)
23SpringsDallas50.0 %N642,000 $460,000 $150,421 33.4 %1Q 251Q 28
Midtown EastTampa50.0 %N143,000 83,000 28,817 16.1 1Q 252Q 26
Four Morrocroft (2)
Charlotte100.0 %Y18,000 12,000 9,392 100.0 2Q 242Q 24
803,000 $555,000 $188,630 31.8 %
__________
(1)Includes estimated lease up costs for tenant improvements and lease commissions until the property has reached stabilization.
(2)Investment includes deferred lease commissions which are classified in deferred leasing costs on our Consolidated Balance Sheet.
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Land Held for Development

As of December 31, 2023, we estimate that we can develop approximately 4.9 million rentable square feet of office space on the wholly-owned development land that we consider core assets for our future development needs. Our core office development land is zoned and available for development, and nearly all of the land has utility infrastructure in place. We believe that our commercially zoned and unencumbered land gives us a development advantage over other commercial office development companies in many of our markets. We also own additional development land on which we or third parties can develop approximately 2.8 million square feet of mixed-use real estate projects, including retail and multi-family.

Joint Venture Investments

The following table sets forth information about our in-service joint venture investments by geographic location as of December 31, 2023:

Rentable
Square Feet
Weighted
Average
Ownership
Interest (1)
Occupancy
Market
Dallas542,000 50.0 %98.2 %
Kansas City (2)
292,000 50.0 94.3 
Richmond (3)
351,000 50.0 93.7 
Tampa (4)
152,000 80.0 99.8 
Total1,337,000 53.4 %96.4 %
__________
(1)Weighted Average Ownership Interest is calculated using Rentable Square Feet.
(2)Excludes our 26.5% ownership interest in a real estate brokerage services company.
(3)The joint venture in Richmond was deconsolidated effective January 1, 2023 and is now accounted for using the equity method of accounting.
(4)The joint venture in Tampa is consolidated.

In addition, we own 50.0% interests in 2827 Peachtree (Atlanta), Granite Park Six (Dallas), 23Springs (Dallas) and Midtown East (Tampa), four unconsolidated joint ventures that are currently developing projects that have not yet been placed in service.

ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

From time to time, we are a party to a variety of legal proceedings, claims and assessments arising in the ordinary course of our business. We regularly assess the liabilities and contingencies in connection with these matters based on the latest information available. For matters where it is probable that we have incurred or will incur a loss and the loss or range of loss can be reasonably estimated, the estimated loss is accrued and charged to income in our Consolidated Financial Statements. In other instances, because of the uncertainties related to both the probable outcome and amount or range of loss, a reasonable estimate of liability, if any, cannot be made. Based on the current expected outcome of such matters, none of these proceedings, claims or assessments is expected to have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.
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ITEM X. INFORMATION ABOUT OUR EXECUTIVE OFFICERS

The Company is the sole general partner of the Operating Partnership. The following table sets forth information with respect to the Company’s executive officers:

NameAgePosition and Background
Theodore J. Klinck58Director, President and Chief Executive Officer.
Mr. Klinck became a director and our chief executive officer in September 2019. Prior to that, Mr. Klinck was our president and chief operating officer since November 2018, our executive vice president and chief operating and investment officer from September 2015 to November 2018 and was senior vice president and chief investment officer from March 2012 to August 2015. Before joining us, Mr. Klinck served as principal and chief investment officer with Goddard Investment Group, a privately owned real estate investment firm. Previously, Mr. Klinck had been a managing director at Morgan Stanley Real Estate. Mr. Klinck is a member of NAREIT's Executive Board and the Raleigh Chamber Board and is chair of the First Tee of the Triangle.
Brian M. Leary49
Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer.
Mr. Leary became chief operating officer in July 2019. Previously, Mr. Leary served as president of the commercial and mixed-use business unit of Crescent Communities since 2014. Prior to joining Crescent, Mr. Leary held senior management positions with Jacoby Development, Inc., Atlanta Beltline, Inc., AIG Global Real Estate, Atlantic Station, LLC and Central Atlanta Progress.

