Company Quick10K Filing
Quick10K
Hollysys Automation Technologies
Closing Price ($) Shares Out (MM) Market Cap ($MM)
$15.28 60 $922
20-F 2019-06-30 Annual: 2019-06-30
20-F 2018-06-30 Annual: 2018-06-30
20-F 2017-06-30 Annual: 2017-06-30
20-F 2016-06-30 Annual: 2016-06-30
TMO Thermo Fisher Scientific 110,419
NDSN Nordson 7,548
RXN Rexnord 2,841
ITGR Integer Holdings 2,378
BRKS Brooks Automation 2,231
MTSC MTS Systems 1,028
CYD China Yuchai 842
CPST Capstone Systems 49
EKSO Ekso Bionics 47
TRT Trio-Tech 12
HOLI 2019-06-30
Part I
Item 1. Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers
Item 2. Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable
Item 3. Key Information
Item 4. Information on The Company
Item 4A. Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects
Item 6. Directors, Senior Management and Employees
Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions
Item 8. Financial Information
Item 9. The Offer and Listing
Item 10. Additional Information
Item 11. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 12. Description of Securities Other Than Equity Securities
Part II
Item 13. Defaults, Dividend Arrearages and Delinquencies
Item 14. Material Modifications To The Rights of Securities Holders and Use of Proceeds
Item 15. Controls and Procedures
Item 16A. Audit Committee Financial Expert
Item 16B. Code of Ethics
Item 16C. Principal Accountant Fees and Services
Item 16D. Exemptions From The Listing Standards for Audit Committees
Item 16E. Purchases of Equity Securities By The Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers
Item 16F. Change in Registrant's Certifying Accountant
Item 16G. Corporate Governance
Item 16H. Mine Safety Disclosure
Part III
Item 17. Financial Statements
Item 18. Financial Statements
Item 19. Exhibits
Note 1 - Organization and Business Background
Note 2 - Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Note 3 - Inventories
Note 4 - Accounts Receivable
Note 5 - Costs and Estimated Earnings in Excess of Billings
Note 6 - Revenue From Contracts with Customers
Note 7 - Property, Plant and Equipment
Note 8 - Prepaid Land Leases
Note 9 - Intangible Assets, Net
Note 10 - Goodwill
Note 11 - Equity Investments
Note 12 - Warranty Liabilities
Note 13 - Short-Term Bank Loans
Note 14 - Long-Term Loans
Note 15 - Fair Value Measurements
Note 16 - Stockholders' Equity
Note 17 - Share-Based Compensation Expenses
Note 18 - Employee Benefits
Note 19 - Income Tax
Note 20 - Income per Share
Note 21 - Related Party Transactions
Note 22 - Commitments and Contingencies
Note 23 - Operating Leases As Lessor
Note 24 - Segment Reporting
Note 25 - Subsequent Events
Note 26 - Endorsement of Note Receivables
Note 27 - Condensed Financial Information of The Parent Company
EX-4.4 holi-20180630ex440309cd7.htm
EX-8.1 holi-20180630ex81f9f03c2.htm
EX-12.1 holi-20180630ex12169434e.htm
EX-12.2 holi-20180630ex122ffaf6d.htm
EX-13.1 holi-20180630ex131a44d14.htm
EX-13.2 holi-20180630ex132c4a43e.htm
EX-15.1 holi-20180630ex15145c8f6.htm

Hollysys Automation Technologies Earnings 2019-06-30

HOLI 20F Annual Report

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow

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Table of Contents

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

FORM 20-F

(Mark One)

REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR (g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

OR

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended June 30, 2019

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from                      to                     .

OR

SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

Date of event requiring this shell company report                                               

Commission file number: 001-33602

HOLLYSYS AUTOMATION TECHNOLOGIES LTD.

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

Not Applicable

(Translation of Registrant’s name into English)

British Virgin Islands

(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

No. 2 Disheng Middle Road,

Beijing Economic-Technological Development Area,

Beijing, P. R. China 100176

(Address of principal executive offices)

Arden Xia, Tel: (86 10) 5898 1386, Email: xiachuan@hollysys.com

Address: No. 2 Disheng Middle Road, Beijing Economic-Technological Development Area, Beijing, P.R. China 100176

(Name, Telephone, E-mail and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act.

Title of each class

    

Trading Symbol(s)

    

Name of each exchange on which registered

Ordinary Shares, $0.001 par value per share 

HOLI

The NASDAQ Global Select Market

Preferred Share Purchase Rights

N/A

The NASDAQ Global Select Market

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act.

None

(Title of Class)

Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act.

None

Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or ordinary shares as of the close of the period covered by the annual report (June 30, 2019): 60,342,099 ordinary shares.

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes No

If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Yes  No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes  No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  Yes  No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company. See definition of “large accelerated filer, "accelerated filer,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer 

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

Emerging growth company 

 

 

If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:

U.S. GAAP

International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International
Accounting Standards Board

Other

If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow.

Item 17                       Item 18

If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes        No 

Table of Contents

HOLLYSYS AUTOMATION TECHNOLOGIES LTD.

ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 20-F

FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 2019

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

Page

 

 

 

PART I

 

 

ITEM 1.

IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS

6

 

 

ITEM 2.

OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE

6

 

 

ITEM 3.

KEY INFORMATION

6

 

 

ITEM 4.

INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY

37

 

 

ITEM 4A.

UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

61

 

 

ITEM 5.

OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS

61

 

 

ITEM 6.

DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND EMPLOYEES

81

 

 

ITEM 7.

MAJOR SHAREHOLDERS AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS

89

 

 

ITEM 8.

FINANCIAL INFORMATION

90

 

 

ITEM 9.

THE OFFER AND LISTING

91

 

 

ITEM 10.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

91

 

 

ITEM 11.

QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

103

 

 

ITEM 12.

DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES OTHER THAN EQUITY SECURITIES

104

 

 

PART II

 

 

ITEM 13.

DEFAULTS, DIVIDEND ARREARAGES AND DELINQUENCIES

105

 

 

ITEM 14.

MATERIAL MODIFICATIONS TO THE RIGHTS OF SECURITIES HOLDERS AND USE OF PROCEEDS

105

 

 

ITEM 15.

CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

105

 

 

ITEM 16A.

AUDIT COMMITTEE FINANCIAL EXPERT

106

 

 

ITEM 16B.

CODE OF ETHICS

106

 

 

ITEM 16C.

PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTANT FEES AND SERVICES

107

 

 

ITEM 16D.

EXEMPTIONS FROM THE LISTING STANDARDS FOR AUDIT COMMITTEES

107

 

 

ITEM 16E.

PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES BY THE ISSUER AND AFFILIATED PURCHASERS

107

 

 

ITEM 16F.

CHANGE IN REGISTRANT’S CERTIFYING ACCOUNTANT

107

 

 

ITEM 16G.

CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

107

 

 

ITEM 16H.

MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURE

108

PART III

 

 

ITEM 17.

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

109

 

 

ITEM 18.

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

109

 

 

ITEM 19.

EXHIBITS

109

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USE OF CERTAIN DEFINED TERMS

Except as otherwise indicated by the context, references in this annual report to:

“Hollysys,” “we,” “us,” or “our,” and the “Company,” refer to the combined business of Hollysys Automation Technologies Ltd., a BVI company, and its consolidated subsidiaries, HI, HAP, HAIP, PTHAI, Bond Group, Concord Group, CSHK, GTH, Clear Mind, World Hope, Helitong, Hollysys Group, Hangzhou Hollysys, Hangzhou System, Hollysys Industrial Software, Beijing Hollysys, Hollysys Electronics, Xi’an Hollysys, Hollysys Investment, HollySys Smart Energy and Cixi HollySys;

“HI” refers to Hollysys International Pte. Limited, a Singapore company;

“HAP” refers to Hollysys (Asia Pacific) Pte. Limited, a Singapore company;

“HAIP” refers to Hollysys Automation India Private Limited, an India Company;

Bond Group” refers to a group of our subsidiaries, including Bond Corporation Pte. Ltd., a Singapore company (“BCPL”), Bond M&E Pte. Ltd., a Singapore Company (“BMSG”), Bond M&E Sdn. Bhd., a Malaysia company (“BMJB”), and Bond M&E (K.L.) Sdn. Bhd., a Malaysia company (“BMKL”);

“Concord Group” refers to a group of our subsidiaries, including Concord Corporation Pte. Ltd. (“CCPL”), a Singapore company, and CCPL’s subsidiaries, Concord Electrical Pte. Ltd., a Singapore company (“CEPL”), Concord Electrical Sdn. Bhd., a Malaysia company (“CESB”), Concord Corporation Pte. Ltd, Dubai Branch (“CCPL Dubai”) Concord Electrical Contracting Ltd., a Qatar company(“CECL”), and Concord M Design and Engineering Company Ltd, a Macau company(“CMDE”);

“CSHK” refers to Concord Solutions (HK) Limited, a Hong Kong company;

“PTHAI” refers to PT Hollysys Automation Indonesia, an Indonesian company

“GTH” refers to Gifted Time Holdings Limited, a BVI company;

“Clear Mind” refers to Clear Mind Limited, a BVI company;

“World Hope” refers to World Hope Enterprises Limited, a Hong Kong company;

“Helitong” refers Beijing Helitong Science & Technology Exploration Co., Ltd., a PRC company;

“Hollysys Group” refers to Hollysys Group Co., Ltd., formerly known as Beijing Hollysys Science & Technology Co., Ltd, a PRC company;

“Hangzhou Hollysys” refers to Hangzhou Hollysys Automation Co., Ltd., a PRC company;

“Hangzhou System” refers to Hangzhou Hollysys System Engineering Co., Ltd., a PRC company;

“Hollysys Industrial Software” refers to Beijing Hollysys Industrial Software Company Ltd., a PRC company;

“Beijing Hollysys” refers to Beijing Hollysys Co., Ltd., a PRC company;

“Hollysys Electronics” refers to Beijing Hollysys Electronics Technology Co., Ltd., a PRC company;

“Xi’an Hollysys” refers to Xi’an Hollysys Co., Ltd, a PRC company;

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“Hollysys Investment” refers to Hollysys (Beijing) Investment Co., Ltd., a PRC company;

“HollySys Smart Energy” refers to HollySys Smart Energy Technology (Beijing) Co., Ltd., a PRC company;

“Cixi HollySys” refers to Cixi HollySys Precision Technology Co., Ltd., a PRC company;

“RMB” and “CNY” refer to Renminbi, the legal currency of China; “SGD” and “S$” refer to the Singapore dollar, the legal currency of Singapore; “US dollar,” “$” and “US$” refer to the legal currency of the United States; “MYR” refers to the Malaysian Ringgit, the legal currency of Malaysia; “AED” refers to the United Arab Emirates Dirham, the legal currency of United Arab Emirates; “HKD” refers to the Hong Kong dollar, the legal currency of Hong Kong; “MOP” refers to the Macau Pataca, the legal currency of Macau; “INR” refers to the Indian Rupee, the legal currency of India; and “QAR” refers to the Qatar Riyal, the legal currency of Qatar; “IDR” refers to Indonesia Rupiah, the legal currency of Indonesia.

“BVI” refers to the British Virgin Islands;

“China” and “PRC” refer to the People’s Republic of China;

“Hong Kong” and “Hong Kong SAR” refer to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China;

“Macau” refers to the Macau Special Administrative Region of China;

“Exchange Act” refers to the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended; and

“Securities Act” refers to the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

In addition, we have listed below certain technical terms we use to describe our business and industry:

CTCS-2: Chinese Train Control System Level 2
CTCS-3: Chinese Train Control System Level 3
DCS: Distributed Control System
DEH: Digital Electro-Hydraulic
GW: Gigawatt
IIoT: Industrial Internet of Things
MW: Megawatt
PaaS: Platform as a Service
PLC: Programmable Logic Controller
SaaS: Software as a Service
SCADA: Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition

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FORWARD-LOOKING INFORMATION

This annual report contains forward-looking statements and information relating to us that are based on the current beliefs, expectations, assumptions, estimates and projections of our management regarding our company and industry. These forward-looking statements are made under the "safe harbor" provision under Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and as defined in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. When used in this annual report, the words “may”, “will”, “anticipate”, “believe”, “estimate”, “expect”, “intend”, “plan” and similar expressions, as they relate to us or our management, are intended to identify forward-looking statements. These statements reflect management's current view of us concerning future events and are subject to certain risks, uncertainties and assumptions, including among many others: our potential inability to achieve similar growth in future periods as we did historically, a decrease in the availability of our raw materials, the emergence of additional competing technologies, changes in domestic and foreign laws, regulations and taxes, changes in economic conditions, uncertainties related to China’s legal system and economic, political and social events in China, the volatility of the securities markets, and other risks and uncertainties which are generally set forth under the heading, “Key information - Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this annual report.  Should any of these risks or uncertainties materialize, or should the underlying assumptions about our business and the commercial markets in which we operate prove incorrect, actual results may vary materially from those described as anticipated, estimated or expected in this annual report.

All forward-looking statements included herein attributable to us or other parties or any person acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements contained or referred to in this section. Except to the extent required by applicable laws and regulations, we undertake no obligations to update these forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this annual report or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events.

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PART I

ITEM 1.      IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS

Not applicable.

ITEM 2.      OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE

Not applicable.

ITEM 3.      KEY INFORMATION

A.      Selected Consolidated Financial Data

The following table presents selected financial data regarding our business. It should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and related notes contained elsewhere in this annual report and the information under Item 5, “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects.”  The selected consolidated statement of comprehensive income data for the fiscal years ended June 30, 2017, 2018 and 2019 and the consolidated balance sheet data as of June 30, 2018 and 2019 have been derived from the audited consolidated financial statements of Hollysys that are included in this annual report beginning on page F-1. The selected statement of comprehensive income data for the fiscal years ended June 30, 2015 and 2016, and balance sheet data as of June 30, 2015, 2016 and 2017 have been derived from our audited financial statements that are not included in this annual report.

The audited consolidated financial statements for the years ended June 30, 2017, 2018 and 2019 are prepared and presented in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States, or US GAAP.  The selected financial data information is only a summary and should be read in conjunction with the historical consolidated financial statements and related notes of Hollysys contained elsewhere herein.  The financial statements contained elsewhere fully represent our financial condition and operations; however, they are not indicative of our future performance.

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Financial information in this report is reported in United States dollars, the reporting currency of the Company.

(In USD thousands, except share numbers and per share data)

Years ended June 30,

    

2015

    

2016

    

2017

    

2018

    

2019

Statement of Comprehensive Income Data

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Revenue

 

531,379

 

544,325

 

431,943

 

540,768

 

570,341

Operating income

 

130,107

 

120,583

 

60,270

 

120,244

 

123,626

Income before income taxes

 

125,227

 

137,742

 

83,355

 

129,642

 

143,723

Net income attributable to Hollysys

 

96,527

 

118,471

 

68,944

 

107,161

 

125,261

Add: Share-based compensation expenses

 

2,492

 

3,860

 

464

 

1,207

 

238

Amortization of intangible assets

 

4,454

 

818

 

623

 

598

 

311

Acquisition-related consideration fair value adjustments

 

(166)

 

(1,745)

 

 

 

Fair value adjustments of a bifurcated derivative

 

35

 

93

 

89

 

(75)

 

346

Non-GAAP net income attributable to Hollysys

 

103,342

 

121,497

 

70,120

 

108,891

 

126,156

Weighted average ordinary shares:

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

 

  

Basic

 

58,612,596

 

59,170,050

 

60,189,004

 

60,434,019

 

60,456,524

Diluted

 

60,134,203

 

60,611,456

 

61,011,510

 

61,248,565

 

61,273,884

Earnings per share:

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Basic

 

1.65

 

2.00

 

1.15

 

1.77

 

2.07

Diluted

 

1.61

 

1.97

 

1.14

 

1.75

 

2.05

Non-GAAP earnings per share:

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Basic

 

1.76

 

2.05

 

1.16

 

1.80

 

2.09

Diluted

 

1.72

 

2.02

 

1.16

 

1.78

 

2.07

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Balance Sheet Data

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Total current assets

 

806,640

 

827,310

 

865,356

 

1,000,898

 

1,109,478

Total assets

 

983,686

 

1,004,156

 

1,058,254

 

1,210,128

 

1,309,417

Total current liabilities

 

374,596

 

297,326

 

302,978

 

333,054

 

341,499

Total liabilities

 

398,301

 

321,471

 

334,714

 

367,775

 

362,257

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Net assets

 

585,385

 

682,685

 

723,540

 

842,353

 

947,160

Non-controlling interests

 

6,285

 

8,529

 

21

 

301

 

1,774

Stockholders’ equity

 

579,100

 

674,156

 

723,519

 

842,052

 

945,386

Non-GAAP Measures

In evaluating our results, the non-GAAP measures of “Non-GAAP general and administrative expenses (“Non-GAAP G&A expenses”)”,“Non-GAAP cost of integrated solutions contracts”, “Non-GAAP other income (expenses), net”, “Non-GAAP interest expenses”, “Non-GAAP net income attributable to Hollysys” and “Non-GAAP earnings per share” serve as additional indicators of our operating performance and not as a replacement for other measures in accordance with US GAAP. We believe these non-GAAP measures are useful to investors as they exclude: 1) share-based compensation expenses, 2) amortization of intangible assets, 3) acquisition-related consideration fair value adjustments and 4) fair value adjustments of a bifurcated derivative. All of above will not result in any cash inflows or outflows. We believe that using non-GAAP measures help our shareholders have a better understanding of our operating results and growth prospects. In addition, given the business nature of Hollysys, it has been a common practice for investors and analysts to use such non-GAAP measures to evaluate the Company. Specifically, the non-GAAP measures excluded the following items:

1)Share-based compensation expenses, which are calculated based on the number of shares or options granted and the fair value as of grant date.

2)Amortization of intangible assets, which is a non-cash expense relating primarily to acquisitions. At the time of an acquisition, the identifiable definite-lived intangible assets of the acquired company, such as customer relationships and order backlog, are valued and amortized over their estimated lives. Value is also assigned to the acquired indefinite-lived intangible assets, which comprise goodwill that are not subject to amortization.

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3)Acquisition-related consideration fair value adjustments are accounting adjustments to report contingent share consideration liabilities at fair value and cash consideration at present value. These adjustments can be highly variable and are excluded from our assessment of performance because they are considered non-operational in nature and, therefore, are not indicative of current or future performance or ongoing costs of doing business.

4)Fair value adjustments of a bifurcated derivative are accounting adjustments to report the change of fair value of the feature bifurcated as a derivative from the underlying host instrument of a convertible bond, and accounted for as a liability at its fair value.

