Company Quick10K Filing
Quick10K
Healthcare Realty Trust
Closing Price ($) Shares Out (MM) Market Cap ($MM)
$32.28 125 $4,040
10-K 2018-12-31 Annual: 2018-12-31
10-Q 2018-09-30 Quarter: 2018-09-30
10-Q 2018-06-30 Quarter: 2018-06-30
10-Q 2018-03-31 Quarter: 2018-03-31
10-K 2017-12-31 Annual: 2017-12-31
10-Q 2017-09-30 Quarter: 2017-09-30
10-Q 2017-06-30 Quarter: 2017-06-30
10-Q 2017-03-31 Quarter: 2017-03-31
10-K 2016-12-31 Annual: 2016-12-31
10-Q 2016-09-30 Quarter: 2016-09-30
10-Q 2016-06-30 Quarter: 2016-06-30
10-Q 2016-03-31 Quarter: 2016-03-31
10-K 2015-12-31 Annual: 2015-12-31
8-K 2019-02-13 Earnings, Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2019-02-12 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-11-01 Earnings, Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-10-30 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-08-02 Earnings, Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-07-31 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-05-08 Shareholder Vote
8-K 2018-05-01 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-03-27 Officers
8-K 2018-02-13 Earnings, Exhibits
PSA Public Storage
SLG SL Green Realty
DEI Douglas Emmett
PEB Pebblebrook Hotel Trust
FR First Industrial Realty Trust
PSB PS Business Parks
BFS Saul Centers
OLP One Liberty Properties
PEI Pennsylvania Real Estate Investment Trust
ORM Owens Realty Mortgage
HR 2018-12-31
Part I
Item 1. Business
Item 1A. Risk Factors
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 2. Properties
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Part II
Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Item 6. Selected Financial Data
Item 7. Management's Discussions and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Note 10. Derivative Financial Instruments
Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
Item 9A. Controls and Procedures
Item 9B. Other Information
Part III
Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
Item 11. Executive Compensation
Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
Item 14. Principal Accountant Fees and Services
Item 15. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules
Item 16. Form 10-K Summary
EX-3.1 secondarticlesofamendm.htm
EX-3.2 amendedandrestatedbyla.htm
EX-21 hr-20181231xex21.htm
EX-23 hr-20181231xex23.htm
EX-31.1 hr-20181231xex311.htm
EX-31.2 hr-20181231xex312.htm
EX-32 hr-20181231xex32.htm

Healthcare Realty Trust Earnings 2018-12-31

HR 10K Annual Report

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow

Document
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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
_________________________________ 
Form 10-K
(Mark One)
ý
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the fiscal year ended: December 31, 2018
OR
¨

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the transition period             to
Commission File Number: 001-11852
__________________________________________________ 
HEALTHCARE REALTY TRUST INCORPORATED
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
Maryland
 
62-1507028
(State or other jurisdiction of
Incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
3310 West End Avenue
Suite 700
Nashville, Tennessee 37203
(Address of principal executive offices)
(615) 269-8175
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each Class
 
Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered
Common stock, $0.01 par value per share
 
New York Stock Exchange
Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
(Title of Class)
__________________________________________________ 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes  ý    No    o
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes    o    No    ý
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes  ý    No  o
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes  ý    No  o
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of Registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.     o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b -2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
 
 
Large accelerated filer
 
ý
 
Accelerated filer
 
o
 
 
 
Non-accelerated filer
 
 
 
Smaller reporting company
 
o
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Emerging growth company
 
o
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.)
Yes  o    No  ý
The aggregate market value of the shares of common stock of the Registrant (based upon the closing price of these shares on the New York Stock Exchange on June 30, 2018) held by non-affiliates on June 30, 2018 was $3,548,286,261.
As of February 8, 2019, there were 125,294,458 shares of the Registrant’s common stock outstanding.
________________________________ 
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the Registrant’s definitive Proxy Statement relating to the Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be held on May 14, 2019 are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Report.
 


Table of Contents

HEALTHCARE REALTY TRUST INCORPORATED
FORM 10-K
December 31, 2018

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 
  
Page
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 


Table of Contents

PART I

Item 1. Business
Overview
Healthcare Realty Trust Incorporated (“Healthcare Realty” or the “Company”) is a self-managed and self-administered real estate investment trust (“REIT”) that owns, leases, manages, acquires, finances, develops and redevelops income-producing real estate properties associated primarily with the delivery of outpatient healthcare services throughout the United States. The Company was incorporated in Maryland in 1992 and listed on the New York Stock Exchange in 1993.
The Company operates so as to qualify as a REIT for federal income tax purposes. As a REIT, the Company is not subject to corporate federal income tax with respect to taxable income distributed to its stockholders. See “Risk Factors” in Item 1A for a discussion of risks associated with qualifying as a REIT.
Real Estate Properties
The Company had gross investments of approximately $4.0 billion in 199 real estate properties, construction in progress, land held for development and corporate property as of December 31, 2018. The Company provided property management services for 155 healthcare-related properties nationwide, totaling approximately 11.2 million square feet as of December 31, 2018. The Company’s real estate property investments by geographic area are detailed in Note 2 to the Consolidated Financial Statements. The following table details the Company's owned properties by facility type as of December 31, 2018:
 
Gross Investment

 
Square Feet

 
Percentage of
Square Feet

 
December 31, 2018
(Dollars and square feet in thousands)
 
 
 
Number of Properties

 
Occupancy (1)

Medical office/outpatient
$
3,525,277

 
13,671

 
92.4
%
 
189

 
87.3
%
Inpatient
250,919

 
570

 
3.8
%
 
5

 
100.0
%
Office
134,621

 
558

 
3.8
%
 
5

 
85.9
%
Sub-Total
3,910,817

 
14,799

 
100.0
%
 
199

 
87.8
%
Construction in progress
33,107

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Land held for development
24,647

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Corporate property
5,500

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total
$
3,974,071

 


 
 
 


 
 
______
(1)
The occupancy column represents the percentage of total rentable square feet leased (including month-to-month and holdover leases), excluding one property classified as held for sale as of December 31, 2018.

Financial Concentrations
The Company’s real estate portfolio is leased to a diverse tenant base. For the year ended December 31, 2018, the Company did not have any tenants that accounted for 10% or more of the Company’s consolidated revenues. The largest revenue concentration is with Baylor Scott & White Health and its affiliates, which accounted for 9.3% of the Company's consolidated revenues, comprising 156 leases spread over 22 buildings.

See Note 2 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information regarding the Company's gross investments by geographic market.

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Table of Contents

Expiring Leases
As of December 31, 2018, the weighted average remaining years to expiration pursuant to the Company’s leases was approximately 3.9 years, with expirations through 2036. The table below details the Company’s lease expirations as of December 31, 2018, excluding one property classified as held for sale.
Expiration Year
 
Number of Leases

 
Leased Square Feet

 
Percentage of Leased Square Feet

2019 (1)
 
733

 
2,852,561

 
22.0
%
2020
 
485

 
1,899,982

 
14.6
%
2021
 
414

 
1,468,849

 
11.3
%
2022
 
316

 
1,396,595

 
10.8
%
2023
 
306

 
1,335,053

 
10.3
%
2024
 
167

 
943,981

 
7.3
%
2025
 
95

 
723,638

 
5.5
%
2026
 
70

 
226,921

 
1.7
%
2027
 
62

 
625,618

 
4.8
%
2028
 
93

 
755,676

 
5.8
%
Thereafter
 
77

 
761,529

 
5.9
%
 
 
2,818

 
12,990,403

 
100.0
%
______ 
(1)
Includes 59 leases totaling 160,749 square feet that expired prior to December 31, 2018 and are currently on month-to-month terms.

See "Trends and Matters Impacting Operating Results" as part of Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations included in Part II, Item 7 of this report for additional information regarding the Company's leases and leasing efforts.
Liquidity
The Company believes that its liquidity and sources of capital are adequate to satisfy its cash requirements. The Company expects to meet its liquidity needs through cash on hand, cash flows from operations, property dispositions, equity and debt issuances in the public or private markets and borrowings under commercial credit facilities.
Business Strategy
The Company owns and operates properties that facilitate the delivery of healthcare services in primarily outpatient settings. To execute its strategy, the Company engages in a broad spectrum of integrated services including leasing, management, acquisition, financing, development and redevelopment of such properties. The Company seeks to generate stable, growing income and lower the long-term risk profile of its portfolio of properties by focusing on facilities located on or near the campuses of acute care hospitals associated with leading health systems. The Company seeks to reduce financial and operational risk by owning properties in diverse geographic locations with a broad tenant mix that includes over 30 physician specialties, as well as surgery, imaging, cancer, and diagnostic centers.
2018 Investment Activity
During 2018, the Company acquired five medical office buildings, an additional suite in a previously acquired medical office building, and two office buildings for purchase prices totaling $111.5 million, inclusive of the assumption of a mortgage note payable of $8.0 million. The weighted average capitalization rate for these investments was 5.7%. The Company calculates the capitalization rate for an acquisition as the forecasted first year cash net operating income divided by the purchase price plus acquisition costs and expected first year capital expenditures.
The Company disposed of 16 properties during 2018 for a total sales price of $98.7 million. The weighted average capitalization rate for these 16 properties was 11.4%. The Company calculates the capitalization rate for dispositions as the in-place cash net operating income divided by the sales price.

In 2018, the Company funded $35.6 million toward development and redevelopment of properties. The Company had one redevelopment and one development under construction at December 31, 2018. In addition, the Company had one development and one redevelopment project that were in the process of stabilizing during 2018.