Brendan C. Maiorana48Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer.
Mr. Maiorana became executive vice president of finance in July 2019 and assumed the roles of treasurer in January 2021 and chief financial officer in January 2022. Prior to that, Mr. Maiorana was our senior vice president of finance and investor relations since May 2016. Prior to joining Highwoods, Mr. Maiorana spent 11 years in equity research at Wells Fargo Securities. Prior to that, Mr. Maiorana worked four years at Ernst & Young LLP.
Jeffrey D. Miller53Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary.
Prior to joining us in March 2007, Mr. Miller was a partner with DLA Piper US, LLP, where he practiced since 2005. Previously, Mr. Miller had been a partner with Alston & Bird LLP. Mr. Miller is admitted to practice in North Carolina. Mr. Miller served as lead independent director of Hatteras Financial Corp., a publicly-traded mortgage REIT (NYSE:HTS), prior to its merger with Annaly Capital Management, Inc. (NYSE:NLY) in July 2016. Mr. Miller is a trustee of Ravenscroft School and a member of the Wake Forest School of Law Board of Visitors.
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PART II

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Our Common Stock is traded on the NYSE under the symbol “HIW.” On December 31, 2023, the Company had 602 common stockholders of record. There is no public trading market for the Common Units. On December 31, 2023, the Operating Partnership had 97 holders of record of Common Units (other than the Company). As of December 31, 2023, there were 105.7 million shares of Common Stock outstanding and 2.2 million Common Units outstanding not owned by the Company.

For information regarding our dividend payment history as well as a discussion of the factors that influence the decisions of the Company’s Board of Directors regarding dividends and distributions, see “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Liquidity and Capital Resources - Dividends and Distributions.”

The following total return performance graph compares the performance of our Common Stock to the S&P 500 Index, the FTSE NAREIT All Equity REITs Index and the FTSE NAREIT Equity Office Index. The total return performance graph assumes an investment of $100 in our Common Stock and the three indices on December 31, 2018, and further assumes the reinvestment of all dividends. The FTSE NAREIT All Equity REITs Index is a free-float adjusted, market capitalization-weighted index of U.S. equity REITs. The FTSE NAREIT Equity Office Index consists of those REITs in the FTSE NAREIT All Equity REITs Index that principally operate in the office sector. In future years, we plan to discontinue inclusion of the FTSE NAREIT All Equity REITs Index because management believes a comparison of our performance to the performance of the FTSE NAREIT Equity Office Index would provide a more relevant comparison and therefore be more useful to investors. Total return performance is not necessarily indicative of future results.

123123 Performance Graph.jpg

For the Period from December 31, 2018 to December 31,
Index20192020202120222023
Highwoods Properties, Inc.131.82 112.36 132.17 87.79 78.89 
S&P 500 Index131.49 155.68 200.37 164.08 207.21 
FTSE NAREIT All Equity REITs Index128.66 122.07 172.49 129.45 144.16 
FTSE NAREIT Equity Office Index131.42 107.19 130.77 81.58 83.23 

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The performance graph above is being furnished as part of this Annual Report solely in accordance with the requirement under Rule 14a-3(b)(9) to furnish the Company’s stockholders with such information and, therefore, is not deemed to be filed, or incorporated by reference in any filing, by the Company or the Operating Partnership under the Securities Act of 1933 or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

The Company has a Dividend Reinvestment and Stock Purchase Plan (“DRIP”) under which holders of Common Stock may elect to automatically reinvest their dividends in additional shares of Common Stock and make optional cash payments for additional shares of Common Stock. The Company satisfies its DRIP obligations by instructing the DRIP administrator to purchase Common Stock in the open market.

The Company has an Employee Stock Purchase Plan (“ESPP”) pursuant to which employees may contribute up to 25% of their cash compensation for the purchase of Common Stock. At the end of each quarter, each participant’s account balance, which includes accumulated dividends, is applied to acquire shares of Common Stock at a cost that is calculated at 85% of the average closing price on the NYSE on the five consecutive days preceding the last day of the quarter. Generally, shares purchased under the ESPP must be held at least one year. The Company satisfies its ESPP obligations by issuing additional shares of Common Stock.

Information about the Company’s equity compensation plans and other related stockholder matters is incorporated herein by reference to the Company’s Proxy Statement to be filed in connection with its annual meeting of stockholders to be held on May 14, 2024.
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ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

You should read the following discussion and analysis in conjunction with the accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements and related notes contained elsewhere herein.