The following table provides a reconciliation of U.S. GAAP measures to the non-GAAP measures for the periods indicated:

(In USD thousands, except share numbers and per share data)

Years ended June 30,

    

2015

    

2016

    

2017

    

2018

    

2019

Cost of integrated solutions contracts

 

300,332

 

310,545

 

277,476

 

314,233

 

325,523

Less: Amortization of intangible assets

 

4,454

 

818

 

623

 

598

 

311

Non-GAAP cost of integrated solutions contracts

 

295,878

 

309,727

 

276,853

 

313,635

 

325,212

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

G&A expenses

 

50,786

 

45,832

 

44,297

 

46,323

 

40,701

Less: Share-based compensation expenses

 

2,492

 

3,860

 

464

 

1,207

 

238

Non-GAAP G&A expenses

 

48,294

 

41,972

 

43,833

 

45,116

 

40,463

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Other income  (expenses), net

 

2,601

 

4,061

 

1,722

 

4,349

 

2,710

Add: Acquisition-related incentive share contingent consideration fair value adjustments

 

(368)

 

(1,745)

 

 

 

Add: Fair value adjustments of a bifurcated derivative

 

35

 

93

 

89

 

(75)

 

346

Non-GAAP other income, net

 

2,268

 

2,409

 

1,811

 

4,274

 

3,056

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Interest expenses

 

(1,821)

 

(1,404)

 

(938)

 

(692)

 

(575)

Add: Acquisition-related cash consideration adjustments

 

202

 

 

 

 

Non-GAAP interest expenses

 

(1,619)

 

(1,404)

 

(938)

 

(692)

 

(575)

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Net income attributable to Hollysys

 

96,527

 

118,471

 

68,944

 

107,161

 

125,261

Add: Share-based compensation expenses

 

2,492

 

3,860

 

464

 

1,207

 

238

Amortization of intangible assets

 

4,454

 

818

 

623

 

598

 

311

Acquisition-related consideration fair value adjustments

 

(166)

 

(1,745)

 

 

 

Fair value adjustments of a bifurcated derivative

 

35

 

93

 

89

 

(75)

 

346

Non-GAAP net income attributable to Hollysys

 

103,342

 

121,497

 

70,120

 

108,891

 

126,156

Weighted average number of ordinary shares outstanding used in computation:

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Basic

 

58,612,596

 

59,170,050

 

60,189,004

 

60,434,019

 

60,456,524

Diluted

 

60,134,203

 

60,611,456

 

61,011,510

 

61,248,565

 

61,273,884

Non-GAAP earnings per share:

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Basic

 

1.76

 

2.05

 

1.16

 

1.80

 

2.09

Diluted

 

1.72

 

2.02

 

1.16

 

1.78

 

2.07

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B.

Capitalization and Indebtedness

Not applicable.

C.

Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds

Not applicable.

D.

Risk Factors

An investment in our capital stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks described below, together with all of the other information included in this annual report, before making an investment decision. If any of the following risks actually occurs, our business, prospects, financial condition or results of operations could suffer. In that case, the trading price of our capital stock could decline, and you may lose all or part of your investment.

RISKS RELATED TO OUR BUSINESS

We commit substantial resources to new product and service development and acquisition opportunities in order to stay competitive and grow our business, and we may fail to offset the increased cost of such investment with a sufficient increase in net sales or margins.

The success of our business depends in great measure on our ability to keep pace with, or even lead, changes that occur in our industry and expand our product and service offerings. Traditionally, the automation and control systems business was relatively stable and slow moving. Successive generations of products offered only marginal improvements in terms of functionality and reliability. However, the emergence of computers, computer networks and electronic components as key elements of the systems that we design and build has accelerated the pace of change in our industry. Where there was formerly as much as a decade or more between successive generations of automation systems, the time between generations is now as little as two to three years. Technological advances and the introduction of new products, new designs and new manufacturing techniques by our competitors could adversely affect our business unless we are able to respond with similar advances. To remain competitive, we must continue to incur significant costs in product development, equipment and facilities and to make capital investments and seek complementary acquisitions. These costs may increase, resulting in greater fixed costs and operating expenses than we have incurred to date. As a result, we could be required to expend substantial funds for and commit significant resources to the following:

Research and development activities on existing and potential product solutions;

Additional engineering and other technical personnel;

Advanced design, production and test equipment;

Manufacturing services that meet changing customer needs;

Technological changes in manufacturing processes;

Expansion of manufacturing capacity; and

Acquiring technology through licensing and acquisitions.

Our future operating results will depend to a significant extent on our ability to continue providing new product and service solutions that compare favorably on the basis of time to market, cost and performance, with competing third-party suppliers and technologies.  However, we may develop new products and services that do not gain market acceptance, which would result in the failure to recover the significant costs for design and manufacturing for new product solutions or service development, thus adversely affecting operating results.

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Our businesses and financial performance may be affected by changes in the PRC government policies promoting infrastructural development, such as high-speed rail and urban mass transit. Any decrease in the public expenditures on, or any change in the public procurement policies or industry standards relating to, such industries may affect our business.

Our business includes providing high-speed rail signaling systems that ensure operational safety of passenger trains. The development of the PRC high-speed rail signaling system industry is dependent upon state planning and investment in high-speed rail transportation projects. The nature, scale and timetable of these projects may be affected by a number of factors, including the overall state investment in high-speed rail transportation projects and approval of such new projects. By the end of the 12th Five-Year Plan published by the PRC’s State Council, which plan ended on December 31, 2015, the total length of China’s high-speed railway exceeded 19,000 kilometers. Under the 13th Five-Year Plan, which will end on December 31, 2020, the PRC government plans to increase the overall investment in transportation infrastructure by adding another 11,000 kilometers of high-speed railway by end of 2020, for a total length of 30,000 kilometers, which would cover over 80% of China’s major cities. We cannot predict whether the total annual investment in and the market size of the PRC high-speed railway industry will continue to grow in the future. If the total annual investment or the market size declines, our business and financial position may be adversely affected.

We have also provided our SCADA System, or supervisory control and data acquisition system, to a number of China’s subway lines over the past years. According to the development plan for a modern comprehensive transportation system under the 13th Five-Year Plan published by the PRC’s State Council, the total length of urban mass transit lines under operation by the end of 2020 will be 6,000 kilometers, an increase from 3,300 kilometers as of December 31, 2015. Although the PRC government has historically been supportive of the development of the urban mass transit industry, its industrial policy may change from time to time and it may adopt new policies or measures to further regulate the urban mass transit industry due to changes in macroeconomic trends or certain unexpected events.

In our rail transportation segment, we experienced revenue increases in the latter years of the 12th Five-Year Plan as Chinese policymakers ramped up spending to meet plan targets. For our fiscal years ended June 30, 2014, 2015, and 2016, our revenue from the rail transportation segment was $178.1 million, $193.3 million and $240.3 million, respectively. Revenue from this segment decreased at the beginning of 13th Five-Year plan to $155.7 million for the fiscal year ended 2017 as state bureaucracies adjusted to the new plan and state priorities. This decrease in revenue from our rail transportation segment accounted for approximately 75% of the decrease in our total net revenues in the fiscal year ended June 30, 2017, as compared to fiscal year ended June 30, 2016. In the fiscal year ended June 30, 2018, revenue from the rail transportation segment rebounded to $190.6 million, as implementation efforts for the 13th Five-Year Plan further advanced. In the fiscal year ended June 30, 2019, revenue from the rail transportation segment increased further to $208.9 million.

The spending patterns and priorities of Chinese policymakers, however, cannot be predicted with certainty. We cannot assure you that the generally favorable policies will remain in force in the future. In addition, the impact of rail transportation projects on our revenue from integrated solutions contracts was even more significant in the fiscal year ended June 30, 2017. Our overall revenue from integrated solutions contracts in the fiscal year ended June 30, 2017 decreased $92.3 million compared to the fiscal year ended June 30, 2016, primarily due to a decrease of $89.4 million from rail transportation projects, along with a decrease of $11.2 million from industrial automation projects, partially offset by an increase of $8.3 million in mechanical and electrical solutions business. If the PRC government reduces its public investment in, or changes any industrial standards relating to the high-speed railway industry, railway or urban mass transit industry in the PRC, if any of our major customers changes its procurement or bidding policy, or if our rail transportation projects face challenges, there could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position and results of operations.

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Our capital and human resources committed to product and service offerings may not always achieve anticipated results and we may not be able to develop new products that meet market demand or successfully introduce new products in a timely manner.

We are a technology-driven company. To maintain our leading position in the industry and meet the requirement of safety and efficiency, we have to continuously improve existing technology and products, and design and develop new technology, product and service offerings that closely follow technology development trends and customer needs. However, we cannot guarantee that our capital and human resources activities will always keep pace with market demand and technological advances or yield the anticipated results. The products and services, which we have spent substantial capital and human resources to develop, may not be able to deliver expected commercial returns when they are developed due to changing technology trends and market demands. If we encounter delays in technology development, fail to meet changing market demands, underestimate or fail to follow technological trends, or if our competitors respond more quickly than we do, our business or operating results may be materially and adversely affected. Failure to develop and introduce new product and service solutions in the areas of industrial automation, rail transportation and mechanical and electrical solutions on a timely basis or at all could adversely affect our competitiveness and profitability.

Loss of major customers or changes in their orders may have an adverse impact on our business.

We have developed significant customer relationships with several local urban mass transit providers and railway authorities in respect of the high-speed train system in China. For example, we currently have major contracts with the MTR Corporation Ltd. of Hong Kong, Land Transport Authority of Singapore, and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. Qatar Branch. We expect to continue to rely on our current major customers for a portion of our revenue in the future. Moreover, due to the nature of our business, the contract value of a single contract tends to be large. As such, our cash flows may become dependent on those customers’ payment practices and overall public funding policies, including the lengthening of collection times under contracts that have been performed. If our major customers significantly reduce, modify, postpone or cancel their purchase orders with us, we may not be able to get substitute orders with similar terms from other customers in a timely manner or at all. If we are not able to enter into contracts with our major customers on terms favorable to us or at all, our business and financial position may be adversely affected.

We do not have long-term purchase commitments from our customers, and we are exposed to potential volatility in our turnover.

Our business with our customers has been, and we expect it will continue to be, conducted on the basis of actual purchase orders received from time to time. Our customers are not obligated in any way to continue to place orders with us at the same or increased levels or at all. In addition, our customers may change or delay or terminate orders for products and services without notice for reasons unrelated to us, including lack of market acceptance for the products that our system was designed to control.

We cannot assure you that our customers will continue to place purchase orders with us at the same volume or same margin, as compared to prior periods, or at all. We may not be able to locate alternative customers to replace purchase orders or sales. As a result, our business, financial condition and results of operations may vary from period to period and may fluctuate significantly in the future.

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An increase in our contract backlog may reflect our inability to perform our contracts on a timely basis instead of our ability to expand our business.

Our backlog indicates our ability to sell our products and services and increase our revenue, which represents an estimated amount of unrealized revenue of work remaining to be completed in accordance with the terms of the contract. Backlog is not a standard financial measure that has been defined by generally accepted accounting principles, and may not be indicative of future operating results. The amount of our aggregate backlog is based on the assumption that our relevant contracts will be performed in full in accordance with their terms. The termination or modification of any one or more major contracts may have a substantial and immediate effect on our backlog. We cannot guarantee that the amount estimated in our backlog will be realized in full, in a timely manner, or at all, or that, even if it is realized, such backlog will result in profits as expected. As a result, you should not rely on our backlog information presented in this report as an indicator of our future earnings.

We may face risks associated with our international expansion efforts, which could result in significant additional costs for our business operations.

A core component of our growth strategy is international expansion. As we continue to expand our international operations, we will be increasingly susceptible to the risks associated with overseas expansion. We have a limited operating history outside of the PRC and management of our international operations requires significant resources and management attention. Entering into new markets presents challenges, including, among others, the challenges of supporting a rapidly growing business in new environments with diverse cultures, languages, customs, legal systems, alternative dispute systems and economic, political and regulatory systems. We expect to incur significant costs associated with expanding our overseas operations, including hiring personnel internationally. The risks and challenges associated with overseas expansion include:

uncertain political and economic climates;

lack of familiarity and burdens of complying with foreign laws, accounting and legal standards, regulatory requirements, tariffs and other barriers;

unexpected changes in regulatory requirements, taxes, trade laws, tariffs, export quotas, custom duties or other trade restrictions;

lack of experience in connection with the localization of our applications, including translation into foreign languages and adaptation for local practices, and associated expenses and regulatory requirements;

difficulties in adapting to differing technology standards;

longer sales cycles and accounts receivable payment cycles and difficulties in collecting accounts receivable;

difficulties in managing and staffing international operations, including differing legal and cultural expectations for employee relationships and increased travel, infrastructure and legal compliance costs associated with international operations;

fluctuations in exchange rates that may increase the volatility of our foreign-based revenue and expenses;

potentially adverse tax consequences, including the complexities of foreign value-added tax, goods and services tax and other transactional taxes;

reduced or varied protection for intellectual property rights in some countries;

difficulties in managing and adapting to differing cultures and customs;

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data privacy laws which require that customer data be stored and processed in a designated territory subject to laws different from those of the PRC;

new and different sources of competition as well as laws and business practices favoring local competitors and local employees;

compliance with anti-bribery laws, including compliance with the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act;

increased financial accounting and reporting burdens and complexities; and

restrictions on the repatriation of earnings.

In addition, in our international business expansion to Southeast Asia, India and the Middle East, we may not be able to find adequate and qualified local engineers to bid and complete sizable rail transportation orders and industrial automation projects, and because of visa problems, we may have difficulties relocating adequate engineers from China to various foreign countries and have them stay there long enough to finish the projects, which could have an adverse impact on our international business expansion.

As a result of these factors, international expansion may be more difficult, take longer and not generate the results we anticipate, which could negatively impact our growth and business.

If we fail to accurately estimate the overall risks or costs under the contracts with our customers, or the time needed to complete the relevant projects under such contracts, we may experience cost overruns, schedule delays, lower profitability or even losses under such contracts when we perform such contracts.

We derive around 80% of our total consolidated revenues from the integrated solutions contracts that we have won through a competitive bidding process. The purpose of an integrated solutions contract is to furnish an automation system that provides the customer with a total solution for the automation or process control requirement being addressed. These contracts require us to complete projects at a fixed price, and therefore expose us to the risk of cost overruns. Cost overruns, whether due to efficiency, estimates or other reasons, could result in lower profit or losses. Other variations and risks inherent in the performance of fixed-price contracts such as delays caused by technical issues, and any inability to obtain the requisite permits and approvals, may cause our actual risk exposure and costs to differ from our original estimates.

In addition, we may be unable to deliver products or complete projects in accordance with the schedules set forth under the integrated solutions contracts. Our projects and our manufacturing and sales of products could be delayed for a number of reasons, including those relating to market conditions, policies, laws and regulations of the PRC and other relevant jurisdictions, availability of funding, transportation, disputes with business partners and subcontractors, technology and raw materials suppliers, employees, local governments, natural disasters, power and other energy supplies, and availability of technical or human resources.

We cannot guarantee that we will not encounter cost overruns or delays in our current and future delivery of products and completion of projects. If such cost overruns or delays were to occur, our costs could exceed our budget, and our profits on the relevant contracts may be adversely affected.

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Our products may contain design or manufacturing defects that could result in product liability claims and cause us to suffer losses, and such defects could adversely affect demand for our products and services.

Our products are very complex, integrated systems, often with elements designed specifically for the particular situation of a customer. These products may have dormant design or manufacturing issues or defects that are not detected until they are put into actual use. Also, we manufacture spare parts for maintenance and replacement purposes after completion of integrated solutions contracts. While there have been no significant issues or defects identified as of the date of this prospectus supplement, any issues or defects in the design, manufacture and spare parts we provide may result in returns, claims, delayed shipments to customers or reduced or cancelled customer orders and other forms of damages asserted against us. A product issue or defect or negative publicity concerning defective products or services of ours could adversely affect our results of operations, reputation, customer satisfaction and market share.

Moreover, we are increasingly active in the conventional and nuclear power generation and railway control systems sectors. Each of these sectors poses a substantially higher risk of liability in the event of a system failure than is present in the industrial process controls markets in which we have traditionally competed. In certain jurisdictions that impose strict liability on product defects, we could be held liable for injuries or accidents involving our products even if the defects are not caused by us. We may be held liable for any damages or losses incurred in connection with or arising from defective products manufactured or designed by us, and if the damages or losses are severe, we may also be subject to administrative penalties imposed by the government. If our products or services are proven to be defective and have caused personal injury, property damage or other losses to rail passengers, we may be held responsible under liability claims under the laws of the PRC or other jurisdictions in which our products or services are sold, used or provided. We may need to devote substantial funds and other financial and administrative resources to rectifying or preventing potential product liability incidents, which could adversely affect our working capital, cash flow and results of operation.

As a practice, we generally do not carry large amounts of product liability insurance for our products, and we may not be able to obtain adequate insurance coverage in the future or may experience difficulties in obtaining the insurance coverage we need, which could negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. The typical industrial practice is for the customers to obtain insurance to protect against their own operational risks. Any claims against us, regardless of their merits, could materially and adversely affect our financial condition. If we recall any of our products or are punished by governmental authorities, our business activities, financial condition and results of operations, as well as reputation, could be adversely affected.

Since we use a variety of raw materials and components in our production, shortages or price fluctuations of raw materials and the inability of key suppliers to meet our quantity or quality requirements could increase the cost of our products, undermine our product quality and adversely impact our business

Our major requirements for raw materials include bare printed circuit boards, electronic components, chips, cabinets and cables. Although we believe the sources of supply for these raw materials and components are generally adequate, any shortages or price increases could lead to higher cost of sales in the future. Our inability to pass on all or any raw material price increases to our customers or suppliers or offset the price fluctuations through commodity hedges could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Moreover, we procure our major raw materials, bare printed circuit boards, from suppliers based on our requirements and design considerations. Our suppliers may not be able to scale production or adjust delivery of products during times of volatile demand. In addition, we cannot guarantee that our suppliers have developed adequate and effective quality control systems. Our vendors’ inability to meet our volume requirements or quality standards may materially and adversely affect our brand and reputation, as well as our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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We may experience material disruptions to our productions and business operations.

We primarily manufacture the hardware of our products in Beijing and Hangzhou facilities and in certain occasions outsource the production to third-party manufacturers. These facilities may be affected by natural or man-made disasters and other external events, including but not limited to fire, natural disasters, weather, manufacturing problems, diseases, strikes, transportation interruption, government regulation or terrorism. Any such disruptions or facility downtime could prevent us from meeting customer demand for our product and require us to make unexpected capital expenditures. Additionally, the lessors of some of our leased properties have defects in their titles and we may be required to cease using such leased properties if a valid claim is made against such properties. In such circumstances, we may not be able to find new leases on terms acceptable to us, or at all. Any of these disruptions may force us to cease operations, shift production to other third-party manufacturers or cease certain parts of our business operations, which could incur substantial costs or take a significant time to re-start production or operations, each of which may adversely impact our business and results of operations.

Security breaches or disruptions of our information technology systems could adversely affect our business.

We rely on information technology networks and systems, including the Internet, to process, transmit and store electronic information, and to manage or support a variety of business processes and activities. Additionally, we collect and store certain data, including proprietary business information, and may have access to confidential or personal information in certain of our businesses, which is subject to privacy and security laws and regulations, and customer-imposed controls. These technology networks and systems may be susceptible to damage, disruptions or shutdowns due to failures during the process of upgrading or replacing software, databases or components; power outages; telecommunications or system failures; terrorist attacks; natural disasters; employee error or malfeasance; server or cloud provider breaches; and computer viruses or cyberattacks. Cybersecurity threats and incidents can range from uncoordinated individual attempts to gain unauthorized access to information technology networks and systems to more sophisticated and targeted measures, known as advanced persistent threats, directed at us, our products, customers and/or third-party service providers. Despite the implementation of cybersecurity measures (including access controls, data encryption, vulnerability assessments, continuous monitoring, and maintenance of backup and protective systems), our information technology systems may still be vulnerable to cybersecurity threats and other electronic security breaches. It is possible for such vulnerabilities to remain undetected for an extended period, up to and including several years. In addition, it is possible a security breach could result in theft of trade secrets or other intellectual property or disclosure of confidential customer, supplier or employee information. We cannot guarantee that we will be able to prevent security breaches or other damage to our information technology systems, nor can we guarantee that our internal control and compliance programs will be able to adequately address all or any of such breaches. Disruptions caused by any such breaches or damage could have an adverse effect on our operations, as well as expose us to litigation, liability or penalties under privacy laws, increased cybersecurity protection costs, reputational damage and product failure.

Our goodwill is subject to impairment review and any goodwill impairment may negatively affect our reported results.