2


Table of Contents

See the Company's discussion regarding the 2018 acquisitions and dispositions activity in Note 4 to the Consolidated Financial Statements and development activity in Note 14 to the Consolidated Financial Statements. Also, please refer to the Company's discussion in "Trends and Matters Impacting Operating Results" as part of Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations included in Part II, Item 7 of this report.
Competition
The Company competes for the acquisition and development of real estate properties with private investors, healthcare providers, other REITs, real estate partnerships and financial institutions, among others. The business of acquiring and developing new healthcare facilities is highly competitive and is subject to price, construction and operating costs, and other competitive pressures. Some of the Company's competitors may have lower costs of capital.
The financial performance of all of the Company’s properties is subject to competition from similar properties. The extent to which the Company’s properties are utilized depends upon several factors, including the number of physicians using or referring patients to an associated healthcare facility, healthcare employment, competitive systems of healthcare delivery, and the area’s population, size and composition. Private, federal and state health insurance programs and other laws and regulations may also have an effect on the utilization of the properties. The Company’s properties operate in a competitive environment, and patients and referral sources, including physicians, may change their preferences for a healthcare facility from time to time.
Government Regulation
The facilities owned by the Company are utilized by medical tenants which are required to comply with extensive regulation at the federal, state and local levels, including the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively, the "Affordable Care Act"), the Bipartisan Act of 2015, the Medicare Access and CHIP Modernization Act of 2015, and laws intended to combat fraud and waste such as the Anti-Kickback Statute, Stark Law, False Claims Act and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996. These laws and regulations establish, among other things, requirements for state licensure and criteria for medical tenants to participate in government-sponsored reimbursement programs, including the Medicare and Medicaid programs. The Company's leases generally require the tenant to comply with all applicable laws relating to the tenant's use and occupation of the leased premises. Although lease payments to the Company are not directly affected by these laws and regulations, changes in these programs or the loss by a tenant of its license or ability to participate in government-sponsored reimbursement programs could have a material adverse effect on the tenant's ability to make lease payments to the Company.
The Medicare and Medicaid programs are highly regulated and subject to frequent evaluation and change. Government healthcare spending has increased over time; however, changes from year to year in reimbursement methodology, rates and other regulatory requirements may cause the profitability of providing care to Medicare and Medicaid patients to decline, which could adversely affect tenants' ability to make lease payments to the Company.
The Affordable Care Act was intended to provide for comprehensive reform of the United States' healthcare system and extend health insurance benefits to the uninsured population, with a mandate for individuals to purchase health coverage, and the potential to alleviate high uncompensated care expense to healthcare providers. However, the law also increased regulatory scrutiny of providers and insurers by federal and state administrative authorities; lowered annual increases in Medicare payment rates; and implemented cost-saving measures and shared risk-and-reward payment models to promote value and savings, rather than payment based solely on volume of services. These initiatives may slow the growth of healthcare spending over time, but also require providers to expand access and quality of care, presenting the industry and its individual participants with uncertainty and greater financial risk.
The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 eliminated the health insurance mandate penalty included in the Affordable Care Act. Subsequently, in 2018, a federal judge in Texas determined the Affordable Care Act could not be separated from the individual mandate and declared the Affordable Care Act no longer enforceable. The appeals process will ultimately determine the standing of the Affordable Care Act and its effect on healthcare providers, insurers and the level of the uninsured population. While the Affordable Care Act remains in effect pending the outcome of the appeals process, the ruling to overturn the law presents the industry and its individual participants with uncertainty and greater financial risk.
In 2018, President Trump's administration sought to decrease the Affordable Care Act's regulatory burden on healthcare providers and increase states' flexibility to offer short-term, basic insurance plans. These initiatives could affect the market for individual health insurance and, consequently, the demand for healthcare services. The Company cannot predict the degree to which any changes may affect indirectly the economic performance of the Company, or its tenants, positively or negatively.
The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services ("CMS") continued to adjust Medicare payment rates in 2018 for reimbursement “site-neutrality,” or equalizing Medicare rates for the same services provided across different facility-type settings. Section 603 of the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015 lowered Medicare rates effective January 1, 2017 for services

3


Table of Contents

provided in off-campus, provider-based outpatient departments to the same level of rates for physician-office settings. While these changes are expected to lessen reimbursement disparity between off-campus medical office and outpatient facilities, the Company’s medical office buildings that are located on hospital campuses could become more valuable as hospital tenants will keep their higher Medicare rates for on-campus outpatient services. However, the Company cannot predict the amount of benefit from these measures or if other federal health policy or regulation will ultimately require cuts to reimbursement rates for services provided in other facility-type settings. The Company cannot predict the degree to which these changes, or changes to federal healthcare programs in general, may affect the economic performance of some or all of the Company's tenants, positively or negatively.
In 2018, physicians were required to report patient data on quality and performance measures that will affect their Medicare payments for the year 2020. Implementation of the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015 (“MACRA”), unless amended in future legislation, will eventually replace the traditional fee-for-service payment model for physicians with a new value-based payment initiative. MACRA compliance, and the ongoing debate over the most effective payment system to use to promote value-based reimbursement, present the industry and its individual participants with uncertainty and financial risk. The Company cannot predict the degree to which any such changes may affect the economic performance of the Company's tenants or, indirectly, the Company.
Legislative Developments
Taxation of Dividends
The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 generally allows a deduction for individuals equal to 20% of certain income from pass-through entities, including ordinary dividends distributed by a REIT (excluding capital gain dividends and qualified dividend income). In addition, the deduction for ordinary REIT dividends is not subject to the wage and tax basis limitations applicable to the deduction for other qualifying pass-through income. The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 was a far-reaching and complex revision to the existing U.S. federal income tax laws and will require subsequent rulemaking and interpretation in a number of areas. As a result, the long-term impact of the Tax Reform Legislation cannot be reliably predicted. Further, many of the provisions of this act will expire in 2025, unless extended by legislative action.

Healthcare
Each year, legislative proposals for health policy are introduced in Congress and state legislatures, and regulatory changes are enacted by government agencies. These proposals, individually or in the aggregate, could significantly change the delivery of healthcare services, either nationally or at the state level, if implemented. Examples of significant legislation or regulatory action recently enacted or in the process of implementation include:
the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017, affects healthcare providers and health systems in a variety of ways, positively and negatively, including by limiting their ability to deduct interest on debt, denying deductions for and imposing an excise tax on the compensation in excess of $1 million of the five most highly-compensated employees of health systems, and eliminating, in 2019, the tax penalty for the Affordable Care Act’s individual health insurance mandate;
the expansion of Medicaid benefits and the implementation of health insurance exchanges under the Affordable Care Act, whether run by the state or by the federal government, whereby individuals and small businesses purchase health insurance, including government-funded plans, many assisted by federal subsidies that are subject to ongoing legal and legislative challenges;
quality control, cost containment, and value-based payment system reforms for Medicaid and Medicare, such as expansion of pay-for-performance criteria, bundled provider payments, accountable care organizations, increased patient cost-sharing, geographic payment variations, comparative effectiveness research, and lower payments for hospital readmissions;
implementation of MACRA, which, if not amended in future legislation, will eventually replace the traditional fee-for-service payment model for physicians with a new value-based payment initiative; the CMS exempted approximately two-thirds of physician practices from MACRA compliance in 2018;
equalization of Medicare payment rates across different facility-type settings; Section 603 of the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015 lowered Medicare payment rates, effective January 1, 2017, for services provided in off-campus, provider-based outpatient departments to the same level of rates for physician office settings;
the continued adoption by providers of federal standards for the meaningful-use of electronic health records;
anti-trust scrutiny of health insurance company mergers; and

4


Table of Contents

consideration of significant cost-saving overhauls of Medicare and Medicaid, including capped federal Medicaid payments to states, premium-support models to provide for a fixed amount of Medicare benefits per enrollee, and an increase in the eligibility age for Medicare.
The Company cannot predict whether any proposals will be fully implemented, adopted, repealed, or amended, or what effect, whether positive or negative, such proposals might have on the Company's business.
Environmental Matters
Under various federal, state and local environmental laws, ordinances and regulations, an owner of real property (such as the Company) may be liable for the costs of removal or remediation of certain hazardous or toxic substances at, under, or disposed of in connection with such property, as well as certain other potential costs (including government fines and injuries to persons and adjacent property) relating to hazardous or toxic substances. Most, if not all, of these laws, ordinances and regulations contain stringent enforcement provisions including, but not limited to, the authority to impose substantial administrative, civil, and criminal fines and penalties upon violators. Such laws often impose liability, without regard to whether the owner knew of, or was responsible for, the presence or disposal of such substances, and may be imposed on the owner in connection with the activities of a tenant or operator of the property. The cost of any required remediation, removal, fines or personal or property damages and the owner’s liability therefore could exceed the value of the property and/or the aggregate assets of the owner. In addition, the presence of such substances, or the failure to properly dispose of or remediate such substances, may adversely affect the owner’s ability to sell or lease such property or to borrow using such property as collateral. A property can also be negatively impacted either through physical contamination, or by virtue of an adverse effect on value, from contamination that has or may have emanated from other properties.
Operations of the properties owned, developed or managed by the Company are and will continue to be subject to numerous federal, state, and local environmental laws, ordinances and regulations, including those relating to the following: the generation, segregation, handling, packaging and disposal of medical wastes; air quality requirements related to operations of generators, incineration devices, or sterilization equipment; facility siting and construction; disposal of non-medical wastes and ash from incinerators; and underground storage tanks. Certain properties owned, developed or managed by the Company contain, and others may contain or at one time may have contained, underground storage tanks that are or were used to store waste oils, petroleum products or other hazardous substances. Such underground storage tanks can be the source of releases of hazardous or toxic materials. Operations of nuclear medicine departments at some properties also involve the use and handling, and subsequent disposal of, radioactive isotopes and similar materials, activities which are closely regulated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and state regulatory agencies. In addition, several of the Company's properties were built during the period that asbestos was commonly used in building construction and other such facilities may be acquired by the Company in the future. The presence of such materials could result in significant costs in the event that any asbestos-containing materials requiring immediate removal and/or encapsulation are located in or on any facilities or in the event of any future renovation activities.
The Company has had environmental site assessments conducted on substantially all of the properties that it currently owns. These site assessments are limited in scope and provide only an evaluation of potential environmental conditions associated with the property, not compliance assessments of ongoing operations. While it is the Company’s policy to seek indemnification from tenants relating to environmental liabilities or conditions, even where leases do contain such provisions, there can be no assurance that the tenant will be able to fulfill its indemnification obligations. In addition, the terms of the Company’s leases or financial support agreements do not give the Company control over the operational activities of its tenants or healthcare operators, nor will the Company monitor the tenants or healthcare operators with respect to environmental matters.
Insurance
The Company carries comprehensive liability insurance and property insurance covering its owned and managed properties, including those held under long-term ground leases. In addition, tenants under long-term single-tenant net leases are required to carry property insurance covering the Company’s interest in the buildings.
Employees
At December 31, 2018, the Company employed 277 people. The employees are not members of any labor union, and the Company considers its relations with its employees to be excellent.
Available Information
The Company makes available to the public free of charge through its Internet website the Company’s Proxy Statement, Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, as soon as reasonably practicable after the Company electronically files such reports with, or furnishes such reports to, the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC"). The Company’s Internet website address is www.healthcarerealty.com.