Disclosure Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

Some of the information in this Annual Report may contain forward-looking statements. Such statements include, in particular, statements about our plans, strategies and prospects under this section and under the heading “Item 1. Business.” You can identify forward-looking statements by our use of forward-looking terminology such as “may,” “will,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “continue” or other similar words. Although we believe that our plans, intentions and expectations reflected in or suggested by such forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot assure you that our plans, intentions or expectations will be achieved. When considering such forward-looking statements, you should keep in mind important factors that could cause our actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statement, including the following:

the financial condition of our customers could deteriorate;

our assumptions regarding potential losses related to customer financial difficulties could prove incorrect;

counterparties under our debt instruments, particularly our revolving credit facility, may attempt to avoid their obligations thereunder, which, if successful, would reduce our available liquidity;

we may not be able to lease or re-lease second generation space, defined as previously occupied space that becomes available for lease, quickly or on as favorable terms as old leases;

we may not be able to lease newly constructed buildings as quickly or on as favorable terms as originally anticipated;

we may not be able to complete development, acquisition, reinvestment, disposition or joint venture projects as quickly or on as favorable terms as anticipated;

development activity in our existing markets could result in an excessive supply relative to customer demand;

our markets may suffer declines in economic and/or office employment growth;

unanticipated increases in interest rates could increase our debt service costs;

unanticipated increases in operating expenses could negatively impact our operating results;

natural disasters and climate change could have an adverse impact on our cash flow and operating results;

we may not be able to meet our liquidity requirements or obtain capital on favorable terms to fund our working capital needs and growth initiatives or repay or refinance outstanding debt upon maturity; and

the Company could lose key executive officers.

This list of risks and uncertainties, however, is not intended to be exhaustive. You should also review the other cautionary statements we make in “Item 1A. Risk Factors” set forth in this Annual Report. Given these uncertainties, you should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements. We undertake no obligation to publicly release the results of any revisions to these forward-looking statements to reflect any future events or circumstances or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events.

Executive Summary

We are in the work-placemaking business. We believe that by creating environments and experiences where the best and brightest can achieve together what they cannot apart, we can deliver greater value to our customers, their teammates and, in turn, our stakeholders. Our simple strategy is to own and operate high-quality workplaces in the BBDs within our footprint, maintain a strong balance sheet to be opportunistic throughout economic cycles, employ a talented and dedicated team and
28

communicate transparently with all stakeholders. We focus on owning and managing buildings in the most dynamic and vibrant BBDs. BBDs are highly-energized and amenitized workplace locations that enhance our customers’ ability to attract and retain talent. They are both urban and suburban. Providing the most talent-supportive workplace options in these environments is core to our work-placemaking strategy.

Our investment strategy is to generate attractive and sustainable returns over the long term for our stockholders by developing, acquiring and owning a portfolio of high-quality, differentiated office buildings in the BBDs of our core markets. A core component of this strategy is to continuously strengthen the financial and operational performance, resiliency and long-term growth prospects of our existing in-service portfolio and recycle those properties that no longer meet our criteria.

Revenues

Our operating results depend heavily on successfully leasing and operating the office space in our portfolio. Economic growth and office employment levels in our core markets are important factors, among others, in predicting our future operating results.

The key components affecting our rental and other revenues are average occupancy, rental rates, cost recovery income, new developments placed in service, acquisitions and dispositions. Average occupancy generally increases during times of improving economic growth, as our ability to lease space outpaces vacancies that occur upon the expirations of existing leases. Average occupancy generally declines during times of slower or negative economic growth, when new vacancies tend to outpace our ability to lease space. Asset acquisitions, dispositions and new developments placed in service directly impact our rental revenues and could impact our average occupancy, depending upon the occupancy rate of the properties that are acquired, sold or placed in service. A further indicator of the predictability of future revenues is the expected lease expirations of our portfolio. As a result, in addition to seeking to increase our average occupancy by leasing current vacant space, we also concentrate our leasing efforts on renewing existing leases prior to expiration. For more information regarding our lease expirations, see “Item 2. Properties - Lease Expirations.” See also “Item 1A. Risk Factors – Risks Related to our Operations. The continued social acceptance, desirability and perceived economic benefits of work-from-home arrangements could materially and negatively impact the future demand for office space over the long-term.”

Occupancy in our office portfolio decreased from 91.0% as of December 31, 2022 to 88.8% (88.9% including our share of unconsolidated joint venture properties) as of December 31, 2023. We expect average occupancy in our office portfolio to range from 87.0% to 89.0% for 2024.