Goodwill represents the excess of the purchase price over the estimated fair value of net tangible and identifiable intangible assets acquired. Our outstanding goodwill as of June 30, 2019 was related to the acquisition of Bond Group in 2013 and Hollysys Industrial Software in July 2017. Based on our quantitative assessment, the goodwill related to Concord Group acquisition was impaired by $11.6 million as of June 30, 2019. We performed a qualitative assessment for both Bond Group and Hollysys Industrial Software in 2019 and evaluated all relevant factors, weighed all factors in their entirety and concluded that no impairment charge for Bond Group and Hollysys Industrial Software was needed as of June 30, 2019.

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However, there are uncertainties surrounding the amount and timing of future expected cash flows as they may be impacted by negative events such as a slowdown in the mechanical and electrical engineering sector, deteriorating economic conditions in the geographical areas Concord Group, Bond Group and Hollysys Industrial Software operate in, political, economic and social uncertainties in the Middle East, increasing competitive pressures and fewer than expected mechanical and electrical solution contracts awarded to Concord Group, Bond Group and Hollysys Industrial Software. These events can negatively impact demand for services of Concord Group, Bond Group and Hollysys Industrial Software and result in actual future cash flows being less than forecasted or delays in the timing of when those cash flows are expected to be realized. Further, the timing of when actual future cash flows are received could differ from our estimates, which are based on historical trends and do not factor in unexpected delays in project commencement or execution.

We may experience delays or defaults in payment of accounts receivables or in release of retention by our customers, which may adversely affect our cash flow and working capital, financial condition and results of operations.

In line with the industry practice, we typically have a long receivable collection cycle. We face the risk that customers may delay their settlement with us or delay or fail to pay us as scheduled. Furthermore, defaults in payments to us on projects for which we have already incurred significant costs and expenses can materially and adversely affect our results of operations and reduce our financial resources that would otherwise be available to fund other projects. We cannot assure you that payments from customers will be made in a timely manner or at all, or that delays or defaults in payments will not adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

Our operations require certain permits, licenses, approvals and certificates, the revocation, cancellation or non-renewal of which could significantly hinder our business and operations, and we are subject to periodic inspections, examinations, inquiries and audits by regulatory authorities.

We are required to obtain and maintain valid permits, licenses, certificates and approvals from various governmental authorities or institutions under relevant laws and regulations for our businesses of design and integration, equipment manufacturing and system implementation services. We must comply with the restrictions and conditions imposed by various levels of governmental agencies to maintain our permits, licenses, approvals and certificates. If we fail to comply with any of the regulations or meet any of the conditions required for the maintenance of our permits, licenses, approvals and certificates, our permits, licenses, approvals and certificates could be temporarily suspended or even revoked, or the renewal thereof, upon expiry of their original terms, may be delayed or rejected, which could materially and adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We are subject to periodic inspections, examinations, inquiries and audits by regulatory authorities and may be subject to suspension or revocation of the relevant permits, licenses, approvals or certificates, or fines or other penalties due to any non-compliance identified as a result of such inspections, examinations, inquiries and audits. We cannot assure you that we will be able to maintain or renew our existing permits, licenses, approvals and certificates or obtain future permits, licenses, approvals and certificates required for our continued operation on a timely basis or at all. In the event that we fail to comply with applicable laws and regulations or fail to maintain, renew or obtain the necessary permits, licenses, approvals or certificates, our qualification to conduct various businesses may be adversely impacted.

As we expand our business outside of mainland China, we will encounter the increasing need for international certifications and compliance with the regulation of different governments, which if not obtained and complied with may adversely impact our business.

We are expanding our business outside of mainland China, including seeking business opportunities in Hong Kong SAR, Singapore, Malaysia, India, Indonesia, and the Middle East. For our marketing both in China and in other jurisdictions, we seek international certifications and have obtained certificates such as the European Safety Standard Certification Level 4. As we operate in jurisdictions other than China, we will have to comply with local laws, some of which relate to various safety and quality requirements for the kinds of products we provide. The failure to have any necessary or beneficial certifications and the failure to comply with local laws will have an adverse impact on our marketing and business, and may result in additional costs and expenses.

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We are exposed to risks associated with public project contracts.

Due to the nature of our industry, we are exposed to risks associated with public project contracts. For example, many of our contracts are for large and high-profile high-speed railway or urban mass transit infrastructure projects, which can result in increased political and public scrutiny of our work. Certain of our customers are affiliated with government authorities. Such customers may delay making payments for our projects, and it may take a considerably longer period of time to resolve disputes with these customers than resolving disputes with customers in private sectors.

Moreover, such government-affiliated customers may require us to undertake additional obligations, change the type of our services, equipment used or other terms of service, or purchase specific equipment, or modify other contractual terms from time to time for the social benefit or other administrative purposes, resulting in additional costs incurred by us, which may not be reimbursed by such customers in full. If any early termination by any government-affiliated customers occurs or if government-affiliated customers fail to renew their contracts with us in the future, our backlog may be reduced and our investment plan may be hindered, which may have a material adverse effect on our business and financial performance.

Many of our competitors have substantially greater resources than we do, allowing them to compete on an advantageous basis.

We operate in a very competitive environment with many major international and domestic companies, such as Honeywell, General Electric, ABB, Siemens, Emerson, Yokogawa and Hitachi. Many of our competitors are much better established and more experienced than we are, have substantially greater financial resources, operate in more international markets and are much more diversified than we are. As a result, they are in a stronger position to compete effectively with us. These large competitors are also in a better position than we are to weather any extended weaknesses in the market for automation and control systems. Other emerging companies or companies in related industries may also increase their participation in our market, which would add to the competitive pressures that we face.

Our business operations are largely dependent on our senior management and our ability to attract and retain engineering talents.

The stability of our business operations and the continuing growth of our business depend on the continuing services of our senior management and engineering talents. In the industries in which we operate, industry experience, management expertise and strategic direction are crucial. If we lose the services of our senior management and engineering staff, we may not be able to recruit a suitable or qualified replacement and may incur further costs and expenses to recruit and/or train new employees. In particular, any sudden loss of a member of our senior management or engineering staff may disrupt our strategic direction and leadership. As we continue to expand our business, we will need to continue to attract and retain experienced management personnel with extensive experience in the industries in which we operate.

We believe that competition for experienced personnel in the areas of industrial automation, rail transportation and mechanical and electrical solutions is intense. Competition for such qualified personnel could lead to higher emoluments and other compensations in order to attract and retain such personnel.

This may lead to an increase in our operating costs. If we are not able to retain the members of our senior management or engineering staff required to achieve our business objectives, this may materially and adversely affect our business operations and our prospects.

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Our control systems are used in infrastructure projects such as subway systems, surface railways and nuclear plants; to the extent that our systems do not perform as designed, we could be found responsible for the damage resulting from that failure.

We face potential responsibility for the failure of our control systems in performing the various functions for which they are designed and the damages resulting from any such problem. To the extent that we contract to provide control systems in larger scale projects, the level of damages for which we may be held responsible is likely to increase. To the extent that any of our installed control systems do not perform as designed for their intended purposes, and we are held responsible for the consequences of those performance failures and resulting damages, there may be an adverse impact on our business, business reputation, revenues and profits. We do believe our control systems have so far performed as designed, and there are no claims asserted against us based on any significant, non-performance event. Notwithstanding our record, no assurance can be given that no claims will be sought in the future based on the design and performance of our control systems.

Industry and economic conditions may adversely affect the markets and operating conditions of our customers, which in turn can affect demand for our products and services and our results of operations.

We operate in a cyclical industry that is sensitive to general economic conditions in the PRC and abroad. Rapid growth in the PRC economy and urban population could lead to an increased demand for high-speed railway, urban transportation and power plants, which could in turn foster demand for control system products and services in high-speed rail transportation, urban mass transit and power sectors. Changes in market supply and demand could also have a substantial effect on our product prices, business, revenue and financial condition. Macroeconomic conditions (such as the government’s announcement of economic stimulus policies to encourage the construction of public infrastructure or the termination of such policies), supply and demand imbalances and other factors beyond our control, including import and export policies, value-added tax and export taxes could have a major impact on our market share, and the demand for and prices of our products. Increased demand for rail transportation and increased operating margins may result in a larger amount of new investments in the relevant industries and increased production in the overall industry, which may cause supply to exceed demand and lead to a period of lower prices. This cycle of rising and falling demand may repeat itself. Any of these cyclical factors may adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations and prospects.

We are striving to expand our sales into the international market. Our overseas business extends to Southeast Asia and the Middle East area. Any economic downturn may result in reduced funding for public infrastructures including railway or urban mass transit infrastructures and a decreased demand for our transportation control system products and services in the international market. Moreover, any economic downturn may negatively impact the ability of our international customers to obtain financing, which may lead to their unwillingness to purchase our products. Therefore, the general demand for our products and their selling price could decline. Any adverse changes in the global market and economic conditions and any slowdown or recession of the global economy could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Increased competition from foreign and PRC domestic competitors within the industry where we operate could negatively impact our market share in the industry.

Our principal offering is a comprehensive suite of automation systems for a wide spectrum of industrial market clientele, ranging from power, chemical, petrochemical, to nuclear, metallurgy, building materials, food-beverage, pharmaceutical and other industries. Multi-national companies including Honeywell (US), Siemens (Germany), Emerson (US), ABB (Sweden), Rockwell (US), Yokogawa (Japan) and Hitachi (Japan) account for the majority of the global automation market share, and the market pattern is similar in China. Due to the limited number of domestic customers, if major international competitors increase their investments in the PRC or our targeted overseas markets or collaborate with our existing competitors, we may face even more intense competition. We may not be able to compete successfully with existing industry leaders in new business areas into which we intend to expand. This may in turn affect our business, operating results and financial condition.

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We may not be able to sufficiently protect our intellectual property.

Our business primarily relies on a combination of copyright, patent, trademark and other intellectual property laws, nondisclosure agreements and other protective measures to protect our proprietary rights. As of June 30, 2019, we held 221 software copyrights, 126 authorized patents, 64 patent applications and 44 registered trademarks.

Our competitors may independently develop proprietary technology similar to ours, introduce counterfeits of our products, misappropriate our proprietary information or processes, infringe on our patents, brand name and trademarks, or produce similar products that do not infringe on our patents or successfully challenge our patents. Our efforts to defend our patents, trademarks and other intellectual property rights against competitors or other violating entities may be unsuccessful. We may be unable to identify any unauthorized use of our patents, trademarks and other intellectual property rights and may not be afforded adequate remedies for any breach. In particular, in the event that our registered patents and our applications do not adequately describe, enable or otherwise provide coverage of our technologies, samples and products, we would not be able to exclude others from developing or commercializing these technologies, samples and products.

We also utilize unpatented proprietary know-how and trade secrets and employ various methods to protect our intellectual property. We have generally entered into confidentiality agreements (which include, in the case of employees, non-competition provisions and intellectual property right ownership provisions) with our key research and development personnel. These agreements provide that all confidential information developed or made known to the individual during the course of the individual’s relationship with us is to be kept confidential and not disclosed to third parties except in circumstances specified in the agreements. In the case of employees, the agreements provide that all of the technology which is conceived by the individual during the course of employment is our exclusive property. However, these agreements may not provide meaningful protection or adequate remedies in the event of unauthorized use or disclosure of our proprietary information. In addition, it is possible that third parties could independently develop information and techniques substantially similar to ours or otherwise gain access to our trade secrets.

In the event that any misappropriation or infringement of our intellectual property occurs in the future, we may need to protect our intellectual property or other proprietary rights through litigation. Litigation may divert our management’s attention from our business operations and possibly result in significant legal costs, and the outcome of any litigation is uncertain. In addition, infringement of our intellectual property rights may impair the market value and share of our products, damage our reputation and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our intellectual property may become obsolete and may not be able to protect us from competition.

The markets in which our businesses operate may experience rapid and significant changes due to the introduction of innovative and disruptive technologies. Our operating results depend to a significant extent on our ability to maintain our technological leadership, anticipate and adapt to changes in our markets and to optimize our cost base accordingly. Introducing new products and technologies requires a significant commitment to research and development, which in return requires expenditure of considerable financial resources that may not always result in success. Our results of operations may suffer if we invest in technologies that may not be used or integrated as expected, or are not accepted in the marketplace, or if our products, solutions or systems are not introduced to the market in a timely manner, particularly compared to our competitors, or become obsolete. Our patents and other intellectual property may not prevent competitors from independently developing or selling products and services that are similar to or duplicate our products and services.

Our acquisition strategies may not be successful, which could adversely affect our business and increase our financial expenses.

In addition to organic growth, we may supplement our business expansion through acquisitions of an operating business or specific assets. Examples of our past acquisitions are the acquisitions of Concord Group in 2011 and Bond Group in 2013, which were undertaken to accelerate the development of our mechanical and electrical solutions business in Southeast Asia and the Middle East. Implementing our acquisition strategies may expose us to the following risks, among others, which could have adverse effects on our business, financial condition, operating results and future prospects:

unidentified or unforeseeable liabilities or risks may exist in the potential assets or business to be acquired;

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failure to assimilate acquired business and personnel into our operations or failure to realize anticipated cost savings or other synergies from the acquisition;

incurring additional debts which could reduce our available funds for operations and other purposes as a result of increased debt repayment obligations;

inability to retain employees;

loss of customers; and

diverting efforts of management and other resources.

We cannot assure you that we will be able to effectively integrate businesses we acquire or that any acquisitions will generate long-term benefits for us. Any failure to effectively integrate or benefit from acquisitions we make may have material adverse effects on our business, financial condition, operating results and future prospects.

Our revenue and net income may be materially and adversely affected by any economic slowdown in China as well as globally.

The success of our business depends on consumer spending. We currently derive a substantial majority of our revenue from China and are also expanding into international markets. As a result, our revenue and net income are impacted to a significant extent by economic conditions in China and globally, as well as economic conditions specific to infrastructural development. The global economy, markets and levels of consumer spending are influenced by many factors beyond our control, including consumer perception of current and future economic conditions, political uncertainty (including the potential impact of political and regulatory uncertainties in the United States), levels of employment, inflation or deflation, real disposable income, interest rates, taxation and currency exchange rates.

The growth of the PRC economy has slowed in recent years. There have also been concerns about the relationships among China and other Asian countries, the relationship between China and the United States, and the relationship between the United States and certain Asian countries, which may result in or intensify potential conflicts in relation to territorial, regional security and trade disputes. For instance, the United States has imposed substantial tariffs on products emanating from China, which has adversely affected the trade relationship between China and the United States. Further disruptions or continuing or worsening slowdown could significantly reduce domestic commerce in China. A further decrease in economic growth rates or an otherwise uncertain economic outlook in China or any other markets in which we may operate could have a material adverse effect on consumer spending and therefore adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our international operations may expose us to numerous and sometimes conflicting legal and regulatory requirements. Violation of these regulations could harm our business.

With operations in Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, India and the Middle East, we are subject to numerous, and sometimes conflicting, legal requirements on matters as diverse as import/export controls, trade restrictions, tariffs, taxation, sanctions, government affairs, anti-corruption, whistle blowing, internal and disclosure control obligations, data protection and privacy and labor relations and regulatory requirements that are specific to our clients’ industries. Non-compliance with these regulations in the conduct of our business could result in fines, penalties, criminal sanctions against us or our officers, disgorgement of profits, prohibitions on doing business and adverse impact to our reputation. Gaps in compliance with these regulations in connection with the performance of our obligations to our clients could also result in exposure to monetary damages, fines and/or criminal prosecution, unfavorable publicity, restrictions on our ability to process information and allegations by our clients that we have not performed our contractual obligations. Many countries also seek to regulate the actions that companies take outside of their respective jurisdictions, subjecting us to multiple and sometimes competing legal frameworks in addition to our home country rules. Due to the varying degree of development of the legal systems of the countries in which we operate and plan to operate, local laws might be insufficient to defend us and preserve our rights. We could also be subjected to risks to our reputation and regulatory action on account of any unethical acts by any of our employees, partners or other related individuals.

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We are subject to risks relating to compliance with a variety of national and local laws including multiple tax regimes, labor laws, and employee health, safety, wages and benefits laws. We may, from time to time, be subject to litigation or administrative actions resulting from claims against us by current or former employees individually or as part of class actions, including claims of wrongful terminations, discrimination, misclassification or other violations of labor law or other alleged conduct. We may also, from time to time, be subject to litigation resulting from claims against us by third parties, including claims of breach of non-compete and confidentiality provisions of our employees’ former employment agreements with such third parties or claims of breach by us of their intellectual property rights. Our failure to comply with applicable regulatory requirements could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

The audit reports included in our annual reports filed with the SEC were prepared by auditors who are not inspected by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board and, as such, you are deprived of the benefits of such inspection.

Our independent registered public accounting firm that issues the audit reports included in our annual report, as an auditor of companies that are traded publicly in the United States and a firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), or the PCAOB, is required by the laws of the United States to undergo regular inspections by the PCAOB to assess its compliance with the laws of the United States and professional standards. However, because we have substantial operations within the PRC, a jurisdiction where the PCAOB is currently unable to conduct inspections without the approval of the Chinese government authorities, our auditor and its audit work are not currently inspected by the PCAOB.

In May 2013, PCAOB announced that it had entered into a Memorandum of Understanding on Enforcement Cooperation with the China Securities Regulation Commission, or the CSRC, and the Ministry of Finance, which establishes a cooperative framework between the parties for the production and exchange of audit documents relevant to investigations undertaken by PCAOB, the CSRC or the Ministry of Finance in the United States and the PRC, respectively. PCAOB continues to be in discussions with the CSRC and the Ministry of Finance to permit joint inspections in the PRC of audit firms that are registered with PCAOB and audit Chinese companies that trade on U.S. exchanges. On December 7, 2018, the SEC and the PCAOB issued a joint statement highlighting continued challenges faced by the U.S. regulators in their oversight of financial statement audits of U.S.-listed companies with significant operations in China. In June 2019, a bill entitled as "Ensuring Quality Information and Transparency for Abroad-Based Listings on our Exchanges (EQUITABLE) Act" was introduced in the US Congress. Among others, the bill requires US stock exchanges to amend their rules to prohibit foreign issuers from listing shares in the US if their financial statements are audited by public accounting firms that the PCAOB is unable to inspect. The joint statement and the bill reflect a heightened interest in an issue that has vexed U.S. regulators in recent years. However, it remains unclear what further actions the SEC and PCAOB will take to address the problem.

Inspections of other accounting firms that the PCAOB has conducted have identified deficiencies in those firms’ audit procedures and quality control procedures, which may be addressed as part of the inspection process to improve future audit quality. The lack of PCAOB inspections of audit work undertaken in China prevents the PCAOB from regularly evaluating our auditor’s audits and its quality control procedures. As a result, investors of our ordinary shares do not derive the benefits of PCAOB inspections, and may lose confidence in our reported financial information and procedures and the quality of our financial statements.

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Proceedings instituted by the SEC against five PRC-based accounting firms, including our independent registered public accounting firm, could result in financial statements being determined to be not in compliance with the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

In December 2012, the SEC instituted proceedings under Rule 102(e)(1)(iii) of the SEC’s Rules of Practice against five PRC-based accounting firms, including our independent registered public accounting firm, alleging that these firms had violated U.S. securities laws and the SEC’s rules and regulations there under by failing to provide to the SEC the firms’ work papers related to their audits of certain PRC-based companies that are publicly traded in the United States. Rule 102(e)(1)(iii) grants to the SEC the authority to deny to any person, temporarily or permanently, the ability to practice before the SEC who is found by the SEC, after notice and opportunity for a hearing, to have willfully violated, or willfully aided and abetted the violation of, any such laws or rules and regulations. On January 22, 2014, an initial administrative law decision was issued, sanctioning four of these accounting firms and suspending them from practicing before the SEC for a period of six months. The sanction will not take effect until there is an order of effectiveness issued by the SEC. In February 2014, four of these PRC-based accounting firms filed a petition for review of the initial decision.  In February 2015, each of these four accounting firms agreed to a censure and to pay fine to the SEC to settle the dispute with the SEC. The settlement stays the current proceeding for four years, during which time the firms are required to follow detailed procedures to seek to provide the SEC with access to Chinese firms' audit documents via the CSRC. If a firm does not follow the procedures, the SEC would impose penalties such as suspensions, or commence a new, expedited administrative proceeding against the non-compliant firm or it could restart the administrative proceeding against all four firms. Under the terms of the settlement, the underlying proceeding against the PRC-based accounting firms was deemed dismissed with prejudice four years after entry of the settlement. The four-year mark occurred on February 6, 2019. While we cannot predict if the SEC will further challenge the PRC-based accounting firms’ compliance with U.S. law in connection with U.S. regulatory requests for audit work papers or if the results of such a challenge would result in the SEC imposing penalties such as suspensions. If additional remedial measures are imposed on the Chinese affiliates of these accounting firms, we could be unable to timely file future financial statements in compliance with the requirements of the Exchange Act.