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Corporate Governance Principles
The Company has adopted Corporate Governance Principles relating to the conduct and operations of the Board of Directors. The Corporate Governance Principles are posted on the Company’s website (www.healthcarerealty.com) and are available in print to any stockholder who requests a copy.
Committee Charters
The Board of Directors has an Audit Committee, Compensation Committee, Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee and Executive Committee. The Board of Directors has adopted written charters for each committee, except for the Executive Committee, which are posted on the Company’s website (www.healthcarerealty.com) and are available in print to any stockholder who requests a copy.
Executive Officers
Information regarding the executive officers of the Company is set forth in Part III, Item 10 of this report and is incorporated herein by reference.
Item 1A. Risk Factors
The following are some of the risks and uncertainties that could negatively affect the Company’s consolidated financial condition, results of operations, business and prospects. These risk factors are grouped into three categories: risks relating to the Company’s business and operations; risks relating to the Company’s capital structure and financings; and risks arising from the Company’s status as a REIT and the regulatory environment in which it operates.

These risks, as well as the risks described in Item 1 under the headings “Competition,” “Government Regulation,” “Legislative Developments,” and “Environmental Matters,” and in Item 7 under the heading “Disclosure Regarding Forward-Looking Statements,” should be carefully considered before making an investment decision regarding the Company. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones facing the Company, and there may be additional risks that the Company does not presently know of or that the Company currently considers not likely to have a significant impact. If any of the events underlying the following risks actually occurred, the Company’s business, consolidated financial condition, operating results and cash flows, including distributions to the Company's stockholders, could suffer, and the trading price of its common stock could decline.
Risk relating to our business and operations
The Company's expected results may not be achieved.
The Company's expected results may not be achieved, and actual results may differ materially from expectations. This may be the result of various factors, including, but not limited to: changes in the economy; the availability and cost of capital at favorable rates; increases in property taxes, utilities, and other operating expenses; changes to facility-related healthcare regulations; changes in interest rates; competition for quality assets; negative developments in the operating results or financial condition of the Company's tenants, including, but not limited to, their ability to pay rent and repay loans; the Company's ability to reposition or sell facilities with profitable results; the Company's ability to re-lease space at similar rates as vacancies occur; the Company's ability to timely reinvest proceeds from the sale of assets at similar yields; government regulations affecting tenants' Medicare and Medicaid reimbursement rates and operational requirements; unanticipated difficulties and/or expenditures relating to future acquisitions and developments; changes in rules or practices governing the Company's financial reporting; and other legal and operational matters.
The Company may decide or may be required under purchase options to sell certain properties. The Company may not be able to reinvest the proceeds from sales at rates of return equal to the return received on the properties sold. Uncertain market conditions could result in the Company selling properties at unfavorable rates or at losses in the future.
The Company had approximately $117.1 million, or 2.9% of the Company’s real estate property investments, that were subject to purchase options held by lessees that were exercisable as of December 31, 2018 or could become exercisable in 2019. Other properties have purchase options that will become exercisable in future periods. Properties with options exercisable in 2019 produced aggregate net operating income of approximately $11.1 million in 2018. The exercise of these purchase options exposes the Company to reinvestment risk and a reduction in investment return. Certain properties subject to purchase options may be purchased at rates of return above the rates of return the Company expects to achieve with new investments. If the Company is unable to reinvest the sale proceeds at rates of return equal to the return received on the properties that are sold, it may experience a decline in lease revenues and profitability and a corresponding material adverse effect on the Company’s consolidated financial condition and results of operations.


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For more specific information concerning the Company’s purchase options, see “Purchase Options” in the “Trends and Matters Impacting Operating Results” as a part of Management's Discuss and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations included in Part II, Item 7 of this report.
The Company’s revenues depend on the ability of its tenants under its leases to generate sufficient income from their operations to make rental payments to the Company.
The Company’s revenues are subject to the financial strength of its tenants and associated health systems. The Company has no operational control over the business of these tenants and associated health systems who face a wide range of economic, competitive, government reimbursement and regulatory pressures and constraints. Any slowdown in the economy, decline in the availability of financing from the capital markets, and changes in healthcare regulations may adversely affect the businesses of the Company’s tenants to varying degrees. Such conditions may further impact such tenants’ abilities to meet their obligations to the Company and, in certain cases, could lead to restructurings, disruptions, or bankruptcies of such tenants. In turn, these conditions could adversely affect the Company’s revenues and could increase allowances for losses and result in impairment charges, which could decrease net income attributable to common stockholders and equity, and reduce cash flows from operations.
Owning real estate and indirect interests in real estate is subject to inherent risks.
The Company’s operating performance and the value of its real estate assets are subject to the risk that if its properties do not generate revenues sufficient to meet its operating expenses, including debt service, the Company’s cash flow and ability to pay dividends to stockholders will be adversely affected.
The Company may incur impairment charges on its real estate properties or other assets.
The Company performs an impairment review on its real estate properties every year. In addition, the Company assesses the potential for impairment of identifiable intangible assets and long-lived assets, including real estate properties, whenever events occur or a change in circumstances indicates that the recorded value might not be fully recoverable. The decision to sell a property also requires the Company to assess the potential for impairment. At some future date, the Company may determine that an impairment has occurred in the value of one or more of its real estate properties or other assets. In such an event, the Company may be required to recognize an impairment which could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s consolidated financial condition and results of operations.
If the Company is unable to promptly re-let its properties, if the rates upon such re-letting are significantly lower than the previous rates or if the Company is required to undertake significant expenditures or make significant leasing concessions to attract new tenants, then the Company’s business, consolidated financial condition and results of operations would be adversely affected.
A portion of the Company’s leases will expire over the course of any year. For more specific information concerning the Company’s expiring leases, see "Multi-Tenant Leases" and "Single-Tenant Net Leases" in the "Trends and Matters Impacting Operating Results" as part of Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations included in Part II, Item 7 of this report. The Company may not be able to re-let space on terms that are favorable to the Company or at all. Further, the Company may be required to make significant capital expenditures to renovate or reconfigure space or make significant leasing concessions to attract new tenants. If unable to promptly re-let its properties, if the rates upon such re-letting are significantly lower than the previous rates, or if the Company is required to undertake significant capital expenditures in connection with re-letting units, the Company’s business, consolidated financial condition and results of operations.
Certain of the Company’s properties are special purpose healthcare facilities and may not be easily adaptable to other uses.
Some of the Company’s properties are specialized medical facilities. If the Company or the Company’s tenants terminate the leases for these properties or the Company’s tenants lose their regulatory authority to operate such properties, the Company may not be able to locate suitable replacement tenants to lease the properties for their specialized uses. Alternatively, the Company may be required to spend substantial amounts to adapt the properties to other uses. Any loss of revenues and/or additional capital expenditures occurring as a result may have a material adverse effect on the Company’s consolidated financial condition and results of operations.
The Company has, and in the future may have more, exposure to fixed rent escalators, which could lag behind inflation and the growth in operating expenses such as real estate taxes, utilities, insurance, and maintenance expense.
The Company receives a significant portion of its revenues by leasing assets subject to fixed rent escalations. Eighty-eight percent of leases have increases that are based upon fixed percentages, eleven percent of leases have increases based on the Consumer Price Index and one percent have no increase. If the fixed percentage increases begin to lag behind inflation and operating expense growth, the Company's performance, growth, and profitability would be negatively impacted.