Whether or not our rental revenue tracks average occupancy proportionally depends upon whether GAAP rents under signed new and renewal leases are higher or lower than the GAAP rents under expiring leases. Annualized rental revenues from second generation leases expiring during any particular year are typically less than 15% of our total annual rental revenues. The following table sets forth information regarding second generation office leases signed during the fourth quarter of 2023 (we define second generation office leases as leases with new customers and renewals of existing customers in office space that has been previously occupied under our ownership and leases with respect to vacant space in acquired buildings):
NewRenewalAll Office
Leased space (in rentable square feet)266,697 431,532 698,229 
Average term (in years - rentable square foot weighted)8.5 5.2 6.4 
Base rents (per rentable square foot) (1)
$37.39 $32.75 $34.52 
Rent concessions (per rentable square foot) (1)
(3.27)(1.84)(2.39)
GAAP rents (per rentable square foot) (1)
$34.12 $30.91 $32.13 
Tenant improvements (per rentable square foot) (1)
$7.60 $2.36 $4.36 
Leasing commissions (per rentable square foot) (1)
$1.28 $0.79 $0.97 
__________
(1)    Weighted average per rentable square foot on an annual basis over the lease term.

Annual combined GAAP rents for new and renewal leases signed in the fourth quarter were $32.13 per rentable square foot, 7.4% higher compared to previous leases in the same office spaces.

We strive to maintain a diverse, stable and creditworthy customer base. We have an internal guideline whereby customers that account for more than 3% of our revenues are periodically reviewed with the Company's Board of Directors. As of
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December 31, 2023, only Bank of America (4.0%) and Asurion (3.5%) accounted for more than 3% of our annualized GAAP revenues. See “Item 2. Properties - Customers.”

Expenses

Our expenses primarily consist of rental property expenses, depreciation and amortization, general and administrative expenses and interest expense. From time to time, expenses also include impairments of real estate assets. Rental property expenses are expenses associated with our ownership and operation of rental properties and include expenses that vary somewhat proportionately to occupancy and usage levels, such as janitorial services and utilities, and expenses that do not vary based on occupancy, such as property taxes and insurance. Depreciation and amortization is a non-cash expense associated with the ownership of real property and generally remains relatively consistent each year, unless we buy, place in service or sell assets, since our properties and related building and tenant improvement assets are depreciated on a straight-line basis over fixed lives. General and administrative expenses consist primarily of management and employee salaries and benefits, corporate overhead and short and long-term incentive compensation.

Net Operating Income

Whether or not we record increasing net operating income (“NOI”) in our same property portfolio typically depends upon our ability to garner higher rental revenues, whether from higher average occupancy, higher GAAP rents per rentable square foot or higher cost recovery income, that exceed any corresponding growth in operating expenses. Same property NOI was $6.5 million, or 1.2%, lower in 2023 as compared to 2022 due to an increase of $12.7 million in same property expenses offset by an increase of $6.2 million in same property revenues. We expect same property NOI to be lower in 2024 as compared to 2023 as an anticipated increase in same property expenses and lower anticipated average occupancy are expected to more than offset higher anticipated same property revenues. We expect same property rental property and other expenses to be higher due to anticipated increases to contract services, property taxes and property insurance.

In addition to the effect of same property NOI, whether or not NOI increases typically depends upon whether the NOI from our acquired properties and development properties placed in service exceeds the lost NOI from property dispositions. NOI was $3.9 million, or 0.7%, lower in 2023 as compared to 2022 primarily due to lower same property NOI, lost NOI from property dispositions and the deconsolidation of our Highwoods-Markel Associates, LLC joint venture (“Markel”), partially offset by the acquisition of SIX50 at Legacy Union and development properties placed in service. We expect NOI to be lower in 2024 as compared to 2023 due to lost NOI from property dispositions and an anticipated decrease in same property NOI, partially offset by development properties placed in service.

Cash Flows

In calculating net cash related to operating activities, depreciation and amortization, which are non-cash expenses, are added back to net income. We have historically generated a positive amount of cash from operating activities. From period to period, cash flow from operations depends primarily upon changes in our net income, as discussed more fully below under “Results of Operations,” changes in receivables and payables and net additions or decreases in our overall portfolio.

Net cash related to investing activities generally relates to capitalized costs incurred for leasing and major building improvements and our acquisition, development, disposition and joint venture activity. During periods of significant net acquisition and/or development activity, our cash used in such investing activities will generally exceed cash provided by investing activities, which typically consists of cash received upon the sale of properties and distributions from our joint ventures.

Net cash related to financing activities generally relates to distributions, incurrence and repayment of debt, and issuances, repurchases or redemptions of Common Stock, Common Units and Preferred Stock. We use a significant amount of our cash to fund distributions. Whether or not we have increases in the outstanding balances of debt during a period depends generally upon the net effect of our acquisition, disposition, development and joint venture activity. We generally use our revolving credit facility for daily working capital purposes, which means that during any given period, in order to minimize interest expense, we may record significant repayments and borrowings under our revolving credit facility.

For a discussion regarding dividends and distributions, see “Liquidity and Capital Resources - Dividends and Distributions.”

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Liquidity and Capital Resources

We continue to maintain a conservative and flexible balance sheet and believe we have ample liquidity to fund our operations and growth prospects. As of January 26, 2024, we had approximately $15 million of existing cash and $36.0 million drawn on our $750 million revolving credit facility, which was modified in January 2024 and is now scheduled to mature in January 2028 (but which can be extended for two additional six-month periods at our option). As of December 31, 2023, our leverage ratio, as measured by the ratio of our mortgages and notes payable and outstanding preferred stock to the undepreciated book value of our assets, was 41.9% and there were 107.9 million diluted shares of Common Stock outstanding.

Rental and other revenues are our principal source of funds to meet our short-term liquidity requirements. Other sources of funds for short-term liquidity needs include available working capital and borrowings under our revolving credit facility. Our short-term liquidity requirements primarily consist of operating expenses, interest and principal amortization on our debt, distributions and capital expenditures, including building improvement costs, tenant improvement costs and lease commissions. Building improvements are capital costs to maintain or enhance existing buildings not typically related to a specific customer. Tenant improvements are the costs required to customize space for the specific needs of customers. We anticipate that our available cash and cash equivalents and cash provided by operating activities and planned financing activities, including borrowings under our revolving credit facility, will be adequate to meet our short-term liquidity requirements. We use our revolving credit facility for working capital purposes and for the short-term funding of our development and acquisition activity and, in certain instances, the repayment of other debt. Continued ability to borrow under the revolving credit facility allows us to quickly capitalize on strategic opportunities at short-term interest rates.

We generally believe existing cash and rental and other revenues will continue to be sufficient to fund short-term liquidity needs such as funding operating and general and administrative expenses, paying interest expense, maintaining our existing quarterly dividend and funding existing portfolio capital expenditures, including building improvement costs, tenant improvement costs and lease commissions.

Our long-term liquidity uses generally consist of the retirement or refinancing of debt upon maturity, funding of building improvements, new building developments (including our proportionate share of joint venture developments) and land infrastructure projects and funding acquisitions of buildings and development land. Additionally, we may, from time to time, retire outstanding equity and/or debt securities through redemptions, open market repurchases, privately negotiated acquisitions or otherwise.

We expect to meet our long-term liquidity needs through a combination of:

cash flows from operating activities;

issuance of debt securities by the Operating Partnership;

issuance of secured debt;

bank term loans;

borrowings under our revolving credit facility;

issuance of equity securities by the Company or the Operating Partnership; and

the disposition of non-core assets.

We have no debt scheduled to mature prior to 2026. We generally believe we will be able to satisfy future obligations with existing cash, borrowings under our revolving credit facility, new bank term loans, issuance of other unsecured debt, mortgage debt and/or proceeds from the sale of additional non-core assets.

Investment Activity

As noted above, a key tenet of our strategic plan is to continuously upgrade the quality of our office portfolio through acquisitions, dispositions and development. We generally seek to acquire and develop office buildings that improve the average quality of our overall portfolio and deliver consistent and sustainable value for our stockholders over the long-term. Whether or not an asset acquisition or new development results in higher per share net income or funds from operations (“FFO”) in any given period depends upon a number of factors, including whether the NOI for any such period exceeds the actual cost of capital used to finance the acquisition or development. Additionally, given the length of construction cycles, development
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projects are not placed in service until several years after commencement in some cases. Sales of non-core assets could result in lower per share net income or FFO in any given period in the event the return on the resulting use of proceeds does not exceed the capitalization rate on the sold properties.

Results of Operations

Deconsolidation of Markel

Markel is a joint venture in which we own a 50.0% interest that was consolidated as of December 31, 2022 because we controlled the major operating and financial policies of the entity. Effective January 1, 2023, the agreement governing the joint venture was modified to require the consent of both partners for major operating and financial policies of the entity. As a result, Markel was deconsolidated effective January 1, 2023, and this joint venture is now accounted for using the equity method of accounting.

Comparison of 2023 to 2022

Rental and Other Revenues

Rental and other revenues were $5.1 million, or 0.6%, higher in 2023 as compared to 2022 primarily due to the acquisition of SIX50 at Legacy Union, higher same property revenues and development properties placed in service, which increased rental and other revenues by $8.7 million, $6.2 million and $5.2 million, respectively. Same property rental and other revenues were higher primarily due to higher average GAAP rents per rentable square foot and higher cost recovery and parking income, partially offset by a decrease in average occupancy. These increases were partially offset by lost revenue from property dispositions and the deconsolidation of our Markel joint venture, which decreased rental and other revenues by $7.8 million and $5.8 million, respectively. We expect rental and other revenues to be lower in 2024 as compared to 2023 due to lower anticipated average occupancy and lost revenue from property dispositions, partially offset by development properties placed in service.

Operating Expenses

Rental property and other expenses were $9.0 million, or 3.5%, higher in 2023 as compared to 2022 primarily due to higher same property operating expenses, the acquisition of SIX50 at Legacy Union, carry costs for acquired land parcels and development properties placed in service, which increased operating expenses by $12.7 million, $1.9 million, $1.0 million and $0.8 million, respectively. Same property operating expenses were higher primarily due to higher contract services, utilities, property insurance, property taxes and repairs and maintenance. These increases were partially offset by decreases in operating expenses from property dispositions and the deconsolidation of our Markel joint venture, which decreased operating expenses by $2.8 million and $2.2 million, respectively. We expect rental property and other expenses to be higher in 2024 as compared to 2023 due to higher same property operating expenses and development properties placed in service, partially offset by lower operating expenses from property dispositions.

Depreciation and amortization was $11.8 million, or 4.1%, higher in 2023 as compared to 2022 primarily due to higher same property depreciation and amortization, the acquisition of SIX50 at Legacy Union and development properties placed in service, partially offset by property dispositions and the deconsolidation of our Markel joint venture. We expect depreciation and amortization to be higher in 2024 as compared to 2023 due to higher same property lease related depreciation and amortization and development properties placed in service, partially offset by property dispositions.

We recorded impairment charges of $36.5 million in 2022 to lower the carrying amount of EQT Plaza and a land parcel to their estimated fair value less cost to sell. EQT Plaza is a 616,000 square foot office building located in the heart of Pittsburgh’s CBD. EQT Corporation’s lease of 317,000 square feet at EQT Plaza is scheduled to expire in September 2024. There are no assurances that EQT Corporation will renew all or any of its space upon expiration of its current lease. We recorded no such impairment in 2023.

General and administrative expenses were $0.6 million, or 1.4%, higher in 2023 as compared to 2022 primarily due to predevelopment cost write-offs and gains on deferred compensation plan investments (which is fully offset by a corresponding increase in other income), partially offset by lower incentive compensation and office rent. We expect general and administrative expenses to be lower in 2024 as compared to 2023 due to lower predevelopment cost write-offs, partially offset by higher salaries.

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Interest Expense

Interest expense was $31.3 million, or 29.7%, higher in 2023 as compared to 2022 primarily due to higher average interest rates and higher average debt balances, partially offset by higher capitalized interest. We expect interest expense to be higher in 2024 as compared to 2023 due to higher average interest rates, higher average debt balances and lower capitalized interest.

Other Income

Other income was $2.9 million higher in 2023 as compared to 2022 primarily due to dividend income from short-term preferred equity contributed to the McKinney and Olive joint venture, interest income on the loan provided to the 2827 Peachtree joint venture and gains on deferred compensation plan investments (which is fully offset by a corresponding increase in general and administrative expenses), partially offset by debt extinguishment costs.

Gains on Disposition of Property

Gains on disposition of property were $15.8 million lower in 2023 as compared to 2022.

Gain on Deconsolidation of Affiliate

We recognized a gain on deconsolidation of $11.8 million in 2023 related to adjusting our retained interest in Markel to fair value.

Equity in Earnings of Unconsolidated Affiliates

Equity in earnings of unconsolidated affiliates was $0.4 million lower in 2023 as compared to 2022 primarily due to expenses on Granite Park Six, which was completed in the third quarter of 2023 but is not yet stabilized. This decrease was partially offset by the deconsolidation of our Markel joint venture and the acquisition of McKinney and Olive.

Earnings Per Common Share - Diluted

Diluted earnings per common share was $0.10 lower in 2023 as compared to 2022 due to a decrease in net income for the reasons discussed above.

Comparison of 2022 to 2021

For a comparison of 2022 to 2021, see “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Results of Operations” in our 2022 Annual Report on Form 10-K.

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Liquidity and Capital Resources

Statements of Cash Flows

We report and analyze our cash flows based on operating activities, investing activities and financing activities. The following table sets forth the changes in the Company’s cash flows (in thousands):

Year Ended December 31,
2023202220212023-2022 Change2022-2021 Change
Net Cash Provided By Operating Activities$386,962 $421,779 $414,558 $(34,817)$7,221 
Net Cash Used In Investing Activities(169,686)(614,799)(287,678)445,113 (327,121)
Net Cash Provided By/(Used In) Financing Activities(205,426)187,927 (284,926)(393,353)472,853 
Total Cash Flows$11,850 $(5,093)$(158,046)$16,943 $152,953 

Comparison of 2023 to 2022

The change in net cash provided by operating activities in 2023 as compared to 2022 was primarily due to higher interest expense, property dispositions and changes in operating assets and liabilities, partially offset by net cash from the operations of properties acquired and development properties placed in service. We expect net cash related to operating activities to be lower in 2024 as compared to 2023 due to higher interest expense and property dispositions, partially offset by net cash from development properties placed in service.

The change in net cash used in investing activities in 2023 as compared to 2022 was primarily due to lower investments in acquired real estate, joint ventures, tenant and building improvements, development in process and the redemption of our short-term preferred equity investment in the McKinney and Olive joint venture, partially offset by lower net proceeds from disposition activity. We expect uses of cash for investing activities in 2024 to be primarily driven by whether or not we acquire and commence development of additional office buildings in the BBDs of our markets. We expect these uses of cash for investing activities will be partially offset by proceeds from property dispositions in 2024.

The change in net cash provided by/(used in) financing activities in 2023 as compared to 2022 was primarily due to higher net debt borrowings in 2022 to fund our investment activity. Assuming the net effect of our acquisition, disposition and development activity in 2024 results in an increase to our assets, we would expect outstanding debt and/or Common Stock balances to increase.

Comparison of 2022 to 2021

For a comparison of 2022 to 2021, see “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Liquidity and Capital Resources” in our 2022 Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Capitalization

The following table sets forth the Company’s capitalization (in thousands, except per share amounts):

December 31,
20232022
Mortgages and notes payable, net, at recorded book value $3,213,206 $3,197,215 
Preferred Stock, at liquidation value$28,811 $28,821 
Common Stock outstanding105,710 105,211 
Common Units outstanding (not owned by the Company)2,157 2,358 
Per share stock price at year end$22.96 $27.98 
Market value of Common Stock and Common Units$2,476,626 $3,009,781 
Total capitalization$5,718,643 $6,235,817 

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As of December 31, 2023, our mortgages and notes payable and outstanding preferred stock represented 56.7% of our total capitalization and 41.9% of the undepreciated book value of our assets. See also “Executive Summary - Liquidity and Capital Resources.”

Our mortgages and notes payable as of December 31, 2023 consisted of $720.8 million of secured indebtedness with a weighted average interest rate of 4.42% and $2,510.2 million of unsecured indebtedness with a weighted average interest rate of 4.57%. The secured indebtedness was collateralized by real estate assets with an undepreciated book value of $1,237.6 million. As of December 31, 2023, $370.0 million of our debt does not bear interest at fixed rates or is not protected by interest rate hedge contracts.

Investment Activity

- Acquisitions

In the normal course of business, we regularly evaluate potential acquisitions. As a result, from time to time, we may have one or more potential acquisitions under consideration that are in varying stages of evaluation, negotiation or due diligence, including potential acquisitions that are subject to non-binding letters of intent or enforceable contracts. Consummation of any transaction is subject to a number of contingencies, including the satisfaction of customary closing conditions. No assurances can be provided that we will acquire any properties in the future. See “Item 1A. Risk Factors – Risks Related to our Investment Activity – Recent and future acquisitions and development properties may fail to perform in accordance with our expectations and may require renovation and development costs exceeding our estimates.”

During the second quarter of 2023, we acquired land in Raleigh for a purchase price, including capitalized acquisition costs, of $2.7 million.

During 2021, we acquired development land in Nashville for a purchase price, including capitalized acq