In the event that the SEC restarts the administrative proceedings, depending upon the final outcome, listed companies in the United States with major PRC operations may find it difficult or impossible to retain auditors in respect of their operations in the PRC, which could result in financial statements being determined to not be in compliance with the requirements of the Exchange Act, including possible delisting. Moreover, any negative news about the proceedings against these audit firms may cause investor uncertainty regarding China-based, United States-listed companies and the market price of our ordinary shares may be adversely affected.

If our independent registered public accounting firm were denied, temporarily or permanently, the ability to practice before the SEC, and we are unable to find in a timely manner another registered public accounting firm which can audit and issue a report on our financial statements, our financial statements could be determined to not be in compliance with the requirements for financial statements of public companies with a class of securities registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. Such a determination could ultimately lead to the SEC’s revocation of the registration of our ordinary shares under the Exchange Act, which would cause the immediate delisting of our ordinary shares from the NASDAQ Global Select Market, and the effective termination of the trading market for our ordinary shares in the United States, which would likely have a significant adverse effect on the value of our ordinary shares.

We are subject to litigation risks.

In our ordinary course of business, we may be involved in claims relating to our employees, customers or suppliers or other third parties from time to time. In addition, claims may be brought against us for alleged defective or incomplete work, liabilities for defective products, delayed or improper delivery of products and services, personal injuries and deaths, breaches of warranty, delayed payments to our suppliers, labor disputes or late completion of projects or other contracts. If we were found to be liable for any of the claims, we would have to incur additional costs. Both claims brought against us and by us, if not resolved through negotiation, may be subject to lengthy and expensive litigation or arbitration proceedings. Charges associated with claims brought against us and write-downs associated with claims brought by us could have a material adverse impact on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flow. Moreover, legal proceedings resulting in judgments or findings against us may harm our reputation and damage our prospects for future contract awards. In addition, any legal proceedings may divert our management’s attention from our business.

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If we fail to maintain an effective system of internal control over financial reporting, we may not be able to accurately report our financial results or prevent fraud.

We are subject to reporting obligations under the U.S. securities laws. Under these laws, we are required to include in our annual report on Form 20-F a management report on our internal control over financial reporting containing management’s assessment of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. In addition, under the U.S. securities laws, an independent registered public accounting firm must attest to and report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting.

As reported in this annual report on Form 20-F, our management has concluded that our internal control over financial reporting was effective as of June 30, 2019, and our independent registered public accounting firm has issued an attestation report regarding the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of June 30, 2019. However, if we fail to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting in the future, our management and our independent registered public accounting firm may not be able to conclude that we have effective internal control over financial reporting. This could in turn result in the loss of investor confidence in the reliability of our financial statements and negatively impact the trading price of our ordinary shares. Furthermore, we have incurred and anticipate that we will continue to incur considerable costs, management time and other resources in an effort to continue to comply with these and other requirements of the U.S. securities laws.

Our employees or third parties may commit fraud or other misconduct that is beyond our control despite the internal control measures in place.

Fraud and other misconduct which may be committed by our employees or third parties can be difficult to prevent or deter despite our internal control measures in place. Such illegal actions could subject us to financial losses and harm our business and operations. For example, if our employees or any third parties we cooperate with commit any misconduct and cause economic losses to our customers or project owners, we may be held responsible for compensating the harmed parties. In addition to potential financial losses, improper acts of our employees or third parties could subject us to third-party claims, regulatory investigations and reputational losses. Any fraud or other misconduct committed by our employees or third parties could have an adverse effect on our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations.

We may be exposed to liabilities under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, and other anti-corruption laws and sanctions-related laws and regulations, and any determination that we violated these laws could have a material adverse effect on our business.

We are subject to the Foreign Corrupt Practice Act, or FCPA, a U.S. federal law which prohibits improper payments or offers of payments to foreign governments and their officials and political parties by U.S. persons and issuers as defined by the statute, for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business. We have operations, agreements with third parties, and substantially all of our sales outside of the United States, mostly in China, but also in Southeast Asia and the Middle East. The PRC and other governments in the markets we operate also strictly prohibit bribery of government officials. Our activities in China, in particular, create the risk of unauthorized payments or offers of payments by our employees, consultants, sales agents, or distributors, even though they may not always be subject to our control. It is our policy to implement safeguards to discourage these practices by our employees. However, our existing safeguards and any future improvements may prove to be less than effective, and our employees, consultants, sales agents, or distributors may engage in conduct for which we might be held responsible. Violations of the FCPA, Chinese anti-corruption laws and other applicable anti-corruption laws may result in severe criminal or civil sanctions, and we may be subject to other liabilities, which could negatively affect our business, operating results and financial condition. In addition, the U.S. government may seek to hold Hollysys liable for successor liability FCPA violations committed by companies in which we invest or which we acquire.

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In addition, as a result of our overseas operations, we may be exposed to risks arising from economic sanctions imposed by the United States, European Union and other countries or regions against investments and commercial activities with individuals, entities and governments in various regions and countries. While we are in the process of strengthening our compliance program, we may not have control over third parties who may purchase products from us for use in countries and regions subject to sanctions. This may expose us to potential sanctions-related liabilities and have a material adverse effect on our business and reputation.

RISKS RELATED TO DOING BUSINESS IN CHINA

Changes in the economic and political policies of the PRC government could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations and may result in our inability to sustain our growth and expansion strategies.

We conduct a substantial portion of our business in China through our subsidiaries. Accordingly, our results of operations, financial condition and prospects are to a significant extent affected by economic and political developments in China. In particular, the PRC government continues to exercise significant control over the economic growth of the PRC through allocating resources, controlling payments of foreign currency-denominated obligations, setting monetary policy and providing preferential treatments to particular industries or companies. In recent years, the PRC government has implemented measures emphasizing the utilization of market forces in reforming the economy. These economic reform measures may be adjusted or modified or applied inconsistently from industry to industry, or across different regions of the country. As a result, some of these measures may benefit the overall economy of the PRC, but may have an adverse effect on us.

Although China is committed to expanding its energy production with nuclear power and building a high-speed railway network, both these industries have experienced various setbacks due to higher than expected accidents. For example, the meltdown at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan following an earthquake and tsunami in 2011 has caused a slowdown or cessation in the development of nuclear power plants in some countries. In addition, a fatal high-speed railway accident near Wenzhou, China in 2011, caused a slowdown in the development of high speed rail projects in China. The future growth rate of these two sectors may not be as fast as the market previously had expected and our business in these sectors may decline. Moreover, future accidents in these two sectors could adversely affect these sectors and our business. The PRC has been one of the world’s fastest growing economies as measured by GDP in recent years. However, economic activity in the PRC has slowed down recently and it may not return to levels of previous years. In an effort to support the growth of the Chinese economy, the PRC government has implemented and may continue to implement various monetary and other economic measures to expand investments in infrastructure projects, increase liquidity in the credit markets and encourage employment. However, there is no assurance that these monetary and economic measures will succeed. If the Chinese economy continues to experience a slowdown or experiences a recession, there may be a delay or reduction in, or cancellation of, projects available to us and demand for the services and products we provide in our various business segments may grow at a lower-than-expected rate or otherwise decrease. Furthermore, we cannot assure you that we will be able to make timely adjustments to our business and operational strategies so as to capture and benefit from the potential business opportunities presented to us as a result of the changes in the economic and other policies of the PRC government. Also, the PRC government will continue to make adjustments to its economic policy objectives and measures in the future, which may include or result in a significant reduction in its budget for investments in infrastructure and other projects. This could have an adverse effect on our business and operations. Moreover, unfavorable financing and other economic conditions for the industries that we serve could negatively impact our customers and their ability or willingness to fund capital expenditures in the future or pay for past services.

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The ongoing trade war between China and the United States, and its potential escalation internationally, may have an adverse effect on our business operations and revenues.

In 2018, the U.S. government imposed new or higher tariffs on specified products imported from China to penalize China for what it characterizes as unfair trade practices, and threatened to impose additional tariffs on Chinese imports. The Chinese government responded by imposing, and proposing to impose additional, new or higher tariffs on specified products imported from the United States. On September 17, 2018, U.S. President Donald Trump announced that the tariff rate of 10% on a wide range of Chinese imports would increase to 25% on January 1, 2019. China responded with either 5% or 10% tariffs on $60 billion of US goods, effective on September 24, 2019. After that, two countries had multiple rounds of talks but failed to reach a final agreement.  On August 1, 2019, President Trump announced that US will impose 10% tariffs on another $300 billion of Chinese goods starting September 1, 2019. Moreover, on August 5, 2019, the U.S. Department of Treasury officially declared China as a currency manipulator. On August 23, 2019: Chinese Ministry of Finance announced new rounds of retaliative tariffs on $75 billion worth of U.S. goods, effective September 1, 2019. As of September 2019, although trade talks have continued between the two governments, we cannot assure you that the negotiations will result in an agreement, the imposition of further tariffs, or lifting of existing tariffs.  

The current and future actions or escalations by either the United States or China that affect trade relations may cause or contribute to further slowdowns in Chinese economic growth, the depreciation of the RMB and global economic turmoil, which has the potential to adversely impact our supply chain for our products and potentially have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations, and we cannot provide any assurance as to whether such actions will occur or the form that they may take.

The PRC legal system is still evolving. There exist uncertainties as to the interpretation and enforcement of PRC laws, and PRC laws are different from those of common law countries.

Our activities are primarily conducted in the PRC, hence our business operations are regulated primarily by PRC laws, rules and regulations. PRC laws and regulations are based on written statutes, and past court judgments may have limited value as precedents. Because PRC laws and regulations are still evolving, and because of the limited number and non-binding nature of published cases, there exist uncertainties about their interpretation and enforcement. In particular, because these laws, rules and regulations are relatively new, and because of the limited number of published decisions and the non-precedential nature of these decisions, and because the laws, rules and regulations often give the relevant regulator significant discretion in how to enforce them, the interpretation and enforcement of these laws, rules and regulations involve uncertainties and can be inconsistent and unpredictable. Therefore, it is possible that our existing operations may be found not to be in full compliance with relevant laws and regulations in the future. In addition, the PRC legal system is based in part on government policies and internal rules, some of which are not published on a timely basis or at all, and which may have a retroactive effect. As a result, we may not be aware of our violation of these policies and rules until after the occurrence of the violation.

Any administrative and court proceedings in China may be protracted, resulting in substantial costs and diversion of resources and management attention. Since PRC administrative and court authorities have significant discretion in interpreting and implementing statutory and contractual terms, it may be more difficult to evaluate the outcome of administrative and court proceedings and the level of legal protection we enjoy than in more developed legal systems. These uncertainties may impede our ability to enforce the contracts we have entered into and could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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PRC regulations regarding acquisitions impose significant regulatory approval and review requirements, which could make it more difficult for us to pursue growth through acquisitions.

On August 8, 2006, six PRC regulatory agencies, including the Ministry of Commerce, or the MOFCOM, the State-Owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission, the State Administration of Taxation, the State Administration for Industry and Commerce (now known as State Administration for Market Regulation), the China Securities Regulatory Commission, and the State Administration of Foreign Exchange, or the SAFE, jointly adopted the Regulations on Mergers and Acquisitions of Domestic Enterprises by Foreign Investors, or the M&A Rules, which came into effect on September 8, 2006 and were amended on June 22, 2009 by the MOFCOM. The M&A Rules, and other recently adopted regulations and rules concerning mergers and acquisitions established additional procedures and requirements that could make merger and acquisition activities by foreign investors more time consuming and complex. For example, the M&A Rules require that MOFCOM be notified in advance of any change-of-control transaction in which a foreign investor takes control of a PRC domestic enterprise, if  (i) any important industry is concerned, (ii) such transaction involves factors that impact or may impact national economic security, or (iii) such transaction will lead to a change in control of a domestic enterprise which holds a famous trademark or PRC time-honored brand. In addition, in 2011, the General Office of the State Council promulgated a Notice on Establishing the Security Review System for Mergers and Acquisitions of Domestic Enterprises by Foreign Investors, also known as Circular 6, which officially established a security review system for mergers and acquisitions of domestic enterprises by foreign investors. Further, MOFCOM promulgated the Regulations on Implementation of Security Review System for the Merger and Acquisition of Domestic Enterprises by Foreign Investors, effective 2011, to implement Circular 6. Under Circular 6, a security review is required for mergers and acquisitions by foreign investors having “national defense and security” concerns and mergers and acquisitions by which foreign investors may acquire the “de facto control” of domestic enterprises with “national security” concerns.

In the future, we may grow our business by acquiring complementary businesses. Complying with the requirements of the above-mentioned regulations and other relevant rules to complete such transactions could be time consuming, and any required approval processes, including obtaining approval from the MOFCOM or its local counterparts, may delay or inhibit our ability to complete such transactions. It is unclear whether our business would be deemed to be in an industry that raises “national defense and security” or “national security” concerns. However, MOFCOM or other government agencies may publish explanations in the future determining that our business is in an industry subject to the security review, in which case our future acquisitions in the PRC, including those by way of entering into contractual control arrangements with target entities, may be closely scrutinized or prohibited. Our ability to expand our business or maintain or expand our market share through future acquisitions would as such be materially and adversely affected, which creates significant uncertainty as to whether transactions that we may undertake would subject us to fines or other administrative penalties and negative publicity and whether we will be able to complete strategic acquisitions in the future in a timely manner or at all.

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We may be subject to fines and legal sanctions imposed by SAFE or other Chinese government authorities and our ability to further grant restricted shares or share options to, and to adopt additional share incentive plans for, our directors and employees may be restricted if we or the participants of our share incentive plans fail to comply with PRC regulations relating to restricted shares or share options granted by offshore special purpose companies or offshore listed companies to PRC participants.

Pursuant to the Circular on Relevant Issues Concerning Foreign Exchange Control on Domestic Residents’ Offshore Investment and Financing and Roundtrip Investment through Special Purpose Vehicles promulgated by the SAFE, on July 4, 2014, or SAFE Circular 37, PRC residents who participate in share incentive plans in overseas non-publicly-listed companies may submit applications to SAFE or its local branches for the foreign exchange registration with respect to offshore special purpose companies. In the meantime, our directors, executive officers and other employees who are PRC citizens or who are non-PRC citizens residing in the PRC for a continuous period of not less than one year, subject to limited exceptions, and who have been granted restricted shares or share options, by us may follow the Notice on Issues Concerning the Foreign Exchange Administration for Domestic Individuals Participating in Stock Incentive Plan of Overseas Publicly Listed Company, or SAFE Circular 7, issued by SAFE in February 2012, to apply for the foreign exchange registration. According to the SAFE Circular 7, employees, directors, supervisors and other management members participating in any stock incentive plan of an overseas publicly listed company who are PRC citizens or who are non-PRC citizens residing in the PRC for a continuous period of not less than one year, subject to limited exceptions, are required to register with SAFE through a domestic qualified agent, which may be a PRC subsidiary of the overseas listed company, and complete certain other procedures. Failure to complete the SAFE registrations may subject them to fines and legal sanctions and may also limit the ability to make payment under the relevant equity incentive plans or receive dividends or sales proceeds related thereto, or our ability to contribute additional capital into our wholly-foreign owned enterprises in China and limit our wholly-foreign owned enterprises’ ability to distribute dividends to us. We also face regulatory uncertainties under PRC law that could restrict our ability or the ability of our overseas listed subsidiaries to adopt additional equity incentive plans for our directors and employees who are PRC citizens or who are non-PRC residents residing in the PRC for a continuous period of not less than one year, subject to limited exceptions.

In addition, the State Administration for Taxation has issued circulars concerning share options and restricted shares. Under these circulars, employees working in the PRC who exercise share options, or whose restricted shares vest, will be subject to PRC individual income tax. The PRC subsidiaries of an overseas listed company have obligations to file documents related to employee share options or restricted shares with relevant tax authorities and to withhold individual income taxes of those employees related to their share options or restricted shares. Although we currently withhold income tax from our PRC employees in connection with their exercise of options and the vesting of their restricted shares, if the employees fail to pay, or our PRC subsidiaries fail to withhold, their income taxes according to relevant laws, rules and regulations, our PRC subsidiaries may face sanctions imposed by the tax authorities.

Government control over the conversion of foreign exchange may limit our ability to utilize our revenues effectively and affect the value of your investment.

The PRC government imposes control on the convertibility of the RMB into foreign currencies and, in certain cases, the remittance of currency out of China. We receive substantially all of our revenues in RMB. Under existing PRC foreign exchange regulations, payments of current account items, including profit distributions, interest payments and trade and service-related foreign exchange transactions, can be made in foreign currencies without prior SAFE approval by complying with certain procedural requirements. Therefore, our PRC subsidiaries are able to pay dividends in foreign currencies to us without prior approval from SAFE. However, approval from or registration with appropriate government authorities is required where RMB are to be converted into foreign currency and remitted out of China to pay capital expenses such as the repayment of loans denominated in foreign currencies. The PRC government may also at its discretion restrict access to foreign currencies for current account transactions in the future. If the foreign exchange control system prevents us from obtaining sufficient foreign currencies to satisfy our foreign currency demands, we may not be able to pay dividends in foreign currencies to our shareholders.

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Fluctuations in exchange rates could harm our business and the value of our shares.

The value of our shares will be indirectly affected by the foreign exchange rate between U.S. dollars and those currencies in which our sales may be denominated. Because a large portion of our earnings and cash assets are denominated in RMB, SGD and MYR, and our financial results are reported in U.S. dollars, fluctuations in the exchange rate between the U.S. dollar and RMB, SGD and MYR will affect our balance sheet and our earnings per share as stated in U.S. dollars. In addition, appreciation or depreciation in the value of the RMB, SGD and MYR relative to the U.S. dollar would affect our financial results reported in U.S. dollar terms without giving effect to any underlying change in our business or results of operations. Fluctuations in the exchange rate will also affect the relative value of any dividend we issue that will be exchanged into U.S. dollars as well as earnings from, and the value of, any U.S. dollar-denominated investments we make in the future.

Very limited hedging transactions are available in China to reduce our exposure to exchange rate fluctuations. The effectiveness of these transactions may be limited, and we may not be able to successfully hedge our exposure at all. In addition, our foreign currency exchange losses may be magnified by PRC exchange control regulations that restrict our ability to convert RMB into foreign currencies.

PRC regulations relating to the establishment of offshore special purpose companies by PRC residents may subject our PRC resident shareholders to personal liability and limit our ability to inject capital into our PRC subsidiaries, limit our PRC subsidiaries’ ability to distribute profits to us, or otherwise adversely affect us.

Pursuant to SAFE Circular 37, any PRC citizens or residents, including both PRC institutions and individual residents, are required to register with the local SAFE branch before making contributions to a company set up or controlled by PRC residents outside of the PRC for the purpose of overseas investment or financing with their legally-owned domestic or offshore assets or interests, referred to in this circular as a “special purpose vehicle.” In addition, such PRC residents or entities must update their SAFE registrations when the offshore special purpose vehicle undergoes material events relating to any change of basic information (including change of such PRC citizens or residents, name and operation term), increases or decreases in investment amount, transfers or exchanges of shares, or mergers or divisions. In February 2015, SAFE promulgated the Notice on Further Simplifying and Improving the Administration of the Foreign Exchange Concerning Direct Investment, which became effective on June 1, 2015. This notice has amended SAFE Circular 37, requiring PRC residents or entities to register with qualified banks rather than SAFE or its local branch in connection with their establishment or control of an offshore entity established for the purpose of overseas investment or financing.