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The Company’s real estate investments are illiquid and the Company may not be able to sell properties strategically targeted for disposition.
Because real estate investments are relatively illiquid, the Company’s ability to adjust its portfolio promptly in response to economic or other conditions is limited. Certain significant expenditures generally do not change in response to economic or other conditions, including debt service (if any), real estate taxes, and operating and maintenance costs. This combination of variable revenue and relatively fixed expenditures may result in reduced earnings and could have an adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition. In addition, the Company may not be able to sell properties targeted for disposition, including properties held for sale, due to adverse market conditions. This may negatively affect, among other things, the Company’s ability to sell properties on favorable terms, execute its operating strategy, repay debt, or pay dividends.
The Company is subject to risks associated with the development and redevelopment of properties.
The Company expects development and redevelopment of properties will continue to be a key component of its growth plans. The Company is subject to certain risks associated with the development and redevelopment of properties including the following:
The construction of properties generally requires various government and other approvals that may not be received when expected, or at all, which could delay or preclude commencement of construction;

Opportunities that the Company pursued but later abandoned could result in the expensing of pursuit costs, which could impact the Company’s consolidated results of operations;

Construction costs could exceed original estimates, which could impact the building’s profitability to the Company;

Operating expenses could be higher than forecasted;

Time required to initiate and complete the construction of a property and to lease up a completed property may be greater than originally anticipated, thereby adversely affecting the Company’s cash flow and liquidity;

Occupancy rates and rents of a completed development property may not be sufficient to make the property profitable to the Company; and

Favorable capital sources to fund the Company’s development and redevelopment activities may not be available when needed.
The Company may make material acquisitions and undertake developments and redevelopments that may involve the expenditure of significant funds and may not perform in accordance with management’s expectations.
The Company regularly pursues potential transactions to acquire, develop or redevelop real estate assets. Future acquisitions could require the Company to issue equity securities, incur debt or other contingent liabilities or amortize expenses related to other intangible assets, any of which could adversely impact the Company’s consolidated financial condition or results of operations. In addition, equity or debt financing required for such acquisitions may not be available at favorable times or rates.
The Company’s acquired, developed, redeveloped and existing real estate properties may not perform in accordance with management’s expectations because of many factors including the following:
The Company’s purchase price for acquired facilities may be based upon a series of market or building-specific judgments which may be incorrect;

The costs of any maintenance or improvements for properties might exceed estimated costs;

The Company may incur unexpected costs in the acquisition, construction or maintenance of real estate assets that could impact its expected returns on such assets; and

Leasing may not occur at all, within expected time frames or at expected rental rates.
Further, the Company can give no assurance that acquisition, development and redevelopment opportunities that meet management’s investment criteria will be available when needed or anticipated.
The Company is exposed to risks associated with geographic concentration.
As of December 31, 2018, the Company had investment concentrations of greater than 5% of its total investments in the Dallas, Texas (12.1%) and Seattle, Washington (11.8%) markets. These concentrations increase the exposure to adverse conditions that

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might affect these markets, including natural disasters, local economic conditions, local real estate market conditions, increased competition, state and local regulation, including property taxes, and other localized events or conditions.
Many of the Company’s leases are dependent on the viability of associated health systems. Revenue concentrations relating to these leases expose the Company to risks related to the financial condition of the associated health systems.
The Company’s revenue concentrations with tenants are diversified, with the largest revenue concentration relating to Baylor Scott & White Health and its affiliates, which accounted for 9.3% of the Company's consolidated revenues.
Most of the Company’s properties on or adjacent to hospital campuses are largely dependent on the viability of the health system’s campus where they are located, whether or not the hospital or health system is a tenant in such properties. The viability of these health systems depends on factors such as the quality and mix of healthcare services provided, competition, demographic trends in the surrounding community, market position and growth potential. If one of these hospitals is unable to meet its financial obligations, is unable to compete successfully, or is forced to close or relocate, the Company’s properties on or near such hospital campus could be adversely impacted.
Many of the Company’s properties are held under ground leases. These ground leases contain provisions that may limit the Company’s ability to lease, sell, or finance these properties.
As of December 31, 2018, the Company had 107 properties that were held under ground leases, including one property with construction in progress, representing an aggregate gross investment of approximately $2.1 billion. The weighted average remaining term of the Company's ground leases is approximately 67.9 years, including renewal options. The Company’s ground lease agreements with hospitals and health systems typically contain restrictions that limit building occupancy to physicians on the medical staff of an affiliated hospital and prohibit tenants from providing services that compete with the services provided by the affiliated hospital. Ground leases may also contain consent requirements or other restrictions on sale or assignment of the Company’s leasehold interest, including rights of first offer and first refusal in favor of the lessor. These ground lease provisions may limit the Company’s ability to lease, sell, or obtain mortgage financing secured by such properties which, in turn, could adversely affect the income from operations or the proceeds received from a sale. As a ground lessee, the Company is also exposed to the risk of reversion of the property upon expiration of the ground lease term, or an earlier breach by the Company of the ground lease, which may have a material adverse effect on the Company’s consolidated financial condition and results of operations.
The Company may experience uninsured or underinsured losses.
The Company carries comprehensive liability insurance and property insurance covering its owned and managed properties. In addition, tenants under single-tenant net leases are required to carry property insurance covering the Company’s interest in the buildings. Some types of losses may be uninsurable or too expensive to insure against. Insurance companies limit or exclude coverage against certain types of losses, such as losses due to named windstorms, terrorist acts, earthquakes, and toxic mold. Accordingly, the Company may not have sufficient insurance coverage against certain types of losses and may experience decreases in the insurance coverage available. Should an uninsured loss or a loss in excess of insured limits occur, the Company could lose all or a portion of the capital it has invested in a property, as well as the anticipated future revenue from the property. In such an event, the Company might remain obligated for any mortgage debt or other financial obligation related to the property. Further, if any of the Company's insurance carriers were to become insolvent, the Company would be forced to replace the existing coverage with another suitable carrier, and any outstanding claims would be at risk for collection. In such an event, the Company cannot be certain that the Company would be able to replace the coverage at similar or otherwise favorable terms.
The Company has obtained title insurance policies for each of its properties, typically in an amount equal to its original price. However, these policies may be for amounts less than the current or future values of our properties. In such an event, if there is a title defect relating to any of the Company's properties, it could lose some of the capital invested in and anticipated profits from such property. The Company cannot give assurance that material losses in excess of insurance proceeds will not occur in the future.
The Company faces risks associated with security breaches through cyber attacks, cyber intrusions, or otherwise, as well as other significant disruptions of its information technology networks and related systems.
The Company faces risks associated with security breaches, whether through cyber attacks or cyber intrusions over the Internet, malware, computer viruses, attachments to emails, persons inside the Company, or persons with access to systems inside the Company, and other significant disruptions of the Company's information technology ("IT") networks and related systems. The risk of a security breach or disruption, particularly through cyber attack or cyber intrusion, including by computer hackers, foreign governments and cyber terrorists, has generally increased as the number, intensity, and sophistication of attempted attacks and intrusions from around the world have increased. The Company's IT networks and related systems are essential to the operation of its business and its ability to perform day-to-day operations (including managing building systems) and, in some cases, may be critical to the operations of certain of our tenants. Although the Company makes efforts to maintain the security and integrity of these types of IT networks and related systems, and we have implemented various measures to manage

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the risk of a security breach or disruption, there can be no assurance that these security measures will be effective or that attempted security breaches or disruptions would not be successful or damaging. Even the most well protected information, networks, systems, and facilities remain potentially vulnerable because the techniques used in such attempted security breaches evolve and generally are not recognized until launched against a target, and in some cases are designed not to be detected and may not be detected. Accordingly, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate security barriers or other preventative measures, and it is therefore impossible to entirely mitigate the risk.
A security breach or other significant disruption involving the Company's IT network and related systems could:
disrupt the proper functioning of the Company's networks and systems and therefore the Company's operations and/or those of certain tenants;
result in misstated financial reports, violations of loan covenants, missed reporting deadlines, and/or missed permitting deadlines;
result in the Company's inability to properly monitor its compliance with the rules and regulations regarding the Company's qualification as a REIT;
result in the unauthorized access to, and destruction, loss, theft, misappropriation or release of proprietary, confidential, sensitive, or otherwise valuable information of the Company or others, which others could use to compete against the Company or which could expose it to damage claims by third-parties for disruption, destructive, or otherwise harmful purposes or outcomes;
result in the Company's inability to maintain the building systems relied upon by the its tenants for the efficient use of their leased space;
require significant management attention and resources to remedy any damages that result;
subject the Company to claims for breach of contract, damages, credits, penalties, or termination of leases or other agreements; or
damage the Company's reputation among its tenants and investors generally.

Any or all of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on the Company's consolidated financial condition and results of operations.
United States government tenants may not receive annual budget appropriations, which could adversely affect their ability to pay the Company. 
The Company may lease to United States government tenants from time to time. Such tenants may be subject to annual budget appropriations. If a United States government tenant fails to receive its annual budget appropriation, it might not be able to make its lease payments to the Company. In addition, defaults under leases with federal government tenants are governed by federal statute and not by state eviction or rent deficiency laws. Leases with United States government tenants typically provide that the government tenant may terminate the lease under certain circumstances. As of December 31, 2018, the Company had one lease with a United States government tenant which accounted for approximately 0.3% of the Company’s total annualized cash net operating income.
Risks relating to our capital structure and financings
The Company has incurred significant debt obligations and may incur additional debt and increase leverage in the future.
As of December 31, 2018, the Company had approximately $1.4 billion of outstanding indebtedness, excluding discounts, premiums and debt issuance costs. Covenants under the Credit Agreement, dated as of October 14, 2011, among the Company and Wells Fargo Bank, National Association, as Administrative Agent, and the other lenders that are party thereto, as amended (“Unsecured Credit Facility”), the Term Loan Agreement, dated as of February 27, 2014, among the Company, Wells Fargo Bank, National Association, as Administrative Agent, and the other lenders that are party thereto, as amended (the “Unsecured Term Loan due 2022”) and the indentures governing the Company’s senior notes permit the Company to incur substantial, additional debt, and the Company may borrow additional funds, which may include secured borrowings. A high level of indebtedness would require the Company to dedicate a substantial portion of its cash flows from operations to service the debt, thereby reducing the funds available to implement the Company’s business strategy and to make distributions to stockholders. A high level of indebtedness could also:
limit the Company’s ability to adjust rapidly to changing market conditions in the event of a downturn in general economic conditions or in the real estate and/or healthcare industries;

