ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended: December 31, 2019
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from to
Commission file number 1-9183
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
(State of organization)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
3700 West Juneau Avenue
(Address of principal executive offices)
Registrant's telephone number, including area code: (414) 342-4680
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock Par value, $.01 PER SHARE
New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: NONE
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ☐No☒
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. ☒
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act
Large accelerated filer
Emerging growth company
Smaller reporting company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes ☐ No ☒
Aggregate market value of the voting stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant at June 30, 2019: 5,637,424,248
Number of shares of the registrant’s common stock outstanding at January 31, 2020: 152,807,930 shares
Documents Incorporated by Reference
Part III of this report incorporates information by reference from registrant’s Proxy Statement for the annual meeting of its shareholders to be held on May 21, 2020
The Company intends that certain matters discussed in this report are “forward-looking statements” intended to qualify for the safe harbor from liability established by the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These forward-looking statements can generally be identified as such by reference to this footnote or because the context of the statement will include words such as the Company “believes,” “anticipates,” “expects,” “plans,” “may,” “will,” “estimates,” “is on-track” or words of similar meaning. Similarly, statements that describe future plans, objectives, outlooks, targets, guidance, commitments or goals are also forward-looking statements. Such forward-looking statements are subject to certain risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially, unfavorably or favorably, from those anticipated as of the date of this report. Certain of such risks and uncertainties are described in close proximity to such statements or elsewhere in this report, including under the caption Item 1A. Risk Factors of this report and under the Cautionary Statements section in Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations of this report. Shareholders, potential investors and other readers are urged to consider these factors in evaluating the forward-looking statements and cautioned not to place undue reliance on such forward-looking statements. The forward-looking statements included in the Overview and Outlook sections of Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysisof Financial Condition and Results of Operations are only made as of January 28, 2020 and the remaining forward-looking statements in this report are made as of the date indicated or, if a date is not indicated, as of the date of the filing of this report (February 19, 2020), and the Company disclaims any obligation to publicly update such forward-looking statements to reflect subsequent events or circumstances.
Item 1. Business
Harley-Davidson Motor Company was founded in 1903. Harley-Davidson, Inc. was incorporated in 1981, at which time it purchased the Harley-Davidson® motorcycle business from AMF Incorporated in a management buyout. In 1986, Harley-Davidson, Inc. became publicly held. Harley-Davidson, Inc. is the parent company of Harley-Davidson Motor Company (HDMC) and Harley-Davidson Financial Services (HDFS). Unless the context otherwise requires, all references to the “Company” include Harley-Davidson, Inc. and all of its subsidiaries. The Company operates in two segments: Motorcycles and Related Products (Motorcycles) and Financial Services. The Company's reportable segments are strategic business units that offer different products and services and are managed separately based on the fundamental differences in their operations.
The Company's long-term strategy to build the next generation of Harley-Davidson riders globally includes the following 2027 objectives:
Expand total Harley-Davidson riders to 4 million in the U.S.
Grow international business to 50% of annual HDMC revenue
Launch 100 new, high-impact Harley-Davidson motorcycles beginning in 2017
Deliver superior return on invested capital for HDMC that falls within the top quartile of the S&P® 500
Grow the business without growing its environmental impact
The “More Roads to Harley-Davidson” (More Roads) plan is designed to accelerate the Company's progress toward building riders globally from 2018 to 2022. The More Roads plan includes four growth catalysts:
New products – keeping riders inspired by extending the Company's leadership in the market segments it has shaped and defined while unlocking new market opportunities
Broader access – creating new pathways to Harley-Davidson, expanding access and appeal to more people around the world
Stronger dealers – working side-by-side with the Company's global dealers to build stronger capabilities that lead to improved channel performance, greater profitability and a Harley-Davidson experience that exceeds riders' expectations
Amplify brand – enhancing the Harley-Davidson experience to inspire interest in riding, foster moto-culture and build an even bigger, more passionate community of Harley-Davidson riders
Motorcycles and Related Products Segment
The Motorcycles segment consists of HDMC which designs, manufactures and sells Harley-Davidson motorcycles as well as motorcycle parts, accessories, general merchandise and services. The Company's products are sold to retail customers primarily through a network of independent dealers. The Company conducts business on a global basis, with sales in the United States (U.S.), Canada, Europe/Middle East/Africa (EMEA), Asia Pacific, and Latin America.