We attempt to comply, and attempt to ensure that our shareholders and beneficial owners of our shares who are subject to these rules comply, with the relevant requirements. We cannot provide any assurance that our shareholders and beneficial owners of our shares who are PRC residents have complied or will comply with the requirements imposed by Circular 37 or other related rules. Any failure by any of our shareholders and beneficial owners of our shares who are PRC residents to comply with relevant requirements under this regulation could subject such shareholders, beneficial owners and us to fines or sanctions imposed by the PRC government, including limitations on our relevant subsidiary’s ability to pay dividends or make distributions to us and our ability to increase our investment in China, or other penalties that may adversely affect our operations. These risks may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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The enforcement of the Labor Contract Law and other labor-related regulations in the PRC may increase our labor costs, impose limitations on our labor practices and adversely affect our business and our results of operations.

The PRC’s Labor Contract Law contains specific provisions related to fixed-term employment contracts, part-time employment, probation, consultation with labor unions and employee assemblies, employment without a written contract, dismissal of employees, severance, and collective bargaining, which together represent enhanced enforcement of labor laws and regulations. According to the Labor Contract Law, an employer is obliged to sign an unfixed-term labor contract with any employee who has worked for the employer for ten consecutive years. Further, if an employee requests or agrees to renew a fixed-term labor contract that has already been entered into twice consecutively, the resulting contract must have an unfixed term, with certain exceptions. The employer must pay economic compensation to an employee where a labor contract is terminated or expires in accordance with the Labor Contract Law, except for certain situations which are specifically regulated. In addition, the government has issued various labor-related regulations to further protect the rights of employees. According to such laws and regulations, employees are entitled to annual leave ranging from five to 15 days and are able to be compensated for any untaken annual leave days in the amount of three times their daily salary, subject to certain exceptions. In the event that we decide to change our employment or labor practices, the Labor Contract Law and its implementation rules may limit our ability to effect those changes in a manner that we believe to be cost-effective. In addition, as the interpretation and implementation of these new regulations are still evolving, our employment practices may not be at all times deemed in compliance with the new regulations. We could be subject to severe penalties or incur significant liabilities in connection with labor disputes or investigations, as a result of which our business and financial conditions may be adversely affected.

Dividends payable to our foreign investors and gains on the sale of our shares by our foreign investors may become subject to PRC tax.

Under the Enterprise Income Tax Law and its implementation regulations issued by the State Council, a 10% PRC withholding tax is applicable by a PRC resident enterprise to dividends payable to investors that are non-resident enterprises, which do not have an establishment or place of business in the PRC or which have such establishment or place of business but the dividends are not effectively connected with such establishment or place of business, to the extent such dividends are derived from sources within the PRC. Similarly, any gain realized on the transfer of the shares of a PRC resident enterprise by such investors is also subject to PRC tax at a current rate of 10%, subject to any reduction or exemption set forth in applicable tax treaties or under applicable tax arrangements between jurisdictions, if such gain is regarded as income derived from sources within the PRC. If we are deemed a PRC resident enterprise, dividends paid on our ordinary shares, and any gain realized from the transfer of our ordinary shares, would be treated as income derived from sources within the PRC and would as a result be subject to PRC taxation. Furthermore, if we are deemed a PRC resident enterprise, dividends payable to individual investors who are non-PRC residents and any gain realized on the transfer of our ordinary shares by such investors may be subject to PRC tax at a current rate of 20%, subject to any reduction or exemption set forth in applicable tax treaties or under applicable tax arrangements between jurisdictions. If we or any of our subsidiaries established outside the PRC are considered a PRC resident enterprise, it is unclear whether holders of our ordinary shares would be able to claim the benefit of income tax treaties or agreements entered into between China and other countries or areas. If dividends payable to our non-PRC investors, or gains from the transfer of our ordinary shares by such investors, are deemed to be income derived from sources within the PRC and thus subject to PRC tax, the value of your investment in our ordinary shares may decline significantly.

We rely on dividends and other distributions on equity paid by our subsidiaries to fund any cash and financing requirements we may have, and any limitation on the ability of our subsidiaries to make payments to us could restrict our ability to satisfy our liquidity requirements.

We are a holding company incorporated in the BVI. We generally rely on our subsidiaries in China to provide us with cash flow and to meet our other obligations. Current PRC regulations permit our subsidiaries to pay dividends to us only out of their accumulated profits upon satisfaction of relevant statutory conditions and procedures, if any, determined in accordance with PRC accounting standards and regulations. In addition, each of our subsidiaries in China is required to set aside a certain amount of its after-tax profits each year, if any, to fund certain statutory reserves. These reserves are not distributable as cash dividends. Furthermore, if our subsidiaries in China incur debt on their own behalf in the future, the instruments governing the debt may restrict their ability to pay dividends or make other payments to us. The inability of our subsidiaries to distribute dividends or other payments to us could restrict our ability to satisfy our liquidity requirements.

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We may be treated as a resident enterprise for PRC tax purposes under the Enterprise Income Tax Law, which could result in unfavorable tax consequences to us and our shareholders and have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and the value of your investment.

Under the Enterprise Income Tax Law and its implementing rules, enterprises established under the laws of jurisdictions outside of China with “de facto management bodies” located in China may be considered PRC tax resident enterprises for tax purposes and may be subject to the PRC enterprise income tax at the rate of 25% on their global income. “De facto management body” refers to a managing body that exercises substantive and overall management and control over the production and business, personnel, accounting books and assets of an enterprise. The State Administration of Taxation, or the SAT, issued the Notice Regarding the Determination of Chinese-Controlled Offshore-Incorporated Enterprises as PRC Tax Resident Enterprises on the Basis of De Facto Management Bodies, or Circular 82, on April 22, 2009. Circular 82 provides certain specific criteria for determining whether the “de facto management body” of a Chinese-controlled offshore-incorporated enterprise is located in China. Although Circular 82 only applies to offshore enterprises controlled by PRC enterprises, not those controlled by foreign enterprises or individuals, the determining criteria set forth in Circular 82 may reflect the SAT’s general position on how the “de facto management bodies” test should be applied in determining the tax resident status of offshore enterprises, regardless of whether they are controlled by PRC enterprises. If we were to be considered a PRC resident enterprise, we would be subject to PRC enterprise income tax at the rate of 25% on our global income. In such case, our profitability and cash flow may be materially reduced as a result of our global income being taxed under the Enterprise Income Tax Law. On July 27, 2011, the SAT issued Administrative Measures of Enterprise Income Tax of Chinese-controlled Offshore Incorporated Resident Enterprises (Trial), or Bulletin 45, which became effective on September 1, 2011, amended on April 14, 2015 and partially replaced by Announcement of State Administration of Taxation on Matters Relating to Chinese Tax Resident Identity Certificates which to become effective on October 1, 2016, to provide further guidance on the implementation of Circular 82. Bulletin 45 clarifies certain issues related to determining PRC resident enterprise status and post-determination administration. Bulletin 45 specifies that when provided with a copy of a Chinese tax resident determination certificate issued by the competent tax authorities from an offshore incorporated PRC resident enterprise, the payer should not withhold tax when paying PRC-sourced dividends, interest and royalties to the offshore incorporated PRC resident enterprise. On January 29, 2014, the SAT further issued Announcement on Determination of Resident Enterprises under De Facto Management Body Standard, or Bulletin 9, which delegates the determination of the status of offshore incorporated PRC resident enterprise to the provincial-level tax authorities. Bulletin 9 is applicable to the enterprise income tax filings for 2013 and onwards. Although Circular 82 applies only to offshore enterprises controlled by PRC enterprises or PRC corporate groups and not those controlled by PRC individuals or non-PRC persons, the determining criteria set forth in Circular 82 may reflect the SAT’s general position on how the “de facto management body” test should be applied in determining the tax residency status of offshore enterprises, regardless of whether they are controlled by PRC enterprises or individuals or foreign enterprises. We believe that none of our entities outside of China is a PRC resident enterprise for PRC tax purposes. However, the tax resident status of an enterprise is subject to determination by the PRC tax authorities and uncertainties remain with respect to the interpretation of the term “de facto management bodies”.

We cannot assure you that the PRC tax authorities will not, at their discretion, adjust any capital gains and impose tax return filing and withholding or tax payment obligations with respect to any internal restructuring, and our PRC subsidiaries may be requested to assist in the filing. Any PRC tax imposed on a transfer of our shares not through a public stock exchange, or any adjustment of such gains would cause us to incur additional costs and may have a negative impact on the value of your investment in our company.

We and our shareholders face uncertainties with respect to indirect transfers of equity interests in PRC resident enterprises or other assets attributed to a PRC establishment of a non-PRC company.

On February 3, 2015, the State Administration of Taxation issued the Bulletin on Issues of Enterprise Income Tax on Indirect Transfers of Assets by Non-PRC Resident Enterprises, or Bulletin 7, which replaced or supplemented certain previous rules under the Notice on Strengthening Administration of Enterprise Income Tax for Share Transfers by Non-PRC Resident Enterprises, or Circular 698, issued by the State Administration of Taxation, on December 10, 2009. Pursuant to Bulletin 7, an “indirect transfer” of assets, including equity interests in a PRC resident enterprise, by non-PRC resident enterprises may be re-characterized and treated as a direct transfer of PRC taxable assets, if the arrangement does not have a reasonable commercial purpose and was established for the purpose of avoiding payment of PRC enterprise income tax. As a result, gains derived from this indirect transfer may be subject to PRC enterprise income tax.

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According to Bulletin 7, “PRC taxable assets” include assets attributed to an establishment or a place of business in China, immoveable properties located in China, and equity investments in PRC resident enterprises, in respect of which gains from their transfer by a direct holder, being a non-PRC resident enterprise, would be subject to PRC enterprise income taxes. When determining whether there is a “reasonable commercial purpose” of the transaction arrangement, factors to be taken into consideration include: whether the main value of the equity interest of the relevant offshore enterprise directly or indirectly derives from PRC taxable assets; whether the assets of the relevant offshore enterprise mainly consists of direct or indirect investment in China or if its income mainly derives from China, directly or indirectly; whether the offshore enterprise and its subsidiaries directly or indirectly holding PRC taxable assets have real commercial nature which is evidenced by their actual function and risk exposure; the duration of existence of the business model and organizational structure; the foreign income tax liabilities arising from the indirect transfer of PRC taxable assets; the replicability of the transaction by direct transfer of PRC taxable assets; and the applicable tax treaties or similar arrangements. In respect of an indirect offshore transfer of assets of a PRC establishment or place of business, the resulting gain is to be included with the enterprise income tax filing of the PRC establishment or place of business being transferred, and would consequently be subject to PRC enterprise income tax at a rate of 25%. Where the underlying transfer relates to the immoveable properties located in China or to equity investments in a PRC resident enterprise, which is not related to a PRC establishment or place of business of a non-resident enterprise, a PRC enterprise income tax at 10% would apply, subject to available preferential tax treatment under applicable tax treaties or similar arrangements, and the party who is obligated to make the transfer payments has the withholding obligation. Where the payor fails to withhold any or sufficient tax, the transferor shall declare and pay such tax to the tax authority by itself within the statutory time limit. Late payment of applicable tax will subject the transferor to default interest. Bulletin 7 does not apply to transactions of sale of shares by investors through a public stock exchange where the shares were acquired from a transaction through a public stock exchange.

There are uncertainties as to the application of Bulletin 7. Bulletin 7 may be determined by the tax authorities to be applicable to some of our offshore restructuring transactions or sale of the shares of our offshore subsidiaries or investments where PRC taxable assets are involved. The transferors and transferees may be subject to the tax filing and withholding or tax payment obligation, while our PRC subsidiaries may be requested to assist in the filing. Furthermore, we, our non-resident enterprises and our PRC subsidiaries may be required to spend valuable resources to comply with Bulletin 7 or to establish that we, our non-resident enterprises and our PRC subsidiaries should not be taxed under Bulletin 7, for our previous and future restructuring or disposal of shares of our offshore subsidiaries, which may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

The PRC tax authorities have the discretion under Circular 698/Bulletin 7 to make adjustments to the taxable capital gains based on the difference between the fair value of the taxable assets transferred and the cost of investment. If the PRC tax authorities make adjustments to the taxable income of the transactions under Circular 698/Bulletin 7, our income tax costs associated with potential acquisitions or disposals will increase, which may have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

Any loss of or reduction in the preferential tax treatment and VAT refunds and government subsidies we currently enjoy in the PRC or our non-compliance with the relevant PRC tax laws and regulations may negatively affect our financial condition and results of operations.

We benefit from tax incentives and receive government grants. As of the date of this annual report, Beijing Hollysys and Hangzhou Hollysys are recognized as high and new technology enterprises, or the HNTE(s), by the PRC government, which entitle each of them to a reduced income tax rate of 15% (compared to the statutory income tax rate of 25%). The qualification as an HNTE is subject to annual evaluation and a three-year review by the relevant authorities in the PRC. In order to maintain such qualifications and the preferential tax rates, these subsidiaries must submit a review application to relevant agencies. The HNTE qualification of these subsidiaries will expire in 2019 and 2020, as the case may be. We are in the process of applying for the renewal of such preferential tax treatments before expiration. However, we cannot assure you that any of our subsidiaries that currently qualify as HNTEs will continue to qualify for such status in the future. If those subsidiaries fail to maintain their HNTE qualifications or renew these qualifications when the relevant term expires, their applicable income tax rates would increase to 25%, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. Moreover, the PRC government could eliminate any of these preferential tax treatments before their scheduled expiration.

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In addition, we received VAT refunds and government subsidies of approximately $32.7 million in the fiscal year ended June 30, 2019. The state tax bureaus in China provide refunds out of the value added tax, which we refer to as VAT, they collect in order to encourage the research and development efforts made by certain qualified enterprises. The local governments in China also provide financial subsidies to encourage research and development efforts made by certain qualified enterprises. Some of our PRC subsidiaries have received such refunds and subsidies. The amounts of and conditions attached to these grants were determined at the sole discretion of the relevant governmental authorities. We cannot assure you that we will be eligible to continue to receive these government grants or that the amount of any such grants will not be reduced in the future, and even if we continue to be eligible to receive these grants, we cannot guarantee that any conditions attached to the grants will be as favorable to us as they have historically been.

Furthermore, we are subject to periodic examinations on our fulfillment of tax obligations under the PRC tax laws and regulations by PRC tax authorities. If we fail to fulfill our tax obligations for any reasons, we may be subject to fines, other penalties or actions upon examinations by PRC tax authorities and our business, financial condition and results of operations and our reputation may be adversely affected.

RISKS RELATED TO OUR SHARES

The market price of our ordinary shares is volatile, leading to the possibility of its value being depressed at a time when you want to sell your holdings.

The market price of our ordinary shares has been volatile, and this volatility may continue. From January 1, 2018 through August 31, 2019 the closing price of our ordinary shares on the NASDAQ Global Select Market has ranged from a high of $27.61 to a low of $15.11. Numerous factors, many of which are beyond our control, may cause the market price of our ordinary shares to fluctuate significantly. These factors include, among others:

our earnings releases, actual or anticipated changes in our earnings, fluctuations in our operating results or our failure to meet the expectations of financial market analysts and investors;

changes in financial estimates by us or by any securities analysts who might cover our share;

speculation about our business in the press or the investment community;

significant developments relating to our relationships with our customers or suppliers;

stock market price and volume fluctuations of other publicly traded companies and, in particular, those that are in our industry;

customer demand for our services and products;

investor perceptions of our industry in general and our company in particular;

the operating and share performance of comparable companies;

general economic conditions and trends;

major catastrophic events;

announcements by us or our competitors of new products, significant acquisitions, strategic partnerships or divestitures;

changes in accounting standards, policies, guidance, interpretation or principles;

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loss of external funding sources;

sales of our ordinary shares, including sales by our directors, officers or significant shareholders;

additions or departures of key personnel; and

investor perception of litigation, investigation or other legal proceedings involving us or certain of our individual shareholders or their family members.

Securities class action litigation is often instituted against companies following periods of volatility in their share price. This type of litigation could result in substantial costs to us and divert our management’s attention and resources. Moreover, securities markets may from time to time experience significant price and volume fluctuations for reasons unrelated to operating performance of particular companies. For example, in December 2018, major stock indexes fell precipitously, with major stock averages recording their worst December performance since 1931. In particular, the S&P 500 Index fell approximately 9% from December 1, 2018 to December 31, 2018. These market fluctuations may adversely affect the prices of our ordinary shares and other interests in our company at a time when you want to sell your investment in us.

Share prices of companies with business operations primarily in China have fluctuated widely in recent years, and the trading prices of our ordinary shares are likely to be volatile, which could result in substantial losses to investors.

The performance and fluctuation of the market prices of other China-based, U.S.-listed companies may affect the volatility in the price of and trading volume for our ordinary shares. In recent years, a number of PRC-based companies have listed their securities, or are in the process of preparing for listing their securities, on U.S. stock markets. Some of these companies have experienced significant volatility, including significant price declines following their initial public offerings. The trading performances of the securities of these PRC-based companies at the time of or after their offerings may affect the overall investor sentiment towards PRC-based companies listed in the United States and consequently may impact the trading performance of our ordinary shares. These broad market and industry factors may significantly affect the market price and volatility of our ordinary shares, regardless of our actual operating performance.

We are a “foreign private issuer,” and have disclosure obligations that are different than those of other U.S. domestic reporting companies so you should not expect to receive the same information about us at the same time as a U.S. domestic reporting company may provide. Furthermore, if we lose our status as a foreign private issuer, we would be required to comply fully with the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act applicable to U.S. domestic issuers and would incur significant operational, administrative, legal and accounting costs that we would not incur as a foreign private issuer.

We are a foreign private issuer and, as a result, we are not subject to certain of the requirements imposed upon U.S. domestic issuers by the SEC. For example, we are not required to issue quarterly reports or proxy statements. Also, we are allowed four months to file our annual report with the SEC. We are not required to disclose certain detailed information regarding executive compensation that is required from U.S. domestic issuers. Further, our directors and executive officers are not required to report equity holdings and transactions in our equity under Section 16 of the Securities Act. As a foreign private issuer, we are also exempt from the requirements of Regulation FD (Fair Disclosure) which, generally, are meant to ensure that select groups of investors are not privy to specific information about an issuer before other investors. We are, however, still subject to the anti-fraud and anti-manipulation rules of the SEC, such as Rule 10b-5. Since many of the disclosure obligations required of us as a foreign private issuer are different than those required by other U.S. domestic reporting companies, our shareholders should not expect to receive information about us in the same amount and at the same time as information is received from, or provided by, other U.S. domestic reporting companies. We are liable for violations of the rules and regulations of the SEC which do apply to us as a foreign private issuer. Violations of these rules could affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

If we lose our status as a foreign private issuer at some future time, we will be required to comply fully with the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act applicable to U.S. domestic issuers and would incur significant operational, administrative, legal and accounting costs that it would not incur as a foreign private issuer.

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If we fail to comply with the continued listing requirements of NASDAQ, we would face possible delisting, which would result in a limited public market for our shares and make obtaining future debt or equity financing more difficult for us.

Our ordinary shares are traded and listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “HOLI.” The ordinary shares may be delisted if we fail to maintain certain listing requirements of the Nasdaq Stock Market, or NASDAQ.