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impair the Company’s ability to obtain additional debt financing or require potentially dilutive equity to fund obligations and carry out its business strategy; and
result in a downgrade of the rating of the Company’s debt securities by one or more rating agencies, which would increase the costs of borrowing under the Unsecured Credit Facility and the cost of issuance of new debt securities, among other things.
In addition, from time to time, the Company secures or assumes mortgages to partially fund its investments. If the Company is unable to meet its mortgage payments, then the encumbered properties could be foreclosed upon or transferred to the mortgagee with a consequent loss of income and asset value. A foreclosure on one or more of the Company's properties could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s consolidated financial condition and results of operations.
The Company generally does not intend to reserve funds to retire existing debt upon maturity. The Company may not be able to repay, refinance, or extend any or all of our debt at maturity or upon any acceleration. If any refinancing is done at higher interest rates, the increased interest expense could adversely affect the Company's financial condition and results of operations. Any such refinancing could also impose tighter financial ratios and other covenants that restrict the Company's ability to take actions that could otherwise be in its best interest, such as funding new development activity, making opportunistic acquisitions, or paying dividends.
Covenants in the Company’s debt instruments limit its operational flexibility, and a breach of these covenants could materially affect the Company’s consolidated financial condition and results of operations.
The terms of the Unsecured Credit Facility, the Unsecured Term Loan due 2022, the indentures governing the Company’s outstanding senior notes and other debt instruments that the Company may enter into in the future are subject to customary financial and operational covenants. These provisions include, among other things: a limitation on the incurrence of additional indebtedness; limitations on mergers, investments, acquisitions, redemptions of capital stock, and transactions with affiliates; and maintenance of specified financial ratios. The Company’s continued ability to incur debt and operate its business is subject to compliance with these covenants, which limit operational flexibility. Breaches of these covenants could result in defaults under applicable debt instruments, even if payment obligations are satisfied. Financial and other covenants that limit the Company’s operational flexibility, as well as defaults resulting from a breach of any of these covenants in its debt instruments, could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s consolidated financial condition and results of operations.
A change to the Company’s current dividend payment may have an adverse effect on the market price of the Company’s common stock.
The ability of the Company to pay dividends is dependent upon its ability to maintain funds from operations and cash flow, to make accretive new investments and to access capital. There can be no assurance that the Company will continue to pay dividends at current amounts, or at all. A failure to maintain dividend payments at current levels could result in a reduction of the market price of the Company’s common stock.
If lenders under the Unsecured Credit Facility fail to meet their funding commitments, the Company’s operations and consolidated financial position would be negatively impacted.
Access to external capital on favorable terms is critical to the Company’s success in growing and maintaining its portfolio. If financial institutions within the Unsecured Credit Facility were unwilling or unable to meet their respective funding commitments to the Company, any such failure would have a negative impact on the Company’s operations, consolidated financial condition and ability to meet its obligations, including the payment of dividends to stockholders.
The unavailability of equity and debt capital, volatility in the credit markets, increases in interest rates, or changes in the Company’s debt ratings could have an adverse effect on the Company’s ability to meet its debt payments, make dividend payments to stockholders or engage in acquisition and development activity.
A REIT is required by the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Internal Revenue Code”), to make dividend distributions, thereby retaining less of its capital for growth. As a result, a REIT typically requires new capital to invest in real estate assets. However, there may be times when the Company will have limited access to capital from the equity and/or debt markets. Changes in the Company’s debt ratings could have a material adverse effect on its interest costs and financing sources. The Company’s debt rating can be materially influenced by a number of factors including, but not limited to, acquisitions, investment decisions, and capital management activities. In recent years, the capital and credit markets have experienced volatility and at times have limited the availability of funds. The Company’s ability to access the capital and credit markets may be limited by these or other factors, which could have an impact on its ability to refinance maturing debt, fund dividend payments and operations, acquire healthcare properties and complete development and redevelopment projects. If the Company is unable to refinance or extend principal payments due at maturity of its various debt instruments, its cash flow may not be sufficient to repay maturing debt and, consequently, make dividend payments to stockholders. If the Company defaults in paying any of its debts or satisfying its debt covenants, it could experience cross-defaults among debt instruments, the debts could be accelerated and the Company could be forced to liquidate assets for less than the values it would otherwise receive.

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Further, the Company obtains credit ratings from various credit-rating agencies based on their evaluation of the Company's credit. These agencies' ratings are based on a number of factors, some of which are not within the Company's control. In addition to factors specific to the Company's financial strength and performance, the rating agencies also consider conditions affecting REITs generally. The Company cannot assure you that its credit ratings will not be downgraded. If the Company's credit ratings are downgraded or other negative action is taken, the Company could be required, among other things, to pay additional interest and fees on borrowings under the Unsecured Credit Facility and Unsecured Term Loan due 2022.
The Company is exposed to increases in interest rates, changes to the method that LIBOR rates are determined, and the potential phasing out of LIBOR. Such changes could adversely impact the Company's ability to refinance existing debt, sell assets or engage in acquisition and development activity.
The Company receives a significant portion of its revenues by leasing its assets under long-term leases in which the rental rate is generally fixed, subject to annual rent escalators. A significant portion of the Company’s debt may be subject to floating rates, based on LIBOR or other indices. LIBOR and other interest benchmarks may be subject to regulatory reform that could cause fluctuations in interest rates under the Company's debt agreements that are unanticipated. The United Kingdom's Financial Conduct Authority, which regulates LIBOR, has announced that it intends to stop encouraging or requiring banks to submit rates for the calculation of LIBOR rates after 2021. It is unclear whether LIBOR will cease to exist or if new methods of calculating it will develop. The Company's existing and future debt agreements that are based on LIBOR could be adversely affected by such changes.
In addition, the generally fixed nature of revenues and the variable rate of certain debt obligations create interest rate risk for the Company. Increases in interest rates could make the financing of any acquisition or investment activity more costly. Rising interest rates would increase the cost of borrowing under the Unsecured Credit Facility and the Unsecured Term Loan due 2022, could limit the Company’s ability to refinance existing debt when it matures or cause the Company to pay higher rates upon refinancing. An increase in interest rates also could have the effect of reducing the amounts that third parties might be willing to pay for real estate assets, which could limit the Company’s ability to sell assets at times when it might be advantageous to do so.
The Company's swap agreements may not effectively reduce its exposure to changes in interest rates. 
The Company enters into swap agreements from time to time to manage some of its exposure to interest rate volatility. These swap agreements involve risks, such as the risk that counterparties may fail to honor their obligations under these arrangements. In addition, these arrangements may not be effective in reducing the Company’s exposure to changes in interest rates. When the Company uses forward-starting interest rate swaps, there is a risk that it will not complete the long-term borrowing against which the swap is intended to hedge. If such events occur, the Company’s consolidated financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected. See Note 10 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information on the Company's interest rate swaps.
Risks relating to government regulations
If a healthcare tenant loses its licensure or certification, becomes unable to provide healthcare services, cannot meet its financial obligations to the Company or otherwise vacates a facility, the Company would have to obtain another tenant for the affected facility.
If the Company loses a tenant or sponsoring health system because such tenant loses its license or certification, becomes unable to provide healthcare services, cannot meet its financial obligations to the Company or otherwise vacates a facility, and the Company is unable to attract another healthcare provider on a timely basis and on acceptable terms, the Company’s cash flows and results of operations could suffer. Transfers of operations of healthcare facilities are often subject to regulatory approvals not required for transfers of other types of commercial operations and real estate.
Adverse trends in the healthcare service industry may negatively affect the Company’s lease revenues and the values of its investments.
The healthcare service industry may be affected by the following:

trends in the method of delivery of healthcare services;

competition among healthcare providers;

consolidation among healthcare providers, health insurers, hospitals and health systems;

lower reimbursement rates from government and commercial payors, high uncompensated care expense, investment losses and limited admissions growth pressuring operating profit margins for healthcare providers;

availability of capital;

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credit downgrades;

liability insurance expense;

pharmaceutical drug expense;

regulatory and government reimbursement uncertainty resulting from the Affordable Care Act and other healthcare reform laws;

efforts to repeal, replace or modify the Affordable Care Act in whole or in part;

health reform initiatives to address healthcare costs through expanded value-based purchasing programs, bundled provider payments, health insurance exchanges, increased patient cost-sharing, geographic payment variations, comparative effectiveness research, lower payments for hospital readmissions, and shared risk-and-reward payment models such as accountable care organizations;

federal court decisions on cases challenging the legality of the Affordable Care Act, in whole or in part;

federal and state government plans to reduce budget deficits and address debt ceiling limits by lowering healthcare provider Medicare and Medicaid payment rates;

equalizing Medicare payment rates across different settings;

heightened health information technology security standards and the meaningful use of electronic health records by healthcare providers; and

potential tax law changes affecting providers.

These changes, among others, can adversely affect the economic performance of some or all of the tenants and sponsoring health systems who provide financial support to the Company’s investments and, in turn, negatively affect the lease revenues and the value of the Company’s property investments.
The costs of complying with governmental laws and regulations may adversely affect the Company's results of operations.
All real property and the operations conducted on real property are subject to federal, state, and local laws and regulations relating to environmental protection and human health and safety. Some of these laws and regulations may impose joint and several liability on tenants, owners, or operators for the costs to investigate or remediate contaminated properties, regardless of fault or whether the acts causing the contamination were legal. In addition, the presence of hazardous substances, or the failure to properly remediate these substances, may hinder the Company's ability to sell, rent, or pledge such property as collateral for future borrowings.

Compliance with new laws or regulations or stricter interpretation of existing laws may require the Company to incur significant expenditures. Future laws or regulations may impose significant environmental liability. Additionally, tenant or other operations in the vicinity of the Company's properties, such as the presence of underground storage tanks, or activities of unrelated third parties may affect the Company's properties. In addition, there are various local, state, and federal fire, health, life-safety, and similar regulations with which the Company may be required to comply and that may subject us to liability in the form of fines or damages for noncompliance. Any expenditures, fines, or damages that the Company must pay would adversely affect its results of operations. Proposed legislation to address climate change could increase utility and other costs of operating the Company's properties.