Motorcycles segment revenue by product line as a percent of total revenue for the last three fiscal years was as follows:
Parts & Accessories
Other products and services
Motorcycles – The Company's current Harley-Davidson motorcycle offering includes cruiser and touring models that feature unique styling, innovative design, distinctive sound, and superior quality with the ability to customize. Harley-Davidson motorcycles generally feature engines with displacements that are greater than 600cc, up to a maximum displacement of approximately 1900cc. In addition, the Company introduced LiveWire™, its first electric motorcycle, in 2019.
The on-road motorcycle industry is comprised of the following segments:
Cruiser – emphasizes styling, customization and casual riding
Touring – emphasizes rider comfort and load capacity and incorporates features such as fairings and luggage compartments ideal for long rides
Standard – a basic motorcycle typically featuring upright seating for one or two passengers
Sportbike – incorporates racing technology and performance and aerodynamic styling and riding position
Dual – designed with the capability for use on-road as well as for some off-road recreational use
The Company's current lineup of motorcycles competes primarily in the cruiser and touring segments. Competition in the segments of the motorcycle industry where the Company currently competes is based upon a number of factors including product capabilities and features, styling, price, quality, reliability, warranty, availability of financing, and quality of the dealer networks that sell the products. The Company believes its motorcycles continue to generally command a premium price at retail relative to competitors’ motorcycles. Harley-Davidson motorcycles feature remarkable styling, customization, innovation, sound, quality and reliability and include a warranty that is generally two years. The Company considers the availability of a line of motorcycle parts & accessories and general merchandise, the availability of financing through HDFS and its global network of independent dealers to be competitive advantages.
Under the More Roads plan, the Company intends to introduce new products, including additional electric motorcycles; new middleweight motorcycles that include adventure touring, custom and streetfighter models with engine displacements ranging from 750cc to 1250cc; and smaller displacement motorcycles for certain emerging markets. In 2019, the Company announced a collaboration with Zhejiang Qianjiang Motorcycle Co., Ltd. that will support the launch of a smaller, more accessible Harley-Davidson motorcycle planned for the China market in 2020 with additional Asian markets expected to follow. The Company plans to introduce these new motorcycles between 2020 and 2022.
Motorcycle Industry Data – In 2019, the U.S. and European markets accounted for approximately 75% of the total annual independent dealer retail sales of new Harley-Davidson motorcycles. The most significant other markets for the Company, based on the Company's 2019 retail sales data, were Japan, Australia, and Canada.
The Company's market includes on-road motorcycles with internal combustion engines with displacements greater than 600cc and electric motorcycles with kilowatt (kW) peak power equivalents greater than 600cc (601+cc). In the U.S., sales in the 601+cc portion of the motorcycle market represented approximately 76% of the total motorcycle market in 2019, based on new units registered. The cruiser and touring segments accounted for approximately 70% of the sales in U.S. 601+cc portion of the motorcycle market in 2019, consistent with 2018. Harley-Davidson has been the historical market share leader in the U.S. 601+cc portion of the motorcycle market (U.S. industry data source: Motorcycle Industry Council).
U.S. Motorcycle Registration Data(a)(b)
U.S. retail registration data for 601+cc motorcycles was as follows:
Industry new motorcycle registrations
Harley-Davidson new motorcycle registrations
Harley-Davidson U.S. market share
Data includes on-road 601+cc models and electric motorcycles with kW peak power equivalents greater than 600cc's. On-road 601+cc models include dual models, three-wheeled motorcycles and autocycles. Registration data for Harley-Davidson Street® 500 motorcycles is not included in this table.