We cannot ensure you that we will continue to comply with the requirements for continued listing on The NASDAQ Global Select Market in the future. If our shares lose their status on The NASDAQ Global Select Market and we are not successful in obtaining a listing on The NASDAQ Capital Market, our shares would likely trade in the over-the-counter market. If our shares were to trade on the over-the-counter market, selling our shares could be more difficult because smaller quantities of shares would likely be bought and sold, transactions could be delayed, and security analysts’ coverage of us may be reduced. In addition, in the event our shares are delisted, broker-dealers have certain regulatory burdens imposed upon them, which may discourage broker-dealers from effecting transactions in our shares, further limiting the liquidity of our shares. These factors could result in lower prices and larger spreads in the bid and ask prices for our shares. Such delisting from The NASDAQ Global Select Market and continued or further declines in our share price could also greatly impair our ability to raise additional necessary capital through equity or debt financing, and could significantly increase the ownership dilution to shareholders caused by our issuing equity in financing or other transactions.

As a foreign private issuer, we are permitted to rely on exemptions from certain NASDAQ corporate governance standards applicable to domestic U.S. issuers. This may afford less protection to holders of our securities.

We are exempted from certain corporate governance requirements of the Nasdaq Stock Market by virtue of being a foreign private issuer. As a foreign private issuer, we are permitted to follow the governance practices of our home country, the BVI in lieu of certain corporate governance requirements of NASDAQ. As result, the standards applicable to us are considerably different than the standards applied to domestic U.S. issuers. For instance, we are not required to:

have a majority of the board be independent (although all of the members of the audit committee must be independent under the U.S. Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act);

have a compensation committee and a nominating committee to be comprised solely of "independent directors; and

hold an annual meeting of shareholders no later than one year after the end of the Company’s fiscal year-end.

As discussed elsewhere in this Annual Report, we have relied on and intend to continue to rely on some of these exemptions. As a result, our shareholders may not be provided with the benefits of certain corporate governance requirements of the Nasdaq Stock Market.

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You may have difficulty enforcing judgments obtained against us.

We are a BVI company and substantially all of our assets are located outside of the United States. A substantial portion of our current business operations are conducted in the PRC. In addition, almost all of our directors and officers are nationals and residents of countries other than the United States. A substantial portion of the assets of these persons are located outside the United States. As a result, it may be difficult for you to effect service of process within the United States upon these persons. It may also be difficult for you to enforce in U.S. courts judgments obtained in U.S. courts including judgments based on the civil liability provisions of the U.S. federal securities laws against us and our officers and directors, many of whom are not residents in the United States and whose assets are located in significant part outside of the United States. The courts of the BVI would recognize as a valid judgment, a final and conclusive judgment in person is obtained in the federal or state courts in the United States against the Company under which a sum of money is payable (other than a sum of money payable in respect of multiple damages, taxes or other charges of a like nature or in respect of a fine or other penalty) and would give a judgment based thereon provided that (a) such courts had proper jurisdiction over the parties subject to such judgment, (b) such courts did not contravene the rules of natural justice of the BVI, (c) such judgment was not obtained by fraud, (d) the enforcement of the judgment would not be contrary to the public policy of the BVI, (e) no new admissible evidence relevant to the action is submitted prior to the rendering of the judgment by the courts of the BVI and (f) there is due compliance with the correct procedures under the laws of the BVI. In addition, there is uncertainty as to whether the courts of the BVI or the PRC, respectively, would recognize or enforce judgments of U.S. courts against us or such persons predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the United States or any state.

We may be classified as a passive foreign investment company, which could result in adverse United States federal income tax consequences to U.S. shareholders.

We believe that we currently are not considered a “passive foreign investment company,” or PFIC, for United States federal income tax purposes.  However, each year we must make a separate determination as to whether we are a PFIC.  We cannot assure you that we will not be a PFIC for our future tax years. If a non-U.S. corporation either (i) has at least 75% of its gross income is passive income for a tax year or (ii) has at least 50% of the value of its assets (based on an average of the quarterly values of the assets during a tax year) attributable to assets that produce or are held for the production of passive income, then the non-U.S. corporation will be deemed a PFIC. The market value of our assets may be determined to a large extent by the market price of our ordinary shares. If we are treated as a PFIC for any tax year during which U.S. shareholders hold ordinary shares, certain adverse United States federal income tax consequences could apply to such U.S. holders.

The provisions in our Amended and Restated M&A and terms of our 2010 Rights Plan may discourage, delay or prevent a change of control of our company or changes in our management. As a result, our shareholders may be limited in their ability to obtain a premium for their shares.

Our Amended and Restated M&A authorizes the board of directors of the Company, or our Board, to issue up to 90,000,000 preferred shares without any further action by our shareholders, which could delay, discourage, prevent or make it more costly to acquire or effect a change-in-control. In addition, on August 27, 2010, our Board adopted the 2010 Rights Plan. In connection with the 2010 Rights Plan, our Board declared a dividend distribution of one “Right” for each outstanding ordinary share to shareholders of record at the close of business on August 27, 2010, effective as of September 27, 2010. Each Right entitles the shareholder to buy one of our Class A preferred shares at a price of  $160. Unless terminated earlier by our Board, the 2010 Rights Plan will expire on September 27, 2020.

Initially, the Rights will only be transferable in connection with the transfer of ordinary shares, and no separate Rights certificates or share statements will be distributed or provided. The Rights will separate from our ordinary shares and become exercisable if a person or group announces an acquisition of 20% or more of our outstanding ordinary shares, or announces commencement of a tender offer for 20% or more of our ordinary shares. In that event, the Rights permit the holders thereof to purchase our ordinary shares having a market value of twice the exercise price of the Rights, in lieu of the Class A preferred shares. In addition, in the event of certain business combinations, the Rights permit the purchase of the ordinary shares of an acquiring person at a 50% discount. Rights held by the acquiring person become null and void in each case.

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The provisions in our Amended and Restated M&A and terms of our 2010 Rights Plan could prevent our shareholders from recognizing a gain in the event that a favorable offer is extended and could materially and negatively affect the market price of our ordinary shares, even if you or our other shareholders believe that such actions are in the best interests of us and our shareholders. As a result, our shareholders may be limited in their ability to obtain a premium for their shares.

We have granted employee stock options and other share-based awards in the past and are likely to continue to do so in the future. Our share-based compensation schemes may have an adverse effect on our results of operations and dilute the ownership interests of our shareholders.

We have granted share-based compensation awards, including share options, restricted shares and restricted share units, to various employees, key personnel and other non-employees to incentivize performance and align their interests with ours. An aggregate of 306,000 ordinary shares issuable upon the exercise of options outstanding under our 2006 Plan and 2015 Equity Plan, had been granted as of June 30, 2019 at a weighted average exercise price of  $21.75 per share. As a result of these grants and potential future grants, we have incurred in and expect to continue to incur share-based compensation expenses in the future. For example, in the fiscal years ended June 30, 2017, 2018 and 2019, we recorded share-based compensation expenses of $0.5 million, $1.2 million and $0.2 million, respectively. The amount of these expenses is based on the fair value of the share-based awards. We account for compensation costs for share-based compensation awards and recognize expenses in our consolidated statements of comprehensive income in accordance with the relevant rules under U.S. GAAP. Our share-based compensation expense may increase in future periods, as we adopt new equity compensation plans to incentivize our employees and directors to grow our business. In addition, any additional securities issued under share-based compensation schemes will dilute the ownership interests of our shareholders.

We may determine to cease paying dividends in the future.

Our Board decides if and when our Company will pay cash dividends. On August 11, 2016, our Board approved a regular cash dividend policy pursuant to which future cash dividends are expected to be paid to holders of the Company’s ordinary shares on an annual basis out of funds legally available for such purpose. While cash dividends have been paid in each of 2016, 2017 and 2018, the declaration and payment of future dividends will be at the discretion of our Board, and there can be no assurance that cash dividends will be paid in the future. Our future payment of dividends will depend upon many factors, including our financial conditions, earnings, capital requirements of its businesses, legal requirements, regulatory constraints, industry practice, and other factors that our Board deems relevant.

The laws of the British Virgin Islands provide limited protection for minority shareholders, so minority shareholders will have limited or no recourse if they are dissatisfied with the conduct of our affairs.

Under the laws of the British Virgin Islands, there is limited statutory protection of minority shareholders other than the provisions of the BVI Business Companies Act (as amended), which we refer to as the Act, dealing with shareholder remedies. The principal protection under statutory law is that shareholders may bring an action to enforce the constituent documents of a BVI company and are entitled to have the affairs of the company conducted in accordance with the Act and the memorandum and articles of association of the company. As such, if those who control the company have persistently disregarded the requirements of the Act or the provisions of the company’s memorandum and articles of association, then the courts will likely grant relief. Generally, the areas in which the courts will intervene are the following: (i) an act complained of which is outside the scope of the authorized business or is illegal or not capable of ratification by the majority; (ii) acts that constitute fraud on the minority where the wrongdoers control the company; (iii) acts that infringe on the personal rights of the shareholders, such as the right to vote; and (iv) acts where the company has not complied with provisions requiring approval of a special or extraordinary majority of shareholders, which are more limited than the rights afforded to minority shareholders under the laws of many states in the United States.

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Under the laws of the British Virgin Islands, our directors have the power to take certain actions without shareholder approval which would require shareholder approval under the laws of most U.S. jurisdictions.

The directors of a BVI corporation, subject in certain cases to court approval but without shareholder approval, may implement a reorganization, merger or consolidation, the sale of any assets, property, part of the business, or securities of the corporation, subject to a limit of up to 50% of such assets. The ability of our Board to create new classes or series of shares and the rights attached by amending our Amended and Restated M&A without shareholder approval could have the effect of delaying, deterring or preventing a change in our control without any further action by the shareholders, including a tender offer to purchase our ordinary shares at a premium over then current market prices. Thus, our shareholders may have more difficulty protecting their interests in the face of actions by our Board or our controlling shareholders than they would have as shareholders of a corporation incorporated in another jurisdiction.

In addition, our directors do not have terms of office, and they hold office until such director’s resignation, removal from office, death or incapacity. In connection with the adoption of the 2010 Rights Plan, we amended our memorandum and articles of association to provide that directors may only be removed by shareholders for cause. Under our Amended and Restated M&A, annual meeting of shareholders are no longer required. Since 2010, we have not held any shareholders meetings. We follow home country practice with respect to annual shareholders meetings and are not obligated to hold annual meetings of shareholders.

If securities analysts do not publish research or reports about our business or if they downgrade our shares or our sector, our share price and trading volume could decline.

The trading market for our ordinary shares has been affected in part by the research and reports that industry and financial analysts publish about us or our business. We do not control these analysts. Furthermore, if one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrade our shares or our industry, change their views regarding the shares of any of our competitors, or other companies in our industry, or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, the market price of our shares could decline. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of our company or fail to publish reports on us regularly, we could lose visibility in the market, which in turn could cause our share price or trading volume to decline.

ITEM 4.     INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY

A.

History and Development of the Company

We were established under the laws of the BVI on February 6, 2006, as HLS Systems International, Ltd., in order to merge with Chardan North China Acquisition Corporation (“Chardan”), a Delaware special purpose acquisition company, originally established on March 10, 2005, with the primary purpose of effecting a business combination with an unidentified operating business that has its primary operating facilities located in China, in any city or province north of Yangtze River. On September 20, 2007, we acquired all of the issued and outstanding ordinary shares of GTH, a BVI company. On August 1, 2008, our ordinary shares started trading on NASDAQ Global Select Market. On July 17, 2009, we changed our name to Hollysys Automation Technologies Ltd. to more accurately reflect our core value of leveraging proprietary technologies to provide state-of-the-art automation and control solutions for our clients.

On July 1, 2011, we purchased 100% of the equity of Concord Group for a combination consideration of cash and stock for a total value of $42.9 million. Concord Group provides electric solutions with end-to-end design, engraving, engineering, procurement, project management, construction and commissioning, and maintenance, active in the rail industry in Singapore, Qatar, UAE and Saudi Kingdom and the building retrofit market in Singapore.

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On April 1, 2013, we purchased 100% of the equity of Bond Group for a purchase price of $73 million, payable 50% in cash and 50% in ordinary shares of Hollysys. The stock will be issued to the Bond Group shareholders in three installments over three years, 60% of which are incentive shares and will be based on certain performance targets for calendar years 2013 and 2014. Additional ordinary shares, as a premium on performance, will be issuable to the Bond Group shareholders, if Bond Group outperforms the established targets, but the premium will not exceed 15% of the total incentive shares in any case. The operating results of Bond Group have been included in our consolidated financial statements effective from April 1, 2013. Bond Group provides complete mechanical and electrical solutions with end to end capabilities in design, engineering, procurement, project management, construction and commissioning, and maintenance to a wide array of industries, including factories, data centers, banks, hospitals, airports, power stations, gas and instrumentation plants, hotels, commercial centers, residential buildings and infrastructure works. We seek to take advantage of Bond Group’s strong presence and brand name in Southeast Asia and to strengthen our Southeast Asian business.

On November 24, 2015, we established CECL to explore the market in Qatar. CCPL has a 49% direct ownership of CECL and the remaining 51% equity interest is held by a nominee shareholder. Through a series of contractual arrangements, CCPL is entitled to appoint majority of directors of CECL who have the power to direct the activities that significantly impact CECL’s economic performance. Further, CCPL is entitled to 95% of the variable returns from CECL’s operations. As a result, despite of its minority direct ownership of CECL arrangements, CCPL is considered the primary beneficiary of CECL.

In July 2016, Beijing Hollycon Medicine & Technology. Co., Ltd. (“Hollycon”), previously as one of our subsidiaries, issued new shares for an aggregate cash consideration of $30,943 to new investors. At the same time, we disposed 0.6% of our equity interest in Hollycon for cash consideration of $464. These two transactions resulted in dilution of our equity interests in Hollycon from 51% to 30%. According to the revised article of association, Hollycon was managed by a board of directors comprising of a total 5 members, of which, we can appoint two directors while the other three shareholders can appoint one director each. We can also appoint the chairman of the board. All major management and operation decision need be approved by the board and requires approval by at least 2/3 of board directors. Profits are allocated to shareholders based on the percentage of respective initial investment. We lost control over Hollycon upon the completion of the two transactions set out above, but maintained significant influence over Hollycon, and accounted for the investment in Hollycon under equity method. Upon the deconsolidation date, we recorded the retained non-controlling equity investee at fair value of $22,737 and recognized a gain of $14,514. The fair value of retained non-controlling interest in Hollycon was measured using a discounted cash flow approach. Key estimates and assumptions include the amount and timing of future expected cash flows, terminal value growth rates, and discount rate.

In July 2017, BCPL, our wholly-owned Singapore subsidiary, and a Malaysian citizen (the “Trustee”) entered into a trust deed, under which, 49.1% of BCPL’s equity interests in Bond M & E Sdn. Bhd. (“BMJB”), a Malaysian company, which previously was a 100% subsidiary of BCPL, was transferred to the Trustee. According to the trust deed, all of the beneficial interests in BMJB belong to BCPL and the Trustee shall hold the legal title of the transferred shares on trust for and act on behalf of BCPL absolutely. Any dividend, interest and other benefits received or receivable by the Trustee will be transferred to BCPL. The Trustee shall exercise the managerial rights and voting power in a manner directed by a prior written notice from BCPL. The Trustee shall be obligated to vote in the same manner as BCPL in the absence of any written notice. In addition, an undated Form of Transfer of Securities with the transferee’s name left blank was duly executed by the Trustee and delivered to BCPL. Therefore, BCPL can transfer the 49.1% of equity interests to any party at any time without further approval by the Trustee. Accordingly, the Company believes it holds all beneficial rights, obligation and the power of the 100% equity interest in BMJB, and therefore consolidates 100% of equity interests in BMJB into its financial statements.

In August 2018, we transferred 100% of our equity interest in Beijing Hollysys Intelligent Technologies Co., Ltd. (“Hollysys Intelligent”), a wholly owned subsidiary, to Ningbo Hollysys Intelligent Technologies Co Ltd. (“Ningbo Hollysys”) in exchange for a 40% equity interest in Ningbo Hollysys. Upon the transfer of the equity interest, we lost control of Hollysys Intelligent and therefore, deconsolidated the subsidiary.

The Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC at http://www.sec.gov.

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Our web site address is http://www.hollysys.com. Information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website does not constitute a part of this annual report.

B.

Business Overview

Our Mission

Automation for better life.

Overview

We are a leading automation control system solutions provider in China, with overseas operations in eight other countries and regions throughout Asia. Leveraging our proprietary technology and deep industry know-how, we empower our customers with enhanced operational safety, reliability, efficiency, and intelligence which are critical to their businesses. We derive our revenues mainly from providing integrated solutions for industrial automation and rail transportation. In industrial automation, we deliver the full spectrum of automation hardware, software, and services spanning field devices, control systems, enterprise manufacturing management and cloud-based applications. In rail transportation, we provide advanced signaling control and SCADA systems for high-speed rail and urban rail (including subways). Internationally, through the acquisitions of Concord Group and Bond Group in 2011 and 2013 respectively, we are expanding and deepening our ability to offer mechanical and electrical solutions in design, engineering, procurement, project management, construction and commissioning, and maintenance to a wide range of industries, such as manufacturing, banks, hospitals, airports, power plants, commercial centers, hotels, and infrastructure works.

Founded in 1993, with technical expertise and innovation, we have grown from a research team specializing in automation control in the power industry into a group providing integrated automation control system solutions for customers in diverse industry verticals. As of June 30th, 2019, we had cumulatively carried out more than 25,000 projects for approximately 15,000 customers in various sectors including power, petrochemical, high-speed rail, and urban rail, in which we have established leading market positions. According to Frost & Sullivan, we are the largest Chinese company in the domestic automation market by various metrics including contract amount of DCS solutions in the power sector in 2018, ATP sets sold from 2015 to 2018, and contract amount of urban rail SCADA systems in 2018. With our strong customer base and highly-reputable brand, we believe we are well positioned to capture opportunities from untapped growth potential in China and around the world.

Our Business Platform and Value Proposition

Our highly-scalable and adaptable business platform is based on three key complementary pillars:

Proprietary and core technologies
In-depth understanding of our clients’ industrial processes
Dedicated pursuit of customer satisfaction

Our suite of integrated solutions offers customers the following value propositions:

Compliant with international standards
Leading functionality and quality
Strong product safety and reliability
Highly flexible customization

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Cost-effective solutions
Comprehensive service capability

Solutions, Products and Services

Industrial Automation:

We are able to deliver the full spectrum of automation hardware, software, and services spanning field devices, control systems, enterprise manufacturing management and cloud-based applications. Historically, we focused our efforts on the area of DCS (Distributed Control System), which is a network of controllers, sensors, actuators and other devices that can be programmed to control outputs based on input conditions through logic calculations. In an automated production line, sensors or so-called “instrumentations” are distributed across the production facility to monitor sub-systems like the robots, CNC machines, and logistic tools. These sensors are like human eyes, which monitor the process, and detect any abnormal situations. The information collected from those sensors is then transmitted to the DCS for centralized data processing through communication networks. The central computer (brain) processes information and generates commands, based on sophisticated algorithmic and pre-set parameters. These commands are then sent to actuators (muscles/bones) through communication devices to execute the orders and maintain production flow. We are as well a player in the PLC market, where the products are mainly used in discrete control and applied to a wide array of industries. PLCs are usually integrated together into machines to provide control at machinery level.

Our comprehensive suite of automation solution consists of third-party hardware-centric products such as instrumentation and actuators, our proprietary software-centric DCS/SIS (Safety Instrumentation System)/PLC, and valued-added software packages such as RMIS (Real-time Management Information System), HAMS (HolliAS Asset Management System), OTS (Operator Training System), HolliAS BATCH (Batch Application Package), and HolliAS APC Suite (Advanced Process Control Package), etc. Our solution has been widely used in process industries involving continuous flow of material handling, such as power generation and petro-chemical, while we have also served clients from metallurgy, building materials, pharmaceutical and food & beverage, etc. Our client base includes large state-owned enterprises, multi-national companies, and other domestic companies. Some of our renowned customers include the five major Chinese power generation companies, the three major Chinese petroleum companies, and international companies such as BASF, etc. We have also obtained customers from India and Southeast Asia within similar industries.