Discovery of previously undetected environmentally hazardous conditions may adversely affect the Company's financial condition and results of operations. Under various federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations, a current or previous property owner or operator may be liable for the cost to remove or remediate hazardous or toxic substances on such property. These costs could be significant. Such laws often impose liability whether or not the owner or operator knew of, or was responsible for, the presence of such hazardous or toxic substances. Environmental laws also may impose restrictions on the manner in which property may be used or businesses may be operated, and these restrictions may require significant expenditures or prevent the Company from entering into leases with prospective tenants that may be impacted by such laws. Environmental laws provide for sanctions for noncompliance and may be enforced by governmental agencies or private parties.

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Certain environmental laws and common law principles could be used to impose liability for release of and exposure to hazardous substances, including asbestos-containing materials. Third parties may seek recovery from real property owners or operators for personal injury or property damage associated with exposure to released hazardous substances. The cost of defending against claims of liability, of complying with environmental regulatory requirements, of remediating any contaminated property, or of paying personal injury claims could adversely affect the Company's financial condition and results of operations.
If the Company fails to remain qualified as a REIT, the Company will be subject to significant adverse consequences, including adversely affecting the value of its common stock.
The Company intends to operate in a manner that will allow it to continue to qualify as a REIT for federal income tax purposes. Although the Company believes that it qualifies as a REIT, it cannot provide any assurance that it will continue to qualify as a REIT for federal income tax purposes. The Company’s continued qualification as a REIT will depend on the satisfaction of certain asset, income, organizational, distribution, stockholder ownership and other requirements on a continuing basis. The Company’s ability to satisfy the asset tests depends upon the characterization and fair market values of its assets. The Company’s compliance with the REIT income and quarterly asset requirements also depends upon the Company’s ability to successfully manage the composition of the Company’s income and assets on an ongoing basis. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) will not contend that the Company has operated in a manner that violates any of the REIT requirements.

If the Company were to fail to qualify as a REIT in any taxable year, the Company would be subject to federal income tax on its taxable income at regular corporate rates and possibly increased state and local taxes (and the Company might need to borrow money or sell assets in order to pay any such tax). Further, dividends paid to the Company’s stockholders would not be deductible by the Company in computing its taxable income. Any resulting corporate tax liability could be substantial and would reduce the amount of cash available for distribution to the Company’s stockholders, which in turn could have an adverse impact on the value of, and trading prices for, the Company’s common stock. In addition, in such event the Company would no longer be required to pay dividends to maintain REIT status, which could adversely affect the value of the Company’s common stock. Unless the Company were entitled to relief under certain provisions of the Internal Revenue Code, the Company also would continue to be disqualified from taxation as a REIT for the four taxable years following the year in which the Company failed to qualify as a REIT.

Even if the Company remains qualified for taxation as a REIT, the Company is subject to certain federal, state and local taxes on its income and assets, including taxes on any undistributed taxable income, and state or local income, franchise, property and transfer taxes. These tax liabilities would reduce the Company’s cash flow and could adversely affect the value of the Company’s common stock. For more specific information on state income taxes paid, see Note 15 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
The Company’s Articles of Incorporation, as well as provisions of Maryland general corporation law, contain limits and restrictions on transferability of the Company’s common stock which may have adverse effects on the value of the Company’s common stock.
In order to qualify as a REIT, no more than 50% of the value of the Company’s outstanding shares may be owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer individuals (as defined in the Internal Revenue Code to include certain entities) during the last half of a taxable year. To assist in complying with this REIT requirement, the Company’s Articles of Incorporation contain provisions restricting share transfers where the transferee would, after such transfer, own more than 9.9% either in number or value of the outstanding stock of the Company. If, despite this prohibition, stock is acquired increasing a transferee’s ownership to over 9.9% in value of the outstanding stock, the stock in excess of this 9.9% in value is deemed to be held in trust for transfer at a price that does not exceed what the purported transferee paid for the stock, and, while held in trust, the stock is not entitled to receive dividends or to vote. In addition, under these circumstances, the Company has the right to redeem such stock.
In addition, provisions of Maryland general corporation law may have anti-takeover effects that delay, defer or prevent a takeover attempt. These provisions include the following:
Preferred Stock. The Company's charter authorizes the board of directors to issue preferred stock in one or more classes and establish the preferences and rights of any class of preferred stock issued. These actions can be taken without stockholder approval. The issuance of preferred stock could have the effect of delaying or preventing someone from taking control of the Company.
Business combinations. Pursuant to the Maryland law, the Company cannot merge into or consolidate with another corporation or enter into a statutory share exchange transaction in which the Company is not the surviving entity or sell all or substantially all of its assets unless the board of directors adopts a resolution declaring the proposed transaction advisable and two-thirds of the stockholders voting together as a single class approve the transaction.

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Maryland law prohibits stockholders from taking action by written consent unless all stockholders consent in writing. The practical effect of this limitation is that any action required or permitted to be taken by the Company's stockholders may only be taken if it is properly brought before an annual or special meeting of stockholders. The Company's bylaws further provide that in order for a stockholder to properly bring any matter before a meeting, the stockholder must comply with requirements regarding advance notice. The foregoing provisions could have the effect of delaying until the next annual meeting stockholder actions that the holders of a majority of the Company's outstanding voting securities favor. These provisions may also discourage another person from making a tender offer for the Company's common stock, because such person or entity, even if it acquired a majority of the Company's outstanding voting securities, would likely be able to take action as a stockholder, such as electing new directors or approving a merger, only at a duly called stockholders meeting. Maryland law also establishes special requirements with respect to business combinations between Maryland corporations and interested stockholders unless exemptions apply. Among other things, the law prohibits for five years a merger and other similar transactions between a corporation and an interested stockholder and requires a supermajority vote for such transactions after the end of the five-year period.
Control share acquisitions. Maryland general corporation law also provides that control shares of a Maryland corporation acquired in a control share acquisition have no voting rights except to the extent approved by a vote of two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter, excluding shares owned by the acquirer or by officers or employee directors. The control share acquisition statute does not apply to shares acquired in a merger, consolidation or share exchange if the corporation is a party to the transaction, or to acquisitions approved or exempted by the corporation's charter or bylaws.
Maryland unsolicited takeover statute. Under Maryland law, the Company's board of directors could adopt various anti-takeover provisions without the consent of stockholders. The adoption of such measures could discourage offers for the Company or make an acquisition of the Company more difficult. On February 12, 2019, the Company opted out of the provision of this statute that permits the board to classify without shareholder vote. As such, the Company's board could not classify into multiple classes without stockholders' approval.

These restrictions on transfer of the Company’s shares could have adverse effects on the value of the Company’s common stock.
Complying with the REIT requirements may cause the Company to forego otherwise attractive opportunities.
To qualify as a REIT for federal income tax purposes, the Company must continually satisfy tests concerning, among other things, the sources of its income, the nature of its assets, the amounts it distributes to its stockholders and the ownership of its stock. The Company may be unable to pursue investments that would be otherwise advantageous to the Company in order to satisfy the source-of-income or distribution requirements for qualifying as a REIT. Thus, compliance with the REIT requirements may hinder the Company’s ability to make certain attractive investments.
The prohibited transactions tax may limit the Company's ability to sell properties.
A REIT's net income from prohibited transactions is subject to a 100% tax. In general, prohibited transactions are sales or other dispositions of property held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business. The Company may be subject to the prohibited transaction tax equal to 100% of net gain upon a disposition of real property. Although a safe harbor to the characterization of the sale of real property by a REIT as a prohibited transaction is available, the Company cannot assure you that it can in all cases comply with the safe harbor or that it will avoid owning property that may be characterized as held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business. Consequently, the Company may choose not to engage in certain sales of its properties or may conduct such sales through a taxable REIT subsidiary, which would be subject to federal and state income taxation.
Qualifying as a REIT involves highly technical and complex provisions of the Internal Revenue Code.
Qualification as a REIT involves the application of highly technical and complex provisions of the Internal Revenue Code for which only limited judicial and administrative authorities exist. Even a technical or inadvertent violation could jeopardize the Company’s REIT qualification. The Company’s continued qualification as a REIT will depend on the Company’s satisfaction of certain asset, income, organizational, distribution, stockholder ownership and other requirements on a continuing basis. In addition, the Company’s ability to satisfy the requirements to qualify as a REIT depends in part on the actions of third parties over which the Company has no control or only limited influence, including in cases where the Company owns an equity interest in an entity that is classified as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

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New legislation or administrative or judicial action, in each instance potentially with retroactive effect, could make it more difficult or impossible for the Company to qualify as a REIT.
The present federal income tax treatment of REITs may be modified, possibly with retroactive effect, by legislative, judicial or administrative action at any time, which could affect the federal income tax treatment of an investment in the Company. The federal income tax rules that affect REITs are constantly under review by persons involved in the legislative process, the IRS and the U.S. Treasury Department, which results in statutory changes as well as frequent revisions to regulations and interpretations. Revisions in federal tax laws and interpretations thereof could cause the Company to change its investments and commitments and affect the tax considerations of an investment in the Company. There can be no assurance that new legislation, regulations, administrative interpretations or court decisions will not change the tax laws significantly with respect to the Company’s qualification as a REIT or with respect to the federal income tax consequences of qualification.
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
None. 
Item 2. Properties
In addition to the properties described in Item 1. “Business,” in Note 2 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, and in Schedule III of Item 15 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, the Company leases office space from unrelated third parties from time to time. The Company’s base rent for 2018 was approximately $1.0 million for office space leases, including its Corporate Headquarters located at 3310 West End Avenue in Nashville, Tennessee. The Company acquired the property where the Corporate Headquarters is located in December 2018.
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
The Company is not aware of any pending or threatened litigation that, if resolved against the Company, would have a material adverse effect on the Company's consolidated financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.