U.S. industry data is derived from information provided by the Motorcycle Industry Council. This third-party data is subject to revision and update. The retail registration data for Harley-Davidson motorcycles presented in this table will differ from the Harley-Davidson retail sales data presented in Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis. The Company’s source for retail sales data in Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis is sales and warranty registrations provided by independent Harley-Davidson dealers as compiled by the Company. The retail sales data in Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis includes sales of Harley-Davidson Street® 500 motorcycles which are excluded from this table. In addition, small differences may arise related to the timing of data submissions to the independent sources.
The European 601+cc motorcycle market is larger than the U.S. market and customer preferences differ from those of U.S. customers. The cruiser and touring segments represented approximately 20% of the sales in the 601+cc portion of the European market in 2019 compared to approximately 70% of the 601+cc portion of the motorcycle market in the U.S.
European Motorcycle Registration Data(a)(b)
European retail registration data for 601+cc motorcycles was as follows:
Industry new motorcycle registrations
Harley-Davidson new motorcycle registrations
Harley-Davidson European market share
Data includes on-road 601+cc models. On-road 601+cc models include dual purpose models, three-wheeled motorcycles and autocycles. Registration data for Harley-Davidson Street® 500 motorcycles is not included in this table.
Europe industry data includes retail sales in Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. Industry retail motorcycle registration data is derived from information provided by the Association des Constructeurs Europeens de Motocycles, an independent agency. This third-party data is subject to revision and update. The retail registration data for Harley-Davidson motorcycles presented in this table will differ from the Harley-Davidson retail sales data presented in Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis. The Company’s source for retail sales data in Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis is sales and warranty registrations provided by Harley-Davidson dealers as compiled by the Company. The retail sales data in Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis includes sales of Harley-Davidson Street® 500 motorcycles which are excluded from this table. In addition, some differences may arise related to the timing of data submissions to the independent sources.
Parts & Accessories and General Merchandise – The Company offers a line of Harley-Davidson parts & accessories (P&A) and general merchandise. P&A products are comprised of Genuine Motor Parts and Genuine Motor Accessories. Genuine Motor Parts include replacement parts and Genuine Motor Accessories includes mechanical and cosmetic accessories. General merchandise includes riding gear and apparel, including Genuine MotorClothes®.
Licensing – The Company creates reach and awareness of the Harley-Davidson brand among its customers and the non-riding public by licensing the name “Harley-Davidson” and other trademarks owned by the Company for use on a range of products.
Patents and Trademarks – The Company strategically manages its portfolio of patents, trade secrets, copyrights, trademarks and other intellectual property.
The Company owns, and continues to obtain, patent rights that relate to its motorcycles and related products and processes for their production. Certain technology-related intellectual property is also protected, where appropriate, by license agreements, confidentiality agreements or other agreements with suppliers, employees and other third parties. The Company diligently protects its intellectual property, including patents and trade secrets, and its rights to innovative and proprietary technologies and designs. This protection, including enforcement, is important as the Company moves forward with investments in new products, designs and technologies. While the Company believes patents are important to its business
operations and in the aggregate constitute a valuable asset, the success of the business is not dependent on any one patent or group of patents. The Company’s active patent portfolio has an average age of approximately six years. A patent review committee manages the patent strategy and portfolio of the Company.
Trademarks are important to the Company’s motorcycle business and licensing activities. The Company has a vigorous worldwide program of trademark registration and enforcement to maintain and strengthen the value of the trademarks and prevent the unauthorized use of those trademarks. The HARLEY-DAVIDSON trademark and the Bar and Shield trademark are each highly recognizable to the public and are very valuable assets. Additionally, the Company uses numerous other trademarks, trade names and logos which are registered worldwide. The following are among the Company’s trademarks: HARLEY-DAVIDSON, H-D, HARLEY, the Bar & Shield Logo, MOTORCLOTHES, the MotorClothes Logo, the Willie G Skull Logo, HARLEY OWNERS GROUP, H.O.G., the H.O.G. Logo, LIVEWIRE, SOFTAIL and SPORTSTER. The HARLEY-DAVIDSON trademark has been used since 1903 and the Bar and Shield trademark since at least 1910. Substantially all of the Company’s trademarks are owned by H-D U.S.A., LLC, a subsidiary of the Company, which also manages the Company’s global trademark strategy and portfolio.
Marketing – The Company’s brand, products and the riding experience are marketed to consumers worldwide. Marketing occurs primarily through digital and experiential activities as well as through more traditional promotional and advertising activities. Additionally, the Company’s independent dealers engage in a wide range of local marketing and events in part supported by cooperative programs with the Company.
Experiences that build community and connect consumers with the Harley-Davidson brand and with one another have traditionally been at the center of much of the Company’s marketing efforts. To develop, engage and retain committed riders, the Company participates in and sponsors motorcycle rallies, racing activities, music festivals, sports events and other special events. This includes events sponsored by the Harley Owners Group (H.O.G.®) to build community and connect Harley-Davidson motorcycle riders around the world. These activities help inspire interest in riding, foster moto-culture and build a passionate community of Harley-Davidson riders.
Harley-Davidson offers rider education that eliminates barriers and creates opportunities for learning and building rider confidence. Harley-Davidson® Riding Academy courses are conducted by participating independent Harley-Davidson dealerships in the U.S. and select international locations, enabling students to experience the Harley-Davidson brand, products and community as they learn.
The Company also promotes its brand, products and community through a variety of other activities and experiences. Motorcycle rentals and tours are offered through an agreement with EagleRider at select independent dealerships across the U.S. and through the Company’s Authorized Rental Program outside of the U.S. Factory tours at select locations offer a chance to see Harley-Davidson employees channel their passion and pride into building Harley-Davidson’s extraordinary motorcycles. The Harley-Davidson Museum is a unique destination that builds and strengthens the connection between riders and the brand and enhances the perception of Harley-Davidson among the public at large.
Distribution – The Company’s products are retailed primarily through a network of independent dealers, of which the majority sell Harley-Davidson motorcycles exclusively. These dealerships stock and sell the Company’s motorcycles, P&A, general merchandise and licensed products, and perform service on Harley-Davidson motorcycles. The Company believes the quality retail experience that its independent dealers provide is a differentiating and strategic advantage for the Company.
The Company sells its motorcycles and related products to a network of independent Harley-Davidson dealers located in approximately 100 countries worldwide. Worldwide Harley-Davidson independent dealership points by geographic location as of December 31, 2019 were as follows:
Independent dealership points
P&A, general merchandise and licensed products are also retailed through eCommerce channels in certain markets. In the U.S., the Company operates an eCommerce site that offers products sold through participating authorized U.S. independent Harley-Davidson dealers and also sells directly to consumers through a well-known third-party eCommerce website. In select international markets, the Company utilizes additional third-party eCommerce websites.
Retail Customer and Dealer Financing – The Company believes that HDFS, as well as other third-party financial institutions, provide access to financing for independent Harley-Davidson dealers and their retail customers. HDFS provides financing to independent Harley-Davidson dealers and their retail customers in the U.S. and Canada. The Company’s independent dealers and their retail customers in EMEA, Asia Pacific and Latin America generally have access to financing through third-party financial institutions, some of which have licensing or branding agreements with HDFS.
Seasonality – The timing of retail sales made by the Company’s independent dealers tracks closely with regional riding seasons. The seasonality of the Company’s wholesale motorcycle shipments generally correlates with the timing of retail sales.
Motorcycle Manufacturing – The Company has flexible manufacturing capabilities designed to help ensure it is well-positioned to meet customer demand in a timely and cost-effective manner.(1)These capabilities allow the Company to increase the production of motorcycles ahead of and during the peak retail selling season to more closely correlate the timing of production and wholesale shipments to the retail selling season.It also allows the Company to respond to the desired model mix to meet customer demand.
The majority of the Company's manufacturing processes are performed at facilities located in the U.S. The Company's U.S. manufacturing facilities supply the U.S. market as well as certain international markets. Additionally, the Company operates facilities in Thailand, Brazil, and India. The Company's Thailand facility manufactures motorcycles for certain Asian markets and, commencing in late 2019, the European Union. In Brazil and India, the Company operates complete knock down assembly facilities, which assemble motorcycles for those respective markets from component kits sourced from the Company’s U.S. facilities and suppliers. Additionally, in India, the Company produces Harley-Davidson® Street motorcycles for distribution to markets outside of North America. The Company's global manufacturing operations are focused on driving world-class quality and performance. A global manufacturing footprint enables the Company to be close to customers, provide quality products at a competitive price and grow its overall business.
Raw Materials and Purchased Components – The Company continues to establish and reinforce long-term, mutually beneficial relationships with its suppliers. Through these collaborative relationships, the Company gains access to technical and commercial resources for application directly to product design, development and manufacturing initiatives. In addition, through a continued focus on collaboration and strong supplier relationships, the Company believes it will be positioned to achieve its strategic objectives and deliver cost and quality improvements over the long-term.(1)
The Company's principal raw materials include steel and aluminum castings, forgings, steel sheet and bar. The Company also purchases certain motorcycle components including, but not limited to, electronic fuel injection systems, batteries, tires, seats, electrical components, instruments and wheels. The Company closely monitors the overall viability of its supply base. The Company does not anticipate difficulties in obtaining raw materials or components.(1)
Regulation – International, federal, state and local authorities have various environmental control requirements relating to air, water and noise that affect the business and operations of the Company. The Company strives to ensure that its facilities and products comply with all applicable environmental regulations and standards.
The Company’s motorcycles and certain other products that are sold in the U.S. are subject to certification by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB) for compliance with applicable emissions and noise standards. Certain Harley-Davidson products are designed to comply with EPA and CARB standards and the Company believes it will comply with future requirements when they go into effect.(1) Additionally, certain of the Company’s products must comply with the motorcycle emissions, noise and safety standards of Canada, the European Union, Japan, Brazil and certain other foreign markets where they are sold, and the Company believes its products currently comply with those standards. As the Company expects environmental standards will become more stringent over time, the Company will continue to incur research, development and production costs in this area for the foreseeable future.(1)
The Company, as a manufacturer of motorcycle products, is subject to the U.S. National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act, which is administered by the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). The Company has certified to NHTSA that certain of its motorcycle products comply fully with all applicable federal motor vehicle safety standards and related regulations. The Company has from time to time initiated certain voluntary recalls. During the three years ending in 2019, the Company accrued $83.4 million associated with 13 voluntary recalls related to Harley-Davidson motorcycles.
Employees – As of December 31, 2019, the Motorcycles segment had approximately 5,000 employees, including approximately 2,000 unionized employees at its U.S. manufacturing facilities. Unionized employees are represented with collective bargaining agreements as follows:
York, Pennsylvania – International Association of Machinist and Aerospace Workers (IAM), agreement will expire on October 15, 2022
Milwaukee, Wisconsin – United Steelworkers of America (USW) and IAM, agreements will expire on March 31, 2024
Tomahawk, Wisconsin – USW, agreement will expire on March 31, 2024
Financial Services Segment
The Financial Services segment consists of HDFS which is engaged in the business of financing and servicing wholesale inventory receivables and retail consumer loans, primarily for the purchase of Harley-Davidson motorcycles. HDFS also works with certain unaffiliated insurance companies to provide motorcycle insurance and protection products to motorcycle owners. HDFS conducts business principally in the U.S. and Canada. The Company’s independent dealers and their retail customers in EMEA, Asia Pacific and Latin America generally have access to financing through third-party financial institutions, some of which have licensing agreements with HDFS.
Wholesale Financial Services – HDFS provides wholesale financial services to U.S. and Canadian independent Harley-Davidson dealers, including floorplan and open account financing of motorcycles and P&A. All U.S. and Canadian independent dealers utilized HDFS' financing programs at some point during 2019.
Retail Financial Services – HDFS provides retail financing to consumers, consisting primarily of installment lending for the purchase of new and used Harley-Davidson motorcycles. HDFS’ retail financial services are available through most independent Harley-Davidson dealerships in the U.S. and Canada.
Insurance Services – HDFS works with certain unaffiliated insurance companies which offer point-of-sale protection products through most independent Harley-Davidson dealers in the U.S. and Canada, including motorcycle insurance, extended service contracts and motorcycle maintenance protection. HDFS also direct-markets motorcycle insurance and extended service contracts to owners of Harley-Davidson motorcycles. In addition, HDFS markets a comprehensive package of business insurance coverages and services to owners of independent Harley-Davidson dealerships.
Licensing –HDFS has licensing arrangements with third-party financial institutions that issue credit cards bearing the Harley-Davidson brand in the U.S. and certain international markets. Internationally, HDFS licenses the Harley-Davidson brand to local third-party financial institutions that offer products to the Company’s retail customers such as financing and insurance.
Funding – The Company believes a diversified and cost-effective funding strategy is important to meet HDFS’ goal of providing credit while delivering appropriate returns and profitability. Financial Services operations in 2019 were funded with unsecured debt, unsecured commercial paper, asset-backed commercial paper conduit facilities, committed unsecured bank facilities and asset-backed securitizations.
Competition – The Company regards its ability to offer a package of wholesale and retail financial services in the U.S. and Canada as a significant competitive advantage. Competitors in the financial services industry compete for business based largely on price and, to a lesser extent, service. HDFS competes on convenience, service, brand association, dealer relations, industry experience, terms and price.
In the U.S. and Canada, HDFS financed 65.9% and 45.0% of new Harley-Davidson motorcycles retailed by independent dealers during 2019, respectively, compared to 64.9% and 39.9%, respectively, in 2018. Competitors for retail motorcycle finance business are primarily banks, credit unions and other financial institutions. In the motorcycle insurance business, competition primarily comes from national insurance companies and from insurance agencies serving local or regional markets. For insurance-related products such as extended service contracts, HDFS faces competition from certain regional and national industry participants as well as dealer in-house programs. Competition for the wholesale motorcycle finance business primarily consists of banks and other financial institutions providing wholesale financing to independent Harley-Davidson dealers in their local markets.
Trademarks – HDFS uses various trademarks and trade names for its financial services and products, which are licensed from H-D U.S.A., LLC, including HARLEY-DAVIDSON, H-D and the Bar & Shield logo.
Seasonality – HDFS experiences seasonal variations in retail financing activities based on the timing of regional riding seasons in the U.S. and Canada. In general, from mid-March through August, retail financing volume is greatest. HDFS wholesale financing volume is affected by inventory levels at independent Harley-Davidson dealers. Independent dealers generally have higher inventory in the first half of the year. As a result, outstanding wholesale finance receivables are generally higher during the same period.
Regulation – HDFS operations are generally subject to supervision and regulation by federal and state administrative agencies and various foreign governmental authorities. Many of the requirements imposed by such entities are in place to provide consumer protection as it pertains to the selling and servicing of financial products and services. Therefore, HDFS operations may be subject to limitations imposed by regulations, laws and judicial and/or administrative decisions. In the U.S.,
for example, applicable laws include the federal Truth-in-Lending Act, Equal Credit Opportunity Act and Fair Credit Reporting Act.
Depending on the specific facts and circumstances involved, non-compliance with these laws may limit the ability of HDFS to collect all or part of the principal or interest on applicable loans, entitling the borrower to rescind the loan or to obtain a refund of amounts previously paid, or could subject HDFS to the payment of damages or penalties and administrative sanctions, including “cease and desist” orders, and could limit the number of loans eligible for HDFS' securitization programs.
The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act granted the federal Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (the Bureau) significant supervisory, enforcement and rule-making authority in the area of consumer financial products and services. Certain Bureau actions and regulations will directly impact HDFS and its operations. For example, the Bureau has supervisory authority over non-bank larger participants in the vehicle financing market, which includes a non-bank subsidiary of HDFS.
Such regulatory requirements and associated supervision also could limit the discretion of HDFS in operating its business. Noncompliance with applicable statutes or regulations could result in the suspension or revocation of any charter, license or registration at issue, as well as the imposition of civil fines, criminal penalties and administrative sanctions.
Eaglemark Savings Bank (ESB), a subsidiary of HDFS, is a Nevada state thrift chartered as an Industrial Loan Company. The activities of ESB are governed by federal laws and regulations and State of Nevada banking laws. ESB is subject to examination by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) and Nevada state bank examiners. ESB originates retail loans and sells the loans to a non-banking subsidiary of HDFS. This process allows HDFS to offer retail products with many common characteristics across the U.S. and to similarly service loans to U.S. retail customers.
Employees – As of December 31, 2019, the Financial Services segment had approximately 600 employees.
The Company’s website address is http://www.harley-davidson.com. The Company’s website address for investor relations is http://investor.harley-davidson.com/.
The Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and current reports on Form 8-K, and any amendments to those reports, are available on its investor relations website free of charge as soon as reasonably practicable after it electronically files such material with, or furnishes such material to, the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC).
In addition, the Company makes available, through its investor relations website, the following corporate governance materials: (i) the Company’s Corporate Governance Policy; (ii) Committee Charters approved by the Company’s Board of Directors for the Audit and Finance Committee, Human Resources Committee, Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee and Brand and Sustainability Committee; (iii) the Company’s Financial Code of Ethics; (iv) the Company’s Code of Business Conduct (the Code of Conduct); (v) the Conflict of Interest Process for Directors, Executive Officers and Other Employees (the Conflict Process); (vi) a list of the Company’s Board of Directors; (vii) the Company’s Bylaws; (viii) the Company’s Environmental and Energy Policy; (ix) the Company’s Policy for Managing Disclosure of Material Information; (x) the Company’s Supplier Code of Conduct; (xi) the Sustainability Strategy Report; (xii) the California Transparency in Supply Chain Act Disclosure; (xiii) the Statement on Conflict Minerals; (xiv) the Political Engagement and Contributions 2018-2019; and (xv) the Company's Clawback Policy. The Company's Notice of Annual Meeting and Proxy Statement for its 2020 annual meeting of shareholders, which will include information related to the compensation of the Company's named executive officers, will be made available through its investor relations website.
The Company satisfies the disclosure requirements under the Code of Conduct, the Conflict Process and applicable New York Stock Exchange listing requirements regarding waivers of the Code of Conduct or the Conflict Process by disclosing the information in the Company’s proxy statement for its annual meeting of shareholders or on its investor relations website. The Company is not including the information contained on or available through any of its websites as a part of, or incorporating such information by reference into, this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Item 1A. Risk Factors
An investment in Harley-Davidson, Inc. involves risks, including those discussed below. These risk factors should be considered carefully before deciding whether to invest in the Company.
The Company may not be able to successfully execute its short-term and long-term business plans and strategies. There is no assurance that the Company will be able to execute its business plans and strategies, including the elements of the More Roads plan for growth that the Company disclosed on July 30, 2018 and updated September 24, 2019, and strengthen its existing business while enabling growth. The Company’s ability to meet the objectives, milestones, outlooks, and goals in the More Roads plan depends upon, among other factors, the Company’s ability to: (i) realize expectations concerning market demand for electric, middleweight, and small-displacement models, which may depend in part on the building of necessary infrastructure, (ii) develop and introduce products on a timely basis that the market accepts, that enable the Company to generate desired sales levels and that provide the desired financial returns, (iii) successfully carry out its global manufacturing and assembly operations, (iv) manage risks that arise through expanding international manufacturing, operations and sales, (v) effectively implement changes relating to its dealers and distribution methods, (vi) accurately analyze, predict and react to changing market conditions, (vii) perform in a manner that enables the Company to benefit from market opportunities while competing against existing and new competitors, (viii) reduce other costs to offset costs of the More Roads plan and redirect capital without adversely affecting its existing operations, and (ix) avoid adverse impacts to its operations and/or demand for its products that may result from widespread infectious disease, in particular as it relates to its small displacement plans in Asia. Without limitation, the Company sees 2020 as the pivotal year in the transformation of the Company under the More Roads plan, and the Company faces challenges, risks and uncertainties in executing the plan. As a result, the Company may not realize its expectation of significant growth in 2021 or its goals for 2022 under the plan. The Company also may not be able to achieve the 2027 objectives under the Company's long-term strategy to build the next generation of Harley-Davidson riders globally.
The Company’s strategy to grow ridership may not be successful. The Company has been successful in marketing its products in large part by promoting the experience of Harley-Davidson motorcycling. To sustain and grow the business over the long-term, the Company must grow the sport of motorcycling and continue to be successful selling products and promoting the experience of motorcycling to new customers, including new riders, competitive riders and those who have motorcycle licenses but do not currently ride. The Company’s efforts toward expanding to 4 million total Harley-Davidson riders in the U.S. through 2027 and growing ridership internationally may not be successful, and achieving such growth in ridership may still not adequately meet the desired result of driving unit sales growth. Further, growing ridership in the U.S. may be challenging because the motorcycle market in the U.S. has been stagnant or declining, and the Company expects those conditions to continue. Failure to successfully drive demand for the Company's products may have a material adverse effect on the Company's business and results of operations.
The Company’s ability to remain competitive is dependent upon its capability to develop and successfully introduce new, innovative and compliant products. The motorcycle market continues to change in terms of styling preferences and advances in new technologies, and at the same time, it is subject to increasing regulations related to safety and emissions. The Company must continue to distinguish its products from its competitors’ products with unique styling and new technologies that consumers desire. The Company may not be able to achieve its goal of introducing 100 new, high-impact motorcycle models between 2017 and 2027, and introducing those models may still not lead to the desired result of driving unit sales growth. As the Company incorporates new and different features and technology into its products, the Company must protect its intellectual property from imitators and ensure its products do not infringe the intellectual property of other companies. In addition, these new products must comply with applicable regulations worldwide and satisfy the potential demand for products that produce lower emissions and achieve better fuel economy. The Company must make product advancements to respond to changing consumer preferences and market demands. The Company must also be able to design and manufacture these products and deliver them to a global marketplace in an efficient and timely manner and at prices that are attractive to customers. There can be no assurances that the Company will be successful in these endeavors or that existing and prospective customers will like or want the Company’s new products.
Changes in general economic and business conditions, tightening of credit and retail markets, political events or other factors may adversely impact independent dealers’ retail sales. The motorcycle industry is impacted by general economic conditions over which motorcycle manufacturers have little control. These factors can weaken the retail environment and lead to weaker demand for discretionary purchases such as motorcycles. Weakened economic conditions in certain business sectors and geographic areas can also result in reduced demand for the Company's products. Tightening of credit can limit the availability of funds from financial institutions and other lenders and sources of capital which could adversely affect the ability of retail consumers to obtain loans for the purchase of
motorcycles from lenders, including HDFS. Should general economic conditions or motorcycle industry demand decline, the Company’s results of operations and financial condition may be substantially adversely affected. The motorcycle industry can also be affected by political conditions and other factors over which motorcycle manufacturers have little control.
Increased supply of and/or declining prices for used