Meanwhile, the development of equipment and process level automation in China has gradually increased production digitalization, which has created opportunities for the development of digital factory. Compared with equipment and process automation, digital factory bring production and management into greater coordination. The realization of such requires the integration and processing of data of different verticals covering equipment, production line, workshop and corporate administration level. We have put forth our digital factory initiative in the year 2018 and have successfully signed several breakthrough contracts with our existing customers from power and chemical industry.

We also command a position in Chinese nuclear power automation and control market as the only qualified local automation and control product provider to the non-safety control for both nuclear island and conventional island of nuclear power reactors in nuclear power stations. We provide our HOLLiAS MACS-N DCS product to China’s nuclear power industry. The know-how was accumulated from our industrial DCS applications in high-end, conventional energy power plants, with much more sophisticated software and hardware specifications, and more stringent production and quality assurance process. In a nuclear power station, the nuclear island operates to transform nuclear energy to heat energy, and pass on the steam generated by the steam generator to the conventional island, where steam drives the turbine to generate the electricity, and pass on to the transformer for loading onto the grid.  

Rail Transportation:

We have branched out from the industrial automation domain into the subway and high-speed rail businesses, leveraging on our core competency and strong research and development capabilities, and have already established a key position in the high-speed rail signaling market and subway SCADA market.

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In high speed rail business, our core proprietary product lines includes TCC (Train Control Center) and ATP (Automation Train Protection). An ATP essentially acts as the train over-speed protection mechanism. It collects real-time information like speed limit ahead, train operation status, line data, instructions from train control center, and then combines that information with the train parameters to produce train protection curves. In case of any human errors, like driver’s negligence at the red light, it applies emergency brakes automatically. TCCs is an on-ground control center at railway stations or equipment stations which monitor route condition, track status, train schedules, distance between trains, and the working status of other essential function devices, and then through logic calculation, generate control instructions and commands. The command information from the TCC is then transmitted to the ATP located on the locomotives/trains, through track circuits and electronic beacons located at various points along the railway line, or wirelessly.

Besides ATP and TCC, we also provide other signaling products in high speed rail market, such as ATO (Automatic Train Operation system), Track Circuit, LEU (Line-Side Electronic Unit), BTM (Balise Transmission Module), TSRS (Temporary Speed Restriction Server), RBC (Radio Block Center) and CBI (Computer Based Interlocking), etc. China Railway Corporation employs its own administrative admission system and set specific standards for the high-speed rail signaling products deployed in China’s high-speed rail lines. In addition to having our products certified under those domestic standards, we have redesigned the whole set of our high-speed rail signaling systems to better compete in the rail market outside of China. Most of our high-speed rail signaling products have passed European Safety Standards SIL 4 certification. For high-speed rail business, CRC and local provincial rail bureaus are our major customers. We are also the supplier of the entire high-speed rail signaling system to Shenzhen-Hong Kong high-speed rail line for the Hong Kong MTR, which marked our breakthrough into the international high-speed rail signaling market.

In subway business, our core product is SCADA system. It is an open software platform to enable integrated and unified monitoring of all necessary sub-systems of the subway, including the Power Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System, Building Automatic System, Fire Alarm System, Platform Screen Door System, Access Control System, Closed Circuit Television, Passenger Information System, Passenger Train Information System, and Alarm System. Our performance records cover numerous cities in China, include Beijing, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Tianjin, Dalian, Wuhan, Chengdu, Lanzhou and Hohhot, etc. Our international performance records include Thomson & Eastern Region Lines in Singapore and Shenzhen-Hong Kong high-speed rail line. Based on our strong research and development capability and technical know-how of signaling application accumulated from high-speed rail, we have also developed our proprietary subway signaling system certified under European safety standards. The current subway signaling market is predominantly occupied by multi-national corporations, such as Siemens, Alstom and Thales.

Mechanical and Electrical:

We established a stronger foot-hold in Southeast Asia through the acquisitions of Concord and Bond Groups in 2011 and 2013 respectively. Concord and Bond Groups mainly provide mechanical and electrical solutions, including design, engineering, procurement, project management, construction and commissioning, and maintenance related services. Concord Group mainly focuses on railway transportation in Singapore, Macau, Qatar, UAE and Saudi Kingdom markets, and Bond Group mainly focuses on factories, data centers, banks, hospitals, airports, power stations, gas and instrumentation plants, hotels, commercial centers, residential buildings and infrastructure works in Malaysia. Through the acquisitions, the Company seeks to expand the existing distributions and marketing channels to sell the Company’s existing product lines to the fast growing Southeast Asia and the Middle East markets.

During the past several years we have achieved a number of significant contract wins in international arena, including (i) contracts with MTR Corporation of Hong Kong SAR to provide a complete suite of high-speed rail signaling systems to Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Hong Kong Express Rail Hong Kong Section; (ii) a contract with SMRT Trains Ltd. in Singapore to provide design, electrification and installation for station renovations on North-South and East-West lines and a contract with Thales Solutions Asia Pte. Ltd. to provide design, installation, testing and commission for replacing the existing signaling systems for the North-South and East-West lines and install new signaling systems for the Tuas West Extension line in Singapore; (iii) a contract with Land Transport Authority in Singapore to provide the Integrated Supervisory Control System for the Thomson & Eastern Region Lines in Singapore; (iv) a contract with Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd. to provide electrical installation services for part of the Power Distribution System Package of the first Phase of Doha Metro; (vi) maintenance contracts with MTR Corporation of Hong Kong SAR spanning multiple years.

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Project Implementation:

We establish a project group of sales engineers, technical engineers and project management professionals for each of our potential customer to provide them total integrated solutions tailored to their specific requirements. The sales engineers and technical engineers work together to offer the best customized solutions from understanding customer’s detailed requirements through on-site studies. The technical engineers are responsible for hardware assembly, software configuration, testing and installation, commissioning and trial operation, and start-up and training; while the project management professionals oversee budgetary matters, coordinate the work force, ensure adequacy of resources and monitor progress and quality to ensure the timely completion of each project.  Our integrated solutions projects involve one or more of the following activities:

Solution planning – We provide our customers with strategic and tactical reviews of their current operations and future requirements. The planning includes defining client business requirements, developing appropriate hardware and software, and selecting preferred technology.

Solution design – We detail the industry specifications and implementation tactics necessary to achieve our customer’s objectives. Hollysys also take into consideration the integration of the hardware and software deployed in our integrated solution with the existing ones of the customer, and the ongoing management followed Examples of these services include defining functional requirements for the system and our components, developing integration plans and designing of customer-specific system and services applications.

Solution implementation –We install the recommended systems and provide essential services throughout the solution implementation process, to better meet our customers' specific requirements. Key activities include project management, hardware procurement and production, software development, configuration and field installation and testing, and development of customized system and services management applications.

Our proprietary technology and products based integrated solutions create value for our customers and improve their competitive strengths by:

Generating synergy and improving efficiency of our customers through integrating communications, marketing and service functions;

Utilizing our industry and process knowledge to develop customized solutions that improve the efficiency of our customers;

Providing a software platform for the optimization of management operations, which provides real-time automation and information solutions throughout a business; and

Offering maintenance and training services to our customers, which help to cut costs and improve operating efficiency.

We customize our floor plans based on conducting careful on-site studies, building design-specific network systems using our proprietary technology and software, and offering manufacturing execution system services to ensure that real-time management control is available to our customers in a streamlined and easy-to-use manner.

We believe that our product design and applications integrated in the solutions are unmatched among our domestic competitors.  We also believe that the sophistication and quality of our products rival those of the multi-national automation and control product suppliers, while our insightful understanding of demands of our Chinese customers and the ability to respond give us a leading edge over foreign competitors.

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Integrated Solutions Contracts

The main channel through which we get our automation system business is the procurement bidding process. Customers seeking bids propose their requirements and specifications in legal bidding documents and those companies that are interested in obtaining these contracts make a bid in written form. If we win the bid, we finalize an integrated solutions contract. We derive a large percentage of our total consolidated revenues from the integrated solutions contracts that we win through the bid process. In addition, we also generate revenue from products sales of spare parts and component products to customers for maintenance and replacement purposes after the completion of the integrated solution solutions contract, and from provision of service such as maintenance and training which tends to provide a recurring revenue stream.

The purpose of an integrated solutions contract is to furnish an automation system that provides the customer with a total solution for the automation or process control requirement being addressed. The automation system and total solution that we offer consists of hardware, software and services, all of which are customized to meet the particular needs and technical specifications of our customers. None of the hardware, software and service has independent functionality, and therefore cannot be sold separately to customers.

The major terms of an integrated solution contract include solution planning and design, system installation, customer acceptance, payment milestones and warranty. The process of fulfilling an integrated solutions contract consists of the following four stages:

Solution planning and design - We provide customers with a customized plan for achieving the required solution by establishing a project group for each contract. The project group includes system engineers who propose and discuss and agree on the system design and implementation plan with the technical personnel of the customers.

System manufacturing and installation - Based on the design and implementation plan, and in accordance with the project schedule, we enter into the process of purchasing the necessary hardware, manufacturing components for the hardware, developing software platform, re-configuring the software embedded in the hardware, and fabricating the integrated hardware into cabinets, on-site installation and testing, and training customer’s personnel about how to use the automation and total solution.

Customer acceptance - The procedures for customer inspection and acceptance of the system are typically contained in the contracts. The initial inspection usually occurs when the hardware is delivered to the customer’s site for the purpose of detecting any obvious physical damage during shipping and to confirm that the entire order was delivered. A final acceptance will be performed upon the satisfaction of integrated solution testing.

Warranty period - The integrated solutions contracts customarily provide our customers with a one-year warranty (although sometimes the warranty period may be more than one year depending on the customer and the negotiations for the contract), which runs from the date of the final customer acceptance. The end of the warranty period represents fulfillment of the entire contract.

Because of the nature of customized integrated solutions contracts, a customer does not have the right to return the products that we deliver, so long as such products conform and perform to the customer’s specification. Prior to delivering our products to a customer’s site, we perform an internal test to ensure that the automation system works as intended. After installing the products on a customer’s site, any problems are solved during trial runs. Once the testing requirements have been satisfied, a customer will execute a customer acceptance document, which marks the beginning of the warranty period. Due to the nature of this process, many companies in the automation systems business generally do not carry product liability insurance.

The size of an integrated solutions contract is determined by a customer’s needs in terms of the amount of equipment needed and the complexity of the integrated solution. The size of an integrated solutions contract drives the revenues generated by the contract. Because certain contracts will require working periods longer than one year, the best way to measure the contract revenue realized is to use the percentage-of-completion or cost-to-cost method. Ultimately, our revenue stream will be driven by the average price of an integrated solutions contract and how many integrated solutions contracts have started in each reporting period.

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Our backlog of contracts presents the amount of unrealized revenue to be earned from the contracts that we have won. Accordingly, any increase or decrease in new contracts won by us, or any change of scheduled delivery dates will have a future impact on our future revenue streams. In the event of a delay in the delivery schedule, then the time of inspection, installation, trial run and customer acceptance will be delayed accordingly, all of which will affect our revenue recognition. If the delay of delivering the specified automation systems was a result of our inability to deliver the system on a timely basis, then we will be held responsible for this delay, in accordance with the terms specified in the respective integrated solutions contracts.

Markets

Industrial Automation Market

Industrial automation is divided by application into discrete automation, which is used in manufacturing and assembly of distinct items (such as automobiles, semiconductors and household appliances), and process automation, which is used in process manufacturing of undifferentiated products (such as power generation, petrochemicals and chemicals). China’s industrial automation market is poised for accelerated growth. According to Frost & Sullivan, total contract amount from industrial automation in China grew at a 4.9% compound annual growth rate, or CAGR, from 2014 to 2018 and reached RMB201.7 billion (US$30.1 billion). This market is estimated to grow at an 11.1% CAGR from 2018 to 2023 and reach RMB339.2 billion (US$50.6 billion), with process automation taking the lead. A few industry verticals including chemicals and petrochemicals, power, machinery and automotive and transportation accounted for the largest share of the industrial automation market in 2018. DCS solutions account for the majority of process automation market in China in terms of contract value amount. Chemicals and petrochemicals and power, two of the largest industry verticals for DCS solutions, are expected to grow at CAGRs of 14.5% and 5.8%, respectively, from 2018 to 2023 according to Frost & Sullivan.

Multi-national companies including Honeywell (US), Siemens (Germany), Emerson (US), ABB (Sweden), Rockwell (US), Yokogawa (Japan) and Hitachi (Japan) account for the majority of the global automation market share, and such market pattern is similar in China. However, with years of development, domestic players including Hollysys and Supcon, etc. are gradually becoming one of those leading players in different verticals.

The drivers for industrial automation market in China are the followings.

Rising labor costs. As labor costs in China rise while the cost of automation control systems decline due to domestic production and other factors, industrial automation solutions are expected to become more valuable, affordable and in-demand by Chinese industrial firms.

Growth of end market. As China’s economy evolves, multiple sectors are expanding, giving rise to the need for industrial automation solutions. Such sectors include nuclear power, waste incineration and biomass power, chemical and petrochemical, semiconductor and electronics, and healthcare.

Maintenance and replacement of existing industrial automation systems. The massive scale of existing industrial automation, driven by strong growth in recent years, and the limited designed service life of automation equipment, generally 10 to 15 years, should create significant need for maintenance and replacement, which are expected to sustain long-term demand for industrial automation. Such sectors include thermal power, chemical and petrochemical, food and beverage, semiconductor and electronics, household appliances, and healthcare.

Industry-wide upgrade. The transformation of entire industries by the emergence of data-driven smart manufacturing and IIoT is expected to generate a high volume of new deployment needs for industrial automation, which in turn, is expected to generate recurring needs for maintenance and upgrade.

Favorable policies. The Chinese government is actively promoting environmental protection, energy conservation and industrial transformation and upgrade in to achieve a more sustainable course of development, which also gives rise to market opportunities for automation solution providers.

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Several noticeable trends of the market have to be mentioned. Domestic players in PRC industrial automation market have substantially improved their brand name and R&D capability, which enables them to penetrate high-end market segments that have traditionally been dominated by multinational companies, such as Emerson, Honeywell and Siemens. Domestic players are expected to leverage their deep knowledge of domestic customers and proven track record to win market share in specific strategic industries. Market dynamics will favor industry-leading players who have the capability and resources to provide customized solutions, high quality products, greater flexibility and faster response. Recent entrants and smaller-scaled players are expected to be marginalized from the competition due to lack of technology competitiveness, demonstrated service capabilities and shorter track record.

We are well-positioned to benefit from China’s nuclear power development. At present, China’s nuclear power sector is relatively underdeveloped, with the vast majority of power generated by coal-fired power plants. According to China Nuclear Energy Association, as of June 30, 2019, there were 47 nuclear reactors in commercial operation in China. For the first half of 2019, electricity generated by nuclear power accounted for approximately 4.75% of total electricity generated within China, lagging far behind the world average of 15%, with France being the highest with 70% of its power generated from nuclear power plants.

We are penetrating into international markets with primary focus on Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, India and the Middle East, all of which are largely developing areas. The strong growth of infrastructure and increased demand for automation technologies will benefit us in these areas.

Rail Transportation Market

Another important end-market for Hollysys is the high-speed rail market in China, where we command a leading position in providing high-speed rail signaling systems to ensure the safety of passenger train movement. The China Railway Corporation developed a national high-speed rail signaling technological standard, the China Train Control System, or the CTCS. Under the CTCS, the standard governing the 200-250km/hour speed category is called C2, while C3 governs the 300-350km/hour category. These standards are different from the international standards propounded by European organizations or Japan.

According to Frost & Sullivan, China’s high-speed railway operating mileage, currently the largest in the world, grew at a 15.2% CAGR from 2014 to 2018 and reached 29,100 km. By the end of the 12th Five Year Plan, the total length of China’s high-speed railway reached 19,000 kilometers. Under the 13th Five Year Plan, another 11,000 kilometers of high-speed railway will be built by the end of 2020, making a total length of 30,000 kilometers, covering over 80% of China’s major cities. A more comprehensive network of “Eight Horizontals and Eight Verticals” will be in place by 2025, surpassing the previous “Four Horizontals and Four Verticals”, making inter and intra-regional railway transportation more efficient and convenient. According to Frost & Sullivan, the high-speed rail control system market is expected to grow at 11.7% CAGR from 2018 to 2023 and reach RMB29.2 billion (US$4.4 billion), with maintenance and replacement accounting for a rapidly growing share of expenditures. As one of the three high-speed rail signaling products providers in the C2 category in China, and one of the three high-speed rail signaling products providers to the C3 segment, we believe that Hollysys is well positioned to benefit from this unprecedented, world leading high-speed railway build-out.

According to the development plan for a modern comprehensive transportation system during the 13th five-year-plan published by the State Council, total length of subway lines under operation by 2020 will be 6000 km, compared with 3300km by the end of the 12th five-year-plan period. According to Frost & Sullivan, total operating mileage of urban rail transit in China grew at a 16.4% CAGR from 2014 to 2018 and reached 4,766 km in 2018. Such is expected to reach 9,276 km in 2023, representing a CAGR of 14.2% from 2018 to 2023.

The drivers for rail automation market in China are the followings.

Urbanization. Rapid urbanization and regional economic integration in China are expected to continue to drive new construction of high-speed rail and urban rail transit. In addition, the demand for more efficient operation of high-speed rail and urban rail transit systems is expected to also generate demand for rail automation in China.

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Renewal and upgrade. The massive scale of high-speed rail and urban rail transit networks is creating a growing need for renewal, replacement and upgrade of rail automation equipment, as high-speed rail signaling control systems have designed service lives of 10 to 15 years and urban rail signaling systems have designed service lives of 15 years.

Favorable policies. Ambitious PRC government policies such as the Eight Horizontal and Eight Vertical High-speed Railway Corridors Project, Belt and Road Initiatives, and High-speed Railway Diplomacy is expected to sustain growth in the rail automation market.

Moreover, domestic firms have made substantial breakthroughs in building control system technologies and are expected to accelerate import substitution in China’s rail automation market. The share of domestic equipment and system is expected to increase. Also, a wider adoption of fully automatic train technology that allows “driverless” trains to be managed automatically by the system without a train conductor marks the next stage for automation of railway and urban rail.

Mechanical and Electrical Solutions Market

We offer mechanical and electrical solutions (M&E) through Concord and Bond Groups in Southeast Asia, the Middle East and Hong Kong. Through acquisitions of the above entities, we are expanding and deepening our ability to offer mechanical and electrical solutions in design, engineering, procurement, project management, construction and commissioning, and maintenance to a wide range of industries, such as manufacturing, banks, hospitals, airports, power plants, commercial and residential buildings, hotels, and railway and subway lines.

The Singapore construction industry embraces opportunities as demand is expected to increase in public sectors including both transportation and non-transportation projects. The government has rolled out major upcoming development on rail, water, air/sea port infrastructure work. The Malaysian construction industry is supported by large scale investment under the previous government plan to develop the Country’s overall infrastructure by implementing various projects in the transports, tourism, tele-communication, education, healthcare and retail sectors. However, challenges remain as the industry is expected to expand in a relatively slow pace due to the newly elected government. Construction projects in the Middle East market are also rolling out, but challenges remain given the political issue.

Competition and Our Strengths

In industry automation business, we believe our major competitors are multi-national corporations, such as ABB, Honeywell, Emerson and Siemens. Supcon, a local private company affiliated with Zhejiang University, is among our primary competitors as well. In Southeast Asia and the Middle East markets, our principal competitors for industrial automation are multinational corporations such as ABB, Siemens, Emerson, Yokogawa and Honeywell.