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PART II
Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Shares of the Company’s common stock are traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “HR.” At December 31, 2018, there were 1,005 stockholders of record.
Future dividends will be declared and paid at the discretion of the Board of Directors. The Company’s ability to pay dividends is dependent upon its ability to generate funds from operations and cash flows, and to make accretive new investments.
Equity Compensation Plan Information
The following table provides information as of December 31, 2018 about the Company’s common stock that may be issued as restricted stock and upon the exercise of options, warrants and rights under all of the Company’s existing compensation plans, including the 2015 Stock Incentive Plan and the 2000 Employee Stock Purchase Plan.
 
Plan Category
 
Number of Securities to be
Issued upon Exercise of
Outstanding Options,
Warrants and Rights (1)

 
Weighted Average
Exercise Price of
Outstanding Options,
Warrants and Rights (1)

 
Number of Securities
Remaining Available for
Future Issuance Under
Equity Compensation Plans
(Excluding Securities
Reflected in the First
Column)

Equity compensation plans approved by security holders
 
328,533

 

 
1,788,760

Equity compensation plans not approved by security holders
 

 

 

Total
 
328,533

 

 
1,788,760

______
(1)
The outstanding options relate only to the 2000 Employee Stock Purchase Plan. The Company is unable to ascertain with specificity the number of securities to be issued upon exercise of outstanding rights under the 2000 Employee Stock Purchase Plan or the weighted average exercise price of outstanding rights under that plan. The 2000 Employee Stock Purchase Plan provides that shares of common stock may be purchased at a per share price equal to 85% of the fair market value of the common stock at the beginning of the offering period or a purchase date applicable to such offering period, whichever is lower.


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Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
During the year ended December 31, 2018, the Company withheld and canceled shares of Company common stock to satisfy employee tax withholding obligations payable upon the vesting of non-vested shares, as follows:
Period
Total Number of Shares Purchased

Average Price Paid per Share

Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or Programs

Maximum Number of Shares that May Yet Be Purchased Under the Plans or Programs

January 1 - January 31
20,687

$
32.12



February 1 - February 28
509

29.36



March 1 - March 31




April 1 - April 30




May 1 - May 31




June 1 - June 30




July 1 - July 31
1,359

29.04



August 1 - August 31




September 1 - September 30




October 1 - October 31




November 1 - November 30
11,318

29.80



December 1 - December 31
117,480

28.89



Total
151,353

 
 
 


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Item 6. Selected Financial Data
The following table sets forth financial information for the Company, which is derived from the Consolidated Financial Statements:
 
Year Ended December 31,
(Amounts in thousands except per share data)
2018

 
2017 (1)

 
2016 (1)

 
2015

 
2014

Statement of Income Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total revenues
$
450,389

 
$
424,737

 
$
411,955

 
$
388,471

 
$
370,855

Total expenses
370,016

 
335,055

 
310,003

 
283,541

 
267,100

Other income (expense)
(10,602
)
 
(66,590
)
 
(16,381
)
 
(46,094
)
 
(69,776
)
Income from continuing operations
$
69,771

 
$
23,092

 
$
85,571

 
$
58,836

 
$
33,979

Income (loss) from discontinued operations

 

 

 
10,600

 
(1,799
)
Net income attributable to common stockholders
$
69,771

 
$
23,092

 
$
85,571

 
$
69,436

 
$
31,887

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Diluted earnings per common share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Income from continuing operations
$
0.55

 
$
0.18

 
$
0.78

 
$
0.59

 
$
0.35

Income (loss) from discontinued operations

 

 

 
0.11

 
(0.02
)
Net income attributable to common stockholders
$
0.55

 
$
0.18

 
$
0.78

 
$
0.70

 
$
0.33

Weighted average common shares outstanding-Diluted
123,351

 
118,017

 
109,387

 
99,880

 
96,759

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Balance Sheet Data (as of the end of the period):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Real estate properties, gross
$
3,974,071

 
$
3,838,638

 
$
3,628,221

 
$
3,380,908

 
$
3,258,279

Real estate properties, net
$
2,958,897

 
$
2,941,208

 
$
2,787,382

 
$
2,618,982

 
$
2,557,608

Mortgage notes receivable
$

 
$

 
$

 
$

 
$
1,900

Assets held for sale, net
$
9,272

 
$
33,147

 
$
3,092

 
$
724

 
$
9,146

Total assets
$
3,191,247

 
$
3,193,585

 
$
3,040,647

 
$
2,810,224

 
$
2,757,510

Notes and bonds payable, net
$
1,345,984

 
$
1,283,880

 
$
1,264,370

 
$
1,424,992

 
$
1,403,692

Total stockholders' equity
$
1,716,642

 
$
1,789,883

 
$
1,653,414

 
$
1,242,747

 
$
1,221,054

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Other Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Funds from operations (2)
$
194,960

 
$
134,274

 
$
174,420

 
$
124,571

 
$
146,493

Funds from operations per common share - Diluted (2)
$
1.57

 
$
1.13

 
$
1.59

 
$
1.25

 
$
1.51

Cash flows from operations
$
208,355

 
$
179,766

 
$
151,272

 
$
160,375

 
$
125,370

Dividends paid
$
150,266

 
$
142,327

 
$
131,759

 
$
120,266

 
$
116,371

Dividends declared and paid per common share
$
1.20

 
$
1.20

 
$
1.20

 
$
1.20

 
$
1.20

______
(1)
The Company made certain reclassifications to the Consolidated Statements of Income that are outlined in Note 1, "Summary of Significant Accounting Policies" to the Consolidated Financial Statements. Also, the Company adopted Topic 606 using the full retrospective method on January 1, 2018. The years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016 includes the impact of the adoption.
(2)
See "Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" for a discussion of funds from operations (“FFO”), including why the Company presents FFO and a reconciliation of net income attributable to common stockholders to FFO.

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Item 7. Management's Discussions and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Disclosure Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
This report and other materials Healthcare Realty has filed or may file with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”), as well as information included in oral statements or other written statements made, or to be made, by senior management of the Company, contain, or will contain, disclosures that are “forward-looking statements.” Forward-looking statements include all statements that do not relate solely to historical or current facts and can be identified by the use of words such as “may,” “will,” “expect,” “believe,” “anticipate,” “target,” “intend,” “plan,” “estimate,” “project,” “continue,” “should,” “could” and other comparable terms. These forward-looking statements are based on the current plans and expectations of management and are subject to a number of risks and uncertainties that could significantly affect the Company’s current plans and expectations and future financial condition and results.
Such risks and uncertainties as more fully discussed in Item 1A “Risk Factors” of this report and in other reports filed by the Company with the SEC from time to time include, among other things, the following:
Risks relating to our business and operations
The Company's expected results may not be achieved;
The Company may decide or may be required under purchase options to sell certain properties. The Company may not be able to reinvest the proceeds from sale at rates of return equal to the return received on the properties sold. Uncertain market conditions could result in the Company selling properties at unfavorable rates or at losses in the future;
The Company’s revenues depend on the ability of its tenants under its leases to generate sufficient income from their operations to make rental payments to the Company;
Owning real estate and indirect interests in real estate is subject to inherent risks;
The Company may incur impairment charges on its real estate properties or other assets;
If the Company is unable to promptly re-let its properties, if the rates upon such re-letting are significantly lower than the previous rates or if the Company is required to undertake significant expenditures to attract new tenants, then the Company’s business, consolidated financial condition and results of operations would be adversely affected;
Certain of the Company’s properties are special purpose healthcare facilities and may not be easily adaptable to other uses;
The Company has, and may have more in the future, exposure to fixed rent escalators, which could lag behind inflation and the growth in operating expenses such as real estate taxes, utilities, insurance, and maintenance expenses;
The Company’s real estate investments are illiquid and the Company may not be able to sell properties strategically targeted for disposition;
The Company is subject to risks associated with the development and redevelopment of properties;
The Company may make material acquisitions and undertake developments that may involve the expenditure of significant funds and may not perform in accordance with management’s expectations;
The Company is exposed to risks associated with geographic concentration;
Many of the Company’s leases are dependent on the viability of associated health systems. Revenue concentrations relating to these leases expose the Company to risks related to the financial condition of the associated health systems;
Many of the Company’s properties are held under ground leases. These ground leases contain provisions that may limit the Company’s ability to lease, sell, or finance these properties;
The Company may experience uninsured or underinsured losses;
The Company faces risks associated with security breaches through cyber attacks, cyber intrusions, or otherwise, as well as other significant disruptions of its information technology networks and related systems;
United States government tenants may not receive annual budget appropriations, which could adversely affect their ability to pay the Company;
Risks relating to our capital structure and financings
The Company has incurred significant debt obligations and may incur additional debt and increase leverage in the future;