In the PRC high-speed rail business, given the administrative admission system employed by China Railway Corporation and the governing of national rail technology standard, the China Train Control Standard (CTCS), we are facing less competition from multi-national companies. Currently, Hollysys is one of the three entities that supply signaling products to China’s 200-250km/h segment of the high-speed rail market. The other two are China Academy of Railway Science and Zhuzhou CRRC. Hollysys is one of the three signaling product providers to China’s 300-350km/h segment of the high-speed rail market. The other providers are CRSC and China Academy of Railway Science. In SCADA market, we mainly compete with Nanjing Automation Research Institute (NARI). In the nuclear automation segment, we mainly compete with multi-national corporations such as Siemens, Areva, and Invensys. The major competitors in the international rail and subway signaling markets are Bombardier and Alstom.

For the mechanical and electrical solutions business, the main competitors for Concord and Bond Groups include Bintai Kinden Corporation Berhad, PJI Holding Berhad, and LFE Corporation Berhad, Kurihara, Sanyo, Bintai KDK and Gammon Construction.

We believe that our key competitive advantages edge are the following:

Market leadership with strong reputation.

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We are one of the largest automation control system solutions providers in China, playing a key part in many verticals in which we operate in China. For example, according to Frost & Sullivan:

In the power sector, we were the largest Chinese company in terms of (i) the contract amount of DCS solutions in 2018, with a market share of 15.8%, (ii) the number of newly-constructed thermal power units equipped with DCS solutions in 2018, with a market share of 37.5%, and (iii) the number of nuclear power units with generating capacity above 600MW as of December 31, 2018, with a market share over 50%. In terms of cumulative thermal power units with generating capacity above 300MW as of December 31, 2018, our DCS solutions commanded a market share of 18.8%. In terms of the cumulative number of waste incineration power plants as of December 31, 2018, our DCS solutions enjoyed a market share of 42.5%.

In the high-speed rail sector, we were the largest company in terms of ATP sets sold from 2015 to 2018, with a market share of 39.2%, and in particular our market share for CTCS-2 ATP sets sold commanded 50.6% of the market share from 2014 to 2018. We were the second largest company in terms of TCC contract coverage mileage from 2015 to 2018, with a market share of 24.7%.

In the urban rail sector, we were the largest company in terms of SCADA system contract amount from 2015 to 2018, with a market share of 14.2%.

Our solid leadership position rests not only on market share, but also on our continued innovation and breakthroughs in the industry in China. We were the first to achieve the following feats in China’s automation market, according to Frost & Sullivan:

1st domestic DCS with practical application (1993);
1st domestic nuclear power station computing system to enter operation (1997);
1st domestic railway transportation SCADA (2002);
1st proprietary domestic large-scale PLC system (2007);
1st passenger line with CTCS-2 Train Control System (2008);
1st GW Nuclear Power Station Digital Instrumentation Control System (2011);
1st to introduce CTCS-3 category high-speed rail control system in an overseas market (2012);
1st domestic SIS (2012); and
1st and only Chinese company to provide DEH control system for gigawatt power plant (as of 2018).

As evidence of our strong reputation, we have been actively involved in setting industrial standards, and have received numerous awards and industry recognitions. Notably, we have:

Led or participated in the formulation of national standards including industrial enterprise information integration system standards, urban rail transit integrated supervision and control system design specifications, industrial-process measurement, and reference model for control and automation production facility (digital factory).

Obtained national-level recognitions including PRC State Council’s State Science and Technology Progress Award, National Development and Reform Commission’s State Accredited Enterprise Technology Center, Ministry of Science and Technology’s Technology Innovation Demonstration Enterprise, and the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology’s designation as an Intelligent Manufacturing System Solutions Provider (among the first to receive the designation) and award for excellence in Industrial Internet App Solutions in 2018.

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Received product and service quality awards from Hong Kong’s Mass Transit Railway (MTR) for five consecutive years, including the Gold Quality Award in 2016, the highest honor given by MTR in respect to project quality management.

Proven credentials with high barriers to entry.

Our proven credentials of qualification, project experience and reliability record have formed strong barriers and a self-reinforcing virtuous circle that has enabled us to stand out among our competitors.

In China, we are the only domestic company qualified to design and manufacture non-safety control systems of nuclear power plants, the only SIS provider on the National Safety Bureau’s 2017 Directory for the Promotion of the Advanced and Replacement of the Obsolete in Safety Technology and Equipment, and one of the only three companies qualified to provide high-speed rail signaling products in both CTCS-2 and CTCS-3 categories, as well as to design and construct Chinese high-speed rail ATO control systems. In the overseas market, our rail signaling systems and SIS have attained the highest European safety standard certifications.

Among the over 25,000 projects completed since our founding days, we have steadily climbed the ranks and undertaken some of the most sophisticated and challenging projects for increasingly demanding customers in China. Our integrated and balanced teams including R&D staff, engineers and project management have accumulated invaluable relevant experience and in-depth industry knowledge of our customers’ industry verticals. These valuable credentials were built through decades of dedication and commitment and are critical in enabling us to win bids.

Our customers operate in industries with some of the most stringent safety and reliability requirements such as nuclear power and high-speed rail, where small system malfunctions could lead to disastrous accidents. We have always put safety first and implemented comprehensive procedures to ensure the highest safety standards. As a result, we have maintained an outstanding safety record throughout our 25-year history, and potential customers come to us because of our reputation for safety and reliability.

Integrated, customized solutions leading to high customer satisfaction and stickiness.

With comprehensive system integration capabilities as our backbone, we offer customers one-stop shop total solutions and deliver convenient and economic solutions, which significantly mitigate system compatibility risks.

We go further by providing tailor-made solutions with our proprietary technologies, which we can readily adapt and customize to meet varying needs. We form dedicated teams composed of complementary groups of sales personnel, and hardware and software engineers from a variety of disciplines to understand our customers’ specific needs early on, identify feasible action items, and customize to their satisfaction. Our customization approach has proven value proposition particularly in our home market, where many customers have developed their own production processes, and many others are becoming more sophisticated in their demand, according to Frost & Sullivan.

Our customized total solutions are inherently highly-integrated into our customers’ business operations, which makes it costly and time consuming for our customers to switch to other providers. Our engineers on the ground have close and frequent contact with our customers as they perform routine maintenance and inspection. We believe our customers’ reliance on our systems and personnel provides us with unique advantages in generating recurring revenue from services and upgrades, and securing new business from our customers and their affiliates. Our products sold and services rendered as reported in our income statement were mainly derived from existing customers after their initial purchase of our integrated solutions contract. We believe we shall continue to benefit from the structural upgrade and replacement opportunities in some of China’s largest industries.

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Strong technology, engineering and R&D capabilities.

Technology is at the core of our competencies, and rooted in our engineering background and innovative culture. Among other automation control systems, we have successfully developed our own proprietary DCS, PLC, high-speed rail and urban rail signaling and certified SIS systems. We are also proactively embracing the era of IIoT and have attained achieved an early leading position in this area, as evidenced by our capacity to provide smart manufacturing solutions, and our recent awards from the 2019 Industrial Internet Summit including Excellent Data Collection and Edge Computing Technology Provider, Excellent Industrial PaaS Provider and Excellent Industrial SaaS Provider. As of June 30, 2019, we held 221 software copyrights, 126 authorized patents, 64 pending patent applications and 44 registered trademarks.

We employ a platform-based, modular technology system, which enables us to use basic modules as building blocks and quickly develop entire systems that can be adapted to various needs. Such flexibility and adaptability enable us to quickly respond to changing customer needs, and apply our solutions to new customers by combining the appropriate modules along with our industry and customer know-how.

We have in place a full suite of infrastructure that gives rise to strong R&D capabilities, including research facilities and labs in Beijing, Hangzhou, Xi’an and Singapore. As of June 30, 2019, our dedicated R&D and technology teams had over 1,500 staff, representing over 40% of our total workforce. We also collaborate with Academecians from the Chinese Academy of Engineering on R&D endeavors in relevant areas including automation, digitalization, smart manufacturing and industrial information security. We adopt a market-driven approach, in which we strategically focus our R&D on the parts of the value chain that we excel at and our future targeted markets, while we continuously upgrade our technology from project experience. We have spent approximately 6 – 7% of our revenues on research and development each year.

Visionary and professional board and management team.

Our visionary and professional board and management team is led by our Chairman and CEO, Mr. Shao Baiqing. Mr. Shao has served the Company for more than 25 years starting as one of the engineers amongst the Company’s founders. During his tenure at the Company, Mr. Shao has accumulated in-depth know-how across core functions, including R&D, operations, supply chain management, marketing, finance and business development. Mr. Shao accumulated extensive experience through the inception and rise of China’s automation industry, and is widely regarded as an industry leader with significant influence in China. He has served as the Vice President of China Instrument and Control Society, and was awarded “Leader of China’s Integration of Industrialization and Digitalization” in 2017. He holds a master’s degree in computer science from the 6th Research Institute of China Electronics Corporation and an MBA degree from Peking University. In recognition of his leadership and expertise in science and technology, he is entitled to a special expert allowance from the PRC State Council.

Our directors and senior management have on average over 20 years of professional experience. They bring together complementary expertise and insights from technology, finance, academia and capital markets. Most of our board and senior management members have served for more than 10 years with our company, and their strategic vision and successful execution of our strategy have enabled us to achieve operational excellence and various breakthroughs in our business.

Strategy

We intend to achieve our mission through the successful execution of the key elements of our development strategy, which include:

Strengthening market leadership and expanding market shares

As the market leader for automation control system solutions, we intend to continue to focus on our existing businesses in industrial automation and rail transportation, and expand our market share in these fields. We seek to capitalize on the opportunities arising from structural upgrades and replacements, and provide more thoroughly-designed and comprehensive solutions packages. We will continue to build up our track record and attract more customers, and further consolidate our market position.

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Together with our associates, we plan to further expand our business into more industry verticals with tremendous market potential and favorable policy, such as renewable energy, environmental protection, energy conservation, healthcare, urban rail signaling and food & dining. Leveraging our proprietary and highly adaptable technologies, broad industry knowledge, dedicated research and development efforts and strategic alliances, we seek to build up industry know-how and our track record in these industry verticals.

Further expanding our comprehensive automation solutions matrix

We also seek to enhance our capabilities in the early stages of project cycles, such as project design and planning, and in the later stages such as after-sales maintenance and product upgrade, so as to cover the whole life cycle for automation control projects. In August 2019, we completed an acquisition of a small-size pharmaceutical engineering design company.

Along the value chain of automation control systems solutions, we aim to extend our own-brand components to field devices on the one end, and enhance our cloud services and big data analytics on the other.

Continuing to optimize our operations and enhance profitability

We plan to continue our efforts to optimize operating efficiency, increase productivity and enhance profitability. To further streamline the supply chain, we plan to keep the production lines of core components in Beijing while moving the assembly lines of other products closer to suppliers and customers. We also plan to increase intelligent manufacturing at our own facilities, increasing the level of automation and digitalization in our own production processes to achieve efficiency gains and develop new solutions in automation for our clients.

Investing in research and development, and our talent

Given the technology-intensive nature of the automation control systems market, we see technology capability and talent as our core competencies. We have been seeking and will continue to seek to improve our existing products and services and develop new technologies, applications, and platforms. We plan to continue to invest in R&D both in China and abroad and to collaborate with multinational corporations, to ensure that our proprietary technologies remain industry leading. Specifically, we aim to invest in developing and refining our solutions in urban rail signaling, smart manufacturing and industrial internet of things.

Our team of talented researchers and engineers is a key contributing factor to our market leadership. We aim to recruit and retain top-notch talent with well-designed incentive programs. We plan to enhance collaboration with experts from the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Chinese Academy of Engineering, and international research institutes to further enhance our research and development capabilities, and create a conducive environment for their research and development efforts. We also plan to strengthen our innovation and incubation efforts at our newly-established innovation center and research institute in Beijing.

Exploring international business opportunities and expanding overseas presence strategically.

We have established sales networks in Singapore and Malaysia through our Concord and Bond operations. We plan to continue our internationalization in multiple aspects, including sales channel, manufacturing center and research center. If suitable opportunities arise, we may consider overseas acquisition to achieve our business goals.

We will continue to accompany our Chinese customers as they go global. We also plan to jointly develop overseas projects with international partners. For example, we have recently formed a strategic partnership with Arup, one of the largest global engineering consulting firms, to develop and implement world-leading intelligent solutions and expand into overseas markets together.

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Executing our 3+1+ N strategy.

We have developed our “3+1+N strategy” (three strategic areas + one set of new technologies + expansion into numerous other industry verticals). We aim to upgrade our capabilities in three strategic areas, industry, rail transportation and healthcare using a suite of new technologies including industrial internet, industrial big data and artificial intelligence to create a more digital, integrated and flexible production process with higher efficiency and better management control. For example, we have built an automated production facility in Beijing, which serves to enhance our own production and showcase the success of our upgrade initiative. We believe this type of transformation can be replicated for customers across numerous industry verticals, and unlock the enormous potential from data-driven smart manufacturing for decades to come.

Furthermore, as a leader in industrial automation control in the world’s leading industrial economy, we are uniquely-positioned to help foster an ecosystem for the Industrial Internet of Things. Our control systems in thousands of industrial plants across China collect real-time data on production processes and serve as the secure point of implementation for digital solutions developed with data analytics to automate, synchronize and enhance industrial operations. We seek to bring together end users (plants, factories, utilities), cloud service providers, application developers and systems integrators to collaborate efficiently using common standards to realize the promise of industrial internet.

Manufacturing

We design and manufacture the hardware of our products in Beijing and Hangzhou facilities, and in rare cases we outsource the production depending on special circumstances and delivery requirements. The core part of the hardware of our products is the printed circuit board. We manufacture the printed circuit boards in our SMT (Surface Mounting Technology) lines and plug-in mounting lines, and assemble them into various types of modules and then form the modules into the final products. The raw materials which we procure mainly include bare printed circuit boards from vendors based on our requirements and design considerations, and electronic components, chips, cabinets and cables among other factors. Our products are subjected to rigorous testing in our facilities prior to shipment.

Several subsidiaries of the Company, including Beijing Hollysys, Hangzhou Hollysys, Hollysys Intelligent, and Hollysys Electronics, have all passed GB/T 19001/ISO 9001 international quality management system certification, GB/T 24001/ISO 14001environmental management system certification, and GB/T 28001 occupational health and safety management system certification.

The GB/T 19001/ISO 9001 international quality management system certificate is valid for production, and technical service of industrial automatic control system equipment. The other two certificates are valid for production, technical service and related management activities of industrial automatic control system equipment.

Seasonality

Like many other companies operating in China and Southeast Asia, our businesses experience lower levels of revenues in the quarter ending on March 31 due to the Chinese New Year holiday.

Regulation

This section sets forth a summary of the most significant laws, rules and regulations that affect our business activities in the PRC or our shareholders’ rights to receive dividends and other distributions from us.

Regulations on Company Law

Pursuant to the PRC Company Law, promulgated by the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress (the “SCNPC”) on December, 29 1993, effective as of July 1, 1994, and as revised on December 25, 1999, August 28, 2004, October 27, 2005, December 28, 2013 and October 26, 2018, the establishment, operation and management of corporate entities in the PRC are governed by the PRC Company Law. The PRC Company Law defines two types of companies: limited liability companies and limited stock companies.

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Our PRC subsidiaries are all limited liability companies established under the PRC Company Law. Unless otherwise stipulated in the related laws on foreign investment, foreign invested companies are also required to comply with the provisions of the PRC Company Law.

Regulations Relating to Foreign Investment

Investment activities in the PRC by foreign investors are mainly governed by the Guidance Catalog of Industries for Foreign Investment (2017 revision), or the Catalog, which was promulgated jointly by the Ministry of Commerce and the National Development and Reform Commission on June 28, 2017 and entered into force on July 28, 2017. The Catalog divides industries into four categories in terms of foreign investment, which are “encouraged,” “restricted,” and “prohibited,” and all industries that are not listed under one of these categories are deemed to be “permitted.” Establishment of wholly foreign-owned enterprises is generally allowed in encouraged and permitted industries. Some restricted industries are limited to equity or contractual joint ventures, while in some cases Chinese partners are required to hold the majority interests in such joint ventures. In addition, foreign investment in restricted category projects is subject to government approvals. Foreign investors are not allowed to invest in industries in the prohibited category. Industries not listed in the Catalog are generally open to foreign investment unless specifically restricted by other PRC regulations.

In June 2019, the Ministry of Commerce and the National Development and Reform Commission promulgated the Special Management Measures (Negative List) for the Access of Foreign Investment, or the Negative List, effective July 30, 2019.  The Negative List expands the scope of permitted industries by foreign investment by reducing the number of industries that fall within the Negative List where restrictions on the shareholding percentage or requirements on the composition of board or senior management still exists.

On March 15, 2019, the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress passed the Foreign Investment Law of PRC, which will take effect since January 1, 2020. The Law of the People’s Republic of China on China-Foreign Equity Joint Ventures, the Law of the People’s Republic of China on Wholly Foreign-Owned Enterprises, and the Law of the People’s Republic of China on China-Foreign Contractual Joint Ventures shall be replaced at the same time. The Foreign Investment Law of PRC adopts the management system of the negative list for foreign investment. A foreign investor may not invest in a field which is prohibited by the foreign investment access negative list from investment. To invest in a field restricted by the foreign investment access negative list from investment, a foreign investor shall meet the investment conditions set out in the negative list.

Regulations Relating to Intellectual Property

The Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress and the State Council have promulgated comprehensive laws and regulations to protect trademarks. The Trademark Law of the PRC (2013 revision) promulgated on August 23, 1982 and subsequently amended on February 22, 1993, October 27, 2001 and August 30, 2013, respectively, and the Implementation Regulation of the Trademark Law (2014 revision) issued by the State Council on August 3, 2002 and amended on April 29, 2014 are the main regulations protecting registered trademarks. The Trademark Office under the State Administration for Industry and Commerce administrates the registration of trademarks on a “first-to-file” basis, and grants a term of ten years to registered trademarks.

The PRC Copyright Law, adopted in 1990 and revised in 2001, 2010 respectively, with its implementation rules adopted on August 8, 2002 and revised in 2011 and 2013, respectively, and the Regulations for the Protection of Computer Software as promulgated on December 20, 2001 and amended in 2011 and 2013 provide protection for copyright of computer software in the PRC. Under these rules and regulations, software owners, licensees and transferees may register their rights in software with the National Copyright Administration Center or its local branches to obtain software copyright registration certificates.

The Ministry of Industry and Information Technology promulgated the Administrative Measures on Internet Domain Name on August 24, 2017 to protect domain names. According to these measures, domain name applicants are required to duly register their domain names with domain name registration service institutions. The applicants will become the holder of such domain names upon the completion of the registration procedure.

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We have adopted necessary mechanisms to register, maintain and enforce intellectual property rights in China. However, we cannot assure you that we can prevent our intellectual property from all the unauthorized use by any third party, neither can we promise that none of our intellectual property rights would be challenged any third party.

Regulations Relating to Employment

The PRC Labor Law and the Labor Contract Law require that employers must execute written employment contracts with full-time employees. All employers must compensate their employees with wages equal to at least the local minimum wage standards. Violations of the PRC Labor Law and the Labor Contract Law may result in the imposition of fines and other administrative sanctions, and serious violations may constitute criminal offences.

On December 28, 2012, the PRC Labor Contract Law was amended with effect on July 1, 2013 to impose more stringent requirements on labor dispatch. Under such law, dispatched workers are entitled to pay equal to that of full-time employees for equal work, but the number of dispatched workers that an employer hires may not exceed a certain percentage of its total number of employees as determined by the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security. Additionally, dispatched workers are only permitted to engage in temporary, auxiliary or substitute work. According to the Interim Provisions on Labor Dispatch promulgated by the Ministry o