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Covenants in the Company’s debt instruments limit its operational flexibility, and a breach of these covenants could materially affect the Company’s consolidated financial condition and results of operations;
A change to the Company’s current dividend payment may have an adverse effect on the market price of the Company’s common stock;
If lenders under the Unsecured Credit Facility fail to meet their funding commitments, the Company’s operations and consolidated financial position would be negatively impacted;
The unavailability of equity and debt capital, volatility in the credit markets, increases in interest rates, or changes in the Company’s debt ratings could have an adverse effect on the Company’s ability to meet its debt payments, make dividend payments to stockholders or engage in acquisition and development activity;
The Company is exposed to increases in interest rates, changes to the method that LIBOR rates are determined, and the potential phasing out of LIBOR; and such changes could adversely impact the Company's ability to refinance existing debt, sell assets or engage in acquisition and development activity;
The Company's swap agreements may not effectively reduce its exposure to changes in interest rates;
Risks relating to government regulations
If a healthcare tenant loses its licensure or certification, becomes unable to provide healthcare services, cannot meet its financial obligations to the Company or otherwise vacates a facility, the Company would have to obtain another tenant for the affected facility;
Adverse trends in the healthcare service industry may negatively affect the Company’s lease revenues and the values of its investments;
The costs of complying with governmental laws and regulations may adversely affect the Company's results of operations;
If the Company fails to remain qualified as a REIT, the Company will be subject to significant adverse consequences, including adversely affecting the value of its common stock;
The Company's Articles of Incorporation, as well as provisions of Maryland general corporation law, contain limits and restrictions on transferability of the Company's common stock which may have adverse effects on the value of the Company's common stock;
Complying with the REIT requirements may cause the Company to forego otherwise attractive opportunities;
The prohibited transactions tax may limit the Company's ability to sell properties;
Qualifying as a REIT involves highly technical and complex provisions of the Internal Revenue Code; and
New legislation or administrative or judicial action, in each instance potentially with retroactive effect, could make it more difficult or impossible for the Company to qualify as a REIT.
The Company undertakes no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. Stockholders and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely on such forward-looking statements when evaluating the information presented in the Company’s filings and reports, including, without limitation, estimates and projections regarding the performance of development projects the Company is pursuing.
This section is provided as a supplement to, and should be read in conjunction with, the Company's Consolidated Financial Statements and accompanying notes. This section is organized in the following sections:
Overview
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Trends and Matters Impacting Operating Results
Results of Operations
Non-GAAP Financial Measures and Key Performance Indicators
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
Contractual Obligations
Application of Critical Accounting Policies to Accounting Estimates

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Overview
The Company owns and operates properties that facilitate the delivery of healthcare services in primarily outpatient settings. To execute its strategy, the Company engages in a broad spectrum of integrated services including leasing, management, acquisition, financing, development and redevelopment of such properties. The Company seeks to generate stable, growing income and lower the long-term risk profile of its portfolio of properties by focusing on facilities located on or near the campuses of acute care hospitals associated with leading health systems. The Company seeks to reduce financial and operational risk by owning properties in diverse geographic locations with a broad tenant mix that includes over 30 physician specialties, as well as surgery, imaging, cancer, and diagnostic centers.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
The Company monitors its liquidity and capital resources and relies on several key indicators in its assessment of capital markets for financing acquisitions and other operating activities as needed, including the following:
Leverage ratios and lending covenants;
Dividend payout percentage; and
Interest rates, underlying treasury rates, debt market spreads and equity markets.
The Company uses these indicators and others to compare its operations to its peers and to help identify areas in which the Company may need to focus its attention.
Sources and Uses of Cash
The Company's revenues are derived from its real estate property portfolio based on contractual arrangements with its tenants and sponsoring health systems. These sources of revenue represent the Company's primary source of liquidity to fund its dividends and its operating expenses, including interest incurred on debt, general and administrative costs, capital expenditures and other expenses incurred in connection with managing its existing portfolio and investing in additional properties. To the extent additional investments are not funded by these sources, the Company will fund its investment activity generally through equity or debt issuances either in the public or private markets, property dispositions or through proceeds from the Unsecured Credit Facility.
The Company expects to continue to meet its liquidity needs, including capital for additional investments, dividend payments and debt service funds through cash flows from operations and the cash flow sources addressed above. The Company also had unencumbered real estate assets, excluding assets held for sale, with a gross book value of approximately $3.6 billion at December 31, 2018, of which a portion could serve as collateral for secured mortgage financing. The Company believes that its liquidity and sources of capital are adequate to satisfy its cash requirements. The Company cannot, however, be certain that these sources of funds will be available at a time and upon terms acceptable to the Company in sufficient amounts to meet its liquidity needs.
The Company has exposure to variable interest rates and its common stock price is impacted by the volatility in the stock markets. However, the Company’s leases, which provide its main source of income and cash flow, have terms of approximately one to 20 years and have lease rates that generally increase on an annual basis at fixed rates or based on consumer price indices.
Operating Activities
Cash flows provided by operating activities for the three years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016 were $208.4 million, $179.8 million and $151.3 million, respectively. Several items impact cash flows from operating activities including, but not limited to, cash generated from property operations, interest payments and the timing related to the payment of invoices and other expenses and receipt of tenant rent.
The Company may sell additional properties and redeploy cash from property sales into new investments. To the extent revenues related to the properties being sold exceed income from these new investments, the Company's consolidated results of operations and cash flows could be adversely affected.
See "Trends and Matters Impacting Operating Results" for additional information regarding the Company's operating activities.

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Investing Activities
A summary of the significant transactions impacting investing activities for the year ended December 31, 2018 is listed below. See Note 4 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for more detail on these activities.

Outflows
The following table details the acquisitions for the year ended December 31, 2018:
(Dollars in millions)
 
Health System Affiliation
 
Date
Acquired
 
Purchase Price

 
Mortgage
Notes Payable Assumed

 
Square
Footage

 
Cap Rate (1)

 
Hospital Campus Location (2)
 
Type (3)
Seattle, WA
 
Overlake Health
 
5/4/18
 
$
7.8

 
$

 
13,314

 
5.0
%
 
ADJ
 
MOB
Denver, CO (4)
 
CHI
 
5/18/18
 
12.1

 
(8.0
)
 
93,992

 
5.5
%
 
ADJ
 
MOB
Denver, CO (4)
 
CHI
 
5/18/18
 
12.9

 

 
93,869

 
7.3
%
 
ADJ
 
OFC
Oklahoma City, OK
 
Integris Health
 
5/21/18
 
11.4

 

 
82,647

 
5.9
%
 
ADJ
 
MOB
Seattle, WA
 
MultiCare Health
 
6/29/18
 
26.2

 

 
86,942

 
5.7
%
 
ON
 
MOB
Denver, CO
 
CHI
 
8/24/18
 
4.1

 

 
17,084

 
6.0
%
 
ADJ
 
MOB
Nashville, TN
 
N/A
 
12/4/18
 
31.9

 

 
108,691

 
5.0
%
 
N/A
 
OFC
Chicago, IL (5)
 
Ascension Health
 
12/19/18
 
5.1

 

 
14,883

 
5.9
%
 
ON
 
MOB
 
 
 
 
 
 
$
111.5

 
$
(8.0
)
 
511,422

 
5.7
%
 
 
 
 
______
(1)
Cap rate equals the forecasted first year cash net operating income divided by the purchase price plus acquisition costs and expected first year capital expenditures.
(2)
ON = Located on a hospital campus; ADJ = Adjacent to hospital campus
(3)
MOB = medical office building; OFC = office building
(4)
The mortgage note payable assumed at acquisition encumbers both buildings.
(5)
The Company acquired an additional suite in a previously acquired medical office building.

In 2018, the Company funded $35.6 million toward development and redevelopment of properties.

In 2018, the Company funded the following tenant improvements and capital expenditures:

First generation tenant improvements and planned capital expenditures for acquisitions of approximately $13.1 million;

Second generation tenant improvements of approximately $30.9 million; and

Capital expenditures of approximately $20.3 million. See the Trends and Matters Impacting Operating Results - Capital Expenditures for more detail.

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Table of Contents

Inflows
The following table details these dispositions for the year ended December 31, 2018:
(Dollars in millions)
 
Date Disposed
 
Sales Price
 
Square Footage
 
Cap Rate (1)
 
Type (2)
Roanoke, VA (3) (4)
 
4/26/18
 
$
46.2

 
460,881

 
13.3
%
 
MOB, OFC
Michigan (5)
 
6/27/18
 
9.5

 
121,672

 
25.5
%
 
SNF
St. Louis, MO
 
8/30/18
 
9.8

 
70,893

 
4.3
%
 
MOB
Denver, CO
 
12/20/18
 
16.9

 
34,068

 
6.9
%
 
IRF
Cleveland, TN
 
12/21/18
 
13.3

 
81,382

 
6.5
%
 
MOB
Tucson, AZ
 
12/27/18
 
3.0

 
37,310

 
8.8
%
 
MOB
Total dispositions
 
$
98.7

 
806,206

 
11.4
%
 
 
______
(1)
Cap rate equals in-place cash net operating income divided by the sales price.
(2)
MOB = medical office building; SNF = skilled nursing facility; OFC = office; IRF = inpatient rehabilitation facility
(3)
Previously classified as held for sale.
(4)
Includes seven properties and comprised of five single-tenant net lease buildings and two multi-tenant buildings.
(5)
Includes five skilled nursing facilities.

Financing Activities

Debt Activity
Below is a summary of the significant financing activity for the year ended December 31, 2018. See Notes 9 and 10 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for more information on the capital markets and financing activities:

The Company had the following changes in debt structure:

In January 2018, the Company entered into two interest rate swaps totaling $50.0 million to hedge the 1-month LIBOR portion of the cost of borrowing under the Unsecured Term Loan due 2022 to a fixed rate of interest of 2.46% (plus the applicable margin rate, currently 1.10%) through December 16, 2022.

The following table details the mortgage note payable activity for the year ended December 31, 2018:
(Dollars in millions)
 
Transaction Date
 
Borrowing (Repayment)
 
Encumbered Square Footage
 
Contractual Interest Rate
Debt assumptions:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Denver, CO (1)
 
05/18/18
 
$
8.0

 
187,861

 
4.5
%
Total borrowings
 
 
 
$
8.0

 
187,861

 
4.5
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Repayments in full:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Richmond, VA
 
10/1/18
 
$
(5.7
)
 
59,240

 
6.6
%
Seattle, WA
 
12/3/18
 
(9.1
)
 
35,558

 
5.8
%
Total repayments
 
$
(14.8
)
 
94,798

 
6.1
%
______
(1)
Assumed upon acquisition and excluding fair value adjustments totaling $0.1 million in aggregate recorded at closing.


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Table of Contents

The following table details the Company's debt balances as of December 31, 2018: